WorldWideScience

Sample records for induced early superstring

  1. Attraction to a radiation-like era in early superstring cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bourliot, Francois; Partouche, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Starting from an initial classical four dimensional flat background of the heterotic or type II superstrings, we are able to determine at the string one-loop level the quantum corrections to the effective potential due to the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry by "geometrical fluxes". Furthermore, considering a gas of strings at finite temperature, the full "effective thermal potential" is determined, giving rise to an effective non-trivial pressure. The backreaction of the quantum and thermal corrections to the space-time metric as well as to the moduli fields induces a cosmological evolution that depends on the early time initial conditions and the number of spontaneously broken supersymmetries. We show that for a whole set of initial conditions, the cosmological solutions converge at late times to two qualitatively different trajectories: They are either attracted to (i) a thermal evolution similar to a radiation dominated cosmology, implemented by a coherent motion of some moduli fields, or to (ii) a "...

  2. Cosmic superstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2008-08-28

    Cosmic superstrings are expected to be formed at the end of brane inflation, within the context of brane-world cosmological models inspired from string theory. By studying the properties of cosmic superstring networks and comparing their phenomenological consequences against observational data, we aim to pin down the successful and natural inflationary model and get an insight into the stringy description of our Universe.

  3. Analysis of Optical and Morphological Properties of Aluminium Induced Texture Glass Superstrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Venkataraj, Selvaraj; Battaglia, Corsin; Vayalakkara, Premachandran; Aberle, Armin G.

    2012-10-01

    Texturing the glass surface is a promising method for improving the light trapping properties of superstrate thin-film silicon solar cells, as it enables thinner absorber layers and, possibly, higher cell efficiencies. In this paper we present the optical and morphological properties of borosilicate glass superstrates textured with the aluminium induced texture (AIT) method. High haze values are achieved without any reduction in the total optical transmission of the glass sheets after the AIT process. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements reveal a laterally uniform surface morphology of the AIT texture. We demonstrate that the surface roughness and thus the transmission haze can be controlled by adjusting the AIT process parameters. From the AFM images, we extract histograms of the local height and angle distributions of the texture. Samples with a wide angle distribution are shown to produce the highest optical haze. The results of this analysis provide a better understanding of the correlation between the AIT process parameters and the resulting surface morphology. This analysis is further extended to an amorphous silicon pin solar cell deposited onto the textured glass substrate.

  4. Finite superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Restuccia, A; Taylor, J G

    1992-01-01

    This is the first complete account of the construction and finiteness analysis of multi-loop scattering amplitudes for superstrings, and of the guarantee that for certain superstrings (in particular the heterotic one), the symmetries of the theory in the embedding space-time are those of the super-poincaré group SP10 and that the multi-loop amplitudes are each finite. The book attempts to be self-contained in its analysis, although it draws on the works of many researchers. It also presents the first complete field theory for such superstrings. As such it demonstrates that gravity can be quant

  5. Cosmic Strings and Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, Edmund J

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic strings are predicted by many field-theory models, and may have been formed at a symmetry-breaking transition early in the history of the universe, such as that associated with grand unification. They could have important cosmological effects. Scenarios suggested by fundamental string theory or M-theory, in particular the popular idea of brane inflation, also strongly suggest the appearance of similar structures. Here we review the reasons for postulating the existence of cosmic strings or superstrings, the various possible ways in which they might be detected observationally, and the special features that might discriminate between ordinary cosmic strings and superstrings.

  6. Superstring cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Enrique

    1985-01-01

    Some cosmological consequences of the assumption that superstrings are more fundamental objects than ordinary local quantum fields are examined. We study, in particular, the dependence of both the string tension and the temperature of the primordial string soup on cosmic time. A particular scenario is proposed in which the universe undergoes a contracting ``string phase'' before the ordinary ``big bang,'' which according to this picture is nothing but the outcome of the transition from nonlocal to local fundamental physics.

  7. M-theory And Superstring Cosmology Brane Gases In The Early Universe And Nonsingular Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, D A

    2002-01-01

    This thesis will examine two major themes in modern cosmology. The first part of the thesis is concerned with the interface of superstring theory and M-theory with cosmology. We begin by providing a general background of various superstring cosmological models. In particular, we focus on the “Brane Gas” model of string cosmology (BGC) which was developed, in part, by the author. In this scenario the initial state of the Universe is taken to be small, dense and hot with all fundamental degrees of freedom near thermal equilibrium. Such a starting point is in close analogy with the Standard Big-Bang (SBB) model. The topology of the Universe is assumed to be toroidal in all nine spatial dimensions and the Universe is filled with a gas of p- branes. The dynamics of winding modes allow, at most, three spatial dimensions to become large, thus explaining the origin of our macroscopic 3 + 1-dimensional Universe. Specific solutions that are found within the model exhibit loitering, i.e. the Universe...

  8. Light Scattering and Current Enhancement for Microcrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Aluminium-Induced Texture Glass Superstrates with Double Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Yin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H thin-film solar cells are processed on glass superstrates having both micro- and nanoscale surface textures. The microscale texture is realised at the glass surface, using the aluminium-induced texturing (AIT method, which is an industrially feasible process enabling a wide range of surface feature sizes (i.e., 700 nm–3 μm of the textured glass. The nanoscale texture is made by conventional acid etching of the sputter-deposited transparent conductive oxide (TCO. The influence of the resulting “double texture” on the optical scattering is investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM (studying the surface topology, haze measurements (studying scattering into air, and short-circuit current enhancement measurements (studying scattering into silicon. A predicted enhanced optical scattering efficiency is experimentally proven by a short-circuit current enhancement ΔIsc of up to 1.6 mA/cm2 (7.7% relative increase compared to solar cells fabricated on a standard superstrate, that is, planar glass covered with nanotextured TCO. Enhancing the autocorrelation length (or feature size of the AIT superstrates might have the large potential to improve the μc-Si:H thin-film solar cell efficiency, by reducing the shunting probability of the device while maintaining a high optical scattering performance.

  9. Interactions of cosmic superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Mark G.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    We develop methods by which cosmic superstring interactions can be studied in detail. These include the reconnection probability and emission of radiation such as gravitons or small string loops. Loop corrections to these are discussed, as well as relationships to (p; q)-strings. These tools should allow a phenomenological study of string models in anticipation of upcoming experiments sensitive to cosmic string radiation.

  10. Marginal Solutions for the Superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    We construct a class of analytic solutions of WZW-type open superstring field theory describing marginal deformations of a reference D-brane background. The deformations we consider are generated by on-shell vertex operators with vanishing operator products. The superstring solution exhibits an intriguing duality with the corresponding marginal solution of the {\\it bosonic} string. In particular, the superstring problem is ``dual'' to the problem of re-expressing the bosonic marginal solution in pure gauge form. This represents the first nonsingular analytic solution of open superstring field theory.

  11. Introduction to superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

    2009-07-01

    This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)

  12. Stable superstring relics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.; Coriano, C. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Faraggi, A.E. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory]|[Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences

    1996-05-15

    The authors investigate the cosmological constraints on exotic stable matter states which arise in realistic free fermionic superstring models. These states appear in the superstring models due to a ``Wilson-line`` breaking of the unifying non-Abelian gauge symmetry. In the models that they consider the unifying SO(10) gauge symmetry is broken at the string level to SO(6) x SO(4), SU(5) x U(1) or SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The exotic matter states are classified according to the patterns of the SO(10) symmetry breaking. In SO(6) x XO(4) and SU(5) x U(1) type models one obtains fractionally charged states with Q{sub e.m.} = {+-}1/2. In SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) type models one also obtains states with the regular charges under the Standard Model gauge group but with ``fractional`` charges under the U(1){sub z{prime}} symmetry. These states include down-like color triplets and electroweak doublets, as well as states which are Standard Model singlets. By analyzing the renormalizable and nonrenormalizable terms of the superpotential in a specific superstring model, the authors show that these exotic states can be stable. They investigate the cosmological constraints on the masses and relic density of the exotic states. They propose that, while the abundance and the masses of the fractionally charged states are highly constrained, the Standard Model-like states, and in particular the Standard Model singlet, are good dark matter candidates.

  13. Phenomenology of superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    De la Macorra, A

    1995-01-01

    We consider the low energy phenomenology of superstrings. In particular we analyse supersymmetry breaking via gaugino condensate and we compare the phenomenology of the two different approaches to stabilize the dilaton field. We study the cosmological constant problem and we show that it is possible to have supersymmetry broken and zero cosmological constant. Finally, we discuss the possibility of having an inflationary potential. Requiring that the potential does not destabilize the dilaton field imposes an upper limit to the density fluctuations which can be consistent with the COBE data.

  14. The sociology of superstring theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Brian Douglas

    This dissertation carefully tracks the historical origins of superstring theory in high energy particle physics, its subsequent decline under the guise of the "dual model" in the mid-1970s, and its reemergence in the mid-1980s in what came to be known as the "first superstring revolution." I then explore the scientific controversy that emerged after the first superstring revolution due to superstring theory's lack of contact with experiment, and the set of institutional pressures felt by string theorists that they refer to as the "sociology" of superstring theory. I employ and develop the concept of "scientific legitimacy" to organize the historical analysis of superstring theory and the subsequent scientific controversy. My study emphasizes the interpretive flexibility of theory selection, the role of scientific judgment in the acceptance of scientific knowledge, and the ways in which boundary work operates in scientific controversies. A careful analysis of the empirical case of superstring theory indicates some of the limitations associated with the ways in which the closure of scientific controversies has traditionally been conceptualized by social researchers. To help overcome these difficulties, I propose a four-fold typology that I refer to as the "epistemic space of rejected science."

  15. Resolving Witten's Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore; Sachs, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    We regulate Witten's open superstring field theory by replacing the picture-changing insertion at the midpoint with a contour integral of picture changing insertions over the half-string overlaps of the cubic vertex. The resulting product between string fields is non-associative, but we provide a solution to the $A_\\infty$ relations defining all higher vertices. The result is an explicit covariant superstring field theory which by construction satisfies the classical BV master equation.

  16. Ultraviolet and Infrared Divergences in Superstring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2015-01-01

    Superstring theory is known to be free from ultraviolet divergences but suffers from the usual infrared divergences that occur in quantum field theories. After briefly reviewing the origin of ultraviolet finiteness of superstring theory we describe recent progress towards the understanding of infrared divergences in superstring theory.

  17. Covariant Formulations of Superstring Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikovic, Aleksandar Radomir

    1990-01-01

    Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to the subject of string theory, and tries to motivate the study of superstrings and covariant formulations. Chapter 2 describes the Green-Schwarz formulation of the superstrings. The Hamiltonian and BRST structure of the theory is analysed in the case of the superparticle. Implications for the superstring case are discussed. Chapter 3 describes the Siegel's formulation of the superstring, which contains only the first class constraints. It is shown that the physical spectrum coincides with that of the Green-Schwarz formulation. In chapter 4 we analyse the BRST structure of the Siegel's formulation. We show that the BRST charge has the wrong cohomology, and propose a modification, called first ilk, which gives the right cohomology. We also propose another superparticle model, called second ilk, which has infinitely many coordinates and constraints. We construct the complete BRST charge for it, and show that it gives the correct cohomology. In chapter 5 we analyse the properties of the covariant vertex operators and the corresponding S-matrix elements by using the Siegel's formulation. We conclude that the knowledge of the ghosts is necessary, even at the tree level, in order to obtain the correct S-matrix. In chapter 6 we attempt to calculate the superstring loops, in a covariant gauge. We calculate the vacuum-to -vacuum amplitude, which is also the cosmological constant. We show that it vanishes to all loop orders, under the assumption that the free covariant gauge-fixed action exists. In chapter 7 we present our conclusions, and briefly discuss the random lattice approach to the string theory, as a possible way of resolving the problem of the covariant quantization and the nonperturbative definition of the superstrings.

  18. String bit models for superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D {minus} 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D {minus} 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.

  19. Nonabelian N=2 Superstrings: Hamiltonian Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Isaev, A P

    2009-01-01

    We examine the Hamiltonian structure of nonabelian N=2 superstrings models which are the supergroup manifold extensions of N=2 Green-Schwarz superstring. We find the Kac-Moody and Virasoro type superalgebras of the relevant constraints and present elements of the corresponding quantum theory. A comparison with the type IIA Green-Schwarz superstring moving in a general curved 10-d supergravity background is also given. We find that nonabelian superstrings (for d=10) present a particular case of this general system corresponding to a special choices of the background.

  20. Worldsheet electromagnetism and the superstring tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, P.K. (DAMTP, Univ. Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1992-03-05

    A superstring action, invariant under the symmetries corresponding to a free differential N=1 superalgebra, is constructed. Its worldsheet fields include an electromagnetic gauge potential. Its equations of motion are those of the Green-Schwarz superstring but with the string tension given by the circulation of the worldsheet electric field around the string. (orig.).

  1. Triality invariance in the N=2 superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate and INFN Gruppo collegato di Alessandria, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Teresa Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: leonardo.castellani@mfn.unipmn.it; Grassi, Pietro Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate and INFN Gruppo collegato di Alessandria, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Teresa Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: pietro.grassi@mfn.unipmn.it; Sommovigo, Luca [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate and INFN Gruppo collegato di Alessandria, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Via Teresa Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy)], E-mail: luca.sommovigo@mfn.unipmn.it

    2009-07-20

    We prove the discrete triality invariance of the N=2 NSR superstring moving in a D=2+2 target space. We find that triality holds also in the Siegel-Berkovits formulation of the selfdual superstring. A supersymmetric generalization of Cayley's hyperdeterminant, based on a quartic invariant of the SL(2|1){sup 3} superalgebra, is presented.

  2. Discreteness and Determinism in Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Hooft, Gerard 't

    2012-01-01

    Ideas presented in two earlier papers are applied to string theory. It had been found that a deterministic cellular automaton in one space- and one time dimension can be mapped onto a bosonic quantum field theory on a 1+1 dimensional lattice. We now also show that a cellular automaton in 1+1 dimensions that processes only ones and zeros, can be mapped onto a fermionic quantum field theory in a similar way. The natural system to apply all of this to is superstring theory, and we find that all classical states of a classical, deterministic string propagating in a rectangular, D dimensional space-time lattice, with some boolean variables on it, can be mapped onto the elements of a specially chosen basis for a (quantized) D dimensional superstring. This string is moderated ("regularized") by a 1+1 dimensional lattice on its world sheet, which may subsequently be sent to the continuum limit. The space-time lattice in target space is not sent to the continuum, while this does not seem to reduce its physically desir...

  3. Is the whole universe composed of superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell-Mann, M.

    1988-09-20

    The theory of superstrings is reviewed, including the current status of families of elementary particles; mass predictions; symmetry breaking; quantization of the general relativity theory of gravitation; and self- consistent quantum field theories./aip/.

  4. Resolving Witten’s superstring field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian; Sachs, Ivo [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theresienstrasse 37, D-80333, Munich (Germany)

    2014-04-24

    We regulate Witten’s open superstring field theory by replacing the picture-changing insertion at the midpoint with a contour integral of picture changing insertions over the half-string overlaps of the cubic vertex. The resulting product between string fields is non-associative, but we provide a solution to the A{sub ∞} relations defining all higher vertices. The result is an explicit covariant superstring field theory which by construction satisfies the classical BV master equation.

  5. Superisometries and integrability of superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, Linus [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-23

    For type II supergravity backgrounds with superisometries the corresponding transformations and conserved currents for the superstring are constructed up to fourth order in Θ. It is then shown how, for certain backgrounds related to near horizon geometries of intersecting branes, the components of the superisometry current can be used to construct a Lax connection demonstrating the classical integrability of the string in these backgrounds. This includes examples of AdS{sub 2} and AdS{sub 3} backgrounds with a D(2,1;α) isometry group which have not previously been studied from an integrability point of view. The construction of the Lax connection is carried out up to second order in Θ.

  6. Ramond Equations of Motion in Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore; Sachs, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    We extend the recently constructed NS superstring field theories in the small Hilbert space to give classical field equations for all superstring theories, including Ramond sectors. We also comment on the realization of supersymmetry in this framework.

  7. Inflationary de Sitter solutions from superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Kounnas, Costas

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of superstring compactifications with N=1 supersymmetry spontaneously broken, (by either geometrical fluxes, branes or else), we show the existence of new inflationary solutions. The time-trajectory of the scale factor of the metric a, the supersymmetry breaking scale m=m(Phi) and the temperature T are such that am and aT remain constant. These solutions request the presence of special moduli-fields: i) The universal ``no-scale-modulus'' Phi, which appears in all N=1 effective supergravity theories and defines the supersymmetry breaking scale m(Phi). ii) The modulus Phi_s, which appears in a very large class of string compactifications and has a Phi-dependent kinetic term. During the time evolution, a^4 rho_s remains constant as well, (rho_s being the energy density induced by the motion of Phi_s). The cosmological term Lambda(am), the curvature term k(am, aT) and the radiation term c_R=a^4 rho are dynamically generated in a controllable way by radiative and temperature corrections; they are ...

  8. Superstring Theory 2 Volume Hardback Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael B.; Schwarz, John H.; Witten, Edward

    2012-07-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Free bosonic strings; 3. Modern covariant quantization; 4. World-sheet supersymmetry in string theory; 5. Space-time supersymmetry in string theory; 6. Nonabelian gauge symmetry; 7. Tree amplitudes; Bibliography; Index; Volume 2: Preface; 8. One-loop diagrams in the bosonic string theory; 9. One-loop diagrams in superstring theory; 10. The gauge anomaly in type I superstring theory; 11. Functional methods in the light-cone gauge; 12. Some differential geometry; 13. Low-energy effective action; 14. Compactification of higher dimensions; 15. Some algebraic geometry; 16. Models of low-energy supersymmetry; Bibliography; Index.

  9. Minimal Superstrings and Loop Gas Models

    CERN Document Server

    Gaiotto, D; Takayanagi, T; Gaiotto, Davide; Rastelli, Leonardo; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    We reformulate the matrix models of minimal superstrings as loop gas models on random surfaces. In the continuum limit, this leads to the identification of minimal superstrings with certain bosonic string theories, to all orders in the genus expansion. RR vertex operators arise as operators in a Z_2 twisted sector of the matter CFT. We show how the loop gas model implements the sum over spin structures expected from the continuum RNS formulation. Open string boundary conditions are also more transparent in this language.

  10. Inflationary de Sitter solutions from superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounnas, Costas [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: costas.kounnas@lpt.ens.fr; Partouche, Herve [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: herve.partouche@cpht.polytechnique.fr

    2008-05-21

    In the framework of superstring compactifications with N=1 supersymmetry spontaneously broken (by either geometrical fluxes, branes or else), we show the existence of new inflationary solutions. The time-trajectory of the scale factor of the metric a, the supersymmetry breaking scale m{identical_to}m({phi}) and the temperature T are such that am and aT remain constant. These solutions request the presence of special moduli-fields: (i) The universal 'no-scale-modulus'{phi}, which appears in all N=1 effective supergravity theories and defines the supersymmetry breaking scale m({phi}). (ii) The modulus {phi}{sub s}, which appears in a very large class of string compactifications and has a {phi}-dependent kinetic term. During the time evolution, a{sup 4}{rho}{sub s} remains constant as well ({rho}{sub s} being the energy density induced by the motion of {phi}{sub s}). The cosmological term {lambda}(am), the curvature term k(am,aT) and the radiation term c{sub R}=a{sup 4}{rho} are dynamically generated in a controllable way by radiative and temperature corrections; they are effectively constant during the time evolution. Depending on {lambda}, k and c{sub R}, either a first or second order phase transition can occur in the cosmological scenario. In the first case, an instantonic Euclidean solution exists and connects via tunneling the inflationary evolution to another cosmological branch. The latter starts with a big bang and, in the case the transition does not occur, ends with a big crunch. In the second case, the big bang and the inflationary phase are smoothly connected.

  11. The Massless Spectrum of Covariant Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A; van Nieuwenhuizen, P

    2002-01-01

    We obtain the correct cohomology at any ghost number for the open and closed covariant superstring, quantized by an approach which we recently developed. We define physical states by the usual condition of BRST invariance and a new condition involving a new current which is related to a grading of the underlying affine Lie algebra.

  12. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are n

  13. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are

  14. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Barkovskiy, P.; Sleptsov, A.; Stern, A.

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from

  15. SAR reduction using a single SRR superstrate for a dual-band antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaline, Imaculate; Singaravelu, Raghavan

    2017-01-01

    A dual-band microstrip antenna operating at GSM 900 and GSM 1800 MHz is designed initially. Then a single split ring resonator (SRR) structure is used as a superstrate for this dual-band antenna. A circular current is induced in the SRR due to the perpendicular plane wave excitation, which in turn leads to an electric excitation coupled to the magnetic resonance. It also exhibits higher order excitations at 0.9 and 1.8 GHz which ultimately resulted in specific absorption rate (SAR) reduction of human head at both the designed frequencies of the antenna. The antenna and the SRR superstrate are printed on a 1.6 mm thick FR-4 substrate of dimension 59.6 × 49.6 mm(2). Analysis of the SRR using the classic waveguide theory approach is discussed. Radiation pattern of the antenna in the presence of SRR superstrate and human head is also discussed. Prototype of the antenna along with the SRR superstrate is fabricated and measured for return loss and radiation pattern. Measurement results fairly agree with the simulated results. A human head phantom is utilized in the calculation of SAR.

  16. Probing Cosmic Superstrings with Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Lara

    2016-01-01

    We compute the stochastic gravitational wave background generated by cosmic superstrings using a semi-analytical velocity-dependent model to describe their dynamics. We show that heavier string types may leave distinctive signatures on the stochastic gravitational wave background spectrum within the reach of present and upcoming gravitational wave detectors. We examine the physically motivated scenario in which the physical size of loops is determined by the gravitational backreaction scale and use NANOGRAV data to derive a conservative constraint of $G\\mu_F<3.2 \\times 10^{-9}$ on the tension of fundamental strings. We demonstrate that approximating the gravitational wave spectrum generated by cosmic superstring networks using the spectrum generated by ordinary cosmic strings with reduced intercommuting probability (which is often done in the literature) leads, in general, to weaker observational constraints on $G\\mu_F$. We show that the inclusion of heavier string types is required for a more accurate cha...

  17. Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1996-10-01

    Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model the author illustrates how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.

  18. Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Alon E.

    1997-02-01

    Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model I illustrate how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.

  19. Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E

    1996-01-01

    Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model I illustrate how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non--Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.

  20. Cutkosky Rules for Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pius, Roji

    2016-01-01

    Superstring field theory expresses the perturbative S-matrix of superstring theory as a sum of Feynman diagrams each of which is manifestly free from ultraviolet divergences. The interaction vertices fall off exponentially for large space-like external momenta making the ultraviolet finiteness property manifest, but blow up exponentially for large time-like external momenta making it impossible to take the integration contours for loop energies to lie along the real axis. This forces us to carry out the integrals over the loop energies by choosing appropriate contours in the complex plane whose ends go to infinity along the imaginary axis but which take complicated form in the interior navigating around the various poles of the propagators. We consider the general class of quantum field theories with this property and prove Cutkosky rules for the amplitudes to all orders in perturbation theory. Besides having applications to string field theory, these results also give an alternative derivation of Cutkosky ru...

  1. Type II superstring in doubled superspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandos, Igor [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, the Basque Foundation for Science (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    The covariant and kappa-symmetric action for superstring in direct product of two flat D = 10, N = 1 superspaces is constructed with the use of the PST formalism. It is manifestly T-duality invariant in the sense that the fields describing oscillating and winding modes enter it on equal footing. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Torsion and geometrostasis in covariant superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachos, C.

    1985-01-01

    The covariant action for freely propagating heterotic superstrings consists of a metric and a torsion term with a special relative strength. It is shown that the strength for which torsion flattens the underlying 10-dimensional superspace geometry is precisely that which yields free oscillators on the light cone. This is in complete analogy with the geometrostasis of two-dimensional sigma-models with Wess-Zumino interactions. 13 refs.

  3. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-06-04

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.

  4. The (Super)String Theories' Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Naboulsi, R

    2003-01-01

    (Super)String theories are theoretical ideas that go beyond the standard model of particle and high energy physics and show promise for unifying all forces in nature including the gravitational one. In this unification a prominent role is played by the duality symmetries which relate different theories. I present a review of these developements and discuss their problems and possible impact in low-energy physics. We explain and discuss some ideas concerning string field theories from noncommutative geometry.

  5. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprisa, D.

    2006-05-15

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  6. CMB Constraints on Cosmic Strings and Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Charnock, Tom; Copeland, Edmund J; Moss, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We present the first complete MCMC analysis of cosmological models with evolving cosmic (super)string networks, using the Unconnected Segment Model in the unequal-time correlator formalism. For ordinary cosmic string networks, we derive joint constraints on {\\Lambda}CDM and string network parameters, namely the string tension G{\\mu}, the loop-chopping efficiency c_r and the string wiggliness {\\alpha}. For cosmic superstrings, we obtain joint constraints on the fundamental string tension G{\\mu}_F, the string coupling g_s, the self-interaction coefficient c_s, and the volume of compact extra dimensions w. This constitutes the most comprehensive CMB analysis of {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology + strings to date. For ordinary cosmic string networks our updated constraint on the string tension is, in relativistic units, G{\\mu}<1.1x10^-7, while for cosmic superstrings our constraint on the fundamental string tension is G{\\mu}_F<2.8x10^-8, both obtained using Planck2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  7. NS-NS Sector of Closed Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore; Sachs, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    We give a construction for a general class of vertices in superstring field theory which include integration over bosonic moduli as well as the required picture changing insertions. We apply this procedure to find a covariant action for the NS-NS sector of Type II closed superstring field theory.

  8. Emission spectrum of soft massless states from heavy superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    We calculate emission rates of various bosonic/fermionic soft massless states of open/closed superstring from an ensemble of a highly excited open/closed superstring in the flat background. The resulting spectrum shows thermal distributions at the Hagedorn temperature. We find greybody factors for each process and observe their relation to the ones from blackholes.

  9. Compactification of Superstrings and Chain or Oriented Strings in Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Robert O.

    2000-04-10

    Superstring theories command the study of their various possible compactifications, and their consequence physics. Thus, the role of topology is likely to be far more central, in particular in ten-dimensional physics. Topological invariants on a chain of oriented strings in interaction are discussed. Attempts to link superstrings with the reality of the physical world in four dimensions are discussed.

  10. Tachyon Vacuum in Cubic Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we give an exact analytic solution for tachyon condensation in the modified (picture 0) cubic superstring field theory. We prove the absence of cohomology and, crucially, reproduce the correct value for the D-brane tension. The solution is surprising for two reasons: First, the existence of a tachyon vacuum in this theory has not been definitively established in the level expansion. Second, the solution {\\it vanishes} in the GSO$(-)$ sector, implying a ``tachyon vacuum'' solution exists even for a {\\it BPS} D-brane.

  11. Supersymmetry in Open Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    We realize the 16 unbroken supersymmetries on a BPS D-brane as invariances of the action of the corresponding open superstring field theory. We work in the small Hilbert space approach, where a symmetry of the action translates into a symmetry of the associated cyclic $A_\\infty$ structure. We compute the supersymmetry algebra, being careful to disentangle the components which produce a translation, a gauge transformation, and a symmetry transformation which vanishes on-shell. Via the minimal model theorem, we illustrate how supersymmetry of the action implies supersymmetry of the tree level open string scattering amplitudes.

  12. Exotic leptoquarks from superstring derived models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, J.K.; Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-03-01

    The H1 and ZEUS collaborations have recently reported a significant excess of e{sup +}p {r_arrow} e{sup +} jet events at high Q{sup 2}. While there exists insufficient data to conclusively determine the origin of this excess, one possibility is that it is due to a new leptoquark at mass scale around 200 GeV. We examine the type of leptoquark states that exist in superstring derived standard-like models, and show that, while these models may contain the standard leptoquark states which exist in Grand Unified Theories, they also generically contain new and exotic leptoquark states with fractional lepton number, {+-}1/2. In contrast to the traditional GUT-type leptoquark states, the couplings of the exotic leptoquarks to the Standard Model states are generated after the breaking of U(1){sub B-L}. This important feature of the exotic leptoquark states may result in local discrete symmetries which forbid some of the undesired leptoquark couplings. We examine these couplings in several models and study the phenomenological implications. The flavor symmetries of the superstring models are found to naturally suppress leptoquark flavor changing processes.

  13. Superstring limit of Yang-Mills theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Popov, Alexander D.

    2016-11-01

    It was pointed out by Shifman and Yung that the critical superstring on X10 =R4 ×Y6, where Y6 is the resolved conifold, appears as an effective theory for a U(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system with four fundamental Higgs scalars defined on Σ2 ×R2, where Σ2 is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold. Their Yang-Mills model supports semilocal vortices on R2 ⊂Σ2 ×R2 with a moduli space X10. When the moduli of slowly moving thin vortices depend on the coordinates of Σ2, the vortex strings can be identified with critical fundamental strings. We show that similar results can be obtained for the low-energy limit of pure Yang-Mills theory on Σ2 × Tp2, where Tp2 is a two-dimensional torus with a puncture p. The solitonic vortices of Shifman and Yung then get replaced by flat connections. Various ten-dimensional superstring target spaces can be obtained as moduli spaces of flat connections on Tp2, depending on the choice of the gauge group. The full Green-Schwarz sigma model requires extending the gauge group to a supergroup and augmenting the action with a topological term.

  14. Cutkosky rules for superstring field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pius, Roji; Sen, Ashoke

    2016-10-01

    Superstring field theory expresses the perturbative S-matrix of superstring theory as a sum of Feynman diagrams each of which is manifestly free from ultraviolet divergences. The interaction vertices fall off exponentially for large space-like external momenta making the ultraviolet finiteness property manifest, but blow up exponentially for large time-like external momenta making it impossible to take the integration contours for loop energies to lie along the real axis. This forces us to carry out the integrals over the loop energies by choosing appropriate contours in the complex plane whose ends go to infinity along the imaginary axis but which take complicated form in the interior navigating around the various poles of the propagators. We consider the general class of quantum field theories with this property and prove Cutkosky rules for the amplitudes to all orders in perturbation theory. Besides having applications to string field theory, these results also give an alternative derivation of Cutkosky rules in ordinary quantum field theories.

  15. 1 /N perturbations in superstring bit models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Charles B.

    2016-03-01

    We develop the 1 /N expansion for stable string bit models, focusing on a model with bit creation operators carrying only transverse spinor indices a =1 ,…,s . At leading order (N =∞ ), this model produces a (discretized) light cone string with a "transverse space" of s Grassmann worldsheet fields. Higher orders in the 1 /N expansion are shown to be determined by the overlap of a single large closed chain (discretized string) with two smaller closed chains. In the models studied here, the overlap is not accompanied with operator insertions at the break/join point. Then, the requirement that the discretized overlap has a smooth continuum limit leads to the critical Grassmann "dimension" of s =24 . This "protostring," a Grassmann analog of the bosonic string, is unusual, because it has no large transverse dimensions. It is a string moving in one space dimension, and there are neither tachyons nor massless particles. The protostring, derived from our pure spinor string bit model, has 24 Grassmann dimensions, 16 of which could be bosonized to form 8 compactified bosonic dimensions, leaving 8 Grassmann dimensions—the worldsheet content of the superstring. If the transverse space of the protostring could be "decompactified," string bit models might provide an appealing and solid foundation for superstring theory.

  16. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotterer, Oliver

    2011-07-15

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  17. Resonance in a cylindrical wraparound microstrip structure with superstrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin-Lu; Tsai, Ruenn-Bo; Row, Jeen-Sheen

    1994-06-01

    Analysis of the resonance problem of a cylindrical wrap-around microstrip structure with superstrate is presented. In this study the rigorous full-wave formulation and Galerkin's method are used. The numerical convergence for the selected sinusoidal basis functions with edge singularity is also discussed. Numerical results of the superstrate loading effects on the real and imaginary parts of complex resonant frequency of the structures as a radiator and as a resonator are calculated and analyzed.

  18. Constraints on cosmic superstrings from Kaluza-Klein emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaux, Jean-François

    2012-07-01

    Cosmic superstrings interact generically with a tower of light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. We study the production of KK particles by cosmic superstring loops, and show that it is constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis. We study the resulting constraints in the parameter space of the underlying string theory model and highlight their complementarity with the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments.

  19. Introduction to string and superstring theory II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1987-03-01

    Conformal field theory is reviewed, then conformal invariance is used to rederive the basic results on the embedding dimensionality for bosonic and fermionic strings. The spectrum of the bosonic and the computation of scattering amplitudes are discussed. The formalism used is extended to clarify the origin of Yang-Mills gauge invariance in the open bosonic string theory. The question of the general-coordinate gauge invariance of string theory is addressed, presenting two disparate viewpoints on this question. A brief introduction is then given of the reduction from the idealized string theory in 10 extended dimensions to more realistic solutions in which all but 4 of these dimensions are compactified. The state of knowledge about the space-time supersymmetry of the superstring from the covariant viewpoint is outlined. An approach for identifying possible 6-dimensional spaces which might represent the form of the compact dimensions is discussed, and the orbifold scheme of compactification is presented. 77 refs., 18 figs. (LEW)

  20. Off-shell Amplitudes in Superstring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2014-01-01

    Computing the renormalized masses and S-matrix elements in string theory, involving states whose masses are not protected from quantum corrections, requires defining off-shell amplitude with certain factorization properties. While in the bosonic string theory one can in principle construct such an amplitude from string field theory, there is no fully consistent field theory for superstring and heterotic string theory. In this paper we give a practical construction of off-shell amplitudes satisfying the desired factorization property using the formalism of picture changing operators. We describe a systematic procedure for dealing with the spurious singularities of the integration measure that we encounter when the supermoduli space is not holomorphically projected. This procedure is also useful for computing on-shell amplitudes, as we demonstrate by computing the effect of Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms in four dimensional heterotic string theory compactifications using this formalism.

  1. Calculation of multi-loop superstring amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    The multi-loop interaction amplitudes in the closed, oriented superstring theory are obtained by the integration of local amplitudes. The local amplitude is represented by a sum over the spinning string local amplitudes. The spinning string local amplitudes are given explicitly through super-Schottky group parameters and through interaction vertex coordinates on the (1| 1) complex, non-split supermanifold. The obtained amplitudes are free from divergences. They are consistent with the world-sheet spinning string symmetries. The vacuum amplitude vanishes along with 1-, 2- and 3-point amplitudes of massless states. The vanishing of the above-mentioned amplitude occurs after the integration of the corresponding local amplitude has been performed over the super-Schottky group limiting points and over interaction vertex coordinate, except for those (3| 2) variables which are fixed due to SL(2)-symmetry.

  2. Superstring amplitudes as a Mellin transform of supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieberger, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.stieberger@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Taylor, Tomasz R. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    At the tree level, the maximally helicity violating amplitudes of N gauge bosons in open superstring theory and of N gravitons in supergravity are known to have simple representations in terms of tree graphs. For superstrings, the graphs encode integral representations of certain generalized Gaussian hypergeometric functions of kinematic invariants while for supergravity, they represent specific kinematic expressions constructed from spinor-helicity variables. We establish a superstring/supergravity correspondence for this class of amplitudes, by constructing a mapping between the positions of gauge boson vertices at the disk boundary and the helicity spinors associated to gravitons. After replacing vertex positions by a larger set of (N(N−3))/2 coordinates, the superstring amplitudes become (multiple) Mellin transforms of supergravity amplitudes, from the projective space into the dual Mellin space of (N(N−3))/2 kinematic invariants. Similarly, inverse Mellin transforms transmute open superstrings into supergravity. We elaborate on the properties of multiple Mellin and inverse Mellin transforms in the framework of superstring/supergravity correspondence.

  3. Relating the Green-Schwarz and Pure Spinor Formalisms for the Superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Berkovits, N; Berkovits, Nathan; Marchioro, Dafni Z.

    2005-01-01

    Although it is not known how to covariantly quantize the Green-Schwarz (GS) superstring, there exists a semi-light-cone gauge choice in which the GS superstring can be quantized in a conformally invariant manner. In this paper, we prove that BRST quantization of the GS superstring in semi-light-cone gauge is equivalent to BRST quantization using the pure spinor formalism for the superstring.

  4. Green-Schwarz superstring on the lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, M. S.; Forini, V.; Leder, B.; Vescovi, E.

    2016-07-01

    We consider possible discretizations for a gauge-fixed Green-Schwarz action of Type IIB superstring. We use them for measuring the action, from which we extract the cusp anomalous dimension of planar N=4 SYM as derived from AdS/CFT, as well as the mass of the two AdS excitations transverse to the relevant null cusp classical string solution. We perform lattice simulations employing a Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm and two Wilson-like fermion discretizations, one of which preserves the global SO(6) symmetry the model. We compare our results with the expected behavior at various values of g=√{λ }/4π . For both the observables, we find a good agreement for large g, which is the perturbative regime of the sigma-model. For smaller values of g, the expectation value of the action exhibits a deviation compatible with the presence of quadratic divergences. After their non-perturbative subtraction the continuum limit can be taken, and suggests a qualitative agreement with the non-perturbative expectation from AdS/CFT. Furthermore, we detect a phase in the fermion determinant, whose origin we explain, that for small g leads to a sign problem not treatable via standard reweigthing. The continuum extrapolations of the observables in the two different discretizations agree within errors, which is strongly suggesting that they lead to the same continuum limit. Part of the results discussed here were presented earlier in [1].

  5. Tachyon Condensation in Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berkovits, N; Zwiebach, B; Berkovits, Nathan; Sen, Ashoke; Zwiebach, Barton

    2000-01-01

    It has been conjectured that at the stationary point of the tachyon potentialfor the D-brane-anti-D-brane pair or for the non-BPS D-brane of superstringtheories, the negative energy density cancels the brane tensions. We study thisconjecture using a Wess-Zumino-Witten-like open superstring field theory freeof contact term divergences and recently shown to give 600f the vacuum energyby condensation of the tachyon field alone. While the action is non-polynomial,the multiscalar tachyon potential to any fixed level involves only a finitenumber of interactions. We compute this potential to level three, obtaining 85of the expected vacuum energy, a result consistent with convergence that canalso be viewed as a successful test of the string field theory. The resultingeffective tachyon potential is bounded below and has two degenerate globalminima. We calculate the energy density of the kink solution interpolatingbetween these minima finding good agreement with the tension of the D-brane ofone lower dimension.

  6. Green-Schwarz superstring on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Lorenzo; Forini, Valentina; Leder, Björn; Vescovi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    We consider possible discretizations for a gauge-fixed Green-Schwarz action of Type IIB superstring. We use them for measuring the action, from which we extract the cusp anomalous dimension of planar $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM as derived from AdS/CFT, as well as the mass of the two $AdS$ excitations transverse to the relevant null cusp classical string solution. We perform lattice simulations employing a Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm and two Wilson-like fermion discretizations, one of which preserves the global $SO(6)$ symmetry of the model. We compare our results with the expected behavior at various values of $g=\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{4\\pi}$. For both the observables, we find a good agreement for large $g$, which is the perturbative regime of the sigma-model. For smaller values of $g$, the expectation value of the action exhibits a deviation compatible with the presence of quadratic divergences. After their non-perturbative subtraction the continuum limit can be taken, and suggests a qualitative agre...

  7. R{sup 2} inflation from scale invariant supergravity and anomaly free superstrings with fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounnas, Costas [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France); Luest, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU, Muenchen (Germany); Toumbas, Nicolaos [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2015-01-01

    The R{sup 2} scale invariant gravity theory coupled to conformally invariant matter is investigated. We show that in the non-supersymmetric case the conformally coupled scalars belong to an SO(1, 1 + n)/SO(1 + n) manifold, while in the supersymmetric case the scalar manifold becomes isomorphic to the Kaehlerian space M{sub n} = SU(1, 1 + n)/U(1) x SU (1 + n). In both cases when the underlying scale symmetry is preserved the vacuum corresponds to de Sitter space. Once the scale symmetry is broken by quantum effects, a transition to flat space becomes possible. We argue that the scale violating terms are induced by anomalies related to a U(1){sub R} symmetry. The anomaly is resolved via the gauging of a Peccei-Quinn axion shift symmetry. The theory describes an inflationary transition from de Sitter to flat Minkowski space, very similar to the Starobinsky inflationary model. The extension to metastable de Sitter superstring vacua is also investigated. The scalar manifold is extended to a much richer manifold, but it contains always M{sub n} as a sub-manifold. In superstrings the metastability is induced by axions that cure the anomalies in chiral N = 1 (or even N = 0) supersymmetric vacua via a Green-Schwarz/Peccei-Quinn mechanism generalized to four dimensions. We present some typical superstring models and discuss the possible stabilization of the no-scale modulus. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. New dark matter candidates motivated from superstring derived unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sanghyeon; Coriano, C.; Faraggi, A.E.

    1996-03-01

    Perturbative gauge coupling unification in realistic superstring models suggest the existence of additional heavy down-type quarks, beyond the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The mass scale of the heavy down-type quarks is constrained by requiring agreement between the measured low energy gauge parameters and the string-scale gauge coupling unification. These additional quarks arise and may be stable due to the gauge symmetry breaking by ``Wilson lines`` in the superstring models. We argue that there is a window in the parameter space within which this down-type quark is a good candidate for the dark matter. 18 refs.

  9. Superstring/supergravity Mellin correspondence in Grassmannian formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieberger, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.stieberger@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Taylor, Tomasz R. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-08-09

    We extend the recently established Mellin correspondence of supergravity and superstring amplitudes to the case of arbitrary helicity configurations. The amplitudes are discussed in the framework of Grassmannian varieties. We generalize Hodges's determinant to a function of two sets of independent coordinates and show that tree-level supergravity amplitudes can be obtained by contour integrations of both sets in separate Grassmannians while in superstring theory, one set of coordinates is identified with string vertex positions at the disk boundary and Mellin transformed into generalized hypergeometric functions of Mandelstam invariants.

  10. Exploring The Lambda Model Of The Hybrid Superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidtt, David M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to initiate the study of integrable deformations for different superstring theory formalisms that manifest the property of (classical) integrability. In this paper we choose the hybrid formalism of the superstring in the background AdS_{2}xS^{2} and explore in detail the most immediate consequences of its lambda-deformation. The resulting action functional corresponds to the lambda-model of the matter part of the fairly more sophisticated pure spinor formalism, which is also known to be classical integrable. In particular, the deformation preserves the integrability and the one-loop conformal invariance of its parent theory, hence being a marginal deformation.

  11. Yukawa couplings in superstring compactification. [in quantum gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strominger, A.

    1985-01-01

    A topological formula is given for the entire tree-level contribution to the low-energy effective action of a Calabi-Yau superstring compactification. The constraints on proton lifetime in the Calabi-Yau compactification are discussed in detail.

  12. Analytic solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okawa, Y.

    2007-04-15

    We extend the calculable analytic approach to marginal deformations recently developed in open bosonic string field theory to open superstring field theory formulated by Berkovits. We construct analytic solutions to all orders in the deformation parameter when operator products made of the marginal operator and the associated superconformal primary field are regular. (orig.)

  13. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-05

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

  14. Swiss cheese model with the superstring dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Kološ, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The Swiss cheese model of the Universe with the superstring dark energy is constructed. The junction conditions are shown to be fulfilled and time evolution of the matching hypersurface of the internal Schwarzschild spacetime and homogeneous external Friedman Universe is studied.

  15. Cosmic Super-Strings and Kaluza-Klein Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Dufaux, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic super-strings interact generically with a tower of relatively light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. In this paper, we study the production of spin-2 KK particles by cusps on loops of cosmic F- and D-strings. We consider cosmic super-strings localized either at the bottom of a warped throat or in a flat internal space with large volume. The total energy emitted by cusps in KK modes is comparable in both cases, although the number of produced KK modes may differ significantly. We then show that KK emission is constrained by the photo-dissociation of light elements and by observations of the diffuse gamma ray background. We study the resulting constraints on the parameter space of cosmic super-strings and highlight their complementarity with the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments. KK modes are also expected to play an important role in the friction-dominated epoch of cosmic super-string evolu...

  16. Singularity-free cosmological solutions of the superstring effective action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, I. (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique); Rizos, J. (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique); Tamvakis, K. (Ioannina Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Physics)

    1994-03-07

    We study the cosmological solutions of the one-loop corrected superstring effective action, in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background, and in the presence of the dilaton and modulus fields. A particularly interesting class of solutions is found which avoid the initial singularity and are consistent with the perturbative treatment of the effective action. (orig.)

  17. GGI Lectures on the Pure Spinor Formalism of the Superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Bedoya, Oscar A

    2009-01-01

    Notes taken by Oscar A. Bedoya of lectures of Nathan Berkovits in June 2009 at the Galileo Galilei Institute School "New Perspectives in String Theory". Topics include the pure spinor superparticle and superstring, tree and loop amplitudes, Ramond-Ramond backgrounds, and open problems.

  18. Gravitational and Axionic Backgrounds for Four-dimensional Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Lüst, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    We construct new four-dimensional superstring vacua with extended superconformal symmetries. A non-trivial dilaton background implies the existence of Abelian killing symmetries. These are used to construct dual equivalent backgrounds in a way preserving the N=2 superconformal invariance.

  19. Cabibbo Mixing in Superstring Derived Standard--like Models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Halyo, Edi

    1993-01-01

    We examine the problem of generation mixing in realistic superstring derived standard--like models, constructed in the free fermionic formulation. We study the possible sources of family mixing in these models . In a specific model we estimate the Cabibbo angle. We argue that a Cabibbo angle of the correct order of magnitude can be obtained in these models.

  20. Superstrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells: Prospects and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinenann, Marc Daniel; Wollgarten, Markus; Unold, Thomas; Schock, Hans-Werner; Kaufmann, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Superstrate solar cell devices were prepared by thermal evaporation of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber material onto ZnO coated glass substrates. Photo-conversion efficiencies above 11% were reached by optimizing the deposition process. Interface analysis with electron microscopy and XPS measurements, combined with capacitance spectroscopy and device simulations, showed specific limitations of this device configurations, but also possible ways to overcome these. It was found that the GaOx, which forms at the CIGSe/ZnO interface during the absorber deposition process, reduces the interface recombination. At the same time it limits the efficiency due to its high density of negatively charged acceptor states which causes an electron barrier at the heterointerface. The required addition of sodium enhances the p-type doping of the absorber as normally observed, but also increases the net doping within the GaOx, which requires a tradeoff between these two effects. The devices were found to degrade over time, which is explained by field induced diffusion of positive cations out of the GaOx layer. This model is able to explain frequently observed effects upon light-soaking and forward-biasing of superstrate devices.

  1. Study of Antenna Superstrates Using Metamaterials for Directivity Enhancement Based on Fabry-Perot Resonant Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterial superstrate is a significant method to obtain high directivity of one or a few antennas. In this paper, the characteristics of directivity enhancement using different metamaterial structures as antenna superstrates, such as electromagnetic bandgap (EBG structures, frequency selective surface (FSS, and left-handed material (LHM, are unifiedly studied by applying the theory of Fabry-Perot (F-P resonant cavity. Focusing on the analysis of reflection phase and magnitude of superstrates in presently proposed designs, the essential reason for high-directivity antenna with different superstrates can be revealed in terms of the F-P resonant theory. Furthermore, a new design of the optimum reflection coefficient of superstrates for the maximum antenna directivity is proposed and validated. The optimum location of the LHM superstrate which is based on a refractive lens model can be determined by the F-P resonant distance.

  2. Superstring one-loop and gravitino contributions to planckian scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Alessandro; Ademollo, Marco; Ciafaloni, Marcello

    1993-03-01

    Corrections to the semiclassical approximation in nearly forward planckian energy collisions are reconsidered. Starting from the one-loop superstring amplitude, we are able to disentangle the first subleading high-energy contribution at large impact parameters, and we thus directly compute the one-loop correction to the superstring eikonal. By comparing this result with previous ones by Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano (ACV) for pure gravity, we identify one-loop gravitino contributions which agree with previous results by Lipatov. We finally argue, on the basis of analyticity and unitarity, that gravitinos do not contribute at all the large-distance two-loop ACV correction, which thus acquires a universal "classical" interpretation.

  3. Equivalence of Two Contour Prescriptions in Superstring Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-01-01

    Conventional superstring perturbation theory based on the world-sheet approach gives divergent results for the S-matrix whenever the total center of mass energy of the incoming particles exceeds the threshold of production of any final state consistent with conservation laws. Two systematic approaches have been suggested for dealing with this difficulty. The first one involves deforming the integration cycles over the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces into complexified moduli space. The second one treats the amplitude as a sum of superstring field theory Feynman diagrams and deforms the integration contours over loop energies of the Feynman diagram into the complex plane. In this paper we establish the equivalence of the two prescriptions to all orders in perturbation theory. Since the second approach is known to lead to unitary amplitudes, this establishes the consistency of the first prescription with unitarity.

  4. Ph.D. Thesis: Topics on topology and superstring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffino, Fabio Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss some topics about topology and superstring backgrounds with D-branes. We start with a mathematical review about generalized homology and cohomology theories and the Atiyah-Hirzebruch spectral sequence, in order to provide an explicit link between such a spectral sequence and the Gysin map. Then we review the basic facts about line bundles and gerbes with connection. In the second part of the thesis we apply the previous material to study the geometry of type II superstring backgrounds. We first present the cohomological discussion about D-brane charges in analogy with classical electromagnetism, then we use the geometry of gerbes to discuss the nature of A-field and B-field as follows from Freed-Witten anomaly, finally we discuss the K-theoretical approaches to classify D-brane charges. In the last part we discuss some topics about spinors and pinors with particular attention to non-orientable manifolds.

  5. Exploring the lambda model of the hybrid superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidtt, David M. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT/UNESP,Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, CEP 01140-070, São Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2016-10-26

    The purpose of this contribution is to initiate the study of integrable deformations for different superstring theory formalisms that manifest the property of (classical) integrability. In this paper we choose the hybrid formalism of the superstring in the background AdS{sub 2}×S{sup 2} and explore in detail the most immediate consequences of its λ-deformation. The resulting action functional corresponds to the λ-model of the matter part of the fairly more sophisticated pure spinor formalism, which is also known to be classical integrable. In particular, the deformation preserves the integrability and the one-loop conformal invariance of its parent theory, hence being a marginal deformation.

  6. On the construction of classical superstring field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, Sebastian Johann Hermann

    2016-07-01

    This thesis describes the construction of classical superstring field theories based on the small Hilbert space. First we describe the traditional construction of perturbative superstring theory as an integral over the supermoduli space of type II world sheets. The geometry of supermoduli space dictates many algebraic properties of the string field theory action. In particular it allows for an algebraisation of the construction problem for classical superstring field theories in terms of homotopy algebras. Next, we solve the construction problem for open superstrings based on Witten's star product. The construction is recursive and involves a choice of homotopy operator for the zero mode of the η-ghost. It turns out that the solution can be extended to the Neveu-Schwarz subsectors of all superstring field theories. The recursive construction involves a hierarchy of string products at various picture deficits. The construction is not entirely natural, but it is argued that different choices give rise to solutions related by a field redefinition. Due to the presence of odd gluing parameters for Ramond states the extension to full superstring field theory is non-trivial. Instead, we construct gauge-invariant equations of motion for all superstring field theories. The realisation of spacetime supersymmetry in the open string sector is highly non-trivial and is described explicitly for the solution based on Witten's star product. After a field redefinition the non-polynomial equations of motion and the small Hilbert space constraint become polynomial. This polynomial system is shown to be supersymmetric. Quite interestingly, the supersymmetry algebra closes only up to gauge transformations. This indicates that only the physical phase space realizes N=1 supersymmetry. Apart from the algebraic constraints dictated by the geometry of supermoduli space the equations of motion or action should reproduce the traditional string S-matrix. The S-matrix of a field

  7. One Loop Mass Renormalization of Unstable Particles in Superstring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-01-01

    Most of the massive states in superstring theory are expected to undergo mass renormalization at one loop order. Typically these corrections should contain imaginary parts, indicating that the states are unstable against decay into lighter particles. However in such cases, direct computation of the renormalized mass using superstring perturbation theory yields divergent result. Previous approaches to this problem involve various analytic continuation techniques, or deforming the integral over the moduli space of the torus with two punctures into the complexified moduli space near the boundary. In this paper we use insights from string field theory to describe a different approach that gives manifestly finite result for the mass shift satisfying unitarity relations. The procedure is applicable to all states of (compactified) type II and heterotic string theories. We illustrate this by computing the one loop correction to the mass of the first massive state on the leading Regge trajectory in SO(32) heterotic st...

  8. Conformal Relativity versus Brans–Dicke and Superstring Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Blaschke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We show how conformal relativity is related to Brans–Dicke theory and to low-energy-effective superstring theory. Conformal relativity or the Hoyle–Narlikar theory is invariant with respect to conformal transformations of the metric. We show that the conformal relativity action is equivalent to the transformed Brans–Dicke action for ω = -3/2 (which is the border between standard scalar field and ghost in contrast to the reduced (graviton-dilaton low-energy-effective superstring action which corresponds to the Brans–Dicke action with ω = -1. We show that like in ekpyrotic/cyclic models, the transition through the singularity in conformal cosmology in the string frame takes place in the weak coupling regime. We also find interesting self-duality and duality relations for the graviton-dilaton actions.

  9. Green-Schwarz superstring on doubled-yet-gauged spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    We construct a world-sheet action for Green-Schwarz superstring in terms of doubled-yet-gauged spacetime coordinates. For an arbitrarily curved NS-NS background, the action possesses $\\mathbf{O}(10,10)$ T-duality, $\\mathbf{Spin}(1,9)\\times\\mathbf{Spin}(9,1)$ Lorentz symmetry, coordinate gauge symmetry, spacetime doubled-yet-gauged diffeomorphisms, world-sheet diffeomorphisms and Weyl symmetry. Further, restricted to flat backgrounds, it enjoys maximal spacetime supersymmetry and kappa-symmetry. After the auxiliary coordinate gauge symmetry potential being integrated out, our action can consistently reduce to the original undoubled Green-Schwarz action. Thanks to the twofold spin groups, the action is unique: it is specific choices of the NS-NS backgrounds that distinguish IIA or IIB, as well as lead to non-Riemannian or non-relativistic superstring a la Gomis-Ooguri which might deserve the nomenclature, type IIC.

  10. Superspace with manifest T-duality from type II superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsuda, Machiko; Siegel, Warren

    2014-01-01

    A superspace formulation of type II superstring background with manifest T-duality symmetry is presented. This manifestly T-dual formulation is constructed in a space spanned by two sets of nondegenerate super-Poincare algebra. Supertorsion constraints are obtained from consistency of the kappa-symmetric Virasoro constraints. All superconnections and vielbein fields are solved in terms of a prepotential which is one of the vielbein components. AdS5xS5 background is explained in this formulation.

