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Sample records for induced calcium oscillations

  1. The transition between monostable and bistable states induced by time delay in intracellular calcium oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Wei-Long

    2013-01-01

    The revised role of the time delay of active processes with colored noises of transmission of intracellular Ca 2+ in intracellular calcium oscillation (ICO) is investigated by means of a first-order algorithm based on stochastic simulation. The simulation results indicate that time delay induces a double critical phenomenon and a transition between the monostable and bistable states of the ICO system. In addition, as the time delay increases, for a cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration with weak colored noises there appears a calcium burst, and the Ca 2+ concentration of the calcium store shows nonmonotonic variation. (paper)

  2. Activation of TRPV1-dependent calcium oscillation exacerbates seawater inhalation-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congcong; Bo, Liyan; Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Wei; Chen, Xiangjun; Xu, Dunquan; Jin, Faguang

    2016-03-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger and it is widely recognized that acute lung injury (ALI) is often caused by oscillations of cytosolic free Ca2+. Previous studies have indicated that the activation of transient receptor potential‑vanilloid (TRPV) channels and subsequent Ca2+ entry initiates an acute calcium‑dependent permeability increase during ALI. However, whether seawater exposure induces such an effect through the activation of TRPV channels remains unknown. In the current study, the effect of calcium, a component of seawater, on the inflammatory reactions that occur during seawater drowning‑induced ALI, was examined. The results demonstrated that a high concentration of calcium ions in seawater increased lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity and the secretion of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) and interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6. Further study demonstrated that the seawater challenge elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, indicated by [Ca2+]c, by inducing calcium influx from the extracellular medium via TRPV1 channels. The elevated [Ca2+c] may have resulted in the increased release of TNF‑α and IL‑1β via increased phosphorylation of nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB). It was concluded that a high concentration of calcium in seawater exacerbated lung injury, and TRPV1 channels were notable mediators of the calcium increase initiated by the seawater challenge. Calcium influx through TRPV1 may have led to greater phosphorylation of NF‑κB and increased release of TNF‑α and IL‑1β.

  3. Calcium oscillations in wounded fibroblast monolayers are spatially regulated through substrate mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembong, Josephine; Sabass, Benedikt; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-08-01

    The maintenance of tissue integrity is essential for the life of multicellular organisms. Healing of a skin wound is a paradigm for how various cell types localize and repair tissue perturbations in an orchestrated fashion. To investigate biophysical mechanisms associated with wound localization, we focus on a model system consisting of a fibroblast monolayer on an elastic substrate. We find that the creation of an edge in the monolayer causes cytosolic calcium oscillations throughout the monolayer. The oscillation frequency increases with cell density, which shows that wound-induced calcium oscillations occur collectively. Inhibition of myosin II reduces the number of oscillating cells, demonstrating a coupling between actomyosin activity and calcium response. The spatial distribution of oscillating cells depends on the stiffness of the substrate. For soft substrates with a Young’s modulus E ~ 360 Pa, oscillations occur on average within 0.2 mm distance from the wound edge. Increasing substrate stiffness leads to an average localization of oscillations away from the edge (up to ~0.6 mm). In addition, we use traction force microscopy to determine stresses between cells and substrate. We find that an increase of substrate rigidity leads to a higher traction magnitude. For E    ~8 kPa, traction magnitude is on average almost uniform beneath the monolayer. Thus, the spatial occurrence of calcium oscillations correlates with the cell-substrate traction. Overall, the experiments with fibroblasts demonstrate a collective, chemomechanical localization mechanism at the edge of a wound with a potential physiological role.

  4. Electrical control of calcium oscillations in mesenchymal stem cells using microsecond pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Hanna; Andre, Franck M; Mir, Lluis M

    2017-04-20

    Human mesenchymal stem cells are promising tools for regenerative medicine due to their ability to differentiate into many cellular types such as osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes amongst many other cell types. These cells present spontaneous calcium oscillations implicating calcium channels and pumps of the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. These oscillations regulate many basic functions in the cell such as proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, the possibility to mimic or regulate these oscillations might be useful to regulate mesenchymal stem cells biological functions. One or several electric pulses of 100 μs were used to induce Ca 2+ spikes caused by the penetration of Ca 2+ from the extracellular medium, through the transiently electropermeabilized plasma membrane, in human adipose mesenchymal stem cells from several donors. Attached cells were preloaded with Fluo-4 AM and exposed to the electric pulse(s) under the fluorescence microscope. Viability was also checked. According to the pulse(s) electric field amplitude, it is possible to generate a supplementary calcium spike with properties close to those of calcium spontaneous oscillations, or, on the contrary, to inhibit the spontaneous calcium oscillations for a very long time compared to the pulse duration. Through that inhibition of the oscillations, Ca 2+ oscillations of desired amplitude and frequency could then be imposed on the cells using subsequent electric pulses. None of the pulses used here, even those with the highest amplitude, caused a loss of cell viability. An easy way to control Ca 2+ oscillations in mesenchymal stem cells, through their cancellation or the addition of supplementary Ca 2+ spikes, is reported here. Indeed, the direct link between the microsecond electric pulse(s) delivery and the occurrence/cancellation of cytosolic Ca 2+ spikes allowed us to mimic and regulate the Ca 2+ oscillations in these cells. Since microsecond electric pulse delivery

  5. A membrane model for cytosolic calcium oscillations. A study using Xenopus oocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Jafri, M S; Vajda, S; Pasik, P; Gillo, B

    1992-01-01

    Cytosolic calcium oscillations occur in a wide variety of cells and are involved in different cellular functions. We describe these calcium oscillations by a mathematical model based on the putative electrophysiological properties of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The salient features of our membrane model are calcium-dependent calcium channels and calcium pumps in the ER membrane, constant entry of calcium into the cytosol, calcium dependent removal from the cytosol, and buffering ...

  6. Activation of a cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel may cause transition from calcium waves to whole-cell oscillations in smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-01-01

    approximately doubles. In this transition, the simulated results point to a key role for a recently discovered cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel. This channel depolarizes the membrane in response to calcium released from the SR. In turn, depolarization causes uniform opening of L-type calcium...... channels on the cell surface stimulating synchronized release of SR-calcium and inducing the shift from waves to whole-cell oscillations. The effect of the channel is therefore to couple the processes of the SR with those of the membrane. We hypothesize that the shift in oscillatory mode and the associated...

  7. The mechanical environment modulates intracellular calcium oscillation activities of myofibroblasts.

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    Charles Godbout

    Full Text Available Myofibroblast contraction is fundamental in the excessive tissue remodeling that is characteristic of fibrotic tissue contractures. Tissue remodeling during development of fibrosis leads to gradually increasing stiffness of the extracellular matrix. We propose that this increased stiffness positively feeds back on the contractile activities of myofibroblasts. We have previously shown that cycles of contraction directly correlate with periodic intracellular calcium oscillations in cultured myofibroblasts. We analyze cytosolic calcium dynamics using fluorescent calcium indicators to evaluate the possible impact of mechanical stress on myofibroblast contractile activity. To modulate extracellular mechanics, we seeded primary rat subcutaneous myofibroblasts on silicone substrates and into collagen gels of different elastic modulus. We modulated cell stress by cell growth on differently adhesive culture substrates, by restricting cell spreading area on micro-printed adhesive islands, and depolymerizing actin with Cytochalasin D. In general, calcium oscillation frequencies in myofibroblasts increased with increasing mechanical challenge. These results provide new insight on how changing mechanical conditions for myofibroblasts are encoded in calcium oscillations and possibly explain how reparative cells adapt their contractile behavior to the stresses occurring in normal and pathological tissue repair.

  8. Activation of a cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel may cause transition from calcium waves to whole-cell oscillations in smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-01-01

    waves sweeping through the cytoplasm when the SR is stimulated to release calcium. A rise in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) leads to the experimentally observed transition from waves to whole-cell calcium oscillations. At the same time membrane potential starts to oscillate and the frequency...... approximately doubles. In this transition, the simulated results point to a key role for a recently discovered cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel. This channel depolarizes the membrane in response to calcium released from the SR. In turn, depolarization causes uniform opening of L-type calcium...... onset of oscillations in membrane potential within the individual cell may underlie sudden intercellular synchronization and the appearance of vasomotion. Key words: Vasomotion, Chloride channel, cGMP, Mathematical model, Calcium waves....

  9. Calcium-Induced calcium release during action potential firing in developing inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosub, Radu; Avitabile, Daniele; Grant, Lisa; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Kennedy, Helen J

    2015-03-10

    In the mature auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals that are relayed to the central nervous system via auditory afferents. Before the cochlea can respond to normal sound levels, developing IHCs fire calcium-based action potentials that disappear close to the onset of hearing. Action potential firing triggers transmitter release from the immature IHC that in turn generates experience-independent firing in auditory neurons. These early signaling events are thought to be essential for the organization and development of the auditory system and hair cells. A critical component of the action potential is the rise in intracellular calcium that activates both small conductance potassium channels essential during membrane repolarization, and triggers transmitter release from the cell. Whether this calcium signal is generated by calcium influx or requires calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is not yet known. IHCs can generate CICR, but to date its physiological role has remained unclear. Here, we used high and low concentrations of ryanodine to block or enhance CICR to determine whether calcium release from intracellular stores affected action potential waveform, interspike interval, or changes in membrane capacitance during development of mouse IHCs. Blocking CICR resulted in mixed action potential waveforms with both brief and prolonged oscillations in membrane potential and intracellular calcium. This mixed behavior is captured well by our mathematical model of IHC electrical activity. We perform two-parameter bifurcation analysis of the model that predicts the dependence of IHCs firing patterns on the level of activation of two parameters, the SK2 channels activation and CICR rate. Our data show that CICR forms an important component of the calcium signal that shapes action potentials and regulates firing patterns, but is not involved directly in triggering exocytosis. These data provide important insights

  10. Dendritic calcium conductances generate high-frequency oscillation in thalamocortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroarena, Christine; Llinás, Rodolfo

    1997-01-01

    Cortical-projecting thalamic neurons, in guinea pig brain slices, display high-frequency membrane potential oscillations (20–80 Hz), when their somata are depolarized beyond −45 mV. These oscillations, preferentially located at dendritic sites, are supported by the activation of P/Q type calcium channels, as opposed to the expected persistent sodium conductance responsible for such rhythmic behavior in other central neurons. Short hyperpolarizing pulses reset the phase and transiently increas...

  11. Store-operated calcium entry is required for sustained contraction and Ca2+ oscillations of airway smooth muscle.

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    Chen, Jun; Sanderson, Michael J

    2017-05-15

    Airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma is driven by excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Agonist-induced Ca 2+ oscillations underlie this contraction of ASMCs and the magnitude of this contraction is proportional to the Ca 2+ oscillation frequency. Sustained contraction and Ca 2+ oscillations require an influx of extracellular Ca 2+ , although the mechanisms and pathways mediating this Ca 2+ influx during agonist-induced ASMC contraction are not well defined. By inhibiting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) or voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels (VGCCs), we show that SOCE, rather than Ca 2+ influx via VGCCs, provides the major Ca 2+ entry pathway into ASMCs to sustain ASMCs contraction and Ca 2+ oscillations. SOCE may therefore serve as a potential target for new bronchodilators to reduce airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma. Asthma is characterized by airway hyper-responsiveness: the excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle. The extent of this airway contraction is proportional to the frequency of Ca 2+ oscillations within airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Sustained Ca 2+ oscillations require a Ca 2+ influx to replenish Ca 2+ losses across the plasma membrane. Our previous studies implied store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) as the major pathway for this Ca 2+ influx. In the present study, we explore this hypothesis, by examining the effects of SOCE inhibitors (GSK7975A and GSK5498A) as well as L-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel inhibitors (nifedipine and nimodipine) on airway contraction and Ca 2+ oscillations and SOCE-mediated Ca 2+ influx in ASMCs within mouse precision-cut lung slices. We found that both GSK7975A and GSK5498A were able to fully relax methacholine-induced airway contraction by abolishing the Ca 2+ oscillations, in a manner similar to that observed in zero extracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] e ). In addition, GSK7975A and GSK5498A inhibited increases in intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in ASMCs with depleted Ca 2+ -stores in

  12. Mouse neuroblastoma cell-based model and the effect of epileptic events on calcium oscillations and neural spikes

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    Kim, Suhwan; Jung, Unsang; Baek, Juyoung; Lee, Sangwon; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Shinwon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mouse neuroblastoma cells have been considered as an attractive model for the study of human neurological and prion diseases, and they have been intensively used as a model system in different areas. For example, the differentiation of neuro2a (N2A) cells, receptor-mediated ion current, and glutamate-induced physiological responses have been actively investigated with these cells. These mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells are of interest because they grow faster than other cells of neural origin and have a number of other advantages. The calcium oscillations and neural spikes of mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells in epileptic conditions are evaluated. Based on our observations of neural spikes in these cells with our proposed imaging modality, we reported that they can be an important model in epileptic activity studies. We concluded that mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells produce epileptic spikes in vitro in the same way as those produced by neurons or astrocytes. This evidence suggests that increased levels of neurotransmitter release due to the enhancement of free calcium from 4-aminopyridine causes the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells to produce epileptic spikes and calcium oscillations.

  13. A deterministic model predicts the properties of stochastic calcium oscillations in airway smooth muscle cells.

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    Cao, Pengxing; Tan, Xiahui; Donovan, Graham; Sanderson, Michael J; Sneyd, James

    2014-08-01

    The inositol trisphosphate receptor ([Formula: see text]) is one of the most important cellular components responsible for oscillations in the cytoplasmic calcium concentration. Over the past decade, two major questions about the [Formula: see text] have arisen. Firstly, how best should the [Formula: see text] be modeled? In other words, what fundamental properties of the [Formula: see text] allow it to perform its function, and what are their quantitative properties? Secondly, although calcium oscillations are caused by the stochastic opening and closing of small numbers of [Formula: see text], is it possible for a deterministic model to be a reliable predictor of calcium behavior? Here, we answer these two questions, using airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) as a specific example. Firstly, we show that periodic calcium waves in ASMC, as well as the statistics of calcium puffs in other cell types, can be quantitatively reproduced by a two-state model of the [Formula: see text], and thus the behavior of the [Formula: see text] is essentially determined by its modal structure. The structure within each mode is irrelevant for function. Secondly, we show that, although calcium waves in ASMC are generated by a stochastic mechanism, [Formula: see text] stochasticity is not essential for a qualitative prediction of how oscillation frequency depends on model parameters, and thus deterministic [Formula: see text] models demonstrate the same level of predictive capability as do stochastic models. We conclude that, firstly, calcium dynamics can be accurately modeled using simplified [Formula: see text] models, and, secondly, to obtain qualitative predictions of how oscillation frequency depends on parameters it is sufficient to use a deterministic model.

  14. Synchronized Anti-Phase and In-Phase Oscillations of Intracellular Calcium Ions in Two Coupled Hepatocytes System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan-Sheng, Shen; Han-Shuang, Chen; Ji-Qian, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    We study the dynamic behaviour of two intracellular calcium oscillators that are coupled through gap junctions both to Ca 2+ and inositol(1,4,5)-trisphosphate (IP 3 ). It is found that synchronized anti-phase and in-phase oscillations of cytoplasmic calcium coexist in parameters space. Especially, synchronized anti-phase oscillations only occur near the onset of a Hopf bifurcation point when the velocity of IP 3 synthesis is increased. In addition, two kinds of coupling effects, i.e., the diffusions of Ca 2+ and IP 3 among cells on synchronous behaviour, are considered. We find that small coupling of Ca 2+ and large coupling of IP 3 facilitate the emergence of synchronized anti-phase oscillations. However, the result is contrary for the synchronized in-phase case. Our findings may provide a qualitative understanding about the mechanism of synchronous behaviour of intercellular calcium signalling

  15. Mouse neuroblastoma cell based model and the effect of epileptic events on calcium oscillations and neural spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhwan; Baek, Juyeong; Jung, Unsang; Lee, Sangwon; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Shinwon

    2013-05-01

    Recently, Mouse neuroblastoma cells are considered as an attractive model for the study of human neurological and prion diseases, and intensively used as a model system in different areas. Among those areas, differentiation of neuro2a (N2A) cells, receptor mediated ion current, and glutamate induced physiological response are actively investigated. The reason for the interest to mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells is that they have a fast growing rate than other cells in neural origin with a few another advantages. This study evaluated the calcium oscillations and neural spikes recording of mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells in an epileptic condition. Based on our observation of neural spikes in mouse N2A cell with our proposed imaging modality, we report that mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells can be an important model related to epileptic activity studies. It is concluded that the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells produce the epileptic spikes in vitro in the same way as produced by the neurons or the astrocytes. This evidence advocates the increased and strong level of neurotransmitters release by enhancement in free calcium using the 4-aminopyridine which causes the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells to produce the epileptic spikes and calcium oscillation.

  16. Cross-talk between signaling pathways can generate robust oscillations in calcium and cAMP.

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    Fernando Siso-Nadal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To control and manipulate cellular signaling, we need to understand cellular strategies for information transfer, integration, and decision-making. A key feature of signal transduction is the generation of only a few intracellular messengers by many extracellular stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we model molecular cross-talk between two classic second messengers, cyclic AMP (cAMP and calcium, and show that the dynamical complexity of the response of both messengers increases substantially through their interaction. In our model of a non-excitable cell, both cAMP and calcium concentrations can oscillate. If mutually inhibitory, cross-talk between the two second messengers can increase the range of agonist concentrations for which oscillations occur. If mutually activating, cross-talk decreases the oscillation range, but can generate 'bursting' oscillations of calcium and may enable better filtering of noise. CONCLUSION: We postulate that this increased dynamical complexity allows the cell to encode more information, particularly if both second messengers encode signals. In their native environments, it is unlikely that cells are exposed to one stimulus at a time, and cross-talk may help generate sufficiently complex responses to allow the cell to discriminate between different combinations and concentrations of extracellular agonists.

  17. Estrogen receptor beta-selective agonists stimulate calcium oscillations in human and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons.

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    Lili Zhang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens are used extensively to treat hot flashes in menopausal women. Some of the beneficial effects of estrogens in hormone therapy on the brain might be due to nongenomic effects in neurons such as the rapid stimulation of calcium oscillations. Most studies have examined the nongenomic effects of estrogen receptors (ER in primary neurons or brain slices from the rodent brain. However, these cells can not be maintained continuously in culture because neurons are post-mitotic. Neurons derived from embryonic stem cells could be a potential continuous, cell-based model to study nongenomic actions of estrogens in neurons if they are responsive to estrogens after differentiation. In this study ER-subtype specific estrogens were used to examine the role of ERalpha and ERbeta on calcium oscillations in neurons derived from human (hES and mouse embryonic stem cells. Unlike the undifferentiated hES cells the differentiated cells expressed neuronal markers, ERbeta, but not ERalpha. The non-selective ER agonist 17beta-estradiol (E(2 rapidly increased [Ca2+]i oscillations and synchronizations within a few minutes. No change in calcium oscillations was observed with the selective ERalpha agonist 4,4',4''-(4-Propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyltrisphenol (PPT. In contrast, the selective ERbeta agonists, 2,3-bis(4-Hydroxyphenyl-propionitrile (DPN, MF101, and 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl-7-vinyl-1,3 benzoxazol-5-ol (ERB-041; WAY-202041 stimulated calcium oscillations similar to E(2. The ERbeta agonists also increased calcium oscillations and phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK1/2 in neurons derived from mouse ES cells, which was inhibited by nifedipine demonstrating that ERbeta activates L-type voltage gated calcium channels to regulate neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate that ERbeta signaling regulates nongenomic pathways in neurons derived from ES cells, and suggest that these cells might be useful to study the nongenomic mechanisms of estrogenic compounds.

  18. Three types of ependymal cells with intracellular calcium oscillation are characterized by distinct cilia beating properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongyu; Jin, Xingjian; Prasad, Rahul M; Sari, Youssef; Nauli, Surya M

    2014-09-01

    Ependymal cells are multiciliated epithelial cells that line the ventricles in the adult brain. Abnormal function or structure of ependymal cilia has been associated with various neurological deficits. For the first time, we report three distinct ependymal cell types, I, II, and III, based on their unique ciliary beating frequency and beating angle. These ependymal cells have specific localizations within the third ventricle of the mouse brain. Furthermore, neither ependymal cell types nor their localizations are altered by aging. Our high-speed fluorescence imaging analysis reveals that these ependymal cells have an intracellular pacing calcium oscillation property. Our study further shows that alcohol can significantly repress the amplitude of calcium oscillation and the frequency of ciliary beating, resulting in an overall decrease in volume replacement by the cilia. Furthermore, the pharmacological agent cilostazol could differentially increase cilia beating frequency in type II, but not in type I or type III, ependymal cells. In summary, we provide the first evidence of three distinct types of ependymal cells with calcium oscillation properties. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Self-induced free surface oscillations caused by water jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukaya, M.; Madarame, H.; Okamoto, K.; Iida, M.; Someya, S.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between the high speed flow and the free surfaces could induced surface oscillations. Recently, some kinds of self-induced free surface oscillations caused by water jet were discovered, e.g., a self-induced sloshing, 'Jet-Flutter' and a self-induced manometer oscillation. These oscillations have many different characteristics with each other. In this study, the similarities and differences of these oscillations are examined, and the geometrical effects on the phenomena are experimentally investigated. The self-induced sloshing and the Jet-Flutter have different dimensionless traveling times, which suggests a difference in the energy supply mechanism. When the distance between the inlet and the outlet is small in a vessel, the self-induced manometer oscillation could occur in the multi-free-surface system. (author)

  20. Cellular Architecture Regulates Collective Calcium Signaling and Cell Contractility.

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    Jian Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of multicellular systems is the ability of cells to function collectively in response to external stimuli. However, the mechanisms of intercellular cell signaling and their functional implications in diverse vascular structures are poorly understood. Using a combination of computational modeling and plasma lithography micropatterning, we investigate the roles of structural arrangement of endothelial cells in collective calcium signaling and cell contractility. Under histamine stimulation, endothelial cells in self-assembled and microengineered networks, but not individual cells and monolayers, exhibit calcium oscillations. Micropatterning, pharmacological inhibition, and computational modeling reveal that the calcium oscillation depends on the number of neighboring cells coupled via gap junctional intercellular communication, providing a mechanistic basis of the architecture-dependent calcium signaling. Furthermore, the calcium oscillation attenuates the histamine-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and cell contraction, resulting in differential cell responses in an architecture-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that endothelial cells can sense and respond to chemical stimuli according to the vascular architecture via collective calcium signaling.

  1. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

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    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  2. Chronic ethanol exposure induces SK-N-SH cell apoptosis by increasing N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor expression and intracellular calcium.

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    Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Yan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Changliang; Feng, Chunmei; Xu, Guohui; Chen, Jiajun; You, Jiabin; Wang, Pengfei; Wu, Xu; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Guohua

    2018-04-01

    It has been identified that chronic ethanol exposure damages the nervous system, particularly neurons. There is scientific evidence suggesting that neuronal loss caused by chronic ethanol exposure has an association with neuron apoptosis and intracellular calcium oscillation is one of the primary inducers of apoptosis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the inductive effects of intracellular calcium oscillation on apoptosis in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells and the protective effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, memantine, on SK-N-SH cell apoptosis caused by chronic ethanol exposure. SK-N-SH cells were treated with 100 mM ethanol and memantine (4 µM) for 2 days. Protein expression of NR1 was downregulated by RNA interference (RNAi). Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining and flow cytometry and cell viability was detected using an MTS kit. Fluorescence dual wavelength spectrophotometry was used to determine the intracellular calcium concentration and the levels of NR1 and caspase-3 were detected using western blotting. NR1 mRNA levels were also detected using qPCR. It was found that chronic ethanol exposure reduced neuronal cell viability and caused apoptosis of SK-N-SH cells, and the extent of damage in SK-N-SH cells was associated with ethanol exposure concentration and time. In addition, chronic ethanol exposure increased the concentration of intracellular calcium in SK-N-SH cells by inducing the expression of NMDAR, resulting in apoptosis, and memantine treatment reduced ethanol-induced cell apoptosis. The results of the present study indicate that the application of memantine may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of alcoholic dementia.

  3. Clofazimine inhibits human Kv1.3 potassium channel by perturbing calcium oscillation in T lymphocytes.

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    Yunzhao R Ren

    Full Text Available The Kv1.3 potassium channel plays an essential role in effector memory T cells and has been implicated in several important autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and type 1 diabetes. A number of potent small molecule inhibitors of Kv1.3 channel have been reported, some of which were found to be effective in various animal models of autoimmune diseases. We report herein the identification of clofazimine, a known anti-mycobacterial drug, as a novel inhibitor of human Kv1.3. Clofazimine was initially identified as an inhibitor of intracellular T cell receptor-mediated signaling leading to the transcriptional activation of human interleukin-2 gene in T cells from a screen of the Johns Hopkins Drug Library. A systematic mechanistic deconvolution revealed that clofazimine selectively blocked the Kv1.3 channel activity, perturbing the oscillation frequency of the calcium-release activated calcium channel, which in turn led to the inhibition of the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. These effects of clofazimine provide the first line of experimental evidence in support of a causal relationship between Kv1.3 and calcium oscillation in human T cells. Furthermore, clofazimine was found to be effective in blocking human T cell-mediated skin graft rejection in an animal model in vivo. Together, these results suggest that clofazimine is a promising immunomodulatory drug candidate for treating a variety of autoimmune disorders.

  4. Calcium hydroxide suppresses Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide-induced bone destruction.

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    Guo, J; Yang, D; Okamura, H; Teramachi, J; Ochiai, K; Qiu, L; Haneji, T

    2014-05-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis and its main virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are associated with the development of periapical diseases and alveolar bone loss. Calcium hydroxide is commonly used for endodontic therapy. However, the effects of calcium hydroxide on the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS and the mechanism of P. endodontalis LPS-induced bone destruction are not clear. Calcium hydroxide rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-suppressed viability of MC3T3-E1 cells and activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in these cells, resulting in the reduced expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In addition, calcium hydroxide inhibited P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the activities of NF-κB, p38, and ERK1/2 and the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 in RAW264.7 cells. Calcium hydroxide also rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in mouse calvaria. Taken together, our present results indicate that calcium hydroxide suppressed bone destruction by attenuating the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS on bone cells.

  5. Sevoflurane Induces Coherent Slow-Delta Oscillations in Rats

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    Jennifer A. Guidera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although general anesthetics are routinely administered to surgical patients to induce loss of consciousness, the mechanisms underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness are not fully understood. In rats, we characterized changes in the extradural EEG and intracranial local field potentials (LFPs within the prefrontal cortex (PFC, parietal cortex (PC, and central thalamus (CT in response to progressively higher doses of the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane. During induction with a low dose of sevoflurane, beta/low gamma (12–40 Hz power increased in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs, and PFC–CT and PFC–PFC LFP beta/low gamma coherence increased. Loss of movement (LOM coincided with an abrupt decrease in beta/low gamma PFC–CT LFP coherence. Following LOM, cortically coherent slow-delta (0.1–4 Hz oscillations were observed in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs. At higher doses of sevoflurane sufficient to induce loss of the righting reflex, coherent slow-delta oscillations were dominant in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs. Dynamics similar to those observed during induction were observed as animals emerged from sevoflurane anesthesia. We conclude that the rat is a useful animal model for sevoflurane-induced EEG oscillations in humans, and that coherent slow-delta oscillations are a correlate of sevoflurane-induced behavioral arrest and loss of righting in rats.

  6. [Role of melatonin in calcium overload-induced heart injury].

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    Kong, Lingheng; Wei, Ming; Sun, Na; Zhu, Juanxia; Su, Xingli

    2017-06-28

    To investigate the role of melatonin in calcium overload-induced heart injury.
 Methods: Thirty-two rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group (Control), a melatonin control group (Mel), a calcium overload group (CaP), and a calcium overload plus melatonin group (Mel+CaP). Isolated Sprague Dawley male rat hearts underwent Langendorff perfusion. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) was calculated to evaluate the myocardial performance. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was used to measure the infarct size of myocardium. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the coronary flow was determined. The expressions of caspase-3 and cytochrome c were determined by Western blot. The pathological morphological changes in myocardial fiber were analyzed by HE staining.
 Results: Compared with the control group, calcium overload significantly induced an enlarged infarct size (Poverload-induced heart injury.

  7. Compensation of oscillation coupling induced by solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for construction of various schemes of oscillation coupling compensation, induced by solenoids in charged particle storage rings, are described. Peculiarities of magnetic structure, enabling to localize oscillation coupling in wide energy range are discussed. Results of calculation of compensation schemes for design of NR-2000 storage ring spin rotation are presented

  8. Caffeine-Induced Suppression of GABAergic Inhibition and Calcium-Independent Metaplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Isokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic inhibition plays a critical role in the regulation of neuron excitability; thus, it is subject to modulations by many factors. Recent evidence suggests the elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and calcium-dependent signaling molecules underlie the modulations. Caffeine induces a release of calcium from intracellular stores. We tested whether caffeine modulated GABAergic transmission by increasing [Ca2+]i. A brief local puff-application of caffeine to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells transiently suppressed GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs by 73.2 ± 6.98%. Time course of suppression and the subsequent recovery of IPSCs resembled DSI (depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, mediated by endogenous cannabinoids that require a [Ca2+]i rise. However, unlike DSI, caffeine-induced suppression of IPSCs (CSI persisted in the absence of a [Ca2+]i rise. Intracellular applications of BAPTA and ryanodine (which blocks caffeine-induced calcium release from intracellular stores failed to prevent the generation of CSI. Surprisingly, ruthenium red, an inhibitor of multiple calcium permeable/release channels including those of stores, induced metaplasticity by amplifying the magnitude of CSI independently of calcium. This metaplasticity was accompanied with the generation of a large inward current. Although ionic basis of this inward current is undetermined, the present result demonstrates that caffeine has a robust Ca2+-independent inhibitory action on GABAergic inhibition and causes metaplasticity by opening plasma membrane channels.

  9. Calcium Overload Accelerates Phosphate-Induced Vascular Calcification Via Pit-1, but not the Calcium-Sensing Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Asuka; Sonou, Tomohiro; Ohya, Masaki; Yashiro, Mitsuru; Nakashima, Yuri; Okuda, Kouji; Iwashita, Yuko; Mima, Toru; Negi, Shigeo; Shigematsu, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder is an important problem in patients with renal failure. Abnormal levels of serum phosphate and calcium affect CKD-mineral and bone metabolism disorder and contribute to bone disease, VC, and cardiovascular disease. Hypercalcemia is a contributing factor in progression of VC in patients with CKD. However, the mechanisms of how calcium promotes intracellular calcification are still unclear. This study aimed to examine the mechanisms underlying calcium-induced calcification in a rat aortic tissue culture model. Aortic segments from 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in serum-supplemented medium for 10 days. We added high calcium (HiCa; calcium 3.0 mM) to high phosphate (HPi; phosphate 3.8 mM) medium to accelerate phosphate and calcium-induced VC. We used phosphonoformic acid and the calcimimetic R-568 to determine whether the mechanism of calcification involves Pit-1 or the calcium-sensing receptor. Medial VC was significantly augmented by HPi+HiCa medium compared with HPi alone (300%, p<0.05), and was associated with upregulation of Pit-1 protein. Pit-1 protein concentrations in HPi+HiCa medium were greater than those in HPi medium. Phosphonoformic acid completely negated the augmentation of medial VC induced by HPi+HiCa. R-568 had no additive direct effect on medial VC. These results indicated that exposure to HPi+HiCa accelerates medial VC, and this is mediated through Pit-1, not the calcium-sensing receptor.

  10. Calcium ion binding properties of Medicago truncatula calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainsbury, David J K; Zhou, Liang; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Bornemann, Stephen

    2012-09-04

    A calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is essential in the interpretation of calcium oscillations in plant root cells for the establishment of symbiotic relationships with rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi. Some of its properties have been studied in detail, but its calcium ion binding properties and subsequent conformational change have not. A biophysical approach was taken with constructs comprising either the visinin-like domain of Medicago truncatula CCaMK, which contains EF-hand motifs, or this domain together with the autoinhibitory domain. The visinin-like domain binds three calcium ions, leading to a conformational change involving the exposure of hydrophobic surfaces and a change in tertiary but not net secondary or quaternary structure. The affinity for calcium ions of visinin-like domain EF-hands 1 and 2 (K(d) = 200 ± 50 nM) was appropriate for the interpretation of calcium oscillations (~125-850 nM), while that of EF-hand 3 (K(d) ≤ 20 nM) implied occupancy at basal calcium ion levels. Calcium dissociation rate constants were determined for the visinin-like domain of CCaMK, M. truncatula calmodulin 1, and the complex between these two proteins (the slowest of which was 0.123 ± 0.002 s(-1)), suggesting the corresponding calcium association rate constants were at or near the diffusion-limited rate. In addition, the dissociation of calmodulin from the protein complex was shown to be on the same time scale as the dissociation of calcium ions. These observations suggest that the formation and dissociation of the complex between calmodulin and CCaMK would substantially mirror calcium oscillations, which typically have a 90 s periodicity.

  11. An Energy Balanced Double Oscillator Model for Vortex-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    A model consisting of two couple oscillators is developed for the representation of vortex-induced oscillations of structural elements. The mutual forcing terms are different from previous models and based on exact transfer of energy from the fluid to the structural oscillator. This leads...

  12. Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in inferior olive neurons are dynamically regulated by P/Q- and T-type calcium channels: a study in mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Daesoo; Urbano, Francisco J; Makarenko, Vladimir; Shin, Hee-Sup; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2010-08-15

    The role of P/Q- and T-type calcium channels in the rhythmic oscillatory behaviour of inferior olive (IO) neurons was investigated in mutant mice. Mice lacking either the CaV2.1 gene of the pore-forming alpha1A subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel, or the CaV3.1 gene of the pore-forming alpha1G subunit for T-type calcium channel were used. In vitro intracellular recording from IO neurons reveals that the amplitude and frequency of sinusoidal subthreshold oscillations (SSTOs) were reduced in the CaV2.1-/- mice. In the CaV3.1-/- mice, IO neurons also showed altered patterns of SSTOs and the probability of SSTO generation was significantly lower (15%, 5 of 34 neurons) than that of wild-type (78%, 31 of 40 neurons) or CaV2.1-/- mice (73%, 22 of 30 neurons). In addition, the low-threshold calcium spike and the sustained endogenous oscillation following rebound potentials were absent in IO neurons from CaV3.1-/- mice. Moreover, the phase-reset dynamics of oscillatory properties of single neurons and neuronal clusters in IO were remarkably altered in both CaV2.1-/- and CaV3.1-/- mice. These results suggest that both alpha1A P/Q- and alpha1G T-type calcium channels are required for the dynamic control of neuronal oscillations in the IO. These findings were supported by results from a mathematical IO neuronal model that incorporated T and P/Q channel kinetics.

  13. Signatures of nonlinearity in single cell noise-induced oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P.; Straube, A.V.; Timmer, J.; Fleck, C.; Grima, R.

    2013-01-01

    A class of theoretical models seeks to explain rhythmic single cell data by postulating that they are generated by intrinsic noise in biochemical systems whose deterministic models exhibit only damped oscillations. The main features of such noise-induced oscillations are quantified by the power

  14. Space shuttle pilot-induced-oscillation research testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    The simulation requirements for investigation of pilot-induced-oscillation (PIO) characteristics during the landing phase are discussed. Orbiters simulations and F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft tests are addressed.

  15. Acoustic Pressure Oscillations Induced in I-Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kiyoshi

    Iwama et al. invented the I-burner to investigate acoustic combustion instability in solid-propellant rockets (Proceedings of ICT Conference, 1994, pp. 26-1 26-14). Longitudinal pressure oscillations were induced in the combustion chamber of a thick-walled rocket by combustion of a stepped-perforation grain (I-burner). These oscillations were studied here experimentally. Two I-burners with an internal diameter of 80 mm and a length of 1208 mm or 2240 mm were made. The grain had stepped perforations (20 and 42 mm in diameter and 657 and 160 mm in length, respectively). Longitudinal pressure oscillations always occur in two stages when an HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/AP (ammonium perchlorate)/aluminum-powder propellant burns (54 tests; the highest average pressure in the combustion chamber was 9.5 29 MPa), but no oscillations occur when an HTPB/AP propellant burns (29 tests). The pressure oscillations are essentially linear, but dissipation adds a nonlinear nature to them. In the first stage, the amplitudes are small and the first wave group predominates. In the next stage, the amplitudes are large and many wave groups are present. The change in the grain form accompanying the combustion affects the pressure oscillations.

  16. Neutral current induced neutrino oscillations in a supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Kusenko, Alexander; Segre, Gino

    1997-01-01

    Neutral currents induced matter oscillations of electroweak-active (anti-)neutrinos to sterile neutrinos can explain the observed motion of pulsars. In contrast to a recently proposed explanation of the pulsar birth velocities based on the electron to tau (muon) neutrino oscillations [hep-ph/9606428], the heaviest neutrino (either active or sterile) would have to have mass of order several keV.

  17. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. PMID:24549172

  18. Xenon-induced axial power oscillations in the 400 MW PBMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strydom, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    The redistribution of the spatial xenon concentration in the 400 MW Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) core has a non-linear, time-dependent feedback effect on the spatial power density during several types of operational transient events. Due to the inherent weak coupling that exists between the iodine and xenon formation and destruction rates, as well as the complicating effect of spatial variance in the thermal flux field, reactor cores have been analyzed for a number of decades for the occurrence and severity of xenon-induced axial power oscillations. Of specific importance is the degree of oscillation damping exhibited by the core during transients, which involves axial variations in the local power density. In this paper the TINTE reactor dynamics code is used to assess the stability of the current 400 MW PBMR core design with regard to axial xenon oscillations. The focus is mainly on the determination of the inherent xenon and power oscillation damping properties by utilizing a set of hypothetical control rod insertion transients at various power levels. The oscillation damping properties of two 100%-50%-100% load-follow transients, one of which includes the de-stabilizing axial effects of moving control rods, are also discussed in some detail. The study shows that, although first axial mode oscillations do occur in the 400 MW PBMR core, the inherent damping of these oscillations is high, and that none of the investigated load-follow transients resulted in diverging oscillations. It is also shown that the PBMR core exhibits no radial oscillation components for these xenon-induced axial power oscillations

  19. Calcium-mediated signaling and calmodulin-dependent kinase regulate hepatocyte-inducible nitric oxide synthase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baochun; Crankshaw, Will; Nesemeier, Ryan; Patel, Jay; Nweze, Ikenna; Lakshmanan, Jaganathan; Harbrecht, Brian G

    2015-02-01

    Induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is induced in hepatocytes by shock and inflammatory stimuli. Excessive NO from iNOS mediates shock-induced hepatic injury and death, so understanding the regulation of iNOS will help elucidate the pathophysiology of septic shock. In vitro, cytokines induce iNOS expression through activation of signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor κB. Cytokines also induce calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization and activate calcium-mediated intracellular signaling pathways, typically through activation of calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMK). Calcium regulates NO production in macrophages but the role of calcium and calcium-mediated signaling in hepatocyte iNOS expression has not been defined. Primary rat hepatocytes were isolated, cultured, and induced to produce NO with proinflammatory cytokines. Calcium mobilization and Ca(2+)-mediated signaling were altered with ionophore, Ca(2+) channel blockers, and inhibitors of CaMK. The Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 suppressed cytokine-stimulated NO production, whereas Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and nifedipine increased NO production, iNOS messenger RNA, and iNOS protein expression. Inhibition of CaMK with KN93 and CBD increased NO production but the calcineurin inhibitor FK 506 decreased iNOS expression. These data demonstrate that calcium-mediated signaling regulates hepatocyte iNOS expression and does so through a mechanism independent of calcineurin. Changes in intracellular calcium levels may regulate iNOS expression during hepatic inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using Fast Vibrations to Quench Friction-induced Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    1999-01-01

    -ity corresponding to the minimum kinetic coefficient of friction. Simple expressions are given also for predicting the excitation necessary for quenching self-excited oscillations at or below a specified belt velocity. These and other results contribute to the general understanding of how friction properties may......This work examines how friction-induced self-excited oscillations are affected by high-frequency ex-ternal excitation. Simple analytical approximations are derived for predicting the occurence of self-excited oscillations for the traditional mass-on-moving-belt model – with and without high......-frequency excitation. It appears that high-frequency excitation can effectively cancel the negative slope in the friction-velocity relationship, and may thus prevent self-excited oscillations. To accomplish this it is sufficient that the (nondimensional) product of excitation amplitude and frequency exceeds the veloc...

  1. Signatures of nonlinearity in single cell noise-induced oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philipp; Straube, Arthur V; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian; Grima, Ramon

    2013-10-21

    A class of theoretical models seeks to explain rhythmic single cell data by postulating that they are generated by intrinsic noise in biochemical systems whose deterministic models exhibit only damped oscillations. The main features of such noise-induced oscillations are quantified by the power spectrum which measures the dependence of the oscillatory signal's power with frequency. In this paper we derive an approximate closed-form expression for the power spectrum of any monostable biochemical system close to a Hopf bifurcation, where noise-induced oscillations are most pronounced. Unlike the commonly used linear noise approximation which is valid in the macroscopic limit of large volumes, our theory is valid over a wide range of volumes and hence affords a more suitable description of single cell noise-induced oscillations. Our theory predicts that the spectra have three universal features: (i) a dominant peak at some frequency, (ii) a smaller peak at twice the frequency of the dominant peak and (iii) a peak at zero frequency. Of these, the linear noise approximation predicts only the first feature while the remaining two stem from the combination of intrinsic noise and nonlinearity in the law of mass action. The theoretical expressions are shown to accurately match the power spectra determined from stochastic simulations of mitotic and circadian oscillators. Furthermore it is shown how recently acquired single cell rhythmic fibroblast data displays all the features predicted by our theory and that the experimental spectrum is well described by our theory but not by the conventional linear noise approximation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of calcium antagonists on isolated bovine cerebral arteries: inhibition of constriction and calcium-45 uptake induced by potassium or serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, W.W.; Harakal, C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which organic calcium channel blockers inhibit cerebral vasoconstriction. Isolated bovine middle cerebral arteries were cut into rings to measure contractility or into strips to measure radioactive calcium ( 45 Ca) influx and efflux. Calcium channel blockers (10(-5) M verapamil or 3.3 X 10(-7) M nifedipine) and calcium-deficient solutions all produced near-maximal inhibition of both potassium- and serotonin-induced constriction. In calcium-deficient solutions containing potassium or serotonin, verapamil and nifedipine each blocked subsequent calcium-induced constriction in a competitive manner. Potassium and serotonin significantly increased 45 Ca uptake into cerebral artery strips during 5 minutes of 45 Ca loading; for potassium 45 Ca uptake increased from 62 to 188 nmol/g, and for serotonin from 65 to 102 nmol/g. Verapamil or nifedipine had no effect on basal 45 Ca uptake but significantly blocked the increase in 45 Ca uptake induced by potassium or serotonin. Potassium, and to a lesser extent serotonin, each induced a brief increase in the rate of 45 Ca efflux into calcium-deficient solutions. Verapamil or nifedipine had no effect on basal or potassium-stimulated 45 Ca efflux. The results demonstrate that verapamil and nifedipine block 45 Ca uptake through both potential-operated (potassium) and receptor-operated (serotonin) channels in bovine middle cerebral arteries

  3. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    connect ion conformationally rearranged, thus passing the signal through the chain of intermediaries. The most important function of calcium is its participation in many cell signaling pathways. Channels, pumps, gene expression, synthesis of alkaloids, protective molecules, NO etc. respond to changes in [Ca2+]cyt, while transductors are represented by a number of proteins. The universality of calcium is evident in the study in connection with other signaling systems, such as NO, which is involved in the immune response and is able to control the feedback activity of protein activators channels, producing nitric oxide. Simulation of calcium responses can determine the impact of key level and their regulation, and also depends on the type of stimulus and the effector protein that specifically causes certain changes. Using spatiotemporal modeling, scientists showed that the key components for the formation of Ca2+ bursts are the internal and external surfaces of the nucleus membrane. The research was aimed at understanding of the mechanisms of influence of Ca2+-binding components on Ca2+ oscillations. The simulation suggests the existence of a calcium depot EPR with conjugated lumen of the nucleus which releases its contents to nucleoplasm. With these assumptions, the mathematical model was created and confirmed experimentally. It describes the oscillation of nuclear calcium in root hairs of Medicago truncatula at symbiotic relationship of plants and fungi (rhizobia. Calcium oscillations are present in symbiotic relationships of the cortical layer of plant root cells. Before penetration of bacteria into the cells, slow oscillations of Ca2+ are observed, but with their penetration into the cells the oscillation frequency increases. These processes take place by changing buffer characteristics of the cytoplasm caused by signals from microbes, such as Nod-factor available after penetration of bacteria through the cell wall. Thus, the basic known molecular mechanisms for

  4. Chronic alcohol feeding potentiates hormone-induced calcium signalling in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Paula J; Antony, Anil Noronha; Agarwal, Amit; Hilly, Mauricette; Prince, Victoria L; Combettes, Laurent; Hoek, Jan B; Gaspers, Lawrence D

    2017-05-15

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes a spectrum of liver diseases, but the pathogenic mechanisms driving the onset and progression of disease are not clearly defined. We show that chronic alcohol feeding sensitizes rat hepatocytes to Ca 2+ -mobilizing hormones resulting in a leftward shift in the concentration-response relationship and the transition from oscillatory to more sustained and prolonged Ca 2+ increases. Our data demonstrate that alcohol-dependent adaptation in the Ca 2+ signalling pathway occurs at the level of hormone-induced inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP 3 ) production and does not involve changes in the sensitivity of the IP 3 receptor or size of internal Ca 2+ stores. We suggest that prolonged and aberrant hormone-evoked Ca 2+ increases may stimulate the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and contribute to alcohol-induced hepatocyte injury. ABSTRACT: 'Adaptive' responses of the liver to chronic alcohol consumption may underlie the development of cell and tissue injury. Alcohol administration can perturb multiple signalling pathways including phosphoinositide-dependent cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) increases, which can adversely affect mitochondrial Ca 2+ levels, reactive oxygen species production and energy metabolism. Our data indicate that chronic alcohol feeding induces a leftward shift in the dose-response for Ca 2+ -mobilizing hormones resulting in more sustained and prolonged [Ca 2+ ] i increases in both cultured hepatocytes and hepatocytes within the intact perfused liver. Ca 2+ increases were initiated at lower hormone concentrations, and intercellular calcium wave propagation rates were faster in alcoholics compared to controls. Acute alcohol treatment (25 mm) completely inhibited hormone-induced calcium increases in control livers, but not after chronic alcohol-feeding, suggesting desensitization to the inhibitory actions of ethanol. Hormone-induced inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP 3 ) accumulation and phospholipase C

  5. Characteristics of calcium signaling in astrocytes induced by photostimulation with femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Xiuli; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2010-05-01

    Astrocytes have been identified to actively contribute to brain functions through Ca2+ signaling, serving as a bridge to communicate with neurons and other brain cells. However, conventional stimulation techniques are hard to apply to delicate investigations on astrocytes. Our group previously reported photostimulation with a femtosecond laser to evoke astrocytic calcium (Ca2+) waves, providing a noninvasive and efficient approach with highly precise targeting. In this work, detailed characteristics of astrocytic Ca2+ signaling induced by photostimulation are presented. In a purified astrocytic culture, after the illumination of a femtosecond laser onto one cell, a Ca2+ wave throughout the network with reduced speed is induced, and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations are observed. The intercellular propagation is pharmacologically confirmed to be mainly mediated by ATP through P2Y receptors. Different patterns of Ca2+ elevations with increased amplitude in the stimulated astrocyte are discovered by varying the femtosecond laser power, which is correspondingly followed by broader intercellular waves. These indicate that the strength of photogenerated Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes has a positive relationship with the stimulating laser power. Therefore, distinct Ca2+ signaling is feasibly available for specific studies on astrocytes by employing precisely controlled photostimulation.

  6. Electrical stimulation induces calcium-dependent release of NGF from cultured Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghui; Ye, Zhengxu; Hu, Xueyu; Lu, Lei; Luo, Zhuojing

    2010-04-01

    Production of nerve growth factor (NGF) from Schwann cells (SCs) progressively declines in the distal stump, if axonal regeneration is staggered across the suture site after peripheral nerve injuries. This may be an important factor limiting the outcome of nerve injury repair. Thus far, extensive efforts are devoted to modulating NGF production in cultured SCs, but little has been achieved. In the present in vitro study, electrical stimulation (ES) was attempted to stimulate cultured SCs to release NGF. Our data showed that ES was capable of enhancing NGF release from cultured SCs. An electrical field (1 Hz, 5 V/cm) caused a 4.1-fold increase in NGF release from cultured SCs. The ES-induced NGF release is calcium dependent. Depletion of extracellular or/and intracellular calcium partially/ completely abolished the ES-induced NGF release. Further pharmacological interventions showed that ES induces calcium influx through T-type voltage-gated calcium channels and mobilizes calcium from 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate-sensitive stores and caffeine/ryanodine-sensitive stores, both of which contributed to the enhanced NGF release induced by ES. In addition, a calcium-triggered exocytosis mechanism was involved in the ES-induced NGF release from cultured SCs. These findings show the feasibility of using ES in stimulating SCs to release NGF, which holds great potential in promoting nerve regeneration by enhancing survival and outgrowth of damaged nerves, and is of great significance in nerve injury repair and neuronal tissue engineering.

  7. A modified wake oscillator model for predicting vortex induced vibration of heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhipeng; Zang Fenggang; Zhang Yixiong; Ye Xianhui

    2014-01-01

    Base on the classical wake oscillator model, a new modified wake oscillator model is proposed, for predicting vortex induced vibration of heat exchanger tube in uniform current. The comparison between the new wake oscillator model and experimental show that the present model can simulate the characteristics of vortex induced vibration of tube. Firstly, the research shows that the coupled fluid-structure dynamical system should be modeled by combined displacement and acceleration mode. Secondly, the empirical parameter in wake oscillator model depends on the material properties of the structure, instead of being a universal constant. Lastly, the results are compared between modified wake oscillator model and fluid-structure interaction numerical model. It shows the present, predicted results are compared to the fluid-structure interaction numerical data. The new modified wake oscillator model can predict the vortex induced heat exchanger tube vibration feasibly. (authors)

  8. Bruton's tyrosine kinase is essential for hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, S; Chock, P B

    2001-07-10

    Using Btk-deficient DT40 cells and the transfectants expressing wild-type Btk or Btk mutants in either kinase (Arg(525) to Gln), Src homology 2 (SH2, Arg(307) to Ala), or pleckstrin homology (PH, Arg(28) to Cys) domains, we investigated the roles and structure-function relationships of Btk in hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium mobilization. Our genetic evidence showed that Btk deficiency resulted in a significant reduction in hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium response. This impaired calcium signaling is correlated with the complete elimination of IP3 production and the significantly reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 in Btk-deficient DT40 cells. All of these defects were fully restored by the expression of wild-type Btk in Btk-deficient DT40 cells. The data from the point mutation study revealed that a defect at any one of the three functional domains would prevent a full recovery of Btk-mediated hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular calcium mobilization. However, mutation at either the SH2 or PH domain did not affect the hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of Btk. Mutation at the SH2 domain abrogates both IP3 generation and calcium release, while the mutant with the nonfunctional PH domain can partially activate PLCgamma2 and catalyze IP3 production but fails to produce significant calcium mobilization. Thus, these observations suggest that Btk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 is required but not sufficient for hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium mobilization. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide stimulates a Syk-, but not Btk-, dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of B cell linker protein BLNK. The overall results, together with those reported earlier [Qin et al. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 7118], are consistent with the notion that functional SH2 and PH domains are required for Btk to form a complex with PLCgamma2 through BLNK in order to position the Btk, PLCgamma2, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in close proximity for

  9. Visualisation of an nsPEF induced calcium wave using the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP in U87 human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lynn; Bardet, Sylvia M; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Leveque, Philippe; O'Connor, Rodney P

    2018-02-01

    Cytosolic, synthetic chemical calcium indicators are typically used to visualise the rapid increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration that follows nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) application. This study looks at the application of genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) to investigate the spatiotemporal nature of nsPEF-induced calcium signals using fluorescent live cell imaging. Calcium responses to 44kV/cm, 10ns pulses were observed in U87-MG cells expressing either a plasma membrane targeted GECI (GCaMP5-G), or one cytosolically expressed (GCaMP6-S), and compared to the response of cells loaded with cytosolic or plasma membrane targeted chemical calcium indicators. Application of 100 pulses, to cells containing plasma membrane targeted indicators, revealed a wave of calcium across the cell initiating at the cathode side. A similar spatial wave was not observed with cytosolic indicators with mobile calcium buffering properties. The speed of the wave was related to pulse application frequency and it was not propagated by calcium induced calcium release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcium mobilization in HeLa cells induced by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yimei; Zheng, Liqin; Yang, Hongqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed to be involved in tumor growth and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which nitric oxide modulates cancer cell growth and metastasis on cellular and molecular level is still not fully understood. This work utilized confocal microscopy and fluorescence microplate reader to investigate the effects of exogenous NO on the mobilization of calcium, which is one of the regulators of cell migration, in HeLa cells. The results show that NO elevates calcium in concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells. And the elevation of calcium induced by NO is due to calcium influx and calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Moreover, calcium release from intracellular stores is dominant. Furthermore, calcium release from mitochondria is one of the modulation pathways of NO. These findings would contribute to recognizing the significance of NO in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Involvement of mitochondrial proteins in calcium signaling and cell death induced by staurosporine in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, A Pedro; Cordeiro, J Miguel; Monteiro, João; Lucchi, Chiara; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Videira, Arnaldo

    2015-10-01

    Staurosporine-induced cell death in Neurospora crassa includes a well defined sequence of alterations in cytosolic calcium levels, comprising extracellular Ca(2+) influx and mobilization of Ca(2+) from internal stores. Here, we show that cells undergoing respiratory stress due to the lack of certain components of the mitochondrial complex I (like the 51kDa and 14kDa subunits) or the Ca(2+)-binding alternative NADPH dehydrogenase NDE-1 are hypersensitive to staurosporine and incapable of setting up a proper intracellular Ca(2+) response. Cells expressing mutant forms of NUO51 that mimic human metabolic diseases also presented Ca(2+) signaling deficiencies. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species is increased in cells lacking NDE-1 and seems to be required for Ca(2+) oscillations in response to staurosporine. Measurement of the mitochondrial levels of Ca(2+) further supported the involvement of these organelles in staurosporine-induced Ca(2+) signaling. In summary, our data indicate that staurosporine-induced fungal cell death involves a sophisticated response linking Ca(2+) dynamics and bioenergetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation-induced radical ions in calcium sulfite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogushevich, S. E.

    2006-07-01

    We have used EPR to study the effect of γ radiation on calcium sulfite. We have observed and identified the radiation-induced radical ions SO 2 - (iso) with g = 2.0055 and SO 2 - (orth-1) with g1 = 2.0093, g2 = 2.0051, g3 = 2.0020, identical to the initial and thermally induced SO 2 - respectively, SO 3 - (iso) with g = 2.0031 and SO 3 - (axial) with g⊥ = 2.0040, g∥ = 2.0023, identical to mechanically induced SO 3 - . We have established the participation of radiation-induced radical ions SO 3 - in formation of post-radiation SO 2 - .

  13. Allopregnanolone-induced rise in intracellular calcium in embryonic hippocampal neurons parallels their proliferative potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinton Roberta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors that regulate intracellular calcium concentration are known to play a critical role in brain function and neural development, including neural plasticity and neurogenesis. We previously demonstrated that the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (APα; 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one promotes neural progenitor proliferation in vitro in cultures of rodent hippocampal and human cortical neural progenitors, and in vivo in triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice dentate gyrus. We also found that APα-induced proliferation of neural progenitors is abolished by a calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, indicating a calcium dependent mechanism for the proliferation. Methods In the present study, we investigated the effect of APα on the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration in E18 rat hippocampal neurons using ratiometric Fura2-AM imaging. Results Results indicate that APα rapidly increased intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent and developmentally regulated manner, with an EC50 of 110 ± 15 nM and a maximal response occurring at three days in vitro. The stereoisomers 3β-hydroxy-5α-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one, and 3β-hydroxy-5β-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one, as well as progesterone, were without significant effect. APα-induced intracellular calcium concentration increase was not observed in calcium depleted medium and was blocked in the presence of the broad spectrum calcium channel blocker La3+, or the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine. Furthermore, the GABAA receptor blockers bicuculline and picrotoxin abolished APα-induced intracellular calcium concentration rise. Conclusion Collectively, these data indicate that APα promotes a rapid, dose-dependent, stereo-specific, and developmentally regulated increase of intracellular calcium concentration in rat embryonic hippocampal neurons via a mechanism that requires both the GABAA receptor and L-type calcium channel. These data suggest that APα-induced

  14. Spermine selectively inhibits high-conductance, but not low-conductance calcium-induced permeability transition pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elustondo, Pia A; Negoda, Alexander; Kane, Constance L; Kane, Daniel A; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2015-02-01

    The permeability transition pore (PTP) is a large channel of the mitochondrial inner membrane, the opening of which is the central event in many types of stress-induced cell death. PTP opening is induced by elevated concentrations of mitochondrial calcium. It has been demonstrated that spermine and other polyamines can delay calcium-induced swelling of isolated mitochondria, suggesting their role as inhibitors of the mitochondrial PTP. Here we further investigated the mechanism by which spermine inhibits the calcium-induced, cyclosporine A (CSA) -sensitive PTP by using three indicators: 1) calcium release from the mitochondria detected with calcium green, 2) mitochondrial membrane depolarization using TMRM, and 3) mitochondrial swelling by measuring light absorbance. We found that despite calcium release and membrane depolarization, indicative of PTP activation, mitochondria underwent only partial swelling in the presence of spermine. This was in striking contrast to the high-amplitude swelling detected in control mitochondria and in mitochondria treated with the PTP inhibitor CSA. We conclude that spermine selectively prevents opening of the high-conductance state, while allowing activation of the lower conductance state of the PTP. We propose that the existence of lower conductance, stress-induced PTP might play an important physiological role, as it is expected to allow the release of toxic levels of calcium, while keeping important molecules (e.g., NAD) within the mitochondrial matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrostatic Pressure–Induced Release of Stored Calcium in Cultured Rat Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Amritlal; Delamere, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Elevated intraocular pressure is associated with glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Other investigators have shown functional changes in optic nerve head astrocytes subjected to elevated hydrostatic pressure (HP) for 1 to 5 days. Recently, the authors reported ERK1/2, p90RSK and NHE1 phosphorylation after 2 hours. Here they examine calcium responses at the onset of HP to determine what precedes ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Methods. Cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cultured rat optic nerve astrocytes loaded with fura-2. The cells were placed in a closed imaging chamber and subjected to an HP increase of 15 mm Hg. Protein phosphorylation was detected by Western blot analysis. Results. The increase of HP caused an immediate slow increase in [Ca2+]i. The response persisted in calcium-free solution and when nickel chloride (4 mM) was added to suppress channel-mediated calcium entry. Previous depletion of the ER calcium stores by cyclopiazonic acid abolished the HP-induced calcium level increase. The HP-induced increase persisted in cells exposed to xestospongin C, an inhibitor of IP3R-mediated calcium release. In contrast, ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist ruthenium red (10 μM) or dantrolene (25 μM) inhibited the HP-induced calcium increase. The HP-induced calcium increase was abolished when ryanodine-sensitive calcium stores were pre-depleted with caffeine (3 mM). HP caused ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The magnitude of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation response was reduced by ruthenium red and dantrolene. Conclusions. Increasing HP causes calcium release from a ryanodine-sensitive cytoplasmic store and subsequent ERK1/2 activation. Calcium store release appears to be a required early step in the initial astrocyte response to an HP increase. PMID:20071675

  16. A Prospective Study of Age-dependent Changes in Propofol-induced Electroencephalogram Oscillations in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Johanna M; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Terzakis, Kristina; Pavone, Kara J; Deng, Hao; Houle, Timothy T; Firth, Paul G; Shank, Erik S; Brown, Emery N; Purdon, Patrick L

    2017-08-01

    In adults, frontal electroencephalogram patterns observed during propofol-induced unconsciousness consist of slow oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) and coherent alpha oscillations (8 to 13 Hz). Given that the nervous system undergoes significant changes during development, anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations in children may differ from those observed in adults. Therefore, we investigated age-related changes in frontal electroencephalogram power spectra and coherence during propofol-induced unconsciousness. We analyzed electroencephalogram data recorded during propofol-induced unconsciousness in patients between 0 and 21 yr of age (n = 97), using multitaper spectral and coherence methods. We characterized power and coherence as a function of age using multiple linear regression analysis and within four age groups: 4 months to 1 yr old (n = 4), greater than 1 to 7 yr old (n = 16), greater than 7 to 14 yr old (n = 30), and greater than 14 to 21 yr old (n = 47). Total electroencephalogram power (0.1 to 40 Hz) peaked at approximately 8 yr old and subsequently declined with increasing age. For patients greater than 1 yr old, the propofol-induced electroencephalogram structure was qualitatively similar regardless of age, featuring slow and coherent alpha oscillations. For patients under 1 yr of age, frontal alpha oscillations were not coherent. Neurodevelopmental processes that occur throughout childhood, including thalamocortical development, may underlie age-dependent changes in electroencephalogram power and coherence during anesthesia. These age-dependent anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations suggest a more principled approach to monitoring brain states in pediatric patients.