  11. Worldsheet dilatation operator for the AdS superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, Israel [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Haus, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-05-23

    In this work we propose a systematic way to compute the logarithmic divergences of composite operators in the pure spinor description of the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring. The computations of these divergences can be summarized in terms of a dilatation operator acting on the local operators. We check our results with some important composite operators of the formalism.

  12. Topology change in Kaluza-Klein and superstring theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1985-12-19

    It is shown that topology change - for instance, true dynamical compactification - cannot occur in classical Kaluza-Klein and superstring theories without causality violation either in the form of a breakdown in predictability (a failure of global hyperbolicity), or in the form of closed timelike curves. This implies that if causality holds, then any toplogical distinction between the spacetime and internal dimensions either has to be present ab initio, or else must arise in the quantum gravity regime. (orig.).

  13. Topology change in Kaluza-Klein and superstring theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    1985-12-01

    It is shown that topology change-for instance, true dynamical compactification - cannot occur in classical Kaluza-Klein and superstring theories without causality violation either in the form of a breakdown in predictability (a failure of global hyperbolicity), or in the form of closed timelike curves. This implies that if causality holds, then any topological distinction between the spacetime and internal dimensions either has to be present ab initio, or else must arise in the quantum gravity regime. Permanent address.

  14. Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    ICTP's annual Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics provides pedagogical treatment of these subjects through lectures by some of the world's top string theorists. The activity is intended for theoretical physicists or mathematicians with knowledge of quantum field theory, general relativity and string theory. It is organized in collaboration with the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN).

  15. Cosmic Super-Strings and Kaluza-Klein Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Dufaux, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic super-strings interact generically with a tower of relatively light and / or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. In this paper, we study the production of spin-2 KK particles by cusps on loops of cosmic F- and D-strings. We consider cosmic super-strings localized either at the bottom of a warped throat or in a flat internal space with large volume. The total energy emitted by cusps in KK modes is of the same order of magnitude in both cases, although the number of produced KK modes may differ significantly. The calculation lies within the regime of validity of the effective Nambu-Goto description, but the energy emitted in KK modes is comparable to the energy released in scalar and gauge fields by cusp annihilation on standard Abelian-Higgs cosmic strings. Nevertheless, KK emission by cosmic super-strings may have specific cosmological consequences. We show that it is constrained by the diffuse gamma ray background and by the photo-dissociation o...

  16. Isocurvature fluctuations induce early star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugiyama, N; Zaroubi, S; Silk, J

    2004-01-01

    The early reionization of the Universe inferred from the WMAP polarization results, if confirmed, poses a problem for the hypothesis that scale-invariant adiabatic density fluctuations account for large-scale structure and galaxy formation. One can only generate the required amount of early star for

  17. Isocurvature fluctuations induce early star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugiyama, N; Zaroubi, S; Silk, J

    2004-01-01

    The early reionization of the Universe inferred from the WMAP polarization results, if confirmed, poses a problem for the hypothesis that scale-invariant adiabatic density fluctuations account for large-scale structure and galaxy formation. One can only generate the required amount of early star

  18. Can the Axions of Standard--like Superstring Models Solve the Strong CP Problem?

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, E

    1993-01-01

    We find that there are three axions in standard--like superstring models in the four dimensional free fermionic formulation. These axions are either harmful or very heavy. Therefore, they cannot solve the strong CP problem. We show that this is a general result in superstring models with chiral generations from the $Z_2$ twisted sectors which use a $Z_4$ twist.

  19. Ethanol Induced Urine Acidification is Related with Early Acetaldehyde Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Kil Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, urine acidification after ethanol ingestion is related with serum acetaldehyde concentration. Early elevation of acetaldhyde could induce urine acidification, but the urine pH was elevated after a few hours, that might make prolonged acidemia.

  20. Tachyon Condensation and Background Independent Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanathan, K S

    2001-01-01

    We study quantum corrections at the one loop level in open superstring tachyon condensation using the boundary string field theory (BSFT) method. We find that the tachyon field action has the same form as at the disc level, but with a renormalized effective coupling $\\lambda' =g_s^{ren}e^{-T^2/4}$ ($g_s^{ren}$ is the renormalized dimensionless closed string coupling, $e^{-T^2/4}$ is the tachyonic field expectation value) and with an effective string tension. This result is in agreement with that based on general analysis of loop effects.

  1. Comments on superstring field theory and its vacuum solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroyter, Michael

    2009-08-01

    We prove that the NS cubic superstring field theories are classically equivalent, regardless of the choice of Y-2 in their definition, and illustrate it by an explicit evaluation of the action of Erler's solution. We then turn to examine this solution. First, we explain that its cohomology is trivial also in the Ramond sector. Then, we show that the boundary state corresponding to it is identically zero. We conclude that this solution is indeed a closed string vacuum solution despite the absence of a tachyon field on the BPS D-brane.

  2. Comments on superstring field theory and its vacuum solution

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the NS cubic superstring field theories are classically equivalent, regardless of the choice of Y_{-2} in their definition, and illustrate it by an explicit evaluation of the action of Erler's solution. We then turn to examine this solution. First, we explain that its cohomology is trivial also in the Ramond sector. Then, we show that the boundary state corresponding to it is identically zero. We conclude that this solution is indeed a closed string vacuum solution despite the absence of a tachyon field on the BPS D-brane.

  3. Exotic Universal Solutions in Cubic Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of analytic solutions of cubic superstring field theory in the universal sector on a non-BPS D-brane. Computation of the action and gauge invariant overlap reveal that the solutions carry half the tension of a non-BPS D-brane. However, the solutions do not satisfy the reality condition. In fact, they display an intriguing topological structure: We find evidence that conjugation of the solutions is equivalent to a gauge transformation that cannot be continuously deformed to the identity.

  4. Calculating fermion masses in superstring derived standard-like models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1996-04-01

    One of the intriguing achievements of the superstring derived standard-like models in the free fermionic formulation is the possible explanation of the top quark mass hierarchy and the successful prediction of the top quark mass. An important property of the superstring derived standard-like models, which enhances their predictive power, is the existence of three and only three generations in the massless spectrum. Up to some motivated assumptions with regard to the light Higgs spectrum, it is then possible to calculate the fermion masses in terms of string tree level amplitudes and some VEVs that parameterize the string vacuum. I discuss the calculation of the heavy generation masses in the superstring derived standard-like models. The top quark Yukawa coupling is obtained from a cubic level mass term while the bottom quark and tau lepton mass terms are obtained from nonrenormalizable terms. The calculation of the heavy fermion Yukawa couplings is outlined in detail in a specific toy model. The dependence of the effective bottom quark and tau lepton Yukawa couplings on the flat directions at the string scale is examined. The gauge and Yukawa couplings are extrapolated from the string unification scale to low energies. Agreement with {alpha}{sub strong}, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} and {alpha}{sub em} at M{sub Z} is imposed, which necessitates the existence of intermediate matter thresholds. The needed intermediate matter thresholds exist in the specific toy model. The effect of the intermediate matter thresholds on the extrapolated Yukawa couplings is studied. It is observed that the intermediate matter thresholds help to maintain the correct b/{tau} mass relation. It is found that for a large portion of the parameter space, the LEP precision data for {alpha}{sub strong}, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} and {alpha}{sub em}, as well as the top quark mass and the b/{tau} mass relation can all simultaneously be consistent with the superstring derived standard-like models.

  5. Scaling properties of cosmic (super)string networks

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P

    2013-01-01

    I use a combination of state-of-the-art numerical simulations and analytic modelling to discuss the scaling properties of cosmic defect networks, including superstrings. Particular attention is given to the role of extra degrees of freedom in the evolution of these networks. Compared to the 'plain vanilla' case of Goto-Nambu strings, three such extensions play important but distinct roles in the network dynamics: the presence of charges/currents on the string worldsheet, the existence of junctions, and the possibility of a hierarchy of string tensions. I also comment on insights gained from studying simpler defect networks, including Goto-Nambu strings themselves, domain walls and semilocal strings.

  6. Neutrino Masses in Superstring Derived Standard--like Models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Halyo, Edi

    1993-01-01

    We propose a new scenario in a class of superstring derived standard--like models that explains the suppression of the left--handed neutrino masses. Due to nonrenormalizable terms and the breaking of the $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ symmetry a generalized see--saw mechanism takes place. Contrary to the traditional see--saw mechanism in GUTs, the see--saw scale and the right--handed neutrino mass scale are suppressed relative to the $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ breaking scale.

  7. Notes on reductions of superstring theory to bosonic string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmori, Kantaro

    2013-01-01

    It is in general very subtle to integrate over the odd moduli of super Riemann surfaces in perturbative superstring computations. We study how these subtleties go away in favorable cases, including the embedding of N=0 string to N=1 string by Berkovits and Vafa, and the relation of the graviphoton amplitude and the topological string amplitude by Antoniadis, Gava, Narain and Taylor and Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa. The Poincar\\'e dual of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces in the moduli space of super Riemann surfaces plays an important role.

  8. Closed superstrings in magnetic field instabilities and supersymmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Tseytlin, Arkady A

    1995-01-01

    We consider a 2-parameter class of solvable closed superstring models which `interpolate' between Kaluza-Klein and dilatonic Melvin magnetic flux tube backgrounds. The spectrum of string states has similarities with Landau spectrum for a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. The presence of spin-dependent `gyromagnetic' interaction implies breaking of supersymmetry and possible existence (for certain values of magnetic parameters) of tachyonic instabilities. We study in detail the simplest example of the Kaluza-Klein Melvin model describing a superstring moving in flat but non-trivial 10-d space containing a 3-d factor which is a `twisted' product of a 2-plane and an internal circle. We also discuss the compact version of this model constructed by `twisting' the product of the two groups in SU(2) x U(1) WZNW theory without changing the local geometry (and thus the central charge). We explain how the supersymmetry is broken by continuous `magnetic' twist parameters and comment on possible implications ...

  9. The calculation of Feynman diagrams in the superstring perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Danilov, G S

    1995-01-01

    The method of the calculation of the multi-loop superstring amplitudes is proposed. The amplitudes are calculated from the equations that are none other than Ward identities. They are derived from the requirement that the discussed amplitudes are independent from a choice of gauge of both the vierbein and the gravitino field. The amplitudes are calculated in the terms of the superfields vacuum correlators on the complex (1|1) supermanifolds. The superconformal Schottky groups appropriate for this aim are built for all the spinor structures. The calculation of the multi- loop boson emission amplitudes in the closed, oriented Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz superstring theory is discussed in details. The main problem arises for those spinor structures that correspond to the Ramond fermion loops. Indeed, in this case the superfield vacuum correlators can not be derived by a simple extension of the boson string results. The method of the calculation of the above correlators is proposed. The discussed amplitudes due to all t...

  10. Family universal anomalous U(1) in realistic superstring derived models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    An important issue in supersymmetry phenomenology is the suppression of squarks contributions to Flavor Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC). Recently it was noted that in some free fermionic three generation models the anomalous U(1) is family universal. It was further shown that if the D-term of the U(1){sub A} is the dominant source of supersymmetry breaking, the squark masses are indeed approximately degenerate. In this paper the author discusses the properties of the superstring models that give rise to the flavor universal anomalous U(1). The root cause for the universal U(1){sub A} is the cyclic permutation symmetry, the characteristic property of the Z{sub 2} X Z{sub 2} orbifold compactification, realized in the free fermionic models by the NAHE set of boundary condition basis vectors. The properties of the three generation models that preserve this cyclic permutation symmetry in the flavor charges are discussed. The cyclic permutation symmetry of the Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} orbifold compactification is proposed to be the characteristic property, of phenomenological interest, that distinguishes it from other classes of superstring compactifications.

  11. Leptophobic Z{prime} from superstring derived models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Masip, M. [Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica

    1996-04-01

    It was recently suggested that the reported anomalies in R{sub b} and R{sub c} can be interpreted as the effect of a heavy vector boson that couples to quarks and is universally decoupled from leptons. We examine how an extra gauge boson with this property can arise from superstring derived models. In a specific three generation model we show that the U(1){sub B-L} symmetry combines with the horizontal flavor symmetries to form a universal leptophobic U(1) symmetry. In our model there is an enhancement of the color gauge group from twisted sectors. The enhancement occurs after the breaking of the unifying gauge symmetry by ``Wilson lines.`` The leptophobic U(1) symmetry then becomes a generator of the color SU(4) gauge group. We examine how similar symmetries may appear in other string models without the enhancement. We propose that if the current LEP anomalies persist it may be evidence for a certain class of un-unified superstring models. 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Conformal relativity versus Brans-Dicke and superstring theories

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, D; Blaschke, David; Dabrowski, Mariusz P

    2004-01-01

    Conformal relativity theory which is also known as Hoyle-Narlikar theory has recently been given some new interest. It is an extended relativity theory which is invariant with respect to conformal transformations of the metric. In this paper we show how conformal relativity is related to the Brans-Dicke theory and to the low-energy-effective superstring theory. We show that conformal relativity action is equaivalent to a transformed Brans-Dicke action for Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -3/2$ in contrast to a reduced (graviton-dilaton) low-energy-effective superstring action which corresponds to a Brans-Dicke action with Brans-Dicke parameter $\\omega = -1$. We also present basic cosmological solutions of conformal relativity in both Einstein and string frames. The Eintein limit for flat conformal cosmology solutions is unique and it is flat Minkowski space. This requires the scalar field/mass evolution instead of the scale factor evolution in order to explain cosmological redshift. It is interesting that like...

  13. Green-Schwarz superstring. Beltrami parametrization and world-sheet supersymmetric generalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetruy, P.; Girardi, G. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy (France). Lab. de Physique des Particules); Grimm, R. (Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1989-09-28

    We study a generalization of the superstring theory in which both world-sheet and space-time supersymmetries are explicit. This hybrid superstring interpolates between the Green-Schwarz and the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz formulations. We show that the Beltrami parametrization of the world-sheet provides a natural setting for the description of {kappa}-transformations already in the Green-Schwarz string. We construct the hybrid superstring action using the (1, 1) supersymmetric version of the Beltrami parametrization. We discuss the generalization of {kappa}-transformations. (orig.).

  14. Low profile superstrate using transformation optics for semicircular radiation pattern of antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chetan; Lepage, Anne Claire; Begaud, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    In this article, a dielectric superstrate inspired from transformation optics is presented. When placed over a patch antenna, this superstrate increases the half power beam width (HPBW) of a classical patch antenna. An appropriate spatial transformation relation with spatial compression and refractive index shift factors has been used to derive an expression for a dielectric material profile. The wave front exiting from the transformed space is optimized for a semicylindrical shape. Then, a discretized version of this profile has been used to design a cuboidal superstrate. Full wave simulations have been presented that essentially show a superstrate device capable of producing a 297° of HPBW in H-plane with a peak directivity of 3.2 dBi at the design frequency. The derived solution can be realized using the standard dielectric materials for real-world applications.

  15. Early autophagy activation inhibits podocytes from apoptosis induced by aldosterone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文琰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the protection of early autoph-agy activation on podocyte injury induced by aldosterone.Methods In vitro cultured mouse podocyte clones(MPC5) were treated with aldosterone for 6,12,24,48 hrespectively. Apoptosis of podocytes was detected by

  16. $A_\\infty$ structure from the Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore; Takezaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    By formulating open superstring field theory based on the small Hilbert space of the superconformal ghost sector, an action for the Neveu-Schwarz sector with an $A_\\infty$ structure has recently been constructed. We transform this action to the Wess-Zumino-Witten-like form and show that this theory is related to the Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory based on the large Hilbert space by partial gauge fixing and field redefinition.

  17. Complete Action for Open Superstring Field Theory with Cyclic $A_\\infty$ Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore; Takezaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    We construct a gauge invariant action for the Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond sectors of open superstring field theory realizing a cyclic $A_\\infty$ structure, providing the first complete and fully explicit solution to the classical Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation in superstring field theory. We also demonstrate the equivalence of our action to the Wess-Zumino-Witten-based construction of Kunitomo and one of the authors.

  18. Relating Berkovits and $A_\\infty$ Superstring Field Theories; Small Hilbert Space Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that the recently constructed action for open superstring field theory based on $A_\\infty$ algebras can be re-written in Wess-Zumino-Witten-like form, thus establishing its relation to Berkovits' open superstring field theory. In this paper we explain the relation between these two theories from a different perspective which emphasizes the small Hilbert space, and in particular the relation between the $A_\\infty$ structures on both sides.

  19. Complete action for open superstring field theory with cyclic A ∞ structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Theodore; Okawa, Yuji; Takezaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-08-01

    We construct a gauge invariant action for the Neveu-Schwarz and Ramond sectors of open superstring field theory realizing a cyclic A ∞ structure, providing the first complete and fully explicit solution to the classical Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation in superstring field theory. We also demonstrate the equivalence of our action to the Wess-Zumino-Witten-based construction of Kunitomo and one of the authors.

  20. High Gain Patch Antenna for 2.4GHz using Metamaterial Superstrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyu-Chang; LEE; Seung-In; YANG

    2010-01-01

    <正>A patch antenna and our proposed metamaterial patch antenna are simulated and compared. A high gain patch antenna using a single layer metamaterial superstrate with a near to zero refractive index(n)is proposed.The simulation results provide that the gain of the proposed antenna is increased by about 7dB. Consequently,the high gain antenna can be easily obtained by using our metamaterial superstrate.

  1. Gauge Fixing of Modified Cubic Open Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kohriki, Maiko; Kunitomo, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The gauge-fixing problem of modified cubic open superstring field theory is discussed in detail both for the Ramond and Neveu-Schwarz sectors in the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) framework. We prove for the first time that the same form of action as the classical gauge-invariant one with the ghost-number constraint on the string field relaxed gives the master action satisfying the BV master equation. This is achieved by identifying independent component fields based on the analysis of the kernel structure of the inverse picture changing operator. The explicit gauge-fixing conditions for the component fields are discussed. In a kind of $b_0=0$ gauge, we explicitly obtain the NS propagator which has poles at the zeros of the Virasoro operator $L_0$.

  2. D-Brane superstrings and new perspective of our world

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Superstring theory is a promising theory which can potentially unify all the forces and the matters in particle physics. A new multi-dimensional object which is called "D-brane" was found. It drastically changed our perspective of a unified world. We may live on membrane-like hypersurfaces in higher dimensions ("braneworld scenario"), or we can create blackholes at particle accelarators, or the dynamics of quarks is shown to be equivalent to the higher dimensional gravity theory. All these scenarios are explained in this book with plain words but with little use of equations and with many figures. The book starts with a summary of long-standing problems in elementary particle physics and explains the D-branes and many applications of them. It ends with future roads for a unified ultimate theory of our world.  

  3. D-brane. Superstrings and new perspective of our world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Koji [RIKEN, Saitama, Wako (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.

    2012-07-01

    Superstring theory is a promising theory which can potentially unify all the forces and the matters in particle physics. A new multi-dimensional object which is called ''D-brane'' was found. It drastically changed our perspective of a unified world. We may live on membrane-like hypersurfaces in higher dimensions (''braneworld scenario''), or we can create blackholes at particle accelerators, or the dynamics of quarks is shown to be equivalent to the higher dimensional gravity theory. All these scenarios are explained in this book with plain words but with little use of equations and with many figures. The book starts with a summary of long-standing problems in elementary particle physics and explains the D-branes and many applications of them. It ends with future roads for a unified ultimate theory of our world. (orig.)

  4. Superstring Perturbation Theory and Ramond-Ramond Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Berenstein, D E; Berenstein, David; Leigh, Robert G.

    1999-01-01

    We consider perturbative Type II superstring theory in the covariant NSR formalism in the presence of NSNS and RR backgrounds. A concrete example that we have in mind is the geometry of D3-branes which in the near-horizon region is AdS_5 x S_5, although our methods may be applied to other backgrounds as well. We show how conformal invariance of the string path integral is maintained order by order in the number of holes. This procedure makes uses of the Fischler-Susskind mechanism to build up the background geometry. A simple formal expression is given for a \\sigma-model Lagrangian. This suggests a perturbative expansion in 1/g^2N and 1/N. As applications, we consider at leading order the mixing of RR and NSNS states, and the realization of the spacetime supersymmetry algebra.

  5. Supersymmetry and Light Quark Masses in a Realistic Superstring Model

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, E

    1994-01-01

    We examine the light quark masses in a standard--like superstring model in the four dimensional free fermionic formulation. We find that the supersymmetry constraints in the observable and hidden sectors eliminate all large contributions to $m_u$ and $m_d$ and force them to be much smaller than the other quark masses. The requirement for an acceptable Higgs doublet spectrum results in $m_u<

  6. On the Covariant Quantization of Type II Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Guttenberg, S; Kreuzer, M; Guttenberg, Sebastian; Knapp, Johanna; Kreuzer, Maximilian

    2004-01-01

    In a series of papers Grassi, Policastro, Porrati and van Nieuwenhuizen have introduced a new method to covariantly quantize the GS-superstring by constructing a resolution of the pure spinor constraint of Berkovits' approach. Their latest version is based on a gauged WZNW model and a definition of physical states in terms of relative cohomology groups. We first put the off-shell formulation of the type II version of their ideas into a chirally split form and directly construct the free action of the gauged WZNW model, thus circumventing some complications of the super group manifold approach to type II. Then we discuss the BRST charges that define the relative cohomology and the N=2 superconformal algebra. A surprising result is that nilpotency of the BRST charge requires the introduction of another quartet of ghosts.

  7. Minkowski superspaces and superstrings as almost real-complex supermanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bouarroudj, Sofiane; Leites, Dimitry; Shchepochkina, Irina

    2010-01-01

    J. Bernstein observed that neither real nor complex supermanifolds, nor real supermanifolds with a(n almost) complex structure mathematicians study are not what the pioneers of supersymmetry suggested to consider: The (extended) Minkowski superspaces are what we call almost real-complex supermanifolds, i.e., real supermanifolds with functions taking values in the complex Grassmann superalgebra. Important here is that the almost complex structure is given on the fibers of a non-integrable distribution, the fact that its fibers are odd is irrelevant. An almost complex structure (given by an even or odd tensor at each point on a supermanifold) is integrable if the suitable superization of the Nijenhuis tensor vanishes. On almost real-complex supermanifolds, we define the circumcised analog of the Nijenhuis tensor. We show that on the superstrings the space of values of the circumcised Nijenhuis tensor splits into irreducible components similar to those of Riemann or Penrose tensors; it vanishes identically only ...

  8. Super-Chern-Simons Theory as Superstring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A

    2004-01-01

    Superstrings and topological strings with supermanifolds as target space play a central role in the recent developments in string theory. Nevertheless the rules for higher-genus computations are still unclear or guessed in analogy with bosonic and fermionic strings. Here we present a common geometrical setting to develop systematically the prescription for amplitude computations. The geometrical origin of these difficulties is the theory of integration of superforms. We provide a translation between the theory of supermanifolds and topological strings with supertarget space. We show how in this formulation one can naturally construct picture changing operators to be inserted in the correlation functions to soak up the zero modes of commuting ghost and we derive the amplitude prescriptions from the coupling with an extended topological gravity on the worldsheet. As an application we consider a simple model on R^(3|2) leading to super-Chern-Simons theory.

  9. Pure Spinor Superstrings on Generic type IIA Supergravity Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    D'Auria, R; Grassi, P A; Trigiante, M

    2008-01-01

    We derive the Free Differential Algebra for type IIA supergravity in 10 dimensions in the string frame. We provide all fermionic terms for all curvatures. We derive the Green-Schwarz sigma model for type IIA superstring based on the FDA construction and we check its invariance under kappa-symmetry. Finally, we derive the pure spinor sigma model and we check the BRST invariance. The present derivation has the advantage that the resulting sigma model is constructed in terms of the superfields appearing in the FDA and therefore one can directly relate a supergravity background with the corresponding sigma model. The complete explicit form of the BRST transformations is given and some new pure spinor constraints are obtained. Finally, the explicit form of the action is given.

  10. On open superstring partition function in inhomogeneous rolling tachyon background

    CERN Document Server

    Fotopoulos, A

    2003-01-01

    We consider open superstring partition function Z on the disc in time-dependent tachyon background T= f(x_i) e^{m x_0} where the profile function f depends on spatial coordinates. We compute Z to second order in derivatives of f and compare the result with some previously suggested effective actions depending only on the first derivatives of the tachyon field. We also compute the target-space stress-energy tensor in this background and demonstrate its conservation in the ``on-shell'' case of the linear profile f= f_0 + q_i x_i corresponding to a marginal perturbation. We comment on the role of the rolling tachyon with linear spatial profile in the decay of an unstable D-brane.

  11. A Note on Toroidal Compactifications of the Type I Superstring and Other Superstring Vacuum Configurations with 16 Supercharges

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, M

    1998-01-01

    We show that various disconnected components of the moduli space of superstring vacua with 16 supercharges admit a rationale in terms of type I toroidal compactifications with constant non-vanishing but quantized vacuum expectation values of the NS-NS antisymmetric tensor. These include heterotic vacua with reduced rank, known as CHL strings, and their dual type II models below D=6. Type I vacua without open strings allow for an interpretation of the non-perturbative heterotic vacua related to type II models without D-branes and their U-duals. We also comment on the relation between some of these vacua and compactifications of the putative M-theory on unorientable manifolds as well as F-theory vacua.

  12. [Clinical study of induced abortion of early-early pregnancy: an analysis of 10, 404 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Xue-fen; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jian-hua

    2012-01-03

    To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of early-early pregnancy induced abortion (EPIA). A total of 10 404 cases of EPIA performed at our hospital from January 1993 to December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 9434 cases of common induced abortion (CIA). The amount of hemorrhage and operative duration, degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, rate of incomplete abortion, menstrual changes and post-operative onset of Asherman's syndrome were observed and compared between 2 groups. The average age, ratio of parous cases, ratio of the cases of first-pregnancy induced abortion were not different between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The amount of hemorrhage bleeding ((4.9 ± 3.2) ml), operative duration ((90.3 ± 12.4) s), degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, menstrual changes and the rate of Asherman's syndrome in the EPIA group were all significantly less than those in the CIA group (P abortion (0.44%) in the EPIA group was significantly higher than that (0.21%) in the CIA group (P abortion stays high.

  13. Effect of two different superstrate layers on bismuth titanate (BiT) array antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, F H; Malek, F; Al-Amani, A U; Ghani, Farid

    2014-01-15

    The microwave industry has shown increasing interest in electronic ceramic material (ECM) due to its advantages, such as light weight, low cost, low loss, and high dielectric strength. In this paper, simple antennas covered by superstrate layers for 2.30 GHz to 2.50 GHz are proposed. The antennas are compact and have the capability of producing high performance in terms of gain, directivity, and radiation efficiency. Bismuth titanate with high dielectric constant of 21, was utilized as the ECM, while the superstrate layers chosen included a split ring resonator and dielectric material. The superstrate layers were designed for some improvement in the performance of directivity, gain, and return loss. The proposed antennas were simulated and fabricated. The results obtained were small antennas that possess high gain and high directivity with 360°, omni-directional signal transmission that resonant types of conventional dipole antenna cannot achieve. The gain of the antenna with the superstrate layer was enhanced by about 1 dBi over the antenna without a superstrate layer at 2.40 GHz.

  14. Qubit and Fermionic Fock Spaces from Type II Superstring Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, A; Benslimane, Z; Sedra, M B; Segui, A

    2016-01-01

    Using Hodge diagram combinatorial data, we study qubit and fermionic Fock spaces from the point of view of type II superstring black holes based on complex compactifications. Concretely, we establish a one-to-one correspondence between qubits, fermionic spaces and extremal black holes in maximally supersymmetric supergravity obtained from type II superstring on complex toroidal and Calabi-Yau compactifications. We interpret the differential forms of the n-dimensional complex toroidal compactification as states of n-qubits encoding information on extremal black hole charges. We show that there are 2^n copies of n-qubit systems which can be split as 2^n=2^{n-1}+2^{n-1}. More precisely, 2^{n-1} copies are associated with even D-brane charges in type IIA superstring and the other 2^{n-1} ones correspond to odd D-brane charges in IIB superstring. This correspondence is generalized to a class of Calabi-Yau manifolds. In connection with black hole charges in type IIA superstring, an n-qubit system has been obtained ...

  15. Matrix string theory, contact terms, and superstring field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Motl, Lubos

    2003-01-01

    In this note, we first explain the equivalence between the interaction Hamiltonian of Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge superstring field theory and the twist field formalism known from matrix string theory. We analyze the role of the large N limit in matrix string theory, in particular in relation with conformal perturbation theory around the orbifold SCFT that reproduces light-cone string perturbation theory. We show how the scaling with N is directly related to measures on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces. The scaling dimension 3 of the Mandelstam vertex as reproduced by the twist field interaction is in this way related to the dimension 3(h-1) of the moduli space. We analyze the structure and scaling of the higher order twist fields that represent the contact terms. We find one relevant twist field at each order. More generally, the structure of string field theory seems more transparent in the twist field formalism. Finally we also investigate the modifications necessary to describe the pp-wave backgrou...

  16. Exploring the invisible universe from black holes to superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Baaquie, Belal E

    2015-01-01

    "Why"? Why is the world, the Universe the way it is? Is space infinitely large? How small is small? What happens when one continues to divide matter into ever smaller pieces? Indeed, what is matter? Is there anything else besides what can be seen? Pursuing the questions employing the leading notions of physics, one soon finds that the tangible and visible world dissolves — rather unexpectedly — into invisible things and domains that are beyond direct perception. A remarkable feature of our Universe is that most of its constituents turn out to be invisible, and this fact is brought out with great force by this book. Exploring the Invisible Universe covers the gamut of topics in advanced modern physics and provides extensive and well substantiated answers to these questions and many more. Discussed in a non-technical, yet also non-trivial manner, are topics dominated by invisible things — such as Black Holes and Superstrings as well as Fields, Gravitation, the Standard Model, Cosmology, Relativity, the O...

  17. A New Metasurface Superstrate Structure for Antenna Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashed Iqbal Faruque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new metasurface superstrate structure (MSS-loaded dual band microstrip line-fed small patch antenna is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna was designed on a ceramic-filled bioplastic sandwich substrate with a high dielectric constant. The proposed 7 × 6 element, square-shaped, single-sided MSS significantly improved the bandwidth and gain of the proposed antenna. The proposed MSS incorporated a slotted patch antenna that effectively increased the measured operating bandwidth from 13.3% to 18.8% and from 14.8% to 23.2% in the lower and upper bands, respectively. Moreover, the average gain of the proposed MSS-based antenna was enhanced from 2.12 dBi to 3.02 dBi in the lower band and from 4.10 dBi to 5.28 dBi in the upper band compared to the patch antenna alone. In addition to the bandwidth and gain improvements, more directive radiation characteristics were also observed from the MSS antenna compared to the patch itself. The effects of the MSS elements and the ground plane length on the reflection coefficient of the antenna were analyzed and optimized. The overall performance makes the proposed antenna appropriate for RFID and WLAN applications.

  18. Calciumreleasing activity induced by nuclei of mouse fertilized early embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    At fertilization, repetitive transient rises of intracellular calcium concentration occur in all mammals studied so far. It has been shown that calcium rises could be induced when mouse fertilized 1-, 2-cell nuclei were transplanted into unfertilized eggs and that the reconstituted embryo could be activated. However, whether the capability of inducing calcium rises occurs in all stages of mammalian embryos remains unknown. In this study, by using the nuclear transplantation technique and measurement of intracellular calcium rises in living cells, we showed that only the nuclei from mouse fertilized 1-cell and 2-cell embryos, neither the nuclei from 4-, 8-cell and ethanol activated parthenogenetic embryos nor 2 or 3 nuclei of electrofused 4-cell stage syncytium, have calcium-releasing activity when they were transferred into unfertilized mature oocytes. Our results indicate that the calcium-releasing activity in nuclei of 1-, 2-cell embryos is produced during fertilization and exists at the special stage of fertilized early embryos. These suggested that the capacity of inducing calcium release activity in fertilized early embryos is important for normal embryonic development.

  19. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  20. Pulsed laser-induced formation of silica nanogrids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ihlemann, Jürgen; Weichenhain-Schriever, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    ... ) coating through the transparent substrate. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) superstrate (cover layer) coated on top of the SiO x film prior to laser exposure serves as confinement for controlled laser-induced structure formation...

  1. Relating Berkovits and $A_\\infty$ Superstring Field Theories; Large Hilbert Space Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    We lift the dynamical field of the $A_\\infty$ superstring field theory to the large Hilbert space by introducing a trivial gauge invariance associated with the eta zero mode. We then provide a field redefinition which relates to the lifted field to the dynamical field of Berkovits' superstring field theory in the large Hilbert space. This generalizes the field redefinition in the small Hilbert space described in earlier works, and is useful for understanding the relation between the gauge symmetries of the theories.

  2. Resonance in a superstrate-loaded cylindrical-rectangular microstrip structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin-Lu; Cheng, Yuan-Tung; Row, Jeen-Sheen

    1993-05-01

    The complex resonant frequencies of the cylindrical-rectangular microstrip structure loaded with a dielectric superstrate layer is studied by using a rigorous full-wave analysis and the numerical results are obtained by using the Galerkin's moment method calculation. The numerical convergence for the selected sinusoidal basis functions with and without the edge singularity condition is also discussed. Numerical results for the dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the complex resonant frequencies on the superstrate permittivity and thickness are calculated and analyzed, which are also compared with those obtained for the planar microstrip structure.

  3. Resonance of High Tc Superconducting Microstrip Patch in a Substrate-Superstrate Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benkouda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a protecting dielectric superstrate on the resonance of a high Tc superconducting microstrip patch is investigated. The analysis approach is based on the spectral-domain method of moments in conjunction with the complex resistive boundary condition. The complex surface impedance of the superconducting thin film is determined using London’s equation and the two-fluid model of Gorter and Casimir. Numerical results show that the resonant frequency of the high Tc superconducting rectangular patch decreases monotonically with increasing superstrate thickness, the decrease being greater for high permittivity loading.

  4. Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa Mixing in Superstring Derived Standard--like Models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Halyo, Edi

    1994-01-01

    We examine the problem of three generation quark flavor mixing in realistic, superstring derived standard--like models, constructed in the free fermionic formulation. We study the sources of family mixing in these models and discuss the necessary conditions to obtain a realistic Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix. In a specific model, we estimate the mixing angles and discuss the weak CP violating phase. We argue that the superstring standard--like models can produce a realistic CKM mixing matrix. We discuss the possible textures of quark mass matrices that may be obtained in these models.

  5. Contribution superstring Z' boson on the polarization effects in proton-proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Muradov, R K

    2004-01-01

    In this work we investigate the single- and the double- spin asymmetries at the collisions of polarized protons $pp \\to (\\gamma*, Z^0,Z')+X within the scope of QCD, electroweak interaction and superstring E_6 theory. The helicity amplitude method is used. Analytical expressions for the single- and the double- spin asymmetries are obtained and their dependence from the transverse momentum of lepton pair is investigated at the three different values of invariant masses of lepton pair. Has been extracted pure contribution coming from superstring Z' boson on the single- and double- spin asymmetries. The obtained results allow to investigate the spin structure of the proton.

  6. Ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, H; Arteel, G E; Rusyn, I; Sies, H; Thurman, R G

    2001-02-15

    Oxidants have been shown to be involved in alcohol-induced liver injury. Moreover, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazole-3(2H)-one (ebselen), an organoselenium compound and glutathione peroxidase mimic, decreases oxidative stress and protects against stroke clinically. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ebselen protects against early alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed high-fat liquid diets with or without ethanol (10-16 g/kg/d) continuously for up to 4 weeks using the intragastric enteral feeding protocol developed by Tsukamoto and French. Ebselen (50 mg/kg twice daily, intragastrically) or vehicle (1% tylose) was administered throughout the experiment. Mean urine ethanol concentrations were not significantly different between treatment groups, and ebselen did not affect body weight gains or cyclic patterns of ethanol concentrations in urine. After 4 weeks, serum ALT levels were increased significantly about 4-fold over control values (37 +/- 5 IU/l) by enteral ethanol (112 +/- 7 IU/l); ebselen blunted this increase significantly (61 +/- 8 IU/l). Enteral ethanol also caused severe fatty accumulation, mild inflammation, and necrosis in the liver (pathology score: 4.3 +/- 0.3). In contrast, these pathological changes were blunted significantly by ebselen (pathology score: 2.5 +/- 0.4). While there were no significant effects of either ethanol or ebselen on glutathione peroxidase activity in serum or liver tissue, ebselen blocked the increase in serum nitrate/nitrite caused by ethanol. Furthermore, ethanol increased the activity of NF-kappaB over 5-fold, the number of infiltrating neutrophils 4-fold, and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal over 5-fold. Ebselen blunted all of these effects significantly. These results indicate that ebselen prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury, most likely by preventing oxidative stress, which decreases inflammation.

  7. Functional analysis of chloroplast early light inducible proteins (ELIPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Carolyn M

    2005-02-22

    The objectives of this project were to characterize gene expression patterns of early light inducible protein (ELIP) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Lycopersicon esculentum, to identify knock mutants of the 2 ELIP genes in Arabidopsis, and to characterize the effects of the knockouts. Expression in Arabidopsis was studied in response to thylakoid electron transport chain (PETC) capacity, where it was found that there is a signal for expression associated with reduction of the PETC. Expression in response to salt was also studied, with different responses of the two gene copies. Knockout lines for ELIP1 and ELIP2 have been identified and are being characterized. In tomato, it was found that the single-copy ELIP gene is highly expressed in ripening fruit during the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition. Studies of expression in tomato ripening mutants are ongoing.

  8. D-branes from Pure Spinor Superstring in AdS_5 x S^5 Background

    CERN Document Server

    Hanazawa, Sota

    2016-01-01

    We examine the surface term for the BRST transformation of the open pure spinor superstring in an AdS_5 x S^5 background. We find that the boundary condition to eliminate the surface term leads to a classification of possible configurations of 1/2 supersymmetric D-branes.

  9. Parametrization of cosets for AdS5xS5 superstring action

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, W

    2015-01-01

    A formulation recently proposed [arXiv:1506.07706] as an alternative to the usual coset PSU(2,2|4)/USp(2,2)USp(4) for the superspace geometry of the Type IIB superstring on an AdS5xS5 background is shown to be a particular parametrization of this coset. Standard methods can then be applied.

  10. Superstring theories as low-energy limit of supergroup gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    We consider Yang-Mills theory with $N=2$ super translation group in $d=10$ auxiliary dimensions as the structure group. The gauge theory is defined on a direct product manifold $\\Sigma_2\\times H^2$, where $\\Sigma_2$ is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold and $H^2$ is the open disc in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ with the boundary $S^1=\\partial H^2$. We show that in the adiabatic limit, when the metric on $H^2$ is scaled down, the Yang-Mills action supplemented by the $d=5$ Chern-Simons term becomes the Green-Schwarz superstring action. More concretely, the Yang-Mills action in the infrared limit flows to the kinetic part of the superstring action and the $d=5$ Chern-Simons action, defined on a 5-manifold with the boundary $\\Sigma_2\\times H^2$, flows to the Wess-Zumino part of the superstring action. The same kind of duality between gauge fields and strings is established for type IIB superstring on AdS$_5\\times S^5$ background and a supergroup gauge theory with PSU(2,2$|$4) as the structure group.

  11. Jordanian deformations of the AdS5×S5 superstring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawaguchi, I.; Matsumoto, T.; Yoshida, K

    2014-01-01

    We consider Jordanian deformations of the AdS_5xS^5 superstring action. The deformations correspond to non-standard q-deformation. In particular, it is possible to perform partial deformations, for example, only for the S^5 part. Then the classical action and the Lax pair are constructed with a line

  12. Bound state transfer matrix for AdS5 × S5 superstring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunov, G.E.; de Leeuw, M.; Suzuki, R.; Torrielli, A.

    2009-01-01

    We apply the algebraic Bethe ansatz technique to compute the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix constructed from the general bound state S-matrix of the light-cone AdS5 × S5 superstring. This allows us to verify certain conjectures on the quantum characteristic function, and to extend them to the ge

  13. Yangian symmetry, S-Matrices and Bethe Ansats for the Ads5 x S5 superstring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the recently derived bound state S-matrices for the AdS5× S5 superstring and Yangian symmetry. We will study the relation between this Yangian symmetry and the Bethe ansatz. In particular we can use it to derive the Bethe equations for bound states.

  14. The S-matrix of the AdS5xS5 superstring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, M.

    2010-01-01

    According to the gauge-string duality conjecture, the spectrum of scaling dimensions of composite gauge invariant operators of the planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions should be equivalent to the energy spectrum of superstrings propagating in the AdS5 x S5 space-time,

  15. D-branes from pure spinor superstring in AdS5 × S5 background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazawa, Sota; Sakaguchi, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    We examine the surface term for the BRST transformation of the open pure spinor superstring in an AdS5 ×S5 background. We find that the boundary condition to eliminate the surface term leads to a classification of possible configurations of 1/2 supersymmetric D-branes.

  16. Inflation and cosmic (super)strings: implications of their intimate relation revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2013-01-01

    We briefly discuss constraints on supersymmetric hybrid inflation models and examine the consistency of brane inflation models. We then address the implications for inflationary scenarios resulting from the strong constraints on the cosmic (super)string tension imposed from the most recent cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies data.

  17. Naturally light neutrinos in the flipped SU(5)xU(1) superstring model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, I.; Rizos, J. (Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)); Tamvakis, K. (Physics Dept., Univ. Ioannina (Greece))

    1992-04-16

    We analyze the SU(5)xU(1)'xU(1){sup 4}xSO(10)xSU(4) superstring model, taking into account non-renormalizable superpotential interactions up to sixth order, and find that all neutrinos stay naturally light within the experimental mass bounds. (orig.).

  18. Cosmological and phenomenological implications of Wilsonian matter in realistic superstring derived models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1996-08-01

    Superstring phenomenology aims at achieving two goals. The first is to reproduce the observed physics of the Standard Model. The second is to identify experimental signatures of superstring unification which, if observed, will provide further evidence for the validity of superstring theory. I discuss such potential signatures of superstring unification. I propose that proton lifetime constraints imply that the Standard Model gauge group must be obtained directly at the string level. In this case the unifying gauge group, for example SO(10), is broken to the Standard Model gauge group by ``Wilson lines``. The symmetry breaking by ``Wilson line`` has important implications. It gives rise to exotic massless states which cannot fit into multiplets of the original unifying gauge group. This is an important feature because it results in conservation laws which forbid the interaction of the exotic ``Wilsonian`` states with the Standard Model states. The ``Wilsonian`` matter states then have important phenomenological implications. I discuss two such implications: exotic ``Wilsonian`` states as dark matter candidates and ``Wilsonian`` matter as the messenger sector in gauge mediated dynamical SUSY breaking scenarios.

  19. Flat Currents of Green-Schwarz Superstring in AdS2 × S2 Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    From the κ symmetric action of ⅡB string in AdS2 × S2 background given by Zhou, we derive the equations of motion. By using the twisted dual transformation which was introduced by Hou, we construct the flat currents, conserving non-local charge with one free parameter, for the superstring in AdS2 × S2.

  20. The Relation Between Finiteness and Unitarity in Superstring Theory — Froissart-Gribov Bounds and Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Simon

    2016-05-01

    The finiteness of the eikonal approximation to the superstring amplitude is related to unitarity bounds. The Froissart-Gribov bound is used to establish that only the soft pomeron can contribute at lower energies to the parton distribution. A model of the strongly coupled pomeron, consistent with the intercept of the Regge trajectory, is described.

  1. Association of early maternal hypertriglyceridemia with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandi, Anadeep; Sirohiwal, Daya; Malik, Roopa

    2015-11-01

    Hypertensive diseases are directly responsible for 24 % of maternal deaths in India. A screening method is yet to be discovered to reduce the morbidity and mortality related to it. Serum triglyceride (TG) levels are reported to increase in hypertensive pregnant women. To predict pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) by serum triglyceride values. This study is a prospective cohort study that was conducted over three hundred normotensive, primigravida women with singleton pregnancy at 14-20 weeks of gestation. These were divided into two groups on the basis of their TG concentration estimated at 14-20 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was then followed till delivery and, signs and symptoms of PIH were noted in both the groups. Out of 300 women, 210 women completed the study. Fifty-nine women developed PIH and 151 women remained normotensive. Among 59 women, 45 women had raised TG values i.e., ≥160 mg/dL and 14 women were with normal TG levels i.e., hypertriglyceridemia were found to be at higher risk of developing early-onset PIH. Our study supports the evidence that early pregnancy hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an increased risk of PIH.

  2. Early stages of irradiation induced dislocations in urania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, A.; Onofri, C.; Van Brutzel, L.; Sabathier, C.; Dorosh, O.; Jagielski, J.

    2016-10-01

    The early stages of nucleation and growth of dislocations by irradiation in urania is clarified based on the combination of experiments and atomistic calculations. It is established that irradiation induced dislocations follow a five stage process: (i) point defects are first created by irradiation, (ii) they aggregate into clusters, (iii) from which nucleate Frank loops, (iv) which transform into unfaulted loops via Shockley that in turn grow, and (v) finally reorganize into forest dislocations. Stages (i)-(iii) participate in the lattice expansion while the onset of lattice contraction starts with stage (iv), i.e., when unfaulted loops nucleate. Irradiation induced dislocations operate in the spontaneous recombination regime, to be opposed to the thermal diffusion regime. Body of arguments collaborates to this statement, the main one is the comparison between characteristic distances estimated from the dose rate (Vat/(K0×τ ) ) 1/3 and from the diffusion coefficient (D×τ ) 1/2 . Such a comparison identifies materials under irradiation as belonging either into the recombination regime or not.

  3. Metformin inhibits early stage diethylnitrosamine‑induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Woori; Yu, Eun-Sil; Chang, Minsun; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Hyun-Ji; Ryu, Jae-Eun; Jang, Sungwoong; Lee, Hyo-Ju; Jang, Ja-June; Son, Woo-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Antitumor effects of metformin have recently emerged despite its original use for type II diabetes. In the present study, the effects of metformin on the development and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated using the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)‑induced rat model of HCC. Tumor foci were characterized by gross examination and by histopathological characteristics, including proliferation, hepatic progenitor cell content and the expression of hepatocarcinoma‑specific molecular markers. Potential target molecules of metformin were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of metformin on chemically induced liver tumorigenesis. The antitumor effects of metformin were increased by the reduction of surface nodules and decreased the incidence of altered hepatocellular foci, hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. Also, decreased expression levels of glutathione S‑transferase placental form, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytokeratin 8 described the inhibitory effects of metformin on HCC. In the present study, Wistar rats receiving treatment with DEN were administered metformin for 16 weeks. In addition, metformin suppressed liver tumorigenesis via an AMPK‑dependent pathway. These results suggested that metformin has promising effects on the early stage of HCC in rats. Therefore, metformin may be used for the prevention of HCC recurrence following primary chemotherapy for HCC and/or for high‑risk patients, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

  4. String Theory Volume 1: An Introduction to the Bosonic String and Volume 2: Superstring Theory and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlip, S [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-10-21

    The early 1980s, when I first learned theory, were desperate times for graduate students. We searched frantically for coherent introductions, passing tattered copies of review articles around like samizdat, struggling over obscure references to ancient models of strong interactions, and flocking to lectures-not least those by Joe Polchinski-that promised to really explain what was going on. If only this book had been around, it would have saved much grief. Volume I, The Bosonic String, offers a clear and well organized introduction to bosonic string theory. Topics range from the 'classical' (spectra, vertex operators, consistency conditions, etc.) to the 'modern' (D-branes first appear in an exercise at the end of chapter 1, noncommutative geometry shows up in chapter 8). Polchinski does not hesitate to discuss sophisticated matters-path integral measures, BRST symmetries, etc.-but his approach is pedagogical, and his writing is lucid, if sometimes a bit terse. Chapters end with problems that are sometimes difficult but never impossible. A very useful annotated bibliography directs readers to resources for further study, and a nearly 30-page glossary provides short but clear definitions of key terms. There is much here that will appeal to relativists. Polchinski uses the covariant Polyakov path integral approach to quantization from early on; he clearly distinguishes Weyl invariance from conformal invariance; he is appropriately careful about using complex coordinates on topologically nontrivial manifolds; he keeps the string world sheet metric explicit at the start instead of immediately hiding it by a gauge choice. Volume II includes an elegant introduction to anticommuting coordinates and superconformal transformations. A few conventions may cause confusion-%, Polchinski's stress-energy tensor, for instance, differs from the standard general relativistic definition by a factor of -2{pi}, and while this is briefly mentioned in the text

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopic detection of early injury-induced atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Alexandra; Perk, Masis; Wen, Yue; Smith, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Angioplasty balloon-mediated injury was examined spectroscopically in order to assess the sensitivity of fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of early atherosclerosis. Abdominal aortic balloon angioplasty was performed via femoral artery cutdown in nine White Leghorn roosters (five normal, four atherogenic diet). Roosters were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 week intervals. Fluorescence emission spectra (n equals 114) were recorded from each aortic section (XeCl excimer laser, 308 nm, 1.5 - 2.0 mJ/pulse, 5 Hz). Changes in normalized fluorescence emission intensity were correlated with selected sections of histology. All balloon-injured segments showed intimal fibrous proliferation. For intimal thickness measuring > 70 (mu) , fluorescence emission intensity was decreased at 440 - 460 nm (p Lesions complicated by thrombus also had lower fluorescence emission at 425 - 450 nm when compared to histologically normal aorta (p muscular (abdominal) aorta (p muscular abdominal aorta.

  6. Radiation-induced bystander effect: early process and rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Yu, K N; Hou, Jue; Liu, Qian; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is a biological process that has received attention over the past two decades. RIBE refers to a plethora of biological effects in non-irradiated cells, including induction of genetic damages, gene expression, cell transformation, proliferation and cell death, which are initiated by receiving bystander signals released from irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk from low-dose radiation than we previously thought. Detection with proteins related to DNA damage and repair, cell cycle control, proliferation, etc. have enabled rapid assessment of RIBE in a number of research systems such as cultured cells, three-dimensional tissue models and animal models. Accumulated experimental data have suggested that RIBE may be initiated rapidly within a time frame as short as several minutes after radiation. These have led to the requirement of techniques capable of rapidly assessing RIBE itself as well as assessing the early processes involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Real analytic solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Yuji

    2007-09-01

    We construct analytic solutions for marginal deformations satisfying the reality condition in open superstring field theory formulated by Berkovits when operator products made of the marginal operator and the associated superconformal primary field are regular. Our strategy is based on the recent observation by Erler that the problem of finding solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory can be reduced to a problem in the bosonic theory of finding a finite gauge parameter for a certain pure-gauge configuration labeled by the parameter of the marginal deformation. We find a gauge transformation generated by a real gauge parameter which infinitesimally changes the deformation parameter and construct a finite gauge parameter by its path-ordered exponential. The resulting solution satisfies the reality condition by construction.

  8. Real analytic solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Okawa, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    We construct analytic solutions for marginal deformations satisfying the reality condition in open superstring field theory formulated by Berkovits when operator products made of the marginal operator and the associated superconformal primary field are regular. Our strategy is based on the recent observation by Erler that the problem of finding solutions for marginal deformations in open superstring field theory can be reduced to a problem in the bosonic theory of finding a finite gauge parameter for a certain pure-gauge configuration labeled by the parameter of the marginal deformation. We find a gauge transformation generated by a real gauge parameter which infinitesimally changes the deformation parameter and construct a finite gauge parameter by its path-ordered exponential. The resulting solution satisfies the reality condition by construction.

  9. T-dualization of type IIB superstring theory in double space

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolić, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    In this article we offer the new interpretation of T-dualization procedure of type IIB superstring theory in double space framework. We use the ghost free action of type IIB superstring in pure spinor formulation in approximation of constant background fields up to the quadratic terms. T-dualization along any subset of the initial coordinates, $x^a$, is equivalent to the permutation of this subset with subset of the corresponding T-dual coordinates, $y_a$, in double space coordinate $Z^M=(x^\\mu,y_\\mu)$. Demanding that the T-dual transformation law after exchange $x^a\\leftrightarrow y_a$ has the same form as initial one, we obtain the T-dual NS-NS and NS-R background fields. The T-dual R-R field strength is determined up to one arbitrary constant under some assumptions.

  10. Free Differential Algebras and Pure Spinor Action in IIB Superstring Sigma Models

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we extend to the case of IIB superstring sigma models the method proposed in hep-th/10023500 to derive the pure spinor approach for type IIA sigma models. In particular, starting from the (Free) Differential Algebra and superspace parametrization of type IIB supergravity, extended to include the BRST differential and all the ghosts, we derive the BRST transformations of fields and ghosts as well as the standard pure spinor constraints for the ghosts $\\lambda $ related to supersymmetry. Moreover, using the method first proposed by us, we derive the pure spinor action for type IIB superstrings in curved supergravity backgrounds (on shell), in full agreement with the action first obtained by Berkovits and Howe.

  11. Free differential algebras and pure spinor action in IIB superstring sigma models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ichiro; Tonin, Mario

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we extend to the case of IIB superstring sigma models the method proposed in hep-th/10023500 to derive the pure spinor approach for type IIA sigma models. In particular, starting from the (Free) Differential Algebra and superspace parametrization of type IIB supergravity, extended to include the BRST differential and all the ghosts, we derive the BRST transformations of fields and ghosts as well as the standard pure spinor constraints for the ghosts λ related to supersymmetry. Moreover, using the method first proposed by us, we derive the pure spinor action for type IIB superstrings in curved supergravity backgrounds (on shell), in full agreement with the action first obtained by Berkovits and Howe.

  12. A large class of new gravitational and axionic backgrounds for four-dimensional superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, Elias B; Lüst, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    A large class of new 4-D superstring vacua with non-trivial/singular geometries, spacetime supersymmetry and other background fields (axion, dilaton) are found. Killing symmetries are generic and are associated with non-trivial dilaton and antisymmetric tensor fields. Duality symmetries preserving N=2 superconformal invariance are employed to generate a large class of explicit metrics for non-compact 4-D Calabi-Yau manifolds with Killing symmetries.

  13. Quantum Consistency of the Superstring in AdS_5 x S^5 Background

    CERN Document Server

    Berkovits, N

    2005-01-01

    Using arguments based on BRST cohomology, the pure spinor formalism for the superstring in an AdS_5 x S^5 background is proven to be BRST invariant and conformally invariant at the quantum level to all orders in perturbation theory. Cohomology arguments are also used to prove the existence of an infinite set of non-local BRST-invariant charges at the quantum level.

  14. A L-Band Superstrate Lens Enhanced Antenna and Array for Tactical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific,Advanced Integrated Circuits Technology...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The design of a 1.2 GHz microstrip antenna utilizing a superstrate layer for gain enhancement is...David Hooper3 Spawar Systems Center Pacific 1Advanced Integrated Circuits Technology 2Tactical Edge Wireless Networks 3Unmanned Systems San Diego

  15. An O(D,D) Invariant Hamiltonian Action for the Superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Chris D A; Routh, Alasdair J

    2013-01-01

    We construct O(D,D) invariant actions for the bosonic string and RNS superstring, using Hamiltonian methods and ideas from double field theory. In this framework the doubled coordinates of double field theory appear as coordinates on phase space and T-duality becomes a canonical transformation. Requiring the algebra of constraints to close leads to the section condition, which splits the phase space coordinates into spacetime coordinates and momenta.

  16. A singular one-parameter family of solutions in cubic superstring field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, E. Aldo

    2016-05-01

    Performing a gauge transformation of a simple identity-like solution of superstring field theory, we construct a one-parameter family of solutions, and by evaluating the energy associated to this family, we show that for most of the values of the parameter the solution represents the tachyon vacuum, except for two isolated singular points where the solution becomes the perturbative vacuum and the half brane solution.

  17. The Big Bang, Superstring Theory and the origin of life on the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T

    2006-03-01

    This article examines the origin of life on Earth and its connection to the Superstring Theory, that attempts to explain all phenomena in the universe (Theory of Everything) and unify the four known forces and relativity and quantum theory. The four forces of gravity, electro-magnetism, strong and weak nuclear were all present and necessary for the origin of life on the Earth. It was the separation of the unified force into four singular forces that allowed the origin of life.

  18. The modification of the energy spectrum of charged particles by exotic open 4-smoothness via superstring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten; Król, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a model where the modified Landau-like levels of charged particles in a magnetic field are determined due to the modified smoothness of $\\mathbb{R}^{4}$ as underlying structure of the Minkowski spacetime. Then the standard smoothness of $\\mathbb{R}^{4}$ is shifted to the exotic $\\mathbb{R}_{k}^{4}$, $k=2p$, $p=1,2...$. This is achieved by superstring theory using gravitational backreaction induced from a strong, almost constant magnetic field on standard $\\mathbb{R}^{4}$. The exact string background containing flat $\\mathbb{R}^{4}$ is replaced consistently by the curved geometry of $SU(2)_{k}\\times\\mathbb{R}$ as part of the modified exact backgrounds. This corresponds to the change of smoothness on $\\mathbb{R}^{4}$ from the standard $\\mathbb{R}^{4}$ to some exotic $\\mathbb{R}_{k}^{4}$. The calculations of the spectra are using the CFT marginal deformations and Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) models. The marginal deformations capture the effects of the magnetic field as well as its gravitatio...

  19. Inflammation-induced microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Fu, Zhuo; Wu, Jing; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and vascular insulin resistance usually coexist and chronic inflammation engenders both. In the present study, we investigate the temporal relationship between vascular insulin resistance and metabolic insulin resistance. We assessed insulin responses in all arterial segments, including aorta, distal saphenous artery and the microvasculature, as well as the metabolic insulin responses in muscle in rats fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) for various durations ranging from 3 days to 4 weeks with or without sodium salicylate treatment. Compared with controls, HFD feeding significantly blunted insulin-mediated Akt (protein kinase B) and eNOS [endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase] phosphorylation in aorta in 1 week, blunted vasodilatory response in small resistance vessel in 4 weeks and microvascular recruitment in as early as 3 days. Insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal did not begin to progressively decrease until after 1 week. Salicylate treatment fully inhibited vascular inflammation, prevented microvascular insulin resistance and significantly improved muscle metabolic responses to insulin. We conclude that microvascular insulin resistance is an early event in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance and inflammation plays an essential role in this process. Our data suggest microvascular insulin resistance contributes to the development of metabolic insulin resistance in muscle and muscle microvasculature is a potential therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its related complications. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. Investigation of Early Plasma Evolution Induced by Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wenqian; Shin, Yung C.; King, Galen B.

    2012-01-01

    Early plasma is generated owing to high intensity laser irradiation of target and the subsequent target material ionization. Its dynamics plays a significant role in laser-material interaction, especially in the air environment1-11. Early plasma evolution has been captured through pump-probe shadowgraphy1-3 and interferometry1,4-7. However, the studied time frames and applied laser parameter ranges are limited. For example, direct examinations of plasma front locations and electron number den...

  1. Investigation of Early Plasma Evolution Induced by Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqian; Shin, Yung C.; King, Galen B.

    2012-01-01

    Early plasma is generated owing to high intensity laser irradiation of target and the subsequent target material ionization. Its dynamics plays a significant role in laser-material interaction, especially in the air environment1-11. Early plasma evolution has been captured through pump-probe shadowgraphy1-3 and interferometry1,4-7. However, the studied time frames and applied laser parameter ranges are limited. For example, direct examinations of plasma front locations and electron number densities within a delay time of 100 picosecond (ps) with respect to the laser pulse peak are still very few, especially for the ultrashort pulse of a duration around 100 femtosecond (fs) and a low power density around 1014 W/cm2. Early plasma generated under these conditions has only been captured recently with high temporal and spatial resolutions12. The detailed setup strategy and procedures of this high precision measurement will be illustrated in this paper. The rationale of the measurement is optical pump-probe shadowgraphy: one ultrashort laser pulse is split to a pump pulse and a probe pulse, while the delay time between them can be adjusted by changing their beam path lengths. The pump pulse ablates the target and generates the early plasma, and the probe pulse propagates through the plasma region and detects the non-uniformity of electron number density. In addition, animations are generated using the calculated results from the simulation model of Ref. 12 to illustrate the plasma formation and evolution with a very high resolution (0.04 ~ 1 ps). Both the experimental method and the simulation method can be applied to a broad range of time frames and laser parameters. These methods can be used to examine the early plasma generated not only from metals, but also from semiconductors and insulators. PMID:22806170

  2. Helicobacter pylori Antigens Inducing Early Immune Response in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Hyun; Youn, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Eun A; Jun, Jin Su; Park, Ji Sook; Yeom, Jung Sook; Lim, Jae Young; Woo, Hyang Ok; Youn, Hee Shang; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Park, Jin Sik; Baik, Seung Chul; Lee, Woo Kon; Cho, Myung Je; Rhee, Kwang Ho

    2017-07-01

    To identify the Helicobacter pylori antigens operating during early infection in sera from infected infants using proteomics and immunoblot analysis. Two-dimensional (2D) large and small gel electrophoresis was performed using H. pylori strain 51. We performed 2D immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody immunoblotting using small gels on sera collected at the Gyeongsang National University Hospital from 4-11-month-old infants confirmed with H. pylori infection by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoblot spots appearing to represent early infection markers in infant sera were compared to those of the large 2D gel for H. pylori strain 51. Corresponding spots were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The peptide fingerprints obtained were searched in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Eight infant patients were confirmed with H. pylori infection based on urease tests, histopathologic examinations, and pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. One infant showed a 2D IgM immunoblot pattern that seemed to represent early infection. Immunoblot spots were compared with those from whole-cell extracts of H. pylori strain 51 and 18 spots were excised, digested in gel, and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Of the 10 peptide fingerprints obtained, the H. pylori proteins flagellin A (FlaA), urease β subunit (UreB), pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), and translation elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts) were identified and appeared to be active during the early infection periods. These results might aid identification of serological markers for the serodiagnosis of early H. pylori infection in infants. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  3. Foundations of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring: I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, Gleb [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Frolov, Sergey [Hamilton Mathematics Institute and School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)], E-mail: G.E.Arutyunov@uu.nl, E-mail: frolovs@maths.tcd.ie

    2009-06-26

    We review the recent advances towards finding the spectrum of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring. We thoroughly explain the theoretical techniques which should be useful for the ultimate solution of the spectral problem. In certain cases our exposition is original and cannot be found in the existing literature. The present part I deals with foundations of classical string theory in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}, light-cone perturbative quantization and the derivation of the exact light-cone world-sheet scattering matrix.

  4. Jordanian deformations of the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Io [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takuya [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3854 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Yoshida, Kentaroh [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-04-28

    We consider Jordanian deformations of the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring action. These deformations correspond to non-standard q-deformations. In particular, it is possible to perform a partial deformation, for example, of the AdS{sub 5} part only, or of the S{sup 5} part only. Then the classical action and the Lax pair are constructed with a linear, twisted and extended R operator. It is shown that the action preserves the κ-symmetry.

  5. Generating Erler-Schnabl-type Solution for Tachyon Vacuum in Cubic Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arroyo, E Aldo

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a new class of identity-based solutions in open bosonic string field theory and cubic superstring field theory. Even though these solutions seem to be trivial, it turns out that after performing a suitable gauge transformation, we are left with the known Erler-Schnabl-type solutions which correctly reproduce the value for the D-brane tension. This important result shows explicitly that how a seemingly trivial solution can generate a non-trivial configuration which precisely represents the tachyon vacuum.

  6. Generating Erler-Schnabl-type solution for the tachyon vacuum in cubic superstring field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldo Arroyo, E.

    2010-11-01

    We study a new set of identity-based solutions to analyze the problem of tachyon condensation in open bosonic string field theory and cubic superstring field theory. Even though these identity-based solutions seem to be trivial, it turns out that after performing a suitable gauge transformation, we are left with the known Erler-Schnabl-type solutions which correctly reproduce the value of the D-brane tension. This result shows explicitly that a seemingly trivial solution can generate a non-trivial configuration which precisely represents the tachyon vacuum.

  7. Analytic Solution for Tachyon Condensation in Berkovits' Open Superstring Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    We present an analytic solution for tachyon condensation on a non-BPS D-brane in Berkovits' open superstring field theory. The solution is presented as a product of $2\\times 2$ matrices in two distinct $GL_2$ subgroups of the open string star algebra. All string fields needed for for computation of the nonpolynomial action can be derived in closed form, and the action produces the expected non-BPS D-brane tension in accordance with Sen's conjecture. We also comment on how D-brane charges may be encoded in the topology of the tachyon vacuum gauge orbit.

  8. The ''landscape'' of Pati-Salam heterotic superstring vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizos, J. [Theory Division, Physics Department, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The main aspects of a recently developed method for classification of heterotic superstring vacua in the Free Fermionic Formulation are presented. Using these techniques we classify a big number of approximately 10{sup 15} heterotic string vacua with Pati-Salam, SU(4) x SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} gauge symmetry with respect to their main phenomenological features as the number of families, Pati-Salam breaking Higgs, Standard Model Higgs doublets, additional triplets and exotic charge states. We identify an interesting subclass of these vacua, approximately one to one million, whose massless spectrum is completely free of fractionally charge states. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Early ripening mutants induced by colchicine in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIGuohai; YANWanchao; CAOXin

    1993-01-01

    In 1981-1983, the frequency and range of the mutants induced by colchicine were investigated in M2 and M3 of two indica-rice cultivars.Seedlings of M2 and M3 were treated with 0.05% colchicine solution at 4-5 leaf stage.

  10. Early neutrophil alveolitis after rechallenge in drug induced alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmeron, S; Brochard, L; Rain, B; Herve, P; Brenot, F; Simonneau, G; Duroux, P

    1988-01-01

    A patient with drug induced alveolitis due to an antidepressant drug, nomifensine, is described. After an inadvertent rechallenge by the patient sequential bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out. Twenty four hours after the rechallenge the lavage fluid contained a high cell count with neutrophils predominating. Seven days after challenge the cells were predominantly lymphocytes. PMID:3175978

  11. S -matrix algebra of the AdS2×S2 superstring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Ben; Pittelli, Antonio; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we find the Yangian algebra responsible for the integrability of the AdS2×S2×T6 superstring in the planar limit. We demonstrate the symmetry of the corresponding exact S matrix in the massive sector, including the presence of the secret symmetry. We give two alternative presentations of the Hopf algebra. The first takes the usual canonical form, which, as the relevant representations are long, leads to a Yangian representation that is not of evaluation type. After investigating the relationship between cocommutativity, evaluation representations and the shortening condition, we find an alternative realization of the Yangian whose representation is of the evaluation type. Finally, we explore two limits of the S matrix. The first is the classical r matrix, where we rediscover the need for a secret symmetry also in this context. The second is the simplifying zero-coupling limit. In this limit, taking the S matrix as a generating R matrix for the algebraic Bethe ansatz, we obtain an effective model of free fermions on a periodic spin-chain. This limit should provide hints to the one-loop anomalous dimension of the mysterious superconformal quantum mechanics dual to the superstring theory in this geometry.

  12. Comparison of Minority Carrier Lifetime Measurements in Superstrate and Substrate CdTe PV Devices: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessert, T. A.; Dhere, R. G.; Duenow, J. N.; Kuciauskas, D.; Kanevce, A.; Bergeson, J. D.

    2011-07-01

    We discuss typical and alternative procedures to analyze time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements of minority carrier lifetime (MCL) with the hope of enhancing our understanding of how this technique may be used to better analyze CdTe photovoltaic (PV) device functionality. Historically, TRPL measurements of the fast recombination rate (t1) have provided insightful correlation with broad device functionality. However, we have more recently found that t1 does not correlate as well with smaller changes in device performance, nor does it correlate well with performance differences observed between superstrate and substrate CdTe PV devices. This study presents TRPL data for both superstrate and substrate CdTe devices where both t1 and the slower TRPL decay (t2) are analyzed. The study shows that changes in performance expected from small changes in device processing may correlate better with t2. Numerical modeling further suggests that, for devices that are expected to have similar drift field in the depletion region, effects of changes in bulk MCL and interface recombination should be more pronounced in t2. Although this technique may provide future guidance to improving CdS/CdTe device performance, it is often difficult to extract statistically precise values for t2, and therefore t2 data may demonstrate significant scatter when correlated with performance parameters.

  13. Superstring Holography And Integrability In Anti-de Sitter(5) By Supersymmetry(5)

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, I

    2005-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence provides a rich testing ground for many important topics in theoretical physics. The earliest and most striking example of the correspondence is the conjectured duality between the energy spectrum of type IIB superstring theory on AdS5 × S5 and the operator anomalous dimensions of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. While there is a substantial amount of evidence in support of this conjecture, direct tests have been elusive. The difficulty of quantizing superstring theory in a curved Ramond-Ramond background is compounded by the problem of computing anomalous dimensions for non-BPS operators in the strongly coupled regime of the gauge theory. The former problem can be circumvented to some extent by taking a Penrose limit of AdS5 × S5, reducing the background to that of a pp-wave (where the string theory is soluble). A corresponding limit of the gauge theory was discovered by Berenstein, Maldacena and Nastase, who obtained successful ag...

  14. Complete N-point superstring disk amplitude I. Pure spinor computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafra, Carlos R., E-mail: crmafra@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Schlotterer, Oliver, E-mail: olivers@mppmu.mpg.de [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Stieberger, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.stieberger@mpp.mpg.de [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany)

    2013-08-21

    In this paper the pure spinor formalism is used to obtain a compact expression for the superstring N-point disk amplitude. The color-ordered string amplitude is given by a sum over (N−3)! super-Yang–Mills subamplitudes multiplied by multiple Gaussian hypergeometric functions. In order to obtain this result, the cohomology structure of the pure spinor superspace is exploited to generalize the Berends–Giele method of computing super-Yang–Mills amplitudes. The method was briefly presented in Mafra et al. (2011) [1], and this paper elaborates on the details and contains higher-rank examples of building blocks and associated cohomology objects. But the main achievement of this work is to identify these field-theory structures in the pure spinor computation of the superstring amplitude. In particular, the associated set of basis worldsheet integrals is constructively obtained here and thoroughly investigated together with the structure and properties of the amplitude in Mafra et al. (2011) [2], (arXiv:1106.2646 [hep-th])

  15. Non-Abelian vortex in four dimensions as a critical superstring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, M.; Yung, A.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in describing a certain non-Abelian vortex string as a critical superstring on a conifold and clarify some subtle points. This particular solitonic vortex is supported in four-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric QCD with the U(2) gauge group, N f = 4 quark flavors and the Fayet-Iliopoulos term. Under certain conditions the non-Abelian vortex can become infinitely thin and can be interpreted as a critical ten-dimensional superstring. In addition to four translational moduli the non-Abelian vortex under consideration carries six orientational and size moduli. The vortex moduli dynamics are described by a twodimensional sigma model with the target space R4 × Y 6 where Y 6 is a non-compact Calabi-Yau conifold. The closed string states which emerge in four dimensions (4D) are identified with hadrons of 4D bulk N = 2 QCD. It turns out that most of the states arising from the ten-dimensional graviton spectrum are non-dynamical in 4D. A single dynamical massless hypermultiplet associated with the deformation of the complex structure of the conifold is found. It is interpreted as a monopole-monopole baryon of the 4D theory (at strong coupling).

  16. On integrable deformations of superstring sigma models related to AdSn×Sn supercosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hoare

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider two integrable deformations of 2d sigma models on supercosets associated with AdSn×Sn. The first, the “η-deformation” (based on the Yang–Baxter sigma model, is a one-parameter generalization of the standard superstring action on AdSn×Sn, while the second, the “λ-deformation” (based on the deformed gauged WZW model, is a generalization of the non-abelian T-dual of the AdSn×Sn superstring. We show that the η-deformed model may be obtained from the λ-deformed one by a special scaling limit and analytic continuation in coordinates combined with a particular identification of the parameters of the two models. The relation between the couplings and deformation parameters is consistent with the interpretation of the first model as a real quantum deformation and the second as a root of unity quantum deformation. For the AdS2×S2 case we then explore the effect of this limit on the supergravity background associated with the λ-deformed model. We also suggest that the two models may form a dual Poisson–Lie pair and provide direct evidence for this in the case of the integrable deformations of the coset associated with S2.

  17. Kappa-symmetry of superstring sigma model and generalized 10d supergravity equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wulff, L

    2016-01-01

    We determine the constraints imposed on the 10d target superspace geometry by the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of the Green-Schwarz superstring. In the type I case we find that the background must satisfy a generalization of type I supergravity equations. These equations depend on an arbitrary vector X_a and imply the one-loop scale invariance of the GS sigma model. In the special case when X_a is the gradient of a scalar \\phi (dilaton) one recovers the standard type I equations equivalent to the 2d Weyl invariance conditions of the superstring sigma model. In the type II case we find a generalized version of the 10d supergravity equations the bosonic part of which was introduced in arXiv:1511.05795. These equations depend on two vectors \\X_a and K_a subject to 1st order differential relations (with the equations in the NS-NS sector depending only on the combination X_a = \\X_a + K_a). In the special case of K_a=0 one finds that \\X_a=\\d_a \\phi and thus obtains the standard type II supergravity equat...

  18. Moduli Space of IIB Superstring and SUYM in AdS5 × S5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. In part Ⅰ, we interpret the hidden symmetry of the moduli space of IIB superstring on AdS5 × S5 in terms of the chiral embedding in AdS5, which turns out to be the CP3 conformal affine Toda model. We review how the position μ of poles in the Riemann-Hilbert formulation of dressing transformation and the value of loop parameter μ in the vertex operator of affine algebra determine the moduli space of the soliton solutions, which describes the moduli space of the Green-Schwarz superstring. We show also how this affine SU(4) symmetry affinizes the con formal symmetry in the twistor space, and how a soliton string corresponds to a Robinson congruence with twist and dilation spin coefficients μ of twistor. In part H, by extending the dressing symmetric action of IIB string in AdS5 × S5 to the Da brane, we find a gauged WZW action of Higgs Yang-Mills field including the 2-cocycle of axially anomaly. The left and right twistor structures of left and right α-planes glue into an ambitwistor. The symmetry group of Nahm equations is centrally extended to an affine group, thus we explain why the spectral curve is given by affine Toda.

  19. Silica nanoparticles on front glass for efficiency enhancement in superstrate-type amorphous silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sonali; Banerjee, Chandan; Kundu, Avra; Dey, Prasenjit; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K.

    2013-10-01

    Antireflective coating on front glass of superstrate-type single junction amorphous silicon solar cells (SCs) has been applied using highly monodispersed and stable silica nanoparticles (NPs). The silica NPs having 300 nm diameter were synthesized by Stober technique where the size of the NPs was controlled by varying the alcohol medium. The synthesized silica NPs were analysed by dynamic light scattering technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The NPs were spin coated on glass side of fluorinated tin oxide (SnO2: F) coated glass superstrate and optimization of the concentration of the colloidal solution, spin speed and number of coated layers was done to achieve minimum reflection characteristics. An estimation of the distribution of the NPs for different optimization parameters has been done using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the transparent conducting oxide coated glass with the layer having the minimum reflectance is used for fabrication of amorphous silicon SC. Electrical analysis of the fabricated cell indicates an improvement of 6.5% in short-circuit current density from a reference of 12.40 mA cm-2 while the open circuit voltage and the fill factor remains unaltered. A realistic optical model has also been proposed to gain an insight into the system.

  20. Non-Abelian Vortex in Four Dimensions as a Critical Superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Shifman, M

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in describing a certain non-Abelian vortex string as a critical superstring on a conifold and clarify some subtle points. This particular solitonic vortex is supported in four-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric QCD with the U(2) gauge group, N_f=4 quark flavors and the Fayet-Iliopoulos term. Under certain conditions the non-Abelian vortex can become infinitely thin and can be interpreted as a critical ten-dimensional superstring. In addition to four translational moduli the non-Abelian vortex under consideration carries six orientational and size moduli. The vortex moduli dynamics are described by a two-dimensional sigma model with the target space {R}^4\\times Y_6 where Y_6 is a non-compact Calabi-Yau conifold. The closed string states which emerge in four dimensions (4D) are identified with hadrons of 4D bulk N=2 QCD. It turns out that most of the states arising from the ten-dimensional graviton spectrum are non-dynamical in 4D. A single dynamical massless hypermultiplet associated wit...

  1. Textile dyes induce toxicity on zebrafish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Teixidó, Elisabet; Porredón, Constança; Borràs, Miquel; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2016-02-01

    Textile manufacturing is one of the most polluting industrial sectors because of the release of potentially toxic compounds, such as synthetic dyes, into the environment. Depending on the class of the dyes, their loss in wastewaters can range from 2% to 50% of the original dye concentration. Consequently, uncontrolled use of such dyes can negatively affect human health and the ecological balance. The present study assessed the toxicity of the textile dyes Direct Black 38 (DB38), Reactive Blue 15 (RB15), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Vat Green 3 (VG3) using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos for 144 h postfertilization (hpf). At the tested conditions, none of the dyes caused significant mortality. The highest RO16 dose significantly delayed or inhibited the ability of zebrafish embryos to hatch from the chorion after 96 hpf. From 120 hpf to 144 hpf, all the dyes impaired the gas bladder inflation of zebrafish larvae, DB38 also induced curved tail, and VG3 led to yolk sac edema in zebrafish larvae. Based on these data, DB38, RB15, RO16, and VG3 can induce malformations during embryonic and larval development of zebrafish. Therefore, it is essential to remove these compounds from wastewater or reduce their concentrations to safe levels before discharging textile industry effluents into the aquatic environment.

  2. A generalization of the Lax pair for the pure spinor superstring in AdS5 x S5

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We show that the Lax pair of the pure spinor superstring in AdS5xS5 admits a generalization where the generators of the superconformal algebra are replaced by the generators of some infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra.

  3. The Wheeler-Dewitt Equation for the Heterotic Superstring Theory Including Terms Quartic in the Riemann Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M. D.

    The Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the wave function of the Universe Ψ can be derived for the heterotic superstring, after reduction of the effective action, including terms hat { R}4 quartic in the Riemann tensor, from ten dimensions to { D} = M+1 dimensions, where { D} Feynman path-integral formulation of Ψ.

  4. Early Universe Dynamos from Neutrino Oscillations Induced by Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Earlier de Sabbata and Gasperini have shown that neutrinos oscillation which gives them a mass can be induced by torsion. More recently Enqvist et al have shown that it is possible to use massive neutrinos BBN magnetic fields to seed galactic magnetic fields. Thus based on these previous investigations we present several examples of how obtaining cosmological magnetic seed fields as galactic magnetic fields from massive neutrino densities and also from the torsion obtained by Nitsch as $T\\approx{10^{-24}s^{-1}}$ at the present day which yields magnetic seed field of the order of $B_{seed}\\approx{10^{-12}G}$. In the case we use torsion derived from massive neutrinos given by $T_{\

  5. Pesticide-induced scleroderma and early intensive immunosuppressive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozeri, Betul; Gulez, Nesrin; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Akalın, Taner; Kandiloglu, Gulsen

    2012-01-01

    The authors report 2 children with generalized cutaneous sclerosis exposed to pesticides containing malathion and diniconazole. Treatment with immunosuppressives resulted in partial improvement in the cutaneous signs, particularly over the face, trunk, and proximal limbs. The considerable exposure to chemicals related with the initiation of symptoms and absence of organ involvement suggested a diagnosis of chemically induced scleroderma-like disorder. Although autoantibodies were negative, previously reported relevant associations of anti-kinetochore and anti-topoisomerase function of active ingredients-diniconazole and phosphorodithioate-and solvents of these pesticides are also discussed. Careful follow-up for systemic involvement is warranted, since these agents may have triggered systemic scleroderma in these patients. Elimination of chemical exposure of children is stressed.

  6. High-frequency audiometry: A means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Amir H Mehrparvar; Seyyed J Mirmohammadi; Abbas Ghoreyshi; Abolfazl Mollasadeghi; Ziba Loukzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect of noise on high-frequency audiometry (HFA) and conventional audiometry. In a historical cohort study, we compared hearing threshold and prevalence...

  7. Fibrinogen depletion in trauma: early, easy to estimate and central to trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Ross; Brohi, Karim

    2013-09-24

    Fibrinogen is fundamental to hemostasis and falls rapidly in trauma hemorrhage, although levels are not routinely measured in the acute bleeding episode. Prompt identification of critically low levels of fibrinogen and early supplementation has the potential to correct trauma-induced coagulation and improve outcomes. Early estimation of hypofibrinogenemia is possible using surrogate markers of shock and hemorrhage; for example, hemoglobin and base excess. Rapid replacement with fibrinogen concentrate or cryoprecipitate should be considered a clinical priority in major trauma hemorrhage.

  8. Fibrinogen depletion in trauma: early, easy to estimate and central to trauma-induced coagulopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, Ross; Brohi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Fibrinogen is fundamental to hemostasis and falls rapidly in trauma hemorrhage, although levels are not routinely measured in the acute bleeding episode. Prompt identification of critically low levels of fibrinogen and early supplementation has the potential to correct trauma-induced coagulation and improve outcomes. Early estimation of hypofibrinogenemia is possible using surrogate markers of shock and hemorrhage; for example, hemoglobin and base excess. Rapid replacement with fibrinogen con...

  9. Early remodeling of rat cardiac muscle induced by swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verzola R.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of acute swimming training with an anaerobic component on matrix metallopeptidase (MMP activity and myosin heavy chain gene expression in the rat myocardium. Animals (male Wistar rats, weighing approximately 180 g were trained for 6 h/day in 3 sessions of 2 h each for 1 to 5 consecutive days (N = 5 rats per group. Rats swam in basins 47 cm in diameter and 60 cm deep filled with water at 33 to 35ºC. After the training period a significant increase (P < 0.05 was observed in the heart weight normalized to body weight by about 22 and 35% in the groups that trained for 96 and 120 h, respectively. Blood lactate levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05 in all groups after all training sessions, confirming an anaerobic component. However, lactate levels decreased (P < 0.05 with days of training, suggesting that the animals became adapted to this protocol. Myosin heavy chain-ß gene expression, analyzed by real time PCR and normalized with GAPDH gene expression, showed a significant two-fold increase (P < 0.01 after 5 days of training. Zymography analysis of myocardium extracts indicated a single ~60-kDa activity band that was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after 72, 96, and 120 h, indicating an increased expression of MMP-2 and suggesting precocious remodeling. Furthermore, the presence of MMP-2 was confirmed by Western blot analysis, but not the presence of MMP-1 and MMP-3. Taken together, our results indicate that in these training conditions, the rat heart undergoes early biochemical and functional changes required for the adaptation to the new physiological condition by tissue remodeling.

  10. Clozapine-Induced Myocarditis: Is Mandatory Monitoring Warranted for Its Early Recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Munshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic used for treatment resistant schizophrenia. Its potential to induce agranulocytosis is well known but it can also cause myocarditis. Clozapine is the only antipsychotic known to induce this side effect, typically early in the treatment, and literature is scarce on this condition. We are presenting a case report of a 21-year-old schizophrenic male who developed myocarditis within 3 weeks of starting on clozapine for his treatment resistant psychosis. We then aim to review some of the available literature and raise awareness among physicians as this condition can potentially be fatal if not detected early.

  11. Early immature neuronal death initiates cerebral ischemia-induced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D H; Lee, H E; Kwon, K J; Park, S J; Heo, H; Lee, Y; Choi, J W; Shin, C Y; Ryu, J H

    2015-01-22

    Throughout adulthood, neurons are continuously replaced by new cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, and this neurogenesis is increased by various neuronal injuries including ischemic stroke and seizure. While several mechanisms of this injury-induced neurogenesis have been elucidated, the initiation factor remains unclear. Here, we investigated which signal(s) trigger(s) ischemia-induced cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG region. We found that early apoptotic cell death of the immature neurons occurred in the DG region following transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Moreover, early immature neuronal death in the DG initiated transient forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurogenesis through glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling, which was mediated by microglia-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Additionally, we observed that the blockade of immature neuronal cell death, early microglial activation, or IGF-1 signaling attenuated ischemia-induced neurogenesis. These results suggest that early immature neuronal cell death initiates ischemia-induced neurogenesis through microglial IGF-1 in mice.

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced 'visual echoes' are generated in early visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, J.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the early visual areas can trigger perception of a flash of light, a so-called phosphene. Here we show that a very brief presentation of a stimulus can modulate features of a subsequent TMS-induced phosphene, to a level that participants mistake phosphenes

  13. Histone modifications induced by MDV infection at early cytolytic and latency phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Marek’s disease (MD) is a highly contagious, lymphomatous disease of chickens induced by a herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV) that is the cause of major annual losses to the poultry industry. MD pathogenesis involves multiple stages including an early cytolytic phase and latency, a...

  14. Endothelial glycocalyx degradation induces endogenous heparinization in patients with severe injury and early traumatic coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Pär I

    2012-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that early trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is mechanistically linked to disruption of the vascular endothelium and its glycocalyx, assessed by thrombomodulin and syndecan 1, respectively. This study evaluated if degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx and ensuing...

  15. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced 'visual echoes' are generated in early visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, J.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the early visual areas can trigger perception of a flash of light, a so-called phosphene. Here we show that a very brief presentation of a stimulus can modulate features of a subsequent TMS-induced phosphene, to a level that participants mistake phosphenes

  16. Early-time photodynamics of ruthenium-based photocatalysts for light-induced hydrogen generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to provide a fundamental understanding of the early-time photodynamics of a series of Ru/M (M = Pd or Pt) bimetallic photocatalysts for light-induced hydrogen generation. This class of complexes adopts a general structure involving a Ru(II) center coordinated to two peripheral ligan

  17. Can primordial wormholes be induced by GUTs at the early Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, S; Odintsov, S D; Osetrin, K E

    1999-01-01

    Using large N, 4d anomaly induced one-loop effective action for conformally invariant matter (typical GUT multiplet) we study the possibility to induce the primordial spherically symmetric wormholes at the early Universe. The corresponding effective equations are obtained in two different coordinate frames. The numerical investigation of these equations is done for matter content corresponding to ${\\cal N}=4$ SU(N) super Yang-Mills theory. For some choice of initial conditions, the induced wormhole solution with increasing throat radius and increasing red-shift function is found.

  18. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  19. Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulshine, James L; Avila, Rick; Yankelevitz, David; Baer, Thomas M; Estépar, Raul San Jose; Ambrose, Laurie Fenton; Aldigé, Carolyn R

    2015-05-01

    The Prevent Cancer Foundation Lung Cancer Workshop XI: Tobacco-Induced Disease: Advances in Policy, Early Detection and Management was held in New York, NY on May 16 and 17, 2014. The two goals of the Workshop were to define strategies to drive innovation in precompetitive quantitative research on the use of imaging to assess new therapies for management of early lung cancer and to discuss a process to implement a national program to provide high quality computed tomography imaging for lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease. With the central importance of computed tomography imaging for both early detection and volumetric lung cancer assessment, strategic issues around the development of imaging and ensuring its quality are critical to ensure continued progress against this most lethal cancer.

  20. One-loop superstring six-point amplitudes and anomalies in pure spinor superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafra, Carlos R.; Schlotterer, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    We present the massless six-point one-loop amplitudes in the open and closed superstring using BRST cohomology arguments from the pure spinor formalism. The hexagon gauge anomaly is traced back to a class of kinematic factors in pure spinor superspace which were recently introduced as BRST pseudo-invariants. This complements previous work where BRST invariance arguments were used to derive the non-anomalous part of the amplitude. The associated worldsheet functions are non-singular and demonstrated to yield total derivatives on moduli space upon gauge variation. These cohomology considerations yield an efficient organizing principle for closed-string amplitudes that match expectations from S-duality in the low-energy limit.

  1. Refined partition functions for open superstrings with 4, 8 and 16 supercharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lüst, Dieter, E-mail: dieter.luest@lmu.de [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center für Theoretische Physik, Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); CERN, Theory Group, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mekareeya, Noppadol, E-mail: noppadol@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.schlotterer@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany); Thomson, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.thomson09@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics Group, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    We analyze the perturbative massive open string spectrum of even-dimensional superstring compactifications with four, eight and sixteen supercharges. In each of such cases, we focus on universal states that exist independently on the internal geometry and other compatification details. We analytically compute refined partition functions that count these states at each mass level. Such refined partition functions are written in a super-Poincaré covariant form, providing information on how supermultiplets transform under the little group and the R symmetry. Various asymptotic limits of the partition functions and their associated quantities, such as the leading and subleading Regge trajectories, are studied empirically and analytically. In the phenomenologically relevant case of four supercharges, the partition function can be cast into the most compact form and the asymptotic formula in the large spin limit is derived explicitly.

  2. One-loop superstring six-point amplitudes and anomalies in pure spinor superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Mafra, Carlos R

    2016-01-01

    We present the massless six-point one-loop amplitudes in the open and closed superstring using BRST cohomology arguments from the pure spinor formalism. The hexagon gauge anomaly is traced back to a class of kinematic factors in pure spinor superspace which were recently introduced as BRST pseudo-invariants. This complements previous work where BRST invariance arguments were used to derive the non-anomalous part of the amplitude. The associated worldsheet functions are non-singular and demonstrated to yield total derivatives on moduli space upon gauge variation. These cohomology considerations yield an efficient organizing principle for closed-string amplitudes that match expectations from S-duality in the low-energy limit.

  3. Compactification and inflation in the superstring theory from the condensation of gravitino pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M. D.

    1987-12-01

    We discuss the possibility that inflation can occur in the E8×E8' heterotic superstring theory, if there is a pair condensation of the gravitino field ψA and also of the Majorana-Weyl spinor λ, as suggested by the Helayël-Neto and Smith. In the absence of a condensation of the anti-symmetric tensor field HMNP, then the associated potential V(θ,φ) is bounded from below and independent of the dilaton field φ. It can be made to vanish at the minimum, where the compactification scale θ is fixed. Alternatively, a small cosmological constant may remain (ultimately to be cancelled by radiative corrections at the lower energy scale of the gaugino condensation), which could in principle lead to inflation. Present address: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Bombay 400 005, India.

  4. The Structure of n-Point One-Loop Open Superstring Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Mafra, Carlos R

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present the worldsheet integrand for one-loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric superstring theory involving any number n of massless open string states. The polarization dependence is organized into the same BRST invariant kinematic combinations which also govern the leading string correction to tree level amplitudes. The dimensions of the bases for both the kinematics and the associated worldsheet integrals is found to be the unsigned Stirling number S_3^{n-1} of first kind. We explain why the same combinatorial structures govern on the one hand finite one-loop amplitudes of equal helicity states in pure Yang Mills theory and on the other hand the color tensors at quadratic alpha prime order of the color dressed tree amplitude.

  5. A twistor formulation of the heterotic D=10 superstring with manifest (8,0) worldsheet supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Delduc, F; Howe, Paul S; Sokatchev, Emery S

    1993-01-01

    We propose a new formulation of the heterotic $D=10$ Green-Schwarz superstring whose worldsheet is a superspace with two even and eight odd coordinates. The action is manifestly invariant under both target-space supersymmetry and a worldsheet reparametrisation supergroup. It contains only a finite set of auxiliary fields. The key ingredient are the commuting spinor (twistor) variables, which naturally arise as worldsheet superpartners of the target space Grassmann coordinates. These spinors parametrise the sphere $S^8$ regarded as a coset space of the $D=10$ Lorentz group. The sphere is associated with the lightlike vector of one of the string Virasoro constraints. The origin of the on-shell $D=10$ fermionic kappa symmetry of the standard Green-Schwarz formulation is explained. An essential and unusual feature is the appearance of the string tension only on shell as an integration constant.

  6. A Note on GSO-Free RNS Superstrings and Pure Spinor Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    Using an elementary perturbative open string field theory solution involving a twistor-like parameter, we study the cohomology of new nilpotent BRST charge corresponding to the space-time background defined by this solution. The BRST cohomology of the deformed background automatically cuts off the GSO-odd spectrum in RNS superstring theory and keeps the GSO-even spectrum intact, without a need of GSO-projection. The on-shell constraints in the GSO-even sector get deformed in the new background, corresponding to BRST type transformations of the low-energy effective action with the ghost-like commuting spinor parameter satisfying the pure spinor constraint in $d=10$.

  7. Wess-Zumino term for the AdS superstring and generalized Inoenue-Wigner contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsuda, M

    2003-01-01

    We examine a Wess-Zumino term, written in a form of bilinear in superinvariant currents, for a superstring in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and derive a procedure for obtaining the correct flat limit. The standard Inoenue-Wigner contraction does not give the correct flat limit but, rather, gives zero. This erroneous result originates from the fact that the fermionic metric of the super-Poincare group is degenerate. We propose a generalization of the Inoenue-Wigner contraction from which a 'nondegenerate' super-Poincare group is derived from the super-AdS group. For this reason, this contraction gives the correct flat limit of this Wess-Zumino term. We also discuss the M-algebra obtained using this generalized Inoenue-Wigner contraction from osp(1|32). (author)

  8. Early role of the κ opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Acevedo, Ma Belén; Spear, Norman E

    2012-03-20

    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by μ and δ opioid receptors, whereas μ but not δ receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effects of ethanol during early development. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system in the motivational effects of ethanol has been much less explored. The present study assessed, in preweanling (infant) rats, the modulatory role of the KOR system in several paradigms sensitive to ethanol-induced reinforcement. Kappa opioid activation and blockade were examined in second-order conditioned place preference with varied timing before conditioning and with varied ethanol doses. The role of KOR on ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol-induced taste conditioning was also explored. The experiments were based on the assumption that ethanol concurrently induces appetitive and aversive effects and that the latter may be mediated by activation of kappa receptors. The main result was that blockade of kappa function facilitated the expression of appetitive ethanol reinforcement in terms of tactile and taste conditioning. The effects of kappa activation on ethanol conditioning seemed to be independent from ethanol's stimulant effects. Kappa opioid activation potentiated the motor depressing effects of ethanol but enhanced motor activity in control subjects. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of the KOR system in nondependent subjects should attenuate the aversive consequences of ethanol.

  9. MicroRNA Expression Profiles Related to Early Stage Murine Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu Jia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fulminant hepatitis is a severe liver disease characterized by massive hepatocyte necrosis and clinical signs of liver failure. This study explores the expression profile of microRNAs, which are regulators of a number of pathophysiological processes, during the early stage of concanavalin A (Con A-induced hepatitis. Methods: Balb/c mice were given ConA injections to induce fulminant hepatitis. miRNA expression profiling in liver tissues was carried out by microarray analysis. The differentially expressed miRNAs were subjected to time sequence profile analysis, gene-miRNA regulatory network analysis, and gene ontology-miRNA regulatory network analysis. Results: Eleven miRNAs among multiClass were found to be significantly differentially expressed between liver tissue in early stage fulminant hepatitis and normal control liver tissue. Mmu-miR-133a was the most differentially expressed with the strongest regulatory ability, regulating 47 mRNAs. Mmu-miR-10a was the most highly expressed in the microRNA-GO-Network and also exerted a strong regulatory ability. The expression profiles of miR-133a and miR-10a were verified by RT-PCR. Conclusions: These results show that, in the early stage, ConA-induced fulminant hepatitis induces a distinct miRNA expression profile. This differential miRNA expression profile may provide pathogenic clues and potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in acute and severe liver disease.

  10. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroki, Tsunehide, E-mail: kuroki@dg.kagawa-nct.ac.jp [General Eduction, National Institute of Technology, Kagawa College, 551 Kohda, Takuma-cho, Mitoyo, Kagawa 769-1192 (Japan); Sugino, Fumihiko, E-mail: fusugino@gmail.com [Okayama Institute for Quantum Physics, Furugyocho 1-7-36, Naka-ku, Okayama 703-8278 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond–Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

  11. High‐Volume Processed, ITO‐Free Superstrates and Substrates for Roll‐to‐Roll Development of Organic Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Angmo, Dechan; Søndergaard, Roar R.;

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of substrates and superstrates prepared by scalable roll-to-roll methods is reviewed. The substrates and superstrates that act as the flexible carrier for the processing of functional organic electronic devices are an essential component, and proposals are made about how the general...... availability of various forms of these materials is needed to accelerate the development of the field of organic electronics. The initial development of the replacement of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) for the flexible carrier materials is described and a description of how roll-to-roll processing development led...... to simplification from an initially complex make-up to higher performing materials through a more simple process is also presented. This process intensification through process simplification is viewed as a central strategy for upscaling, increasing throughput, performance, and cost reduction....

  12. Superstring 'ending' on super-D9-brane: a supersymmetric action functional for the coupled brane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandos, Igor E-mail: bandos@kipt.kharkov.ua; Kummer, Wolfgang E-mail: wkummer@tph.tuwien.ac.at

    2000-01-17

    A supersymmetric action functional describing the interaction of the fundamental superstring with the D=10, type IIB Dirichlet super-9-brane is presented. A set of supersymmetric equations for the coupled system is obtained from the action principle. It is found that the interaction of the string endpoints with the super D9-brane gauge field requires some restrictions for the image of the gauge field strength. When those restrictions are not imposed, the equations imply the absence of the endpoints, and the equations coincide either with the ones of the free super-D9-brane or with the ones for the free closed type IIB superstring. Different phases of the coupled system are described. A generalization to an arbitrary system of intersecting branes is discussed.

  13. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroki, Tsunehide

    2016-01-01

    In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond-Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supers...

  14. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Tsunehide; Sugino, Fumihiko

    2017-06-01

    In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond-Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

  15. Management of early pregnancy failure and induced abortion by family medicine educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbitter, Cara; Bennett, Ariana; Schubert, Finn D; Bennett, Ian M; Gold, Marji

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive health care, including treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and induced abortion, is an integral part of patient-centered care provided by family physicians, but data suggest that comprehensive training is not widely available to family medicine residents. The purpose of this study was to assess EPF and induced abortion management practices and attitudes of family medicine physician educators throughout the United States and Canada. These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance that was distributed via E-mail to 3152 practicing physician members of Council of Academic Family Medicine organizations. The vast majority of respondents (88.2%) had treated EPF, whereas few respondents (15.3%) had provided induced medication or aspiration abortions. Of those who had treated EPF, most had offered medication management (72.7%), whereas a minority had provided aspiration management (16.4%). Almost all respondents (95%) agreed that EPF management is within the scope of family medicine, and nearly three-quarters (73.2%) agreed that early induced abortion is within the scope of family medicine. Our findings suggest that family physician educators are more experienced with EPF management than elective abortion. Given the overlap of skills needed for provision of these services, there is the potential to increase the number of family physician faculty members providing induced abortions.

  16. Non-compact Calabi-Yau spaces and other non-trivial backgrounds for 4-d superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, Elias B; Lüst, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    A large class of new 4-D superstring vacua with non-trivial/singular geometries, spacetime supersymmetry and other background fields (axion, dilaton) are found. Killing symmetries are generic and are associated with non-trivial dilaton and antisymmetric tensor fields. Duality symmetries preserving N=2 superconformal invariance are employed to generate a large class of explicit metrics for non-compact 4-D Calabi-Yau manifolds with Killing symmetries.

  17. Quantum and conversion efficiencies optimization of superstrate CIGS thin-films solar cells using In2Se3 buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchama, Idris; Boudour, Samah; Bouarissa, Nadir; Rouabah, Zahir

    2017-10-01

    In this present contribution, AMPS-1D device simulator is employed to study the performances of superstrate SLG/TCO/p-Cu(In,Ga)Se2(CIGS)/n-ODC/n-In2Se3/Metal thin film solar cells. The impact of the TCO and Metal work functions on the cell performance has been investigated. The combination of optical transparency and electrical property for TCO front contact layer is found to yield high efficiency. The obtained results show that the TCO work function should be large enough to achieve high conversion efficiency for superstrate CIGS solar cell. Nevertheless, it is desirable for Metal back contact layer to have low work function to prevent the effect of band bending in the n-In2Se3/Metal interface. Several TCOs materials and metals have been tested respectively as a front and back contact layers for superstrate CIGS solar cells. An efficiency of 20.18%, with Voc ≈ 0.71 V, Jsc ≈ 35.36 mA/cm2 and FF ≈ 80.42%, has been achieved with ZnSn2O3-based as TCO front contact layer. In the case of SnO2:F front contact and indium back contact layers, an efficiency of 16.31%, with Voc ≈ 0.64 V, Jsc ≈ 31.4 mA/cm2 and FF ≈ 79.4%, has been obtained. The present results of simulation suggest an improvement of superstrate CIGS solar cells efficiency for feasible fabrication.

  18. Flat Currents and Solutions of the Green-Schwarz Superstring on AdS5×S5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Xia; WU Sheng; XIE Xiao-Ning; XIONG Chuan-Hua; YUE Rui-Hong; SHI Kang-Jie

    2007-01-01

    We show that for the Green-Schwarz superstring on AdS5×S5, the Cartan 1-forms associated with the flat currents given by Bena, Polchinski and Roiban [Phys. Rev. D 69 (2004) 046002] also satisfy equations of motion and the Virasoro constraint. Thus one can generate a series of classical solutions with a spectrum parameter from the existing one, and these solutions have the same infinite set of classically conserved quantities.

  19. Topics in N = 1 supergravity in four dimensions and superstring effective field theories beyond tree-level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saririan, Kamran [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In this thesis, the author presents some works in the direction of studying quantum effects in locally supersymmetric effective field theories that appear in the low energy limit of superstring theory. After reviewing the Kaehler covariant formulation of supergravity, he shows the calculation of the divergent one-loop contribution to the effective boson Lagrangian for supergravity, including the Yang-Mills sector and the helicity-odd operators that arise from integration over fermion fields. The only restriction is on the Yang-Mills kinetic energy normalization function, which is taken diagonal in gauge indices, as in models obtained from superstrings. He then presents the full result for the divergent one-loop contribution to the effective boson Lagrangian for supergravity coupled to chiral and Yang-Mills supermultiplets. He also considers the specific case of dilaton couplings in effective supergravity Lagrangians from superstrings, for which the one-loop result is considerably simplified. He studies gaugino condensation in the presence of an intermediate mass scale in the hidden sector. S-duality is imposed as an approximate symmetry of the effective supergravity theory. Furthermore, the author includes in the Kaehler potential the renormalization of the gauge coupling and the one-loop threshold corrections at the intermediate scale. It is shown that confinement is indeed achieved. Furthermore, a new running behavior of the dilaton arises which he attributes to S-duality. He also discusses the effects of the intermediate scale, and possible phenomenological implications of this model.

  20. Early life allergen-induced mucus overproduction requires augmented neural stimulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Juliana; Patel, Kruti R; Aven, Linh; Achey, Rebecca; Minns, Martin S; Lee, Yoonjoo; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery E; Ai, Xingbin

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are the only innervated airway epithelial cells. To what extent neural innervation regulates PNEC secretion and function is unknown. Here, we discover that neurotrophin 4 (NT4) plays an essential role in mucus overproduction after early life allergen exposure by orchestrating PNEC innervation and secretion of GABA. We found that PNECs were the only cellular source of GABA in airways. In addition, PNECs expressed NT4 as a target-derived mechanism underlying PNEC innervation during development. Early life allergen exposure elevated the level of NT4 and caused PNEC hyperinnervation and nodose neuron hyperactivity. Associated with aberrant PNEC innervation, the authors discovered that GABA hypersecretion was required for the induction of mucin Muc5ac expression. In contrast, NT4(-/-) mice were protected from allergen-induced mucus overproduction and changes along the nerve-PNEC axis without any defects in inflammation. Last, GABA installation restored mucus overproduction in NT4(-/-) mice after early life allergen exposure. Together, our findings provide the first evidence for NT4-dependent neural regulation of PNEC secretion of GABA in a neonatal disease model. Targeting the nerve-PNEC axis may be a valid treatment strategy for mucus overproduction in airway diseases, such as childhood asthma.-Barrios, J., Patel, K. R., Aven, L., Achey, R., Minns, M. S., Lee, Y., Trinkaus-Randall, V. E., Ai, X. Early life allergen-induced mucus overproduction requires augmented neural stimulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell secretion. © FASEB.

  1. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Suvarthi [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kumar, Ashutosh [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Seth, Ratanesh Kumar [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tokar, Erik J. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kadiiska, Maria B. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [Inorganic Toxicology Group, National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Mason, Ronald P. [Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh, E-mail: schatt@mailbox.sc.edu [Environmental Health and Disease Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ► BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ► BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ► Increased leptin mediates

  2. Cryptotanshinone inhibits TNF-α-induced early atherogenic events in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zuraini; Ng, Chin Theng; Fong, Lai Yen; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Hussain, Nor Hayuti Mohd; Ang, Kok Pian; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

    2016-05-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been effectively used to treat cardiovascular disease. Cryptotanshinone (CTS), a major lipophilic compound isolated from S. miltiorrhiza, has been reported to possess cardioprotective effects. However, the anti-atherogenic effects of CTS, particularly on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced endothelial cell activation, are still unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of CTS on TNF-α-induced increased endothelial permeability, monocyte adhesion, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and impaired nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), all of which are early events occurring in atherogenesis. We showed that CTS significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced increased endothelial permeability, monocyte adhesion, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and MCP-1, and restored nitric oxide production. These observations suggest that CTS possesses anti-inflammatory properties and could be a promising treatment for the prevention of cytokine-induced early atherogenesis.

  3. Kappa-symmetry of superstring sigma model and generalized 10d supergravity equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseytlin, A.A.; Wulff, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-29

    We determine the constraints imposed on the 10d target superspace geometry by the requirement of classical kappa-symmetry of the Green-Schwarz superstring. In the type I case we find that the background must satisfy a generalization of type I supergravity equations. These equations depend on an arbitrary vector X{sub a} and imply the one-loop scale invariance of the GS sigma model. In the special case when X{sub a} is the gradient of a scalar ϕ (dilaton) one recovers the standard type I equations equivalent to the 2d Weyl invariance conditions of the superstring sigma model. In the type II case we find a generalized version of the 10d supergravity equations the bosonic part of which was introduced in http://arxiv.org/abs/1511.05795. These equations depend on two vectors X{sub a} and K{sub a} subject to 1st order differential relations (with the equations in the NS-NS sector depending only on the combination X{sub a}=X{sub a}+K{sub a}). In the special case of K{sub a}=0 one finds that X{sub a}=∂{sub a}ϕ and thus obtains the standard type II supergravity equations. New generalized solutions are found if K{sub a} is chosen to be a Killing vector (and thus they exist only if the metric admits an isometry). Non-trivial solutions of the generalized equations describe K-isometric backgrounds that can be mapped by T-duality to type II supergravity solutions with dilaton containing a linear isometry-breaking term. Examples of such backgrounds appeared recently in the context of integrable η-deformations of AdS{sub n}×S{sup n} sigma models. The classical kappa-symmetry thus does not, in general, imply the 2d Weyl invariance conditions for the GS sigma model (equivalent to type II supergravity equations) but only weaker scale invariance type conditions.

  4. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Bakkal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg. Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  5. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkal, B.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gultekin, F.A. [Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guven, B. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Turkcu, U.O. [Mugla School of Health Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla (Turkey); Bektas, S. [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Can, M. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-09-27

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  6. Tocopherols inhibit oxidative and nitrosative stress in estrogen-induced early mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Soumyasri; So, Jae Young; Wall, Brian; Wahler, Joseph; Smolarek, Amanda K; Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Soewono, Kelvin Y; Yu, Haixiang; Lee, Mao-Jung; Thomas, Paul E; Yang, Chung S; Suh, Nanjoo

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a key role in estrogen-induced breast cancer. This study assessed the chemopreventive activity of the naturally occurring γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) in early stages of estrogen-induced mammary hyperplasia in ACI rats. ACI rats provide an established model of rodent mammary carcinogenesis due to their high sensitivity to estrogen. Female rats were implanted with 9 mg of 17β-estradiol (E2) in silastic tubings and fed with control or 0.3% γ-TmT diet for 1, 3, 7, and 14 d. γ-TmT increased the levels of tocopherols and their metabolites in the serum and mammary glands of the rats. Histological analysis revealed mammary hyperplasia in the E2 treated rats fed with control or γ-TmT diet. γ-TmT decreased the levels of E2-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress markers, nitrotyrosine, and 8-oxo-dG, respectively, in the hyperplastic mammary tissues. 8-Isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress in the serum, was also reduced by γ-TmT. Noticeably, γ-TmT stimulated Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response in the mammary glands of E2 treated rats, evident from the induced mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Therefore, inhibition of nitrosative/oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant response is the primary effect of γ-TmT in early stages of E2-induced mammary hyperplasia. Due to its cytoprotective activity, γ-TmT could be a potential natural agent for the chemoprevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer.