  17. Reduction theories elucidate the origins of complex biological rhythms generated by interacting delay-induced oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuhiro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Time delay is known to induce sustained oscillations in many biological systems such as electroencephalogram (EEG activities and gene regulations. Furthermore, interactions among delay-induced oscillations can generate complex collective rhythms, which play important functional roles. However, due to their intrinsic infinite dimensionality, theoretical analysis of interacting delay-induced oscillations has been limited. Here, we show that the two primary methods for finite-dimensional limit cycles, namely, the center manifold reduction in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation and the phase reduction for weak interactions, can successfully be applied to interacting infinite-dimensional delay-induced oscillations. We systematically derive the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and the phase equation without delay for general interaction networks. Based on the reduced low-dimensional equations, we demonstrate that diffusive (linearly attractive coupling between a pair of delay-induced oscillations can exhibit nontrivial amplitude death and multimodal phase locking. Our analysis provides unique insights into experimentally observed EEG activities such as sudden transitions among different phase-locked states and occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  18. A model of propagating calcium-induced calcium release mediated by calcium diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, P. H.; de Tombe, P. P.; van Deen, J. H.; Mulder, B. J.; ter Keurs, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of sudden local fluctuations of the free sarcoplasmic [Ca++]i in cardiac cells on calcium release and calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was calculated with the aid of a simplified model of SR calcium handling. The model was used to evaluate whether propagation of calcium

  19. Modal analysis of temperature feedback in oscillations induced by xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, E.M. dos.

    1976-01-01

    The flux oscillations induced by Xenon distribution in homogeneous thermal reactors are studied treating the space dependence through the modal expansion technique and the stability limits against power oscillations and spatial oscillations are determined. The effect of the feedbacks due to Xenon and temperature coefficient on the linear stability of the free system is investigated employing several number of terms in the transient expansion, considering the various sizes of the reactor. The heat transfer model considered includes one term due to cooling proportional to the temperature. A PWR model reactor is utilized for numerical calculations. It is found that a slightly higher temperature feedback coefficient is necessary for stability against power oscillations when larger number of terms in the transient modal expansion is maintained. (author)

  20. Adjoint method provides phase response functions for delay-induced oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Ikuhiro; Ogawa, Yutaro; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Nakao, Hiroya; Ermentrout, G Bard

    2012-07-27

    Limit-cycle oscillations induced by time delay are widely observed in various systems, but a systematic phase-reduction theory for them has yet to be developed. Here we present a practical theoretical framework to calculate the phase response function Z(θ), a fundamental quantity for the theory, of delay-induced limit cycles with infinite-dimensional phase space. We show that Z(θ) can be obtained as a zero eigenfunction of the adjoint equation associated with an appropriate bilinear form for the delay differential equations. We confirm the validity of the proposed framework for two biological oscillators and demonstrate that the derived phase equation predicts intriguing multimodal locking behavior.

  1. When Isolated at Full Receptivity, in Vitro Fertilized Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Egg Cells Reveal [Ca2+]cyt Oscillation of Intracellular Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Pónya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference in the developmental stage of the eggs used. [Ca2+]cyt oscillation was exclusively observed in fertile, mature egg cells fused with the sperm cell. To determine how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells is generated, egg cells were incubated in thapsigargin, which proved to be a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+-ATPase in wheat egg cells. In unfertilized egg cells, the addition of thapsigargin caused an abrupt transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that an influx pathway for Ca2+ is activated by thapsigargin. The [Ca2+]cyt oscillation seemed to require the filling of an intracellular calcium store for the onset of which, calcium influx through the plasma membrane appeared essential. This was demonstrated by omitting extracellular calcium from (or adding GdCl3 to the fusion medium, which prevented [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells fused with the sperm. Combined, these data permit the hypothesis that the first sperm-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt depletes an intracellular Ca2+ store, triggering an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability, and this enhanced Ca2+ influx results in [Ca2+]cyt oscillation.

  2. Angiotensin II induces calcium/calcineurin signaling and podocyte injury by downregulating microRNA-30 family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Wu, Junnan; Zhang, Mingchao; Zhou, Minlin; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Xianguang; Lang, Yue; Yang, Fan; Yun, Shifeng; Shi, Shaolin; Liu, Zhihong

    2017-08-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is capable of inducing calcium/calcineurin signaling and podocyte injury; however, the precise underlying mechanism is not well understood. Because we have previously demonstrated that microRNA-30s (miR-30s) inhibit calcium/calcineurin signaling in podocytes, we hypothesize that AngII may induce podocyte injury by downregulating miR-30s and thereby activating calcium/calcineurin signaling. To test this hypothesis, we used an AngII-induced podocyte injury mouse model. The mice were treated with AngII via infusion for 28 days, which resulted in hypertension, albuminuria, and glomerular damage. AngII treatment also resulted in a significant reduction of miR-30s and upregulation of calcium/calcineurin signaling components, including TRPC6, PPP3CA, PPP3CB, PPP3R1, and NFATC3, which are the known targets of miR-30s in podocytes. The delivery of miR-30a-expressing lentivirus to the podocytes on day 14 of the infusion ameliorated the AngII-induced podocyte and glomerular injury and attenuated the upregulation of the calcium/calcineurin signaling components. Similarly, treatment with losartan, which is an AngII receptor blocker, also prevented AngII-induced podocyte injury and calcium/calcineurin signaling activation. Notably, losartan was found to sustain miR-30 levels during AngII treatment both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of AngII on podocytes is in part mediated by miR-30s through calcium/calcineurin signaling, a novel mechanism underlying AngII-induced podocyte injury. • AngII infusion resulted in downregulation of miR-30s in podocytes. • Exogenous miR-30a delivery mitigated the glomerular and podocyte injuries induced by AngII. • Both miR-30a and losartan prevented AngII-induced activation of calcium-calcineurin signaling.

  3. Emergence of noise-induced oscillations in the central circadian pacemaker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline H Ko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bmal1 is an essential transcriptional activator within the mammalian circadian clock. We report here that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of Bmal1-null mutant mice, unexpectedly, generates stochastic oscillations with periods that overlap the circadian range. Dissociated SCN neurons expressed fluctuating levels of PER2 detected by bioluminescence imaging but could not generate circadian oscillations intrinsically. Inhibition of intercellular communication or cyclic-AMP signaling in SCN slices, which provide a positive feed-forward signal to drive the intracellular negative feedback loop, abolished the stochastic oscillations. Propagation of this feed-forward signal between SCN neurons then promotes quasi-circadian oscillations that arise as an emergent property of the SCN network. Experimental analysis and mathematical modeling argue that both intercellular coupling and molecular noise are required for the stochastic rhythms, providing a novel biological example of noise-induced oscillations. The emergence of stochastic circadian oscillations from the SCN network in the absence of cell-autonomous circadian oscillatory function highlights a previously unrecognized level of circadian organization.

  4. [Ca2+]i oscillations in ASM: relationship with persistent airflow obstruction in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, David; Hollins, Fay; Gomez, Edith; Saunders, Ruth; Challiss, R A John; Brightling, Christopher E

    2014-07-01

    The cause of airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypercontractility in asthma is not fully understood. The relationship of spontaneous intracellular calcium oscillation frequency in ASM to asthma severity was investigated. Oscillations were increased in subjects with impaired lung function abolished by extracellular calcium removal, attenuated by caffeine and unaffected by verapamil or nitrendipine. Whether modulation of increased spontaneous intracellular calcium oscillations in ASM from patients with impaired lung function represents a therapeutic target warrants further investigation. © 2014 The Authors. Respirology published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. Characterization of calcium signals in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dentate gyrus neuronal progenitors and mature neurons, stably expressing an advanced calcium indicator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vőfély, Gergő; Berecz, Tünde; Szabó, Eszter; Szebényi, Kornélia; Hathy, Edit; Orbán, Tamás I; Sarkadi, Balázs; Homolya, László; Marchetto, Maria C; Réthelyi, János M; Apáti, Ágota

    2018-04-01

    Pluripotent stem cell derived human neuronal progenitor cells (hPSC-NPCs) and their mature neuronal cell culture derivatives may efficiently be used for central nervous system (CNS) drug screening, including the investigation of ligand-induced calcium signalization. We have established hippocampal NPC cultures derived from human induced PSCs, which were previously generated by non-integrating Sendai virus reprogramming. Using established protocols these NPCs were differentiated into hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons. In order to study calcium signaling without the need of dye loading, we have stably expressed an advanced calcium indicator protein (GCaMP6fast) in the NPCs using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system. We observed no significant effects of the long-term GCaMP6 expression on NPC morphology, gene expression pattern or neural differentiation capacity. In order to compare the functional properties of GCaMP6-expressing neural cells and the corresponding parental cells loaded with calcium indicator dye Fluo-4, a detailed characterization of calcium signals was performed. We found that the calcium signals induced by ATP, glutamate, LPA, or proteases - were similar in these two systems. Moreover, the presence of the calcium indicator protein allowed for a sensitive, repeatable detection of changes in calcium signaling during the process of neurogenesis and neuronal maturation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Disturbance Source Inducing by The Variable Speed Wind Turbine System Forced Power Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Jin; Hu, Weihao; Wang, Xiaoru

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of forced low frequency oscillations is to analyze the disturbance source and the origin of forced oscillations. In this paper, the origin of low-frequency periodical oscillations induced by wind turbines’ mechanical power is investigated and the mechanism is studied of fluctuating...... power transfer through permanent magnet generator wind turbine system. Considering the tower shadow and the wind shear effect, the mechanical and generator coupling model is developed by PSCAD. Simulation is done to analyze the impacts on output power of operation points and mechanical fluctuation...... components. It is shown that when the oscillation frequency of tower shadow coincides with the system natural frequency, it may cause forced oscillations, whereas, the wind shear and natural wind speed fluctuation are not likely to induce forced oscillations....

  7. PLCζ Induced Ca2+ Oscillations in Mouse Eggs Involve a Positive Feedback Cycle of Ca2+ Induced InsP3 Formation From Cytoplasmic PIP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jessica R.; Ashley, Bethany; Moon, Anna; Woolley, Thomas E.; Swann, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Egg activation at fertilization in mammalian eggs is caused by a series of transient increases in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, referred to as Ca2+ oscillations. It is widely accepted that these Ca2+ oscillations are initiated by a sperm derived phospholipase C isoform, PLCζ that hydrolyses its substrate PIP2 to produce the Ca2+ releasing messenger InsP3. However, it is not clear whether PLCζ induced InsP3 formation is periodic or monotonic, and whether the PIP2 source for generating InsP3 from PLCζ is in the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm. In this study we have uncaged InsP3 at different points of the Ca2+ oscillation cycle to show that PLCζ causes Ca2+ oscillations by a mechanism which requires Ca2+ induced InsP3 formation. In contrast, incubation in Sr2+ media, which also induces Ca2+ oscillations in mouse eggs, sensitizes InsP3-induced Ca2+ release. We also show that the cytosolic level Ca2+ is a key factor in setting the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations since low concentrations of the Ca2+ pump inhibitor, thapsigargin, accelerates the frequency of PLCζ induced Ca2+ oscillations in eggs, even in Ca2+ free media. Given that Ca2+ induced InsP3 formation causes a rapid wave during each Ca2+ rise, we use a mathematical model to show that InsP3 generation, and hence PLCζ's substate PIP2, has to be finely distributed throughout the egg cytoplasm. Evidence for PIP2 distribution in vesicles throughout the egg cytoplasm is provided with a rhodamine-peptide probe, PBP10. The apparent level of PIP2 in such vesicles could be reduced by incubating eggs in the drug propranolol which also reversibly inhibited PLCζ induced, but not Sr2+ induced, Ca2+ oscillations. These data suggest that the cytosolic Ca2+ level, rather than Ca2+ store content, is a key variable in setting the pace of PLCζ induced Ca2+ oscillations in eggs, and they imply that InsP3 oscillates in synchrony with Ca2+ oscillations. Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that PLCζ and sperm

  8. Usefulness of cardiotoxicity assessment using calcium transient in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Honda, Yayoi; Deguchi, Jiro; Yamada, Toru; Bando, Kiyoko

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring dramatic changes in intracellular calcium ion levels during cardiac contraction and relaxation, known as calcium transient, in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) would be an attractive strategy for assessing compounds on cardiac contractility. In addition, as arrhythmogenic compounds are known to induce characteristic waveform changes in hiPSC-CMs, it is expected that calcium transient would allow evaluation of not only compound-induced effects on cardiac contractility, but also compound arrhythmogenic potential. Using a combination of calcium transient in hiPSC-CMs and a fast kinetic fluorescence imaging detection system, we examined in this study changes in calcium transient waveforms induced by a series of 17 compounds that include positive/negative inotropic agents as well as cardiac ion channel activators/inhibitors. We found that all positive inotropic compounds induced an increase in peak frequency and/or peak amplitude. The effects of a negative inotropic compound could clearly be detected in the presence of a β-adrenergic receptor agonist. Furthermore, most arrhythmogenic compounds raised the ratio of peak decay time to peak rise time (D/R ratio) in calcium transient waveforms. Compound concentrations at which these parameters exceeded cutoff values correlated well with systemic exposure levels at which arrhythmias were reported to be evoked. In conclusion, we believe that peak analysis of calcium transient and determination of D/R ratio are reliable methods for assessing compounds' cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenic potential, respectively. Using these approaches would allow selection of compounds with low cardiotoxic potential at the early stage of drug discovery.

  9. ALG-2 oscillates in subcellular localization, unitemporally with calcium oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens; Berchtold, Martin Werner

    2007-01-01

    discovered that the subcellular distribution of a tagged version of ALG-2 could be directed by physiological external stimuli (including ATP, EGF, prostaglandin, histamine), which provoke intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Cellular stimulation led to a redistribution of ALG-2 from the cytosol to a punctate...

  10. Glutamate-induced glutamate release: A proposed mechanism for calcium bursting in astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Raima; Craig, Melissa Glendening

    2005-12-01

    Here we present a new model for the generation of complex calcium-bursting patterns in astrocytes, a type of brain cell recently implicated in a variety of neural functions including memory formation. The model involves two positive feedback processes, in which the key feedback species are calcium ion and glutamate. The latter is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to be involved in bidirectional communication between astrocytes and nearby neurons. The glutamate feedback process considered here is shown to be critical for the generation of complex bursting oscillations in the astrocytes and to, perhaps, code for information which may be passed from neuron to neuron via the astrocyte. These processes may be involved in memory storage and formation as well as in mechanisms which lead to dynamical diseases such as epilepsy.

  11. Nitrous oxide-induced slow and delta oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Kara J; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Sampson, Aaron L; Ling, Kelly; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N

    2016-01-01

    Switching from maintenance of general anesthesia with an ether anesthetic to maintenance with high-dose (concentration >50% and total gas flow rate >4 liters per minute) nitrous oxide is a common practice used to facilitate emergence from general anesthesia. The transition from the ether anesthetic to nitrous oxide is associated with a switch in the putative mechanisms and sites of anesthetic action. We investigated whether there is an electroencephalogram (EEG) marker of this transition. We retrospectively studied the ether anesthetic to nitrous oxide transition in 19 patients with EEG monitoring receiving general anesthesia using the ether anesthetic sevoflurane combined with oxygen and air. Following the transition to nitrous oxide, the alpha (8-12 Hz) oscillations associated with sevoflurane dissipated within 3-12 min (median 6 min) and were replaced by highly coherent large-amplitude slow-delta (0.1-4 Hz) oscillations that persisted for 2-12 min (median 3 min). Administration of high-dose nitrous oxide is associated with transient, large amplitude slow-delta oscillations. We postulate that these slow-delta oscillations may result from nitrous oxide-induced blockade of major excitatory inputs (NMDA glutamate projections) from the brainstem (parabrachial nucleus and medial pontine reticular formation) to the thalamus and cortex. This EEG signature of high-dose nitrous oxide may offer new insights into brain states during general anesthesia. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drug Release Profile from Calcium-Induced Alginate-Phosphate Composite Gel Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-induced alginate-phosphate composite gel beads were prepared, and model drug release profiles were investigated in vitro. The formation of calcium phosphate in the alginate gel matrix was observed and did not affect the rheological properties of the hydrogel beads. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the calcium phosphate does not exist in crystalline form in the matrix. The initial release amount and release rate of a water-soluble drug, diclofenac, from the alginate gel beads could be controlled by modifying the composition of the matrix with calcium phosphate. In contrast, the release profile was not affected by the modification for hydrocortisone, a drug only slightly soluble in water.

  13. Importance of mitochondrial calcium uniporter in high glucose-induced endothelial cell dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Yang, Jie; Chen, Shuhua; Xiang, Hong; Liu, Hengdao; Lin, Dan; Zhao, Shaoli; Peng, Hui; Chen, Pan; Chen, Alex F; Lu, Hongwei

    2017-11-01

    Mitochondrial Ca 2+ overload is implicated in hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial cell dysfunction, but the key molecular events responsible remain unclear. We examined the involvement of mitochondrial calcium uniporter, which mediates mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake, in endothelial cell dysfunction resulting from high-glucose treatment. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to various glucose concentrations and to high glucose (30 mM) following mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibition or activation with ruthenium red and spermine, respectively. Subsequently, mitochondrial calcium uniporter and mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1 messenger RNA and protein expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Ca 2+ concentrations were analysed by laser confocal microscopy, and cytoplasmic and mitochondrial oxidative stress was detected using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and MitoSOX Red, respectively. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, and a wound-healing assay was performed using an in vitro model. High glucose markedly upregulated mitochondrial calcium uniporter and mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1 messenger RNA expression, as well as protein production, in a dose- and time-dependent manner with a maximum effect demonstrated at 72 h and 30 mM glucose concentration. Moreover, high-glucose treatment significantly raised both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic Ca 2+ and reactive oxygen species levels, increased apoptosis and compromised wound healing (all p calcium uniporter, respectively. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter plays an important role in hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial cell dysfunction and may constitute a therapeutic target to reduce vascular complications in diabetes.

  14. Activation barrier scaling and crossover for noise-induced switching in micromechanical parametric oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, H B; Stambaugh, C

    2007-08-10

    We explore fluctuation-induced switching in parametrically driven micromechanical torsional oscillators. The oscillators possess one, two, or three stable attractors depending on the modulation frequency. Noise induces transitions between the coexisting attractors. Near the bifurcation points, the activation barriers are found to have a power law dependence on frequency detuning with critical exponents that are in agreement with predicted universal scaling relationships. At large detuning, we observe a crossover to a different power law dependence with an exponent that is device specific.

  15. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Versluis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses

  16. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses

  17. A review on the kinetics of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by urea hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paassen, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the kinetics of calcium carbonate precipitation induced by the ureolytic bacteria are reviewed based on experiments and mathematical modelling. The study shows how urea hydrolysis rate depends on the amount of bacteria and the conditions during growth, storage, hydrolysis and precipitation. The dynamics of Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation has been monitored in non-seeded liquid batch experiments. Results show that particulary for a fast hydrolysis of urea (>1 M-urea day-1) in a highly concentrated equimolar solution with calcium chloride (>0.25 M) the solubility product of CaCO3 is exceeded within a short period (less than 30 minutes), the supersaturation remains high for an exended period, resulting in prolonged periods of nucleation and crystal growth and extended growth of metastable precursor mineral phases. The pH, being a result of the speciation, quickly rises until critical supersaturation is reached and precipitation is initiated. Then pH drops (sometimes showing oscillating behaviour) to about neutral where it stays until all substrates are depleted. Higher hydrolysis rates lead to higher supersaturation and pH and relatively many small crystals, whereas higher concentrations of urea and calcium chloride mainly lead to lower pH values. The conversion can be reasonably monitored by electrical conductivity and reasonably predicted, using a simplified model based on a single reaction as long as the urea hydrolysis rate is known. Complex geochemical models, which include chemical speciciation through acid-base equilibria and kinetic equations to describe mineral precipitation, do not show significant difference from the simplified model regarding the bulk chemistry and the total amount of precipitates. However, experiments show that ureolytic MICP can result in a highly variable crystal morphologies with large variation in the affected hydraulic properties when applied in a porous medium. In order to calculate the number, size and

  18. Mechanically induced intracellular calcium waves in osteoblasts demonstrate calcium fingerprints in bone cell mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Lindsay M; Suzuki, Sakiko; Jacobs, Christopher R; Donahue, Henry J; Donahue, Seth W

    2007-11-01

    An early response to mechanical stimulation of bone cells in vitro is an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca (2+)](i)). This study analyzed the [Ca (2+)](i) wave area, magnitude, duration, rise time, fall time, and time to onset in individual osteoblasts for two identical bouts of mechanical stimulation separated by a 30-min rest period. The area under the [Ca (2+)](i) wave increased in the second loading bout compared to the first. This suggests that rest periods may potentiate mechanically induced intracellular calcium signals. Furthermore, many of the [Ca (2+)](i) wave parameters were strongly, positively correlated between the two bouts of mechanical stimulation. For example, in individual primary osteoblasts, if a cell had a large [Ca (2+)](i) wave area in the first bout it was likely to have a large [Ca (2+)](i) wave area in the second bout (r (2) = 0.933). These findings support the idea that individual bone cells have "calcium fingerprints" (i.e., a unique [Ca (2+)](i) wave profile that is reproducible for repeated exposure to a given stimulus).

  19. The Effect of Cell Immobilization by Calcium Alginate on Bacterially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Seifan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbially induced mineral precipitation is recognized as a widespread phenomenon in nature. A diverse range of minerals including carbonate, sulphides, silicates, and phosphates can be produced through biomineralization. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3 is one of the most common substances used in various industries and is mostly extracted by mining. In recent years, production of CaCO3 by bacteria has drawn much attention because it is an environmentally- and health-friendly pathway. Although CaCO3 can be produced by some genera of bacteria through autotrophic and heterotrophic pathways, the possibility of producing CaCO3 in different environmental conditions has remained a challenge to determine. In this study, calcium alginate was proposed as a protective carrier to increase the bacterial tolerance to extreme environmental conditions. The model showed that the highest concentration of CaCO3 is achieved when the bacterial cells are immobilized in the calcium alginate beads fabricated using 1.38% w/v Na-alginate and 0.13 M CaCl2.

  20. Time delay induced different synchronization patterns in repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenggui; Yi, Ming; Shuai, Jianwei

    2013-09-01

    Time delayed coupling plays a crucial role in determining the system's dynamics. We here report that the time delay induces transition from the asynchronous state to the complete synchronization (CS) state in the repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, by changing the coupling strength or time delay, various types of synchronous patterns, including CS, antiphase CS, antiphase synchronization (ANS), and phase synchronization, can be generated. In the transition regions between different synchronous patterns, bistable synchronous oscillators can be observed. Furthermore, we show that the time-delay-induced phase flip bifurcation is of key importance for the emergence of CS. All these findings may light on our understanding of neuronal synchronization and information processing in the brain.

  1. Protein-induced satiation and the calcium-sensing receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojha U

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Utkarsh Ojha Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Obesity is a major global health issue. High-protein diets have been shown to be associated with weight loss and satiety. The precise mechanism by which protein-rich diets promote weight loss remains unclear. Evidence suggests amino acids, formed as a consequence of protein digestion, are sensed by specific receptors on L-cells in the gastrointestinal (GI tract. These L-cells respond by secreting gut hormones that subsequently induce satiety. In recent years, the calcium-sensing receptor has been identified in several cells of the GI tract, including L-cells, and suggested to sense specific amino acids. This review evaluates the evidence for protein-rich diets in inducing weight loss and how the calcium-sensing receptor may be implicated in this phenomenon. Commandeering the mechanisms by which elements of a protein-rich diet suppress appetite may provide another successful avenue for developing anti-obesity drugs. Keywords: amino acids, energy regulation, obesity therapy, glucagon-like-peptide-1, peptide YY

  2. Image-based Modeling of Biofilm-induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J. M.; Rothman, A.; Jackson, B.; Klapper, I.; Cunningham, A. B.; Gerlach, R.

    2013-12-01

    Pore scale biological processes in the subsurface environment are important to understand in relation to many engineering applications including environmental contaminant remediation, geologic carbon sequestration, and petroleum production. Specifically, biofilm induced calcium carbonate precipitation has been identified as an attractive option to reduce permeability in a lasting way in the subsurface. This technology may be able to replace typical cement-based grouting in some circumstances; however, pore-scale processes must be better understood for it to be applied in a controlled manor. The work presented will focus on efforts to observe biofilm growth and ureolysis-induced mineral precipitation in micro-fabricated flow cells combined with finite element modelling as a tool to predict local chemical gradients of interest (see figure). We have been able to observe this phenomenon over time using a novel model organism that is able to hydrolyse urea and express a fluorescent protein allowing for non-invasive observation over time with confocal microscopy. The results of this study show the likely existence of a wide range of local saturation indices even in a small (1 cm length scale) experimental system. Interestingly, the locations of high predicted index do not correspond to the locations of higher precipitation density, highlighting the need for further understanding. Figure 1 - A micro-fabricated flow cell containing biofilm-induced calcium carbonate precipitation. (A) Experimental results: Active biofilm is in green and dark circles are calcium carbonate crystals. Note the channeling behavior in the top of the image, leaving a large hydraulically inactive area in the biofilm mass. (B) Finite element model: The prediction of relative saturation of calcium carbonate (as calcite). Fluid enters the system at a low saturation state (blue) but areas of high supersaturation (red) are predicted within the hydraulically inactive area in the biofilm. If only effluent

  3. Controlled perturbation-induced switching in pulse-coupled oscillator networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schittler Neves, Fabio; Timme, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Pulse-coupled systems such as spiking neural networks exhibit nontrivial invariant sets in the form of attracting yet unstable saddle periodic orbits where units are synchronized into groups. Heteroclinic connections between such orbits may in principle support switching processes in these networks and enable novel kinds of neural computations. For small networks of coupled oscillators, we here investigate under which conditions and how system symmetry enforces or forbids certain switching transitions that may be induced by perturbations. For networks of five oscillators, we derive explicit transition rules that for two cluster symmetries deviate from those known from oscillators coupled continuously in time. A third symmetry yields heteroclinic networks that consist of sets of all unstable attractors with that symmetry and the connections between them. Our results indicate that pulse-coupled systems can reliably generate well-defined sets of complex spatiotemporal patterns that conform to specific transition rules. We briefly discuss possible implications for computation with spiking neural systems.

  4. Controlled perturbation-induced switching in pulse-coupled oscillator networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittler Neves, Fabio; Timme, Marc [Network Dynamics Group, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Goettingen, D-37073 (Germany); Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience (BCCN), Goettingen (Germany)], E-mail: neves@nld.ds.mpg.de, E-mail: timme@nld.ds.mpg.de

    2009-08-28

    Pulse-coupled systems such as spiking neural networks exhibit nontrivial invariant sets in the form of attracting yet unstable saddle periodic orbits where units are synchronized into groups. Heteroclinic connections between such orbits may in principle support switching processes in these networks and enable novel kinds of neural computations. For small networks of coupled oscillators, we here investigate under which conditions and how system symmetry enforces or forbids certain switching transitions that may be induced by perturbations. For networks of five oscillators, we derive explicit transition rules that for two cluster symmetries deviate from those known from oscillators coupled continuously in time. A third symmetry yields heteroclinic networks that consist of sets of all unstable attractors with that symmetry and the connections between them. Our results indicate that pulse-coupled systems can reliably generate well-defined sets of complex spatiotemporal patterns that conform to specific transition rules. We briefly discuss possible implications for computation with spiking neural systems.

  5. Coupling-induced oscillations in nonhomogeneous, overdamped, bistable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Mayra; In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Palacios, Antonio; Bulsara, Adi; Kho, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Coupling-induced oscillations in a homogeneous network of overdamped bistable systems have been previously studied both theoretically and experimentally for a system of N (odd) elements, unidirectionally coupled in a ring topology. In this work, we extend the analysis of this system to include a network of nonhomogeneous elements with respect to the parameter that controls the topology of the potential function and the bistability of each element. In particular, we quantify the effects of the nonhomogeneity on the onset of oscillations and the response of the network to external (assumed to be constant and very small) perturbations, using our (recently developed) coupled core fluxgate magnetometer as a representative system. The potential applications of this work include signal detection and characterization for a large class of sensor systems

  6. Coupling-induced oscillations in nonhomogeneous, overdamped, bistable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Mayra [Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)], E-mail: mayra.alina@yahoo.com; In, Visarath [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Code 71730, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)], E-mail: visarath.in@navy.mil; Longhini, Patrick [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Code 71730, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)], E-mail: longhini@navy.mil; Palacios, Antonio [Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)], E-mail: palacios@euler.sdsu.edu; Bulsara, Adi [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Code 71730, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)], E-mail: bulsara@spawar.navy.mil; Kho, Andy [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Code 71730, 53560 Hull Street, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)], E-mail: kho@spawar.navy.mil

    2008-06-09

    Coupling-induced oscillations in a homogeneous network of overdamped bistable systems have been previously studied both theoretically and experimentally for a system of N (odd) elements, unidirectionally coupled in a ring topology. In this work, we extend the analysis of this system to include a network of nonhomogeneous elements with respect to the parameter that controls the topology of the potential function and the bistability of each element. In particular, we quantify the effects of the nonhomogeneity on the onset of oscillations and the response of the network to external (assumed to be constant and very small) perturbations, using our (recently developed) coupled core fluxgate magnetometer as a representative system. The potential applications of this work include signal detection and characterization for a large class of sensor systems.