  7. DR-induced escape of O and C from early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinjin; Tian, Feng; Ni, Yufang; Huang, Xiaomeng

    2017-03-01

    Energetic particles produced in Dissociative recombination (DR) reactions could escape planets with low gravity, such as Mars, if they could overcome collisions with the surrounding background gases. In this work, a 3-D Monte Carlo model is developed to study these photochemical escape processes on early Mars. Although the DR reaction rates of O2+, CO2+, and CO+ increase monotonically with solar soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) flux, the peak of the calculated DR-induced escape rates of O is near 3 × XUV, and the DR-induced escape rates of C increase with XUV until 10 × XUV. The non-monotonic behavior can be explained by the increased column densities of background species in high XUV conditions, which can deflect energetic particles through collisions more efficiently. At 20 × XUV, CO+ DR is the main source of escaping O and C, and the escape of secondary particles could contribute to 30∼40% and 10% of the total escape of O and C respectively. The time-integrated DR-induced escape of O and C is equivalent to 1 m of H2O and 20 mbar of CO2 escaping early Mars since 4.5 billion years ago. The accumulated CO2 loss is much lower than what's needed to explain the carbon isotopic ratios on Mars and much lower than the total CO2 needed to warm up early Mars. If more vigorous escape mechanisms were absent on early Mars, substantial inventories of volatiles have not been detected yet.

  8. Early Mars serpentinization-derived CH4 reservoirs, H2-induced warming and paleopressure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassefière, E.; Lasue, J.; Langlais, B.; Quesnel, Y.

    2016-11-01

    CH4 has been observed on Mars both by remote sensing and in situ during the past 15 yr. It could have been produced by early Mars serpentinization processes that could also explain the observed Martian remanent magnetic field. Assuming a cold early Mars, a cryosphere could trap such CH4 as clathrates in stable form at depth. The maximum storage capacity of such a clathrate cryosphere has been recently estimated to be 2 × 1019 to 2 × 1020 moles of methane. We estimate how large amounts of serpentinization-derived CH4 stored in the cryosphere have been released into the atmosphere during the Noachian and the early Hesperian. Due to rapid clathrate dissociation and photochemical conversion of CH4 to H2, these episodes of massive CH4 release may have resulted in transient H2-rich atmospheres, at typical levels of 10-20% in a background 1-2 bar CO2 atmosphere. The collision-induced heating effect of H2 present in such an atmosphere has been shown to raise the surface temperature above the water freezing point. We show how local and rapid destabilization of the cryosphere can be induced by large events (such as the Hellas Basin or Tharsis bulge formation) and lead to such releases. Our results show that the early Mars cryosphere had a sufficient CH4 storage capacity to have maintained H2-rich transient atmospheres during a total time period up to several million years or tens of million years, having potentially contributed to the formation of valley networks during the Noachian/early Hesperian.

  9. α5β1 Integrin Signaling Mediates Oxidized LDL-Induced Inflammation and Early Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdagul, Arif; Green, Jonette; Albert, Patrick; McInnis, Marshall C.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Orr, A. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Endothelial cell activation drives early atherosclerotic plaque formation. Both fibronectin deposition and accumulation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) occur early during atherogenesis and both are implicated in enhanced endothelial cell activation. However, interplay between these responses has not been established. The objective of our study was to determine whether endothelial matrix composition modulates the inflammatory properties of oxLDL. Approach and Results We now show that oxLDL-induced NF-κB activation, proinflammatory gene expression, and monocyte binding is significantly enhanced when endothelial cells are attached to fibronectin compared to basement membrane proteins. This enhanced response does not result from altered oxLDL receptor expression, oxLDL uptake, or reactive oxygen species production, but instead results from oxLDL-induced activation of the fibronectin-binding integrin α5β1. Preventing α5β1 signaling (blocking antibodies, knockout cells) inhibits oxLDL-induced NF-κB activation and VCAM-1 expression. Furthermore, oxLDL-drives α5β1-dependent integrin signaling through the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway and FAK inhibition (PF-573228, siRNA) blunts oxLDL-induced NF-κB activation, VCAM-1 expression, and monocyte adhesion. Lastly, treatment with the α5β1 signaling inhibitor, ATN-161, significantly blunts atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE deficient mice, characterized by reduced VCAM-1 expression and macrophage accumulation without affecting fibrous cap size. Conclusions Our data suggest that α5β1-mediated crosstalk between fibronectin and oxidized LDL regulates inflammation in early atherogenesis and therapeutics that inhibit α5 integrins may reduce inflammation without adversely affecting plaque structure. PMID:24833794

  10. Superstrings, entropy and the elementary particles content of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-07-15

    A number of interconnected issues involving superstring theory, entropy and the particle content of the standard model of high energy physics are discussed in the present work. It is found that within a non-transfinite approximation, the number of elementary particles is given by DimSU(8) in full agreement with the prediction gained from dividing the total number of the massless level of Heterotic string theory (256)(16)=8064 by the spin representation 2{sup 7}=128 which gives DimSU(8)=(8){sup 2}-1=(8064)/(128)=63 particles. For the exact transfinite case however, one finds our previously established E-infinity result:N=(336+16k)(3/2+k)(16+k)/(128+8k)={alpha}-bar {sub o}/2,where k={phi}{sup 3}(1-{phi}{sup 3}), {phi}=(5-1)/2 and {alpha}-bar {sub o}/2=68.54101965. Setting k=0 one finds that n=63 exactly as in the non-transfinite case.

  11. Tracy-Widom distribution as instanton sum of 2D IIA superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Nishigaki, Shinsuke M

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytic expression of the nonperturbative free energy of a double-well supersymmetric matrix model in its double scaling limit, which corresponds to two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a nontrivial Ramond-Ramond background. To this end we draw upon the wisdom of random matrix theory developed by Tracy and Widom,that expresses the largest eigenvalue distribution of unitary ensembles in terms of a Painleve II transcendent. Regularity of the result at any value of the string coupling constant shows that the third-order phase transition between a supersymmetry-preserving phase and a supersymmetry-broken phase, previously found at the planar level, becomes a smooth crossover in the double scaling limit. Accordingly, the supersymmetry is always broken spontaneously as its order parameter stays nonzero for the whole region of the coupling constant. Coincidence of the result with the unitary one-matrix model suggests that two-dimensional U(N) gauge theory corresponds to a sector of the type ...

  12. Finite Temperature Closed Superstring Theory Infrared Stability and a Minimum Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, S

    2001-01-01

    We show that flat spacetime is an unstable background of all of the weakly coupled ten-dimensional superstrings under infinitesimal thermal fluctuations in the absence of gauge or antisymmetric tensor field background. We demonstrate this principle in both type II and heterotic closed strings obtaining thermal duality invariant expressions for the normalized generating functional of connected one-loop vacuum graphs and exhibiting a continuous phase transition of the Kosterlitz-Thouless type at the self-dual temperature in the thermodynamic potentials. We find that the type II theory displays the unusual phenomenon of a minimum temperature below which the free string ensemble is unstable. We show that in the presence of a temperature dependent Wilson line the heterotic string theory has a stable and tachyon-free ground state at all temperatures starting from zero with gauge group SO(16)xSO(16). The one-loop contribution to the Helmholtz free energy of free SO(16)xSO(16) heterotic strings vanishes at the self-d...

  13. Top-quark mass coupling and classification of weakly coupled heterotic superstring vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizos, J. [University of Ioannina, Physics Department, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-06-15

    The quest for the Standard Model among the huge number of string vacua is usually based on a set of phenomenological criteria related to the massless spectrum of string models. In this work we study criteria associated with interactions in the effective low energy theory and in particular with the presence of the coupling that provides mass to the top quark. Working in the context of the free-fermionic formulation of the heterotic superstring, we demonstrate that, in a big class of phenomenologically promising Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 2} compactifications, these criteria can be expressed entirely in terms of the generalised GSO projection coefficients entering the definition of the models. They are shown to be very efficient in identifying phenomenologically viable vacua, especially in the framework of computer-based search, as they are met by approximately one every 10{sup 4} models. We apply our results in the investigation of a class of supersymmetric Pati-Salam vacua, comprising 10{sup 16} configurations, and we show that when combined with other phenomenological requirements they lead to a relatively small set of about 10{sup 7} Standard Model compatible models that can be fully classified. (orig.)

  14. Aspects of Nonrenormalizable Terms in a Superstring Derived Standard--like Model

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E

    1993-01-01

    I investigate the role of nonrenormalizable terms, up to order N=8, in a superstring derived standard--like model. I argue that nonrenormalizable terms restrict the gauge symmetry, at the Planck scale, to be $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)_{B-L}\\times U(1)_{T_{3_R}}$ rather than $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)_Y$. I show that breaking the gauge symmetry directly to the Standard Model leads to breaking of supersymmetry at the Planck scale, or to dimension four, baryon and lepton violating, operators. I show that if the gauge symmetry is broken directly to the Standard Model the cubic level solution to the F and D flatness constraints is violated by higher order terms, while if $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ remains unbroken at the Planck scale, the cubic level solution is valid to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. I discuss the Higgs and fermion mass spectrum. I demonstrate that realistic, hierarchical, fermion mass spectrum can be generated in this model.

  15. Towards superconformal and quasi-modular representation of exotic smooth R^4 from superstring theory II

    CERN Document Server

    Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    This is the second part of the work where quasi-modular forms emerge from small exotic smooth $\\mathbb{R}^4$'s grouped in a fixed radial family. SU(2) Seiberg-Witten theory when formulated on exotic $\\mathbb{R}^4$ from the radial family, in special foliated topological limit can be described as SU(2) Seiberg-Witten theory on flat standard $\\mathbb{R}^4$ with the gravitational corrections derived from coupling to ${\\cal N}=2$ supergravity. Formally, quasi-modular expressions which follow the Connes-Moscovici construction of the universal Godbillon-Vey class of the codimension-1 foliation, are related to topological correlation functions of superstring theory compactified on special Callabi-Yau manifolds. These string correlation functions, in turn, generate Seiberg-Witten prepotential and the couplings of Seiberg-Witten theory to ${\\cal N}=2$ supergravity sector. Exotic 4-spaces are conjectured to serve as a link between supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in dimension 4.

  16. Towards superconformal and quasi-modular representation of exotic smooth R^4 from superstring theory I

    CERN Document Server

    Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    We show that superconformal ${\\cal N}=4,2$ algebras are well-suited to represent some invariant constructions characterizing exotic $\\mathbb{R}^4$ relative to a given radial family. We examine the case of ${\\cal N}=4, \\hat{c}=4$ (at $r=1$ level) superconformal algebra which is realized on flat $\\mathbb{R}^4$ and curved $S^3\\times \\mathbb{R}$. While the first realization corresponds naturally to standard smooth $\\mathbb{R}^4$ the second describes the algebraic end of some small exotic smooth $\\mathbb{R}^4$'s from the radial family of DeMichelis-Freedman and represents the linear dilaton background $SU(2)_k\\times \\mathbb{R}_Q$ of superstring theory. From the modular properties of the characters of the algebras one derives Witten-Reshetikhin-Turaev and Chern-Simons invariants of homology 3-spheres. These invariants are represented rather by false, quasi-modular, Ramanujan mock-type functions. Given the homology 3-spheres one determines exotic smooth structures of Freedman on $S^3\\times \\mathbb{R}$. In this way t...

  17. Dyons, Superstrings, and Wormholes: Exact Solutions of the Non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Olszewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct dyon solutions on coincident D4-branes, obtained by applying T-duality transformations to type I SO(32 superstring theory in 10 dimensions. These solutions, which are exact, are obtained from an action comprising the non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld action and a Wess-Zumino-like action. When one spatial dimension of the D4-branes is taken to be vanishingly small, the dyons are analogous to the ’t Hooft/Polyakov monopole residing in a 3+1-dimensional spacetime, where the component of the Yang-Mills potential transforming as a Lorentz scalar is reinterpreted as a Higgs boson transforming in the adjoint representation of the gauge group. Applying a T-duality transformation to the vanishingly small spatial dimension, we obtain a collection of D3-branes, not all of which are coincident. Two of the D3-branes, distinct from the others, acquire intrinsic, finite curvature and are connected by a wormhole. The dyons possess electric and magnetic charges whose values on each D3-brane are the negative of one another. The gravitational effects, which arise after the T-duality transformation, occur despite the fact that the action of the system does not explicitly include the gravitational interaction. These solutions provide a simple example of the subtle relationship between the Yang-Mills and gravitational interactions, that is, gauge/gravity duality.

  18. From the Berkovits formulation to the Witten formulation in open superstring field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iimori, Yuki; Okawa, Yuji; Torii, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    The Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory is based on the large Hilbert space of the superconformal ghost sector. We discuss its relation to the Witten formulation based on the small Hilbert space. We introduce a one-parameter family of conditions for partial gauge fixing of the Berkovits formulation such that the cubic interaction of the theory under the partial gauge fixing reduces to that of the Witten formulation in a singular limit. The local picture-changing operator at the open-string midpoint in the Witten formulation is regularized in our approach, and the divergence in on-shell four-point amplitudes coming from collision of picture-changing operators is resolved. The quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation plays a role of adjusting different behaviors of the picture-changing operators in the $s$ channel and in the $t$ channel of Feynman diagrams with two cubic vertices, and correct amplitudes in the world-sheet theory are reproduced. While gauge invariance at th...

  19. From the Berkovits formulation to the Witten formulation in open superstring field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimori, Yuki; Noumi, Toshifumi; Okawa, Yuji; Torii, Shingo

    2014-03-01

    The Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory is based on the large Hilbert space of the superconformal ghost sector. We discuss its relation to the Witten formulation based on the small Hilbert space. We introduce a one-parameter family of conditions for partial gauge fixing of the Berkovits formulation such that the cubic interaction of the theory under the partial gauge fixing reduces to that of the Witten formulation in a singular limit. The local picture-changing operator at the open-string midpoint in the Witten formulation is regularized in our approach, and the divergence in on-shell four-point amplitudes coming from collision of picture-changing operators is resolved. The quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation plays a role of adjusting different behaviors of the picture-changing operators in the s channel and in the t channel of Feynman diagrams with two cubic vertices, and correct amplitudes in the world-sheet theory are reproduced. While gauge invariance at the second order in the coupling constant is obscured in the Witten formulation by collision of picture-changing operators, it is well defined in our approach and is recovered by including the quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation.

  20. From the Berkovits formulation to the Witten formulation in open superstring field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimori, Yuki [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Noumi, Toshifumi [Mathematical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center,Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Okawa, Yuji [Institute of Physics, The University of Tokyo,Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Torii, Shingo [Mathematical Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center,Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-03-07

    The Berkovits formulation of open superstring field theory is based on the large Hilbert space of the superconformal ghost sector. We discuss its relation to the Witten formulation based on the small Hilbert space. We introduce a one-parameter family of conditions for partial gauge fixing of the Berkovits formulation such that the cubic interaction of the theory under the partial gauge fixing reduces to that of the Witten formulation in a singular limit. The local picture-changing operator at the open-string midpoint in the Witten formulation is regularized in our approach, and the divergence in on-shell four-point amplitudes coming from collision of picture-changing operators is resolved. The quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation plays a role of adjusting different behaviors of the picture-changing operators in the s channel and in the t channel of Feynman diagrams with two cubic vertices, and correct amplitudes in the world-sheet theory are reproduced. While gauge invariance at the second order in the coupling constant is obscured in the Witten formulation by collision of picture-changing operators, it is well defined in our approach and is recovered by including the quartic interaction inherited from the Berkovits formulation.

  1. Response of Ag Thick Film Microstripline due to Superstrate Strontium Substituted Bismuth Manganites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Mathad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of strontium-substituted bismuth manganites bulk ceramic superstrate on Ag thick film microstripline, to modify its response and measure complex permittivity as a function of strontium. Bismuth strontium manganites (Bi1 − xSrxMnO3 have been synthesized by solid state sintering technique. The perturbation obtained in the transmittance and reflectance of thick film microstripline due to the Bi1 − xSrxMnO3 (0.20  x  0.50 overlay has been used to obtain the permittivity at microwave frequencies in X and Ku band range. Due to the overlay of Bismuth strontium manganites (BSM pellets a substantial increase in the effective dielectric constant was observed in X band more compared to Ku band. The in-touch overlay method provides ease loading and unloading. The perturbation obtained in the transmittance and reflectance of thick film microstripline due to the bismuth strontium manganites overlay has been used to obtain the permittivity.

  2. Perturbative quantization of superstring theory in Anti de-Sitter spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundin, Per

    2010-07-12

    In this thesis we study superstring theory on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}, AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} and AdS{sub 4} x CP{sub 3}. A shared feature of each theory is that their corresponding symmetry algebras allows for a decomposition under a Z{sub 4} grading. The grading can be realized through an automorphism which allows for a convenient construction of the string Lagrangians directly in terms of graded components. We adopt a uniform light-cone gauge and expand in a near plane wave limit, or equivalently, an expansion in transverse string coordinates. With a main focus on the two critical string theories, we perform a perturbative quantization up to quartic order in the number of fields. Each string theory is, through holographic descriptions, conjectured to be dual to lower dimensional gauge theories. The conjectures imply that the conformal dimensions of single trace operators in gauge theory should be equal to the energy of string states. What is more, through the use of integrable methods, one can write down a set of Bethe equations whose solutions encode the full spectral problem. One main theme of this thesis is to match the predictions of these equations, written in a language suitable for the light-cone gauge we employ, against explicit string theory calculations. We do this for a large class of string states and the perfect agreement we find lends strong support for the validity of the conjectures. (orig.)

  3. Sustained Early Disruption of Mitochondrial Function Contributes to Arsenic-Induced Prostate Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B; Kulawiec, M; Owens, K M; Singh, A; Singh, K K

    2016-10-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen that affects millions of people worldwide, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis are unclear. Several epidemiological studies have suggested increased prostate cancer incidence and mortality due to exposure to arsenic. Due to lack of an animal model of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis, we used a prostate epithelial cell culture model to identify a role for mitochondria in arsenic-induced prostate cancer. Mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential was impacted within a few hours of arsenic exposure of non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells. Chronic arsenic treatment induced mutations in mitochondrial genes and altered mitochondrial functions. Human non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells continuously cultured for seven months in the presence of 5 µM arsenite showed tumorigenic properties in vitro and induced tumors in SCID mice, which indicated transformation of these cells. Protein and mRNA expression of subunits of mtOXPHOS complex I were decreased in arsenic-transformed cells. Alterations in complex I, a main site for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as increased expression of ROS-producing NOX4 in arsenic-transformed cells suggested a role of oxidative stress in tumorigenic transformation of prostate epithelial cells. Whole genome cGH array analyses of arsenic-transformed prostate cells identified extensive genomic instability. Our study revealed mitochondrial dysfunction induced oxidative stress and decreased expression of p53 in arsenic-transformed cells as an underlying mechanism of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomic instability. These studies suggest that early changes in mitochondrial functions are sustained during prolong arsenic exposure. Overall, our study provides evidence that arsenic disruption of mitochondrial function is an early and key step in tumorigenic transformation of prostate epithelial cells.

  4. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Takehiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. Methods BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1 or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA. Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. Results The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Conclusions Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

  5. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Yamazaki, Hideya; Teshima, Teruki; Kihara, Ayaka; Suzumoto, Yuko; Inoue, Takehiro; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-04-07

    Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA) could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1) or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA). Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

  6. A Rabbit Model of Hormone-induced Early Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN WEN; LIMA; YAN-PING CHEN; LIN YANG; WEI LUO; XIAO-NING WANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To establish an experimental model of early stage avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) caused by corticosteroid in adult rabbits and to observe the pathological changes with various imaging techniques. Methods ANFH was induced by a combination of hypersensitivity vasculitis caused by injection of horse serum and subsequent administration of a high dose of corticosteroid. The pathological changes were detected with digital radiography (DR), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ink artery infusion angiography, hematoxylin--eosin staining, and mmunohistochemistry. Results The imageological and athological changes corresponded to the clinical characteristics of early stage ANFH. DR showed bilaterally increased bone density, an unclear epiphyseal line, and blurred texture of cancellous bone. CT showed spot-like low-density imaging of cancellous bone, thinner cortical bone, osteoporosis, and an unclear epiphyseal line. MRI showed bone marrow edema and spot-like high signals in T2-weighted imaging in cancellous bone. Ink artery infusion angiography showed fewer obstructed blood vessels in the femoral head. HE staining of pathological sections showed fewer trabeculae and thin bone, an increased proportion of empty osteocyte lacunae, decreased hematopoiesis, thrombosis, and fat cell hypertrophy. Lmmunohistochemistry showed attenuated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in osteoblasts and chondrocytes, and on the inner membrane of blood vessels. Conclusion Experimental rabbit model of early stage ANFH caused by corticosteroid can be successfully established and provide the foundation for developing effective methods to treat early stage ANFH.

  7. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Bronchoscopy for Detection and Localization of Early Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shusen; LI Buhong; LI Hui; ZHENG Wei; LU Zukang

    2001-01-01

    Experimenatal results on the development of a Laser-Induced Fluorescence Bronchoscopy(LIFB) for the detection and localization of early lung cancer are reported in this paper. The system utilizes fluorescence of photosensitizer drug to provide real time video imaging for the examined lung tissue. Color filters are used to differentiate signal from background and a computer image processing technique is also applied to subtract the background. Moreover, a pseudocolor contrast enhancement method was developed to enhance the fluorescence image displayed on the vidio monitor. Suspicious areas are identified by pseudocolor image to guide biopsy, and several clinical trials show that sensitivity and contrast capability of the system should permit the detection and localization of early lung cancer.

  8. Zscan4 transiently reactivates early embryonic genes during the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Amano, Tomokazu; Nakatake, Yuhki; Amano, Misa; Piao, Yulan; Hoang, Hien G; Ko, Minoru S H

    2012-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the forced expression of defined transcription factors in somatic cells holds great promise for the future of regenerative medicine. However, the initial reprogramming mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we show that Zscan4, expressed transiently in2-cell embryos and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), efficiently produces iPSCs from mouse embryo fibroblasts when coexpressed with Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2. Interestingly, the forced expression of Zscan4 is required onlyfor the first few days of iPSC formation. Microarray analysis revealed transient and early induction of preimplantation-specific genes in a Zscan4-dependent manner. Our work indicates that Zscan4 is a previously unidentified potent natural factor that facilitates the reprogramming process and reactivates early embryonic genes.

  9. Laser-induced fluorescence as a method of early caries diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Agnieszka; Wiewior, Piotr

    2001-07-01

    Use of lasers in dentistry dates back 20 years but is still not fully exploited, especially when concerning the hard dental tissues. Over the past many efforts and actions have been involved in testing and developing new methods for caries diagnosis. The implementation of these methods in general dental practice is unfortunately still limited because too little scientific evidence exists to support them. One of the age-old concerns for dentists is that decay is often discovered too late. Dentists commonly use x-ray imaging for early caries detection, but this method cannot reveal decay at a sufficiently early stage to avoid restorative methods. Generally, if a caries lesion si detected by x-ray, the mineral loss within the tooth is normally very high and will need invasive treatment. Several laser based techniques, as also other optical methods of detecting caries lesions at an early stage seem to be very promising. Fluorescence of tooth structure is observed when hard tissues are illuminated using laser light. Decayed areas appear dark and provide a contrast against the healthy background surrounding them, so discriminating sound and carious tissues. The aim of this study was to present the possibilities of using laser induced fluorescence in the diagnosis of early caries lesions. The current state-of-the-art is presented, as well as results of our investigations. In our studies an argon ion laser was used to illuminate the teeth and the fluorescence pictures were captured with a CCD camera and then analyzed. Results confirmed that laser induced fluorescence can be used as a sensitive method of caries diagnosis.

  10. Clinical features and hormonal profiles of cloprostenol-induced early abortions in heifers monitored by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers Jean-François

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study describes the clinical features and plasma profiles of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1, the main metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PG metabolite and progesterone (P4 in heifers in which early abortions were induced. Methods Early abortions were induced in four heifers with cloprostenol and monitored by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected and the plasma were analyzed for bPAG 1, P4 and PG metabolite. Results The foetal heartbeat rates varied from 170–186 beats per minute for all foetuses up to the date of cloprostenol treatment. Foetal death was confirmed within two days after cloprostenol treatment. Prior to cloprostenol injection, blood plasma concentrations of bPAG1, PG metabolite and P4 varied from 8.4 – 40.0 ng/mL, 158 – 275 pmol/L and 20.7 – 46.9 nmol/L, respectively. After the foetus expelled, the plasma level of bPAG1 began to decrease but the decrease was small and gradual. The estimated half-life of bPAG1 was 1.8 – 6.6 days. The plasma level of the PG metabolite started to have short lasting peaks (above 300 pmol/L within three hours after cloprostenol treatment. The plasma concentrations of P4 dropped sharply to less than 4 nmol/L after 24 hours of cloprostenol injection. Conclusion The current findings indicated that after early closprostenol-induced foetal death, the plasma concentration of bPAG1 decreased gradually and showed a tendency of variation with the stages of pregnancy.

  11. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  12. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe with Negatively Induced Supergravity Cosmological Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL-NABULSI Ahmad Rami

    2006-01-01

    @@ We consider that the observable cosmological constant is the sum of the vacuum (Avac) and the induced term (Aind - 3m2/4) with m being the ultra-light masses (≈ Hubble parameter) implemented in the theory from supergravities arguments and non-minimal coupling. In the absence of a scalar buildup of matter fields, we study its effects on spontaneous symmetry breaking with a Higgs potential and show how the presence of the ultra-light masses yields some important consequences for the early universe and new constraints on the Higgs and electroweak gauge bosons masses.

  13. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  14. The one-loop worldsheet S-matrix for the AdS n × S n × T 10-2 n superstring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiban, Radu; Sundin, Per; Tseytlin, Arkady; Wulff, Linus

    2014-08-01

    We compute the massive-sector worldsheet S-matrix for superstring theories in AdS n × S n × T 10-2 n (with n = 2 , 3 , 5) in the near BMN expansion up to one-loop order in inverse string tension. We show that, after taking into account the wave function renormalization, the one-loop S-matrix is UV finite. In an appropriate regularization scheme the S-matrix is consistent with the underlying symmetries of the superstring theory, i.e. for the n=3 ,5casesitcoincideswiththeoneimpliedbythelight-conegaugesymmetrieswiththe dressing phases determined from the crossing equations. For the n = 2 , 3 cases we observe that the massless modes decouple from the one-loop calculation of massive mode scattering, i.e. the 2 n-dimensional supercoset sigma model and the full 10-dimensional superstring happen to have the same massive one-loop S-matrix.

  15. Sildenafil and an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns-Loveman, Karen M; Kaplowitz, Mark R; Fike, Candice D

    2005-07-01

    Devising therapies that might prevent the onset or progression of pulmonary hypertension in newborns has received little attention. Our major objective was to determine whether sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, prevents the development of an early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn pigs. Another objective was to determine whether sildenafil causes pulmonary vasodilation without systemic vasodilation in piglets with chronic pulmonary hypertension. Piglets were raised in room air (control, n = 5) or 10-11% O(2) (hypoxic, n = 17) for 3 days. Some piglets (n = 4) received oral sildenafil, 12 mg/kg/day, throughout exposure to hypoxia. All piglets were anesthetized and catheterized, and pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), pulmonary wedge pressure (Pw), aortic pressure (Ao), and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Then for some piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, a single oral sildenafil dose (3 mg/kg, n = 6) or placebo (n = 5) was given, and hemodynamic measurements were repeated. For piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, mean Ppa and calculated PVR were elevated above respective values in control piglets. Mean Ppa and PVR did not differ between piglets that received sildenafil throughout exposure to hypoxia and those that did not. For piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension that received a single oral dose of sildenafil, mean Ppa and PVR decreased, while mean Pw, CO, mean Ao, and systemic vascular resistance remained the same. All hemodynamic measurements were unchanged after placebo. Oral sildenafil did not influence the early stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. However, a single oral dose of sildenafil caused pulmonary vasodilation, without systemic vasodilation, in piglets with chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, which may have therapeutic implications.

  16. Early estrogen-induced gene 1, a novel RANK signaling component, is essential for osteoclastogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Kyoung Choi; Hye Ri Kang; Eutteum Jung; Tae Eon Kim; Jing Jing Lin; Soo Young Lee

    2013-01-01

    The receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK) and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing adaptors are essential factors involved in regulating osteoclast formation and bone remodeling.Here,we identify early estrogen-induced gene 1 (EEIG1) as a novel RANK ligand (RANKL)-inducible protein that physically interacts with RANK and further associates with Gab2,PLCγ2 and Tec/Btk kinases upon RANKL stimulation.EEIG1 positively regulates RANKL-induced osteoclast formation,likely due to its ability to facilitate RANKL-stimulated PLCγ2 phosphorylation and NFATc1 induction.In addition,an inhibitory peptide designed to block RANK-EEIG1 interaction inhibited RANKL-induced bone destruction by reducing osteoclast formation.Together,our results identify EEIG1 as a novel RANK signaling component controlling RANK-mediated osteoclast formation,and suggest that targeting EEIG1 might represent a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pathological bone resorption.

  17. Silica Induced Early Fibrogenic Reaction in Lung of Mice Ameliorated by Nyctanthes arbortristis Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pharmacological effect of Nyctanthes arbortristis (NAT) leaf extract in the prevention of lung injury induced by silica particles. Method Lung injury was induced in Swiss mice through inhalation exposure to silica particles (<5μ) using a Flow Past Nose Only Inhalation Chamber at the rate of -10 mg/m3 respirable mass for 5 h. Lung bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected between 48 and 72 h was subjected to protein profiling by electrophoresis and cytokine evaluation by solid phase sandwich ELISA. Lung histopathology was performed to evaluate lung injury. Results Inhalation of silica increased the level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and of the 66 and 63 kDa peptides in the BAL fluid in comparison to sham-treated control. Pre-treatment of silica exposed mice with NAT leaf extract significantly prevented the accumulation of TNF-α in the BAL fluid, but the 66 and 63 kDa peptides remained unchanged. The extract was also effective in the prevention of silica-induced early fibrogenic reactions like congestion, edema and infiltration of nucleated cells in the interstitial alveolar spaces, and thickening of alveolar septa in mouse lung. Conclusion NAT leaf extract helps in bypassing silica induced initial lung injury in mice.

  18. Early LPS-induced ERK activation in retinal pigment epithelium cells is dependent on PIP 2 -PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Melina V; Kamerbeek, Constanza B; Giusto, Norma M; Salvador, Gabriela A

    2016-06-01

    This article presents additional data regarding the study "The phospholipase D pathway mediates the inflammatory response of the retinal pigment epithelium" [1]. The new data presented here show that short exposure of RPE cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces an early and transient activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). This early ERK1/2 activation is dependent on phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate-phospholipase C (PIP2-PLC). On the contrary, neither the phospholipase D 1 (PLD1) nor the PLD2 inhibition is able to modulate the early ERK1/2 activation induced by LPS in RPE cells.

  19. The complete worldsheet S matrix of superstrings on AdS3×S3×T4 with mixed three-form flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lloyd

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We determine the off-shell symmetry algebra and representations of Type IIB superstring theory on AdS3×S3×T4 with mixed R–R and NS–NS three-form flux. We use these to derive the non-perturbative worldsheet S matrix of fundamental excitations of the superstring theory. Our analysis includes both massive and massless modes and shows how turning on mixed three-form flux results in an integrable deformation of the S matrix of the pure R–R theory.

  20. Changes in Gut Microbiota May Be Early Signs of Liver Toxicity Induced by Epoxiconazole in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Qian; Huan, Fei; Qu, Jianhua; Liu, Wei; Gu, Aihua; Wang, Yubang; Jiang, Zhaoyan

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiome is essential for human health due to its effects on disease development, drug metabolism and the immune system. It may also play a role in the interaction with environmental toxicants. However, the effect of epoxiconazole, a fungicide active ingredient from the class of azoles developed to protect crops, on the abundance and composition of the gut microbiome has never been studied. We put forward the hypothesis that changes in gut microbiota may be early signs of toxicity induced by epoxiconazole. In this study, female rats were fed with epoxiconazole-adulterated diets (0, 4 and 100 mg/kg/day) for 90 days. The gut microbiome was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Body and organ weight, and blood biochemistry were also measured after 90 days of oral epoxiconazole exposure. Interestingly, the abundance of gut Firmicutes decreased, and Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria increased. At family level, Lachnospiraceae and Enterobacteriaceae were selectively enriched following epoxiconazole exposure. Our results indicate that epoxiconazole exposure may induce changes in the gut microbiome and potential liver toxicity. Changes in the gut microbiome may be used as early indicators for monitoring the health risk of the host. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Early maternal deprivation in rats induces gender-dependent effects on developing hippocampal and cerebellar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Ricardo; Gallardo, Meritxell López; Berzal, Alvaro Llorente; Prada, Carmen; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Viveros, María-Paz

    2009-05-01

    Adult animals submitted to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation [24h, postnatal day 9-10] show behavioral alterations that resemble specific symptoms of schizophrenia. According to the neurodevelopmental theory, these behavioral deficits might be mediated by detrimental neurodevelopmental processes that might be associated, at least partially, with stress-induced corticosterone responses. In order to address this hypothesis, we have focused on the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex, two brain regions that show high density of glucocorticoid receptors, and analyzed possible neuronal and glial alterations by immunohistochemical techniques. To evaluate the presence of degenerated neurons we used Fluoro-Jade-C (FJ-C) staining and for the study of astrocytes we employed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Within control animals, females showed significantly more GFAP positive cells than males and a trend towards more FJ-C positive cells. Maternal deprivation induced neuronal degeneration and astroglial changes in the hippocampus and cerebellar cortex of neonatal rats that, in general, were more marked in males. This differential effect may be attributable to a greater vulnerability of males to this kind of early environmental insult and/or to sex-dependent differences in the onset and/or progression of the effects. The present experimental procedure may be instrumental in elucidating sex-dependent mechanisms of neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders with a basis in early environmental insults.

  2. Early detection of oil-induced stress in crops using spectral and thermal responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emengini, Ebele Josephine; Blackburn, George Alan; Theobald, Julian Charles

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is a major source of environmental degradation, and requires accurate monitoring and timely detection for an effective control of its occurrence. This paper examines the potential of a remote sensing approach using the spectral and thermal responses of crops for the early detection of stress caused by oil pollution. In a glasshouse, pot-grown maize was treated with oil at sublethal and lethal applications. Thereafter, leaf thermal, spectral and physiological measurements were taken every two to three days to monitor the development of stress responses. Our results indicate that absolute leaf temperature was a poor indicator of developing stress. However, a derived thermal index (IG) responded consistently in the early stages of physiological damage. Various spectral reflectance features were highly sensitive to oil-induced stress. A narrow-band index using wavelengths in the near-infrared and red-edge region, (R755-R716)/(R755+R716), was optimal for previsual detection of oil-induced stress. This index had a strong linear relationship with photosynthetic rate. This indicates that by detecting vegetation stress, thermal and hyperspectral remote sensing has considerable potential for the timely detection of oil pollution in the environment.

  3. Changes in fractal dimension and lacunarity as early markers of UV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Igor; Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica; Pantovic, Aleksandar; Milosevic, Nebojsa T; Trajkovic, Vladimir

    2012-06-21

    The aim of our study was to employ fractal analysis for evaluation of ultrastructural changes during early stages of apoptosis. Apoptosis was induced in U251 human glioma cell line by exposure to UVB light. The cells were visualized by optical phase-contrast microscopy and photographed before the UV treatment, immediately after the treatment, as well as at 30 min intervals during 5h observation period. For each of the 32 cells analyzed, cellular and nuclear fractal dimension, as well as nuclear lacunarity, were determined at each time point. Our data demonstrate that cellular ultrastructural complexity determined by fractal dimension and lacunarity significantly decreases after the UV irradiation, with the nuclear lacunarity being a particularly sensitive parameter in detecting early apoptosis. Importantly, fractal analysis was able to detect cellular apoptotic changes earlier than conventional flow cytometric analysis of phosphatidylserine exposure, DNA fragmentation and cell membrane permeabilization. These results indicate that fractal analysis might be a powerful and affordable method for non-invasive early identification of apoptosis in cell cultures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High-frequency audiometry: a means for early diagnosis of noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrparvar, Amir H; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed J; Ghoreyshi, Abbas; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Loukzadeh, Ziba

    2011-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), an irreversible disorder, is a common problem in industrial settings. Early diagnosis of NIHL can help prevent the progression of hearing loss, especially in speech frequencies. For early diagnosis of NIHL, audiometry is performed routinely in conventional frequencies. We designed this study to compare the effect of noise on high-frequency audiometry (HFA) and conventional audiometry. In a historical cohort study, we compared hearing threshold and prevalence of hearing loss in conventional and high frequencies of audiometry among textile workers divided into two groups: With and without exposure to noise more than 85 dB. The highest hearing threshold was observed at 4000 Hz, 6000 Hz and 16000 Hz in conventional right ear audiometry, conventional left ear audiometry and HFA in each ear, respectively. The hearing threshold was significantly higher at 16000 Hz compared to 4000. Hearing loss was more common in HFA than conventional audiometry. HFA is more sensitive to detect NIHL than conventional audiometry. It can be useful for early diagnosis of hearing sensitivity to noise, and thus preventing hearing loss in lower frequencies especially speech frequencies.

  5. Fisetin induces Sirt1 expression while inhibiting early adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Chon; Kim, Yoo Hoon; Son, Sung Wook; Moon, Eun-Yi; Pyo, Suhkneung; Um, Sung Hee

    2015-11-27

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a naturally found flavonol in many fruits and vegetables and is known to have anti-aging, anti-cancer and anti-viral effects. However, the effects of fisetin on early adipocyte differentiation and the epigenetic regulator controlling adipogenic transcription factors remain unclear. Here, we show that fisetin inhibits lipid accumulation and suppresses the expression of PPARγ in 3T3-L1 cells. Fisetin suppressed early stages of preadipocyte differentiation, and induced expression of Sirt1. Depletion of Sirt1 abolished the inhibitory effects of fisetin on intracellular lipid accumulation and on PPARγ expression. Mechanistically, fisetin facilitated Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of PPARγ and FoxO1, and enhanced the association of Sirt1 with the PPARγ promoter, leading to suppression of PPARγ transcriptional activity, thereby repressing adipogenesis. Lowering Sirt1 levels reversed the effects of fisetin on deacetylation of PPARγ and increased PPARγ transactivation. Collectively, our results suggest the effects of fisetin in increasing Sirt1 expression and in epigenetic control of early adipogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoform in Chorionic Villi in the Early Spontaneous Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the early spontaneous abortion. , in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of iNOS in trophoblasts in the early pregnancy with and without spontaneous abortion (group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ ). By light microscopy and computer color magic image analysis system (CMIAS), light density (D) and the positive cell number per statistic square (N/S) in situ hybridization were used to analyze the positive cell index, while total positive cells (N) and the positive unit (Pu) were used in immunohistochemistry. By in situ hybridization, D and N/S in trophoblasts were 0. 35±0. 028, 0. 07±0. 011 respectively in group Ⅰ and 0. 18±0. 016,0. 015±0. 003 in group Ⅱ . In terms of immunohistochemical staining, N and Pu were 0. 058±±0. 007, 11. 94±2. 01 in group Ⅰ and 0. 013±0. 009, 1. 08±0. 35 in group Ⅱ in trophoblasts. Significant differences existed between two groups. It is concluded that the higher nitric oxide produced by the higher expression of iNOS in trophoblasts might play an important role in the early spontaneous abortion.

  7. Gauge symmetry breaking in the hidden sector of the flipped SU(5)xU(1) superstring model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, I.; Rizos, J. (Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)); Tamvakis, K. (Theoretical Physics Div., Univ. Ioannina (Greece))

    1992-03-26

    We analyze the SU(5)xU(1)'xU(1){sup 4}xSO(10)xSU(4) superstring model with a spontaneously broken hidden sector down to SO(7)xSO(5) taking into account non-renormalizable superpotential terms up to eight order. As a result of the hidden sector breaking the 'exotic' states get a mass and the 'observable' spectrum is composed of the standard three families. In addition, Cabibbo mixing arises at sixth order and an improved fermion mass hierarchy emerges. (orig.).

  8. Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Nam, Wook; Ji, Liming; Benanti, Travis L.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Wagner, Sigurd; Wang, Qi; Nemeth, William; Neidich, Douglas; Fonash, Stephen J.

    2011-08-01

    Superstrate a-Si:H solar cells incorporating a nano-column array for light and photocarrier collection have been fabricated and evaluated. It is found that the short circuit current density (JSC) is significantly increased while the open circuit voltage and fill factor are not detrimentally affected by this architecture. Numerical analysis of JSC matches experiment and shows that the enhanced JSC observed is due to both effective absorber thickness and photonic-plasmonic effects. Further analysis shows that this nano-column architecture can lead to a 42% increase in conversion efficiency over that of the planar control for a 200 nm absorber thickness cell.

  9. PEX11β induces peroxisomal gene expression and alters peroxisome number during early Xenopus laevis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanovski Sashko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisomes are organelles whose roles in fatty acid metabolism and reactive oxygen species elimination have contributed much attention in understanding their origin and biogenesis. Many studies have shown that de novo peroxisome biogenesis is an important regulatory process, while yeast studies suggest that total peroxisome numbers are in part regulated by proteins such as Pex11, which can facilitate the division of existing peroxisomes. Although de novo biogenesis and divisions are likely important mechanisms, the regulation of peroxisome numbers during embryonic development is poorly understood. Peroxisome number and function are particularly crucial in oviparous animals such as frogs where large embryonic yolk and fatty acid stores must be quickly metabolized, and resulting reactive oxygen species eliminated. Here we elucidate the role of Pex11β in regulating peroxisomal gene expression and number in Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. Results Microinjecting haemagglutinin (HA tagged Pex11β in early embryos resulted in increased RNA levels for peroxisome related genes PMP70 and catalase at developmental stages 10 and 20, versus uninjected embryos. Catalase and PMP70 proteins were found in punctate structures at stage 20 in control embryos, whereas the injection of ectopic HA-Pex11β induced their earlier localization in punctate structures at stage 10. Furthermore, the peroxisomal marker GFP-SKL, which was found localized as peroxisome-like structures at stage 20, was similarly found at stage 10 when co-microinjected with HA-Pex11β. Conclusions Overexpressed Pex11β altered peroxisomal gene levels and induced the early formation of peroxisomes-like structures during development, both of which demonstrate that Pex11β may be a key regulator of peroxisome number in early Xenopus embryos.

  10. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics during ceramide-induced cardiomyocyte early apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Valentina; Eisner, Veronica; Chiong, Mario; Criollo, Alfredo; Moraga, Francisco; Garcia, Alejandra; Härtel, Steffen; Jaimovich, Enrique; Zorzano, Antonio; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Lavandero, Sergio

    2008-01-15

    In cells, mitochondria are organized as a network of interconnected organelles that fluctuate between fission and fusion events (mitochondrial dynamics). This process is associated with cell death. We investigated whether activation of apoptosis with ceramides affects mitochondrial dynamics and promotes mitochondrial fission in cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were incubated with C(2)-ceramide or the inactive analog dihydro-C(2)-ceramide for up to 6 h. Three-dimensional images of cells loaded with mitotracker green were obtained by confocal microscopy. Dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp-1) and mitochondrial fission protein 1 (Fis1) distribution and levels were studied by immunofluorescence and western blot. Mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and cytochrome c (cyt c) distribution were used as indexes of early activation of apoptosis. Cell viability and DNA fragmentation were determined by propidium iodide staining/flow cytometry, whereas cytotoxicity was evaluated by lactic dehydrogenase activity. To decrease the levels of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2, we used an antisense adenovirus (AsMfn2). C(2)-ceramide, but not dihydro-C(2)-ceramide, promoted rapid fragmentation of the mitochondrial network in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. C(2)-ceramide also increased mitochondrial Drp-1 and Fis1 content, Drp-1 colocalization with Fis1, and caused early activation of apoptosis. AsMfn2 accentuated the decrease in DeltaPsi(m) and cyt c redistribution induced by C(2)-ceramide. Doxorubicin, which induces cardiomyopathy and apoptosis through ceramide generation, also stimulated mitochondrial fragmentation. Ceramides stimulate mitochondrial fission and this event is associated with early activation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

  11. Expression of Apoptosis and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Trophoblastic Cells in Early Spontaneous Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏革清; 孙永玉

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of apoptosis and inducible nitric oxide (Inos) on the early spontaneous abortion Methods TUNEL method was used to detect the apoptosis in trophoblast cells in early pregnancy with and without spontaneous abortion (the experiment group and the control group), while Inos was detected by both in situ hybridization and immunohis tochemistry. By computer color magic image analysis system (CMIAS), positive cell indexes were represented by D (density) and N/S (number/square) in both apoptosis and in situ hybridization, in immunohistochemistry were N/S and PU (positive unit).Results Positive cell indexes of apoptosis D and N/S were significntly higher in the experiment group (0. 48± 0. 004, 0. 045±0. 002) than that in the control group( 0. 35 +0. 06, 0. 031±0. 003. P<0. 001). D and N/S of inducible nitric oxide synthase in situ hybridization were 0. 33± 0. 028, 0. 074± 0. 001 respectively in the experiment group and 0. 13± 0. 015, 0. 019± 0. 004 respectively in the control group. N/S and PU were significantly higher in the experiment group( 0. 058± 0. 007, 11. 94± 2. 01)than that in the control group (0. 007± 0. 001, 1. 18± 0. 35, P<0. 01). There existed a positive correlation between Inos and apoptosis too.Conclution Apoptosis and Inos in trophoblasts might play an important role in early spontaneous abortion and there was a positive correlation between apoptosis and Inos.

  12. Changes in sensitivity to ethanol-induced social facilitation and social inhibition from early to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2004-06-01

    Adolescent rats are more sensitive than adults to ethanol-induced social facilitation, but are less sensitive to the suppression of social interactions seen at higher ethanol doses. Given recent findings that point to age differences in ethanol responsiveness, even within the adolescent period, the present study assessed acute effects of low to moderate doses of ethanol on social behavior of early, mid- or late adolescent rats. Age-related changes in responsiveness to the effects of ethanol on social behavior were apparent even within the adolescent period, with early adolescents being more sensitive to ethanol-induced social facilitation and less sensitive to ethanol-induced social inhibition than mid- and late adolescents. Given that ethanol-induced social facilitation as well as a lower sensitivity to the adverse effects of ethanol may contribute to heavy drinking, this pattern of early adolescent responsiveness to ethanol's social consequences may put them at higher risk for extensive alcohol use.

  13. Hypermutator Salmonella Heidelberg induces an early cell death in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Zenbaa, Neila; Bouchard, Damien; Lavault, Marie-Thérèse; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Bousarghin, Latifa

    2015-10-22

    We have previously described that a strain of Salmonella Heidelberg with a hypermutator phenotype, B182, adhered strongly to HeLa cells. In this work, we showed that this hypermutator Salmonella strain invaded HeLa epithelial cells and induced cytoskeleton alteration. Those changes lead to HeLa cell death which was characteristic of apoptosis. For the first time, we showed that this hypermutator strain induced apoptosis associated with the activation of caspases 2, 9 and 3. Complementation of B182 strain showed a decrease in cells death induction. In the presence of other Salmonella Heidelberg with a normomutator phenotype, such as WT and SL486, cell death and caspase 3 were undetectable. These results suggested that early apoptosis and caspase 3 activation were specific to B182. Besides, B182 induced LDH release and caspase 3 activation in CaCo-2 and HCT116 cells. Heat-treated B182 and diffusible products failed to induce this phenotype. Epithelial cells treatment with cytochalasin D caused the inhibition of B182 internalisation and caspase 3 activation. These results showed that this cell death required active S. Heidelberg B182 protein synthesis and bacterial internalisation. However sipB and sopB, usually involved in apoptosis induced by Salmonella were not overexpressed in B182, contrary to fimA and fliC. Comparative genome analysis showed numerous mutations as in rpoS which would be more investigated. The role of the hypermutator phenotype might be suspected to be implicated in these specific features. This result expands our knowledge about strong mutators frequently found in bacterial organisms isolated from clinical specimens.

  14. Early ice retreat and ocean warming may induce copepod biogeographic boundary shifts in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixuan; Ji, Rubao; Campbell, Robert G.; Ashjian, Carin J.; Zhang, Jinlun

    2016-08-01

    Early ice retreat and ocean warming are changing various facets of the Arctic marine ecosystem, including the biogeographic distribution of marine organisms. Here an endemic copepod species, Calanus glacialis, was used as a model organism, to understand how and why Arctic marine environmental changes may induce biogeographic boundary shifts. A copepod individual-based model was coupled to an ice-ocean-ecosystem model to simulate temperature- and food-dependent copepod life history development. Numerical experiments were conducted for two contrasting years: a relatively cold and normal sea ice year (2001) and a well-known warm year with early ice retreat (2007). Model results agreed with commonly known biogeographic distributions of C. glacialis, which is a shelf/slope species and cannot colonize the vast majority of the central Arctic basins. Individuals along the northern boundaries of this species' distribution were most susceptible to reproduction timing and early food availability (released sea ice algae). In the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, and Laptev Seas where severe ocean warming and loss of sea ice occurred in summer 2007, relatively early ice retreat, elevated ocean temperature (about 1-2°C higher than 2001), increased phytoplankton food, and prolonged growth season created favorable conditions for C. glacialis development and caused a remarkable poleward expansion of its distribution. From a pan-Arctic perspective, despite the great heterogeneity in the temperature and food regimes, common biogeographic zones were identified from model simulations, thus allowing a better characterization of habitats and prediction of potential future biogeographic boundary shifts.

  15. Potential early predictors for outcomes of experimental hemorrhagic shock induced by uncontrolled internal bleeding in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A Abassi

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled hemorrhage, resulting from traumatic injuries, continues to be the leading cause of death in civilian and military environments. Hemorrhagic deaths usually occur within the first 6 hours of admission to hospital; therefore, early prehospital identification of patients who are at risk for developing shock may improve survival. The aims of the current study were: 1. To establish and characterize a unique model of uncontrolled internal hemorrhage induced by massive renal injury (MRI, of different degrees (20-35% unilateral nephrectomy in rats, 2. To identify early biomarkers those best predict the outcome of severe internal hemorrhage. For this purpose, male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized and cannulas were inserted into the trachea and carotid artery. After abdominal laparotomy, the lower pole of the kidney was excised. During 120 minutes, hematocrit, pO2, pCO2, base excess, potassium, lactate and glucose were measured from blood samples, and mean arterial pressure (MAP was measured through arterial tracing. After 120 minutes, blood loss was determined. Statistical prediction models of mortality and amount of blood loss were performed. In this model, the lowest blood loss and mortality rate were observed in the group with 20% nephrectomy. Escalation of the extent of nephrectomy to 25% and 30% significantly increased blood loss and mortality rate. Two phases of hemodynamic and biochemical response to MRI were noticed: the primary phase, occurring during the first 15 minutes after injury, and the secondary phase, beginning 30 minutes after the induction of bleeding. A Significant correlation between early blood loss and mean arterial pressure (MAP decrements and survival were noted. Our data also indicate that prediction of outcome was attainable in the very early stages of blood loss, over the first 15 minutes after the injury, and that blood loss and MAP were the strongest predictors of mortality.

  16. Neutrophils as early immunologic effectors in hemorrhage- or endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, E; Carmody, A; Shenkar, R; Arcaroli, J

    2000-12-01

    Acute lung injury is characterized by accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs, accompanied by the development of interstitial edema and an intense inflammatory response. To assess the role of neutrophils as early immune effectors in hemorrhage- or endotoxemia-induced lung injury, mice were made neutropenic with cyclophosphamide or anti-neutrophil antibodies. Endotoxemia- or hemorrhage-induced lung edema was significantly reduced in neutropenic animals. Activation of the transcriptional regulatory factor nuclear factor-kappaB after hemorrhage or endotoxemia was diminished in the lungs of neutropenic mice compared with nonneutropenic controls. Hemorrhage or endotoxemia was followed by increases in pulmonary mRNA and protein levels for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Endotoxin-induced increases in proinflammatory cytokine expression were greater than those found after hemorrhage. The amounts of mRNA or protein for IL-1beta, MIP-2, and TNF-alpha were significantly lower after hemorrhage in the lungs of neutropenic versus nonneutropenic mice. Neutropenia was associated with significant reductions in IL-1beta and MIP-2 but not in TNF-alpha expression in the lungs after endotoxemia. These experiments show that neutrophils play a central role in initiating acute inflammatory responses and causing injury in the lungs after hemorrhage or endotoxemia.

  17. Dendrobium officinale Prevents Early Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-zhen Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dendrobium officinale (DO Kimura et Migo is a precious Chinese herb that is considered beneficial for health due to its antioxidant and antidiabetes properties, and so on. In this research, we try to determine the preventive effect of DO on the early complications of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods. Type 1 diabetic rats were produced with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg. DO (1 g/kg/day was then orally administered for 5 weeks. Blood glucose, TC, TG, BUN, CREA, and GSH-PX levels were determined, and electroretinographic activity and hypoalgesia were investigated. Pathological sections of the eyes, hearts, aortas, kidneys, and livers were analyzed. Results. Treatment with DO significantly attenuated the serum levels of TC, TG, BUN, and CREA, markedly increased the amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves and Ops, and reduced the hypoalgesia and histopathological changes of vital organs induced by hyperglycemia. The protective effect of DO in diabetic rats may be associated with its antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the marked increase in the serum level of glutathione peroxidase. However, DO had no significant effect on blood glucose levels and bodyweight of diabetic rats. Conclusions. DO supplementation is an effective treatment to prevent STZ-induced diabetic complications.

  18. Dendrobium officinale Prevents Early Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shao-Zhen; Liang, Chu-Yan; Liu, Hua-Zhen; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wu, Ya-Yun; Liang, Jian; Zhao, Ya; Guo, Jian-Ru; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dendrobium officinale (DO) Kimura et Migo is a precious Chinese herb that is considered beneficial for health due to its antioxidant and antidiabetes properties, and so on. In this research, we try to determine the preventive effect of DO on the early complications of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods. Type 1 diabetic rats were produced with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). DO (1 g/kg/day) was then orally administered for 5 weeks. Blood glucose, TC, TG, BUN, CREA, and GSH-PX levels were determined, and electroretinographic activity and hypoalgesia were investigated. Pathological sections of the eyes, hearts, aortas, kidneys, and livers were analyzed. Results. Treatment with DO significantly attenuated the serum levels of TC, TG, BUN, and CREA, markedly increased the amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves and Ops, and reduced the hypoalgesia and histopathological changes of vital organs induced by hyperglycemia. The protective effect of DO in diabetic rats may be associated with its antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the marked increase in the serum level of glutathione peroxidase. However, DO had no significant effect on blood glucose levels and bodyweight of diabetic rats. Conclusions. DO supplementation is an effective treatment to prevent STZ-induced diabetic complications.

  19. PhD Thesis: String theory in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gwyn, Rhiannon

    2009-01-01

    The intersection of string theory with cosmology is unavoidable in the early universe, and its exploration may shine light on both fields. In this thesis, three papers at this intersection are presented and reviewed, with the aim of providing a thorough and pedagogical guide to their results. First, we address the longstanding problem of finding a string theory realisation of the axion. Using warped compactifications in heterotic string theory, we show that the axion decay constant can be lowered to acceptable values by the warp factor. Next, we move to the subject of cosmic strings, whose network evolution could have important consequences for astrophysics and cosmology. In particular, there are quantitative differences between cosmic superstring networks and GUT cosmic string networks. We investigate the properties of cosmic superstring networks in warped backgrounds, giving the tension and properties of three-string junctions in these backgrounds. Finally, we examine the possibility that cosmic strings in ...

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of early pentoxifylline administration on hepatic injury induced by concanavalin A in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Doaa Ibrahim; Elmelegy, Ahmed Abdel Salam Mohamed; El-Aziz, Lubna Foaad A; Abdel Kawy, Hala Salah; AbdEl-Samad, Abeer Ahmed; El-Kharashi, Omnyah Ali

    2014-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in the pathogensis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induced liver injury. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of TNF-α inhibition with pentoxifylline (PTX) on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatic injury in rats. The rats were distributed among 3 groups: (i) control group (1 mL saline·week(-1) by intravenous injection (i.v.)); (ii) Con A treatment group (20 mg Con A·(kg body mass)(-1)·week(-1), i.v.), and (iii) rats treated with Con A and with PTX (200 mg PTX·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), per oral) group. Blood samples and livers were collected at the end of weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8 of Con A treatment. Portal pressure (PP) was measured at the end of week 8. The administration of PTX was found to confer significant protection against the injurious effects of Con A on the liver, by reducing serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, hepatic TNF-α, and malondialdehyde. Histopathological examination revealed that treatment with PTX significantly suppressed early inflammation, reduced alpha smooth muscle actin, and the apoptosis of hepatocytes induced by Con A. Moreover, PTX significantly (P < 0.05) reduced PP, and quantitative analyses of the area of fibrosis induced by treatment with Con A showed a significant reduction at the end of week 8. We conclude that rats treated with PTX revealed a more or less normal hepatocyte architecture as well as marked improvement in fibrosis and PP.

  1. Enriched Environment Protects the Optic Nerve from Early Diabetes-Induced Damage in Adult Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Dorfman

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Axoglial alterations of the distal (close to the chiasm optic nerve (ON could be the first structural change of the visual pathway in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on axoglial alterations of the ON provoked by experimental diabetes. For this purpose, three days after vehicle or STZ injection, animals were housed in enriched environment (EE or remained in a standard environment (SE for 6 weeks. Anterograde transport, retinal morphology, optic nerve axons (toluidine blue staining and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity, microglia/macrophages (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1 immunoreactivity, astrocyte reactivity (glial fibrillary acid protein-immunostaining, myelin (myelin basic protein immunoreactivity, ultrastructure, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels were assessed in non-diabetic and diabetic animals housed in SE or EE. No differences in retinal morphology or retinal ganglion cell number were observed among groups. EE housing which did not affect the STZ-induced weight loss and hyperglycemia, prevented a decrease in the anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus, ON axon number, and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity. Moreover, EE housing prevented an increase in Iba-1 immunoreactivity, and astrocyte reactivity, as well as ultrastructural myelin alterations in the ON distal portion at early stages of diabetes. In addition, EE housing avoided a decrease in BDNF levels induced by experimental diabetes. These results suggest that EE induced neuroprotection in the diabetic visual pathway.

  2. On integrable deformations of superstring sigma models related to AdS_n x S^n supercosets

    CERN Document Server

    Hoare, B

    2015-01-01

    We consider two integrable deformations of 2d sigma models on supercosets associated with AdS_n x S^n. The first, the "eta-deformation" (based on the Yang-Baxter sigma model), is a one-parameter generalization of the standard superstring action on AdS_n x S^n, while the second, the "lambda-deformation" (based on the deformed gauged WZW model), is a generalization of the non-abelian T-dual of the AdS_n x S^n superstring. We show that the eta-deformed model may be obtained from the lambda-deformed one by a special scaling limit and analytic continuation in coordinates combined with a particular identification of the parameters of the two models. The relation between the couplings and deformation parameters is consistent with the interpretation of the first model as a real quantum deformation and the second as a root of unity quantum deformation. For the AdS_2 x S^2 case we then explore the effect of this limit on the supergravity background associated to the lambda-deformed model. We also suggest that the two m...

  3. One-point functions of non-SUSY operators at arbitrary genus in a matrix model for type IIA superstrings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunehide Kuroki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the previous paper, the authors pointed out correspondence between a supersymmetric double-well matrix model and two-dimensional type IIA superstring theory on a Ramond–Ramond background from the viewpoint of symmetry and spectrum. This was confirmed by agreement between planar correlation functions in the matrix model and tree-level amplitudes in the superstring theory. In order to investigate the correspondence further, in this paper we compute correlation functions to all order of genus expansion in the double scaling limit of the matrix model. One-point functions of operators protected by supersymmetry terminate at some finite order, whereas those of unprotected operators yield non-Borel summable series. The behavior of the latter is characteristic in string perturbation series, providing further evidence that the matrix model describes a string theory. Moreover, instanton corrections to the planar one-point functions are also computed, and universal logarithmic scaling behavior is found for non-supersymmetric operators.

  4. Hamiltonian of Green—Schwarz IIB Superstring Theory in AdS3 × S3 Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE San-Min; WANG Chun; WANG Zhan-Yun; JIANG Ke-Xia; SHI Kang-Jie

    2011-01-01

    We parameterize the Green-Schwarz IIB superstring in the AdS3 × S3 background under the light cone gauge by the method of Metsaev and Tseytlin in AdS3 and by the method of Rahmfeld and Rajaraman in S3.After some calculation,we obtain the corresponding Maurer-Cartan 1-forms and the action.Then we fix two bosonic variables x+ =τ and y5 = σ,perform the partial Legendre transformation of the remaining bosonic variables,and find a Lagrangian that is linear in velocity after eliminating the metric of the world sheet.We also give the Hamiltonian and prove that the system is local and the Poisson bracket of the theory can be well defined.Using these results,one can further study the properties of solution space,solution transformation and the structure of theflat current algebra of the superstring in the AdS3 × S3 background.

  5. D=11 superstring model with 30 kappa--symmetries and 30/ 32 BPS states in an extended superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Bandos, I A; Picon, M; Varela, O

    2003-01-01

    A superstring model in the D=11 superspace maximally extended by antisymmetric tensor bosonic coordinates, $\\Sigma^{(528|32)}$, is proposed. It possesses 30 kappa-symmetries and 32 target space supersymmetries. The usual preserved supersymmetry--kappa-symmetry correspondence suggests that it describes the excitations of a BPS state preserving all but two supersymmetries. The model can also be formulated in any $\\Sigma^{({n(n+1)\\over 2}|n)}$ superspace, n=32 corresponding to D=11. It may also be treated as a `higher--spin generalization' of the usual Green--Schwarz superstring. Although the global symmetry of the model is a generalization of the super--Poincar\\'e group, ${\\Sigma}^{({n(n+1)\\over 2}|n)}\\times\\supsetSp(n)$, it may be formulated in terms of constrained OSp(2n|1) orthosymplectic supertwistors. We workout this supertwistor realization and its Hamiltonian dynamics. We also give the super--p--brane generalization of the model. In particular, the $\\Sigma^{(528|32)}$ supermembrane model describes excita...

  6. Superstrate CuInS2 photovoltaics with enhanced performance using a CdS/ZnO nanorod array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongwook; Yong, Kijung

    2012-12-01

    An air-stable, low-temperature, solution-based process for preparing CuInS(2) (CIS) superstrate solar cells using CdS-decorated ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays is reported. Efficient light harvesting and photoexcited charge transport were achieved by fabricating a ZnO NR window layer with a large p-n junction area via a hydrothermal reaction. A CdS buffer layer was deposited on a transparent ZnO NR substrate at room temperature via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) or nanocrystal layer deposition (NCLD). The prepared CdS/ZnO NR assembly was coated with a CIS absorber layer without the need for surface passivation organics or dispersion reagents. The CIS precursor solution, prepared using a metal salt, thiourea, and an amine solvent, yielded CIS nanocrystals (NCs) at temperatures up to 250 °C. The CIS/CdS/ZnO NR heterojunction structure exhibited an excellent photovoltaic performance compared to a planar ZnO film device due to enhanced light transmittance toward the absorber and a high charge collection efficiency. These results suggest that a superstrate CIS/CdS/ZnO NRs photovoltaic cell fabricated via the low-cost route described here has great potential as a next-generation solar cell device.

  7. Early changes of dog esophageal mucosa induced by N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, K; Shisa, H; Futatsuki, K; Sasajima, K

    1981-12-01

    Early changes in the esophageal mucosa of dogs induced by N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (ENNG) were studied. Seven one-year-old beagle dogs were given a solution of 250 micrograms ENNG/ml to drink ad libitum for 4 months. Three different kinds of lesions (10 erosive carcinomas, 4 slightly elevated microcarcinomas and 19 leukoplakias) were recognized. These three kinds of lesions were not located adjacent to one another, and were surrounded by almost normal stratified squamous epithelium. The foci of the carcinomas revealed an abrupt transition to normal epithelium and were considered to have arisen abruptly from normal esophageal epithelium. The histogenesis of squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus in dogs may differ from that in man.

  8. Are plant endogenous factors like ethylene modulators of the early oxidative stress induced by mercury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Belén eMontero-Palmero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The induction of oxidative stress is one of the quickest symptoms appearing in plants subjected to metal stress. A transcriptional analysis of the early responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa seedlings to mercury (Hg; 3 µM for 3, 6 and 24 h showed that up-regulation of genes responding to ethylene were up-regulated, a phytohormone known to mediate in the cellular redox homeostasis. In this mini-review we have compared these quick responses with two other concurrent transcriptomic analysis in Barrel medic (Medicago truncatula and barley (Hordeum vulgare under Hg stress. Besides ethylene, ABA and jasmonate related genes were up-regulated, all of them are endogenous factors known to intervene in oxidative stress responses. The information obtained may target future work to understand the cellular mechanisms triggered by Hg, enabling biotechnological approaches to diminish Hg-induced phytotoxicity.

  9. Screening of Epstein—Barr Virus Early Antigen Expression Inducers from Chinese Medicinal Herbs and Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGY; ZHONGJian-Ming; 等

    1994-01-01

    Ethern extracts of 1693 Chinese medicinal herbs and plants from 268 families were studied for the induction of Epstein-Barr viral(EVB)early antigen(EA)expression in the Raji cell line.Fifty-two from 18 families were found to have inducing activity.Twenty-five and seven of them were from Euphorbiaceae and Thymelaeaceae,respactively.Some of them,such as Croton tiglium,Euphorbia kansui,Daphne genkwa,Wikstroemia chamaedaphen,Wikstroemia indica,Prunus mandshurica Koehne and Achyranthes bidentata are commonly used drugs.The significance of these herbs in the activation of EBV in vivo and their relation to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were discussed.

  10. Injury to the Endothelial Surface Layer Induces Glomerular Hyperfiltration Rats with Early-Stage Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerular endothelial surface layer (ESL may play a role in the mechanisms of albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy, which lack evidence in vivo. The effects of high glucose on the passage of albumin across the glomerular ESL were analysed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Albuminuria and glomerular mesangial matrix were significantly increased in diabetic rats. The passage of albumin across the ESL, as measured by albumin-colloid gold particle density in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM, was increased significantly in diabetic rats. The thickness of the glomerular ESL, examined indirectly by infusing Intralipid into vessels using an electron microscope, was significantly decreased and the GBM exhibited little change in diabetic rats. In summary, the glomerular ESL may play a role in the pathogenesis of albuminuria in rats with early-stage diabetes.

  11. Early Detection of Schistosoma Egg–Induced Pulmonary Granulomas in a Returning Traveler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Noémie; Le Govic, Yohann; Kettani, Sami; Pihet, Marc; Hemery, Sandrine; de Gentile, Ludovic; Chabasse, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a French traveler who developed acute pulmonary schistosomiasis 2 months after visiting Benin. He presented with a 1-month history of fever, cough, and thoracic pain. Initial investigations revealed hypereosinophilia and multiple nodular lesions on chest computed tomography scan. Lung biopsies were performed 2 months later because of migrating chest infiltrates and increasing eosinophilia. Histological examination showed schistosomal egg–induced pulmonary granulomas with ova exhibiting a prominent terminal spine, resembling Schistosoma haematobium. However, egg shells were Ziehl–Neelsen positive, raising the possibility of a Schistosoma intercalatum or a Schistosoma guineensis infection. Moreover, involvement of highly infectious hybrid species cannot be excluded considering the atypical early pulmonary oviposition. This case is remarkable because of the rarity of pulmonary schistosomiasis, its peculiar clinical presentation and difficulties in making species identification. It also emphasizes the need to consider schistosomiasis diagnosis in all potentially exposed travelers with compatible symptoms. PMID:26787142

  12. Early Detection of Schistosoma Egg-Induced Pulmonary Granulomas in a Returning Traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coron, Noémie; Le Govic, Yohann; Kettani, Sami; Pihet, Marc; Hemery, Sandrine; de Gentile, Ludovic; Chabasse, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a French traveler who developed acute pulmonary schistosomiasis 2 months after visiting Benin. He presented with a 1-month history of fever, cough, and thoracic pain. Initial investigations revealed hypereosinophilia and multiple nodular lesions on chest computed tomography scan. Lung biopsies were performed 2 months later because of migrating chest infiltrates and increasing eosinophilia. Histological examination showed schistosomal egg-induced pulmonary granulomas with ova exhibiting a prominent terminal spine, resembling Schistosoma haematobium. However, egg shells were Ziehl-Neelsen positive, raising the possibility of a Schistosoma intercalatum or a Schistosoma guineensis infection. Moreover, involvement of highly infectious hybrid species cannot be excluded considering the atypical early pulmonary oviposition. This case is remarkable because of the rarity of pulmonary schistosomiasis, its peculiar clinical presentation and difficulties in making species identification. It also emphasizes the need to consider schistosomiasis diagnosis in all potentially exposed travelers with compatible symptoms. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Early and individualized goal-directed therapy for trauma-induced coagulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schöchl Herbert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Severe trauma-related bleeding is associated with high mortality. Standard coagulation tests provide limited information on the underlying coagulation disorder. Whole-blood viscoelastic tests such as rotational thromboelastometry or thrombelastography offer a more comprehensive insight into the coagulation process in trauma. The results are available within minutes and they provide information about the initiation of coagulation, the speed of clot formation, and the quality and stability of the clot. Viscoelastic tests have the potential to guide coagulation therapy according to the actual needs of each patient, reducing the risks of over- or under-transfusion. The concept of early, individualized and goal-directed therapy is explored in this review and the AUVA Trauma Hospital algorithm for managing trauma-induced coagulopathy is presented.

  14. Immediate-early Inducible Function in Upstream Region of junB Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG WAN; HIROSHI ISHIHARA; IZUMI TANAKA

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyze the upstream region of radiation-induced junB gene. Methods Four plasmids containing 250 bp, 590 bp, 900 bp and 1650 bp, and CAT reporter gene were constructed separately and introduced to L8704 cells. The cells were irradiated with 2 Gy X-rays and incubated at different intervals. Total RNA was extracted from the cells and fluctuation of the CAT mRNA level was assessed by the RNA ratio of CAT/β-actin measured by quantitative Northern blot hybridization. Results CAT mRNA expression containing 900 bp and 1560 bpjunB promoter remarkably and rapidly increased, and reached its peak 30 min after 2 Gy X-ray irradiation. Conclusions 590~900 bp fragments located in the upstream region ofjunB gene play an important role in the early process of cells against radiation.

  15. Recharge of the early atmosphere of Mars by impact-induced release of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael H.

    1989-01-01

    The question as to whether high impact rates early in the history of Mars could have aided in maintaining a relatively thick CO2 atmosphere is discussed. Such impacts could have released CO2 into the atmosphere by burial, by shock-induced release during impact events, and by the addition of carbon to Mars from the impacting bolides. On the assumption that cratering rates on Mars were comparable to those of the moon's Nectarial period, burial rates are a result of 'impact gardening' at the end of heavy bombardment are estimated to have ranged from 20 to 45 m/million years; at these rates, 0.1-0.2 bar of CO2 would have been released every 10 million years as a result of burial to depths at which carbonate dissociation temperatures are encountered.

  16. Hypothermia induced by adenosine 5'-monophosphate attenuates early stage injury in an acute gouty arthritis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhimin; Guo, Weiting; Lu, Shulai; Lv, Wenshan; Li, Changgui; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua; Yan, Shengli; Tao, Zhenyin; Wang, Yunlong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether the hypothermia induced by Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate (5'-AMP) could attenuate early stage injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model. Ankle joint injection with monosodium urate monohydrate crystals (MSU crystals) in hypothermia rat model which was induced by 5'-AMP and then observe whether hypothermia induced by 5'-AMP could be effectively inhibit the inflammation on acute gouty arthritis in rats. AMP-induced hypothermia has protective effects on our acute gouty arthritis, which was demonstrated by the following criteria: (1) a significant reduction in the ankle swelling (p gouty arthritis model.

  17. Reduced Cu(InGa)Se2 Thickness in Solar Cells Using a Superstrate Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafarman, William N. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-03-30

    This project by the Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Delaware sought to develop the technology and underlying science to enable reduced cost of Cu(InGa)Se2 manufacturing by reducing the thickness of the Cu(InGa)Se2 absorber layer by half compared to typical production. The approach to achieve this was to use the superstrate cell configuration in which light is incident on the cell through the glass. This structure facilitates optical enhancement approaches needed to achieve high efficiency with Cu(InGa)Se2 thicknesses less than 1 µm. The primary objective was to demonstrate a Cu(InGa)Se2 cell with absorber thickness 0.5 - 0.7 µm and 17% efficiency, along with a quantitative loss analysis to define a pathway to 20% efficiency. Additional objectives were the development of stable TCO and buffer layers or contact layers to withstand the Cu(InGa)Se2 deposition temperature and of advanced optical enhancement methods. The underlying fundamental science needed to effectively transition these outcomes to large scale was addressed by extensive materials and device characterization and by development of comprehensive optical models. Two different superstrate configurations have been investigated. A frontwall cell is illuminated through the glass to the primary front junction of the device. This configuration has been used for previous efforts on superstrate Cu(InGa)Se2 but performance has been limited by interdiffusion or reaction with CdS or other buffer layers. In this project, several approaches to overcome these limitations were explored using CdS, ZnO and ZnSe buffer layers. In each case, mechanisms that limit device performance were identified using detailed characterization of the materials and junctions. Due to the junction formation difficulties, efforts were concentrated on a new backwall configuration in which light

  18. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (Psucrose treatment prevented such impairment (PSucrose significantly increased serum levels of endorphin and enkephalin. Chronic pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and this decrease was prevented by sucrose and paracetamol treatments. Hippocampal levels of NT-3 and IGF-1 were not affected by any treatment. In conclusion, chronic pain induction during early life induced short memory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous opioids.

  19. Early or late antibiotic intervention prevents Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songhua; Lee, Dong Soo; Morrissey, Rhiannon; Aponte-Pieras, Jose R; Rogers, Arlin B; Moss, Steven F

    2014-12-01

    H. pylori infection causes gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Eradicating H. pylori prevents ulcers, but to what extent this prevents cancer remains unknown, especially if given after intestinal metaplasia has developed. H. pylori infected wild-type (WT) mice do not develop cancer, but mice lacking the tumor suppressor p27 do so, thus providing an experimental model of H. pylori-induced cancer. We infected p27-deficient mice with H. pylori strain SS1 at 6-8 weeks of age. Persistently H. pylori-infected WT C57BL/6 mice served as controls. Mice in the eradication arms received antimicrobial therapy (omeprazole, metronidazole and clarithromycin) either "early" (at 15 weeks post infection, WPI) or "late" at 45 WPI. At 70 WPI, mice were euthanized for H. pylori determination, histopathology and cytokine/chemokine expression. Persistently infected mice developed premalignant lesions including high-grade dysplasia, whereas those given antibiotics did not. Histologic activity scores in the eradication groups were similar to each other, and were significantly decreased compared with controls for inflammation, epithelial defects, hyperplasia, metaplasia, atrophy and dysplasia. IP-10 and MIG levels in groups that received antibiotics were significantly lower than controls. There were no significant differences in expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1α or MIP-1β among the three groups. Thus, H. pylori eradication given either early or late after infection significantly attenuated gastric inflammation, gastric atrophy, hyperplasia, and dysplasia in the p27-deficient mice model of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, irrespective of the timing of antibiotic administration. This was associated with reduced expression of IP-10 and MIG.

  20. Yangian symmetry, S-matrices and Bethe Ansatz for the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuw, M. de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    We discuss the relation between the recently derived bound state S-matrices for the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring and Yangian symmetry. We will study the relation between this Yangian symmetry and the Bethe ansatz. In particular we can use it to derive the Bethe equations for bound states. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. A lattice Poisson algebra for the Pohlmeyer reduction of the AdS{sub 5} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 5} superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delduc, F. [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon et CNRS UMR 5672, Universite de Lyon 46, allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Magro, M., E-mail: marc.magro@ens-lyon.fr [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon et CNRS UMR 5672, Universite de Lyon 46, allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Vicedo, B. [Department of Mathematics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-09

    The Poisson algebra of the Lax matrix associated with the Pohlmeyer reduction of the AdS{sub 5} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 5} superstring is computed from first principles. The resulting non-ultralocality is mild, which enables to write down a corresponding lattice quadratic Poisson algebra, a key step towards the integrable quantization of this theory from first principles.

  2. Egg clutch dehydration induces early hatching in red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Salica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial eggs have evolved repeatedly in tropical anurans exposing embryos to the new threat of dehydration. Red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas, lay eggs on plants over water. Maternally provided water allows shaded eggs in humid sites to develop to hatching without rainfall, but unshaded eggs and those in less humid sites can die from dehydration. Hatching responses of amphibian eggs to dry conditions are known from two lineages with independent origins of terrestrial eggs. Here, we experimentally tested for dehydration-induced early hatching in another lineage (Agalychnis callidryas, Phyllomedusidae, representing a third independent origin of terrestrial eggs. We also investigated how dehydration affected egg and clutch structure, and egg mortality. We collected clutches from a pond in Gamboa, Panama, and randomly allocated them to wet or dry treatments at age 1 day. Embryos hatched earlier from dry clutches than from wet clutches, accelerating hatching by ∼11%. Clutch thickness and egg diameter were affected by dehydration, diverging between treatments over time. Meanwhile, mortality in dry clutches was six-fold higher than in control clutches. With this study, early hatching responses to escape mortality from egg dehydration are now known from three anuran lineages with independent origins of terrestrial eggs, suggesting they may be widespread. Further studies are needed to understand how terrestrial amphibian eggs can respond to, or will be affected by, rapid changes in climate over the next decades.

  3. Early transcriptional responses to mercury: a role for ethylene in mercury-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Palmero, M Belén; Martín-Barranco, Amanda; Escobar, Carolina; Hernández, Luis E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cellular mechanisms of plant tolerance to mercury (Hg) is important for developing phytoremediation strategies of Hg-contaminated soils. The early responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings to Hg were studied using transcriptomics analysis. A Medicago truncatula microarray was hybridized with high-quality root RNA from M. sativa treated with 3 μM Hg for 3, 6 and 24 h. The transcriptional pattern data were complementary to the measurements of root growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation and NADPH-oxidase activity as stress indexes. Of 559 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 91% were up-regulated. The majority of DEGs were shared between the 3 and 6 h (60%) time points, including the 'stress', 'secondary metabolism' and 'hormone metabolism' functional categories. Genes from ethylene metabolism and signalling were highly represented, suggesting that this phytohormone may be relevant for metal perception and homeostasis. Ethylene-insensitive alfalfa seedlings preincubated with the ethylene signalling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopronene and Arabidopsis thaliana ein2-5 mutants confirmed that ethylene participates in the early perception of Hg stress. It modulates root growth inhibition, NADPH-oxidase activity and Hg-induced apoplastic H2 O2 accumulation. Therefore, ethylene signalling attenuation could be useful in future phytotechnological applications to ameliorate stress symptoms in Hg-polluted plants.

  4. Early apoptosis of monocytes induced by Helicobacter pylori infection through multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Hui; Zhao, Huilin; Chen, Xingxing; Li, Jiaojiao; Li, Boqing

    2017-08-01

    Only a small percentage of people infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) will develop overt chronic gastric diseases. To understand the pathological mechanism, the action of H. pylori on monocyte apoptosis was detected. H. pylori co-culturing with peripheral blood monocytes, THP-1 or U937 cells result in early apoptosis at 6, 12, and 24 h after infection. The phosphorylated Bad and JNK were increased, and Bcl-2 was declined at 6, 12, and 24 h in peripheral blood monocytes after H. pylori infection. The phosphorylated Akt was augmented at 6 and 12 h post-infection. A slow apoptotic response was induced by H. pylori via Bad and Bcl-2 regulators, activated caspase-8 and caspase-9, and JNK at 24 h in THP-1 cells. Meanwhile, only Bad and JNK were involved in regulating U937 cells apoptosis at 24 h after infection. These results supported a novel mechanism of H. pylori escaping from monocytes by upregulation of early apoptosis and inhibition of late apoptosis. The differences among the three cells may reveal why H. pylori-derived disease occurs in relatively few people and provide a pathological mechanism whereby a treatment for H. pylori-derived disease may be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathophysiology of early trauma-induced coagulopathy: emerging evidence for hemodilution and coagulation factor depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaz, Beth H; Winkler, Anne M; James, Adelbert B; Hillyer, Christopher D; MacLeod, Jana B

    2011-06-01

    Trauma patients present with a coagulopathy, termed early trauma-induced coagulopathy (ETIC), that is associated with increased mortality. This study investigated hemostatic changes responsible for ETIC. Case-control study of trauma patients with and without ETIC, defined as prolonged prothrombin time (PT), was performed from prospective cohort of consecutive trauma patients who presented to Level I trauma center. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The case-control study group (n = 91) was 80% male, with mean age of 37 years, 17% penetrating trauma and 7% mortality rate. Patients with ETIC demonstrated decreased common and extrinsic pathway factor activities (factors V and VII) and decreased inhibition of the coagulation cascade (antithrombin and protein C activities) when compared with the matched control patients without ETIC. Both cohorts had evidence of increased thrombin and fibrin generation (prothrombin fragment 1.2 levels, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and soluble fibrin monomer), increased fibrinolysis (d-dimer levels), and increased inhibition of fibrinolysis (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity) above normal reference values. Patients with versus without ETIC had increased mortality and received increased amount of blood products. ETIC following injury is associated with decreased factor activities without significant differences in thrombin and fibrin generation, suggesting that despite these perturbations in the coagulation cascade, patients displayed a balanced hemostatic response to injury. The lower factor activities are likely secondary to increased hemodilution and coagulation factor depletion. Thus, decreasing the amount of crystalloid infused in the early phases following trauma and administration of coagulation factors may prevent the development.

  6. Proton and Fe Ion-Induced Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Kadhim, Munira

    2016-01-01

    An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. To investigate GI induced by charged particles, we exposed human lymphocytes, human fibroblast cells, and human mammary epithelial cells to high energy protons and Fe ions. In addition, we also investigated GI in bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mice, by analyzing cell survival and chromosome aberrations in the cells after multiple cell divisions. Results analyzed so far from the experiments indicated different sensitivities to charged particles between CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mouse strains, suggesting that there are two main types of response to irradiation: 1) responses associated with survival of damaged cells and 2) responses associated with the induction of non-clonal chromosomal instability in the surviving progeny of stem cells. Previously, we reported that the RBE for initial chromosome damages was high in human lymphocytes exposed to Fe ions. Our results with different cell types demonstrated different RBE values between different cell types and between early and late chromosomal damages. This study also attempts to offer an explanation for the varying RBE values for different cancer types.

  7. Social preference deficits in juvenile zebrafish induced by early chronic exposure to sodium valproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to sodium valproate (VPA, a widely used anti-epileptic drug, is related to a series of dysfunctions, such as deficits in language and communication. Clinical and animal studies have indicated that the effects of VPA are related to the concentration and to the exposure window, while the neurobehavioral effects of VPA have received limited research attention. In the current study, to analyze the neurobehavioral effects of VPA, zebrafish at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf were treated with early chronic exposure to 20 μM VPA for 7 hours per day for 6 days or with early acute exposure to 100 μM VPA for 7 hours. A battery of behavioral screenings was conducted at 1 month of age to investigate social preference, locomotor activity, anxiety and behavioral response to light change. A social preference deficit was only observed in animals with chronic VPA exposure. Acute VPA exposure induced a change in the locomotor activity, while chronic VPA exposure did not affect locomotor activity. Neither exposure procedure influenced anxiety or the behavioral response to light change. These results suggested that VPA has the potential to affect some behaviors in zebrafish, such as social behavior and the locomotor activity, and that the effects were closely related to the concentration and the exposure window. Additionally, social preference seemed to be independent from other simple behaviors.

  8. Bakumondo-to appears to alleviate radiation-induced mucositis in early laryngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, Koichiro [Saiseikai Yamaguchi General Hospital (Japan); Imate, Yuji; Takemoto, Tsuyoshi; Hasuike, Koji; Watanuki, Koichi; Moriya, Keiji

    2002-02-01

    Tsumura Co.'s Bakumondo-to (TJ-29) is a Chinese herb medicine prescribed widely in Japan for bronchitis and laryngitis. It is well known that TJ-29 not only has a variety of effects including anti-inflammatory and antitussive properties, but also is capable of increasing salivary secretions. The purpose of this study is to examine whether TJ-29 can reduce mucosal toxicity caused by radiotherapy in patients with early laryngeal carcinoma. Between 1993 and 1999, 20 patients with primary early laryngeal carcinoma were treated by radiotherapy at Nagato General Hospital. All patients were treated with 2 Gy per fraction daily, 5 days a week. Eight patients formed the control group (no TJ-29) and 12 patients received TJ-29 throughout the radiation therapy. The severity of daily subjective symptoms such as hoarseness, xerostomia or pharyngoxerosis, cough, and sore throat were graded 0 to 3 according to descriptions on the clinical charts. No statistically significant between-group differences were seen in subjective hoarseness, xerostomia or pharyngoxerosis, and cough. However the mean final grade of subjective sore throat was less severe in the TJ-29 group (p=0.0023). Despite the limited number of patients, this study suggests that TJ-29 was able to reduce the severity of mucositis induced by radiotherapy. Further intensive research is needed. (author)

  9. Early treatment of chlorine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation with corticosteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonasson, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.jonasson@foi.se [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Wigenstam, Elisabeth [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Koch, Bo [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Bucht, Anders [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) is an industrial gas that is highly toxic and irritating when inhaled causing tissue damage and an acute inflammatory response in the airways followed by a long-term airway dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early anti-inflammatory treatment can protect against the delayed symptoms in Cl{sub 2}-exposed mice. BALB/c mice were exposed by nose-only inhalation using 200 ppm Cl{sub 2} during 15 min. Assessment of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage, occurrence of lung edema and lung fibrosis were analyzed 24 h or 14 days post-exposure. A single dose of the corticosteroid dexamethasone (10 or 100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1, 3, 6, or 12 h following Cl{sub 2} exposure. High-dose of dexamethasone reduced the acute inflammation if administered within 6 h after exposure but treated animals still displayed a significant lung injury. The effect of dexamethasone administered within 1 h was dose-dependent; high-dose significantly reduced acute airway inflammation (100 mg/kg) but not treatment with the relatively low-dose (10 mg/kg). Both doses reduced AHR 14 days later, while lung fibrosis measured as collagen deposition was not significantly reduced. The results point out that the acute inflammation in the lungs due to Cl{sub 2} exposure only partly is associated with the long-term AHR. We hypothesize that additional pathogenic mechanisms apart from the inflammatory reactions contribute to the development of long-term airway dysfunction. By using this mouse model, we have validated early administration of corticosteroids in terms of efficacy to prevent acute lung injury and delayed symptoms induced by Cl{sub 2} exposure. - Highlights: • Inhalation of Cl{sub 2} may lead to a long-standing airway hyperresponsiveness. • The symptoms in Cl{sub 2}-exposed mice are similar to those described for RADS in humans. • Corticosteroids prevent delayed symptoms such as AHR in

  10. Neutrino-Induced Nucleosynthesis in Helium Shells of Early Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Projjwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize our studies on neutrino-driven nucleosynthesis in He shells of early core-collapse supernovae with metallicities of Z ≲ 10−3 Z⊙. We find that for progenitors of ∼ 11–15 M⊙, the neutrons released by 4He(ν¯ee, e+n3H in He shells can be captured to produce nuclei with mass numbers up to A ∼ 200. This mechanism is sensitive to neutrino emission spectra and flavor oscillations. In addition, we find two new primary mechanisms for neutrino-induced production of 9Be in He shells. The first mechanism produces 9Be via 7Li(n,γ8Li(n,γ9Li(e− ν¯ee9Be and relies on a low explosion energy for its survival. The second mechanism operates in progenitors of ∼ 8 M⊙, where 9Be can be produced directly via 7Li(3H, n09Be during the rapid expansion of the shocked Heshell material. The light nuclei 7Li and 3H involved in these mechanisms are produced by neutrino interactions with 4He. We discuss the implications of neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis in He shells for interpreting the elemental abundances in metal-poor stars.

  11. Exploring the caffeine-induced teratogenicity on neurodevelopment using early chick embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-lai Ma

    Full Text Available Caffeine consumption is worldwide. It has been part of our diet for many centuries; indwelled in our foods, drinks, and medicines. It is often perceived as a "legal drug", and though it is known to have detrimental effects on our health, more specifically, disrupt the normal fetal development following excessive maternal intake, much ambiguity still surrounds the precise mechanisms and consequences of caffeine-induced toxicity. Here, we employed early chick embryos as a developmental model to assess the effects of caffeine on the development of the fetal nervous system. We found that administration of caffeine led to defective neural tube closures and expression of several abnormal morphological phenotypes, which included thickening of the cephalic mesenchymal tissues and scattering of somites. Immunocytochemistry of caffeine-treated embryos using neural crest cell markers also demonstrated uncharacteristic features; HNK1 labeled migratory crest cells exhibited an incontinuous dorsal-ventral migration trajectory, though Pax7 positive cells of the caffeine-treated groups were comparatively similar to the control. Furthermore, the number of neurons expressing neurofilament and the degree of neuronal branching were both significantly reduced following caffeine administration. The extent of these effects was dose-dependent. In conclusion, caffeine exposure can result in malformations of the neural tube and induce other teratogenic effects on neurodevelopment, although the exact mechanism of these effects requires further investigation.

  12. The early signal substances induced by heat stress in brains of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxu WANG; Hanxing WANG

    2008-01-01

    To study the effects of early signal substances induced by heat stress in brains of Kunming mice, six-month-old mice (n=72) were pretreated with heat stress and subsequent ischemia/reperfusion by clipping of their bilateral cervical common arteries for 7 min. According to different treatments, animals were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normal control group; (2) heat stress pre-treatment followed by ischemia and reperfusion group (HS/IR); (3) ischemia and reperfusion group (IR); (4) heat stress group (HS). Animals in the later three groups were subdivided into 3 subgroups (1 day, 4 days, 14 days), respectively. The changes in the expression of cAMP res-ponse element binding protein (CREB) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were detected by immuno-histochemistry and computer image analysis methods. The results showed that compared with the normal group, the expressions of CREB in the hippocampal CA1 region increased significantly in the HS, HS/IR and IR groups (P<0.05). Compared to the normal group, heat stress could result in CGRP excretion and redistribution in the cerebrum, with the highest level in the 4 d HS/IR group. Following heat stress, CGRP immunoreactivity was observed in varicose fibers and neuronal perikarya within the CA1 region. The results indicate that heat stress can induce CREB expression, which in turn stimulates CGRP secretion.

  13. Targeting heme oxygenase-1 in early diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El Gheit, R; Emam, M N

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common microvascular diabetic complications. This study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effect and underlying mechanisms of HO-1 induction in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced early DN in rats. The diabetic rats were divided into three groups: STZ-diabetic, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP)-treated diabetic, and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP)-treated diabetic groups. Compared to the STZ-diabetic group, CoPP-induced HO-1 upregulation improved the diabetic state and renal functional parameters, suppressed the renal proinflammatory marker, NF-κB, abrogated the elevated renal hydroxyprolin, and decreased the enhanced renal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity with parallel reduction of urinary oxidative stress markers. On the contrary, treatment with ZnPP abrogated HO-1 levels, aggravated the diabetic condition with further increases in renal oxidative stress, fibrotic and inflammatory markers, and exacerbated renal dysfunction in diabetic animals. These findings suggest that the reduced diabetic renal injury upon HO-1 induction implicates the role of HO-1 induction as a potential treatment for DN.

  14. Early diagnosis of colorectal cancer in rats with DMH induced carcinogenesis by means of urine autofluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šteffeková, Zuzana; Birková, Anna; Bomba, Alojz; Mareková, Mária

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most highlighted topics of current research. Early detection of this disease allows more effective therapy, hence higher chance of cure. Application of fluorescence spectral techniques into oncological diagnostic is one of the potential alternatives. Chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats is widely used model for exploration of various aspects of colorectal cancer. This study shows value of discriminate analysis of urine fluorescent fingerprint between healthy control group of rats and those with dimethylhydrazine induced early lesions of colorectal cancer. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, significant difference (P < 0.05) between both of group was achieved.

  15. Early biomarkers of doxorubicin-induced heart injury in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Varsha G., E-mail: varsha.desai@fda.hhs.gov [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kwekel, Joshua C.; Vijay, Vikrant; Moland, Carrie L. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Herman, Eugene H. [Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, The National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850-9734 (United States); Lee, Taewon [Department of Mathematics, Korea University, Sejong, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tao [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Lewis, Sherry M. [Office of Scientific Coordination, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Davis, Kelly J.; Muskhelishvili, Levan [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Kerr, Susan [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR 72211 (United States); Fuscoe, James C. [Personalized Medicine Branch, Division of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac troponins, which are used as myocardial injury markers, are released in plasma only after tissue damage has occurred. Therefore, there is a need for identification of biomarkers of earlier events in cardiac injury to limit the extent of damage. To accomplish this, expression profiling of 1179 unique microRNAs (miRNAs) was performed in a chronic cardiotoxicity mouse model developed in our laboratory. Male B6C3F{sub 1} mice were injected intravenously with 3 mg/kg doxorubicin (DOX; an anti-cancer drug), or saline once a week for 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, resulting in cumulative DOX doses of 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg, respectively. Mice were euthanized a week after the last dose. Cardiac injury was evidenced in mice exposed to 18 mg/kg and higher cumulative DOX dose whereas examination of hearts by light microscopy revealed cardiac lesions at 24 mg/kg DOX. Also, 24 miRNAs were differentially expressed in mouse hearts, with the expression of 1, 1, 2, 8, and 21 miRNAs altered at 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 mg/kg DOX, respectively. A pro-apoptotic miR-34a was the only miRNA that was up-regulated at all cumulative DOX doses and showed a significant dose-related response. Up-regulation of miR-34a at 6 mg/kg DOX may suggest apoptosis as an early molecular change in the hearts of DOX-treated mice. At 12 mg/kg DOX, up-regulation of miR-34a was associated with down-regulation of hypertrophy-related miR-150; changes observed before cardiac injury. These findings may lead to the development of biomarkers of earlier events in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity that occur before the release of cardiac troponins. - Highlights: • Upregulation of miR-34a before doxorubicin-induced cardiac tissue injury • Apoptosis might be an early event in mouse heart during doxorubicin treatment. • Expression of miR-150 declined before doxorubicin-induced cardiac tissue injury.

  16. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Arthritis induces early bone high turnover, structural degradation and mechanical weakness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vidal

    Full Text Available We have previously found in the chronic SKG mouse model of arthritis that long standing (5 and 8 months inflammation directly leads to high collagen bone turnover, disorganization of the collagen network, disturbed bone microstructure and degradation of bone biomechanical properties. The main goal of the present work was to study the effects of the first days of the inflammatory process on the microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone.Twenty eight Wistar adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA rats were monitored during 22 days after disease induction for the inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight. Healthy non-arthritic rats were used as controls for compar-ison. After 22 days of disease progression rats were sacrificed and bone samples were collected for histomorphometrical, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopical analysis and 3-point bending. Blood samples were also collected for bone turnover markers.AIA rats had an increased bone turnover (as inferred from increased P1NP and CTX1, p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0002, respectively and this was paralleled by a decreased mineral content (calcium p = 0.0046 and phos-phorus p = 0.0046. Histomorphometry showed a lower trabecular thickness (p = 0.0002 and bone volume (p = 0.0003 and higher trabecular sepa-ration (p = 0.0009 in the arthritic group as compared with controls. In addition, bone mechanical tests showed evidence of fragility as depicted by diminished values of yield stress and ultimate fracture point (p = 0.0061 and p = 0.0279, re-spectively in the arthritic group.We have shown in an AIA rat model that arthritis induc-es early bone high turnover, structural degradation, mineral loss and mechanical weak-ness.

  18. Arthritis induces early bone high turnover, structural degradation and mechanical weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Bruno; Cascão, Rita; Vale, Ana Catarina; Cavaleiro, Inês; Vaz, Maria Fátima; Brito, José Américo Almeida; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2015-01-01

    We have previously found in the chronic SKG mouse model of arthritis that long standing (5 and 8 months) inflammation directly leads to high collagen bone turnover, disorganization of the collagen network, disturbed bone microstructure and degradation of bone biomechanical properties. The main goal of the present work was to study the effects of the first days of the inflammatory process on the microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone. Twenty eight Wistar adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats were monitored during 22 days after disease induction for the inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight. Healthy non-arthritic rats were used as controls for compar-ison. After 22 days of disease progression rats were sacrificed and bone samples were collected for histomorphometrical, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopical analysis and 3-point bending. Blood samples were also collected for bone turnover markers. AIA rats had an increased bone turnover (as inferred from increased P1NP and CTX1, p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0002, respectively) and this was paralleled by a decreased mineral content (calcium p = 0.0046 and phos-phorus p = 0.0046). Histomorphometry showed a lower trabecular thickness (p = 0.0002) and bone volume (p = 0.0003) and higher trabecular sepa-ration (p = 0.0009) in the arthritic group as compared with controls. In addition, bone mechanical tests showed evidence of fragility as depicted by diminished values of yield stress and ultimate fracture point (p = 0.0061 and p = 0.0279, re-spectively) in the arthritic group. We have shown in an AIA rat model that arthritis induc-es early bone high turnover, structural degradation, mineral loss and mechanical weak-ness.

  19. Early inflammatory changes in radiation-induced oral mucositis. Effect of pentoxifylline in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Sylvia; Bozsaky, Eva; Roitinger, Eva; Schwarz, Karoline [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Applied and Translational Radiobiology, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Schmidt, Margret [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical University/AKH Vienna, Applied and Translational Radiobiology, Dept. Radiation Oncology/CD Lab. Med. Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Early inflammation is a major factor of mucosal reactions to radiotherapy. Pentoxifylline administration resulted in a significant amelioration of radiation-induced oral mucositis in the mouse tongue model. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the immunomodulatory properties of the drug. The present study hence focuses on the manifestation of early inflammatory changes in mouse tongue during daily fractionated irradiation and their potential modulation by pentoxifylline. Daily fractionated irradiation with 5 fractions of 3 Gy/week (days 0-4, 7-11) was given to the snouts of mice. Groups of 3 animals per day were euthanized every second day between day 0 and 14. Pentoxifylline (15 mg/kg, s. c.) was administered daily from day 5 to the day before sacrifice. The expression of the inflammatory proteins TNFα, NF-κB, and IL-1β were analysed. Fractionated irradiation increased the expression of all inflammatory markers. Pentoxifylline significantly reduced the expression of TNFα and IL-1β, but not NF-κB. Early inflammation, as indicated by the expression of the inflammatory markers TNFα, NF-κB, and IL-1β, is an essential component of early radiogenic oral mucositis. Pentoxifylline differentially modulated the expression of different inflammatory markers. The mucoprotective effect of pentoxifylline does not appear to be based on modulation of NF-κB-associated inflammation. (orig.) [German] Fruehe entzuendliche Veraenderungen sind ein bedeutender Faktor waehrend der Strahlenreaktion der Schleimhaut. Die Behandlung mit Pentoxifyllin erzielte eine signifikante Minderung strahleninduzierter oraler Mukositis im Mauszungenmodel. Die zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen sind potenziell auf die immunomodulatorischen Eigenschaften des Wirkstoffs zurueckzufuehren. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen fokussieren daher auf die Manifestation frueher entzuendlicher Veraenderungen in der Mauszunge waehrend taeglich fraktionierter Bestrahlung und deren potenzieller Modifikation

  20. Early life DNA vaccination with the H gene of Canine distemper virus induces robust protection against distemper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent;

    2009-01-01

    Young mink kits (n = 8)were vaccinated withDNA plasmids encoding the viral haemagglutinin protein (H) of a vaccine strain of Canine distemper virus (CDV). Virus neutralising (VN) antibodieswere induced after 2 immunisations and after the third immunisation all kits had high VN antibody titres...... demonstrate that early life DNA vaccination with the H gene of a CDV vaccine strain induced robust protective immunity against a recent wild type CDV....

  1. Apoptosis is an early event during phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy-induced ablation of chemically induced squamous papillomas in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, R; Korman, N J; Mohan, R R; Feyes, D K; Jawed, S; Zaim, M T; Mukhtar, H

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising new modality to treat malignant neoplasms including superficial skin cancers. In our search for an ideal photosensitizer for PDT, Pc 4, a silicon phthalocyanine, has shown promising results both in in vitro assays and in implanted tumors. In this study we assessed the efficacy of Pc 4 PDT in the ablation of murine skin tumors; and the evidence for apoptosis during tumor ablation was also obtained. The Pc 4 was administered through tail vein injection to SENCAR mice bearing chemically induced squamous papillomas, and 24 h later the lesions were illuminated with an argon ion-pumped dye laser tuned at 675 nm for a total light dose of 135 J/cm2. Within 72-96 h, almost complete tumor shrinkage occurred; no tumor regrowth was observed up to 90 days post-PDT. As evident by nucleosome-size DNA fragmentation, appearance of apoptotic bodies in hematoxylin and eosin staining and direct immunoperoxidase detection of digoxigenin-labeled genomic DNA in sections, apoptosis was clearly evident 6 h post-PDT at which time tumor shrinkage was less than 30%. The apoptotic bodies, as evident by the condensation of chromatin material around the periphery of the nucleus and increased vacuolization of the cytoplasm, were also observed in electron microscopic studies of the tumor tissues following Pc 4 PDT. The extent of apoptosis was greater at 15 h than at 6 and 10 h post-PDT. Taken together, our results clearly show that Pc 4 may be an effective photosensitizer for PDT of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and that apoptosis is an early event during this process.

  2. Spectrum and quantum symmetries of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, Martin

    2014-12-18

    The initial AdS/CFT duality pair, the duality between N=4 SYM and the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring, appears to enjoy quantum integrability in the planar limit, which allowed to devise powerful methods ostensibly solving the spectral problem. However, quantization of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring from first principles is still an open question and especially the spectrum of short string states has previously been derived only at leading order in large 't Hooft coupling. In this thesis we investigate possible routes to quantize short string states perturbatively beyond the leading order, where equally our aim is to gain better appreciation of the quantum symmetries at play. A prominent role is played by the lowest excited string states, dual to the Konishi supermultiplet, and we start by reviewing critically an asserted derivation of the Konishi anomalous dimension in the setup of pure spinor string theory. Next, we constrain ourselves to bosonic AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} String in static gauge, where we construct a so-called single-mode string solution, a generalization of the pulsating string allowing for unconstrained zero-modes. This solution shows classical integrability and invariance under the isometries SO(2,4) x SO(6) at the quantum level. Arguing heuristically about the effects of supersymmetry, we indeed recover the first non-trivial quantum correction to the Konishi anomalous dimension. We continue by implementing static gauge for the full AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring and find elegant expressions for the Lagrangian density and the supercharges. We then constrain our interest to the superparticle and, using two different methods, find canonical coordinates at quadratic order in fermions. We conclude by exploring another quantization scheme: As the single-mode string is nothing but the SO(2,4) x SO(6) orbit of the pulsating string, we apply orbit method quantization to the particle and spinning string solutions in bosonic AdS{sub 3} x S

  3. The impact of early aerobic exercise on brain microvascular alterations induced by cerebral hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardini-Tristão, Marina; Borges, Juliana Pereira; Freitas, Felipe; Rangel, Raquel; Daliry, Anissa; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Estato, Vanessa

    2017-02-15

    The therapeutic potential of early exercise training following cerebral hypoperfusion was investigated on brain perfusion and inflammation in rats with permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO). Wistar rats were subjected to 2VO or sham surgery and each group was then subdivided randomly into sedentary or exercise groups. Early exercise training was initiated after three days of 2VO or sham surgery and consisted of seven days of treadmill training (30min/day at ∼60% of maximal exercise test), composing four groups: 1) Sham sedentary (Sham-Sed), 2) Sham exercised (Sham-Ex), 3) 2VO sedentary (2VO-Sed) and 4) 2VO exercised (2VO-Ex). Microvascular cerebral blood flow (MCBF) and NADPH oxidase and eNOS gene expression were evaluated by laser speckle contrast imaging and RT-PCR, respectively, and brain functional capillary density and endothelial-leukocyte interactions were evaluated by fluorescence intravital video-microscopy. The 2VO-Sed group presented a decrease in MCBF (Sham-Sed: 230.9±12.2 vs. 2VO-Sed: 183.6±10.6 arbitrary perfusion units, Pexercise was able to prevent the cerebral microvascular inflammation by decreasing endothelial-leukocyte interactions (2VO-Ex: 0.9±0.3 vs. 2VO-Sed: 5±0.6cells/min/100μm, Pbrain NADPH oxidase gene expression (2VO-Ex: 1.7±0.1 arbitrary units, Pexercise may represent a means of preventing the microvascular alterations induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

  4. Social defeat during adolescence and adulthood differentially induce BDNF-regulated immediate early genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Coppens

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressful life events generally enhance the vulnerability for the development of human psychopathologies such as anxiety disorders and depression. The incidence rates of adult mental disorders steeply rises during adolescence in parallel with a structural and functional reorganization of the neural circuitry underlying stress reactivity. However, the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to stress and manifestation of mental disorders during adolescence are little understood. We hypothesized that heightened sensitivity to stress during adolescence reflects age-dependent differences in the expression of activity-dependent genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Therefore, we compared the effect of social stress during adolescence with social stress in adulthood on the expression of a panel of genes linked to induction of long-term potentiation (LTP and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. We show that social defeat during adolescence and adulthood differentially regulates expression of the immediate early genes BDNF, Arc, Carp, and Tieg1, as measured by qPCR in tissue lysates from prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. In the hippocampus, mRNA levels for all four genes were robustly elevated following social defeat in adolescence, whereas none were induced by defeat in adulthood. The relationship to coping style was also examined using adult reactive and proactive coping rats. Gene expression levels of reactive and proactive animals were similar in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. However, a trend toward a differential expression of BDNF and Arc mRNA in the nucleus accumbens was detected. BDNF mRNA was increased in the nucleus accumbens of proactive defeated animals, whereas the expression level in reactive defeated animals was comparable to control animals. The results demonstrate striking differences in immediate early gene expression in response to social defeat in adolescent and adult rats.