  7. Different types of bursting calcium oscillations in non-excitable cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perc, Matjaz; Marhl, Marko

    2003-01-01

    In the paper different types of bursting Ca 2+ oscillations are presented. We analyse bursting behaviour in four recent mathematical models for Ca 2+ oscillations in non-excitable cells. Separately, regular, quasi-periodic, and chaotic bursting Ca 2+ oscillations are classified into several subtypes. The classification is based on the dynamics of separated fast and slow subsystems, the so-called fast-slow burster analysis. For regular bursting Ca 2+ oscillations two types of bursting are specified: Point-Point and Point-Cycle bursting. In particular, the slow passage effect, important for the Hopf-Hopf and SubHopf-SubHopf bursting subtypes, is explained by local divergence calculated for the fast subsystem. Quasi-periodic bursting Ca 2+ oscillations can be found in only one of the four studied mathematical models and appear via a homoclinic bifurcation with a homoclinic torus structure. For chaotic bursting Ca 2+ oscillations, we found that bursting patterns resulting from the period doubling root to chaos considerably differ from those appearing via intermittency and have to be treated separately. The analysis and classification of different types of bursting Ca 2+ oscillations provides better insight into mechanisms of complex intra- and intercellular Ca 2+ signalling. This improves our understanding of several important biological phenomena in cellular signalling like complex frequency-amplitude signal encoding and synchronisation of intercellular signal transduction between coupled cells in tissue

  8. Mathematical modeling of calcium waves induced by mechanical stimulation in keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the behavior of calcium in the epidermis is closely related to the conditions of the skin, especially the differentiation of the epidermal keratinocytes and the permeability barrier function, and therefore a correct understanding of the calcium dynamics is important in explaining epidermal homeostasis. Here we report on experimental observations of in vitro calcium waves in keratinocytes induced by mechanical stimulation, and present a mathematical model that can describe the experimentally observed wave behavior that includes finite-range wave propagation and a ring-shaped pattern. A mechanism of the ring formation hypothesized by our model may be related to similar calcium propagation patterns observed during the wound healing process in the epidermis. We discuss a possible extension of our model that may serve as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of various skin diseases.

  9. Iron mediates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent stimulation of calcium-induced pathways and hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Pablo; Humeres, Alexis; Elgueta, Claudio; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Núñez, Marco T

    2011-04-15

    Iron deficiency hinders hippocampus-dependent learning processes and impairs cognitive performance, but current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique role of iron in neuronal function is sparse. Here, we investigated the participation of iron on calcium signal generation and ERK1/2 stimulation induced by the glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and the effects of iron addition/chelation on hippocampal basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). Addition of NMDA to primary hippocampal cultures elicited persistent calcium signals that required functional NMDA receptors and were independent of calcium influx through L-type calcium channels or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors; NMDA also promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine or inhibition of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated calcium release with ryanodine-reduced calcium signal duration and prevented NMDA-induced ERK1/2 activation. Iron addition to hippocampal neurons readily increased the intracellular labile iron pool and stimulated reactive oxygen species production; the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or the hydroxyl radical trapper MCI-186 prevented these responses. Iron addition to primary hippocampal cultures kept in calcium-free medium elicited calcium signals and stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation; RyR inhibition abolished these effects. Iron chelation decreased basal synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices, inhibited iron-induced synaptic stimulation, and impaired sustained LTP in hippocampal CA1 neurons induced by strong stimulation. In contrast, iron addition facilitated sustained LTP induction after suboptimal tetanic stimulation. Together, these results suggest that hippocampal neurons require iron to generate RyR-mediated calcium signals after NMDA receptor stimulation, which in turn promotes ERK1/2 activation, an essential step of sustained LTP.

  10. Dynamic transition on the seizure-like neuronal activity by astrocytic calcium channel block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiajia; Wang, Rong; Du, Mengmeng; Tang, Jun; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of astrocytes in neuronal firing dynamics is becoming increasingly evident. In this study, we used a classical hippocampal tripartite synapse model consisting of soma-dendrite coupled neuron models and a Hodgkin–Huxley-like astrocyte model, to investigate the seizure-like firing in the somatic neuron induced by the over-expressed neuronal N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Based on this model, we further investigated the effect of the astrocytic channel block on the neuronal firing through a bifurcation analysis. Results show that blocking inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate(IP3)-dependent calcium channel in astrocytes efficiently suppresses the astrocytic calcium oscillation, which in turn suppresses the seizure-like firing in the neuron.

  11. Proteinaceous and oligosaccharidic elicitors induce different calcium signatures in the nucleus of tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, David; Lamotte, Olivier; Bourque, Stéphane; Wendehenne, David; Mazars, Christian; Ranjeva, Raoul; Pugin, Alain

    2005-12-01

    We previously reported elevated cytosolic calcium levels in tobacco cells in response to elicitors [D. Lecourieux, C. Mazars, N. Pauly, R. Ranjeva, A. Pugin, Analysis and effects of cytosolic free calcium elevations in response to elicitors in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells, Plant Cell 14 (2002) 2627-2641]. These data suggested that in response to elicitors, Ca2+, as a second messenger, was involved in both systemic acquired resistance (RSA) and/or hypersensitive response (HR) depending on calcium signature. Here, we used transformed tobacco cells with apoaequorin expressed in the nucleus to monitor changes in free nuclear calcium concentrations ([Ca2+](nuc)) in response to elicitors. Two types of elicitors are compared: proteins leading to necrosis including four elicitins and harpin, and non-necrotic elicitors including flagellin (flg22) and two oligosaccharidic elicitors, namely the oligogalacturonides (OGs) and the beta-1,3-glucan laminarin. Our data indicate that the proteinaceous elicitors induced a pronounced and sustainable [Ca2+](nuc) elevation, relative to the small effects of oligosaccharidic elicitors. This [Ca2+](nuc) elevation, which seems insufficient to induce cell death, is unlikely to result directly from the diffusion of calcium from the cytosol. The [Ca2+](nuc) rise depends on free cytosolic calcium, IP3, and active oxygen species (AOS) but is independent of nitric oxide.

  12. Glucose-stimulated calcium dynamics in islets of Langerhans in acute mouse pancreas tissue slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andraž Stožer

    Full Text Available In endocrine cells within islets of Langerhans calcium ions couple cell stimulation to hormone secretion. Since the advent of modern fluorimetry, numerous in vitro studies employing primarily isolated mouse islets have investigated the effects of various secretagogues on cytoplasmic calcium, predominantly in insulin-secreting beta cells. Due to technical limitations, insights of these studies are inherently limited to a rather small subpopulation of outermost cells. The results also seem to depend on various factors, like culture conditions and duration, and are not always easily reconcilable with findings in vivo. The main controversies regard the types of calcium oscillations, presence of calcium waves, and the level of synchronized activity. Here, we set out to combine the in situ acute mouse pancreas tissue slice preparation with noninvasive fluorescent calcium labeling and subsequent confocal laser scanning microscopy to shed new light on the existing controversies utilizing an innovative approach enabling the characterization of responses in many cells from all layers of islets. Our experiments reproducibly showed stable fast calcium oscillations on a sustained plateau rather than slow oscillations as the predominant type of response in acute tissue slices, and that calcium waves are the mechanistic substrate for synchronization of oscillations. We also found indirect evidence that even a large amplitude calcium signal was not sufficient and that metabolic activation was necessary to ensure cell synchronization upon stimulation with glucose. Our novel method helped resolve existing controversies and showed the potential to help answer important physiological questions, making it one of the methods of choice for the foreseeable future.

  13. Effect of alternate-vortex on flow-induced in-line oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masaya; Anoda, Yoshinari

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the in-line oscillations of a flexible cylinder in a water crossflow to estimate the effects of alternate-vortex. The measured oscillations were analyzed using the Gabor wavelet function to define the temporal phase relation between the in-line displacement and the vortex-induced force. The analysis shows that 1) the stability region located between two excited regions is generated by alternate vortex effect, 2) the phase relation, which was changed as the crossflow velocity increased, can be classified into three categories, 3) though the contribution of the alternate vortex at the excited region was positive, the contribution at the stability region was negative. (author)

  14. Effects of diphosphonate on kidney calcium content and duodenal absorption of 45calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.; Cameron, V.

    1978-01-01

    In rats the relationships between EHDP-induced changes in serum calcium concentration, kidney calcium content and duodenal transport of 45 calcium were studied. Body weights and kidney weights were similar in all groups. EHDP administration was associated with an increase in serum calcium concentration and kidney calcium content, and a decrease in duodenal 45 calcium transport. In the EHDP-treated rats, there was a significant negative correlation between kidney calcium concentration and duodenal 45 calcium transport but no correlation between either kidney calcium content and serum calcium concentration (r = 0.116) or between serum calcium concentration and duodenal 45 calcium transport (r = 0.02). Further experiments will be needed to determine whether the demonstrated increase in kidney calcium content induced by EHDP administration was the cause of, or was secondary to, inhibition of 1, 25(OH) 2 D 3 synthesis. (orig./AJ) [de

  15. Spin–orbit coupling induced magnetoresistance oscillation in a dc biased two-dimensional electron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C M; Lei, X L

    2014-01-01

    We study dc-current effects on the magnetoresistance oscillation in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, using the balance-equation approach to nonlinear magnetotransport. In the weak current limit the magnetoresistance exhibits periodical Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation with changing Rashba coupling strength for a fixed magnetic field. At finite dc bias, the period of the oscillation halves when the interbranch contribution to resistivity dominates. With further increasing current density, the oscillatory resistivity exhibits phase inversion, i.e., magnetoresistivity minima (maxima) invert to maxima (minima) at certain values of the dc bias, which is due to the current-induced magnetoresistance oscillation. (paper)

  16. Memantine Can Reduce Ethanol-Induced Caspase-3 Activity and Apoptosis in H4 Cells by Decreasing Intracellular Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Hongbo; Yu, Hao; Wang, Changliang; You, Jiabin; Wang, Pengfei; Feng, Chunmei; Xu, Guohui; Wu, Xu; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Guohua

    2017-08-01

    Caspase-3 activation and apoptosis are associated with various neurodegenerative disorders. Calcium activation is an important factor in promoting apoptosis. We, therefore, assessed the role of intracellular calcium in ethanol-induced activation of caspase-3 in H4 human neuroglioma cells and the protective effect of the NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine, on ethanol-induced apoptosis in H4 cells. H4 cells were treated with 100 mM EtOH (in culture medium) for 2 days. For interaction studies, cells were treated with memantine (4 μM), EDTA (1 mM), or BAPTA-AM (10 μM) before treatment with EtOH. Knockdown of the gene encoding the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor was performed using RNAi. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometry. Cell viability was detected using an MTS cell proliferation kit. Fluorescence dual wavelength spectrophotometry was used to determine the intracellular calcium concentration. The levels of NR1, caspase-3, IP3R1, and SERCA1 proteins were detected by western blotting. NR1, IP3R1, and SERCA1 mRNA levels were detected by qPCR. We observed increased expression of NR1, IP3R1, SERCA1, and increased intracellular levels of calcium ions in H4 cells exposed to ethanol. In addition, the calcium chelators, EDTA and BAPTA, and RNAi disruption of the NMDA receptor reduced ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation in H4 cells. Memantine treatment reduced the ethanol-induced increase of intracellular calcium, caspase-3 activation, apoptosis, and the ethanol-induced decrease in cell viability. Our results indicate that ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis are likely to be dependent on cytosolic calcium levels and that they can be reduced by memantine treatment.

  17. Calcium signals and caspase-12 participated in paraoxon-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Cao, Zhiheng; Jia, Pengfei; Wang, Ziren

    2010-04-01

    In order to investigate whether calcium signals participate in paraoxon (POX)-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells, real-time laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was used to detect Ca(2+) changes during the POX application. Apoptotic rates of EL4 cells and caspase-12 expression were also evaluated. POX (1-10nM) increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in EL4 cells in a dose-dependent manner at early stage (0-2h) of POX application, and apoptotic rates of EL4 cells after treatment with POX for 16h were also increased in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with EGTA, heparin or procaine attenuated POX-induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation and apoptosis. Additionally, POX up-regulated caspase-12 expression in a dose-dependent manner, and pre-treatment with EGTA, heparin or procaine significantly inhibited POX-induced increase of caspase-12 expression. Our results suggested that POX induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation in EL4 cells at the early stage of POX-induced apoptosis, which might involve Ca(2+) efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Ca(2+) influx from extracellular medium. Calcium signals and caspase-12 were important upstream messengers in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells. The ER-associated pathway possibly operated in this apoptosis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Single Low-Dose Radiation Induced Regulation of Keratinocyte Differentiation in Calcium-Induced HaCaT Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Hyung Jin; Youn, Hae Jeong; Cha, Hwa Jun; Kim, Karam; An, Sungkwan

    2016-01-01

    Background We are continually exposed to low-dose radiation (LDR) in the range 0.1 Gy from natural sources, medical devices, nuclear energy plants, and other industrial sources of ionizing radiation. There are three models for the biological mechanism of LDR: the linear no-threshold model, the hormetic model, and the threshold model. Objective We used keratinocytes as a model system to investigate the molecular genetic effects of LDR on epidermal cell differentiation. Methods To identify keratinocyte differentiation, we performed western blots using a specific antibody for involucrin, which is a precursor protein of the keratinocyte cornified envelope and a marker for keratinocyte terminal differentiation. We also performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We examined whether LDR induces changes in involucrin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation. Results Exposure of HaCaT cells to LDR (0.1 Gy) induced p21 expression. p21 is a key regulator that induces growth arrest and represses stemness, which accelerates keratinocyte differentiation. We correlated involucrin expression with keratinocyte differentiation, and examined the effects of LDR on involucrin levels and keratinocyte development. LDR significantly increased involucrin mRNA and protein levels during calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation. Conclusion These studies provide new evidence for the biological role of LDR, and identify the potential to utilize LDR to regulate or induce keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:27489424

  19. Calcium regulation of EGF-induced ERK5 activation: role of Lad1-MEKK2 interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Yao

    Full Text Available The ERK5 cascade is a MAPK pathway that transmits both mitogenic and stress signals, yet its mechanism of activation is not fully understood. Using intracellular calcium modifiers, we found that ERK5 activation by EGF is inhibited both by the depletion and elevation of intracellular calcium levels. This calcium effect was found to occur upstream of MEKK2, which is the MAP3K of the ERK5 cascade. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that EGF increases MEKK2 binding to the adaptor protein Lad1, and this interaction was reduced by the intracellular calcium modifiers, indicating that a proper calcium concentration is required for the interactions and transmission of EGF signals to ERK5. In vitro binding assays revealed that the proper calcium concentration is required for a direct binding of MEKK2 to Lad1. The binding of these proteins is not affected by c-Src-mediated phosphorylation on Lad1, but slightly affects the Tyr phosphorylation of MEKK2, suggesting that the interaction with Lad1 is necessary for full Tyr phosphorylation of MEKK2. In addition, we found that changes in calcium levels affect the EGF-induced nuclear translocation of MEKK2 and thereby its effect on the nuclear ERK5 activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that calcium is required for EGF-induced ERK5 activation, and this effect is probably mediated by securing proper interaction of MEKK2 with the upstream adaptor protein Lad1.

  20. Analysis of thermally induced magnetization dynamics in spin-transfer nano-oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquino, M., E-mail: daquino@uniparthenope.it [Department of Technology, University of Naples ' Parthenope' , 80143 Naples (Italy); Serpico, C. [Department of Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica 10135 Torino (Italy); Bonin, R. [Politecnico di Torino - Sede di Verres, 11029 Verres (Aosta) (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The thermally induced magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin-polarized currents injected into a spin-valve-like structure used as microwave spin-transfer nano-oscillator (STNO) is considered. Magnetization dynamics is described by the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Slonczewski (LLS) equation. First, it is shown that, in the presence of thermal fluctuations, the spectrum of the output signal of the STNO exhibits multiple peaks at low and high frequencies. This circumstance is associated with the occurrence of thermally induced transitions between stationary states and magnetization self-oscillations. Then, a theoretical approach based on the separation of time-scales is developed to obtain a stochastic dynamics only in the slow state variable, namely the energy. The stationary distribution of the energy and the aforementioned transition rates are analytically computed and compared with the results of direct integration of the LLS dynamics, showing very good agreement.

  1. Noise transmission and delay-induced stochastic oscillations in biochemical network motifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sheng-Jun; Wang Qi; Liu Bo; Yan Shi-Wei; Sakata Fumihiko

    2011-01-01

    With the aid of stochastic delayed-feedback differential equations, we derive an analytic expression for the power spectra of reacting molecules included in a generic biological network motif that is incorporated with a feedback mechanism and time delays in gene regulation. We systematically analyse the effects of time delays, the feedback mechanism, and biological stochasticity on the power spectra. It has been clarified that the time delays together with the feedback mechanism can induce stochastic oscillations at the molecular level and invalidate the noise addition rule for a modular description of the noise propagator. Delay-induced stochastic resonance can be expected, which is related to the stability loss of the reaction systems and Hopf bifurcation occurring for solutions of the corresponding deterministic reaction equations. Through the analysis of the power spectrum, a new approach is proposed to estimate the oscillation period. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. Transition in complex calcium bursting induced by IP3 degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Lu Qishao; Su Jianzhong

    2009-01-01

    Complex intracellular Ca 2+ oscillations are systematically investigated in a mathematical model based on the mechanism of Ca 2+ -induced Ca 2+ release (CICR), taking account of the Ca 2+ -stimulated degradation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) by a 3-kinase. Periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic bursting oscillations exist in a wide range of parameter values and occur alternatively as the parameters change slightly. The transition among them can be observed by the evidence in their interspike interval and the Lyapunov exponent. These results reveal the role of agonist-stimulated of IP 3 degradation as a possible source for complex patterns in Ca 2+ signaling.

  3. Maitotoxin-induced liver cell death involving loss of cell ATP following influx of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, R.K.; Singh, Y.; Santostasi, G.; Krishna, G.

    1989-01-01

    Maitotoxin, one of the most potent marine toxins known, produced cell death in cultures of rat hepatocytes with a TD50 of 80 pM at 24 hr. The cell death, as indicated by a dose- and time-dependent leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was also associated with the leakage of [14C]adenine nucleotides from hepatocytes prelabeled with [14C]-adenine. The toxic effect of maitotoxin was completely abolished by the omission of calcium from the culture medium. The cell death induced by maitotoxin increased with increasing concentrations of calcium in the medium. Treatment of hepatocytes with low concentrations of the toxin (less than 0.5 ng/ml) resulted in increases in 45Ca influx into the cells. At higher concentrations of maitotoxin (greater than 1ng/ml), the initial increase in 45Ca influx was followed by the release of the 45Ca from the cells into the medium. Since the 45Ca release paralleled the LDH leakage, the release of calcium was due to cell death. The 45Ca influx, [14C]adenine nucleotide leakage, and LDH leakage were effectively inhibited by verapamil, a calcium channel blocker. Maitotoxin also induced a time- and dose-dependent loss of ATP from hepatocytes, which preceded the [14C]adenine nucleotide and LDH leakage. Thus, it appears that the cell death resulting from maitotoxin treatment is caused by the elevated intracellular calcium, which in turn inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation causing depletion of cell ATP. Loss of cell ATP may be the causative event in the maitotoxin-induced cell death

  4. Nonlinearity induced synchronization enhancement in mechanical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplewski, David A.; Lopez, Omar; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Antonio, Dario; Arroyo, Sebastian I.; Zanette, Damian H.

    2018-05-08

    An autonomous oscillator synchronizes to an external harmonic force only when the forcing frequency lies within a certain interval, known as the synchronization range, around the oscillator's natural frequency. Under ordinary conditions, the width of the synchronization range decreases when the oscillation amplitude grows, which constrains synchronized motion of micro- and nano-mechanical resonators to narrow frequency and amplitude bounds. The present invention shows that nonlinearity in the oscillator can be exploited to manifest a regime where the synchronization range increases with an increasing oscillation amplitude. The present invention shows that nonlinearities in specific configurations of oscillator systems, as described herein, are the key determinants of the effect. The present invention presents a new configuration and operation regime that enhances the synchronization of micro- and nano-mechanical oscillators by capitalizing on their intrinsic nonlinear dynamics.

  5. Photochemically induced oscillations of aromatic pentazadienes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, T; Hahn, C; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Aromatic pentazadienes are used to enhance the laser induced ablation of standard polymers with low absorption in the UV. Therefore the photochemistry of substituted 1,5-diaryl-3-alkyl-1,4-pentazadiene monomers was studied with a pulsed excimer laser as irradiation source. The net photochemical reaction proceeds in an overall one-step pathway A{yields}B. Quantum yields for the laser decomposition were determined to be up to 10%. An oscillating behaviour of the absorption was found during the dark period following the irradiation. The temperature dependence of this dark reaction has been studied. An attempt to model this behaviour in terms of a non-linear coupling between heat released, heat transfer, and reaction kinetics will be described. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  6. Noise-induced chaos in a quadratically nonlinear oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Chunbiao

    2006-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the noise-induced chaos in a quadratically nonlinear oscillator. Simple zero points of the stochastic Melnikov integral theoretically mean the necessary rising of noise-induced chaotic response in the system based on the stochastic Melnikov method. To quantify the noise-induced chaos, the boundary of the system's safe basin is firstly studied and it is shown to be incursively fractal when chaos arises. Three cases are considered in simulating the safe basin of the system, i.e., the system is excited only by the harmonic excitation, by both the harmonic and the Gaussian white noise excitations, and only by the Gaussian white noise excitation. Secondly, the leading Lyapunov exponent by Rosenstein's algorithm is shown to quantify the chaotic nature of the sample time series of the system. The results show that the boundary of the safe basin can also be fractal even if the system is excited only by the external Gaussian white noise. Most importantly, the almost-harmonic, the noise-induced chaotic and the thoroughly random responses can be found in the system

  7. Mathematical investigation of IP3-dependent calcium dynamics in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Gregory; Taheri, Marsa; White, John A; Borisyuk, Alla

    2017-06-01

    We study evoked calcium dynamics in astrocytes, a major cell type in the mammalian brain. Experimental evidence has shown that such dynamics are highly variable between different trials, cells, and cell subcompartments. Here we present a qualitative analysis of a recent mathematical model of astrocyte calcium responses. We show how the major response types are generated in the model as a result of the underlying bifurcation structure. By varying key channel parameters, mimicking blockers used by experimentalists, we manipulate this underlying bifurcation structure and predict how the distributions of responses can change. We find that store-operated calcium channels, plasma membrane bound channels with little activity during calcium transients, have a surprisingly strong effect, underscoring the importance of considering these channels in both experiments and mathematical settings. Variation in the maximum flow in different calcium channels is also shown to determine the range of stable oscillations, as well as set the range of frequencies of the oscillations. Further, by conducting a randomized search through the parameter space and recording the resulting calcium responses, we create a database that can be used by experimentalists to help estimate the underlying channel distribution of their cells.

  8. Analogies between oscillation and rotation of bodies induced or influenced by vortex shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugt, H. J.

    Vortex-induced or vortex-influenced rotation and oscillation of bodies in a parallel flow are discussed. A steady flow occurs if the body axis is parallel to the flow or if the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the flow. Flows around an oscillating body are quasi-steady only if the Strougal number is much smaller than unity. The connection between rotation and oscillation is demonstrated in terms of the autorotation of a Lanchester propeller, and conditions for stable autorotation are defined. The Riabouchinsky curve is shown to be typical of forces and torques on bodies with vortical wakes, including situations with fixed body axes perpendicular to the flow. A differential equation is formulated for rotational and oscillating bodies that shed vortices by extending the pendulum equation to include vortical effects expressed as a fifth-order polynomial.

  9. Neurotoxicity Induced by Bupivacaine via T-Type Calcium Channels in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianjie; Xu, Shiyuan; Liu, Hongzhen; Zhang, Quinguo; Liang, Hua; Yang, Chenxiang; Wang, Hanbing

    2013-01-01

    There is concern regarding neurotoxicity induced by the use of local anesthetics. A previous study showed that an overload of intracellular calcium is involved in the neurotoxic effect of some anesthetics. T-type calcium channels, which lower the threshold of action potentials, can regulate the influx of calcium ions. We hypothesized that T-type calcium channels are involved in bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we first investigated the effects of different concentrations of bupivacaine on SH-SY5Y cell viability, and established a cell injury model with 1 mM bupivacaine. The cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells was measured following treatment with 1 mM bupivacaine and/or different dosages (10, 50, or 100 µM) of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride, an antagonist of T-type calcium channels for 24 h. In addition, we monitored the release of lactate dehydrogenase, cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), cell apoptosis and caspase-3 expression. SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with different dosages (10, 50, or 100 µM) of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride improved cell viability, reduced lactate dehydrogenase release, inhibited apoptosis, and reduced caspase-3 expression following bupivacaine exposure. However, the protective effect of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride plateaued. Overall, our results suggest that T-type calcium channels may be involved in bupivacaine neurotoxicity. However, identification of the specific subtype of T calcium channels involved requires further investigation. PMID:23658789

  10. Neurotoxicity induced by bupivacaine via T-type calcium channels in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjie Wen

    Full Text Available There is concern regarding neurotoxicity induced by the use of local anesthetics. A previous study showed that an overload of intracellular calcium is involved in the neurotoxic effect of some anesthetics. T-type calcium channels, which lower the threshold of action potentials, can regulate the influx of calcium ions. We hypothesized that T-type calcium channels are involved in bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we first investigated the effects of different concentrations of bupivacaine on SH-SY5Y cell viability, and established a cell injury model with 1 mM bupivacaine. The cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells was measured following treatment with 1 mM bupivacaine and/or different dosages (10, 50, or 100 µM of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride, an antagonist of T-type calcium channels for 24 h. In addition, we monitored the release of lactate dehydrogenase, cytosolic Ca(2+ ([Ca2+]i, cell apoptosis and caspase-3 expression. SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with different dosages (10, 50, or 100 µM of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride improved cell viability, reduced lactate dehydrogenase release, inhibited apoptosis, and reduced caspase-3 expression following bupivacaine exposure. However, the protective effect of NNC 55-0396 dihydrochloride plateaued. Overall, our results suggest that T-type calcium channels may be involved in bupivacaine neurotoxicity. However, identification of the specific subtype of T calcium channels involved requires further investigation.

  11. Mutual influence between current-induced giant magnetoresistance and radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2DES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, R L; Liu, H-C; Wang, Z; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Mani, R G

    2017-07-11

    Radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations are examined in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D system in the regime where an observed concurrent giant magnetoresistance is systematically varied with a supplementary dc-current, I dc . The I dc tuned giant magnetoresistance is subsequently separated from the photo-excited oscillatory resistance using a multi-conduction model in order to examine the interplay between the two effects. The results show that the invoked multiconduction model describes the observed giant magnetoresistance effect even in the presence of radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations, the magnetoresistance oscillations do not modify the giant magnetoresistance, and the magnetoresistance oscillatory extrema, i.e., maxima and minima, disappear rather asymmetrically with increasing I dc . The results suggest the interpretation that the I dc serves to suppress scattering between states near the Fermi level in a strong magnetic field limit.

  12. High-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations induced by heating in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintani, Seine A.; Oyama, Kotaro [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Fukuda, Norio, E-mail: noriof@jikei.ac.jp [Department of Cell Physiology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ishiwata, Shin’ichi, E-mail: ishiwata@waseda.jp [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); WASEDA Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore (WABIOS) (Singapore)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • We tested the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on cardiac sarcomere dynamics. • A rise in temperature (>∼38 °C) induced high-frequency sarcomeric auto-oscillations. • These oscillations occurred with and without blockade of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stores. • Cardiac sarcomeres can play a role as a temperature-dependent rhythm generator. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the effects of infra-red laser irradiation on sarcomere dynamics in living neonatal cardiomyocytes of the rat. A rapid increase in temperature to >∼38 °C induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-independent high-frequency (∼5–10 Hz) sarcomeric auto-oscillations (Hyperthermal Sarcomeric Oscillations; HSOs). In myocytes with the intact sarcoplasmic reticular functions, HSOs coexisted with [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent spontaneous beating in the same sarcomeres, with markedly varying frequencies (∼10 and ∼1 Hz for the former and latter, respectively). HSOs likewise occurred following blockade of the sarcoplasmic reticular functions, with the amplitude becoming larger and the frequency lower in a time-dependent manner. The present findings suggest that in the mammalian heart, sarcomeres spontaneously oscillate at higher frequencies than the sinus rhythm at temperatures slightly above the physiologically relevant levels.

  13. Blockade of store-operated calcium entry alleviates high glucose-induced neurotoxicity via inhibiting apoptosis in rat neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenkuan; Xu, Wenzhe; Song, Yan; Zhang, Bin; Li, Feng; Liu, Yuguang

    2016-07-25

    Altered store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) has been suggested to be involved in many diabetic complications. However, the association of altered SOCE and diabetic neuronal damage remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of altered SOCE on primary cultured rat neuron injury induced by high glucose. Our data demonstrated that high glucose increased rat neuron injury and upregulated the expression of store-operated calcium channel (SOC). Inhibition of SOCE by a pharmacological inhibitor and siRNA knockdown of stromal interaction molecule 1 weakened the intracellular calcium overload, restored mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulated cytochrome C release and inhibited cell apoptosis. As well, treatment with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM prevented cell apoptosis by ameliorating the high glucose-increased intracellular calcium level. These findings suggest that SOCE blockade may alleviate high glucose-induced neuronal damage by inhibiting apoptosis. SOCE might be a promising therapeutic target in diabetic neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intact calcium signaling in adrenergic-deficient embryonic mouse hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Jessica N; Taylor, David G; Katchman, Alexander N; Ebert, Steven N

    2018-01-22

    Mouse embryos that lack the ability to produce the adrenergic hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI), due to disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh -/- ) gene inevitably perish from heart failure during mid-gestation. Since adrenergic stimulation is well-known to enhance calcium signaling in developing as well as adult myocardium, and impairments in calcium signaling are typically associated with heart failure, we hypothesized that adrenergic-deficient embryonic hearts would display deficiencies in cardiac calcium signaling relative to adrenergic-competent controls at a developmental stage immediately preceding the onset of heart failure, which first appears beginning or shortly after mouse embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). To test this hypothesis, we used ratiometric fluorescent calcium imaging techniques to measure cytosolic calcium transients, [Ca 2+ ] i in isolated E10.5 mouse hearts. Our results show that spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i oscillations were intact and robustly responded to a variety of stimuli including extracellular calcium (5 mM), caffeine (5 mM), and NE (100 nM) in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Further, we show similar patterns of distribution (via immunofluorescent histochemical staining) and activity (via patch-clamp recording techniques) for the major voltage-gated plasma membrane calcium channel responsible for the L-type calcium current, I Ca,L , in adrenergic-deficient and control embryonic cardiac cells. These results demonstrate that despite the absence of vital adrenergic hormones that consistently leads to embryonic lethality in vivo, intracellular and extracellular calcium signaling remain essentially intact and functional in embryonic mouse hearts through E10.5. These findings suggest that adrenergic stimulation is not required for the development of intracellular calcium oscillations or extracellular calcium signaling through I Ca,L and that aberrant calcium signaling does not likely contribute

  15. Functional Modeling of the Shift in Cellular Calcium Dynamics at the Onset of Synchronization in Smooth Muscle Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D E; Brings Jacobsen, J C; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we address the nature of synchronization properties found in populations of mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. We present a minimal model of the onset of synchronization in the individual smooth muscle cell that is manifested as a transition from calcium waves to whole......-cell calcium oscillations. We discuss how different types of ion currents may influence both amplitude and frequency in the regime of whole-cell oscillations. The model may also explain the occurrence of mixed-mode oscillations and chaotic oscillations frequently observed in the experimental system....