  5. Early constraint-induced movement therapy promotes functional recovery and neuronal plasticity in a subcortical hemorrhage model rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akimasa; Misumi, Sachiyo; Ueda, Yoshitomo; Shimizu, Yuko; Cha-Gyun, Jung; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Kazuto; Hida, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) promotes functional recovery of impaired forelimbs after hemiplegic strokes, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We used a rat model of subcortical hemorrhage to compare the effects of delivering early or late CIMT after ICH. The rat model was made by injecting collagenase into the globus pallidus near the internal capsule, and then forcing rats to use the affected forelimb for 7 days starting either 1 day (early CIMT) or 17 days (late CIMT) after the lesion. Recovery of forelimb function in the skilled reaching test and the ladder stepping test was found after early-CIMT, while no significant recovery was shown after late CIMT or in the non-CIMT controls. Early CIMT was associated with greater numbers of ΔFosB-positive cells in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex layers II-III and V. Additionally, we found expression of the growth-related genes brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and growth-related protein 43 (GAP-43), and abundant dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the sensorimotor area. Similar results were not detected in the contra-lesional cortex. In contrast to early CIMT, late CIMT failed to induce any changes in plasticity. We conclude that CIMT induces molecular and morphological plasticity in the ipsi-lesional sensorimotor cortex and facilitates better functional recovery when initiated immediately after hemorrhage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterizing the protocol for early modified constraint-induced movement therapy in the EXPLICIT-stroke trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, R van; Wegen, E. van; Krogt, H. van der; Bakker, C.D.; Buma, F.; Klomp, A.; Kordelaar, J. van; Kwakkel, G.; Geurts, A.C.; Kuijk, A.A. van; Lindeman, E.; Visser-Meily, A.J.M.A.; Arendzen, H.J.; Meskers, C.G.; Helm, F.C.T. van der; Vlugt, E. de

    2013-01-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is a commonly used rehabilitation intervention to improve upper limb function after stroke. CIMT was originally developed for patients with a chronic upper limb paresis. Although there are indications that exercise interventions should start as early as pos

  7. Arsenic-induced phosphate limitation under experimental Early Proterozoic oceanic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Hemmingsson, Christoffer; Holm, Mikaela; Chiu, Beverly; Iñiguez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of phosphorus concentrations associated with modern hydrothermal Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides and ancient Fe(III) oxide-rich iron formations, is used to estimate bioavailable Precambrian marine phosphorus (P) concentrations. This led to the proposition of a low dissolved P budget of ˜10-25% of present-day levels, before ˜1.9 billion years ago. Estimates incorporating ancient marine Si levels ≥ 0.67 mM instead suggested global dissolved P levels greater than today. Here we unite current experimental models that have considered NaCl solutions containing elevated dissolved Fe(II), Si, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the incorporation of P in Precambrian marine Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides, in addition to arsenic as a hydrothermal proxy. We show that the coprecipitation of dissolved P and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides from arsenic-rich marine waters produces an average P distribution coefficient of ˜0.072 (± 0.01) μM-1. This is comparable to the ˜ 0.07 μM-1 predicted for Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides in modern arsenic-rich, submarine hydrothermal settings, from which the lower Early Proterozoic dissolved marine P concentrations were predicted. As/P molar ratios below modern seawater ratios removed the negative feedback effect high Si impose on P scavenging by Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. The binding of As(III) to Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides exhibits a lower competitive influence on P fixation. As(V) that likely became prominent in the surficially oxidized Early Proterozoic oceans induced dissolved P limitation because of preferential P sequestration at the expense of dissolved As(V) enrichment. The control of As on P scavenging by the precipitating Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides is strong regardless of common seawater cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+). The data suggest that the application of Si and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides as an ancient seawater P proxy should consider chemical variability between depositional basins, taking into account the rather strong role hydrothermal arsenic has on the distribution of P in

  8. Early-life viral infection and allergen exposure interact to induce an asthmatic phenotype in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asquith Kelly L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early-life respiratory viral infections, notably with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, increase the risk of subsequent development of childhood asthma. The purpose of this study was to assess whether early-life infection with a species-specific model of RSV and subsequent allergen exposure predisposed to the development of features of asthma. Methods We employed a unique combination of animal models in which BALB/c mice were neonatally infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM, which replicates severe RSV disease in human infants and following recovery, were intranasally sensitised with ovalbumin. Animals received low-level challenge with aerosolised antigen for 4 weeks to elicit changes of chronic asthma, followed by a single moderate-level challenge to induce an exacerbation of inflammation. We then assessed airway inflammation, epithelial changes characteristic of remodelling, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and host immunological responses. Results Allergic airway inflammation, including recruitment of eosinophils, was prominent only in animals that had recovered from neonatal infection with PVM and then been sensitised and chronically challenged with antigen. Furthermore, only these mice exhibited an augmented Th2-biased immune response, including elevated serum levels of anti-ovalbumin IgE and IgG1 as well as increased relative expression of Th2-associated cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. By comparison, development of AHR and mucous cell change were associated with recovery from PVM infection, regardless of subsequent allergen challenge. Increased expression of IL-25, which could contribute to induction of a Th2 response, was demonstrable in the lung following PVM infection. Signalling via the IL-4 receptor α chain was crucial to the development of allergic inflammation, mucous cell change and AHR, because all of these were absent in receptor-deficient mice. In contrast, changes of remodelling were evident in mice

  9. Challenges for operational forecasting and early warning of rainfall induced landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    In many areas of the world, landslides occur every year, claiming lives and producing severe economic and environmental damage. Many of the landslides with human or economic consequences are the result of intense or prolonged rainfall. For this reason, in many areas the timely forecast of rainfall-induced landslides is of both scientific interest and social relevance. In the recent years, there has been a mounting interest and an increasing demand for operational landslide forecasting, and for associated landslide early warning systems. Despite the relevance of the problem, and the increasing interest and demand, only a few systems have been designed, and are currently operated. Inspection of the - limited - literature on operational landslide forecasting, and on the associated early warning systems, reveals that common criteria and standards for the design, the implementation, the operation, and the evaluation of the performances of the systems, are lacking. This limits the possibility to compare and to evaluate the systems critically, to identify their inherent strengths and weaknesses, and to improve the performance of the systems. Lack of common criteria and of established standards can also limit the credibility of the systems, and consequently their usefulness and potential practical impact. Landslides are very diversified phenomena, and the information and the modelling tools used to attempt landslide forecasting vary largely, depending on the type and size of the landslides, the extent of the geographical area considered, the timeframe of the forecasts, and the scope of the predictions. Consequently, systems for landslide forecasting and early warning can be designed and implemented at several different geographical scales, from the local (site or slope specific) to the regional, or even national scale. The talk focuses on regional to national scale landslide forecasting systems, and specifically on operational systems based on empirical rainfall threshold

  10. Histological and ultrastructural changes induced by selenium in early experimental gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ping Su; Jun-Min Tang; Yan Tang; Hui-Ying Gao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect and significance of selenium in early experimental gastric carcinogenesis.METHODS: Weaning male Wistar rats were divided randomly into normal control group, experiment control group, low selenium (2 mg/L) group and high selenium (4 mg/L) group. Wistar rat gastric carcinogenesis was induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG) (20 mg/kg) gavage daily for 10 d. Na2SeO3 was given by piped drinking 1 wk prior to MNNG gavage. The rats were killed at the 43rd wk. The surface characteristics of gastric mucosa were observed with naked eyes. Histopathologic changes of rat gastric mucosa were observed by HE staining and AB-PAS methods. The changes of cellular ultrastructure were observed under transmission electron microscope. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS.RESULTS: The incidence rate of gastric mucosa erosion,hemorrhage and intestinal metaplasia was 0, 45.5%,66.7%, and 92.9%, respectively (92.9% vs45.5%, P<0.05)in the normal control group, experiment control group,low selenium group, and high selenium group. Leiomyoma formed in the process of inducement of rat gastric carcinoma. Dietary Na2SeO3 (2 and 4 mg/L) slightly increased the incidence rate of leiomyoma (0, 23%, 46.6%, and 46.6%). gastric mucosa did not change in the course of rat gastric carcinogenesis. Dietary Na2SeO3 by pipe drinking could expand the intracellular secretory canaliculus of parietal cells and increase the number of endocrine cells and lysosomes.CONCLUSION: Dietary Na2SeO3 by pipe drinking aggravates gastric erosion, hemorrhage and promotes intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa. The mechanism may be related with the function of parietal cells.

  11. Rolipram and SP600125 suppress the early increase in PTP1B expression during cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Nancy; Sánchez-Bernal, Carmen; Pérez, Nieves; Sardina, José L; Mangas, Arturo; Calvo, José J; Sánchez-Yagüe, Jesús

    2010-07-01

    To analyze the expression modulation of pancreatic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)1B during the development of cerulein (Cer)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) and the effect of inhibition of type 4 phosphodiesterase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 on its expression levels. Acute pancreatitis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injections of 20 microg Cer per kilogram body weight at hourly intervals, and the animals were killed at 2, 4, or 9 hours after the first injection. Neutropenia was induced with vinblastine sulfate. Phosphodiesterase and the mitogen-activated protein kinases were inhibited with rolipram and SP600125, respectively, before the induction of AP. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B increases its expression at the levels of both protein and messenger RNA during the early phase of Cer-induced AP. The increase in protein expression persisted along the development of the disease, and neutrophil infiltration seemed to play a central role. Rolipram and SP600125 pretreatments mostly suppressed the increase in the expression of PTP1B during the early phase of AP. Cerulein-induced AP is associated with an increase in the expression of PTP1B in its early phase. An increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels in inflammatory cells and the inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 are able to suppress the increase in PTP1B protein level.

  12. Consumption of hydrogen-rich water protects against ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced nephrotoxicity and early tumor promotional events in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang-Yin; Zhu, Shao-Xing; Wang, Zong-Ping; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Gui-Ping

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test whether consumption with hydrogen-rich water (HW) alleviated renal injury and inhibited early tumor promotional events in Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-treated rats. Rats were injected with Fe-NTA solution (7.5mg Fe/kg body weight) intraperitoneally to induce renal injury and simultaneously treated with HW (1.3 ± 0.2mg/l). We found that consumption with HW ameliorated Fe-NTA-induced renal injuries including suppressing elevation of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and inhibited early tumor promotional events including decreasing ornithine decarboxylase activity and incorporation of [3H]thymidine into renal DNA. Consumption with HW suppressed Fe-NTA-induced oxidative stress through decreasing formation of lipid peroxidation and peroxynitrite and activities of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase, increasing activity of catalase, and restoring mitochondrial function in kidneys. Consumption with HW suppressed Fe-NTA-induced inflammation marked by reduced NF-κB, IL-6, and MCP-1 expression and macrophage accumulating in kidneys. In addition, consumption with HW suppressed VEGF expression, STAT3 phosphorylation and PCNA expression in kidneys of Fe-NTA-treated rats. Consumption with HW decreased the incidence of renal cell carcinoma and suppressed tumor growth in Fe-NTA-treated in rats. In conclusion, drinking with HW attenuated Fe-NTA-induced renal injury and inhibited early tumor promotional events in rats.

  13. Modulation of early stress-induced neurobiological changes: a review of behavioural and pharmacological interventions in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E L; Baune, B T

    2014-05-13

    Childhood adversity alters the predisposition to psychiatric disorders later in life. Those with psychiatric conditions and a history of early adversity exhibit a higher incidence of treatment resistance compared with individuals with no such history. Modulation of the influence early stress exerts over neurobiology may help to prevent the development of psychiatric disorders in some cases, while attenuating the extent of treatment resistance in those with established psychiatric disorders. This review aims to critically evaluate the ability of behavioural, environmental and pharmacologic interventions to modulate neurobiological changes induced by early stress in animal models. Databases were systematically searched to locate literature relevant to this review. Early adversity was defined as stress that resulted from manipulation of the mother-infant relationship. Analysis was restricted to animal models to enable characterisation of how a given intervention altered specific neurobiological changes induced by early stress. A wide variety of changes in neurobiology due to early stress are amenable to intervention. Behavioural interventions in childhood, exercise in adolescence and administration of epigenetic-modifying drugs throughout life appear to best modulate cellar and behavioural alterations induced by childhood adversity. Other pharmacotherapies, such as endocannabinoid system modulators, anti-inflammatories and antidepressants can also influence these neurobiological and behavioural changes that result from early stress, although findings are less consistent at present and require further investigation. Further work is required to examine the influence that behavioural interventions, exercise and epigenetic-modifying drugs exert over alterations that occur following childhood stress in human studies, before possible translational into clinical practice is possible.

  14. Explaining the CMS $eejj$ and $e \\slashed {p}_T jj$ Excess and Leptogenesis in Superstring Inspired $E_6$ Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi; Rangarajan, Raghavan; Sarkar, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    We show that superstring inspired $E_6$ models can explain both the recently detected excess $eejj$ and $e \\slashed p_T jj$ signals at CMS, and also allow for leptogenesis. Working in a R-parity conserving low energy supersymmetric effective model, we show that the excess CMS events can be produced via the decay of exotic sleptons in alternative left-right symmetric models of $E_6$, which can also accommodate leptogenesis at a high scale. On the other hand, either the $eejj$ excess or the $e \\slashed p_T jj$ excess can be produced via the decays of right handed gauge bosons, but some of these scenarios may not accommodate letptogenesis as there will be strong $B-L$ violation at low energy, which, along with the anomalous fast electroweak $B+L$ violation, will wash out all baryon asymmetry. Baryogenesis below the electroweak scale may then need to be implemented in these models.

  15. Gain Enhancement and comparison of rectangular slot patch antenna circular slot patch antenna using dual FSS superstrate Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Chaudhary,

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Circular Microstrip Patch Antenna and Rectangular Slot Patch Antenna comparison of present and an effort is made to optimize the gain to show better performance analysis on the basis of design and simulation results by implementing FSS structured superstrate layer at operating frequency of 5.8 GHz for ISM Band. The proposed design will be fed by coaxial probe feed, in order to get proper impedance matching. Design technique for enhancing Bandwidth that improves the performance of a conventional microstrip patch antenna is proposed. In order to show our results better, we have made a comparative analysis with conventional microstrip patch antenna, at the same frequency band to increase the gain, directivity and minimize the return loss of the desired antenna. This simulation results are carried out by using Ansoft based HFSS software.

  16. Soft behavior of a closed massless state in superstring and universality in the soft behavior of the dilaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo; Marotta, Raffaele; Mojaza, Matin

    2016-12-01

    We consider the tree-level scattering amplitudes in the NS-NS (Neveu-Schwarz) massless sector of closed superstrings in the case where one external state becomes soft. We compute the amplitudes generically for any number of dimensions and any number and kind of the massless closed states through the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string. Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory.

  17. Soft behavior of a closed massless state in superstring and universality in the soft behavior of the dilaton

    CERN Document Server

    Di Vecchia, Paolo; Mojaza, Matin

    2016-01-01

    We consider the tree-level scattering amplitudes in the NS-NS (Neveu-Schwarz) massless sector of closed superstrings in the case where one external state becomes soft. We compute the amplitudes generically for any number of dimensions and any number and kind of the massless closed states through the subsubleading order in the soft expansion. We show that, when the soft state is a graviton or a dilaton, the full result can be expressed as a soft theorem factorizing the amplitude in a soft and a hard part. This behavior is similar to what has previously been observed in field theory and in the bosonic string. Differently from the bosonic string, the supersymmetric soft theorem for the graviton has no string corrections at subsubleading order. The dilaton soft theorem, on the other hand, is found to be universally free of string corrections in any string theory.

  18. Quantum dispersion relations for excitations of long folded spinning superstring in AdS_5 x S^5

    CERN Document Server

    Giombi, S; Roiban, R; Tseytlin, A A

    2010-01-01

    We use AdS_5 x S^5 superstring sigma model perturbation theory to compute the leading one-loop corrections to the dispersion relations of the excitations near a long spinning string in AdS. This investigation is partially motivated by the OPE-based approach to the computation of the expectation value of null polygonal Wilson loops suggested in arXiv:1006.2788. Our results are in partial agreement with the recent asymptotic Bethe ansatz computation in arXiv:1010.5237. In particular, we find that the heaviest AdS mode (absent in the ABA approach) is stable and has a corrected one-loop dispersion relation similar to the other massive modes. Its stability might hold also at the next-to-leading order as we suggest using a unitarity-based argument.

  19. Skeletal and dental changes induced by bionator in early treatment of class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Barnabé Raveli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the amount of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes after early treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with bionator appliance in prepubertal growing patients. Forty Class II patients were divided in two groups. Treated group consisted of 20 subjects treated consecutively with bionator. Mean age at the start of treatment (T0 was 9.1 years, while it was 10.6 years at the end of treatment (T1. Mean treatment time was 17.7 months. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of treated group were evaluated and compared with a control group consisted of 20 patients with untreated Class II malocclusion. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests and chi-square test with Yates’ correction at a significance level of 5 per cent. Bionator appliance was effective in generating differential growth between the jaws. Cephalometric skeletal measurements ANB, WITS, Lafh, Co-A and dental L6-Mp, U1.Pp, IsIi, OB, OJ showed statistically significantly different from the control. Bionator induced more dentoalveolar changes than skeletal during treatment in prepubertal stage.

  20. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of meteorites as a probe of the early solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Aglio, M., E-mail: marcella.dellaglio@ba.imip.cnr.it [CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); De Giacomo, A. [CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Chemistry Department, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gaudiuso, R.; De Pascale, O. [CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Longo, S. [Chemistry Department, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, Firenze (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a technique for gathering data relevant to Solar System geophysics. Two test cases were demonstrated: elemental analysis of chondrules in a chondrite meteorite, and space- resolved analysis of the interface between kamacite and taenite crystals in an octahedrite iron meteorite. In particular most major and minor elements (Fe, Mg, Si, Ti, Al, Cr, Mn, Ca, Fe, Ni, Co) in Sahara 98222 (chondrite) and its chondrules, as well as the profile of Ni content in Toluca (iron meteorite), were determined with the Calibration Free (CF) method. A special attention was devoted to exploring the possibilities offered by variants of the basic technique, such as the use of Fe I Boltzmann distribution as an intensity calibration method of the spectroscopic system, and the use of spatially resolved analysis. - Highlights: • LIBS of meteorites can supply data relevant to the early evolution of solar system. • CF-LIBS was applied to two different test cases. • Chemical identification of chondrules embedded in a chondrite meteorite • Experimental and theoretical profiles of Ni content in an iron meteorite.

  1. Adaptative nitric oxide overproduction in perivascular adipose tissue during early diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Ortega, Marta; Stucchi, Paula; Guzmán-Ruiz, Rocío; Cano, Victoria; Arribas, Silvia; González, M Carmen; Ruiz-Gayo, Mariano; Fernández-Alfonso, Maria S; Somoza, Beatriz

    2010-07-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a paracrine role in regulating vascular tone. We hypothesize that PVAT undergoes adaptative mechanisms during initial steps of diet-induced obesity (DIO) which contribute to preserve vascular function. Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were assigned either to a control [low-fat (LF); 10% kcal from fat] or to a high-fat diet (HF; 45% kcal from fat). After 8 wk of dietary treatment vascular function was analyzed in the whole perfused mesenteric bed (MB) and in isolated mesenteric arteries cleaned of PVAT. Relaxant responses to acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-4) m) and sodium nitroprusside (10(-12)-10(-5) m) were significantly ameliorated in the whole MB from HF animals. However, there was no difference between HF and LF groups in isolated mesenteric arteries devoid of PVAT. The enhancement of relaxant responses detected in HF mice was not attributable to an increased release of nitric oxide (NO) from the endothelium nor to an increased sensitivity and/or activity of muscular guanilylcyclase. Mesenteric PVAT of HF animals showed an increased bioavailability of NO, detected by 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF2-DA) staining, which positively correlated with plasma leptin levels. DAF-2DA staining was absent in PVAT from ob/ob mice but was detected in these animals after 4-wk leptin replacement. The main finding in this study is that adaptative NO overproduction occurs in PVAT during early DIO which might be aimed at preserving vascular function.

  2. Maternal Antibody Protected Chicks from Growth Retardation and Immunosuppression Induced by Early Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-hong; GUI Zhi-zhong; QU Li-xin

    2007-01-01

    To determine if the maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with cell culture-adapted reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) could protect chicks from early REV infection, one-day-old chicks with or without anti-REV maternal antibodies were inoculated with REV, and then their growth rates and antibody tilers to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV), after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, were compared. This study indicated that REV infection could cause growth retardation and severely inhibit immune reactions to inactivated vaccines against NDV and Avian influenza virus (AIV, H9 and H5) in one-day-old broilers without maternal antibodies specific to REV. Maternal antibody from breeders vaccinated with an attenuated REV vaccine effectively protected REV-challenged birds from growth retardation and immunosuppression on antibody reactions to NDV and AIV vaccines. Four weeks after vaccination, the HI liters to NDV, AIV-H9, and AIV-H5 in maternal antibody positive and negative groups were 3.36±2.04 versus 1.58±1.69 (P<0.01), 6.27±3.87 versus 0.71±1.60(P<0.01), and 6.72 versus 0.54±1.44(p<0.01). Maternal antibodies from breeders vaccinated with REV vaccine could successfully protect chicks from REV infection and effectively prevent REV-induced growth retardation and immunosuppression in antibody responses to NDV and AIV.

  3. Early atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in mice with diet-induced type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E D; Bang, C A; Nielsen, L B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes increase the risk of atherosclerosis. It is unknown to what extent this reflects direct effects on the arterial wall or secondary effects of hyperlipidaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of obesity and type 2 diabetes on the development...... and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in both wild-type and apoB transgenic mice. In wild-type mice, plasma very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were unaffected by fat-feeding. ApoB transgenic mice had mildly elevated plasma LDL...... and the median lesion area was 8.0 times higher than in fat-fed wild-type mice (P = 0.001). Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 staining of the aortic endothelium was most pronounced in the fat-fed apoB transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diet-induced type 2 diabetes causes early...

  4. Autophagic degradation of aquaporin-2 is an early event in hypokalemia-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khositseth, Sookkasem; Uawithya, Panapat; Somparn, Poorichaya; Charngkaew, Komgrid; Thippamom, Nattakan; Hoffert, Jason D; Saeed, Fahad; Michael Payne, D; Chen, Shu-Hui; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak

    2015-12-17

    Hypokalemia (low serum potassium level) is a common electrolyte imbalance that can cause a defect in urinary concentrating ability, i.e., nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We employed proteomic analysis of inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) from rats fed with a potassium-free diet for 1 day. IMCD protein quantification was performed by mass spectrometry using a label-free methodology. A total of 131 proteins, including the water channel AQP2, exhibited significant changes in abundance, most of which were decreased. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many of the down-regulated proteins were associated with the biological processes of generation of precursor metabolites and energy, actin cytoskeleton organization, and cell-cell adhesion. Targeted LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting studies further confirmed the down regulation of 18 selected proteins. Electron microscopy showed autophagosomes/autophagolysosomes in the IMCD cells of rats deprived of potassium for only 1 day. An increased number of autophagosomes was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, demonstrating co-localization of LC3 and Lamp1 with AQP2 and several other down-regulated proteins in IMCD cells. AQP2 was also detected in autophagosomes in IMCD cells of potassium-deprived rats by immunogold electron microscopy. Thus, enhanced autophagic degradation of proteins, most notably including AQP2, is an early event in hypokalemia-induced NDI.

  5. Trophic level stability-inducing effects of predaceous early juvenile fish in an estuarine mesocosm study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Wasserman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Classically, estuarine planktonic research has focussed largely on the physico-chemical drivers of community assemblages leaving a paucity of information on important biological interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Within the context of trophic cascades, various treatments using in situ mesocosms were established in a closed estuary to highlight the importance of predation in stabilizing estuarine plankton abundances. Through either the removal (filtration or addition of certain planktonic groups, five different trophic systems were established. These treatments contained varied numbers of trophic levels and thus different "predators" at the top of the food chain. The abundances of zooplankton (copepod and polychaete, ciliate, micro-flagellate, nano-flagellate and bacteria were investigated in each treatment, over time. The reference treatment containing apex zooplanktivores (early juvenile mullet and plankton at natural densities mimicked a natural, stable state of an estuary. Proportional variability (PV and coefficient of variation (CV of temporal abundances were calculated for each taxon and showed that apex predators in this experimental ecosystem, when compared to the other systems, induced stability. The presence of these predators therefore had consequences for multiple trophic levels, consistent with trophic cascade theory. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PV and CV proved useful indices for comparing stability. Apex predators exerted a stabilizing pressure through feeding on copepods and polychaetes which cascaded through the ciliates, micro-flagellates, nano-flagellates and bacteria. When compared with treatments without apex predators, the role of predation in structuring planktonic communities in closed estuaries was highlighted.

  6. Social exclusion induces early-stage perceptual and behavioral changes in response to social cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Social exclusion is so aversive that it causes broad cognitive and behavioral changes to regulate the individual's belonging status. The present study examined whether such changes also occur at early neural or automatic behavioral levels in response to social cues. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and facial electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded during a task in which participants viewed smiling, disgusted, and neutral faces after experiencing social exclusion or inclusion. Social exclusion was manipulated using a simple ball-tossing game (Cyberball), and need threat was assessed after the game. We found that zygomaticus major muscle activity, which reflects facial mimicry, was larger in response to smiling faces after exclusion than after inclusion. In addition, P1 amplitude, which reflects visual attention, was larger for disgusted faces than for neutral faces following social exclusion. N170 amplitude, which reflects structural encoding of the face, was correlated with heightened need threat. These findings demonstrate that social exclusion induces immediate and rapid changes in attention, perception, and automatic behavior. These findings reflect the rapid and primary regulation of belonging.

  7. Neddylation is required for herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1)-induced early phase interferon-beta production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Ye, Zhenjie; Pei, Yujun; Qiu, Guihua; Wang, Qingyang; Xu, Yunlu; Shen, Beifen; Zhang, Jiyan

    2016-09-01

    Type I interferons such as interferon-beta (IFN-β) play essential roles in the host innate immune response to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) infection. The transcription of type I interferon genes is controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members including IRF3. NF-κB activation depends on the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB (IκB), which triggers its ubiqitination and degradation. It has been reported that neddylation inhibition by a pharmacological agent MLN4924 potently suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory cytokine production with the accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα. However, the role of neddylation in type I interferon expression remains unknown. Here, we report that neddylation inhibition with MLN4924 or upon UBA3 deficiency led to accumulation of phosphorylated IκBα, impaired IκBα degradation, and impaired NF-κB nuclear translocation in the early phase of HSV-1 infection even though phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3 were not affected. The blockade of NF-κB nuclear translocation by neddylation inhibition becomes less efficient at the later time points of HSV-1 infection. Consequently, HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production significantly decreased upon MLN4924 treatment and UBA3 deficiency. NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 mimicked the effects of neddylation inhibition in the early phase of HSV-1 infection. Moreover, the effects of neddylation inhibition on HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production diminished in the presence of NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23. Thus, neddylation contributes to HSV-1-induced early phase IFN-β production through, at least partially, promoting NF-κB activation.

  8. Early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate intestinal enzymes, but not inducible heat shock proteins in young adult Swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Edith Arnal

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP. The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12 or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11, and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27 and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently

  9. Evaluation of models to induce low progesterone during the early luteal phase in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Roche, J F; Lonergan, P; Forde, N; Crowe, M A

    2009-10-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate models for generation of low circulating progesterone concentrations during early pregnancy in cattle. In Experiment 1, 17 crossbred heifers (Bos taurus) were assigned to either prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) administration on Days 3, 3.5, and 4 (PG3; n=9) or to control (n=8). Blood samples were collected from heifers from Days 1 to 9 for progesterone assay. Progesterone concentrations were decreased (P<0.03) between 18 and 48h after first PGF(2alpha) treatment in heifers assigned to PG3 compared with that of controls. In Experiment 2, 39 crossbred heifers detected in estrus were inseminated (Day 0) and assigned to either (1) PGF(2alpha) administration on Days 3, 3.5, and 4 (PG3; n=10), (2) PGF(2alpha) administration on Days 3, 3.5, 4, and 4.5 (PG4; n=10), (3) Progesterone Releasing Intravaginal Device (PRID) insertion on Day 4.5 with PGF(2alpha) administration on Days 5 and 6 (PRID+PGF(2alpha); n=10), or (4) control (n=9). Blood samples were collected daily until Day 15, and conceptus survival rate was determined at slaughter on Day 16. Progesterone concentrations during the sampling period in the PG3 and PG4 groups did not differ but were less than that of controls (P<0.01). After an initial peak, progesterone concentrations in the PRID+PGF(2alpha) group were similar to that of controls. More heifers in the PG4 group (6 of 10) had complete luteal regression than did those in the PG3 group (3 of 10). Conceptus survival rate on Day 16 did not differ between groups. There was a significant correlation between progesterone concentration on Days 5 and 6 and conceptus size on Day 16. In summary, treatment with PGF(2alpha) on Days 3, 3.5, and 4 postestrus appeared to provide the best model to induce reduced circulating progesterone concentrations during the early luteal phase in cattle.

  10. ULTRASTRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS INDUCED BY DIRECT ACTION OF CU2+ UPON EARLY CHICK EMBRYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Checiu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratological testing of sulphonate phtalocyanine (an alimentary blue dye synthetized by the Center of Chemisty, Timisoara, shown a strong malformative effect of this compound upon early chick embryo (48 hours of incubation, (Sandor, Checiu, Prelipceanu, 1985. Dye administration on day 2 of incubation (44-48 hours revealed a high rate of embryo mortality and abnormal modification of caudal segment or even a total absence of caudal tail bud. Living embryos until day 7 of incubation showed a normal development of the anterior body part (head and trunk in contrast with posterior body part which presented an abnormal position of posterior limbs, tail and trunk aplasia. The dye with the some name produced in Germany did not show (in the some experimental conditions a malformative effect. The only difference between the two dyes was the presence of Cu2+ in our compound. It is well known that chemicals and physics factors (X rayes, insuline, hypoxy, D-Actinomycine, sucrose, etc. are noxious, inducing malformations of caudal segment (tail bud, urogenital and anorectal abnormalities associated with cardiac, facial and SNC malformations (Landauer 1953, Shepard 1973. Abnormalities of esophagus, urogenital and anorectal region associated with those of caudal axial skeleton and posterior limb buds are involved in caudal dysplasia syndrome (Duhamel 1961 cited by Roux and Martinet 1962. This syndrome is frequent (1:1000 in children of diabetic mothers (Warkany 1971. Experimental works on mice suggested implication of genetic factors in pathogenesis of this syndrome (Frye et all.1964 cited by Warkany 1971. Previous investigations (Checiu et all. 1966 revealed a caudal malformative syndrome in chick embryos induced by Cu2+. It is well known capacity of some heavy metal ions to affect the formation and desintegration reaction of free radicals. The aim of this paper is to present a morphological study of caudal malformative syndrome (Checiu et all. 1999 and an

  11. Lanthanum Prevents Salt Stress-induced Programmed Cell Death in Rice Root Tip Cells by Controlling Early Induction Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, a salt stress-induced programmed cell death (PCD) model was established in rice root tip cells. Here,by using Wuyunjing 8th rice seedlings, the effects of lanthanum on salt stress-induced PCD early events were studied. The peroxidase (APX). Imidazole (20 mmol/L), the inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase), could alleviate the occurrence of PCD obviously, and such alleviation could be enhanced by the addition of La3+,indicating the involvement of NADPH oxidase in the salt stress-induced PCD process. Taken together, lanthanum could prevent salt stress-induced PCD occurrence in the rice root tip cells by blocking the calcium influx under stress, which was followed by inhibiting calcium-dependent NADPH oxidase activity to prevent O2·-production and, enhancing the cytosolic antioxidative enzyme activities to scavenge the reactive oxygen species.

  12. Early prediction of thiopurine-induced hepatotoxicity in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D R; Coenen, M J H; Derijks, L J J; Vermeulen, S H; van Marrewijk, C J; Klungel, O H; Scheffer, H; Franke, B; Guchelaar, H-J; de Jong, D J; Engels, L G J B; Verbeek, A L M; Hooymans, P M

    2017-02-01

    Hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal complaints and general malaise are common limiting adverse reactions of azathioprine and mercaptopurine in IBD patients, often related to high steady-state 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleotide (6-MMPR) metabolite concentrations. To determine the predictive value of 6-MMPR concentrations 1 week after treatment initiation (T1) for the development of these adverse reactions, especially hepatotoxicity, during the first 20 weeks of treatment. The cohort study consisted of the first 270 IBD patients starting thiopurine treatment as part of the Dutch randomised-controlled trial evaluating pre-treatment thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotype testing (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00521950). Blood samples for metabolite assessment were collected at T1. Hepatotoxicity was defined by alanine aminotransaminase elevations >2 times the upper normal limit or a ratio of alanine aminotransaminase/alkaline phosphatase ≥5. Forty-seven patients (17%) presented hepatotoxicity during the first 20 weeks of thiopurine treatment. A T1 6-MMPR threshold of 3615 pmol/8 × 10(8) erythrocytes was defined. Analysis of patients on stable thiopurine dose (n = 174) showed that those exceeding the 6-MMPR threshold were at increased risk of hepatotoxicity: OR = 3.8 (95% CI: 1.8-8.0). Age, male gender and BMI were significant determinants. A predictive algorithm was developed based on these determinants and the 6-MMPR threshold to assess hepatotoxicity risk [AUC = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.91)]. 6-MMPR concentrations above the threshold also correlated with gastrointestinal complaints: OR = 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4-4.3), and general malaise: OR = 2.0 (95% CI: 1.1-3.7). In more than 80% of patients, thiopurine-induced hepatotoxicity could be explained by elevated T1 6-MMPR concentrations and the independent risk factors age, gender and BMI, allowing personalised thiopurine treatment in IBD to prevent early failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Modeling abnormal early development with induced pluripotent stem cells from aneuploid syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Xianming; Fan, Wenxia; Zhao, Ping; Chan, Yau-Chi; Chen, Shen; Zhang, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Ya; Li, Yanhua; Cai, Jinglei; Qin, Dajiang; Li, Xingyan; Yang, Jiayin; Peng, Tianran; Zychlinski, Daniela; Hoffmann, Dirk; Zhang, Ruosi; Deng, Kang; Ng, Kwong-Man; Menten, Bjorn; Zhong, Mei; Wu, Jiayan; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yonglong; Schambach, Axel; Tse, Hung-Fat; Pei, Duanqing; Esteban, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Many human diseases share a developmental origin that manifests during childhood or maturity. Aneuploid syndromes are caused by supernumerary or reduced number of chromosomes and represent an extreme example of developmental disease, as they have devastating consequences before and after birth. Investigating how alterations in gene dosage drive these conditions is relevant because it might help treat some clinical aspects. It may also provide explanations as to how quantitative differences in gene expression determine phenotypic diversity and disease susceptibility among natural populations. Here, we aimed to produce induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines that can be used to improve our understanding of aneuploid syndromes. We have generated iPSCs from monosomy X [Turner syndrome (TS)], trisomy 8 (Warkany syndrome 2), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and partial trisomy 11;22 (Emanuel syndrome), using either skin fibroblasts from affected individuals or amniocytes from antenatal diagnostic tests. These cell lines stably maintain the karyotype of the donors and behave like embryonic stem cells in all tested assays. TS iPSCs were used for further studies including global gene expression analysis and tissue-specific directed differentiation. Multiple clones displayed lower levels of the pseudoautosomal genes ASMTL and PPP2R3B than the controls. Moreover, they could be transformed into neural-like, hepatocyte-like and heart-like cells, but displayed insufficient up-regulation of the pseudoautosomal placental gene CSF2RA during embryoid body formation. These data support that abnormal organogenesis and early lethality in TS are not caused by a tissue-specific differentiation blockade, but rather involves other abnormalities including impaired placentation.

  14. Minimal Surfaces of the $AdS_5\\times S^5$ Superstring and the Symmetries of Super Wilson Loops at Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Munkler, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    Based on an extension of the holographic principle to superspace, we provide a strong-coupling description of smooth super Wilson loops in terms of minimal surfaces of the $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ superstring. We employ the classical integrability of the Green-Schwarz superstring on $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ to derive the superconformal and Yangian $Y[\\mathfrak{psu}(2,2|4)]$ Ward identities for the super Wilson loop, thus extending the strong coupling results obtained for the Maldacena-Wilson loop. In the course of the derivation, we determine the minimal surface solution up to third order in an expansion close to the conformal boundary.

  15. Minimal surfaces of the {{AdS}}_{5}\\times {S}^{5} superstring and the symmetries of super Wilson loops at strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münkler, Hagen; Pollok, Jonas

    2015-09-01

    Based on an extension of the holographic principle to superspace, we provide a strong-coupling description of smooth super Wilson loops in {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory in terms of minimal surfaces of the {{AdS}}5× {S}5 superstring. We employ the classical integrability of the Green-Schwarz superstring on {{AdS}}5× {S}5 to derive the superconformal and Yangian Y[{psu}(2,2| 4)] Ward identities for the super Wilson loop, thus extending the strong coupling results obtained for the Maldacena-Wilson loop. In the course of the derivation, we determine the minimal surface solution up to third order in an expansion close to the conformal boundary.

  16. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Promotes Early-Life Chlamydia Respiratory Infection-Induced Severe Allergic Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Malcolm R; Nguyen, Duc H; Brown, Alexandra C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Kim, Richard Y; Yagita, Hideo; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia infections are frequent causes of respiratory illness, particularly pneumonia in infants, and are linked to permanent reductions in lung function and the induction of asthma. However, the immune responses that protect against early-life infection and the mechanisms that lead to chronic lung disease are incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, and infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and severe allergic airway disease in later life. Infection increased PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, mRNA expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis of whole lung homogenates identified monocytes, dendritic cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells as major sources of PD-1 and PD-L1. Inhibition of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, during infection ablated infection-induced AHR in later life. Given that PD-L1 was the most highly up-regulated and its targeting prevented infection-induced AHR, subsequent analyses focused on this ligand. Inhibition of PD-L1 had no effect on Chlamydia load but suppressed infection-induced pulmonary inflammation. Infection decreased the levels of the IL-13 decoy receptor in the lung, which were restored to baseline levels by inhibition of PD-L1. Finally, inhibition of PD-L1 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe allergic airways disease in later life by decreasing IL-13 levels, Gob-5 expression, mucus production, and AHR. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection-induced PD-L1 promotes severe inflammation during infection, permanent reductions in lung function, and the development of more severe allergic airway disease in later life.

  17. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-11-01

    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  18. Superstring theories and models: Cosmological implications. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of superstrings in studies of such relativistic phenomena as space-time extension and supergravity. Primordial magnetic monopoles, local cosmic strings, and studies of preon models are among the topics discussed. Calbi-Yau manifolds, and supersymmetrical Kaluza-Klein theories are also considered. Citations relating specifically to particle studies are included in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 103 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. A DNA vaccine directed against a rainbow trout rhabdovirus induces early protection against a nodavirus challenge in turbot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerset, I.; Lorenzen, Ellen; Lorenzen, Niels;

    2003-01-01

    A DNA vaccine encoding the envelope glycoprotein from a fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), has previously been shown to induce both early and long time protection against the virus in rainbow trout. Challenge experiments have revealed that the immunity established shortly...... after vaccination is cross-protective against heterologous fish rhabdoviruses. In this study, we show that the DNA vaccine encoding the VHSV glycoprotein also induces early protection against a non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA vir-us belonging to the Nodavirus family, the Atlantic halibut nodavirus...... (AHNV). In a vaccine. efficacy test using juvenile turbot as model fish, the fish injected with the VHSV vaccine were completely protected against a nodavirus challenge performed 8 days post vaccination, while the cumulative mortality in the control group reached 54%. A DNA vaccine carrying the gene...

  20. A Walk Through Superstring Theory With an Application to Yang-Mills Theory: K-strings and D-branes as Gauge/Gravity Dual Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Stiffler, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Superstring theory is one current, promising attempt at unifying gravity with the other three known forces: the electromagnetic force, and the weak and strong nuclear forces. Though this is still a work in progress, much effort has been put toward this goal. A set of specific tools which are used in this effort are gauge/gravity dualities. This thesis consists of a specific implementation of gauge/gravity dualities to describe k-strings of strongly coupled gauge theories as objects dual to Dp-branes embedded in confining supergravity backgrounds from low energy superstring field theory. Along with superstring theory, k-strings are also commonly investigated with lattice gauge theory and Hamiltonian methods. A k-string is a colorless combination of quark-antiquark source pairs, between which a color flux tube develops. The two most notable terms of the k-string energy are, for large quark anti-quark separation L, the tension term, proportional to L, and the Coulombic 1/L correction, known as the Luscher term. ...

  1. The one-loop worldsheet S-matrix for the AdS(n) x S(n) x T(10-2n) superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Roiban, Radu; Tseytlin, Arkady; Wulff, Linus

    2014-01-01

    We compute the massive-sector worldsheet S-matrix for superstring theories in AdS(n) x S(n) x T(10-2n) (with n=2,3,5) in the near BMN expansion up to one-loop order in inverse string tension. We show that, after taking into account the wave function renormalization, the one-loop S-matrix is UV finite. In an appropriate regularization scheme the S-matrix is consistent with the underlying symmetries of the superstring theory, i.e. for the n=3,5 cases it coincides with the one implied by the light-cone gauge symmetries with the dressing phases determined from the crossing equations. For the n=2,3 cases we observe that the massless modes decouple from the one-loop calculation of massive mode scattering, i.e. the 2n-dimensional supercoset sigma model and the full 10-dimensional superstring happen to have the same massive one-loop S-matrix.

  2. Protective effects of salidroside on epirubicin-induced early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Shen, Wei-sheng; Gao, Chun-heng; Deng, Li-chun; Shen, Dong

    2012-06-01

    Salidroside [2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside], one of the most potent ingredients extracted from the plant Rhodiola rosea L., has been shown to have a cardiovascular protective effect as an antioxidant, and early treatment of epirubicin-induced cardiotoxicity has been the focus of clinical chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. However, the cardioprotective effects of salidroside on epirubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, especially early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction, have to date been sparsely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of salidroside in preventing early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction induced by epirubicin. Sixty patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were enrolled. Eligible patients were randomized to receive salidroside (600 mg/day; n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) starting 1 week before chemotherapy. Patients were investigated by means of echocardiography and strain rate (SR) imaging. We also measured plasma concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS). All parameters were assessed at baseline and 7 days after each new epirubicin dose of 100 mg/m2. A decline of the SR peak was observed at an epirubicin dose of 200 mg/m2, with no significant differences between salidroside and placebo (1.35 ± 0.36 vs 1.42 ± 0.49/second). At growing cumulative doses of epirubicin, the SR normalized only with salidroside, showing a significant difference in comparison with placebo at epirubicin doses of 300 mg/m2 (1.67 ± 0.43 vs 1.32 ± 0.53/second, p salidroside. Salidroside can provide a protective effect on epirubicin-induced early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction in patients with breast cancer.

  3. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages.

  4. Deciphering early events involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Tran, Daniel; Azzarello, Elisa; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Briand, Joël; Kawano, Tomonori; Mancuso, Stefano; Bouteau, François

    2014-03-01

    Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on early responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·(-)) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an early influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·(-) generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared early responses, such as [Ca(2+)]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD.

  5. Ribosomal genes as early targets of cadmium-induced toxicity in Chironomus riparius larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planello, R. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Guitarte, J.L. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, G. [Biologia Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gmorcillo@ccia.uned.es

    2007-02-01

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant that causes severe impacts in organisms. Although the effects of cadmium on aquatic insects have been studied in terms of their toxicity and changes in developmental parameters, little is known about its molecular and genetic effects. We have investigated the alterations in the pattern of gene expression provoked by acute exposure to cadmium in Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae), a sentinel organism widely used in aquatic toxicity testing. The early cytotoxic effects were evaluated using immunocytochemistry and specific fluorescent probes in fourth instar larvae after 12 h of 10 mM cadmium treatments; under these conditions no significant effect on larvae mortality was detected until after 36 h of exposure. The changes in the pattern of gene expression were analysed by means of DNA/RNA hybrid antibodies in the polytene chromosomes from salivary gland cells. A decrease in the activity of the nucleolus is especially remarkable, accompanied by a significant reduction in size and the modification in nucleolar architecture, as shown by FISH. The inhibition of rDNA transcription was further evaluated by Northern blot analysis, which showed a marked decrease in the level of preribosomal rRNA (54% 45S 12 h). However, the BR genes, whose products are the giant polypeptides that constitute the silk-like secretion for constructing housing tubes, remain active. Simultaneously, decondensation and activation take place at some chromosomal regions, especially at the centromeres. The changes observed in the pattern of gene expression do not resemble those found after heat shock or other cell stressors. These data provide the first evidence that cadmium interacts with ribosomal genes and results in a drastic impairment of the functional activity of the nucleolus, an essential organelle for cellular survival. Therefore, the depletion of ribosomes would be a long-term effect of Cd-induced cellular damage. These findings may

  6. A Breast Tissue Protein Expression Profile Contributing to Early Parity-Induced Protection Against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Marie Gutierrez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Early parity reduces breast cancer risk, whereas, late parity and nulliparity increase breast cancer risk. Despite substantial efforts to understand the protective effects of early parity, the precise molecular circuitry responsible for these changes is not yet fully defined. Methods: Here, we have conducted the first study assessing protein expression profiles in normal breast tissue of healthy early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women. Breast tissue biopsies were obtained from 132 healthy parous and nulliparous volunteers. These samples were subjected to global protein expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. GeneSpring and MetaCore bioinformatics analysis software were used to identify protein expression profiles associated with early parity (low risk versus late/nulliparity (high risk. Results: Early parity reduces expression of key proteins involved in mitogenic signaling pathways in breast tissue through down regulation of EGFR1/3, ESR1, AKT1, ATF, Fos, and SRC. Early parity is also characterized by greater genomic stability and reduced tissue inflammation based on differential expression of aurora kinases, p53, RAD52, BRCA1, MAPKAPK-2, ATF-1, ICAM1, and NF-kappaB compared to late and nulli parity. Conclusions: Early parity reduces basal cell proliferation in breast tissue, which translates to enhanced genomic stability, reduced cellular stress/inflammation, and thus reduced breast cancer risk.

  7. Early NADPH oxidase-2 activation is crucial in phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Nynke E; Musters, René J P; Fritz, Jan M; Pagano, Patrick J; Vonk, Alexander B A; Paulus, Walter J; van Rossum, Albert C; Meischl, Christof; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2014-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by different NADPH oxidases (NOX) play a role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by different stimuli, such as angiotensin II and pressure overload. However, the role of the specific NOX isoforms in phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is unknown. Therefore we aimed to determine the involvement of the NOX isoforms NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 in PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Hereto rat neonatal cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) were incubated with 100 μM PE to induce hypertrophy after 24 and 48h as determined via cell and nuclear size measurements using digital imaging microscopy, electron microscopy and an automated cell counter. Digital-imaging microscopy further revealed that in contrast to NOX1 and NOX4, NOX2 expression increased significantly up to 4h after PE stimulation, coinciding and co-localizing with ROS production in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. Furthermore, inhibition of NOX-mediated ROS production with apocynin, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or NOX2 docking sequence (Nox2ds)-tat peptide during these first 4h of PE stimulation significantly inhibited PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells, both after 24 and 48h of PE stimulation. These data show that early NOX2-mediated ROS production is crucial in PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early life exposure to a rodent carcinogen propiconazole fungicide induces oxidative stress and hepatocarcinogenesis in medaka fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Tzu-Yi; Hong, Chwan-Yang [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Sasado, Takao [Laboratory of Bioresources, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki (Japan); Kashiwada, Shosaku [Research Center for Life and Environmental Sciences, Department of Life Sciences, the Toyo University, Gunma (Japan); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Propiconazole initiates ROS-induced oxidative stress and damage in medaka fish. • Early life exposure to propiconazole increases incidence of hepatocarcionogensis in p53{sup −/−} medaka. • Oxidative stress and CYP induction involved in p53 regulation are key events in propiconazole-induced hepatotumorigenesis. • Propiconazole-induced toxic response in medaka is compatible with that in rodents. - Abstract: Conazole pollution is an emerging concern to human health and environmental safety because of the broad use of conazole fungicides in agriculture and medicine and their frequent occurrence in aquifers. The agricultural pesticide propiconazole has received much regulatory interest because it is a known rodent carcinogen with evidence of multiple adverse effects in mammals and non-targeted organisms. However, the carcinogenic effect and associated mechanism of propiconazole in fish under microgram-per-liter levels of environmental-relevant exposure remains unclear. To explore whether early life of propiconzaole exposure would induce oxidative stress and latent carcinogenic effects in fish, we continuously exposed larvae of wild type or p53{sup −/−} mutant of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to propiconazole (2.5–250 μg/L) for 3, 7, 14 or 28 days and assessed liver histopathology and/or the oxidative stress response and gene expression during exposure and throughout adulthood. Propiconazole dose-dependently induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, altered homeostasis of antioxidant superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase and caused lipid and protein peroxidation during early life exposure in wild type medaka. Such exposure also significantly upregulated gene expression of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A, but marginally suppressed that of tumor suppressor p53 in adults. Furthermore, histopathology revealed that p53{sup −/−} mutant medaka with early life exposure to propiconazole showed increased incidence of

  9. Inducing effects of macrophage stimulating protein on the expansion of early hematopoietic progenitor cells in liquid culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Li-xia; HUANG Yan-hong; CHENG La-mei; LEI Jun; WANG Qi-ru

    2007-01-01

    Background Macrophage stimulating protein (MSP) is produced by human bone marrow endothelial cells. In this study,we sought to observe its effects on inducing the expansion of early hematopoietic progenitor cells which were cultured in a liquid culture system in the presence of the combination of stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin 3 (IL-3), interleukin 6 (IL-6), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), erythropoietin (EPO) (Cys) and MSP or of Cys and bone marrow endothelial cell conditioned medium (EC-CM).Methods Human bone marrow CD34+ cells were separated and cultured in a liquid culture system for 6 days.Granulocyte-macrophage colony forming unit (CFU-GM) and colony forming unit-granulocyte, erythrocyte, macrophage,megakaryocyte (CFU-GEMM) were employed to assay the effects of different treatment on the proliferation of hematopoeitic stem/progenitor cells. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductive test and hoechest 33258 staining were employed to reflect the differentiation and apoptosis of the cells respectively.Results MSP inhibited the proliferation of CFU-GM and CFU-GEMM in semi-solid culture and the inhibitory effect on CFU-GEMM was stronger than on CFU-GM. MSP inhibited the differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells induced by hematopoietic stimulators. Bone marrow (BM) CFU-GEMM was 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold increase or significantly decreased in either Cys+EC-CM, Cys+MSP or Cys compared with 0 hour control in liquid culture system after 6 days.Conclusion MSP, a hematopoietic inhibitor, inhibits the differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells induced by hematopoietic stimulators and makes the early hematopoietic progenitor cells expand in a liquid culture system.

  10. Dilaton and axion bremsstrahlung from collisions of cosmic (super)strings

    CERN Document Server

    Melkumova, E Y; Salehi, K

    2007-01-01

    We calculate dilaton and axion radiation generated in the collision of two straight initially unexcited strings and give a rough cosmological estimate of dilaton and axion densities produced via this mechanism in the early universe.

  11. Dilaton and axion bremsstrahlung from collisions of cosmic (super)strings

    OpenAIRE

    Melkumova, E. Yu.; Gal'tsov, D. V.; Salehi, K.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate dilaton and axion radiation generated in the collision of two straight initially unexcited strings and give a rough cosmological estimate of dilaton and axion densities produced via this mechanism in the early universe.

  12. Paucity of Intact Non-Induced Provirus with Early, Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy of Perinatal HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Douglas; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Siberry, George; Petru, Ann; Chen, YaHui; Uprety, Priyanka; Ho, Ya-Chi; Persaud, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The latent reservoir is a major barrier to HIV eradication. Reservoir size is emerging as an important biomarker to assess the likelihood of HIV remission in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may be reduced by earlier initiation of ART that restricts HIV spread into CD4+ T cells. Reservoir size is traditionally measured with a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) that induces replication-competent HIV production through in vitro stimulation of resting CD4+ T cells. However, the recent identification of replication-intact, non-induced proviral genomes (NIPG) suggests the QVOA significantly underestimates (by 62-fold) latent reservoir size in chronically-infected adults. Whether formation and persistence of Intact, NIPG is thwarted by early ART initiation and long-term virologic suppression in perinatal infection is unclear. Here, we show that the latent reservoir in 11 early treated, long-term suppressed perinatally infected children and adolescents was not inducible by QVOA and dominated by defective, NIPG. Single genome analysis of 164 NIPG from 232 million cultured resting CD4+ T cells revealed no replication-intact, near-full length sequences. Forty-three (26%) NIPG contained APOBEC3G-mediated hypermutation, 115 (70%) NIPG contained large internal deletions, one NIPG contained nonsense mutations and indels, and 5 (3%) NIPG were assigned as “Not Evaluable” due to multiple failed sequencing attempts that precluded further classification. The lack of replication competent inducible provirus and intact NIPG in this cohort indicate early, long-term ART of perinatal infection leads to marked diminution of replication-competent HIV-1 reservoirs, creating a favorable state towards interventions aimed at virologic remission. PMID:28178277

  13. α5β1 integrin signaling mediates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced inflammation and early atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdagul, Arif; Green, Jonette; Albert, Patrick; McInnis, Marshall C; Mazar, Andrew P; Orr, A Wayne

    2014-07-01

    Endothelial cell activation drives early atherosclerotic plaque formation. Both fibronectin deposition and accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) occur early during atherogenesis, and both are implicated in enhanced endothelial cell activation. However, interplay between these responses has not been established. The objective of our study was to determine whether endothelial matrix composition modulates the inflammatory properties of oxLDL. We now show that oxLDL-induced nuclear factor-κB activation, proinflammatory gene expression, and monocyte binding are significantly enhanced when endothelial cells are attached to fibronectin compared with basement membrane proteins. This enhanced response does not result from altered oxLDL receptor expression, oxLDL uptake, or reactive oxygen species production, but results from oxLDL-induced activation of the fibronectin-binding integrin α5β1. Preventing α5β1 signaling (blocking antibodies, knockout cells) inhibits oxLDL-induced nuclear factor-κB activation and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Furthermore, oxLDL drives α5β1-dependent integrin signaling through the focal adhesion kinase pathway, and focal adhesion kinase inhibition (PF-573228, small interfering RNA) blunts oxLDL-induced nuclear factor-κB activation, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, and monocyte adhesion. Last, treatment with the α5β1 signaling inhibitor, ATN-161, significantly blunts atherosclerotic plaque development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, characterized by reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and macrophage accumulation without affecting fibrous cap size. Our data suggest that α5β1-mediated cross-talk between fibronectin and oxLDL regulates inflammation in early atherogenesis and that therapeutics that inhibit α5 integrins may reduce inflammation without adversely affecting plaque structure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Early pharmacological inhibition of angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity induces obesity in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated early programming of body mass in order to understand the multifactorial etiology of obesity. Considering that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is expressed and functional in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and modulates its development, we reasoned whether early transitory inhibition of angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity after birth could modify late body mass development. Therefore, newborn Wistar rats were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg of body mass) or saline...

  15. Gene expression patterns during the early stages of chemically induced larval metamorphosis and settlement of the coral Acropora millepora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Motti, Cherie A; Tebben, Jan; Harder, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    The morphogenetic transition of motile coral larvae into sessile primary polyps is triggered and genetically programmed upon exposure to environmental biomaterials, such as crustose coralline algae (CCA) and bacterial biofilms. Although the specific chemical cues that trigger coral larval morphogenesis are poorly understood there is much more information available on the genes that play a role in this early life phase. Putative chemical cues from natural biomaterials yielded defined chemical samples that triggered different morphogenetic outcomes: an extract derived from a CCA-associated Pseudoalteromonas bacterium that induced metamorphosis, characterized by non-attached metamorphosed juveniles; and two fractions of the CCA Hydrolithon onkodes (Heydrich) that induced settlement, characterized by attached metamorphosed juveniles. In an effort to distinguish the genes involved in these two morphogenetic transitions, competent larvae of the coral Acropora millepora were exposed to these predictable cues and the expression profiles of 47 coral genes of interest (GOI) were investigated after only 1 hour of exposure using multiplex RT-qPCR. Thirty-two GOI were differentially expressed, indicating a putative role during the early regulation of morphogenesis. The most striking differences were observed for immunity-related genes, hypothesized to be involved in cell recognition and adhesion, and for fluorescent protein genes. Principal component analysis of gene expression profiles resulted in separation between the different morphogenetic cues and exposure times, and not only identified those genes involved in the early response but also those which influenced downstream biological changes leading to larval metamorphosis or settlement.

  16. Gene expression patterns during the early stages of chemically induced larval metamorphosis and settlement of the coral Acropora millepora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachshon Siboni

    Full Text Available The morphogenetic transition of motile coral larvae into sessile primary polyps is triggered and genetically programmed upon exposure to environmental biomaterials, such as crustose coralline algae (CCA and bacterial biofilms. Although the specific chemical cues that trigger coral larval morphogenesis are poorly understood there is much more information available on the genes that play a role in this early life phase. Putative chemical cues from natural biomaterials yielded defined chemical samples that triggered different morphogenetic outcomes: an extract derived from a CCA-associated Pseudoalteromonas bacterium that induced metamorphosis, characterized by non-attached metamorphosed juveniles; and two fractions of the CCA Hydrolithon onkodes (Heydrich that induced settlement, characterized by attached metamorphosed juveniles. In an effort to distinguish the genes involved in these two morphogenetic transitions, competent larvae of the coral Acropora millepora were exposed to these predictable cues and the expression profiles of 47 coral genes of interest (GOI were investigated after only 1 hour of exposure using multiplex RT-qPCR. Thirty-two GOI were differentially expressed, indicating a putative role during the early regulation of morphogenesis. The most striking differences were observed for immunity-related genes, hypothesized to be involved in cell recognition and adhesion, and for fluorescent protein genes. Principal component analysis of gene expression profiles resulted in separation between the different morphogenetic cues and exposure times, and not only identified those genes involved in the early response but also those which influenced downstream biological changes leading to larval metamorphosis or settlement.

  17. Near BMN dynamics of the AdS(3) x S(3) x S(3) x S(1) superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Rughoonauth, Nitin; Wulff, Linus

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the type IIA AdS(3) x S(3) x M(4) superstring with M(4)=S(3) x S(1) or M(4)=T(4). String theory in this background is interesting because of AdS3/CFT2 and its newly discovered integrable structures. We derive the kappa symmetry gauge-fixed Green-Schwarz string action to quadratic order in fermions and quartic order in fields utilizing a near BMN expansion. As a first consistency check of our results we show that the two point functions are one-loop finite in dimensional regularization. We then perform a Hamiltonian analysis where we compare the energy of string states with the predictions of a set of conjectured Bethe equations. While we find perfect agreement for single rank one sectors, we find that the product SU(2) x SU(2) sector does not match unless the Bethe equations decouple completely. We then calculate 2 to 2 bosonic tree-level scattering processes on the string worldsheet and show that the two-dimensional S-matrix is reflectionless. This might be important due to the presence of mas...

  18. Quantum corrections to short folded superstring in AdS_3 x S^3 x M^4

    CERN Document Server

    Beccaria, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We consider integrable superstring theory on AdS_3 x S^3 x M^4 where M^4=T^4 or M^4=S^3 x S^1 with generic ratio of the radii of the two 3-spheres. We compute the one-loop energy of a short folded string spinning in AdS_3 and rotating in S^3. The computation is performed by world-sheet small spin perturbation theory as well as by quantizing the classical algebraic curve characterizing the finite-gap equations. The two methods give equal results up to regularization contributions that are under control. One important byproduct of the calculation is the part of the energy which is due to the dressing phase in the Bethe Ansatz. Remarkably, this contribution E_1^{dressing} turns out to be independent on the radii ratio. In the M^4=T^4 limit, we discuss how E_1^{dressing} relates to a recent proposal for the dressing phase tested in the su(2) sector. We point out some difficulties suggesting that quantization of the AdS_3 classical finite-gap equations could be subtler than the easier AdS_5 x S^5 case.

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent early-life antibiotic exposure-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and later-life obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliannan, K; Wang, B; Li, X-Y; Bhan, A K; Kang, J X

    2016-06-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure can disrupt the founding intestinal microbial community and lead to obesity later in life. Recent studies show that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce body weight gain and chronic inflammation through modulation of the gut microbiota. We hypothesize that increased tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids may prevent antibiotic-induced alteration of gut microbiota and obesity later in life. Here, we utilize the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously produce omega-3 fatty acids and thereby eliminates confounding factors of diet, to show that elevated tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce body weight gain and the severity of insulin resistance, fatty liver and dyslipidemia resulting from early-life exposure to azithromycin. These effects were associated with a reversal of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in fat-1 mice. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity, and suggest the potential utility of omega-3 supplementation as a safe and effective means for the prevention of obesity in children who are exposed to antibiotics.

  20. Puerarin enhances superoxide dismutase activity and inhibits RAGE and VEGF expression in retinas of STZ-induced early diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Chen; Hong-Quan Zhang; Jun Zhu; Kai-Yang Liu; Hong Cheng; Guo-Li Li; Shan Xu; Wei-Hong Lv; Zheng-Gao Xie

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of puerarin on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and expressions of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) receptor (RAGE) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retinas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced early diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetic rat models were established by inducing diabetes via intra-peritoneal injection of STZ. Rats were randomly divided into normal (control), diabetic (DM), and DM+puerarin groups. After intra-gastric administration of puerarin (500 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), levels of SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in serum and retina. mRNA and protein expression levels of RAGE and VEGF in retinas were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (mRNA) and Western blot analysis (protein levels). Results:There was significantly lower SOD activity and significantly higher MDA in serum and retinas of the DM group compared with the two other groups (P<0.05). After treatment with puerarin, SOD activity increased and MDA content decreased in this group (P<0.05). mRNA and protein expression levels of RAGE and VEGF in the DM group were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P<0.05), and decreased after puerarin treatment (P<0.05). Conclusions: Puerarin is able to enhance SOD activity, and inhibit RAGE and VEGF expressions in retinas of STZ-induced early diabetic rats.

  1. 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone Induces Circulating MicroRNA Deregulation in Early Lung Carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian Jun; YANG Ti; LI Xun; XIA Yuan; ZHAO Yao; ZOU Fei; JIANG Yi Guo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the alteration of circulating microRNAs in 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced early stage lung carcinogenesis. Methods A lung cancer model of male F344 rats was induced with systemic NNK and levels of 8 lung cancer-associated miRNAs in whole blood and serum of rats were measured by quantitative RT-PCR of each at weeks 1, 5, 10, and 20 following NNK treatment. Results No lung cancer was detected in control group and NNK treatment group at week 20 following NNK treatment. The levels of some circulating miRNAs were significantly higher in NNK treatment group than in control group. The miR-210 was down-regulated and the miR-206 was up-regulated in NNK treatment group. The expression level of circulating miRNAs changed from week 1 to week 20 following NNK treatment. Conclusion The expression level of circulating miRNAs is related to NNK-induced early stage lung carcinogenesis in rats and can therefore serve as its potential indicator.

  2. The Effect of PSD-93 Deficiency on the Expression of Early Inflammatory Cytokines Induced by Ischemic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxiu; Cheng, Hongyu; Rong, Rong; Yang, Hui; Ji, Qiuhong; Li, Qingjie; Rong, Liangqun; Hu, Gang; Xu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of PSD-93 deficiency on the expression of early inflammatory cytokines induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ten- to twelve-week-old male PSD-93 knockout (PSD-93 KO) mice (C57BL/6 genetic background) and wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly divided into sham and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group. The focal cerebral I/R model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) suture method. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-10, Cox-2, iNOS, and TNF-α4h following reperfusion. Infarct volume at different time points after I/R was analyzed using 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium staining, and neurological damage score (neurological severity scores, NSS) was used to evaluate the effect of PSD-93 gene knockout on the MCAO-induced neurological injury. In WT mice, early I/R injury led to the increase in the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, Cox-2, iNOS, and TNF-α that coincided with the decrease in the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, as compared to the sham group (P cytokines induced by cerebral ischemia.

  3. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention.

  4. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner.

  5. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce the expression of early and late receptors for adhesion molecules on monocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda-Romero, Cristhiam; Hernández-Pérez, Guillermina; Ramos-Godínez, Pilar; Vázquez-López, Inés; Raúl Omar QUINTANA-BELMARES; Huerta-García, Elizabeth; Stepien, Ewa; López-Marure, Rebeca; Montiel-Dávalos, Angélica; Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) could be harmful. Previously, we have shown that TiO2 NPs induces endothelial cell dysfunction and damage in glial cells. Considering that inhaled particles can induce systemic effects and the evidence that nanoparticles may translocate out of the lungs, we evaluated whether different types of TiO2 NPs can induce the expression of receptors for adhesion molecules on monocytes (U937 cell line). We e...

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factors after early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, Jan H W; Hermes, Wietske; Breimer, Anath Y; van Rijn, Bas B; Koenen, Steven V; Mol, Ben W; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J M; Koster, Maria P H

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have shown an increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women who experienced a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. This risk is related to the severity of the pregnancy-related hypertensive disease and gestational age at onset. However, it has not been investigated whether these differences in CVD risk factors are already present at postpartum cardiovascular screening. We evaluated postpartum differences in CVD risk factors in 3 subgroups of patients with a history of hypertensive pregnancy. We compared the prevalence of common CVD risk factors postpartum among 448 women with previous early-onset preeclampsia, 76 women with previous late-onset preeclampsia, and 224 women with previous pregnancy-induced hypertension. Women with previous early-onset preeclampsia were compared with women with late-onset preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension and had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (5.29 versus 4.80 and 4.83 mmol/L), insulin (9.12 versus 6.31 and 6.7 uIU/L), triglycerides (1.32 versus 1.02 and 0.97 mmol/L), and total cholesterol (5.14 versus 4.73 and 4.73 mmol/L). Almost half of the early-onset preeclampsia women had developed hypertension, as opposed to 39% and 25% of women in the pregnancy-induced hypertension and late-onset preeclampsia groups, respectively. Our data show differences in the prevalence of common modifiable CVD risk factors postpartum and suggest that prevention strategies should be stratified according to severity and gestational age of onset for the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  7. On effect of precession-induced flows in the liquid core for early Earth's history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Shalimov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary and tertiary flow patterns seen in experiments simulating flow in the Earth's liquid core induced by luni-solar precession of the solid mantle (Vanyo et al., 1995 hint at the development of non-axisymmetric columnar periodic structures. A simple interpretation of the structure formation is presented in a hydrodynamic approach. It is suggested that if similar flow patterns can occur in the Earth's liquid core enclosed into precessing and rotating mantle then kinematic of the flows may be regarded as a possible geodynamo mechanism for early Earth's history (before the solid core formation.

  8. Short-Term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both…

  9. Effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory response on early embryo survival in ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early pregnant ewes were used to determine the effects of endogenous (through LPS activation) and exogenous TNF-alpha tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on embryonic loss. Thirty-eight Dorset x Texel ewes were synchronized for estrus and bred to fertile rams (d0). On d5/6, ewes were assigned t...

  10. Short-Term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both…

  11. BRONCHIAL LAVAGE AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN ALLERGEN-INDUCED SINGLE EARLY AND DUAL ASTHMATIC RESPONDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFFMAN, HF; VRUGT, B; SMITH, M; KOETER, GH; TIMENS, W; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1993-01-01

    The phenotypic cellular profile of bronchial lavage (BL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was studied in 7 single early (SR) and 10 dual asthmatic responders (DR). Lavage was performed, after previously having determined bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine and the response to house dust mite

  12. BRONCHIAL LAVAGE AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN ALLERGEN-INDUCED SINGLE EARLY AND DUAL ASTHMATIC RESPONDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFFMAN, HF; VRUGT, B; SMITH, M; KOETER, GH; TIMENS, W; DEMONCHY, JGR

    The phenotypic cellular profile of bronchial lavage (BL) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was studied in 7 single early (SR) and 10 dual asthmatic responders (DR). Lavage was performed, after previously having determined bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine and the response to house dust mite

  13. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein deficiency promotes early onset and the chronic development of collagen-induced arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Hui; Carlsen, Stefan; Nandakumar, Kutty;

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a homopentameric protein in cartilage. The development of arthritis, like collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), involves cartilage as a target tissue. We have investigated the development of CIA in COMP-deficient mice. METHODS: COMP......-deficient mice in the 129/Sv background were backcrossed for 10 generations against B10.Q mice, which are susceptible to chronic CIA. COMP-deficient and wild-type mice were tested for onset, incidence, and severity of arthritis in both the collagen and collagen antibody-induced arthritis models. Serum anti......-collagen II and anti-COMP antibodies as well as serum COMP levels in arthritic and wild-type mice were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: COMP-deficient mice showed a significant early onset and increase in the severity of CIA in the chronic phase, whereas collagen II-antibody titers were...

  14. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkegren, Johan L M; Hägg, Sara; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi Asl, Hassan; Jain, Rajeev K; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-02-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-)Apob (100/100) Mttp (flox/flox)Mx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  15. Plasma Cholesterol–Induced Lesion Networks Activated before Regression of Early, Mature, and Advanced Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkegren, Johan L. M.; Hägg, Sara; Jain, Rajeev K.; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr−/−Apob 100/100 Mttp flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24586211

  16. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L M Björkegren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80% and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-Apob (100/100 Mttp (flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  17. Early life stress-induced alterations in rat brain structures measured with high resolution MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Loi, Manila; Joëls, Marian; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; van der Toorn, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Adverse experiences early in life impair cognitive function both in rodents and humans. In humans this increases the vulnerability to develop mental illnesses while in the rodent brain early life stress (ELS) abnormalities are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity, excitability and microstructure. Detailed information on the effects of ELS on rodent brain structural integrity at large and connectivity within the brain is currently lacking; this information is highly relevant for understanding the mechanism by which early life stress predisposes to mental illnesses. Here, we exposed rats to 24 hours of maternal deprivation (MD) at postnatal day 3, a paradigm known to increase corticosterone levels and thereby activate glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined: i) volumetric changes and white/grey matter properties of the whole cerebrum and of specific brain areas; and ii) whether potential alterations could be normalized by blocking glucocorticoid receptors with mifepristone during the critical developmental window of early adolescence, i.e. between postnatal days 26 and 28. The results show that MD caused a volumetric reduction of the prefrontal cortex, particularly the ventromedial part, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Within the whole cerebrum, white (relative to grey) matter volume was decreased and region-specifically in prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum following MD. A trend was found for the hippocampus. Grey matter fractions were not affected. Treatment with mifepristone did not normalize these changes. This study indicates that early life stress in rodents has long lasting consequences for the volume and structural integrity of the brain. However, changes were relatively modest and-unlike behavior- not mitigated by blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during a critical developmental period.

  18. Perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an early pathogenesis event of drug induced liver injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Makoto; Miyake, Manami; Sato, Hiroko; Masutomi, Naoya; Tsutsui, Naohisa [Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818 (Japan); Adam, Klaus-Peter; Alexander, Danny C.; Lawton, Kay A.; Milburn, Michael V.; Ryals, John A.; Wulff, Jacob E. [Metabolon Inc., 617 Davis Drive, Suite 400, Durham, NC 27713 (United States); Guo, Lining, E-mail: lguo@metabolon.com [Metabolon Inc., 617 Davis Drive, Suite 400, Durham, NC 27713 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant consideration for drug development. Current preclinical DILI assessment relying on histopathology and clinical chemistry has limitations in sensitivity and discordance with human. To gain insights on DILI pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers for improved DILI detection, we performed untargeted metabolomic analyses on rats treated with thirteen known hepatotoxins causing various types of DILI: necrosis (acetaminophen, bendazac, cyclosporine A, carbon tetrachloride, ethionine), cholestasis (methapyrilene and naphthylisothiocyanate), steatosis (tetracycline and ticlopidine), and idiosyncratic (carbamazepine, chlorzoxasone, flutamide, and nimesulide) at two doses and two time points. Statistical analysis and pathway mapping of the nearly 1900 metabolites profiled in the plasma, urine, and liver revealed diverse time and dose dependent metabolic cascades leading to DILI by the hepatotoxins. The most consistent change induced by the hepatotoxins, detectable even at the early time point/low dose, was the significant elevations of a panel of bile acids in the plasma and urine, suggesting that DILI impaired hepatic bile acid uptake from the circulation. Furthermore, bile acid amidation in the hepatocytes was altered depending on the severity of the hepatotoxin-induced oxidative stress. The alteration of the bile acids was most evident by the necrosis and cholestasis hepatotoxins, with more subtle effects by the steatosis and idiosyncratic hepatotoxins. Taking together, our data suggest that the perturbation of bile acid homeostasis is an early event of DILI. Upon further validation, selected bile acids in the circulation could be potentially used as sensitive and early DILI preclinical biomarkers. - Highlights: ► We used metabolomics to gain insights on drug induced liver injury (DILI) in rats. ► We profiled rats treated with thirteen hepatotoxins at two doses and two time points. ► The toxins decreased the

  19. Identification and expression analysis of early cold-induced genes from cold-hardy Citrus relative Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Çevik, Mehtap

    2013-01-10

    Citrus is one of the most economically important fruit crops growing in subtropical and tropical regions. Most commercially important Citrus varieties are susceptible to cold; therefore, low and freezing temperatures are the main limiting factors for citrus production in subtropical areas. Since Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. is a cold-hardy, interfertile Citrus relative, it serves as a genetic resource for improving cold tolerance in cold sensitive commercial Citrus species. While gene induced in response to long-term cold acclimation was previously identified in Poncirus, early response of Poncirus to cold has not been explored in detail. To identify early cold-responsive genes, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed using 4-h cold-treated and untreated control Poncirus seedlings in this study. A total of 210 randomly picked clones from the subtracted library with cold-induced genes were sequenced. The sequences obtained from the majority of these clones shared homology with previously identified cold-induced and/or environmental stress-regulated genes in other plants. Reverse northern blot analysis of the expression of these cDNAs with cold-treated and untreated control probes revealed that expression of 64 cDNAs was increased two to 11 fold in response to 4-h cold treatment. While the majority of these genes were related with cell rescue, defense, cell death and aging, transcription, metabolism, protein fate, energy, cellular communication and signal transduction, transport facilitation and development, some of them did not show homology with genes with known functions. Individual expression analysis of nine selected genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR using mRNA from cold-treated and untreated control plants confirmed that the expression of selected cDNAs was all induced in response to cold. The results demonstrated that although a few genes were commonly induced in response to both short and long-term cold acclimation in Poncirus, majority of early cold

  20. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2016-04-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM) and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  1. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM and other extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  2. Does radiation prevent 5-fluorouracil-induced colitis in the early phase of radiochemotherapy? A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischke, H.C.; Momm, F.; Henke, M.; Frommhold, H. [University Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Wiech, T. [University Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of General Pathology and Pathologic Anatomy

    2007-08-15

    Case Report: A 43-year-old man with T3 N2 M0 adenocarcinoma of the lower rectum was admitted for preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT). Daily fractions of 1.8 Gy (planned total dose: 50.4 Gy) and concomitant chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin, and mitomycin C (MMC) were administered. On day 10, the patient developed abdominal pain and massive diarrhea. Computed tomography, endoscopy, histopathologic and serologic tests revealed severe colitis confined to the upper abdomen and most probably related to 5-FU. Unexpectedly, the bowel inflammation was restricted to areas not irradiated. 4 months later, during the course of disease, relapse with pulmonary metastases occurred. A palliative chemotherapy with 5-FU, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin was started. Again, the patient suffered from severe diarrhea and dose reduction was necessary. Discussion: It was speculated that in the early phase of RCT the well-known anti-inflammatory nature of low-dose radiation prevented exacerbation of colitis. To the authors' knowledge, this observation has not been published before. With respect to the current literature and the clinical findings it is discussed that both increased leukocyte/endothelial cell adhesion and altered release of reactive oxygen species or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) may play a role in 5-FU-induced colitis. Conclusion: This observation led to the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory effect of low-dose irradiation may attenuate 5-FU-induced colitis in the very early phase of RCT. It appears worthwhile to separate side effects of RCT into radiation- and chemotherapy-induced effects, which requires a detailed diagnostic work-up. This differentiation has an impact on planning individual therapy: the authors did not saw conclusive evidence of an increased radiosensitivity but chemosensitivity in their patient and therefore continued radiotherapy. This assumption was confirmed when the patient received palliative 5-FU

  3. Ameliorative effect of dietary genistein on diabetes induced hyper-inflammation and oxidative stress during early stage of wound healing in alloxan induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Hyeyoon; Lee, Hea-Ji; Lim, Yunsook

    2016-09-23

    Among the diabetic complications, diabetic foot ulcer due to delayed wound healing is one of the most significant clinical problems. Early inflammatory stage is important for better prognosis during wound healing. Thus, regulation of inflammatory response during early stage of wound healing is main target for complete cutaneous recovery. This study investigated the role of genistein supplementation in inflammation and oxidative stress, which are related to NLRP3 inflammasome, NFκB and Nrf2 activation, during cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Mice with diabetes with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels > 250 mg/dl were fed diets with AIN-93G rodent diet containing 0%, 0.025% (LG) or 0.1% (HG) genistein. After 2 weeks of genistein supplementation, excisional wounds were made by biopsy punches (4 mm). Genistein supplementation improved fasting glucose levels and wound closure rate. Moreover, genistein supplementation restored NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1) at the basal level and ameliorated both inflammation (TNFα, iNOS, COX2 and NFκB) and antioxidant defense system (Nrf2, HO-1, GPx, and catalase) during early stage of wound healing in diabetic mice. Taken together, genistein supplementation would be a potential therapeutic nutrient in prevention and treatment of delayed wound healing by modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress during inflammatory stage.

  4. Early vessel destabilization mediated by Angiopoietin-2 and subsequent vessel maturation via Angiopoietin-1 induce functional neovasculature after ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We assessed whether Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2, a Tie2 ligand and partial antagonist of Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1, is required for early vessel destabilization during postischemic angiogenesis, when combined with vascular growth factors. METHODS: In vitro, matrigel co-cultures assessed endothelial-cell tube formation and pericyte recruitment after stimulation of VEGF-A, Apelin (APLN, Ang1 with or without Ang2. In a murine hindlimb ischemia model, adeno-associated virus (rAAV, 3×10(12 virusparticles transduction of VEGF-A, APLN and Ang1 with or without Ang2 (continuous or early expression d0-3 was performed intramuscularly (d-14. Femoral artery ligation was performed at d0, followed by laser doppler perfusion meassurements (LDI 7 and 14. At d7 (early timepoint and d14 (late timepoint, histological analysis of capillary/muscle fiber ratio (CMF-R, PECAM-1 and pericyte/capillary ratio (PC-R, NG2 was performed. RESULTS: In vitro, VEGF-A, APLN and Ang1 induced ring formation, but only APLN and Ang1 recruited pericytes. Ang2 did not affect tube formation by APLN, but reduced pericyte recruitment after APLN or Ang1 overexpression. In vivo, rAAV.VEGF-A did not alter LDI-perfusion at d14, consistent with an impaired PC-R despite a rise in CMF-R. rAAV.APLN improved perfusion at d14, with or without continuous Ang2, increasing CMF-R and PC-R. rAAV.Ang1 improved perfusion at d14, when combined with rAAV.Ang2 (d0-3, accompanied by an increased CMF-R and PC-R. CONCLUSION: The combination of early vessel destabilization (Ang2 d0-3 and continuous Ang1 overexpression improves hindlimb perfusion, pointing to the importance of early vessel destabilization and subsequent vessel maturation for enhanced therapeutic neovascularization.

  5. Ets-1 as an early response gene against hypoxia-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, N; Xu, C; Zhu, Y-X; Cao, Y; Liu, D-C; Han, X

    2015-02-19

    Hypoxia complicates islet isolation for transplantation and may contribute to pancreatic β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic β-cells are susceptible to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Severe hypoxic conditions during the immediate post-transplantation period are a main non-immune factor leading to β-cell death and islet graft failure. In this study, we identified the transcription factor Ets-1 (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1) as an early response gene against hypoxia-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. Hypoxia regulates Ets-1 at multiple levels according to the degree of β-cell oxygen deprivation. Moderate hypoxia promotes Ets-1 gene transcription, whereas severe hypoxia promotes its transactivation activity, as well as its ubiquitin-proteasome mediated degradation. This degradation causes a relative insufficiency of Ets-1 activity, and limits the transactivation effect of Ets-1 on downstream hypoxic-inducible genes and its anti-apoptotic function. Overexpression of ectopic Ets-1 in MIN6 and INS-1 cells protects them from severe hypoxia-induced apoptosis in a mitochondria-dependent manner, confirming that a sufficient amount of Ets-1 activity is critical for protection of pancreatic β-cells against hypoxic injury. Targeting Ets-1 expression may be a useful strategy for islet graft protection during the immediate post-transplantation period.

  6. Retinoid-induced expression and activity of an immediate early tumor suppressor gene in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Streb

    Full Text Available Retinoids are used clinically to treat a number of hyper-proliferative disorders and have been shown in experimental animals to attenuate vascular occlusive diseases, presumably through nuclear receptors bound to retinoic acid response elements (RARE located in target genes. Here, we show that natural or synthetic retinoids rapidly induce mRNA and protein expression of a specific isoform of A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 12 (AKAP12β in cultured smooth muscle cells (SMC as well as the intact vessel wall. Expression kinetics and actinomycin D studies indicate Akap12β is a retinoid-induced, immediate-early gene. Akap12β promoter analyses reveal a conserved RARE mildly induced with atRA in a region that exhibits hyper-acetylation. Immunofluorescence microscopy and protein kinase A (PKA regulatory subunit overlay assays in SMC suggest a physical association between AKAP12β and PKA following retinoid treatment. Consistent with its designation as a tumor suppressor, inducible expression of AKAP12β attenuates SMC growth in vitro. Further, immunohistochemistry studies establish marked decreases in AKAP12 expression in experimentally-injured vessels of mice as well as atheromatous lesions in humans. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel role for retinoids in the induction of an AKAP tumor suppressor that blocks vascular SMC growth thus providing new molecular insight into how retiniods may exert their anti-proliferative effects in the injured vessel wall.

  7. Chronic morphine treatment enhances sciatic nerve stimulation-induced immediate early gene expression in the rat dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovic, Ognjen; Bramham, Clive R; Tjølsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a property of neurons that can be induced by conditioning electrical stimulation (CS) of afferent fibers in the spinal cord. This is a widely studied property of spinal cord and hippocampal neurons. CS has been shown to trigger enhanced expression of immediate early gene proteins (IEGPs), with peak increases observed 2 hour post stimulation. Chronic morphine treatment has been shown to promoteinduce opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and also to increase CS-induced central sensitization in the dorsal horn. As IEGP expression may contribute to development of chronic pain states, we aimed to determine whether chronic morphine treatment affects the expression of IEGPs following sciatic nerve CS. Changes in expression of the IEGPs Arc, c-Fos or Zif268 were determined in cells of the lumbar dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Chronic Morphine pretreatment over 7 days led to a significant increase in the number of IEGP positive cells observed at both 2 h and 6 h after CS. The same pattern of immunoreactivity was obtained for all IEGPs, with peak increases occurring at 2 h post CS. In contrast, morphine treatment alone in sham operated animals had no effect on IEGP expression. We conclude that chronic morphine treatment enhances stimulus-induced expression of IEGPs in the lumbar dorsal horn. These data support the notion that morphine alters gene expression responses linked to nociceptive stimulation and plasticity.

  8. Perillyl Alcohol Protects against Fe-NTA-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Early Tumor Promotional Events in Rat Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamanna Jahangir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been widely used as protective agents against a wide variety of processes and compounds that damage tissues via free radical mechanisms. Perillyl alcohol (PA is a naturally occurring monoterpene found in the essential oils of numerous species of plants including mints, cherries and celery seeds. This monocyclic monoterpene has shown antioxidant and therapeutic activity in various studies against various xenobiotics. In this study, we have analyzed the effects of PA against single intraperitoneal dose of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA (9 mg iron per kg body weight-induced nephrotoxicity and early tumor promotional events. The pretreatment of Fe-NTA-treated rats with 0.5% per kg body weight dose and 1% per kg body weight dose of PA for seven consecutive days significantly reversed the Fe-NTA-induced malondialdehyde formation, xanthine oxidase activity (P < 0.001, ornithine decarboxylase activity (P < 0.001 and 3[H]thymidine incorporation in renal DNA (P < 0.001 with simultaneous significant depletion in serum toxicity markers blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (P < 0.001. Significant restoration at both the doses was recorded in depleted renal glutathione content, and its dependent enzymes with prophylactic treatment of PA. Present results suggest that PA potentially attenuates against Fe-NTA-induced oxidative damage and tumor promotional events that preclude its development as a future drug to avert the free radical-induced toxicity.

  9. Radiation Induced Apoptosis of Murine Bone Marrow Cells Is Independent of Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oben, Karine Z.; Gachuki, Beth W.; Alhakeem, Sara S.; McKenna, Mary K.; Liang, Ying; St. Clair, Daret K.; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Bondada, Subbarao

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of how each individual 5q chromosome critical deleted region (CDR) gene contributes to malignant transformation would foster the development of much needed targeted therapies for the treatment of therapy related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs). Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) is a key transcriptional regulator of myeloid differentiation located within the 5q chromosome CDR that has been shown to regulate HSC (hematopoietic stem cell) quiescence as well as the master regulator of apoptosis—p53. Since resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of malignant transformation, we investigated the role of EGR1 in apoptosis of bone marrow cells; a cell population from which myeloid malignancies arise. We evaluated radiation induced apoptosis of Egr1+/+ and Egr1-/- bone marrow cells in vitro and in vivo. EGR1 is not required for radiation induced apoptosis of murine bone marrow cells. Neither p53 mRNA (messenger RNA) nor protein expression is regulated by EGR1 in these cells. Radiation induced apoptosis of bone marrow cells by double strand DNA breaks induced p53 activation. These results suggest EGR1 dependent signaling mechanisms do not contribute to aberrant apoptosis of malignant cells in myeloid malignancies. PMID:28081176

  10. Proton and Fe Ion-Induced Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Bowler, Deborah; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability, induced by various metabolic, genetic, and environmental factors, is the driving force of tumorigenesis. Radiation exposure from different types of radiation sources induces different types of DNA damages, increases mutation and chromosome aberration rates, and increases cellular transformation in vitro and in vivo experiments. The cell survival rates and frequency of chromosome aberrations depend on the genetic background and radiation sources. To further understand genomic instability induced by charged particles, we exposed human lymphocytes ex vivo, human fibroblast cells, human mammary epithelial cells, and bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH and C57BL/6 mice to high energy protons and Fe ions, and collected chromosomes at different generations after exposure. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed with fluorescent in situ hybridization with whole chromosome specific probes.

  11. Early treatment with metformin induces resistance against tumor growth in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini, Amanda B; Franco, Claudinéia Cs; Miranda, Rosiane A; de Oliveira, Júlio C; Barella, Luiz F; Prates, Kelly V; de Souza, Aline A; Pavanello, Audrei; Malta, Ananda; Almeida, Douglas L; Tófolo, Laize P; Rigo, Kesia P; Ribeiro, Tatiane As; Fabricio, Gabriel S; de Sant'Anna, Juliane R; Castro-Prado, Marialba Aa; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Morais, Hely; Mathias, Paulo Cf

    2015-01-01

    It is known that antidiabetic drug metformin, which is used worldwide, has anti-cancer effects and can be used to prevent cancer growth. We tested the hypothesis that tumor cell growth can be inhibited by early treatment with metformin. For this purpose, adult rats chronically treated with metformin in adolescence or in adulthood were inoculated with Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Adult rats that were treated with metformin during adolescence presented inhibition of tumor growth, and animals that were treated during adult life did not demonstrate any changes in tumor growth. Although we do not have data to disclose a molecular mechanism to the preventive metformin effect, we present, for the first time, results showing that cancer growth in adult life is dependent on early life intervention, thus supporting a new therapeutic prevention for cancer.

  12. Massive impact-induced release of carbon and sulfur gases in the early Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, S.; Black, B. A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Bottke, W. F.

    2016-09-01

    Recent revisions to our understanding of the collisional history of the Hadean and early-Archean Earth indicate that large collisions may have been an important geophysical process. In this work we show that the early bombardment flux of large impactors (>100 km) facilitated the atmospheric release of greenhouse gases (particularly CO2) from Earth's mantle. Depending on the timescale for the drawdown of atmospheric CO2, the Earth's surface could have been subject to prolonged clement surface conditions or multiple freeze-thaw cycles. The bombardment also delivered and redistributed to the surface large quantities of sulfur, one of the most important elements for life. The stochastic occurrence of large collisions could provide insights on why the Earth and Venus, considered Earth's twin planet, exhibit radically different atmospheres.

  13. Overexpression of fatty acid amide hydrolase induces early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Neal D. Teaster

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs are bioactive lipids derived from the hydrolysis of the membrane phospholipid N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE. In animal systems this reaction is part of the endocannabinoid signaling pathway, which regulates a variety of physiological processes. The signaling function of NAE is terminated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, which hydrolyzes NAE to ethanolamine and free fatty acid. Our previous work in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that overexpression of AtFAAH (At5g64440 lowered endogenous levels of NAEs in seeds, consistent with its role in NAE signal termination. Reduced NAE levels were accompanied by an accelerated growth phenotype, increased sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA, enhanced susceptibility to bacterial pathogens, and early flowering. Here we investigated the nature of the early flowering phenotype of AtFAAH overexpression. AtFAAH overexpressors flowered several days earlier than wild type and AtFAAH knockouts under both non-inductive short day (SD and inductive long day (LD conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT gene, which plays a major role in regulating flowering time, and one target MADS box transcription factor, SEPATALLA3 (SEP3, were elevated in AtFAAH overexpressors. Furthermore, AtFAAH overexpressors, with the early flowering phenotype had lower endogenous NAE levels in leaves compared to wild type prior to flowering. Exogenous application of NAE 12:0, which was reduced by up to 30% in AtFAAH overexpressors, delayed the onset of flowering in wild type plants. We conclude that the early flowering phenotype of AtFAAH overexpressors is, in part, explained by elevated FT gene expression resulting from the enhanced NAE hydrolase activity of AtFAAH, suggesting that NAE metabolism may participate in floral signaling pathways.

  14. Early effects of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation on foetal brain development in rat

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    Cristina A Ghiani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies in humans and animal models link maternal infection and imbalanced levels of inflammatory mediators in the foetal brain to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In a number of animal models, it was shown that exposure to viral or bacterial agents during a period that corresponds to the second trimester in human gestation triggers brain and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. However, little is known about the early cellular and molecular events elicited by inflammation in the foetal brain shortly after maternal infection has occurred. In this study, maternal infection was mimicked by two consecutive intraperitoneal injections of 200 μg of LPS (lipopolysaccharide/kg to timed-pregnant rats at GD15 (gestational day 15 and GD16. Increased thickness of the CP (cortical plate and hippocampus together with abnormal distribution of immature neuronal markers and decreased expression of markers for neural progenitors were observed in the LPS-exposed foetal forebrains at GD18. Such effects were accompanied by decreased levels of reelin and the radial glial marker GLAST (glial glutamate transporter, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in maternal serum and foetal forebrains. Foetal inflammation elicited by maternal injections of LPS has discrete detrimental effects on brain development. The early biochemical and morphological changes described in this work begin to explain the sequelae of early events that underlie the neurobehavioural deficits reported in humans and animals exposed to prenatal insults.

  15. Early Effects of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation on Foetal Brain Development in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Ghiani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies in humans and animal models link maternal infection and imbalanced levels of inflammatory mediators in the foetal brain to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In a number of animal models, it was shown that exposure to viral or bacterial agents during a period that corresponds to the second trimester in human gestation triggers brain and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. However, little is known about the early cellular and molecular events elicited by inflammation in the foetal brain shortly after maternal infection has occurred. In this study, maternal infection was mimicked by two consecutive intraperitoneal injections of 200 μg of LPS (lipopolysaccharide/kg to timed-pregnant rats at GD15 (gestational day 15 and GD16. Increased thickness of the CP (cortical plate and hippocampus together with abnormal distribution of immature neuronal markers and decreased expression of markers for neural progenitors were observed in the LPS-exposed foetal forebrains at GD18. Such effects were accompanied by decreased levels of reelin and the radial glial marker GLAST (glial glutamate transporter, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in maternal serum and foetal forebrains. Foetal inflammation elicited by maternal injections of LPS has discrete detrimental effects on brain development. The early biochemical and morphological changes described in this work begin to explain the sequelae of early events that underlie the neurobehavioural deficits reported in humans and animals exposed to prenatal insults.

  16. Early pharmacological inhibition of angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity induces obesity in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely ede Picoli Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated early programming of body mass in order to understand the multifactorial etiology of obesity. Considering that the renin-angiotensin system is expressed and functional in the white adipose tissue (WAT and modulates its development, we reasoned whether early transitory inhibition of angiotensin-I converting enzyme activity after birth could modify late body mass development. Therefore, newborn Wistar rats were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg of body mass or saline, starting at the first day of life until the age of 16 days. Between days 90th and 180th, a group of these animals received high fat diet (HFD. Molecular, biochemical, histological and physiological data were collected. Enalapril treated animals presented hyperphagia, overweight and increased serum level of triglycerides, total cholesterol and leptin, in adult life. Body composition analyses revealed higher fat mass with increased adipocyte size in these animals. Molecular analyses revealed that enalapril treatment increases neuropeptide Y (NPY and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART gene expression in hypothalamus, fatty acid synthase (FAS and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL gene expression in retroperitoneal WAT and decreases peroxixome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR γ, PPARα, uncoupling protein (UCP 2 and UCP3 gene expression in WAT. The results of the current study indicate that enalapril administration during early postnatal development increases body mass, adiposity and serum lipids in adulthood associated with enhanced food intake and decreased metabolic activity in WAT, predisposing to obesity in adulthood.

  17. High-frequency stimulation induces gradual immediate early gene expression in maturing adult-generated hippocampal granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungenitz, Tassilo; Radic, Tijana; Jedlicka, Peter; Schwarzacher, Stephan W

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence shows that adult neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells is advantageous for learning and memory. We examined at which stage of structural maturation and age new granule cells can be activated by strong synaptic stimulation. High-frequency stimulation of the perforant pathway in urethane-anesthetized rats elicited expression of the immediate early genes c-fos, Arc, zif268 and pCREB133 in almost 100% of mature, calbindin-positive granule cells. In contrast, it failed to induce immediate early gene expression in immature doublecortin-positive granule cells. Furthermore, doublecortin-positive neurons did not react with c-fos or Arc expression to mild theta-burst stimulation or novel environment exposure. Endogenous expression of pCREB133 was increasingly present in young cells with more elaborated dendrites, revealing a close correlation to structural maturation. Labeling with bromodeoxyuridine revealed cell age dependence of stimulation-induced c-fos, Arc and zif268 expression, with only a few cells reacting at 21 days, but with up to 75% of cells activated at 35-77 days of cell age. Our results indicate an increasing synaptic integration of maturing granule cells, starting at 21 days of cell age, but suggest a lack of ability to respond to activation with synaptic potentiation on the transcriptional level as long as immature cells express doublecortin. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Efficacy of early induced medical abortion with mifepristone when beginning progestin-only contraception on the same day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthwaite, Megan; Candelas, Jose A; Reichwein, Barbara; Eckhardt, Carla; Ngo, Thoai D; Domínguez, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether starting progestin-only contraception immediately after mifepristone reduced the efficacy of early medical abortion with a mifepristone-misoprostol regimen. A review of patient records from October 1, 2012 to March 31, 2013 from four Marie Stopes Mexico clinics in Mexico City was conducted. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had undergone a medical abortion with mifepristone-misoprostol at no later than 63days of pregnancy, had a recorded outcome, and had either started progestin-only contraception immediately after mifepristone administration or had not started contraception. The primary outcome-successful induced abortion-was defined as the complete evacuation of uterine contents without the need for further intervention. A secondary outcome was the number of induced abortions completed without the need for manual vacuum aspiration. Records from 2204 patients were included; 448 (20.3%) patients had started progestin-only contraception, and 1756 (79.7%) had not. Patients not taking progestin-only contraception were significantly more likely to be primigravidas and nulliparous. Medical abortion success did not vary between the two groups; 1890 (85.8%) were successful and 2085 (94.6%) were completed without the need for manual vacuum aspiration. Different methods of progestin-only contraception did not affect medical abortion outcomes. Beginning progestin-only contraception immediately following mifepristone for early medical abortion was not associated with reduced medical abortion effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of STZ-Induced Diabetes on In Vitro Fertilization and Early Embryogenesis Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Aktuğ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of experimentally induced diabetes on (a germ cells, (b in vitro fertilization (IVF success rate, and (c gap junction and cell adhesion molecule gene and protein expressions during the early blastocyst period. Germ cells were obtained from healthy and diabetic rats, analyzed for number, motility, and morphology, and used for IVF. After reaching the early blastocyst stage, the expressions of genes encoding gap junction proteins and cell adhesion molecules were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Histomorphologically and immunohistochemically analyses were also performed. Diabetes significantly affected sperm number and motility and the development of oocytes. Gene expressions of β-catenin and connexin family members and protein expressions of E-cadherin and connexin-43 significantly decreased in groups including germ cells isolated from diabetic rats. Connective tissue growth factor expression increased in groups that included sperm cells isolated from diabetic male rats, whereas mucin-1 expression increased in the group that included oocytes isolated from diabetic female rats paired with sperm cells isolated from healthy male rats. In summary, experimentally induced diabetes was found to influence gap junctions, cell adhesion molecules, and associated proteins which all have important roles in germ cell maturation, fertilization, and development.

  20. A review of UHMWPE wear-induced osteolysis: the role for early detection of the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandahari, Adrese M; Yang, Xinlin; Laroche, Kevin A; Dighe, Abhijit S; Pan, Dongfeng; Cui, Quanjun

    2016-01-01

    In a world where increasing joint arthroplasties are being performed on increasingly younger patients, osteolysis as the leading cause of failure after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has gained considerable attention. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear-induced osteolysis is the process by which prosthetic debris mechanically released from the surface of prosthetic joints induces an immune response that favors bone catabolism, resulting in loosening of prostheses with eventual failure or fracture. The immune response initiated is innate in that it is nonspecific and self-propagating, with monocytic cells and osteoclasts being the main effectors. To date, detecting disease early enough to implement effective intervention without unwanted systemic side effects has been a major barrier. These barriers can be overcome using newer in vivo imaging techniques and modules linked with fluorescence and/or chemotherapies. We discuss the pathogenesis of osteolysis, and provide discussion of the challenges with imaging and therapeutics. We describe a positron emission tomography imaging cinnamoyl-Phe-(D)-Leu-Phe-(D)-Leu-Phe-Lys module, specific to macrophages, which holds promise in early detection of disease and localization of treatment. Further research and increased collaboration among therapeutic and three-dimensional imaging researchers are essential in realizing a solution to clinical osteolysis in TJA.

  1. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α activation improves renal oxygenation and mitochondrial function in early chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joanna L; Pham, Hai; Li, Ying; Hall, Elanore; Perkins, Guy A; Ali, Sameh S; Patel, Hemal H; Singh, Prabhleen

    2017-08-01

    The pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is driven by alterations in surviving nephrons to sustain renal function with ongoing nephron loss. Oxygen supply-demand mismatch, due to hemodynamic adaptations, with resultant hypoxia, plays an important role in the pathophysiology in early CKD. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this mismatch. We utilized the subtotal nephrectomy (STN) model of CKD to investigate the alterations in renal oxygenation linked to sodium (Na) transport and mitochondrial function in the surviving nephrons. Oxygen delivery was significantly reduced in STN kidneys because of lower renal blood flow. Fractional oxygen extraction was significantly higher in STN. Tubular Na reabsorption was significantly lower per mole of oxygen consumed in STN. We hypothesized that decreased mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity may account for this and uncovered significant mitochondrial dysfunction in the early STN kidney: higher oxidative metabolism without an attendant increase in ATP levels, elevated superoxide levels, and alterations in mitochondrial morphology. We further investigated the effect of activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a master regulator of cellular hypoxia response. We observed significant improvement in renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and tubular Na reabsorption per mole of oxygen consumed with HIF-1α activation. Importantly, HIF-1α activation significantly lowered mitochondrial oxygen consumption and superoxide production and increased mitochondrial volume density. In conclusion, we report significant impairment of renal oxygenation and mitochondrial function at the early stages of CKD and demonstrate the beneficial role of HIF-1α activation on renal function and metabolism.

  2. Low-dose penicillin in early life induces long-term changes in murine gut microbiota, brain cytokines and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Sophie; Mian, Firoz M.; Stanisz, Andrew M.; Bindels, Laure B.; Cambier, Emmanuel; Ben-Amram, Hila; Koren, Omry; Forsythe, Paul; Bienenstock, John

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on children's health. Epidemiological studies have revealed that early-life antibiotic exposure can increase the risk of developing immune and metabolic diseases, and rodent studies have shown that administration of high doses of antibiotics has long-term effects on brain neurochemistry and behaviour. Here we investigate whether low-dose penicillin in late pregnancy and early postnatal life induces long-term effects in the offspring of mice. We find that penicillin has lasting effects in both sexes on gut microbiota, increases cytokine expression in frontal cortex, modifies blood–brain barrier integrity and alters behaviour. The antibiotic-treated mice exhibit impaired anxiety-like and social behaviours, and display aggression. Concurrent supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1 prevents some of these alterations. These results warrant further studies on the potential role of early-life antibiotic use in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the possible attenuation of these by beneficial bacteria. PMID:28375200

  3. Comparison of history of adolescents with substance-induced psychosis, early onset schizophrenia and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzova, Z; Skodacek, I; Suba, J; Bohmer, F

    2014-01-01

    The contribution contains a comparison of the history data of adolescent patients hospitalized at the Department of Child Psychiatry, Children´s Faculty Hospital in Bratislava with the diagnoses of Substance-Induced Psychosis (SIP), Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) and with Substance Use Disorders (SUD). SIP is rarely recorded and little documented by the age of 18. The etiology of this disorder is still relatively unclear. The data collection was carried out from patients hospitalized between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2012. We recorded data from 20 patients hospitalized with SIP, 50 patients hospitalized with EOS, and 50 patients hospitalized with SUD. We collected and compared the data on family history, perinatal complications, early psychomotor development, data on psychical problems before their hospitalization, and presence of unfavorable life situations in their childhood. The data of adolescents with SIP are more similar to the data of patients with EOS than patients with SUD in terms of the burden of family history, the frequency of complications during pregnancy and delivery, and the frequency of the subsequent early psychomotor impairment. In terms of unfavorable life situations and psychological problems for which they were monitored in a psychiatric ward before their hospitalization with SIP, their data are more similar to those of patients with SUD than with EOS (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 21).

  4. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  5. A walk through superstring theory with an application to Yang-Mills theory: K-strings and D-branes as gauge/gravity dual objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Kory M.

    Superstring theory is one current, promising attempt at unifying gravity with the other three known forces: the electromagnetic force, and the weak and strong nuclear forces. Though this is still a work in progress, much effort has been put toward this goal. A set of specific tools which are used in this effort are gauge/gravity dualities. This thesis consists of a specific implementation of gauge/gravity dualities to describe k-strings of strongly coupled gauge theories as objects dual to Dp-branes embedded in confining supergravity backgrounds from low energy superstring field theory. Along with superstring theory, k-strings are also commonly investigated with lattice gauge theory and Hamiltonian methods. A k-string is a colorless combination of quark-antiquark source pairs, between which a color flux tube develops. The two most notable terms of the k-string energy are, for large quark anti-quark separation L, the tension term, proportional to L, and the Coulombic 1/L correction, known as the Luscher term. This thesis provides an overview of superstring theories and how gauge/gravity dualities emerge from them. It shows in detail how these dualities can be used for the specific problem of calculating the k-string energy in 2 + 1 and 3 + 1 space-time dimensions as the energy of D p-branes in the dual gravitational theory. A detailed review of k-string tension calculations is given where good agreement is found with lattice gauge theory and Hamiltonian methods. In reviewing the k-string tension, we also touch on how different representations of k-strings can be described with Dp-branes through gauge/gravity dualities. The main result of this thesis is how the Luscher term is found to emerge as the one loop quantum corrections to the Dp-brane energy. In 2+1 space-time dimensions, we have Luscher term data to compare with from lattice gauge theory, where we find good agreement.

  6. Note on early testing of induced mutants of chickpea under rainfed and irrigated conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerkar, Y.S.; Patil, V.D. (Marathwada Agricultural Univ., Parbhani (India))

    1981-09-01

    Gamma-ray-induced mutations involving yield and yield-contributing characters were isolated in the M/sub 3/ and M/sub 4/ generations of 'Chaffa', 'N 59' and 'No. 82-3-50' varieties of chickpea (Cicer arientinum Linn.).

  7. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high-fat diet promotes diethylnitrosamine initiated early hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been suggested that patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at a high risk for liver cancer. However, it is unknown whether high-fat diet induced NASH promotes hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with a low dose of hepatic carcinogen die...

  8. Early mucosal sensing of SIV infection by paneth cells induces IL-1β production and initiates gut epithelial disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Hirao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV causes rapid CD4+ T cell depletion in the gut mucosa, resulting in immune deficiency and defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier. Breakdown in gut barrier integrity is linked to chronic inflammation and disease progression. However, the early effects of HIV on the gut epithelium, prior to the CD4+ T cell depletion, are not known. Further, the impact of early viral infection on mucosal responses to pathogenic and commensal microbes has not been investigated. We utilized the SIV model of AIDS to assess the earliest host-virus interactions and mechanisms of inflammation and dysfunction in the gut, prior to CD4+ T cell depletion. An intestinal loop model was used to interrogate the effects of SIV infection on gut mucosal immune sensing and response to pathogens and commensal bacteria in vivo. At 2.5 days post-SIV infection, low viral loads were detected in peripheral blood and gut mucosa without CD4+ T cell loss. However, immunohistological analysis revealed the disruption of the gut epithelium manifested by decreased expression and mislocalization of tight junction proteins. Correlating with epithelial disruption was a significant induction of IL-1β expression by Paneth cells, which were in close proximity to SIV-infected cells in the intestinal crypts. The IL-1β response preceded the induction of the antiviral interferon response. Despite the disruption of the gut epithelium, no aberrant responses to pathogenic or commensal bacteria were observed. In fact, inoculation of commensal Lactobacillus plantarum in intestinal loops led to rapid anti-inflammatory response and epithelial tight junction repair in SIV infected macaques. Thus, intestinal Paneth cells are the earliest responders to viral infection and induce gut inflammation through IL-1β signaling. Reversal of the IL-1β induced gut epithelial damage by Lactobacillus plantarum suggests synergistic host-commensal interactions during early viral infection and identify these

  9. pH regulation in early endosomes and interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins control avian retrovirus fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Mason, Caleb; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2017-05-12

    Enveloped viruses infect host cells by fusing their membranes with those of the host cell, a process mediated by viral glycoproteins upon binding to cognate host receptors or entering into acidic intracellular compartments. Whereas the effect of receptor density on viral infection has been well studied, the role of cell type-specific factors/processes, such as pH regulation, has not been characterized in sufficient detail. Here, we examined the effects of cell-extrinsic factors (buffer environment) and cell-intrinsic factors (interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins, IFITMs), on the pH regulation in early endosomes and on the efficiency of acid-dependent fusion of the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV), with endosomes. First, we found that a modest elevation of external pH can raise the pH in early endosomes in a cell type-dependent manner and thereby delay the acid-induced fusion of endocytosed ASLV. Second, we observed a cell type-dependent delay between the low pH-dependent and temperature-dependent steps of viral fusion, consistent with the delayed enlargement of the fusion pore. Third, ectopic expression of IFITMs, known to potently block influenza virus fusion with late compartments, was found to only partially inhibit ASLV fusion with early endosomes. Interestingly, IFITM expression promoted virus uptake and the acidification of endosomal compartments, resulting in an accelerated fusion rate when driven by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, but not by the transmembrane isoform of the ASLV receptor. Collectively, these results highlight the role of cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic factors in regulating the efficiency and kinetics of virus entry and fusion with target cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Promoter of soybean early nodulin gene enod2B is induced by rhizobial Nod factors in transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanzhang; YU Guanqiao; SHEN Shanjiong(San Chiun Shen); ZHU Jiabi

    2004-01-01

    Nod factors, which are signaling molecules produced by Rhizobia, are the principal determinants of host specificity in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Nod factors can elicit a number of characteristic developmental responses in the roots of legumes, such as depolarization of the membrane potential in epidermal cells, specific expression of early nodulin genes and changes in the flux of calcium in root hairs, deformation of root hairs, cell division in the root cortex and formation of the nodule primordium. Whether the rice plant can respond to signaling molecules (I.e. Nod factors) is an important question, as it could establish the potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in rice. The promoter of the soybean (Glycine max) early nodulin gene Gmenod2B fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was used as a molecular marker to explore whether Nod factors can be recognized by rice cells as signaling molecules. Transgenic rice plants harboring the chimeric gene Gmenod2BP-GUS were obtained via an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated system. NodNGR factors produced by a broad-host-range Rhizobium strain NGR234(pA28) were used as probes to investigate the activity of the Gmenod2B promoter in rice. Our results showed that the early nodulin gene Gmenod2B promoter was induced by NodNGR factors in transgenic rice, and that it was specifically expressed in rice plant roots. Moreover, GUS gene expression driven by the Gmenod2B promoter in transgenic rice was regulated by nitrogen status. These findings indicated that rice possessed the ability to respond to Nod factor signals, and that this signal transduction system resulted in activation of the Gmenod2B promoter. Thus, we predict that the Nod-factor inducible nodulin expression system, which is similar to Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, may also exist in rice.

  11. Significance of Cystatin C for Early Diagnosis of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li; Yue, Rongzheng; You, Guiying; Zeng, Rui

    2016-08-22

    BACKGROUND Contrast-induced nephropathy is acute kidney injury caused by contrast medium exposure. Serum creatinine is the clinical diagnostic standard, but it does not yield quick results. The serum level of cystatin C is stable and it can reflect renal function sensitively. The study aimed to assess the usefulness of cystatin C for early diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 300 patients who underwent CAG. According to the sCr at 48 h, patients were divided into 2 groups: CIN group and non-CIN group. Their demographics and basal renal function were recorded. Changes in sCr, Cys C, and e GFR were compared at the same time. ROC analysis was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of Cys C in the early diagnosis of CIN. RESULTS Comparison of basal renal function and serum level of Cys C showed no significant differences between the 2 groups. Serum level of Cys C increased significantly at 24 h (p<0.001), and sCr increased significantly at 48 h. ROC analysis showed that the AUC of the change in Cys C between baseline and 24 h was 0.936 (95% CI: 0.879-0.992, p=0.000) and the optimum cut-off level was 0.26 mg/L (sensitivity=89.7% and specificity=95.6%). CONCLUSIONS The concentration change of Cys C is better than sCr as a biomarker in the early detection of CIN.