  16. Semiclassical calculation for collision induced dissociation. II. Morse oscillator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinek, I.; Roberts, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A recently developed semiclassical procedure for calculating collision induced dissociation probabilities P/sup diss/ is applied to the collinear collision between a particle and a Morse oscillator diatomic. The particle--diatom interaction is described with a repulsive exponential potential function. P/sup diss/ is reported for a system of three identical particles, as a function of collision energy E/sub t/ and initial vibrational state of the diatomic n 1 . The results are compared with the previously reported values for the collision between a particle and a truncated harmonic oscillator. The two studies show similar features, namely: (a) there is an oscillatory structure in the P/sup diss/ energy profiles, which is directly related to n 1 ; (b) P/sup diss/ becomes noticeable (> or approx. =10 -3 ) for E/sub t/ values appreciably higher than the energetic threshold; (c) vibrational enhancement (inhibition) of collision induced dissociation persists at low (high) energies; and (d) good agreement between the classical and semiclassical results is found above the classical dynamic threshold. Finally, the convergence of P/sup diss/ for increasing box length is shown to be rapid and satisfactory

  17. Application of the Lyapunov exponent to detect noise-induced chaos in oscillating microbial cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Oscillating microbial processes can, under certain conditions, gravitate into chaotic behavior induced by external noise. Detection and control of chaos are important for the survival of the microorganisms and to operate a process usefully. In this study the largest Lyapunov exponent is recommended as a convenient and reliable index of chaos in continuous oscillating cultures. For the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, the exponents increase with the oxygen mass transfer coefficient and decrease as the dilution rate increases. By comparing with the corresponding time-domain oscillations determined earlier, it is inferred that weakly oscillating cultures are less likely to be driven to chaotic behavior. The main carbon source, glucose, is quite robust to chaotic destabilization, thus enhancing its suitability as a manipulated variable for bioreactor control

  18. Mechanisms underlying odorant-induced and spontaneous calcium signals in olfactory receptor neurons of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Derby, Charles D; Schmidt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We determined if a newly developed antennule slice preparation allows studying chemosensory properties of spiny lobster olfactory receptor neurons under in situ conditions with Ca(2+) imaging. We show that chemical stimuli reach the dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons but not their somata, and that odorant-induced Ca(2+) signals in the somata are sufficiently stable over time to allow stimulation with a substantial number of odorants. Pharmacological manipulations served to elucidate the source of odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons. Both Ca(2+) signals are primarily mediated by an influx of extracellular Ca(2+) through voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels that can be blocked by CoCl2 and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil. Intracellular Ca(2+) stores contribute little to odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. The odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients as well as the spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations depend on action potentials mediated by Na(+) channels that are largely TTX-insensitive but blocked by the local anesthetics tetracaine and lidocaine. Collectively, these results corroborate the conclusion that odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons closely reflect action potential activity associated with odorant-induced phasic-tonic responses and spontaneous bursting, respectively. Therefore, both types of Ca(2+) signals represent experimentally accessible proxies of spiking.

  19. Atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotypic modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs via down-regulation the Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Liu, Baoqin; Kong, Dehui; Li, Si; Li, Chao; Wang, Huaqin; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in the onset and progression of proliferative vascular diseases. In adult tissue, VSMCs exist in a physiological contractile-quiescent phenotype, which is defined by lack of the ability of proliferation and migration, while high expression of contractile marker proteins. After injury to the vessel, VSMC shifts from a contractile phenotype to a pathological synthetic phenotype, associated with increased proliferation, migration and matrix secretion. It has been demonstrated that PDGF-BB is a critical mediator of VSMCs phenotypic switch. Atorvastatin calcium, a selective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl l coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, exhibits various protective effects against VSMCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin calcium on phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and the related intracellular signal transduction pathways. Treatment of VSMCs with atorvastatin calcium showed dose-dependent inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced proliferation. Atorvastatin calcium co-treatment inhibited the phenotype modulation and cytoskeleton rearrangements and improved the expression of contractile phenotype marker proteins such as α-SM actin, SM22α and calponin in comparison with PDGF-BB alone stimulated VSMCs. Although Akt phosphorylation was strongly elicited by PDGF-BB, Akt activation was attenuated when PDGF-BB was co-administrated with atorvastatin calcium. In conclusion, atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and activation of the Akt signaling pathway, indicating that Akt might play a vital role in the modulation of phenotype.

  20. Noise-Induced Transition in a Voltage-Controlled Oscillator Neuron Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huizhang; Liu Xuemei; Li Zhibing; Ai Baoquan; Liu Lianggang

    2008-01-01

    In the presence of Gaussian white noise, we study the properties of voltage-controlled oscillator neuron model and discuss the effects of the additive and multiplicative noise. It is found that the additive noise can accelerate and counterwork the firing of neuron, which depends on the value of central frequency of neuron itself, while multiplicative noise can induce the continuous change or mutation of membrane potential

  1. Direct measurement of density oscillation induced by a radio-frequency wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Ejiri, A.; Shimada, Y.; Oosako, T.; Tsujimura, J.; Takase, Y.; Kasahara, H.

    2007-01-01

    An O-mode reflectometer at a frequency of 25.85 GHz was applied to plasmas heated by the high harmonic fast wave (21 MHz) in the TST-2 spherical tokamak. An oscillation in the phase of the reflected microwave in the rf range was observed directly for the first time. In TST-2, the rf (250 kW) induced density oscillation depends mainly on the poloidal rf electric field, which is estimated to be about 0.2 kV/m rms by the reflectometer measurement. Sideband peaks separated in frequency by ion cyclotron harmonics from 21 MHz, and peaks at ion cyclotron harmonics which are suggested to be quasimodes generated by parametric decay, were detected

  2. Smad signaling pathway in pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the involvement of Smad signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats to provide a reference for clinical treatment. Methods: Clean SD rats were randomly divided into 3 group, namely the control group, model group and pirfenidone group. Ethylene glycol + αhydroxy vitamin D3 was used as a stone-inducing agent to replicate the renal calcium oxalate stone model. Rats in the pirfenidone group were treated with pirfenidone intragastric administration. The serum Cr, BUN and 24-hour oxalate and calcium in renal tissues were assayed. The expressions of Bax/ Bcl2 protein, Caspase3 protein, TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins were detected by the fluorescent quantitation PCR method. Results: Compared with the rats of the control group, the results showed that the levels of serum BUN, Cr and 24-hour oxalate in rats of the model group were increased greatly, Bax and Caspase3 mRNA also increased while the level of Bcl2 decreased significantly, and the expressions of TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins increased distinctly as well (P<0.01. These abnormal parameters could be normalized effectively by pirfenidone. Conclusions: Activated TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats.

  3. Rapid insight into heating-induced phase transformations in the solid state of the calcium salt of atorvastatin using multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Kwok, Kaho

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the heating-induced dehydration and melting behavior of the trihydrate phase of the calcium salt of atorvastatin.......To investigate the heating-induced dehydration and melting behavior of the trihydrate phase of the calcium salt of atorvastatin....

  4. Assessment of fluoride-induced changes on physicochemical and structural properties of bone and the impact of calcium on its control in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan

    2012-03-01

    Bone deformities caused by the chronic intake of large quantities of fluoride and the beneficial effect of calcium on its control have been studied for many years, but only limited data are available on the quantitative effect of fluoride intake and the beneficial impact of calcium on fluoride-induced changes in bone at the molecular level. It is necessary to determine the degree of fluoride-induced changes in bone at different levels of fluoride intake to evaluate the optimum safe intake level of fluoride for maintaining bone health and quality. The ameliorative effect of calcium at different dose levels on minimizing fluoride-induced changes in bone is important to quantify the amount of calcium intake necessary for reducing fluoride toxicity. Thirty rabbits, 2 months old, were divided into five groups. Group I animals received 1 mg/l fluoride and 0.11% calcium diet; groups II and III received 10 mg/l fluoride and diet with 0.11% or 2.11% calcium, respectively; and groups IV and V received 150 mg/l fluoride and diet with 2.11% or 0.11% calcium, respectively. Analysis of bone density, ash content, fluoride, calcium, phosphorus, and Ca:P molar ratio levels after 6 months of treatment indicated that animals that received high fluoride with low-calcium diet showed significant detrimental changes in physicochemical properties of bone. Animals that received fluoride with high calcium intake showed notable amelioration of the impact of calcium on fluoride-induced changes in bone. The degree of fluoride-induced characteristic changes in structural properties such as crystalline size, crystallinity, and crystallographic "c"-axis length of bone apatite cells was also assessed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared studies. X-ray images showed bone deformity changes such as transverse stress growth lines, soft tissue ossification, and calcification in different parts of bones as a result of high fluoride accumulation and the beneficial role of calcium

  5. Novel effect of interplay of internal and external noise on the dynamics of calcium oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongying; Ma Juan

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: When the external noise is small (D ≤ 0.8), R goes through a maximum at an optimal system size V, indicating the occurring of internal-noise stochastic resonance (INSR), and the curves become higher with the increases of D, which shows that INSR can be enhanced by the external noise in a certain range of external noise intensity ((D ≤ 0.8). If D > 0.8, R monotonically increases and the peak disappears. When D increases further, the R curve becomes lower. Research highlights: → External noise coherence resonance (ENCR) can be suppressed by internal noise. → Internal noise stochastic resonance (INSR) can be enhanced by external noise. → When INSR occurs, the optimal system size can be regulated by the external noise. - Abstract: Using a mesoscopic stochastic model, the effect of interplay of external and internal noise on the dynamics of calcium oscillations was studied. When the system was tuned near a Hopf bifurcation point and driven by external noise or internal noise only, the existence of external noise coherence resonance (ENCR) or internal-noise stochastic resonance (INSR) was found, respectively. When both of the noises were considered, it was found that ENCR could be suppressed by internal noise, while INSR could be enhanced by external noise in a certain range of external noise intensity. It was also interesting to note that the optimal system size can be regulated by the external noise when the INSR occurs. The cell system may adapt to adjust the optimal size according to the external noise, indicating some kind of self-tuning mechanism involved in stochastic calcium dynamics.

  6. Gravitationally induced neutrino oscillation phases in static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Habib, S.; Mottola, E.

    1999-01-01

    We critically examine the recent claim of a 'new effect' of gravitationally induced quantum mechanical phases in neutrino oscillations. Because this claim has generated some discussion in the literature we present here a straightforward calculation of the phase and clarify some of the conceptual issues involved, particularly in relation to the equivalence principle. When expressed in terms of the asymptotic energy of the neutrinos E and Schwarzschild radial coordinates r, the lowest order at which such a gravitational effect appears is (GMΔm 4 /ℎE 3 )ln(r B /r A ). copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  7. Growth hormone secretagogues prevent dysregulation of skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis in a rat model of cisplatin-induced cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Elena; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Mele, Antonietta; De Bellis, Michela; Pierno, Sabata; Rana, Francesco; Fonzino, Adriano; Caloiero, Roberta; Rizzi, Laura; Bresciani, Elena; Ben Haj Salah, Khoubaib; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Giustino, Arcangela; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Coluccia, Mauro; Tricarico, Domenico; Lograno, Marcello Diego; De Luca, Annamaria; Torsello, Antonio; Conte, Diana; Liantonio, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose-limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), a family of synthetic agonists of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a), are being developed as a therapeutic option for cancer cachexia syndrome; however, the exact mechanism by which GHS interfere with skeletal muscle is not fully understood. By a multidisciplinary approach ranging from cytofluorometry and electrophysiology to gene expression and histology, we characterized the calcium homeostasis in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult rats with cisplatin-induced cachexia and established the potential beneficial effects of two GHS (hexarelin and JMV2894) at this level. Additionally, in vivo measures of grip strength and of ultrasonography recordings allowed us to evaluate the functional impact of GHS therapeutic intervention. Cisplatin-treated EDL muscle fibres were characterized by a ~18% significant reduction of the muscle weight and fibre diameter together with an up-regulation of atrogin1/Murf-1 genes and a down-regulation of Pgc1-a gene, all indexes of muscle atrophy, and by a two-fold increase in resting intracellular calcium, [Ca 2+ ] i , compared with control rats. Moreover, the amplitude of the calcium transient induced by caffeine or depolarizing high potassium solution as well as the store-operated calcium entry were ~50% significantly reduced in cisplatin-treated rats. Calcium homeostasis dysregulation parallels with changes of functional ex vivo (excitability and resting macroscopic conductance) and in

  8. Orosomucoid-like 3 (ORMDL3) upregulates airway smooth muscle proliferation, contraction, and Ca2+ oscillations in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Miller, Marina; Unno, Hirotoshi; Rosenthal, Peter; Sanderson, Michael J; Broide, David H

    2017-09-07

    Airway hyperresponsiveness is a major feature of asthma attributed predominantly to an extrinsic immune/inflammatory response increasing airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility. We investigated whether increased ASM expression of orosomucoid-like 3 (ORMDL3), a gene on chromosome 17q21 highly linked to asthma, induced increased ASM proliferation and contractility in vitro and influenced airway contractility and calcium flux in ASM in precision-cut lung slices (PCLSs) from wild-type and hORMDL3 Zp3-Cre mice (which express increased levels of human ORMDL3 [hORMDL3]). Levels of ASM proliferation and contraction were assessed in ASM cells transfected with ORMDL3 in vitro. In addition, airway contractility and calcium oscillations were quantitated in ASM cells in PCLSs derived from naive wild-type and naive hORMDL3 Zp3-Cre mice, which do not have a blood supply. Increased ASM expression of ORMDL3 in vitro resulted in increased ASM proliferation and contractility. PCLSs derived from naive hORMDL3 Zp3-Cre mice, which do not have airway inflammation, exhibit increased airway contractility with increased calcium oscillations in ASM cells. Increased ASM ORMDL3 expression increases levels of ASM sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase 2b (SERCA2b), which increases ASM proliferation and contractility. Overall, these studies provide evidence that an intrinsic increase in ORMDL3 expression in ASM can induce increased ASM proliferation and contractility, which might contribute to increased airway hyperresponsiveness in the absence of airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A knowledge-based system for control of xenon-induced spatial power oscillations during load-follow operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun-Kyo; Danofsky, R.A.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1988-01-01

    As is well known, large pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are subject to xenon-induced axial power oscillations at some time during a given cycle. Attention to this behavior is required during load-follow operations. A knowledge-based system for controlling xenon-induced spatial power oscillations is described. Experience with a limited set of load-follow patterns has demonstrated that the system is capable of providing advice on appropriate control actions. A simulation model, coupled with a rule-learning process, has been found to be a useful way for determining appropriate weights for the rules that relate power patterns and control actions

  10. Glycine Receptor Activation Impairs ATP-Induced Calcium Transients in Cultured Cortical Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Morais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In central nervous system, glycine receptor (GlyR is mostly expressed in the spinal cord and brainstem, but glycinergic transmission related elements have also been identified in the brain. Astrocytes are active elements at the tripartite synapse, being responsible for the maintenance of brain homeostasis and for the fine-tuning of synaptic activity. These cells communicate, spontaneously or in response to a stimulus, by elevations in their cytosolic calcium (calcium transients, Ca2+T that can be propagated to other cells. How these Ca2+T are negatively modulated is yet poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated GlyR expression and its role on calcium signaling modulation in rat brain astrocytes. We first proved that GlyR, predominantly subunits α2 and β, was expressed in brain astrocytes and its localization was confirmed in the cytoplasm and astrocytic processes by immunohistochemistry assays. Calcium imaging experiments in cultured astrocytes showed that glycine (500 μM, a GlyR agonist, caused a concentration-dependent reduction in ATP-induced Ca2+T, an effect abolished by the GlyR antagonist, strychnine (0.8 μM, as well as by nocodazole (1 μM, known to impair GlyR anchorage to the plasma membrane. This effect was mimicked by activation of GABAAR, another Cl--permeable channel. In summary, we demonstrated that GlyR activation in astrocytes mediates an inhibitory effect upon ATP induced Ca2+T, which most probably involves changes in membrane permeability to Cl- and requires GlyR anchorage at the plasma membrane. GlyR in astrocytes may thus be part of a mechanism to modulate astrocyte-to-neuron communication.

  11. Calcium supplementation decreases BCP-induced inflammatory processes in blood cells through the NLRP3 inflammasome down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadec, Patricia; Balaguer, Thierry; Boukhechba, Florian; Michel, Grégory; Bouvet-Gerbettaz, Sébastien; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Scimeca, Jean-Claude; Rochet, Nathalie

    2017-07-15

    Interaction of host blood with biomaterials is the first event occurring after implantation in a bone defect. This study aimed at investigating the cellular and molecular consequences arising at the interface between whole blood and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particles. We observed that, due to calcium capture, BCP inhibited blood coagulation, and that this inhibition was reversed by calcium supplementation. Therefore, we studied the impact of calcium supplementation on BCP effects on blood cells. Comparative analysis of BCP and calcium supplemented-BCP (BCP/Ca) effects on blood cells showed that BCP as well as BCP/Ca induced monocyte proliferation, as well as a weak but significant hemolysis. Our data showed for the first time that calcium supplementation of BCP microparticles had anti-inflammatory properties compared to BCP alone that induced an inflammatory response in blood cells. Our results strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory property of calcium supplemented-BCP results from its down-modulating effect on P2X7R gene expression and its capacity to inhibit ATP/P2X7R interactions, decreasing the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Considering that monocytes have a vast regenerative potential, and since the excessive inflammation often observed after bone substitutes implantation limits their performance, our results might have great implications in terms of understanding the mechanisms leading to an efficient bone reconstruction. Although scaffolds and biomaterials unavoidably come into direct contact with blood during bone defect filling, whole blood-biomaterials interactions have been poorly explored. By studying in 3D the interactions between biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) in microparticulate form and blood, we showed for the first time that calcium supplementation of BCP microparticles (BCP/Ca) has anti-inflammatory properties compared to BCP-induced inflammation in whole blood cells and provided information related to the molecular mechanisms

  12. Psilocybin-induced spiritual experiences and insightfulness are associated with synchronization of neuronal oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Pokorny, Thomas; Seifritz, Erich; Volleinweider, Franz X

    2015-10-01

    During the last years, considerable progress has been made toward understanding the neuronal basis of consciousness by using sophisticated behavioral tasks, brain-imaging techniques, and various psychoactive drugs. Nevertheless, the neuronal mechanisms underlying some of the most intriguing states of consciousness, including spiritual experiences, remain unknown. To elucidate state of consciousness-related neuronal mechanisms, human subjects were given psilocybin, a naturally occurring serotonergic agonist and hallucinogen that has been used for centuries to induce spiritual experiences in religious and medical rituals. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 50 healthy human volunteers received a moderate dose of psilocybin, while high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were taken during eyes-open and eyes-closed resting states. The current source density and the lagged phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations across distributed brain regions were computed and correlated with psilocybin-induced altered states of consciousness. Psilocybin decreased the current source density of neuronal oscillations at 1.5-20 Hz within a neural network comprising the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices and the parahippocampal regions. Most intriguingly, the intensity levels of psilocybin-induced spiritual experience and insightfulness correlated with the lagged phase synchronization of delta oscillations (1.5-4 Hz) between the retrosplenial cortex, the parahippocampus, and the lateral orbitofrontal area. These results provide systematic evidence for the direct association of a specific spatiotemporal neuronal mechanism with spiritual experiences and enhanced insight into life and existence. The identified mechanism may constitute a pathway for modulating mental health, as spiritual experiences can promote sustained well-being and psychological resilience.

  13. Dendrites fragmentation induced by oscillating cavitation bubbles in ultrasound field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Kang, J; Zhang, X; Guo, Z

    2018-02-01

    The fragmentation of the dendrites of succinonitrile (SCN)-2-wt.% acetone organic transparent alloy caused by ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles was studied by using ultra-high-speed digital camera with a rate of 40,000fps. Real-time imaging reveals that the vibrating cavitation bubbles can fragment not only secondary arms but also the primary ones under high ultrasound power. The secondary arms always broke at their roots as a result of stress concentration induced by oscillated cavitation bubble and then ripped off from their primary arms. Generally the fragment process takes tens of milliseconds from bending to breaking, while the break always occurs immediately in less than 25μs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Water flow patterns induced by bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subjected to alternating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Kazuki; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Nix, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of water flow induced by the bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subject to an external alternating magnetic field. The magnetic fluid bridge is formed in the space between a pair of identical coaxial cylindrical permanent magnets submerged in water. The direction of alternating magnetic field is parallel /antiparallel to the magnetic field produced by two permanent magnets. The magnetic fluid bridge responds to the external alternating magnetic field with harmonic oscillation. The oscillation of magnetic fluid bridge generates water flow around the bridge. Water flow is visualized using a thin milk film at the container bottom. Water flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The experimental results show that the flow pattern induced by the bridge oscillation depends on the Keulegan–Carpenter number.

  15. Water flow patterns induced by bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subjected to alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Seiichi, E-mail: sudo@akita-pu.ac.jp [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Nix, Stephanie [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of water flow induced by the bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subject to an external alternating magnetic field. The magnetic fluid bridge is formed in the space between a pair of identical coaxial cylindrical permanent magnets submerged in water. The direction of alternating magnetic field is parallel /antiparallel to the magnetic field produced by two permanent magnets. The magnetic fluid bridge responds to the external alternating magnetic field with harmonic oscillation. The oscillation of magnetic fluid bridge generates water flow around the bridge. Water flow is visualized using a thin milk film at the container bottom. Water flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The experimental results show that the flow pattern induced by the bridge oscillation depends on the Keulegan–Carpenter number.

  16. Self-oscillation in spin torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the field-like torque on the self-oscillation of the magnetization in spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer was studied theoretically. A stable self-oscillation at zero field is excited for negative β while the magnetization dynamics stops for β = 0 or β > 0, where β is the ratio between the spin torque and the field-like torque. The reason why only the negative β induces the self-oscillation was explained from the view point of the energy balance between the spin torque and the damping. The oscillation power and frequency for various β were also studied by numerical simulation

  17. Sustained and transient oscillations and chaos induced by delayed antiviral immune response in an immunosuppressive infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hongying; Wang, Lin; Watmough, James

    2014-01-01

    Sustained and transient oscillations are frequently observed in clinical data for immune responses in viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. To account for these oscillations, we incorporate the time lag needed for the expansion of immune cells into an immunosuppressive infection model. It is shown that the delayed antiviral immune response can induce sustained periodic oscillations, transient oscillations and even sustained aperiodic oscillations (chaos). Both local and global Hopf bifurcation theorems are applied to show the existence of periodic solutions, which are illustrated by bifurcation diagrams and numerical simulations. Two types of bistability are shown to be possible: (i) a stable equilibrium can coexist with another stable equilibrium, and (ii) a stable equilibrium can coexist with a stable periodic solution.

  18. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  19. Role of calcium in gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from the bovine pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kile, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that GnRH acts to release LH by increasing calcium uptake by gonadotroph which in turn stimulates calcium-calmodulin activity and results in LH release from bovine pituitary cells as it does in the rat. Pituitary glands of calves (4-10 months of age) were enzymatically dispersed (0.2% collagenase) and grown for 5 days to confluency in multiwell plates (3 x 10 5 /well). Cells treated with GnRH Ca ++ ionophore A23187, and ouabain all produced significant releases of LH release in a pronounced all or none fashion, while thorough washing of the cells with 0.5 mM EGTA in Ca ++ -free media prevented the action of GnRH. GnRH caused a rapid efflux of 45 Ca ++ . Both GnRH-stimulated 45 Ca efflux and LH release could be partially blocked by verapamil GnRH-induced LH release could also be blocked by nifedipine and tetrodotoxin, although these agents did not affect 45 Ca efflux. The calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium and W7 were found to block GnRH induced LH release, as well as LH release induced by theophylline, KC PGE 2 and estradiol. These data indicated that: (1) calcium is required for GnRH action, but extracellular Ca ++ does not regulate LH release; (2) GnRH elevates intracellular Ca ++ by opening both voltage sensitive and receptor mediated Ca ++ channels; (3) activation of calmodulin is one mechanism involved in GnRH-induced LH release

  20. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  1. Baroreflex deficiency induces additional impairment of vagal tone, diastolic function and calcium handling proteins after myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostarda, Cristiano; Rodrigues, Bruno; Medeiros, Alessandra; Moreira, Edson D; Moraes-Silva, Ivana C; Brum, Patricia C; Angelis, Katia De; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Baroreflex dysfunction has been considered an important mortality predictor after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the impact of baroreflex deficiency prior to MI on tonic autonomic control and cardiac function, and on the profile of proteins associated with intracellular calcium handling has not yet been studied. The aim of the present study was to analyze how the impairment of baroreflex induced by sinoaortic denervation (SAD) prior to MI in rats affects the tonic autonomic control, ventricular function and cardiomyocyte calcium handling proteins. After 15 days of following or SAD surgery, rats underwent MI. Echocardiographic, hemodynamic, autonomic and molecular evaluations were performed 90 days after MI. Baroreflex impairment led to additional damage on: left ventricular remodeling, diastolic function, vagal tonus and intrinsic heart rate after MI. The loss of vagal component of the arterial baroreflex and vagal tonus were correlated with changes in the cardiac proteins involved in intracellular calcium homeostasis. Furthermore, additional increase in sodium calcium exchanger expression levels was associated with impaired diastolic function in experimental animals. Our findings strongly suggest that previous arterial baroreflex deficiency may induce additional impairment of vagal tonus, which was associated with calcium handling proteins abnormalities, probably triggering ventricular diastolic dysfunction after MI in rats. PMID:24936224

  2. Pseudomonas, Pantoea and Cupriavidus isolates induce calcium carbonate precipitation for biorestoration of ornamental stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, M I; Magoulas, A; Kotoulas, G; Catsikis, I; Bakolas, A; Karageorgis, A P; Mavridou, A; Doulia, D; Rigas, F

    2013-08-01

    Bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation from various isolates was investigated aiming at developing an environmentally friendly technique for ornamental stone protection and restoration. Micro-organisms isolated from stone samples and identified using 16S rDNA and biochemical tests promoted calcium carbonate precipitation in solid and novel liquid growth media. Biomineral morphology was studied on marble samples with scanning electron microscopy. Most isolates demonstrated specimen weight increase, covering partially or even completely the marble surfaces mainly with vaterite. The conditions under which vaterite precipitated and its stability throughout the experimental runs are presented. A growth medium that facilitated bacterial growth of different species and promoted biomineralization was formulated. Most isolates induced biomineralization of CaCO3 . Micro-organisms may actually be a milestone in the investigation of vaterite formation facilitating our understanding of geomicrobiological interactions. Pseudomonas, Pantoea and Cupriavidus strains could be candidates for bioconsolidation of ornamental stone protection. Characterization of biomineralization capacity of different bacterial species improves understanding of the bacterially induced mineralization processes and enriches the list of candidates for biorestoration applications. Knowledge of biomineral morphology assists in differentiating mineral from biologically induced precipitates. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Noise-induced chaos and basin erosion in softening Duffing oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Chunbiao

    2005-01-01

    It is common for many dynamical systems to have two or more attractors coexist and in such cases the basin boundary is fractal. The purpose of this paper is to study the noise-induced chaos and discuss the effect of noises on erosion of safe basin in the softening Duffing oscillator. The Melnikov approach is used to obtain the necessary condition for the rising of chaos, and the largest Lyapunov exponent is computed to identify the chaotic nature of the sample time series from the system. According to the Melnikov condition, the safe basins are simulated for both the deterministic and the stochastic cases of the system. It is shown that the external Gaussian white noise excitation is robust for inducing the chaos, while the external bounded noise is weak. Moreover, the erosion of the safe basin can be aggravated by both the Gaussian white and the bounded noise excitations, and fractal boundary can appear when the system is only excited by the random processes, which means noise-induced chaotic response is induced

  4. Alcohol enhances oxysterol-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells by a calcium-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridopoulos, I; Wischhusen, J; Rabenstein, B; Mayer, P; Axel, D I; Fröhlich, K U; Karsch, K R

    2001-03-01

    Controversy exists about the net effect of alcohol on atherogenesis. A protective effect is assumed, especially from the tannins and phenolic compounds in red wine, owing to their inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. However, increased atherogenesis occurs in subjects with moderate to heavy drinking habits. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of alcohol in combination with oxysterols on the endothelium. Cultured human arterial endothelial cells (HAECs) served as an in vitro model to test the cellular effects of various oxysterols. Oxysterols (7beta-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, and cholesterol-5,6-epoxides), which are assumed to be the most toxic constituents of oxidized LDL, induced apoptosis in HAECs through calcium mobilization followed by activation of caspase-3. Ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, tert-butanol, and red wine all potentiated oxysterol-induced cell death up to 5-fold, paralleled by further induction of caspase-3. The alcohol effect occurred in a dose-dependent manner and reached a plateau at 0.05% concentration. Alcohol itself did not affect endothelial cell viability, nor did other solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide mimic the alcohol effect. So far as the physiologically occurring oxysterols are concerned, this effect was apparent only for oxysterols oxidized at the steran ring. The possibility of alcohol facilitating the uptake of oxysterols into the cell was not supported by the data from an uptake study with radiolabeled compounds. Finally, alcohol in combination with oxysterols did cause a dramatic increase in cytosolic calcium influx. Blockage of calcium influx by the calcium channel blocker aurintricarboxylic acid or the calcium chelator ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid abrogated the alcohol-mediated enhancement of oxysterol toxicity. We describe for the first time a mechanistic concept explaining possible adverse effects of alcohol in conjunction with

  5. Patterns of patterns of synchronization: Noise induced attractor switching in rings of coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emenheiser, Jeffrey [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Chapman, Airlie; Mesbahi, Mehran [William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Pósfai, Márton [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Crutchfield, James P. [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States); D' Souza, Raissa M. [Complexity Sciences Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Following the long-lived qualitative-dynamics tradition of explaining behavior in complex systems via the architecture of their attractors and basins, we investigate the patterns of switching between distinct trajectories in a network of synchronized oscillators. Our system, consisting of nonlinear amplitude-phase oscillators arranged in a ring topology with reactive nearest-neighbor coupling, is simple and connects directly to experimental realizations. We seek to understand how the multiple stable synchronized states connect to each other in state space by applying Gaussian white noise to each of the oscillators' phases. To do this, we first analytically identify a set of locally stable limit cycles at any given coupling strength. For each of these attracting states, we analyze the effect of weak noise via the covariance matrix of deviations around those attractors. We then explore the noise-induced attractor switching behavior via numerical investigations. For a ring of three oscillators, we find that an attractor-switching event is always accompanied by the crossing of two adjacent oscillators' phases. For larger numbers of oscillators, we find that the distribution of times required to stochastically leave a given state falls off exponentially, and we build an attractor switching network out of the destination states as a coarse-grained description of the high-dimensional attractor-basin architecture.