  12. Perturbative and non-perturbative approaches to the quantum AdS5xS5 superstring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Ryan

    This dissertation spans perturbative to non-perturbative approaches of testing and using integrability of the IIB superstring in the AdS5xS 5 background. The integrability-based solution of string theories related to AdS n/CFTn-1 dualities relies on the worldsheet S matrix. In chapter 2 we use generalized unitarity to construct the terms with logarithmic dependence on external momenta at one- and two-loop order in the worldsheet S matrix for strings in a general integrable worldsheet theory. We also discuss aspects of calculations as it extends to higher orders. The S-matrix elements are expressed as sums of integrals with coefficients given in terms of tree-level worldsheet four-point scattering amplitudes. Off-diagonal one-loop rational functions, not determined by two-dimensional unitarity cuts, are fixed by symmetry considerations. They play an important role in the determination of the two-loop logarithmic contributions. We illustrate the general analysis by computing the logarithmic terms in the one- and two-loop four-particle S-matrix elements in the massive worldsheet sectors of string theory in AdS5xS5, AdS4xCP 3, AdS3xS3xS3xS 1 and AdS3xS3xT4. We explore the structure of the S matrices and provide explicit evidence for the absence of higher-order logarithms and for the exponentiation of the one-loop dressing phase. In chapter 3 we will construct the full coset space of AdS5xS5 SO4,1xSO 5 in terms of a Gross-Neveu model. After this non-perturbative transformation we have shown the theory to be UV finite at 1 loop and furthermore that it exhibits some non-local integrals of motion through a Lax connection. The integrability of string theory in AdS5xS 5 and of the dilatation operator of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory has been used to propose an exact solution to the spectral problem in these theories. Weak coupling perturbation theory both in gauge theory and on the worldsheet has been extensively used to verify this solution. In chapter 4 we demonstrate

  13. FGFs and BMP4 induce both Msx1-independent and Msx1-dependent signaling pathways in early tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, M; Maas, R

    1998-11-01

    During early tooth development, multiple signaling molecules are expressed in the dental lamina epithelium and induce the dental mesenchyme. One signal, BMP4, has been shown to induce morphologic changes in dental mesenchyme and mesenchymal gene expression via Msx1, but BMP4 cannot substitute for all the inductive functions of the dental epithelium. To investigate the role of FGFs during early tooth development, we examined the expression of epithelial and mesenchymal Fgfs in wild-type and Msx1 mutant tooth germs and tested the ability of FGFs to induce Fgf3 and Bmp4 expression in wild-type and Msx1 mutant dental mesenchymal explants. Fgf8 expression is preserved in Msx1 mutant epithelium while that of Fgf3 is not detected in Msx1 mutant dental mesenchyme. Moreover, dental epithelium as well as beads soaked in FGF1, FGF2 or FGF8 induce Fgf3 expression in dental mesenchyme in an Msx1-dependent manner. These results indicate that, like BMP4, FGF8 constitutes an epithelial inductive signal capable of inducing the expression of downstream signaling molecules in dental mesenchyme via Msx1. However, the BMP4 and FGF8 signaling pathways are distinct. BMP4 cannot induce Fgf3 nor can FGFs induce Bmp4 expression in dental mesenchyme, even though both signaling molecules can induce Msx1 and Msx1 is necessary for Fgf3 and Bmp4 expression in dental mesenchyme. In addition, we have investigated the effects of FGFs and BMP4 on the distal-less homeobox genes Dlx1 and Dlx2 and we have clarified the relationship between Msx and Dlx gene function in the developing tooth. Dlx1,Dlx2 double mutants exhibit a lamina stage arrest in maxillary molar tooth development (Thomas B. L., Tucker A. S., Qiu M. , Ferguson C. A., Hardcastle Z., Rubenstein J. L. R. and Sharpe P. T. (1997) Development 124, 4811-4818). Although the maintenance of molar mesenchymal Dlx2 expression at the bud stage is Msx1-dependent, both the maintenance of Dlx1 expression and the initial activation of mesenchymal Dlx1

  14. Inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein and radiotherapy-induced early adverse skin reactions in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Takita, Cristiane; Wright, Jean; Reis, Isildinha M; Zhao, Wei; Lally, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J

    2014-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women. Postsurgery adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) significantly reduced the local recurrence rate. However, many patients develop early adverse skin reactions (EASR) that impact quality of life and treatment outcomes. We evaluated an inflammatory biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), in predicting RT-induced EASRs in 159 patients with breast cancer undergoing RT. In each patient, we measured pre- and post-RT plasma CRP levels using a highly sensitive ELISA CRP assay. RT-induced EASRs were assessed at weeks 3 and 6 using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (v3.0). Associations between EASRs and CRP levels were assessed using logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. RT-induced grade 2+ EASRs were observed in 8 (5%) and 80 (50%) patients at weeks 3 and 6 (end of RT), respectively. At the end of RT, a significantly higher proportion of African Americans developed grade 3 EASRs (13.8% vs. 2.3% in others); grade 2+ EASRs were significantly associated with: change of CRP > 1 mg/L [odds ratio (OR), 2.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-5.95; P = 0.04], obesity (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.03-4.21; P = 0.04), or combined both factors (OR, 5.21; 95% CI, 1.77-15.38; P = 0.003). This is the first study to demonstrate that an inflammatory biomarker CRP is associated with RT-induced EASRs, particularly combined with obesity. Future larger studies are warranted to validate our findings and facilitate the discovery and development of anti-inflammatory agents to protect normal tissue from RT-induced adverse effects and improve quality of life in patients with breast cancer undergoing RT. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Immunosuppression in early postnatal days induces persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition with high morbidity, and effective treatments for asthma are limited. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can only induce peripheral immune tolerance and is not sustainable. Exploring new therapeutic strategies is of great clinical importance. Recombinant adenovirus (rAdV was used as a vector to make cells expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig a soluble CTLA4 immunoglobulin fusion protein. Dendritic cells (DCs were modified using the rAdVs together with allergens. Then these modified DCs were transplanted to mice before allergen sensitization. The persistence and specificity of immune tolerance were evaluated in mice challenged with asthma allergens at 3 and 7 months. DCs modified by CTLA4Ig showed increased IL-10 secretion, decreased IL-12 secretion, and T cell stimulation in vitro. Mice treated with these DCs in the early neonatal period developed tolerance against the allergens that were used to induce asthma in the adult stage. Asthma symptoms, lung damage, airway reactivity, and inflammatory response all improved. Humoral immunity indices showed that this therapeutic strategy strongly suppressed mice immune responses and was maintained for as long as 7 months. Furthermore, allergen cross-sensitization and challenge experiments demonstrated that this immune tolerance was allergen-specific. Treatment with CTLA4Ig modified DCs in the early neonatal period, inducing persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to develop a vaccine for asthma.

  16. Radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events: Telomere shortening and bridge formation coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, Sheeona; Tosetto, Miriam [Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Lyng, Fiona; Howe, Orla [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology and St. Luke' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Sheahan, Kieran; O' Donoghue, Diarmuid; Hyland, John; Mulcahy, Hugh [Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland); O' Sullivan, Jacintha, E-mail: jacintha.osullivan@ucd.ie [Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2009-10-02

    The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a human colon cancer explant model. We assessed telomere lengths, bridge formations, mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species in bystander cells exposed to medium from irradiated and chemotherapy-treated explant tissues. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2 Gy, 5 Gy, FOLFOX treated tumor and matching normal tissue showed a significant reduction in telomere lengths (all p values <0.018) and an increase in bridge formations (all p values <0.017) compared to bystander cells treated with media from unirradiated tissue (0 Gy) at 24 h. There was no significant difference between 2 Gy and 5 Gy treatments, or between effects elicited by tumor versus matched normal tissue. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2 Gy irradiated tumor tissue showed significant depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (p = 0.012) and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels. We also used bystander cells overexpressing a mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to examine if this antioxidant could rescue the mitochondrial changes and subsequently influence nuclear instability events. In MnSOD cells, ROS levels were reduced (p = 0.02) and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (p = 0.04). These events were coupled with a decrease in percentage of cells with anaphase bridges and a decrease in the number of cells undergoing telomere length shortening (p values 0.01 and 0.028 respectively). We demonstrate that radiation and chemotherapy bystander responses induce early genomic instability coupled with defects in mitochondrial function. Restoring

  17. Radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events: telomere shortening and bridge formation coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gorman, Sheeona

    2012-02-01

    The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a human colon cancer explant model. We assessed telomere lengths, bridge formations, mitochondrial membrane potential and levels of reactive oxygen species in bystander cells exposed to medium from irradiated and chemotherapy-treated explant tissues. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy, 5Gy, FOLFOX treated tumor and matching normal tissue showed a significant reduction in telomere lengths (all p values <0.018) and an increase in bridge formations (all p values <0.017) compared to bystander cells treated with media from unirradiated tissue (0Gy) at 24h. There was no significant difference between 2Gy and 5Gy treatments, or between effects elicited by tumor versus matched normal tissue. Bystander cells exposed to media from 2Gy irradiated tumor tissue showed significant depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (p=0.012) and an increase in reactive oxygen species levels. We also used bystander cells overexpressing a mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) to examine if this antioxidant could rescue the mitochondrial changes and subsequently influence nuclear instability events. In MnSOD cells, ROS levels were reduced (p=0.02) and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (p=0.04). These events were coupled with a decrease in percentage of cells with anaphase bridges and a decrease in the number of cells undergoing telomere length shortening (p values 0.01 and 0.028 respectively). We demonstrate that radiation and chemotherapy bystander responses induce early genomic instability coupled with defects in mitochondrial function. Restoring mitochondrial

  18. DELLA-induced early transcriptional changes during etiolated development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gallego-Bartolomé

    Full Text Available The hormones gibberellins (GAs control a wide variety of processes in plants, including stress and developmental responses. This task largely relies on the activity of the DELLA proteins, nuclear-localized transcriptional regulators that do not seem to have DNA binding capacity. The identification of early target genes of DELLA action is key not only to understand how GAs regulate physiological responses, but also to get clues about the molecular mechanisms by which DELLAs regulate gene expression. Here, we have investigated the global, early transcriptional response triggered by the Arabidopsis DELLA protein GAI during skotomorphogenesis, a developmental program tightly regulated by GAs. Our results show that the induction of GAI activity has an almost immediate effect on gene expression. Although this transcriptional regulation is largely mediated by the PIFs and HY5 transcription factors based on target meta-analysis, additional evidence points to other transcription factors that would be directly involved in DELLA regulation of gene expression. First, we have identified cis elements recognized by Dofs and type-B ARRs among the sequences enriched in the promoters of GAI targets; and second, an enrichment in additional cis elements appeared when this analysis was extended to a dataset of early targets of the DELLA protein RGA: CArG boxes, bound by MADS-box proteins, and the E-box CACATG that links the activity of DELLAs to circadian transcriptional regulation. Finally, Gene Ontology analysis highlights the impact of DELLA regulation upon the homeostasis of the GA, auxin, and ethylene pathways, as well as upon pre-existing transcriptional networks.

  19. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI.

  20. Early Detection of T cell Transfer-induced Autoimmune Colitis by In Vivo Imaging System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ling Chen; Yi-Ting Chen; Cheng-Feng Lo; Ching-I Hsieh; Shang-Yi Chiu; Chang-Yen Wu; Yu-Shan Yeh; Shu-Hsuan Hung; Po-Hao Cheng; Yu-Hsuan Su; Si-Tse Jiang; Hsian-Jean Chin; Yu-Chia Su

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic and progressive inflammatory intestinal disease that includes two major types, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is characterized by intestinal epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. Transfer of CD25−CD45RBhiCD4+ (naïve) T cells into immunodeficiency mice induces autoimmune colitis with pathological lesions similar to CD and loss of body weight 4 weeks after cell transfer. However, weight loss neither has suffici...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus sepsis induces early renal mitochondrial DNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel R Bartz

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI contributes to the high morbidity and mortality of multi-system organ failure in sepsis. However, recovery of renal function after sepsis-induced AKI suggests active repair of energy-producing pathways. Here, we tested the hypothesis in mice that Staphyloccocus aureus sepsis damages mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the kidney and activates mtDNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis. Sepsis was induced in wild-type C57Bl/6J and Cox-8 Gfp-tagged mitochondrial-reporter mice via intraperitoneal fibrin clots embedded with S. aureus. Kidneys from surviving mice were harvested at time zero (control, 24, or 48 hours after infection and evaluated for renal inflammation, oxidative stress markers, mtDNA content, and mitochondrial biogenesis markers, and OGG1 and UDG mitochondrial DNA repair enzymes. We examined the kidneys of the mitochondrial reporter mice for changes in staining density and distribution. S. aureus sepsis induced sharp amplification of renal Tnf, Il-10, and Ngal mRNAs with decreased renal mtDNA content and increased tubular and glomerular cell death and accumulation of protein carbonyls and 8-OHdG. Subsequently, mtDNA repair and mitochondrial biogenesis was evidenced by elevated OGG1 levels and significant increases in NRF-1, NRF-2, and mtTFA expression. Overall, renal mitochondrial mass, tracked by citrate synthase mRNA and protein, increased in parallel with changes in mitochondrial GFP-fluorescence especially in proximal tubules in the renal cortex and medulla. Sub-lethal S. aureus sepsis thus induces widespread renal mitochondrial damage that triggers the induction of the renal mtDNA repair protein, OGG1, and mitochondrial biogenesis as a conspicuous resolution mechanism after systemic bacterial infection.

  2. External gamma irradiation-induced effects in early-life stages of zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, B., E-mail: beatrice.gagnaire@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Cavalié, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France); Pereira, S. [Neolys Diagnostics, Lyon 69373 (France); Floriani, M.; Dubourg, N.; Camilleri, V.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO, Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance 13115 (France)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma rays on zebrafish larvae. • Different techniques were used: gene expression, biochemistry, microscopy and macroscopical observations. • The results showed that gamma irradiation can alter embryo-larval development at several levels of organization. - Abstract: In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations. Results showed that an exposure to gamma rays induced an acceleration of hatching for both doses and a decrease of yolk bag diameter for the highest dose, which could indicate an increase of global metabolism. AChE activity decreased with the low dose rate of gamma irradiation and alterations were also shown in muscles of irradiated larvae. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can induce damages on larval neurotransmission, which could have repercussions on locomotion. DNA damages, basal ROS production and apoptosis were also induced by irradiation, while ROS stimulation index and EROD biotransformation activity were decreased and gene expression of acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, cytochrome p450 and myeloperoxidase increased. These results showed that ionizing radiation induced an oxidative stress conducting to DNA damages. This study characterized further the modes of action of ionizing radiation in fish.

  3. Severe malformations of eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) fry are induced by maternal estrogenic exposure during early embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morthorst, Jane E; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2016-02-01

    Pregnant eelpout were exposed via the water to known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to clarify if EDCs could be causing the increased eelpout fry malformation frequencies observed in coastal areas receiving high anthropogenic input. The presence of a teratogenic window for estrogen-induced malformations was also investigated by starting the exposure at different times during eelpout pregnancy. Both 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) (17.8 ng/L) and pyrene (0.5 μg/L) significantly increased fry malformation frequency whereas 4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP) up to 14.3 μg/L did not. Vitellogenin was significantly induced by EE2 (5.7 and 17.8 ng/L) but not by 4-t-OP and pyrene. A critical period for estrogen-induced fry malformations was identified and closed between 14 and 22 days post fertilization (dpf). Exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) between 0 and 14 dpf caused severe malformations and severity increased the closer exposure start was to fertilization, whereas malformations were absent by exposure starting later than 14 dpf. Data on ovarian fluid volume and larval length supported the suggested teratogenic window. Larval mortality also increased when exposure started right after fertilization.

  4. Efficacy and acceptability of a mifepristone-misoprostol combined regimen for early induced abortion among women in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; Smith, Patricio Sanhueza; Mendoza, Luis Jorge Arellano; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Martínez, María Laura García; Polanco, Ranulfo Ríos; Villalón, Antonio Eduardo Flores; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the experience of women receiving mifepristone-misoprostol for early induced abortion in public sector facilities in the Federal District of Mexico City. An open-label prospective study was conducted with 1000 pregnant women who sought induced abortion with a pregnancy of up to 63days of gestation, as measured from the date of their last menstrual period. The study was conducted in three public sector healthcare facilities: two secondary level hospitals and one primary care clinic. Women ingested 200mg mifepristone on day 1, followed by 800μg buccal misoprostol 24hours later, and they returned for follow-up on day 8. The primary outcome was complete abortion without recourse to surgical intervention. A total of 971 women received mifepristone-misoprostol and were included in the analysis for efficacy of treatment. The overall efficacy of the combined medical abortion regimen studied was 97.3% (n=945); the success rate did not vary significantly by gestational age (95.9%-100%; P=0.449). Most women (n=922, 95.0%) had a successful induced abortion with only one dose of misoprostol. The combined mifepristone and buccal misoprostol regimen was found to be highly effective and acceptable among Mexican women. www.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00386282. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hindlimb perfusion induces GLUT-1 and immediate early gene expression in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufer, P D; Devente, J E; Tapscott, E B; Dohm, G L

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the suitability of the rat hindlimb perfusion technique for studying the acute regulation of the GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 glucose transporter genes in adult skeletal muscle. To further examine the stability of the technique, we also monitored the transcription rate and mRNA content of selected immediate early genes. Nuclei and total RNA were isolated from red and white hindlimb muscle from perfused (2 h) and nonperfused control animals. Although GLUT-4 transcription and mRNA content remained stable, perfusion elicited a marked 3.5-fold increase in GLUT-1 mRNA in red and 2.2-fold increase in white skeletal muscle in the absence of any detectable change in transcription. In contrast to both GLUT-1 and GLUT-4, transcription originating from the c-fos and c-myc immediate early genes increased from 2.0- to 2.7-fold with perfusion in both red and white skeletal muscle, whereas transcription of the beta-actin gene decreased by 40-60%. Both c-fos and c-myc mRNA levels also increased with perfusion, whereas beta-actin mRNA remained unchanged. These findings clearly demonstrate that the current method of performing the hindlimb perfusion technique rapidly and dramatically alters the regulation of selected genes in skeletal muscle.

  6. Early diagnosis of tongue malignancy using laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Unnikrishnan V., K.; Ongole, Ravikiran; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2015-07-01

    Oral cancer together with pharyngeal cancer is the sixth most common malignancy reported worldwide and one with high mortality ratio among all malignancies [1]. Worldwide 450,000 new cases are estimated in 2014[2]. About 90% are a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC of the tongue is the most common oral malignancy accounting for approximately 40% of all oral carcinomas. One of the important factors for successful therapy of any malignancy is early diagnosis. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, lack of reliable diagnostic methods for early detection leading to delay in therapy is an important factor responsible for the increase in the mortality rate in various types of cancers. Spectroscopy techniques are extremely sensitive for the analysis of biochemical changes in cellular systems. These techniques can provide a valuable information on alterations that occur during the development of cancer. This is especially important in oral cancer, where "tumor detection is complicated by a tendency towards field cancerization, leading to multi-centric lesions" and "current techniques detect malignant change too late" [3], and "biopsies are not representative of the whole premalignant lesion". [4

  7. Early detection of ozone-induced hydroperoxides in epithelial cells by a novel infrared spectroscopic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, A; Allen, J T; Zhang, S; Mortensen, J; Spiteri, M A

    1999-11-01

    In the lower atmosphere ozone is a toxic and an unwanted oxidising pollutant causing injury to the airway epithelial cells by lipid peroxidation to yield products such as phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLHP). Measurements of PLHP, which are primary oxidation products, may reflect an early susceptibility of the target cell to oxidative stress. Biphasic cultures of bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to ozone at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1-1.0 ppm) for 4 and 12 h. Detection of PLHP was made using a novel technique based on fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in combination with high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Six phospholipids were identified on the HPTLC plate; lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). From the FTIR spectra, O-O stretching of hydroperoxides was identified in the range 890-820cm(-1). Multivariate data analysis revealed a positive correlation (r = 0.99 for 4 h exposure and r = 0.98 for 12h exposure) between ozone exposure levels and the region of the FTIR-spectrum comprising the main wavelengths for hydroperoxides. These data support this alternative, versatile and novel spectroscopic approach for the early detection of ozone-mediated damage in human airway epithelial cells.

  8. Early warning of orographically induced floods and landslides in Western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leine, Ann-Live; Wang, Thea; Boje, Søren

    2017-04-01

    In Western Norway, landslides and debris flows are commonly initiated by short-term orographic rainfall or intensity peaks during a prolonged rainfall event. In recent years, the flood warning service in Norway has evolved from being solely a flood forecasting service to also integrating landslides into its early warning systems. As both floods and landslides are closely related to the same hydrometeorological processes, particularly in small catchments, there is a natural synergy between monitoring flood and landslide risk. The Norwegian Flood and Landslide Hazard Forecasting and Warning Service issues regional landslide hazard warnings based on hydrological models, threshold values, observations and weather forecasts. Intense rainfall events and/or orographic precipitation that, under certain topographic conditions, significantly increase the risk of debris avalanches and debris floods are lately receiving more research focus from the Norwegian warning service. Orographic precipitation is a common feature in W-Norway, when moist and relatively mild air arrives from the Atlantic. Steep mountain slopes covered by glacial till makes the region prone to landslides, as well as flooding. The operational early warning system in Norway requires constant improvement, especially with the enhanced number of intense rainfall events that occur in a warming climate. Here, we examine different cases of intense rainfall events which have lead to landslides and debris flows, as well as increased runoff in fast responding small catchments. The main objective is to increase the understanding of the hydrometeorological conditions related to these events, in order to make priorities for the future development of the warning service.

  9. Early repeated maternal separation induces alterations of hippocampus reelin expression in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianlong Zhang; Lina Qin; Hu Zhao

    2013-03-01

    The long-term effects of repeated maternal separation (MS) during early postnatal life on reelin expression in the hippocampus of developing rats were investigated in the present study. MS was carried out by separating Wistar rat pups singly from their mothers for 3 h a day during postnatal days (PND) 2–14. Reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus were determined using qRT-PCR and Western blotting, at PND 22, PND 60 and PND 90. MS resulted in the loss of body weight in the developing rats, and reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus generally were down-regulated over the developing period, but the reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus of 90-day-old male rats were up-regulated. These findings suggest that the long-term effects of MS on the expression levels of hippocampal reelin mRNA and protein depends on the age at which the stressed rats’ brains were collected; reelin had important implications for the maternal-neonate interaction needed for normal brain development. In conclusion, repeated MS occurring during early postnatal life may cause the alterations of hippocampal reelin expression with the increasing age of developing rats.

  10. Cross-modal training induces changes in spatial representations early in the auditory processing pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Patrick; Liebnau, Ronja; Röder, Brigitte

    2011-09-01

    In the ventriloquism aftereffect, brief exposure to a consistent spatial disparity between auditory and visual stimuli leads to a subsequent shift in subjective sound localization toward the positions of the visual stimuli. Such rapid adaptive changes probably play an important role in maintaining the coherence of spatial representations across the various sensory systems. In the research reported here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify the stage in the auditory processing stream that is modulated by audiovisual discrepancy training. Both before and after exposure to synchronous audiovisual stimuli that had a constant spatial disparity of 15°, participants reported the perceived location of brief auditory stimuli that were presented from central and lateral locations. In conjunction with a sound localization shift in the direction of the visual stimuli (the behavioral ventriloquism aftereffect), auditory ERPs as early as 100 ms poststimulus (N100) were systematically modulated by the disparity training. These results suggest that cross-modal learning was mediated by a relatively early stage in the auditory cortical processing stream.

  11. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  12. Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  13. Early spring, severe frost events, and drought induce rapid carbon loss in high elevation meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Arnold

    Full Text Available By the end of the 20th century, the onset of spring in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California has been occurring on average three weeks earlier than historic records. Superimposed on this trend is an increase in the presence of highly anomalous "extreme" years, where spring arrives either significantly late or early. The timing of the onset of continuous snowpack coupled to the date at which the snowmelt season is initiated play an important role in the development and sustainability of mountain ecosystems. In this study, we assess the impact of extreme winter precipitation variation on aboveground net primary productivity and soil respiration over three years (2011 to 2013. We found that the duration of snow cover, particularly the timing of the onset of a continuous snowpack and presence of early spring frost events contributed to a dramatic change in ecosystem processes. We found an average 100% increase in soil respiration in 2012 and 2103, compared to 2011, and an average 39% decline in aboveground net primary productivity observed over the same time period. The overall growing season length increased by 57 days in 2012 and 61 days in 2013. These results demonstrate the dependency of these keystone ecosystems on a stable climate and indicate that even small changes in climate can potentially alter their resiliency.

  14. IGF-1 Induces GHRH Neuronal Axon Elongation during Early Postnatal Life in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemessy, Maud; Heurtier, Victor; Ledent, Tatiana; Robinson, Iain C.; Mollard, Patrice; Epelbaum, Jacques; Meaney, Michael J.; Garel, Sonia; Le Bouc, Yves; Kappeler, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition during the perinatal period programs body growth. Growth hormone (GH) secretion from the pituitary regulates body growth and is controlled by Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) neurons located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. We observed that dietary restriction during the early postnatal period (i.e. lactation) in mice influences postnatal growth by permanently altering the development of the somatotropic axis in the pituitary gland. This alteration may be due to a lack of GHRH signaling during this critical developmental period. Indeed, underfed pups showed decreased insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plasma levels, which are associated with lower innervation of the median eminence by GHRH axons at 10 days of age relative to normally fed pups. IGF-I preferentially stimulated axon elongation of GHRH neurons in in vitro arcuate explant cultures from 7 day-old normally fed pups. This IGF-I stimulating effect was selective since other arcuate neurons visualized concomitantly by neurofilament labeling, or AgRP immunochemistry, did not significantly respond to IGF-I stimulation. Moreover, GHRH neurons in explants from age-matched underfed pups lost the capacity to respond to IGF-I stimulation. Molecular analyses indicated that nutritional restriction was associated with impaired activation of AKT. These results highlight a role for IGF-I in axon elongation that appears to be cell selective and participates in the complex cellular mechanisms that link underfeeding during the early postnatal period with programming of the growth trajectory. PMID:28076448

  15. Early visual evoked potentials are modulated by eye position in humans induced by whole body rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit Laurent

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reach and grasp an object in space on the basis of its image cast on the retina requires different coordinate transformations that take into account gaze and limb positioning. Eye position in the orbit influences the image's conversion from retinotopic (eye-centered coordinates to an egocentric frame necessary for guiding action. Neuroimaging studies have revealed eye position-dependent activity in extrastriate visual, parietal and frontal areas that is along the visuo-motor pathway. At the earliest vision stage, the role of the primary visual area (V1 in this process remains unclear. We used an experimental design based on pattern-onset visual evoked potentials (VEP recordings to study the effect of eye position on V1 activity in humans. Results We showed that the amplitude of the initial C1 component of VEP, acknowledged to originate in V1, was modulated by the eye position. We also established that putative spontaneous small saccades related to eccentric fixation, as well as retinal disparity cannot explain the effects of changing C1 amplitude of VEP in the present study. Conclusions The present modulation of the early component of VEP suggests an eye position-dependent activity of the human primary visual area. Our findings also evidence that cortical processes combine information about the position of the stimulus on the retinae with information about the location of the eyes in their orbit as early as the stage of primary visual area.

  16. Early activation of STAT3 regulates reactive astrogliosis induced by diverse forms of neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P O'Callaghan

    Full Text Available Astrogliosis, a cellular response characterized by astrocytic hypertrophy and accumulation of GFAP, is a hallmark of all types of central nervous system (CNS injuries. Potential signaling mechanisms driving the conversion of astrocytes into "reactive" phenotypes differ with respect to the injury models employed and can be complicated by factors such as disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. As denervation tools, neurotoxicants have the advantage of selective targeting of brain regions and cell types, often with sparing of the BBB. Previously, we found that neuroinflammation and activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in astrocytes precedes up regulation of GFAP in the MPTP mouse model of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Here we show that multiple mechanistically distinct mouse models of neurotoxicity (MPTP, AMP, METH, MDA, MDMA, KA, TMT engender the same neuroinflammatory and STAT3 activation responses in specific regions of the brain targeted by each neurotoxicant. The STAT3 effects seen for TMT in the mouse could be generalized to the rat, demonstrating cross-species validity for STAT3 activation. Pharmacological antagonists of the neurotoxic effects blocked neuroinflammatory responses, pSTAT3tyr705 and GFAP induction, indicating that damage to neuronal targets instigated astrogliosis. Selective deletion of STAT3 from astrocytes in STAT3 conditional knockout mice markedly attenuated MPTP-induced astrogliosis. Monitoring STAT3 translocation in GFAP-positive cells indicated that effects of MPTP, METH and KA on pSTAT3tyr705 were localized to astrocytes. These findings strongly implicate the STAT3 pathway in astrocytes as a broadly triggered signaling pathway for astrogliosis. We also observed, however, that the acute neuroinflammatory response to the known inflammogen, LPS, can activate STAT3 in CNS tissue without inducing classical signs of astrogliosis. Thus, acute phase neuroinflammatory responses and neurotoxicity-induced astrogliosis both

  17. Early and Late Chromosome Damages in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Gamma Rays and Fe Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Mayumi; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations and inversions are considered stable, and cells containing these types of chromosome aberrations can survive multiple cell divisions. An efficient method to detect an inversion is multi-color banding fluorescent in situ hybridization (mBAND) which allows identification of both inter- and intrachromosome aberrations simultaneously. Post irradiation, chromosome aberrations may also arise after multiple cell divisions as a result of genomic instability. To investigate the stable or late-arising chromosome aberrations induced after radiation exposure, we exposed human lymphocytes to gamma rays and Fe ions ex vivo, and cultured the cells for multiple generations. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed in cells collected at first mitosis and at several time intervals during the culture period post irradiation. With gamma irradiation, about half of the damages observed at first mitosis remained after 7 day- and 14 day- culture, suggesting the transmissibility of damages to the surviving progeny. Detailed analysis of chromosome break ends participating in exchanges revealed a greater fraction of break ends involved in intrachromosome aberrations in the 7- and 14-day samples in comparison to the fraction at first mitosis. In particular, simple inversions were found at 7 and 14 days, but not at the first mitosis, suggesting that some of the aberrations might be formed days post irradiation. In contrast, at the doses that produced similar frequencies of gamma-induced chromosome aberrations as observed at first mitosis, a significantly lower yield of aberrations remained at the same population doublings after Fe ion exposure. At these equitoxic doses, more complex type aberrations were observed for Fe ions, indicating that Fe ion-induced initial chromosome damages are more severe and may lead to cell death. Comparison between low and high doses of Fe ion irradiation in the induction of late damages will also be discussed.

  18. Early detection of the carious conditions by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Gisbreht, Alexander I.; Avramov, Lachezar A.

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the natural intrinsic fluorescence in sound and diseased human teeth and the correspondence of such autofluorescence to the stages of the dental lesions. Direct visual examination was used for comparison. Different stages of caries lesions are detected, by using a nitrogen laser (337 nm), light-emitting diode (LED) (440 nm) and argon laser (488 nm). Besides caries, there were investigated samples of the fluorosa dentis and odontolithiasis, for better determination of the influence of other teeth pathologies over the teeth autofluorescence spectra. There was observed a significant decrease in the intensity of the autofluorescence signal in the case of caries. The carious lesions revealed characteristic emission of endogenous fluorophores with fluorescence band in the red spectral region. Healthy hard dental tissue exhibited no emission bands in the red. An algorithm for early diagnosis is created on the basis of collected significant statistical material.

  19. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  20. Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Anticancer Drug-induced Cardiotoxicity: From Cardiac Imaging to "Omics" Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Rosalinda

    2017-07-01

    Heart failure due to antineoplastic therapy remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in oncological patients. These patients often have no prior manifestation of disease. There is therefore a need for accurate identification of individuals at risk of such events before the appearance of clinical manifestations. The present article aims to provide an overview of cardiac imaging as well as new "-omics" technologies, especially with regard to genomics and proteomics as promising tools for the early detection and prediction of cardiotoxicity and individual responses to antineoplastic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Florfenicol induces early embryonic death in eggs collected from treated hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahrani, S; Naidoo, V

    2015-08-18

    Florfenicol, a commonly used veterinary antibiotic, was reported to have caused a severe drop in egg hatchability following its off-label use on a broiler breeder farm in South Africa. According to the pharmacovigilance report, hatchability dropped by 80 % for up to a week following a five day course at 10 mg/kg (both males and females treated metaphylactically) to manage an Escherichia coli infection. While mammalian toxicity studies indicate the potential for early embryonic death in utero or testicular damage, no literature is available on the avian toxicity of florfenicol. For this study we investigated the effects of florfenicol at various doses from 10 to 90 mg/kg on the egg hatchability in a breeder flock we kept and established under controlled conditions, with the same cockerels and hens being exposed in a phased manner. Following five days of oral exposure, no toxic signs were evident in any of the cockerels or hens treated at doses up to 90 mg/kg. Treatment of only the cockerels had no effect on egg hatchability, while treatment of only the hens at doses of 60 and 90 mg/kg resulted in decreased hatchability of 0 % in comparison to 70 % of the control as early 24 h after treatment. In all cases, decreased hatchability was associated with embryonic death at 5 days of development. The toxic effects of florfenicol were completely reversible with comparable hatchability being present by day 4 post-treatment withdrawal. Toxicity correlated with total egg florfenicol concentrations with an LC50 of 1.07 μg/g. Florfenicol appears to be toxic to the developing chick embryo at around day 5 of incubation, in the absence of related toxicity in the hen or cockerel.

  2. Early Overfeed-Induced Obesity Leads to Brown Adipose Tissue Hypoactivity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Brown adipose tissue activation has been considered a potential anti-obesity mechanism because it is able to expend energy through thermogenesis. In contrast, white adipose tissue stores energy, contributing to obesity. We investigated whether the early programming of obesity by overfeeding during lactation changes structure of interscapular brown adipose tissue in adulthood and its effects on thermogenesis. Methods: Birth of litters was considered day 0. On day 2, litter size was adjusted to normal (9 pups and small (3 pups litters. On day 21, the litters were weaned. A temperature transponder was implanted underneath interscapular brown adipose tissue pads of 81-day-old animals; local temperature was measured during light and dark periods between days 87 and 90. The animals were euthanized, and tissue and blood samples were collected for further analysis. The vagus and retroperitoneal sympathetic nerve activity was recorded. Results: Small litter rats presented significant lower interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature during the light (NL 37.6°C vs. SL 37.2°C and dark (NL 38°C vs. SL 37.6°C periods compared to controls. Morphology of small litter brown adipose tissue showed fewer lipid droplets in the tissue center and more and larger in the periphery. The activity of vagus nerve was 19,9% greater in the small litter than in control (pConclusion: Early overfeeding programming of obesity changes the interscapular brown adipose tissue structure in adulthood, leading to local thermogenesis hypoactivity, which may contribute to obesity in adults.

  3. Transgenerational pancreatic impairment with Igf2/H19 epigenetic alteration induced by p,p'-DDE exposure in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Yang, Lei

    2017-09-01

    The hypothesis of fetal origins indicates that exposures in early development could induce epigenetic modifications in the male germ-line, affecting the susceptibility of adult-onset disease for generations. p,p'-DDE, the primary metabolite of persistent organochlorine pesticide DDT, is highly correlated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and a strong contributing factor to type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, ancestral p,p'-DDE exposure could induce transgenerational impaired male fertility with sperm Igf2 hypomethylation. It is still unknown whether this germline epigenetic defect would affect the somatic tissue endocrine pancreas. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to p,p'-DDE from gestation day 8 to 15. The F1 male offspring were mated with female to produce F2 progeny. F3 generation was obtained by intercrossing the control and treated male and female of F2 generation and divided as C♂-C♀, DDE♂-DDE♀, DDE♂-C♀ and C♂-DDE♀. Results indicated that F1 offspring in p,p'-DDE group exhibited impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), abnormal insulin secretion, β-cell dysfunction and altered Igf2 and H19 expression induced by Igf2/H19 hypomethylation, which could be transferred to the F3 offspring through the male germ line. IGT and abnormal insulin secretion were more obvious in males than those in females. Ancestral p,p'-DDE exposure could induce transgenerational pancreatic impairment with Igf2/H19 epigenetic defect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Cellular Responses of Purine Nucleoside-mediated Protection of Hypoxia-induced Injuries of Neuronal PC12 Cells

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    Bettina Tomaselli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in brain may lead to cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. In parallel adenosine, a powerful endogenous neuroprotectant is formed. We wanted to investigate the effect of adenosine and its purine nucleoside relatives, inosine and guanosine on early cellular responses to hypoxia. O2-sensitive neuronal PC12-cells were subjected to chemical hypoxia induced with rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I. Loss of viability after hypoxic insult was impressively rescued by adenosine, guanosine and inosine. PC12-cells mainly express the A2A adenosine receptor. Its inhibition with a specific antagonist (CSC induced cell death of PC12-cells, which could be salvaged by adenosine but not with guanosine or inosine. We have previously demonstrated the important role of mitogen activated protein kinases 1/2 (p42/44 MAPK in purine-mediated rescue. In this study we were interested in the involvement of protein kinases whose activities mediate these processes, including protein kinase A (PKA, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K and protein kinase C-related kinases (PRK 1/2. Pharmacological inhibition of PKA and PI3-K increased hypoxia-induced toxicity and likewise also affected the rescue by purine nucleosides. Nerve growth factor (NGF and purine nucleosides induced an activation of PRK 1/2, which to our knowledge indicates for the first time that these kinases are potentially involved in purine nucleoside-mediated rescue of hypoxic neuronal cells. Results suggest that A2A receptor expressing cells are mainly dependent on the purine nucleoside adenosine for their rescue after hypoxic insult. In addition to PKA, PI3-K is an important effector molecule in A2A-mediated signaling and for the rescue of PC12-cells after hypoxic insult.

  5. T-Duality of Green-Schwarz Superstrings on AdS(d) x S(d) x M(10-2d)

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Michael C; Penati, Silvia; Pittelli, Antonio; Sorokin, Dmitri; Sundin, Per; Tarrant, Justine; Wolf, Martin; Wulff, Linus

    2015-01-01

    We verify the self-duality of Green-Schwarz supercoset sigma models on AdS$_d \\times S^d $ backgrounds (d=2,3,5) under combined bosonic and fermionic T-dualities without gauge fixing kappa symmetry. We also prove this property for superstrings on AdS$_d \\times S^d \\times S^d$ (d=2,3) described by supercoset sigma models with the isometries governed by the exceptional Lie supergroups $D(2,1;\\alpha)$ (d=2) and $D(2,1;\\alpha)\\times D(2,1;\\alpha)$ (d=3), which requires an additional T-dualisation along one of the spheres. Then, by taking into account the contribution of non-supercoset fermionic modes (up to the second order), we provide evidence for the T-self-duality of the complete type IIA and IIB Green-Schwarz superstring theory on AdS$_d\\times S^d \\times T^{10-2d}$ (d=2,3) backgrounds with Ramond-Ramond fluxes. Finally, applying the Buscher-like rules to T-dualising supergravity fields, we prove the T-self-duality of the whole class of the AdS$_d\\times S^d \\times M^{10-2d}$ superbackgrounds with Ramond-Ramon...

  6. A comprehensive comparative study of Bandwidth enhancement of an antenna by non contacting feed lines with Rectangular Microstrip Patch (RMP using superstrate at ku band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POORNANAND DUBEY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available So far as this paper is concerned, this paper presents a comparative study of a rectangular Microstrip patch antenna at Gigahertz (GHz frequency using non contacting microstrip feed lines of length 14 to 14.9 mm (we didn’t extend the feed line up to 15mm length as in this case it would start contacting with the patch with superstrate. This means we created capacitive coupling between patch and feed line by varying the length of feed line up to which it doesn’t come into contact with the patch. The results presented here are obtained usingAnsoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS 11.0 software which is based on full wave finite element method. As a matter of fact, here five different feed line lengths antennas outcomes are shown and their comparative results are also shown in the tabular form. In this study a superstrate of thickness 5mm is also introduced to get the more precise results. Here it is very important to mention that the best performance of antenna i.e., below -10dB that we achieved at the feed line length of 14.9 mm i.e. spacing between the feed line and patch is 0.1 mm and we got bandwidth of 41.5% and resonance frequency of 17.8 GHz at solution frequency of 17.8 GHz.

  7. T-duality of Green-Schwarz superstrings on AdS{sub d}×S{sup d}×M{sup 10−2d}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Murugan, Jeff [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings,Department of Mathematics, University of Cape Town,Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Penati, Silvia [Dipartimento di Fisica,Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Pittelli, Antonio [Department of Mathematics, University of Surrey,Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Sorokin, Dmitri [INFN, Sezione di Padova,via F. Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Sundin, Per [Dipartimento di Fisica,Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Tarrant, Justine [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings,Department of Mathematics, University of Cape Town,Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Wolf, Martin [Department of Mathematics, University of Surrey,Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Wulff, Linus [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-16

    We verify the self-duality of Green-Schwarz supercoset sigma models on AdS{sub d}×S{sup d} backgrounds (d=2,3,5) under combined bosonic and fermionic T-dualities without gauge fixing kappa symmetry. We also prove this property for superstrings on AdS{sub d}×S{sup d}×S{sup d}(d=2,3) described by supercoset sigma models with the isometries governed by the exceptional Lie supergroups D(2,1;α) (d=2) and D(2,1;α)×D(2,1;α) (d=3), which requires an additional T-dualisation along one of the spheres. Then, by taking into account the contribution of non-supercoset fermionic modes (up to the second order), we provide evidence for the T-self-duality of the complete type IIA and IIB Green-Schwarz superstring theory on AdS{sub d}×S{sup d}×T{sup 10−2d} (d=2,3) backgrounds with Ramond-Ramond fluxes. Finally, applying the Buscher-like rules to T-dualising supergravity fields, we prove the T-self-duality of the whole class of the AdS{sub d}×S{sup d}×M{sup 10−2d} superbackgrounds with Ramond-Ramond fluxes in the context of supergravity.

  8. Type IIB supergravity solution for the T-dual of the η-deformed AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoare, B. [Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Tseytlin, A.A. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-09

    We find an exact type IIB supergravity solution that represents a one-parameter deformation of the T-dual of the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} background (with T-duality applied in all 6 abelian bosonic isometric directions). The non-trivial fields are the metric, dilaton and RR 5-form only. The latter has remarkably simple “undeformed” form when written in terms of a “deformation-rotated” vielbein basis. An unusual feature of this solution is that the dilaton contains a linear dependence on the isometric coordinates of the metric precluding a straightforward reversal of T-duality. If we still formally dualize back, we find exactly the metric, B-field and product of dilaton with RR field strengths as recently extracted from the η-deformed AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring action in http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.04239. We also discuss similar solutions for deformed AdS{sub n}×S{sup n} backgrounds with n=2,3. In the η→i limit we demonstrate that all these backgrounds can be interpreted as special limits of gauged WZW models and are also related to (a limit of) the Pohlmeyer-reduced models of the AdS{sub n}×S{sup n} superstrings.

  9. Gene expression microarray analysis of early oxygen-induced retinopathy in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea, Melinda; Fogarty, Rhys; Brereton, Helen M; Michael, Michael Z; Van der Hoek, Mark B; Tsykin, Anna; Coster, Douglas J; Williams, Keryn A

    2009-12-12

    Different inbred strains of rat differ in their susceptibility to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), an animal model of human retinopathy of prematurity. We examined gene expression in Sprague-Dawley (susceptible) and Fischer 344 (resistant) neonatal rats after 3 days exposure to cyclic hyperoxia or room air, using Affymetrix rat Genearrays. False discovery rate analysis was used to identify differentially regulated genes. Such genes were then ranked by fold change and submitted to the online database, DAVID. The Sprague-Dawley list returned the term "response to hypoxia," absent from the Fischer 344 output. Manual analysis indicated that many genes known to be upregulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha were downregulated by cyclic hyperoxia. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of Egln3, Bnip3, Slc16a3, and Hk2 confirmed the microarray results. We conclude that combined methodologies are required for adequate dissection of the pathophysiology of strain susceptibility to OIR in the rat. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12177-009-9041-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  10. Early membrane events induced by salicylic acid in motor cells of the Mimosa pudica pulvinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Saed; Rocher, Françoise; Bonmort, Janine; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Roblin, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Salicylic acid (o-hydroxy benzoic acid) (SA) induced a rapid dose-dependent membrane hyperpolarization (within seconds) and a modification of the proton secretion (within minutes) of Mimosa pudica pulvinar cells at concentrations higher than 0.1mM. Observations on plasma membrane vesicles isolated from pulvinar tissues showed that SA acted directly at the membrane level through a protonophore action as suggested by the inhibition of the proton gradient and the lack of effect on H(+)-ATPase catalytic activity. Comparative data obtained with protonophores (carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and inhibitors of ATPases (vanadate, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and diethylstilbestrol) corroborated this conclusion. Consequently, the collapse of the proton motive force led to an impairment in membrane functioning. This impairment is illustrated by the inhibition of the ion-driven turgor-mediated seismonastic reaction of the pulvinus following SA treatment. SA acted in a specific manner as its biosynthetic precursor benzoic acid induced much milder effects and the m- and p-OH benzoic acid derivatives did not trigger similar characteristic effects. Therefore, SA may be considered both a membrane signal molecule and a metabolic effector following its uptake in the cells.

  11. Do we have a theory of early universe cosmology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The inflationary scenario has become the paradigm of early universe cosmology, and - in conjunction with ideas from superstring theory-has led to speculations about an "inflationary multiverse". From a point of view of phenomenology, the inflationary universe scenario has been very successful. However, the scenario suffers from some conceptual problems, and thus it does not (yet) have the status of a solid theory. There are alternative ideas for the evolution of the very early universe which do not involve inflation but which agree with most current cosmological observations as well as inflation does. In this lecture I will outline the conceptual problems of inflation and introduce two alternative pictures - the "matter bounce" and "string gas cosmology", the latter being a realization of the "emergent universe" scenario based on some key principles of superstring theory. I will demonstrate that these two alternative pictures lead to the same predictions for the power spectrum of the observed large-scale structure and for the angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies as the inflationary scenario, and I will mention predictions for future observations with which the three scenarios can be observationally teased apart.

  12. The Carcinogenic Agent Azoxymethane (AOM) Enhances Early Inflammation-induced Colon Crypt Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja Albjerg; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2013-01-01

    mice and SCID mice with transfer colitis. AOM by itself did result in neither weight loss nor inflammation although treatment affected crypt widths and numbers. Although AOM together with T cell transfer did not increase the level of gut inflammation including COX-2 expression, AOM increased crypt......Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice transplanted with CD4+ T cells depleted of CD25+ regulatory T cells develop colitis within 2-3 weeks after the T cell transfer. In the present study we studied the effect of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) on the colon crypt pathology of normal SCID...... changes associated with colon inflammation such as a decline in crypt numbers and an increase in crypts width throughout the large intestine. Thus it appears that AOM lower the threshold level for inflammation-induced changes which potentially may lead to neoplasia....

  13. A schizophrenia rat model induced by early postnatal phencyclidine treatment and characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian V; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    administration of phencyclidine (PCP) induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy volunteers and exacerbates symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI) was used to evaluate if rats treated with 20mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 (neoPCP......), compared to saline (neoVeh), were hypersensitive to acute PCP administration in adulthood (acutePCP). Intravenous administration of 0.5mg/kg acutePCP produced robust and sustained relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) increase in discrete frontal, neocortical, hippocampal, thalamic, and limbic brain...... structures in both neoPCP:acutePCP and neoVeh:acutePCP rats compared to acute saline treatment (Vehicle control group). AcutePCP injection significantly increased the rCBV response in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens compared to the Vehicle control group, without distinguishing neoPCP...

  14. [Biochemical predictors of anthracyclin and trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity in early diagnostics of cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik, Agnieszka; Lelakowska-Pieła, Maria; Konduracka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The treatment based on athracyclines and trastuzumab may lead to heart failure in oncological setting. Assessment of the heart function is conducted using radiological examinations, especially echocardiography. Biochemical diagnostics enables to depict clinically silent cardiac dysfunction at an earlier stage. Biomarkers that showed to be the most promising in predicting the development of deterioration of systolic and/or diastolic function in course of chemotherapy are troponins and NT-pro-BNP. However, no cut-off point had been yet determined, especially in terms of cardiotoxicity induced by oncological therapy. Biomarkers serum level may be dependent on many conditions, mostly comorbidities, what makes the interpretation of the results difficult. Trials involving mikro RNA particles, which depict the molecular level of the pathological changes, also those involved in the development of cardiomyopathy, are underway. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  15. Algal Toxin Azaspiracid-1 Induces Early Neuronal Differentiation and Alters Peripherin Isoform Stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda V. Hjørnevik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Azaspiracid-1 is an algal toxin that accumulates in edible mussels, and ingestion may result in human illness as manifested by vomiting and diarrhoea. When injected into mice, it causes neurotoxicological symptoms and death. Although it is well known that azaspiracid-1 is toxic to most cells and cell lines, little is known about its biological target(s. A rat PC12 cell line, commonly used as a model for the peripheral nervous system, was used to study the neurotoxicological effects of azaspiracid-1. Azaspiracid-1 induced differentiation-related morphological changes followed by a latter cell death. The differentiated phenotype showed peripherin-labelled neurite-like processes simultaneously as a specific isoform of peripherin was down-regulated. The precise mechanism behind this down-regulation remains uncertain. However, this study provides new insights into the neurological effects of azaspiracid-1 and into the biological significance of specific isoforms of peripherin.

  16. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of meteorites as a probe of the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, M.; De Giacomo, A.; Gaudiuso, R.; De Pascale, O.; Longo, S.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a technique for gathering data relevant to Solar System geophysics. Two test cases were demonstrated: elemental analysis of chondrules in a chondrite meteorite, and space- resolved analysis of the interface between kamacite and taenite crystals in an octahedrite iron meteorite. In particular most major and minor elements (Fe, Mg, Si, Ti, Al, Cr, Mn, Ca, Fe, Ni, Co) in Sahara 98222 (chondrite) and its chondrules, as well as the profile of Ni content in Toluca (iron meteorite), were determined with the Calibration Free (CF) method. A special attention was devoted to exploring the possibilities offered by variants of the basic technique, such as the use of Fe I Boltzmann distribution as an intensity calibration method of the spectroscopic system, and the use of spatially resolved analysis.

  17. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-01-18

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization. During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.

  18. Risk of docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy among 1,725 Danish patients with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, L; Knoop, A S; Jensen, M-B; Ejlertsen, B; Ewertz, M

    2013-11-01

    Docetaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PN) can lead to sub-optimal treatment in women with early breast cancer. Here, we compare the frequency of dose reduction as a result of PN in two different adjuvant regimens. From the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group READ trial we included 1,725 patients with early stage breast cancer who randomly were assigned to three cycles of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by three cycles docetaxel (D100) or six cycles of cyclophosphamide and docetaxel (D75). Eligible patients completed chemotherapy, received docetaxel, and provided information on patient-reported outcome (secondary outcome of trial) including PN. Associations between PN and risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Overall 597 patients (34 %) reported PN, grades 2-4, during treatment, 194 (11 %) after the first cycle [early onset peripheral neuropathy (EPN)] and 403 (23 %) after subsequent cycles [later-onset peripheral neuropathy (LPN)]. The odds ratio (OR) of EPN was significantly increased for the D100 regimen (OR 3.10; 95 % CI 2.18-4.42) while this regimen was associated with reduced OR of LPN (OR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54-0.88). Patients with PN received significantly lower cumulative doses of docetaxel than patients with no PN. Explorative analysis showed that OR of PN was significantly reduced if patients wore frozen gloves and socks during treatment (OR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.38-0.81) in the EPN group. Patients developing PN after the first cycle are less likely to receive docetaxel at the planned dose intensity and usage of frozen gloves and socks may modify the risk.

  19. Cadmium-induced autophagy in rat kidney: an early biomarker of subtoxic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargui, Abderrahman; Zekri, Sami; Jacquillet, Gregory; Rubera, Isabelle; Ilie, Marius; Belaid, Amine; Duranton, Christophe; Tauc, Michel; Hofman, Paul; Poujeol, Philippe; El May, Michèle V; Mograbi, Baharia

    2011-05-01

    Environmental exposures to cadmium (Cd) are a major cause of human toxicity. The kidney is the most sensitive organ; however, the natures of injuries and of adaptive responses have not been adequately investigated, particularly in response to environmental relevant Cd concentrations. In this study, rats received a daily ip injection of low CdCl₂ dose (0.3 mg Cd/kg body mass) and killed at 1, 3, and 5 days of intoxication. Functional, ultrastructural, and biochemical observations were used to evaluate Cd effects. We show that Cd at such subtoxic doses does not affect the tubular functions nor does it induce apoptosis. Meanwhile, Cd accumulates within lysosomes of proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) cells where it triggers cell proliferation and autophagy. By developing an immunohistochemical assay, a punctate staining of light chain 3-II is prominent in Cd-intoxicated kidneys, as compared with control. We provide the evidence of a direct upregulation of autophagy by Cd using a PCT cell line. Compared with the other heavy metals, Cd is the most powerful inducer of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in PCT cells, in relation to the hypersensitivity of PCT cells. Altogether, these findings suggest that kidney cortex adapts to subtoxic Cd dose by activating autophagy, a housekeeping process that ensures the degradation of damaged proteins. Given that Cd is persistent within cytosol, it might damage proteins continuously and impair at long-term autophagy efficiency. We therefore propose the autophagy pathway as a new sensitive biomarker for renal injury even after exposure to subtoxic Cd doses.

  20. Early Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella nativa infections induce similar gene expression profiles in rat jejunal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Näreaho, Anu; Lindén, Jere; Valo, Erkka; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Sukura, Antti

    2013-10-01

    Trichinella spiralis causes a significantly higher parasite burden in rat muscle than Trichinella nativa. To assess whether the difference in infectivity is due to the early intestinal response, we analyzed gene expression changes in the rat jejunum during Trichinella infection with a whole-genome microarray. The rats were euthanized on day five of infection, and their jejunal mucosa was sampled for microarray analysis. In addition, intestinal histology and hematology were examined. Against our expectations, the gene expression changes were similar in both T.nativa- and T. spiralis-infected groups. The two groups were hence pooled, and in the combined Trichinella-infected group, 551 genes were overexpressed and 427 underexpressed when compared to controls (false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 and fold change at least 2 in either direction). Pathway analysis identified seven pathways significantly associated with Trichinella infection (p Trichinella infection caused complex gene expression changes that indicate a host response to tissue damage in the mucosa of the jejunum, but the changes were not notably dependent on the studied species of Trichinella.