  6. Potassium-induced contraction in the lamb proximal urethra: Involvement of norepinephrine and different calcium entry pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pascual, A.; Costa, G.; Isla, M.; Jimenez, E.; Garcia-Sacristan, A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the peculiar biphasic response of the lamb urethral smooth muscle to high K+ solutions. The relative amplitude of the phasic and tonic components of the contraction and its reproducibility were dependent on the concentration of K+ used. Only concentrations higher than 80 mM (i.e., 120 mM) showed a tonic component greater in amplitude than the phasic one and manifested a tachyphylactic effect. Phentolamine (10(-6) M), prazosin (10(-6) M) and chemical denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine significantly inhibited the tonic component of the K+ (120 mM)-induced contraction, modifying its morphology. Reproducible contractions to K+ (120 mM) could be obtained in the presence of prazosin (10(-6) M) or cocaine (10(-6) M). The preparations were also shown to accumulate [3H]noradrenaline and release it upon depolarization with K+ (60 and 120 mM). Calcium removal inhibited the K+ (120 mM)-induced contraction. After addition of calcium (0.5-5 mM) the contractile activity was restored. Nifedipine (10(-6) M) and verapamil (10(-6) M) but not sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) M) significantly blocked the contractile response for calcium as well as the phasic component of the K+ contraction in calcium-containing medium. In preparations treated with prazosin (10(-6) M) the tonic component of the K+ (120 mM) contraction was more sensitive to nifedipine and removal of extracellular calcium than the phasic one

  7. Copper-induced activation of TRP channels promotes extracellular calcium entry and activation of CaMs and CDPKs leading to copper entry and membrane depolarization in Ulva compressa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGómez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify channels involved in membrane depolarization, Ulva compressa was incubated with agonists of TRP channels C5, A1 and V1 and the level of intracellular calcium was detected. Agonists of TRPC5, A1 and V1 induced increases in intracellular calcium at 4, 9 and 12 min of exposure, respectively, and antagonists of TRPC5, A1 and V1 corresponding to SKF-96365 (SKF, HC-030031 (HC and capsazepin (CPZ, respectively, inhibited calcium increases indicating that functional TRPs exist in U. compressa. In addition, copper excess induced increases in intracellular calcium at 4, 9 and 12 min which were inhibited by SKF, HC and CPZ, respectively, indicating that copper activate TRPC5, A1 and V1 channels. Moreover, copper-induced calcium increases were inhibited by EGTA, a non-permeable calcium chelating agent, but not by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER calcium ATPase, indicating that activation of TRPs leads to extracellular calcium entry. Furthermore, copper-induced calcium increases were not inhibited by W-7, an inhibitor of CaMs, and staurosporine, an inhibitor of CDPKs, indicating that extracellular calcium entry did not require CaMs and CDPKs activation. In addition, copper induced membrane depolarization events at 4, 8 and 11 min and these events were inhibited by SKF, HC, CPZ and bathocuproine, a specific copper chelating agent, indicating copper entry through TRP channels leading to membrane depolarization. Moreover, membrane depolarization events were inhibited by W-7 and staurosporine, indicating that CaMs and CDPKs are required in order to activate TRPs to allow copper entry. Thus, light-dependent copper-induced activation TRPC5, A1 and V1 promotes extracellular calcium entry leading to activation of CaMs and CDPKs which, in turn, promotes copper entry through these TRP channels leading to membrane depolarization.

  8. [Changes induced by hypertonic solutions in the transportation of calcium by the cardiac reticular sarcoplasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M; Holguín, J A

    1979-01-01

    In the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the myocardium, celular organell which function is to regulate the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium in contraction and relaxation, we have studied the effect of hypertonic solutions of sucrose between 1 and 6.96 times the normal tonicity in order to observe the behavior of the internal linked or free calcium of this structure, as well as to prove the hypothesis that hypertonic solutions encourage the calcium exit of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum with the resulting signs of contractures. The following results were obtained: 1. The ATP hydrolisis and calcium transport rate are 14% and 90% respectively of the maximum speeds of 10(-5) M in calcium, while for concentrations of 10(-7) M or ess of the said cation, the transport rates and the ATPase do not reach 5% of the maximum values. 2. Between 1 and 2.54 times of the normal tonicity the calcium uptake remains between 400 and 500 nmoles of calcium/mg protein/min, the transported amount of calcium varies between 14 and 16 nmoles/mg protein and the rate of the ATP hydrolysis increases a 37% to 0.4 M in sucrose. 3. Between 0.4 and 1.2 M in sucrose of 2.54 to 6.96 times the isotonicity, the calcium transport rate velocity as well as the ATP hydrolisis are strongly inhibited. The vesicles volume minimizes and the amount of linked calcium remains within the control values, proving that the capacity of linking this cathion is independent from sarcoplasmic reticulum volume. These results show that the sarcoplasmic reticulum is involved in the contractures induced by hypertonic solutions in intact cells, since the osmolarity increase produces changes of volume which results in a decrease of the calcium transportation velocity or in an increase of the exit of said cathion.

  9. Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+ indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+ indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+ indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+ indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+ complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0. PMID:23685703

  10. Direct imaging of ER calcium with targeted-esterase induced dye loading (TED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-05-07

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca(2+) indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca(2+) indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca(2+) indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca(2+) indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca(2+) complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0.

  11. Cyanohydrin reactions enhance glycolytic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Nielsen, Astrid Gram; Tortzen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous metabolic oscillations can be induced in yeast by addition of glucose and removal of extracellular acetaldehyde (ACAx). Compared to other means of ACAx removal, cyanide robustly induces oscillations, indicating additional cyanide reactions besides ACA to lactonitrile conversion. Here......: a) by reducing [ACAx] relative to oscillation amplitude, b) by targeting multiple intracellular carbonyl compounds during fermentation, and c) by acting as a phase resetting stimulus....

  12. [Effect of 2,3-butanedione monoxime on calcium paradox-induced heart injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-Heng; Gu, Xiao-Ming; Su, Xing-Li; Sun, Na; Wei, Ming; Zhu, Juan-Xia; Chang, Pan; Zhou, Jing-Jun

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the Effect of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) on calcium paradox-induced heart injury and its underlying mechanisms. Thirty-two adult male SD rats were randomized into 4 groups, namely the control group, BDM treatment control group, calcium paradox group, and BDM treatment group. Isolated Sprague Dawley male rat hearts underwent Langendorff perfusion and the left ventricular pressure (LVP) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were monitored. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) was calculated to evaluate the myocardial performance. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content in the coronary flow was determined. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was used to measure the infarct size, and myocardial cell apoptosis was tested with TUNEL method. Western blotting was used to determine the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cytochrome c. Compared with the control group, BDM at 20 mmol/L had no effect on cardiac performance, cell death, apoptotic index or the content of LDH, cleaved caspase-3 and cytochrome c at the end of perfusion under control conditions (P>0.05). Calcium paradox treatment significantly decreased the cardiac function and the level of LVDP and induced a larger infarct size (Pparadox, and markedly down-regulated the levels of LVEDP and LDH (Pparadox, suggesting the value of BDM as an potential drug for myocardial ischemia reperfusion injur.

  13. Comparative biology of sperm factors and fertilization-induced calcium signals across the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashir, Junaid; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin; Stricker, Stephen A

    2013-10-01

    Fertilization causes mature oocytes or eggs to increase their concentrations of intracellular calcium ions (Ca²⁺) in all animals that have been examined, and such Ca²⁺ elevations, in turn, provide key activating signals that are required for non-parthenogenetic development. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Ca²⁺ transients produced during fertilization in mammals and other taxa are triggered by soluble factors that sperm deliver into oocytes after gamete fusion. Thus, for a broad-based analysis of Ca²⁺ dynamics during fertilization in animals, this article begins by summarizing data on soluble sperm factors in non-mammalian species, and subsequently reviews various topics related to a sperm-specific phospholipase C, called PLCζ, which is believed to be the predominant activator of mammalian oocytes. After characterizing initiation processes that involve sperm factors or alternative triggering mechanisms, the spatiotemporal patterns of Ca²⁺ signals in fertilized oocytes or eggs are compared in a taxon-by-taxon manner, and broadly classified as either a single major transient or a series of repetitive oscillations. Both solitary and oscillatory types of fertilization-induced Ca²⁺ signals are typically propagated as global waves that depend on Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum in response to increased concentrations of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP₃). Thus, for taxa where relevant data are available, upstream pathways that elevate intraoocytic IP3 levels during fertilization are described, while other less-common modes of producing Ca²⁺ transients are also examined. In addition, the importance of fertilization-induced Ca²⁺ signals for activating development is underscored by noting some major downstream effects of these signals in various animals. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Calcium Hydroxide-induced Proliferation, Migration, Osteogenic Differentiation, and Mineralization via the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luoping; Zheng, Lisha; Jiang, Jingyi; Gui, Jinpeng; Zhang, Lingyu; Huang, Yan; Chen, Xiaofang; Ji, Jing; Fan, Yubo

    2016-09-01

    Calcium hydroxide has been extensively used as the gold standard for direct pulp capping in clinical dentistry. It induces proliferation, migration, and mineralization in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization in human DPSCs. Human DPSCs between passages 3 and 6 were used. DPSCs were preincubated with inhibitors of MAP kinases and cultured with calcium hydroxide. The phosphorylated MAP kinases were detected by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was analyzed via the methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. Cell migration was estimated using the wound healing assay. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was analyzed using the ALP staining assay. Mineralization was studied by alizarin red staining analysis. Calcium hydroxide significantly promoted the phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The inhibition of JNK and p38 signaling abolished calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation of DPSCs. The inhibition of JNK, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling suppressed the migration, ALP expression, and mineralization of DPSCs. Our study showed that the MAP kinase pathway was involved in calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization in human DPSCs. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium channel blocker prevents stress-induced activation of renin and aldosterone in conscious pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceremuzynski, L.K.; Klos, J.; Barcikowski, B.; Herbaczynska-Cedro, K.

    1991-01-01

    A considerable amount of data suggest the involvement of calcium-mediated processes in the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) cascade. To investigate the effect of calcium-channel inhibition on the RAA system, the authors studied 21 conscious pigs. Blood renin and aldosterone levels increased by subjecting animals to 24 hours of immobilization stress. Renin and aldosterone levels were repeatedly measured by radioimmunoassay in blood samples taken periodically over 24 hours from a chronically implanted arterial cannula. Pretreatment of the animals (N = 11) with nisoldipine, 2 x 20 mg p.o. daily for 2 days before and on the day of immobilization, transiently attenuated the stress-induced increase of plasma renin activity and completely prevented the rise of aldosterone, as compared to nontreated controls (N = 10). The finding that nisoldipine suppresses RAA activation induced by a nonpharmacologic stimulus in the conscious intact animal may have clinical implications

  16. Importance of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in interleukin-1b-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgazli, K M; Venker, C J; Mericliler, M; Atmaca, N; Parahuleva, M; Erdogan, A

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in interleukin-1b (IL-1b) induced inflammation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated and cultured. Endothelial cell membrane potential measurements were accomplished using the fluorescent dye DiBAC4(3). The role of BKCa was assessed using iberiotoxin, a highly selective BKCa inhibitor. Changes in the calcium intracellular calcium were investigated using Fura-2-AM imaging. Fluorescent dyes DCF-AM and DAF-AM were further used in order to measure the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, respectively. Endothelial cell adhesion tests were conducted with BCECF-AM adhesion assay and tritium thymidine uptake using human monocytic cells (U937). Expression of cellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) was determined by flow cytometer. Interleukin-1b induced a BKCa dependent hyperpolarization of HUVECs. This was followed by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. Furthermore, IL-1b significantly increased the synthesis of NO and ROS. The increase of intracellular calcium, radicals and NO resulted in a BKCa dependent adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs. Endothelial cells treated with IL-1b expressed both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in significantly higher amounts as when compared to controls. It was further shown that the cellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were responsible for the BKCa-dependent increase in cellular adhesion. Additionally, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase with DPI led to a significant downregulation of IL-1b-induced expression of ICAM and VCAM, as well as inhibition of eNOS by L-NMMA, and intracellular calcium by BAPTA. Activation of the endothelial BKCa plays an important role in the IL-1b-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.

  17. Calcium Occupancy of N-terminal Sites within Calmodulin Induces Inhibition of the Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschek, Curt B; Jones, Terry E; Squier, Thomas C; Bigelow, Diana J

    2007-08-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) regulates calcium release from intracellular stores in skeletal muscle through its association with the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) calcium release channel, where CaM association enhances channel opening at resting calcium levels and its closing at micromolar calcium levels associated with muscle contraction. A high-affinity CaM-binding sequence (RyRp) has been identified in RyR1, which corresponds to a 30-residue sequence (i.e., K3614 – N3643) located within the central portion of the primary sequence. However, it is currently unclear whether the identified CaM-binding sequence a) senses calcium over the physiological range of calcium-concentrations associated with RyR1 regulation or b) plays a structural role unrelated to the calcium-dependent modulation of RyR1 function. Therefore, we have measured the calcium-dependent activation of the individual domains of CaM in association with RyRp and their relationship to the CaM-dependent regulation of RyR1. These measurements utilize an engineered CaM, permitting the site-specific incorporation of N-(1-pyrene) maleimide at either T34C (PyN-CaM) or T110C (PyC-CaM) in the N- and C-domains, respectively. Consistent with prior measurements, we observe a high-affinity association between both apo- and calcium-activated CaM and RyRp. Upon association with RyRp, fluorescence changes in PyN-CaM or PyC-CaM permit the measurement of the calcium-activation of these individual domains. Fluorescence changes upon calcium-activation of PyC-CaM in association with RyRp are indicative of high-affinity calcium-dependent activation of the C-terminal domain of CaM bound to RyRp at resting calcium levels and the activation of the N-terminal domain at levels of calcium associated cellular activation. In comparison, occupancy of calcium-binding sites in the N-domain of CaM mirrors the calcium-dependence of RyR1 inhibition observed at activating calcium levels, where [Ca]1/2 = 4.3 0.4 μM, suggesting a direct regulation of Ry

  18. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  19. 6-OHDA induced calcium influx through N-type calcium channel alters membrane properties via PKA pathway in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liang; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Li, Nan; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Qian; Gao, Guo-Dong; Wang, Xue-Lian

    2014-07-11

    Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) are sensitive to oxidative stress, and their activation or inactivation can impact cell death. Although these channels have been extensively studied in expression systems, their role in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), remain controversial. In this study, we assessed 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced transformation of firing pattern and functional changes of calcium channels in SNc dopaminergic neurons. Application of 6-OHDA (0.5-2mM) evoked a dose-dependent, desensitizing inward current and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) rise. In voltage clamp, ω-conotoxin-sensitive Ca(2+) current modulation mediated by 6-OHDA reflected an altered sensitivity. Furthermore, we found that 6-OHDA modulated Ca(2+) currents through PKA pathway. These results provided evidence for the potential role of VGCCs and PKA involved in oxidative stress in degeneration of SNc neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  1. Phagocytosis-induced /sup 45/calcium efflux in polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, A; Schell-Frederick, E [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire; Paridaens, R [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Faculte de Medicine

    1977-10-15

    The role of calcium ions in regulating the structure and function of non-muscle cells is a subject of intense study. Several lines of evidence that calcium may be essential in the function of polymorphonuclear leuocytes (PMNL) and an important control element in the process of phagocytosis. Direct studies of calcium distribution and fluxes have only recently been undertaken. To our knowledge, no report of calcium movements during normal phagocytosis has been published. In the context of an overall study of calcium dynamics in the PMNL, we report here initial studies on /sup 45/Ca efflux in prelabelled guinea pig PMNL. The results demonstrate the energy-dependence of resting calcium efflux and an increased efflux upon addition of phagocytic particles which is not dependent on particle internalization.

  2. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 {mu}m existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  3. Boundary-induced pattern formation from uniform temporal oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsokabe, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2018-04-01

    Pattern dynamics triggered by fixing a boundary is investigated. By considering a reaction-diffusion equation that has a unique spatially uniform and limit cycle attractor under a periodic or Neumann boundary condition, and then by choosing a fixed boundary condition, we found three novel phases depending on the ratio of diffusion constants of activator to inhibitor: transformation of temporally periodic oscillation into a spatially periodic fixed pattern, travelling wave emitted from the boundary, and aperiodic spatiotemporal dynamics. The transformation into a fixed, periodic pattern is analyzed by crossing of local nullclines at each spatial point, shifted by diffusion terms, as is analyzed by using recursive equations, to obtain the spatial pattern as an attractor. The generality of the boundary-induced pattern formation as well as its relevance to biological morphogenesis is discussed.

  4. Spine Calcium Transients Induced by Synaptically-Evoked Action Potentials Can Predict Synapse Location and Establish Synaptic Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Rhiannon M.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive hundreds of synaptic inputs at different distances from the soma. Distance-dependent synaptic scaling enables distal and proximal synapses to influence the somatic membrane equally, a phenomenon called “synaptic democracy”. How this is established is unclear. The backpropagating action potential (BAP) is hypothesised to provide distance-dependent information to synapses, allowing synaptic strengths to scale accordingly. Experimental measurements show that a BAP evoked by current injection at the soma causes calcium currents in the apical shaft whose amplitudes decay with distance from the soma. However, in vivo action potentials are not induced by somatic current injection but by synaptic inputs along the dendrites, which creates a different excitable state of the dendrites. Due to technical limitations, it is not possible to study experimentally whether distance information can also be provided by synaptically-evoked BAPs. Therefore we adapted a realistic morphological and electrophysiological model to measure BAP-induced voltage and calcium signals in spines after Schaffer collateral synapse stimulation. We show that peak calcium concentration is highly correlated with soma-synapse distance under a number of physiologically-realistic suprathreshold stimulation regimes and for a range of dendritic morphologies. Peak calcium levels also predicted the attenuation of the EPSP across the dendritic tree. Furthermore, we show that peak calcium can be used to set up a synaptic democracy in a homeostatic manner, whereby synapses regulate their synaptic strength on the basis of the difference between peak calcium and a uniform target value. We conclude that information derived from synaptically-generated BAPs can indicate synapse location and can subsequently be utilised to implement a synaptic democracy. PMID:22719238

  5. Slow oscillations orchestrating fast oscillations and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Slow-wave sleep (SWS) facilitates the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. Based on the standard two-stage memory model, we propose that memory consolidation during SWS represents a process of system consolidation which is orchestrated by the neocortical memory. The slow oscillations temporally group neuronal activity into up-states of strongly enhanced neuronal activity and down-states of neuronal silence. In a feed-forward efferent action, this grouping is induced not only in the neocortex but also in other structures relevant to consolidation, namely the thalamus generating 10-15Hz spindles, and the hippocampus generating sharp wave-ripples, with the latter well known to accompany a replay of newly encoded memories taking place in hippocampal circuitries. The feed-forward synchronizing effect of the slow oscillation enables the formation of spindle-ripple events where ripples and accompanying reactivated hippocampal memory information become nested into the single troughs of spindles. Spindle-ripple events thus enable reactivated memory-related hippocampal information to be fed back to neocortical networks in the excitable slow oscillation up-state where they can induce enduring plastic synaptic changes underlying the effective formation of long-term memories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Human cartilaginous endplate degeneration is induced by calcium and the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor in the intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Grant

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cartilaginous endplates (CEPs are thin layers of hyaline cartilage found adjacent to intervertebral discs (IVDs. In addition to providing structural support, CEPs regulate nutrient and metabolic exchange in the disc. In IVD pathogenesis, CEP undergoes degeneration and calcification, compromising nutrient availability and disc cell metabolism. The mechanism(s underlying the biochemical changes of CEP in disc degeneration are currently unknown. Since calcification is often observed in later stages of IVD degeneration, we hypothesised that elevations in free calcium (Ca2+ impair CEP homeostasis. Indeed, our results demonstrated that the Ca2+ content was consistently higher in human CEP tissue with grade of disc degeneration. Increasing the levels of Ca2+ resulted in decreases in the secretion and accumulation of collagens type I, II and proteoglycan in cultured human CEP cells. Ca2+ exerted its effects on CEP matrix protein synthesis through activation of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR; however, aggrecan content was also affected independent of CaSR activation as increases in Ca2+ directly enhanced the activity of aggrecanases. Finally, supplementing Ca2+ in our IVD organ cultures was sufficient to induce degeneration and increase the mineralisation of CEP, and decrease the diffusion of glucose into the disc. Thus, any attempt to induce anabolic repair of the disc without addressing Ca2+ may be impaired, as the increased metabolic demand of IVD cells would be compromised by decreases in the permeability of the CEP.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Photon Induced Photoacoustic Streaming for Removal of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Laky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide removal from the root canal by photon induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS compared to needle irrigation and irrigation using sonic activation was investigated. Additionally, safety issues regarding apical extrusion were addressed. In endodontic treatment temporary intracanal medication like calcium hydroxide should be completely removed for long term success. For analysis, 60 artificial teeth were prepared, filled with calcium hydroxide, and divided into four groups. The teeth were assigned to needle irrigation, irrigation using a sonic device, PIPS with a lower energy setting (10 mJ, 15 Hz, or PIPS with a higher energy setting (25 mJ/40 Hz. For comparison the weight of each tooth was measured before and after calcium hydroxide incorporation, as well as after removing calcium hydroxide using the four different methods. Regarding safety issues another 24 samples were filled with stained calcium hydroxide and embedded in 0.4% agarose gel. Color changes in the agarose gel due to apical extrusion were digitally analysed using Photoshop. No significant differences were found for calcium hydroxide removal between the two laser groups. Sonic assisted removal and needle irrigation resulted in significant less calcium hydroxide removal than both laser groups, with significantly more calcium hydroxide removal in the ultrasonic group than in the needle irrigation group. For apical extrusion the higher laser (25 mJ/40 Hz group resulted in significant higher color changes of the periapical gel than all other groups. PIPS with the setting of 10 mJ/15 Hz achieved almost complete removal of calcium hydroxide without increasing apical extrusion of the irrigation solution.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics in a trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensate induced by an oscillating Gaussian potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kazuya; Tsubota, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    We consider a trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensate penetrated by a repulsive Gaussian potential and theoretically investigate the dynamics induced by oscillating the Gaussian potential. Our study is based on the numerical calculation of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Our calculation reveals the dependence of the characteristic behavior of the condensate on the amplitude and frequency of the oscillating potential. These dynamics are deeply related to the nucleation and dynamics of quantized vortices and solitons. When the potential oscillates with a large amplitude, it nucleates many vortex pairs that move away from the potential. When the amplitude of the oscillation is small, it nucleates solitons through an annihilation of vortex pairs. We discuss three issues concerning the nucleation of vortices. The first is the phase diagram for the nucleation of vortices and solitons near the oscillating potential. The second is the mechanism and critical velocity of the nucleation. The critical velocity of the nucleation is an important issue in quantum fluids, and we propose an expression for the velocity containing both the coherence length and the size of the potential. The third is the divergence of the nucleation time, which is the time it takes for the potential to nucleate vortices, near the critical parameters for vortex nucleation.

  9. Calcium plays a key role in paraoxon-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by regulating both endoplasmic reticulum- and mitochondria-associated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Du, Yi; Ju, Furong; Ma, Shunxiang; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is one of the most toxic organophosphorus pesticides, but its toxic mechanisms associated with apoptosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate calcium-associated mechanisms in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells. EL4 cells were exposed to POX for 0-16 h. EGTA was used to chelate Ca(2+ ) in extracellular medium, and heparin and procaine were used to inhibit Ca(2+ )efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Z-ATAD-FMK was used to inhibit caspase-12 activity. The apoptotic rate assay, western blotting and immunocytochemistry (ICC) were used to reveal the mechanisms of POX-induced apoptosis. POX significantly increased the expression and activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3, enhanced expression of calpain 1 and calpain 2, and induced the release of cyt c, but did not change the expression of Grp 78. Inhibiting caspase-12 activity alleviated POX-induced upregulation of calpain 1 and caspase-3, promoted POX-induced upregulation of calpain 2, and reduced POX-induced cyt c release, suggesting that there was a cross-talk between the ER-associated pathway and mitochondria-associated apoptotic signals. Attenuating intracellular calcium concentration with EGTA, heparin or procaine decreased POX-induced upregulation of calpain 1, calpain 2, caspase-12 and caspase-3, and reduced POX-induced cyt c release. After pretreatment with EGTA or procaine, POX significantly promoted expression of Grp 78. Calcium played a key role in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by regulating both ER- and mitochondria-associated pathways. The cross-talk of ER- and mitochondria-associated pathways was accomplished through calcium signal.

  10. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida

    2016-01-01

    respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections...... reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular...

  11. Airfoil flow instabilities induced by background flow oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selerowicz, W.C.; Szumowski, A.P. [Technical Univ. Warsaw (Poland)

    2002-04-01

    The effect of background flow oscillations on transonic airfoil (NACA 0012) flow was investigated experimentally. The oscillations were generated by means of a rotating plate placed downstream of the airfoil. Owing to oscillating chocking of the flow caused by the plate, the airfoil flow periodically accelerated and decelerated. This led to strong variations in the surface pressure and the airfoil loading. The results are presented for two angles of attack, {alpha}=4 and {alpha}=8.5 , which correspond to the attached and separated steady airfoil flows, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Reply to “Comment on ‘Axion induced oscillating electric dipole moments’”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2017-03-28

    A recent paper of Flambaum, Roberts and Stadnik, [1], claims there is no induced oscillating electric dipole moment (OEDM), eg, for the electron, arising from the oscillating cosmic axion background via the anomaly. This claim is based upon the assumption that electric dipoles always be defined by their coupling to static (constant in time) electric fields. The relevant Feynman diagram, as computed by [1], then becomes a total divergence, and vanishes in momentum space. However, an OEDM does arise from the anomaly, coupled to time dependent electric fields. It shares the decoupling properties with the anomaly. The full action, in an arbitrary gauge, was computed in [2], [3]. It is nonvanishing with a time dependent outgoing photon, and yields physics, eg, electric dipole radiation of an electron immersed in a cosmic axion field.

  13. Mean field strategies induce unrealistic nonlinearities in calcium puffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eSolovey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mean field models are often useful approximations to biological systems, but sometimes, they can yield misleading results. In this work, we compare mean field approaches with stochastic models of intracellular calcium release. In particular, we concentrate on calcium signals generated by the concerted opening of several clustered channels (calcium puffs. To this end we simulate calcium puffs numerically and then try to reproduce features of the resulting calcium distribution using mean field models were all the channels open and close simultaneously. We show that an unrealistic nonlinear relationship between the current and the number of open channels is needed to reproduce the simulated puffs. Furthermore, a single channel current which is five times smaller than the one of the stochastic simulations is also needed. Our study sheds light on the importance of the stochastic kinetics of the calcium release channel activity to estimate the release fluxes.

  14. Nonstationary oscillation of gyrotron backward wave oscillators with cylindrical interaction structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Hung; Chen, Liu

    2013-01-01

    The nonstationary oscillation of the gyrotron backward wave oscillator (gyro-BWO) with cylindrical interaction structure was studied utilizing both steady-state analyses and time-dependent simulations. Comparisons of the numerical results reveal that the gyro-BWO becomes nonstationary when the trailing field structure completely forms due to the dephasing energetic electrons. The backward propagation of radiated waves with a lower resonant frequency from the trailing field structure interferes with the main internal feedback loop, thereby inducing the nonstationary oscillation of the gyro-BWO. The nonstationary gyro-BWO exhibits the same spectral pattern of modulated oscillations with a constant frequency separation between the central frequency and sidebands throughout the whole system. The frequency separation is found to be scaled with the square root of the maximum field amplitude, thus further demonstrating that the nonstationary oscillation of the gyro-BWO is associated with the beam-wave resonance detuning

  15. Voltage-gated calcium flux mediates Escherichia coli mechanosensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Giancarlo N; Weekley, R Andrew; Dodd, Benjamin J T; Kralj, Joel M

    2017-08-29

    Electrically excitable cells harness voltage-coupled calcium influx to transmit intracellular signals, typically studied in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Despite intense study in higher organisms, investigations of voltage and calcium signaling in bacteria have lagged due to their small size and a lack of sensitive tools. Only recently were bacteria shown to modulate their membrane potential on the timescale of seconds, and little is known about the downstream effects from this modulation. In this paper, we report on the effects of electrophysiology in individual bacteria. A genetically encoded calcium sensor expressed in Escherichia coli revealed calcium transients in single cells. A fusion sensor that simultaneously reports voltage and calcium indicated that calcium influx is induced by voltage depolarizations, similar to metazoan action potentials. Cytoplasmic calcium levels and transients increased upon mechanical stimulation with a hydrogel, and single cells altered protein concentrations dependent on the mechanical environment. Blocking voltage and calcium flux altered mechanically induced changes in protein concentration, while inducing calcium flux reproduced these changes. Thus, voltage and calcium relay a bacterial sense of touch and alter cellular lifestyle. Although the calcium effectors remain unknown, these data open a host of new questions about E. coli , including the identity of the underlying molecular players, as well as other signals conveyed by voltage and calcium. These data also provide evidence that dynamic voltage and calcium exists as a signaling modality in the oldest domain of life, and therefore studying electrophysiology beyond canonical electrically excitable cells could yield exciting new findings.

  16. Prediction of the handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillation rating levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Irina AFLOARE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The basis for the aviation development is the ambition of increasing the efficiency and safety of flight. Improvements include flight performance and extended flight envelope, new flight regimes and tasks. However, all of these factors lead to the increase of pilot workload which can reduce the accuracy and safety of flight. Fixed and rotary wing pilots are being confronted with potential instabilities or with annoying limit cycle oscillations, known as Aircraft/Rotorcraft Pilot Couplings (A/RPC that arise from the effort of controlling the vehicle with high response actuators. This paper deals with the unified theory of predicting handling qualities level (HQSF and pilot-induced oscillation rating levels (PIOR based on the structural model of human operator, developed by Hess. HQSF and PIOR are capable of capturing the prominent features of human pilot dynamics characteristics for a large class of aerial vehicles and tasks. The key element in this method is to unify the topics of vehicle handling qualities and RPC/PIO, applied to the analysis of a medium weight helicopter model.

  17. Drug perfusion enhancement in tissue model by steady streaming induced by oscillating microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin Sun; Kwon, Yong Seok; Lee, Kyung Ho; Jeong, Woowon; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2014-01-01

    Drug delivery into neurological tissue is challenging because of the low tissue permeability. Ultrasound incorporating microbubbles has been applied to enhance drug delivery into these tissues, but the effects of a streaming flow by microbubble oscillation on drug perfusion have not been elucidated. In order to clarify the physical effects of steady streaming on drug delivery, an experimental study on dye perfusion into a tissue model was performed using microbubbles excited by acoustic waves. The surface concentration and penetration length of the drug were increased by 12% and 13%, respectively, with streaming flow. The mass of dye perfused into a tissue phantom for 30s was increased by about 20% in the phantom with oscillating bubbles. A computational model that considers fluid structure interaction for streaming flow fields induced by oscillating bubbles was developed, and mass transfer of the drug into the porous tissue model was analyzed. The computed flow fields agreed with the theoretical solutions, and the dye concentration distribution in the tissue agreed well with the experimental data. The computational results showed that steady streaming with a streaming velocity of a few millimeters per second promotes mass transfer into a tissue. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Filamin and phospholipase C-ε are required for calcium signaling in the Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismar Kovacevic

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca is a myoepithelial tube that stores sperm and undergoes cycles of stretching and constriction as oocytes enter, are fertilized, and exit into the uterus. FLN-1/filamin, a stretch-sensitive structural and signaling scaffold, and PLC-1/phospholipase C-ε, an enzyme that generates the second messenger IP3, are required for embryos to exit normally after fertilization. Using GCaMP, a genetically encoded calcium indicator, we show that entry of an oocyte into the spermatheca initiates a distinctive series of IP3-dependent calcium oscillations that propagate across the tissue via gap junctions and lead to constriction of the spermatheca. PLC-1 is required for the calcium release mechanism triggered by oocyte entry, and FLN-1 is required for timely initiation of the calcium oscillations. INX-12, a gap junction subunit, coordinates propagation of the calcium transients across the spermatheca. Gain-of-function mutations in ITR-1/IP3R, an IP3-dependent calcium channel, and loss-of-function mutations in LFE-2, a negative regulator of IP3 signaling, increase calcium release and suppress the exit defect in filamin-deficient animals. We further demonstrate that a regulatory cassette consisting of MEL-11/myosin phosphatase and NMY-1/non-muscle myosin is required for coordinated contraction of the spermatheca. In summary, this study answers long-standing questions concerning calcium signaling dynamics in the C. elegans spermatheca and suggests FLN-1 is needed in response to oocyte entry to trigger calcium release and coordinated contraction of the spermathecal tissue.

  19. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samigullin, Dmitry; Fatikhov, Nijaz; Khaziev, Eduard; Skorinkin, Andrey; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2014-01-01

    At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers-which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal-has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca(2+) currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 pA and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 μM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  20. Density-wave oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belblidia, L.A.; Bratianu, C.

    1979-01-01

    Boiling flow in a steam generator, a water-cooled reactor, and other multiphase processes can be subject to instabilities. It appears that the most predominant instabilities are the so-called density-wave oscillations. They can cause difficulties for three main reasons; they may induce burnout; they may cause mechanical vibrations of components; and they create system control problems. A comprehensive review is presented of experimental and theoretical studies concerning density-wave oscillations. (author)

  1. The role of inelastic processes in the temperature dependence of hall induced resistance oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunold, Alejandro; Torres, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of magnetoresistance oscillations induced by the Hall field in order to study the temperature dependence observed in recent experiments in two dimensional electron systems. The model is based on the solution of the von Neumann equation incorporating the exact dynamics of two-dimensional damped electrons in the presence of arbitrarily strong magnetic and dc electric fields, while the effects of randomly distributed neutral and charged impurities are perturbatively added. Both the effects of elastic impurity scattering as well as those related to inelastic processes play an important role. The theoretical predictions correctly reproduce the experimentally observed oscillations amplitude, provided that the quantum inelastic scattering rate obeys a T 2 temperature dependence, consistent with electron–electron interaction effects

  2. Can the use of pulsed direct current induce oscillation in the applied pressure during spark plasma sintering?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, David; Eriksson, Mirva; Nygren, Mats; Shen Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    The spark plasma sintering (SPS) process is known for its rapid densification of metals and ceramics. The mechanism behind this rapid densification has been discussed during the last few decades and is yet uncertain. During our SPS experiments we noticed oscillations in the applied pressure, related to a change in electric current. In this study, we investigated the effect of pulsed electrical current on the applied mechanical pressure and related changes in temperature. We eliminated the effect of sample shrinkage in the SPS setup and used a transparent quartz die allowing direct observation of the sample. We found that the use of pulsed direct electric current in our apparatus induces pressure oscillations with the amplitude depending on the current density. While sintering Ti samples we observed temperature oscillations resulting from pressure oscillations, which we attribute to magnetic forces generated within the SPS apparatus. The described current–pressure–temperature relations might increase understanding of the SPS process.

  3. Photoacoustic microbeam-oscillator with tunable resonance direction and amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingjun; Li, Fanghao; Wang, Bo; Yi, Futing; Jiang, J. Z.; Zhang, Dongxian

    2018-01-01

    We successfully design one photoacoustic microbeam-oscillator actuated by nanosecond laser, which exhibits tunable resonance direction and amplitude. The mechanism of laser induced oscillation is systematically analyzed. Both simulation and experimental results reveal that the laser induced acoustic wave propagates in a multi-reflected mode, resulting in resonance in the oscillator. This newly-fabricated micrometer-sized beam-oscillator has an excellent actuation function, i.e., by tuning the laser frequency, the direction and amplitude of actuation can be efficiently altered, which will have potential industrial applications.

  4. The involvement of calcium and MAP kinase signaling pathways in the production of radiation-induced bystander effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyng, F M

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence now exists regarding radiation-induced bystander effects, but the mechanisms involved in the transduction of the signal are still unclear. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been linked to growth factor-mediated regulation of cellular events such as proliferation, senescence, differentiation and apoptosis. Activation of multiple MAPK pathways such as the ERK, JNK and p38 pathways have been shown to occur after exposure of cells to radiation and a variety of other toxic stresses. Previous studies have shown oxidative stress and calcium signaling to be important in radiation-induced bystander effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate MAPK signaling pathways in bystander cells exposed to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and the role of oxidative metabolism and calcium signaling in the induction of bystander responses. Human keratinocytes (HPV-G cell line) were irradiated (0.005-5 Gy) using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The medium was harvested 1 h postirradiation and transferred to recipient HPV-G cells. Phosphorylated forms of p38, JNK and ERK were studied by immunofluorescence 30 min-24 h after exposure to ICCM. Inhibitors of the ERK pathway (PD98059 and U0126), the JNK pathway (SP600125), and the p38 pathway (SB203580) were used to investigate whether bystander-induced cell death could be blocked. Cells were also incubated with ICCM in the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, EGTA, verapamil, nifedipine and thapsigargin to investigate whether bystander effects could be inhibited because of the known effects on calcium homeostasis. Activated forms of JNK and ERK proteins were observed after exposure to ICCM. Inhibition of the ERK pathway appeared to increase bystander-induced apoptosis, while inhibition of the JNK pathway appeared to decrease apoptosis. In addition, reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and calcium signaling were found to be important modulators of

  5. Changes in calcium and iron levels in the brains of rats during kainate induced epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Min-Qin; Ong, Wei-Yi; Makjanic, Jagoda; Watt, Frank

    1999-10-01

    Epilepsy is a recurrent disorder of cerebral function characterised by sudden brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity or sensory phenomena, and affects approximately 1% of the population. Kainic acid injection induces neuronal degeneration in rats, is associated with glial hypertrophy and proliferation in the CA3-CA4 fields of hippocampal complex, and is a model for temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study we have applied Nuclear Microscopy to the investigation of the elemental changes within the hippocampus and the cortex areas of the rat brain following kainate injection. Analyses of unstained freeze dried tissue sections taken at 1 day and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following injection were carried out using the Nuclear Microscopy facility at the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, National University of Singapore. Quantitative analysis and elemental mapping indicates that there are significant changes in the calcium levels and distributions in the hippocampus as early as 1 day following injection. Preliminary results indicate a rapid increase in cellular calcium. High levels of calcium can activate calcium dependent proteins and phospholipases. Activation of phospholipase A 2 can be harmful to surrounding neurons through free radical damage. In addition to observed increases in calcium, there was evidence of increases in iron levels. This is consistent with measurements in other degenerative brain disorders, and may signal a late surge in free radical production.

  6. Changes in calcium and iron levels in the brains of rats during kainate induced epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.-Q.; Ong, W.-Y.; Makjanic, Jagoda; Watt, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Epilepsy is a recurrent disorder of cerebral function characterised by sudden brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity or sensory phenomena, and affects approximately 1% of the population. Kainic acid injection induces neuronal degeneration in rats, is associated with glial hypertrophy and proliferation in the CA3-CA4 fields of hippocampal complex, and is a model for temporal lobe epilepsy. In this study we have applied Nuclear Microscopy to the investigation of the elemental changes within the hippocampus and the cortex areas of the rat brain following kainate injection. Analyses of unstained freeze dried tissue sections taken at 1 day and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following injection were carried out using the Nuclear Microscopy facility at the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, National University of Singapore. Quantitative analysis and elemental mapping indicates that there are significant changes in the calcium levels and distributions in the hippocampus as early as 1 day following injection. Preliminary results indicate a rapid increase in cellular calcium. High levels of calcium can activate calcium dependent proteins and phospholipases. Activation of phospholipase A 2 can be harmful to surrounding neurons through free radical damage. In addition to observed increases in calcium, there was evidence of increases in iron levels. This is consistent with measurements in other degenerative brain disorders, and may signal a late surge in free radical production

  7. Loop Heat Pipe Temperature Oscillation Induced by Gravity Assist and Reservoir Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Garrison, Matt; Patel, Deepak; Robinson, Frank; Ottenstein, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Laser Thermal Control System (LCTS) for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) to be installed on NASA's Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) consists of a constant conductance heat pipe and a loop heat pipe (LHP) with an associated radiator. During the recent thermal vacuum testing of the LTCS where the LHP condenser/radiator was placed in a vertical position above the evaporator and reservoir, it was found that the LHP reservoir control heater power requirement was much higher than the analytical model had predicted. Even with the control heater turned on continuously at its full power, the reservoir could not be maintained at its desired set point temperature. An investigation of the LHP behaviors found that the root cause of the problem was fluid flow and reservoir temperature oscillations, which led to persistent alternate forward and reversed flow along the liquid line and an imbalance between the vapor mass flow rate in the vapor line and liquid mass flow rate in the liquid line. The flow and temperature oscillations were caused by an interaction between gravity and reservoir heating, and were exacerbated by the large thermal mass of the instrument simulator which modulated the net heat load to the evaporator, and the vertical radiator/condenser which induced a variable gravitational pressure head. Furthermore, causes and effects of the contributing factors to flow and temperature oscillations intermingled.

  8. Ketamine alleviates bradykinin-induced disruption of the mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cell-constructed tight junction barrier via a calcium-mediated redistribution of occludin polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jui-Tai; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Ta-Liang; Tai, Yu-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ketamine could suppress bradykinin-induced intracellular calcium mobilization. • Ketamine induced B1R protein and mRNA expressions but did not change B2R protein levels. • Ketamine attenuated bradykinin-induced redistribution of occludin tight junctions. • Ketamine prevented bradykinin-induced breakage of the MCEC-constructed tight junction barrier. - Abstract: Following brain injury, a sequence of mechanisms leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent cerebral edema, which is thought to begin with activation of bradykinin. Our previous studies showed that ketamine, a widely used intravenous anesthetic agent, can suppress bradykinin-induced cell dysfunction. This study further aimed to evaluate the protective effects of ketamine against bradykinin-induced disruption of the mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cell (MCEC)-constructed tight junction barrier and the possible mechanisms. Exposure of MCECs to bradykinin increased intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentrations in a time-dependent manner. However, pretreatment of MCECs with ketamine time- and concentration-dependently lowered the bradykinin-induced calcium influx. As to the mechanisms, although exposure of MCECs to ketamine induced bradykinin R1 receptor protein and mRNA expression, this anesthetic did not change levels of the bradykinin R2 receptor, a major receptor that responds to bradykinin stimulation. Bradykinin increased amounts of soluble occludin in MCECs, but pretreatment with ketamine alleviated this disturbance in occludin polymerization. Consequently, exposure to bradykinin decreased the transendothelial electronic resistance in the MCEC-constructed tight junction barrier. However, pretreatment with ketamine attenuated the bradykinin-induced disruption of the tight junction barrier. Taken together, this study shows that ketamine at a therapeutic concentration can protect against bradykinin-induced breakage of the BBB via suppressing calcium

  9. Synchrony-induced modes of oscillation of a neural field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnaola-Acebes, Jose M.; Roxin, Alex; Avitabile, Daniele; Montbrió, Ernest

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the modes of oscillation of heterogeneous ring networks of quadratic integrate-and-fire (QIF) neurons with nonlocal, space-dependent coupling. Perturbations of the equilibrium state with a particular wave number produce transient standing waves with a specific temporal frequency, analogously to those in a tense string. In the neuronal network, the equilibrium corresponds to a spatially homogeneous, asynchronous state. Perturbations of this state excite the network's oscillatory modes, which reflect the interplay of episodes of synchronous spiking with the excitatory-inhibitory spatial interactions. In the thermodynamic limit, an exact low-dimensional neural field model describing the macroscopic dynamics of the network is derived. This allows us to obtain formulas for the Turing eigenvalues of the spatially homogeneous state and hence to obtain its stability boundary. We find that the frequency of each Turing mode depends on the corresponding Fourier coefficient of the synaptic pattern of connectivity. The decay rate instead is identical for all oscillation modes as a consequence of the heterogeneity-induced desynchronization of the neurons. Finally, we numerically compute the spectrum of spatially inhomogeneous solutions branching from the Turing bifurcation, showing that similar oscillatory modes operate in neural bump states and are maintained away from onset.

  10. Live Imaging of Calcium Dynamics during Axon Degeneration Reveals Two Functionally Distinct Phases of Calcium Influx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yuya; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a key regulator of axon degeneration caused by trauma and disease, but its specific spatial and temporal dynamics in injured axons remain unclear. To clarify the function of calcium in axon degeneration, we observed calcium dynamics in single injured neurons in live zebrafish larvae and tested the temporal requirement for calcium in zebrafish neurons and cultured mouse DRG neurons. Using laser axotomy to induce Wallerian degeneration (WD) in zebrafish peripheral sensory axons, we monitored calcium dynamics from injury to fragmentation, revealing two stereotyped phases of axonal calcium influx. First, axotomy triggered a transient local calcium wave originating at the injury site. This initial calcium wave only disrupted mitochondria near the injury site and was not altered by expression of the protective WD slow (WldS) protein. Inducing multiple waves with additional axotomies did not change the kinetics of degeneration. In contrast, a second phase of calcium influx occurring minutes before fragmentation spread as a wave throughout the axon, entered mitochondria, and was abolished by WldS expression. In live zebrafish, chelating calcium after the first wave, but before the second wave, delayed the progress of fragmentation. In cultured DRG neurons, chelating calcium early in the process of WD did not alter degeneration, but chelating calcium late in WD delayed fragmentation. We propose that a terminal calcium wave is a key instructive component of the axon degeneration program. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Axon degeneration resulting from trauma or neurodegenerative disease can cause devastating deficits in neural function. Understanding the molecular and cellular events that execute axon degeneration is essential for developing treatments to address these conditions. Calcium is known to contribute to axon degeneration, but its temporal requirements in this process have been unclear. Live calcium imaging in severed zebrafish neurons and temporally controlled

  11. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eSamigullin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 рА and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 µM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  12. Cardiogenic oscillation induced ventilator autotriggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kaloria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiogenic oscillation during mechanical ventilation can auto-trigger the ventilator resembling patient initiated breadth. This gives a false sense of intact respiratory drive and determination brain death, even if other tests are positive, is not appropriate in such a situation. It will prolong the ICU stay and confound the brain-death determination. In this case report, we describe a 35 year old man who was brought to the hospital after many hours of critical delay following multiple gun shot injuries. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest while on the way from another hospital. After an emergency laparotomy, patient was shifted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score of E1VTM1 and was mechanically ventilated. Despite absence of brainstem reflexes, the ventilator continued to be triggered on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP mode and the patient maintained normal oxygen saturation and acceptable levels of carbon dioxide. An apnoea test confirmed absent respiratory drive. Ventilatory waveform graph analysis, revealed cardiogenic oscillation as the cause for autotrigerring.

  13. Altered Elementary Calcium Release Events and Enhanced Calcium Release by Thymol in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Szentesi, Péter; Szappanos, Henrietta; Szegedi, Csaba; Gönczi, Monika; Jona, István; Cseri, Julianna; Kovács, László; Csernoch, László

    2004-01-01

    The effects of thymol on steps of excitation-contraction coupling were studied on fast-twitch muscles of rodents. Thymol was found to increase the depolarization-induced release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which could not be attributed to a decreased calcium-dependent inactivation of calcium release channels/ryanodine receptors or altered intramembrane charge movement, but rather to a more efficient coupling of depolarization to channel opening. Thymol increased ryanodine bind...

  14. An in-flight investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression filters during the fighter approach and landing task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. E.; Smith, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of pilot-induced oscillation suppression (PIOS) filters was performed using the USAF/Flight Dynamics Laboratory variable stability NT-33 aircraft, modified and operated by Calspan. This program examined the effects of PIOS filtering on the longitudinal flying qualities of fighter aircraft during the visual approach and landing task. Forty evaluations were flown to test the effects of different PIOS filters. Although detailed analyses were not undertaken, the results indicate that PIOS filtering can improve the flying qualities of an otherwise unacceptable aircraft configuration (Level 3 flying qualities). However, the ability of the filters to suppress pilot-induced oscillations appears to be dependent upon the aircraft configuration characteristics. Further, the data show that the filters can adversely affect landing flying qualities if improperly designed. The data provide an excellent foundation from which detail analyses can be performed.

  15. Calcium hydroxide induced apexification with apical root development: a clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J; Santos, S; César, C; Silva, P; Sá, M; Silveira, F; Nunes, E

    2008-08-01

    To report the induction of apical root development by calcium hydroxide in teeth with pulp necrosis and periapical radiolucency. A 10-year-old male patient was admitted to the clinic complaining of an intense pain and oedema on the anterior facial region, compatible with an acute dentoalveolar abscess. There was a previous history of dental trauma; only tooth 11 was negative to pulp sensitivity tests. Radiographically, tooth 11 exhibited incomplete root formation, characterized by a wide root canal, thin and fragile dentinal walls, and an extensive, divergent foraminal opening associated with an apical radiolucency. The first appointment focused on urgent local and systemic treatment. Apexification treatment commenced at the second session after 7 days, by means of chemo-mechanical debridement throughout the entire root canal, using K-files and irrigation with a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Subsequently, a calcium hydroxide paste was applied and changed four times over 8 months, when radiographic examination revealed complete closure of the foraminal opening, resulting in resolution of the periapical radiolucency and associated with 5 mm of additional root development. The root canal was filled by thermomechanical compaction of gutta-percha and sealer. A 3-year follow-up revealed normal periapical tissues and the absence of symptoms. * In young patients, dental trauma may cause pulp necrosis and arrest of root formation. * Under certain circumstances, chemo-mechanical debridement, including the use of a calcium hydroxide paste, is a valid alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate and or surgery for root-end closure. * In teeth with incompletely formed roots associated with periapical lesions, calcium hydroxide can induce periapical repair through the closure of the foramen and apical root development.

  16. Therapeutic role of calcium and vitamin K3 in chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis - new tools for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Firoz; Khan, Ruqaiyah; Sachan, Richa; Kazmi, Imran; Rawat, Alisha; Sabih, Abdullah; Singh, Rajbala; Afzal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Aftab; Al-Orab, Abdulaziz S; Al-Abbasi, F A; Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Kumar, Vikas

    2018-04-17

    HCC has been reported to be immensely occurring carcinoma worldwide. Recent days the mortality occurred due to liver cancer has also been found to be increased at an alarming speed affecting mostly the young patients. The aim of the current study was to decipher the role of calcium and vitamin K3 in the treatment of chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the male Wistar rats. Liver cancer was induced via a subnecrogenic dose of 160 mg/kg body weight, diethylnitrosamine (DENA) when associated with fasting/refeeding in male Wistar rats. It elevated the serum glutamate oxaloacetate (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, total cholesterol (CH), triglycerides (TG), alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Histopathological examination of liver tissue showed marked carcinogenicity of the chemical carcinogen. Food, water intake and animal weights were also assessed, respectively. The animals exposed to DENA showed a significant decrease in the body weight. The elevated levels of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, AFP, TC and TG were restored by administration of calcium and Vit K (ad libitum) combination at higher dose than the normal dietary requirement (3 mg/kg) daily for 12 weeks p.o. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed the beneficial effects of calcium and vitamin K3 combination in the animals exposed to DENA. The results deciphered the beneficial effects of calcium and vitamin K3 in combination.

  17. Acupuncture analgesia involves modulation of pain-induced gamma oscillations and cortical network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Michael; Schröder, Sven; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Lorenz, Jürgen; Friedrichs, Sunja; Nolte, Guido; Gerloff, Christian; Engel, Andreas K

    2017-11-24

    Recent studies support the view that cortical sensory, limbic and executive networks and the autonomic nervous system might interact in distinct manners under the influence of acupuncture to modulate pain. We performed a double-blind crossover design study to investigate subjective ratings, EEG and ECG following experimental laser pain under the influence of sham and verum acupuncture in 26 healthy volunteers. We analyzed neuronal oscillations and inter-regional coherence in the gamma band of 128-channel-EEG recordings as well as heart rate variability (HRV) on two experimental days. Pain ratings and pain-induced gamma oscillations together with vagally-mediated power in the high-frequency bandwidth (vmHF) of HRV decreased significantly stronger during verum than sham acupuncture. Gamma oscillations were localized in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), primary somatosensory cortex and insula. Reductions of pain ratings and vmHF-power were significantly correlated with increase of connectivity between the insula and MCC. In contrast, connectivity between left and right PFC and between PFC and insula correlated positively with vmHF-power without a relationship to acupuncture analgesia. Overall, these findings highlight the influence of the insula in integrating activity in limbic-saliency networks with vagally mediated homeostatic control to mediate antinociception under the influence of acupuncture.

  18. Cytosolic calcium rises and related events in ergosterol-treated Nicotiana cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsa, Parul; Chiltz, Annick; Luini, Estelle; Vandelle, Elodie; Pugin, Alain; Roblin, Gabriel

    2011-07-01

    The typical fungal membrane component ergosterol was previously shown to trigger defence responses and protect plants against pathogens. Most of the elicitors mobilize the second messenger calcium, to trigger plant defences. We checked the involvement of calcium in response to ergosterol using Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi cells expressing apoaequorin in the cytosol. First, it was verified if ergosterol was efficient in these cells inducing modifications of proton fluxes and increased expression of defence-related genes. Then, it was shown that ergosterol induced a rapid and transient biphasic increase of free [Ca²⁺](cyt) which intensity depends on ergosterol concentration in the range 0.002-10 μM. Among sterols, this calcium mobilization was specific for ergosterol and, ergosterol-induced pH and [Ca²⁺](cyt) changes were specifically desensitized after two subsequent applications of ergosterol. Specific modulators allowed elucidating some events in the signalling pathway triggered by ergosterol. The action of BAPTA, LaCl₃, nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, U73122 and ruthenium red suggested that the first phase was linked to calcium influx from external medium which subsequently triggered the second phase linked to calcium release from internal stores. The calcium influx and the [Ca²⁺](cyt) increase depended on upstream protein phosphorylation. The extracellular alkalinization and ROS production depended on calcium influx but, the ergosterol-induced MAPK activation was calcium-independent. ROS were not involved in cytosolic calcium rise as described in other models, indicating that ROS do not systematically participate in the amplification of calcium signalling. Interestingly, ergosterol-induced ROS production is not linked to cell death and ergosterol does not induce any calcium elevation in the nucleus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Electrical Stimulation Increased Cardiac Apoptosis Through Disturbance of Calcium Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Geng

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heart failure induced by tachycardia, the most common arrhythmia, is frequently observed in clinical practice. This study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Rapid electrical stimulation (RES at a frequency of 3 Hz was applied on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs for 7 days, with 8 h/day and 24 h/day set to represent short-term and long-term tachycardia, respectively. Age-matched hiPSC-CMs without electrical stimulation or with slow electrical stimulation (1 Hz were set as no electrical stimulation (NES control or low-frequency electrical stimulation (LES control. Following stimulation, JC-1 staining flow cytometry analysis was performed to examine mitochondrial conditions. Apoptosis in hiPSC-CMs was evaluated using Hoechst staining and Annexin V/propidium iodide (AV/PI staining flow cytometry analysis. Calcium transients and L-type calcium currents were recorded to evaluate calcium homeostasis. Western blotting and qPCR were performed to evaluate the protein and mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes and calcium homeostasis-regulated genes. Results: Compared to the controls, hiPSC-CMs following RES presented mitochondrial dysfunction and an increased apoptotic percentage. Amplitudes of calcium transients and L-type calcium currents were significantly decreased in hiPSC-CMs with RES. Molecular analysis demonstrated upregulated expression of Caspase3 and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Genes related to calcium re-sequence were downregulated, while phosphorylated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII was significantly upregulated following RES. There was no significant difference between the NES control and LES control groups in these aspects. Inhibition of CaMKII with 1 µM KN93 partly reversed these adverse effects of RES. Conclusion: RES on hiPSC-CMs disturbed calcium homeostasis, which led to mitochondrial stress, promoted cell apoptosis and

  20. Defect-induced conductance oscillations in short atomic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzyniak-Adamczewska, M; Kostyrko, T

    2012-01-01

    Electronic transport through a junction made of two gold electrodes connected with a gold chain containing a silver impurity is analyzed with a tight binding model and the density-functional theory. It is shown that the conductance depends in a simple way on the position of the impurity in the chain and the parity of the total number of atoms of the chain. For an odd chain the conductance takes on a higher value when the Ag impurity substitutes an even Au atom in the chain, and a lower one for an odd position of the Ag atom. In the case of an even chain the conductance hardly depends on the position of the Ag atom. This new kind of a defect-induced parity oscillation of the conductance is significantly more prominent than the well-known even-odd effect related to the dependence of the conductance on the parity of number of atoms in perfect chains. (paper)

  1. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  2. Primordial oscillations in life: Direct observation of glycolytic oscillations in individual HeLa cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Takashi; Shibata, Kenichi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Kiminori; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2017-10-01

    We report the first direct observation of glycolytic oscillations in HeLa cervical cancer cells, which we regard as primordial oscillations preserved in living cells. HeLa cells starved of glucose or both glucose and serum exhibited glycolytic oscillations in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), exhibiting asynchronous intercellular behaviors. Also found were spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous intracellular NADH oscillations in the individual cells. Our results demonstrate that starved HeLa cells may be induced to exhibit glycolytic oscillations by either high-uptake of glucose or the enhancement of a glycolytic pathway (Crabtree effect or the Warburg effect), or both. Their asynchronous collective behaviors in the oscillations were probably due to a weak intercellular coupling. Elucidation of the relationship between the mechanism of glycolytic dynamics in cancer cells and their pathophysiological characteristics remains a challenge in future.

  3. Ammonium-induced calcium mobilization in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmann, Petra; Koese, Meryem; Soehl, Kristina; Mueller, Christa E.

    2008-01-01

    High blood levels of ammonium/ammonia (NH 4 + /NH 3 ) are associated with severe neurotoxicity as observed in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Astrocytes are the main targets of ammonium toxicity, while neuronal cells are less vulnerable. In the present study, an astrocytoma cell line 1321N1 and a neuroblastoma glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15 were used as model systems for astrocytes and neuronal cells, respectively. Ammonium salts evoked a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in astrocytoma (EC 50 = 6.38 mM), but not in NG108-15 cells. The ammonium-induced increase in [Ca 2+ ] i was due to an intracellular effect of NH 4 + /NH 3 and was independent of extracellular calcium. Acetate completely inhibited the ammonium effect. Ammonium potently reduced calcium signaling by G q protein-coupled receptors (H 1 and M3) expressed on the cells. Ammonium (5 mM) also significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. While mRNA for the mammalian ammonium transporters RhBG and RhCG could not be detected in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, both transporters were expressed in NG108-15 cells. RhBG and RhBC in brain may promote the excretion of NH 3 /NH 4 + from neuronal cells. Cellular uptake of NH 4 + /NH 3 was mainly by passive diffusion of NH 3 . Human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells appear to be an excellent, easily accessible human model for studying HE, which can substitute animal studies, while NG108-15 cells may be useful for investigating the role of the recently discovered Rhesus family type ammonium transporters in neuronal cells. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of pathologic ammonium effects in different brain cells, and to the treatment of hyperammonemia

  4. Experimental investigation of a flow-induced oscillating cylinder with two degrees-of-freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Satoshi; Kuwabara, Joji; Li, YanRong; Okamoto, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of flow-induced vibration of bluff bodies has been studied extensively. The vast majority of these studies have concentrated solely on one degree-of-freedom oscillation in the inline or cross-flow directions. Herein, experiments were carried out with a cylinder in a water channel with two degrees-of-freedom. The cylinder was cantilever mounted with a low natural frequency (typically 65 Hz) in the inline and cross-flow directions. The Reynolds number fell in the range 1.17 x 10 3 4 . The oscillating frequency of the cylinder and the surrounding flow were measured simultaneously using high temporal resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV), which is non-intrusive with respect to the flow and has high spatial and temporal resolutions. The vibration of the cylinder was found to be anisotropic. There was a discrepancy between the vibration frequencies in the inline and cross-flow directions, the difference being a function of reduced velocity.

  5. Hall field-induced magnetoresistance oscillations of a two-dimensional electron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunold, A.; Torres, M.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a model of the nonlinear response to a dc electrical current of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) placed on a magnetic field. Based on the exact solution to the Schroedinger equation in arbitrarily strong electric and magnetic fields, and separating the relative and guiding center coordinates, a Kubo-like formula for the current is worked out as a response to the impurity scattering. Self-consistent expressions determine the longitudinal and Hall components of the electric field in terms of the dc current. The differential resistivity displays strong Hall field-induced oscillations, in agreement with the main features of the phenomenon observed in recent experiments

  6. Three-dimensional vortex-induced vibrations of supported pipes conveying fluid based on wake oscillator models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Jiang, T. L.; Dai, H. L.; Ni, Q.

    2018-05-01

    The present study develops a new three-dimensional nonlinear model for investigating vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of flexible pipes conveying internal fluid flow. The unsteady hydrodynamic forces associated with the wake dynamics are modeled by two distributed van der Pol wake oscillators. In particular, the nonlinear partial differential equations of motion of the pipe and the wake are derived, taking into account the coupling between the structure and the fluid. The nonlinear equations of motion for the coupled system are then discretized by means of the Galerkin technique, resulting in a high-dimensional reduced-order model of the system. It is shown that the natural frequencies for in-plane and out-of-plane motions of the pipe may be different at high internal flow velocities beyond the threshold of buckling instability. The orientation angle of the postbuckling configuration is time-varying due to the disturbance of hydrodynamic forces, thus yielding sometimes unexpected results. For a buckled pipe with relatively low cross-flow velocity, interestingly, examining the nonlinear dynamics of the pipe indicates that the combined effects of the cross-flow-induced resonance of the in-plane first mode and the internal-flow-induced buckling on the IL and CF oscillation amplitudes may be significant. For higher cross-flow velocities, however, the effect of internal fluid flow on the nonlinear VIV responses of the pipe is not pronounced.

  7. Localization and pharmacological characterization of voltage dependent calcium channels in cultured neocortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, D B; Lund, Trine Meldgaard; Belhage, B

    2001-01-01

    The physiological significance and subcellular distribution of voltage dependent calcium channels was defined using calcium channel blockers to inhibit potassium induced rises in cytosolic calcium concentration in cultured mouse neocortical neurons. The cytosolic calcium concentration was measured...... channels were differentially distributed in somata, neurites and nerve terminals. omega-conotoxin MVIIC (omega-CgTx MVIIC) inhibited approximately 40% of the Ca(2+)-rise in both somata and neurites and 60% of the potassium induced [3H]GABA release, indicating that the Q-type channel is the quantitatively...... most important voltage dependent calcium channel in all parts of the neuron. After treatment with thapsigargin the increase in cytosolic calcium was halved, indicating that calcium release from thapsigargin sensitive intracellular calcium stores is an important component of the potassium induced rise...

  8. A new synthetic granular calcium phosphate compound induces new bone in a sinus lift rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbakovic, Amela; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Mellgren, Torbjörn; Ley, Cecilia; Hilborn, Jöns; Ossipov, Dmitri; Ekman, Stina; Johansson, Carina B; Jensen-Waern, Marianne; Thor, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a synthetic granular calcium phosphate compound (CPC) and a composite bisphosphonate-linked hyaluronic acid-calcium phosphate hydrogel (HABP·CaP) induced similar or more amount of bone as bovine mineral in a modified sinus lift rabbit model. Eighteen adult male New Zeeland White rabbits, received randomly one of the two test materials on a random side of the face, and bovine mineral as control on the contralateral side. In a sinus lift, the sinus mucosa was elevated and a titanium mini-implant was placed in the alveolar bone. Augmentation material (CPC, HABP·CaP or bovine bone) was applied in the space around the implant. The rabbits were euthanized three months after surgery and qualitative and histomorphometric evaluation were conducted. Histomorphometric evaluation included three different regions of interest (ROIs) and the bone to implant contact on each installed implant. Qualitative assessment (p = <.05), histomorphometric evaluations (p = < .01), and implant incorporation (p = <.05) showed that CPC and bovine mineral induced similar amount of bone and more than the HABP·CaP hydrogel. CPC induced similar amount of bone as bovine mineral and both materials induced more bone than HABP·CaP hydrogel. The CPC is suggested as a synthetic alternative for augmentations in the maxillofacial area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. One nuclear calcium transient induced by a single burst of action potentials represents the minimum signal strength in activity-dependent transcription in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Oberlaender, Kristin; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar

    2017-07-01

    Neurons undergo dramatic changes in their gene expression profiles in response to synaptic stimulation. The coupling of neuronal excitation to gene transcription is well studied and is mediated by signaling pathways activated by cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium transients. Despite this, the minimum synaptic activity required to induce gene expression remains unknown. To address this, we used cultured hippocampal neurons and cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) that allows detection of nascent transcripts in the cell nucleus. We found that a single burst of action potentials, consisting of 24.4±5.1 action potentials during a 6.7±1.9s depolarization of 19.5±2.0mV causing a 9.3±0.9s somatic calcium transient, is sufficient to activate transcription of the immediate early gene arc (also known as Arg3.1). The total arc mRNA yield produced after a single burst-induced nuclear calcium transient was very small and, compared to unstimulated control neurons, did not lead to a significant increase in arc mRNA levels measured using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) of cell lysates. Significantly increased arc mRNA levels became detectable in hippocampal neurons that had undergone 5-8 consecutive burst-induced nuclear calcium transients at 0.05-0.15Hz. These results indicate that a single burst-induced nuclear calcium transient can activate gene expression and that transcription is rapidly shut off after synaptic stimulation has ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  11. Fast calcium wave propagation mediated by electrically conducted excitation and boosted by CICR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, J.M.A.M.; Meerwijk, W.P. van; Ypey, D.L.; Theuvenet, A.P.R.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated synchronization and propagation of calcium oscillations, mediated by gap junctional excitation transmission. For that purpose we used an experimentally based model of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, electrically coupled in a one-dimensional configuration (linear strand).

  12. Limited Investigation of the Effects of Elevator Rate Limiting and Stick Dynamics on Longitudinal Pilot Induced Oscillations (HAVE GRIP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of the HAVE GRIP flight test program. This program performed a limited investigation of the effects of stick dynamics and elevator rate limiting on longitudinal pilot induced oscillations (PIOs...

  13. Bifurcation analysis of delay-induced resonances of the El-Niño Southern Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Bernd; Sieber, Jan

    2014-09-08

    Models of global climate phenomena of low to intermediate complexity are very useful for providing an understanding at a conceptual level. An important aspect of such models is the presence of a number of feedback loops that feature considerable delay times, usually due to the time it takes to transport energy (for example, in the form of hot/cold air or water) around the globe. In this paper, we demonstrate how one can perform a bifurcation analysis of the behaviour of a periodically forced system with delay in dependence on key parameters. As an example, we consider the El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which is a sea-surface temperature (SST) oscillation on a multi-year scale in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. One can think of ENSO as being generated by an interplay between two feedback effects, one positive and one negative, which act only after some delay that is determined by the speed of transport of SST anomalies across the Pacific. We perform here a case study of a simple delayed-feedback oscillator model for ENSO, which is parametrically forced by annual variation. More specifically, we use numerical bifurcation analysis tools to explore directly regions of delay-induced resonances and other stability boundaries in this delay-differential equation model for ENSO.

  14. Localization of Cortical Oscillations Induced by SCS Using Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a method based on coherence analysis and scalp mapping of coherence suitable for more accurate localization of cortical oscillations induced by electric stimulation of the dorsal spinal cord (SCS, which were previously detected using spectral analysis. While power spectral density shows the increase of power during SCS only at small number of electrodes, coherence extends this area and sharpens its boundary simultaneously. Parameters of the method were experimentally optimized to maximize its reliability. SCS is applied to suppress chronic, intractable pain by patients, whom pharmacotherapy does not relieve. In our study, the pain developed in lower back and lower extremity as the result of unsuccessful vertebral discotomy, which is called failed-back surgery syndrome (FBSS. Our method replicated the results of previous analysis using PSD and extended them with more accurate localization of the area influenced by SCS.

  15. A 65--70 year oscillation in observed surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, M.E.; Ramankutty, N.

    1994-01-01

    There are three possible sources for the 65--70-year ''global'' oscillation: (1) random forcing of the ocean by the atmosphere, such as by white noise; (2) external oscillatory forcing of the climate system, such as by a variation in the solar irradiance; and (3) an internal oscillation of the atmosphere-ocean system. It is unlikely that putative variations in solar irradiance are the source of the oscillation because solar forcing should generate a global response, but the oscillation is not global. It is also unlikely that white-noise forcing is the source of the oscillation because such forcing should generate an oceanwide response, but the oscillation is not panoceanic. Consequently, the most probable cause of the oscillation is an internal oscillation of the atmosphere-ocean system. This conclusion is supported by a growing body of observational evidence and coupled atmosphere/ocean general circulation model simulation results. Comparison of the regional and global-mean temperature changes caused by the oscillation with those induced by GHG + ASA forcing shows that the rapid rise in global-mean temperature between about 1908 and 1946, and the subsequent reversal of this warming until about 1965 were the result of the oscillation. In the North Atlantic and North American regions, the domination of the GHG + ASA-induced warming by the oscillation has obscured and confounded detection of this warming

  16. Red meat and colon cancer : dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, ALA; Termont, DSML; Kleibeuker, JH; Van der Meer, R

    2001-01-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with increased colon cancer risk. We have shown earlier that this may be due to the high haem content of red meat, because dietary haem increased cytolytic activity of faecal water and colonic epithelial proliferation. Dietary calcium inhibits diet-induced

  17. Effect of Topical Calcium Channel Blockers on Intraocular Pressure in Steroid-induced Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganekal, Sunil; Dorairaj, Syril; Jhanji, Vishal; Kudlu, Krishnaprasad

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of 0.125% verapamil and 0.5% diltiazem eye drops on intraocular pressure (IOP) in steroid-induced glaucoma in rabbit eyes. A total of 18 rabbits with steroid-induced glaucoma were divided into three groups (A, B and C; n = 6 each). Right eyes in groups A, B and C received 0.5% diltiazem, 0.125% verapamil and 0.5% timolol eye drops twice daily for 12 days, respectively; whereas, left eyes received distilled water. IOP was measured with Tono-pen XL at baseline, day 4, day 8, and day 12 of treatment. Both 0.5% diltiazem and 0.125% verapamil eye drops significantly reduced IOP compared to control eyes (p cite this article: Ganekal S, Dorairaj S, Jhanji V, Kudlu K. Effect of Topical Calcium Channel Blockers on Intraocular Pressure in Steroid-induced Glaucoma. J Current Glau Prac 2014;8(1):15-19.

  18. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemark JMD

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies.

  19. Effect of neurotrophin-3 precursor on glutamate-induced calcium homeostasis deregulation in rat cerebellum granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safina, Dina R; Surin, Alexander M; Pinelis, Vsevolod G; Kostrov, Sergey V

    2015-12-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) belongs to the family of highly conserved dimeric growth factors that controls the differentiation and activity of various neuronal populations. Mammals contain both the mature (NT-3) and the precursor (pro-NT-3) forms of neurotrophin. Members of the neurotrophin family are involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in neurons; however, the role of NT-3 and pro-NT-3 in this process remains unclear. The current study explores the effects of NT-3 and pro-NT-3 on disturbed calcium homeostasis and decline of mitochondrial potential induced by a neurotoxic concentration of glutamate (Glu; 100 µM) in the primary culture of rat cerebellar granule cells. In this Glu excitotoxicity model, mature NT-3 had no effect on the induced changes in Ca²⁺ homeostasis. In contrast, pro-NT-3 decreased the period of delayed calcium deregulation (DCD) and concurrent strong mitochondrial depolarization. According to the amplitude of the increase in the intracellular free Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]i ) and Fura-2 fluorescence quenching by Mn²⁺ within the first 20 sec of exposure to Glu, pro-NT-3 had no effect on the initial rate of Ca²⁺ entry into neurons. During the lag period preceding DCD, the mean amplitude of [Ca²⁺]i rise was 1.2-fold greater in the presence of pro-NT-3 than in the presence of Glu alone (1.67 ±  0.07 and 1.39 ± 0.04, respectively, P < 0.05). The Glu-induced changes in Са²⁺ homeostasis in the presence of pro-NT-3 likely are due to the decreased rate of Са²⁺ removal from the cytosol during the DCD latency period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Barcoding T Cell Calcium Response Diversity with Methods for Automated and Accurate Analysis of Cell Signals (MAAACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergé, Arnauld; Bernard, Anne-Marie; Phélipot, Marie-Claire; Bertaux, Nicolas; Fallet, Mathieu; Grenot, Pierre; Marguet, Didier; He, Hai-Tao; Hamon, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a series of experimental procedures enabling sensitive calcium monitoring in T cell populations by confocal video-microscopy. Tracking and post-acquisition analysis was performed using Methods for Automated and Accurate Analysis of Cell Signals (MAAACS), a fully customized program that associates a high throughput tracking algorithm, an intuitive reconnection routine and a statistical platform to provide, at a glance, the calcium barcode of a population of individual T-cells. Combined with a sensitive calcium probe, this method allowed us to unravel the heterogeneity in shape and intensity of the calcium response in T cell populations and especially in naive T cells, which display intracellular calcium oscillations upon stimulation by antigen presenting cells. PMID:24086124

  1. Kokumi Substances, Enhancers of Basic Tastes, Induce Responses in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Expressing Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yasuda, Reiko; Kuroda, Motonaka; Eto, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami. PMID:22511946

  2. [The anti-tumour effect of Wuxing soup and its mechanism in inducing apoptosis of tumour cells mediated by calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fei; Hu, Jing-Ying; Gan, Yu; Zhao, Yang-Xing; Zhao, Xin-Tai

    2008-09-01

    To confirm the anti-cancer effect and mechanism of Wuxing soup. Inhibition of cellular growth under Wuxing soup treatment was observed by MTT; Apoptosis was detected by gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopy and FACS; The concentration of calcium was measured by fluorescence probe. After SGC-7901 cell being treated by Wuxing soup, it showed that: 1) Wuxing soup could specifically inhibit cancer cells proliferation in a time and dose dependent manner; 2) Typical apoptotic morphological changes and DNA ladder of SGC-7901 cells were observed; 3) calcium inhibitor Bapta AM could reduce the apoptotic rate and protect SGC-7901 cells in a dose dependent manner. Wuxing soup has an effective inhibition on cancer cells, and can induce SGC-7901 cells to apoptosis by calcium.

  3. Calcium movements and the cellular basis of gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, S. J.; Biro, R. L.; Hale, C. C.

    An early gravity-transduction event in oat coleoptiles which precedes any noticeable bending is the accumulation of calcium on their prospective slower-growing side. Sub-cellular calcium localization studies indicate that the gravity-stimulated redistribution of calcium results in an increased concentration of calcium in the walls of responding cells. Since calcium can inhibit the extension growth of plant cell walls, this selective accumulation of calcium in walls may play a role in inducing the asymmetry of growth which characterizes gravitropism. The active transport of calcium from cells into walls is performed by a calcium-dependent ATPase localized in the plasma membrane. Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that this calcium pump is regulated by a feed-back mechanism which includes the participation of calmodulin.

  4. Role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential, and calcium homeostasis in human lymphocyte death induced by nickel carbonate hydroxide in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' Bemba-Meka, Prosper [Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, QC (Canada); University of Louisville, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Lemieux, Nicole [Universite de Montreal, Department of Pathology and Cellular Biology, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); Chakrabarti, Saroj K. [Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    When isolated human lymphocytes were treated in vitro with various concentrations of soluble form of nickel carbonate hydroxide (NiCH) (0-1 mM), at 37 C for 4 h, both concentration- and time-dependent effects of NiCH on lymphocyte death were observed. Increased generation of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), superoxide anion (O{sub 2} {sup -}), depletion of both no protein (NP-) and protein (P-) sulfhydryl (SH) contents and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were induced by NiCH. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with either catalase (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenger), or deferoxamine (DFO) (iron chelator), or excess glutathione (GSH) (an antioxidant) not only significantly reduced the NiCH-induced generation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and LPO, but also increased the NP-SH and P-SH contents initially reduced by NiCH. NiCH-induced generation of excess O{sub 2} {sup -} but not excess LPO was significantly reduced by pretreatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD). NiCH-induced lymphocyte death was significantly prevented by pre-treatment with either catalase, or dimethylthiourea/mannitol (hydroxyl radical scavengers), or DFO, or excess GSH/N-acetylcysteine. NiCH-induced lymphocyte death was also significantly prevented by pretreatment with excess SOD. Thus, various types of oxidative stresses play an important role in NiCH-induced lymphocyte death. Cotreatment with cyclosporin A, a specific inhibitor of alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}), not only inhibited NiCH-induced alteration in {delta}{psi}{sub m}, but also significantly prevented Ni-compound-induced lymphocyte death. Furthermore, NiCH-induced destabilization of cellular calcium homeostasis. As such, NiCH-induced lymphocyte death was significantly prevented by modulating intracellular calcium fluxes such as Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} antagonist. Thus, the mechanism of NiCH (soluble form)-induced activation of lymphocyte death signalling pathways involves not only the excess

  5. INDUCED EEG GAMMA OSCILLATION ALIGNMENT IMPROVES DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN AUTISM AND ADHD GROUP RESPONSES IN A FACIAL CATEGORIZATION TASK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eric; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sokhadze, Guela E; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often lack the ability to recognize and properly respond to emotional stimuli. Emotional deficits also characterize children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in addition to exhibiting limited attention span. These abnormalities may effect a difference in the induced EEG gamma wave burst (35-45 Hz) peaked approximately 300-400 milliseconds following an emotional stimulus. Because induced gamma oscillations are not fixed at a definite point in time post-stimulus, analysis of averaged EEG data with traditional methods may result in an attenuated gamma burst power. METHODS: We used a data alignment technique to improve the averaged data, making it a better representation of the individual induced EEG gamma oscillations. A study was designed to test the response of a subject to emotional stimuli, presented in the form of emotional facial expression images. In a four part experiment, the subjects were instructed to identify gender in the first two blocks of the test, followed by differentiating between basic emotions in the final two blocks (i.e. anger vs. disgust). EEG data was collected from ASD (n=10), ADHD (n=9), and control (n=11) subjects via a 128 channel EGI system, and processed through a continuous wavelet transform and bandpass filter to isolate the gamma frequencies. A custom MATLAB code was used to align the data from individual trials between 200-600 ms post-stimulus, EEG site, and condition by maximizing the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between trials. The gamma power for the 400 ms window of maximum induced gamma burst was then calculated and compared between subject groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Condition (anger/disgust recognition, gender recognition) × Alignment × Group (ADHD, ASD, Controls) interaction was significant at most of parietal topographies (e.g., P3-P4, P7-P8). These interactions were better manifested in the aligned data set

  6. The Marine Guanidine Alkaloid Crambescidin 816 Induces Calcium Influx and Cytotoxicity in Primary Cultures of Cortical Neurons through Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Aida G; Juncal, Andrea Boente; Silva, Siguara B L; Thomas, Olivier P; Martín Vázquez, Víctor; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Vale, Carmen; Botana, Luís M

    2017-07-19

    Crambescidin 816 is a guanidine alkaloid produced by the sponge Crambe crambe with known antitumoral activity. While the information describing the effects of this alkaloid in central neurons is scarce, Cramb816 is known to block voltage dependent calcium channels being selective for L-type channels. Moreover, Cramb816 reduced neuronal viability through an unknown mechanism. Here, we aimed to describe the toxic activity of Cramb816 in cortical neurons. Since calcium influx is considered the main mechanism responsible for neuronal cell death, the effects of Cramb816 in the cytosolic calcium concentration of cortical neurons were studied. The alkaloid decreased neuronal viability and induced a dose-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium that was also related to the presence of calcium in the extracellular media. The increase in calcium influx was age dependent, being higher in younger neurons. Moreover, this effect was prevented by glutamate receptor antagonists, which did not fully block the cytotoxic effect of Cramb816 after 24 h of treatment but completely prevented Cramb816 cytotoxicity after 10 min exposure. Therefore, the findings presented herein provide new insights into the cytotoxic effect of Cramb816 in cortical neurons.

  7. The effect of calcium on auxin depletion-induced tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and calcium are the most important factors that instigate plant organ abscission. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the effects of IAA and calcium on delayed abscission in tomato. The results showed a clear trend towards reduced abscission rates with increased ...

  8. Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

  9. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  10. Monitoring Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes with Genetically Encoded Calcium and Voltage Fluorescent Reporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Shinnawi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC technology has transformed biomedical research, providing new tools for human disease modeling, drug development, and regenerative medicine. To fulfill its unique potential in the cardiovascular field, efficient methods should be developed for high-resolution, large-scale, long-term, and serial functional cellular phenotyping of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs. To achieve this goal, we combined the hiPSC technology with genetically encoded voltage (ArcLight and calcium (GCaMP5G fluorescent indicators. Expression of ArcLight and GCaMP5G in hiPSC-CMs permitted to reliably follow changes in transmembrane potential and intracellular calcium levels, respectively. This allowed monitoring short- and long-term changes in action-potential and calcium-handling properties and the development of arrhythmias in response to several pharmaceutical agents and in hiPSC-CMs derived from patients with different inherited arrhythmogenic syndromes. Combining genetically encoded fluorescent reporters with hiPSC-CMs may bring a unique value to the study of inherited disorders, developmental biology, and drug development and testing.

  11. Pressure induced reactions amongst calcium aluminate hydrate phases

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Ju-hyuk

    2011-06-01

    The compressibilities of two AFm phases (strätlingite and calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) and hydrogarnet were obtained up to 5 GPa by using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction with a diamond anvil cell. The AFm phases show abrupt volume contraction regardless of the molecular size of the pressure-transmitting media. This volume discontinuity could be associated to a structural transition or to the movement of the weakly bound interlayer water molecules in the AFm structure. The experimental results seem to indicate that the pressure-induced dehydration is the dominant mechanism especially with hygroscopic pressure medium. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was used to compute the bulk modulus of the minerals. Due to the discontinuity in the pressure-volume diagram, a two stage bulk modulus of each AFm phase was calculated. The abnormal volume compressibility for the AFm phases caused a significant change to their bulk modulus. The reliability of this experiment is verified by comparing the bulk modulus of hydrogarnet with previous studies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-11-27

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC.

  13. Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, I; Luchinsky, D G; Tindjong, R; McClintock, P V E; Eisenberg, R S

    2013-11-01

    We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to study the ionic conduction and valence selectivity of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as functions of the fixed charge Q(f) at its selectivity filter. We are thus able to reconcile the discrete calcium conduction bands recently revealed in our BD simulations, M0 (Q(f)=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e), with a set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5e), L1 (1.5e), thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands vs Q(f) for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Q(f) leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium-selective, nonblocking channel) → M0 (nonselective channel) → L1 (sodium-selective channel with divalent block) → M1 (calcium-selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L0 band is putatively identified with the eukaryotic sodium channel The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced transformations between nonselective channels, sodium-selective channels, and calcium-selective channels, which we interpret as transitions between different rows of the identification table. By considering the potential energy changes during permeation, we show explicitly that the multi-ion conduction bands of calcium and sodium channels arise as the result of resonant barrierless conduction. The pattern of periodic conduction bands is explained on the basis of sequential neutralization taking account of self-energy, as Q(f)(z,i)=ze(1/2+i), where i is the order of the band and z is the valence of the ion. Our results confirm the crucial influence of electrostatic interactions on conduction and on the Ca(2+)/Na(+) valence selectivity of calcium and sodium ion channels. The model and results could be also applicable to biomimetic nanopores with charged walls.

  14. Vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses produced by the Vestibulo-Sympathetic Reflex in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei B. Yakushin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS induces oscillations in blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR i.e., vasovagal oscillations, and decreases in BP and HR i.e., vasovagal responses, in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. We determined the characteristics of the vasovagal oscillations, assessed their role in the generation of vasovagal responses and determined whether they could be induced by monaural as well as by binaural sGVS and by oscillation in pitch. Wavelet analyses were used to determine the power distributions of the waveforms. Monaural and binaural sGVS and pitch generated vasovagal oscillations at the frequency and at twice the frequency of stimulation. Vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses were maximally induced at low stimulus frequencies (0.025-0.05 Hz. The oscillations were attenuated and the responses were rarely induced at higher stimulus frequencies. Vasovagal oscillations could occur without induction of vasovagal responses, but vasovagal responses were always associated with a vasovagal oscillation. We posit that the vasovagal oscillations originate in a low frequency band that, when appropriately activated by strong sympathetic stimulation, can generate vasovagal oscillations as a precursor for vasovagal responses and syncope. We further suggest that the activity responsible for the vasovagal oscillations arises in low frequency, otolith neurons with orientation vectors close to the vertical axis of the head. These neurons are likely to provide critical input to the Vestibulo-Sympathetic Reflex to increase BP and HR upon changes in head position relative to gravity, and to contribute to the production of vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses and syncope when the baroreflex is inactivated.

  15. Micropore-induced capillarity enhances bone distribution in vivo in biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustom, Laurence E; Boudou, Thomas; Lou, Siyu; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Nemke, Brett W; Lu, Yan; Markel, Mark D; Picart, Catherine; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J

    2016-10-15

    The increasing demand for bone repair solutions calls for the development of efficacious bone scaffolds. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with both macropores and micropores (MP) have improved healing compared to those with macropores and no micropores (NMP), but the role of micropores is unclear. Here, we evaluate capillarity induced by micropores as a mechanism that can affect bone growth in vivo. Three groups of cylindrical scaffolds were implanted in pig mandibles for three weeks: MP were implanted either dry (MP-Dry), or after submersion in phosphate buffered saline, which fills pores with fluid and therefore suppresses micropore-induced capillarity (MP-Wet); NMP were implanted dry. The amount and distribution of bone in the scaffolds were quantified using micro-computed tomography. MP-Dry had a more homogeneous bone distribution than MP-Wet, although the average bone volume fraction, BVF‾, was not significantly different for these two groups (0.45±0.03 and 0.37±0.03, respectively). There was no significant difference in the radial bone distribution of NMP and MP-Wet, but the BVF‾, of NMP was significantly lower among the three groups (0.25±0.02). These results suggest that micropore-induced capillarity enhances bone regeneration by improving the homogeneity of bone distribution in BCP scaffolds. The explicit design and use of capillarity in bone scaffolds may lead to more effective treatments of large and complex bone defects. The increasing demand for bone repair calls for more efficacious bone scaffolds and calcium phosphate-based materials are considered suitable for this application. Macropores (>100μm) are necessary for bone ingrowth and vascularization. However, studies have shown that microporosity (micropore-induced capillarity had the potential to enhance bone growth in vivo. This work illustrates the positive effects of capillarity on bone regeneration in vivo; it demonstrates that micropore-induced capillarity significantly

  16. A mathematical model of calcium dynamics in HSY cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Han

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is an essential part of activities such as speaking, masticating and swallowing. Enzymes in salivary fluid protect teeth and gums from infectious diseases, and also initiate the digestion process. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+ plays a critical role in saliva secretion and regulation. Experimental measurements of Ca2+ and inositol trisphosphate (IP3 concentrations in HSY cells, a human salivary duct cell line, show that when the cells are stimulated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP or carbachol (CCh, they exhibit coupled oscillations with Ca2+ spike peaks preceding IP3 spike peaks. Based on these data, we construct a mathematical model of coupled Ca2+ and IP3 oscillations in HSY cells and perform model simulations of three different experimental settings to forecast Ca2+ responses. The model predicts that when Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space is removed, oscillations gradually slow down until they stop. The model simulation of applying a pulse of IP3 predicts that photolysis of caged IP3 causes a transient increase in the frequency of the Ca2+ oscillations. Lastly, when Ca2+-dependent activation of PLC is inhibited, we see an increase in the oscillation frequency and a decrease in the amplitude. These model predictions are confirmed by experimental data. We conclude that, although concentrations of Ca2+ and IP3 oscillate, Ca2+ oscillations in HSY cells are the result of modulation of the IP3 receptor by intracellular Ca2+, and that the period is modulated by the accompanying IP3 oscillations.

  17. Calcium regulation and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Rapaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the neuron induces transient fluctuations in [Ca2+]i. This transient rise in [Ca2+]i is dependent on calcium entry via calcium channels and release of calcium from intracellular stores, finally resulting in increase in calcium levels, which activates calcium regulatory proteins to restore the resting calcium levels by binding to the calcium-binding proteins, sequestration into the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, and finally extrusion of calcium spike potential from the cell by adenosine triphosphate-driven Ca2+ pumps and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Improper regulation of calcium signaling, sequentially, likely contributes to synaptic dysfunction and excitotoxic and/or apoptotic death of the vulnerable neuronal populations. The cognitive decline associated with normal aging is not only due to neuronal loss, but is fairly the result of synaptic connectivity. Many evidences support that Ca2+ dyshomeostasis is implicated in normal brain aging. Thus the chief factor associated with Alzheimer’s disease was found to be increase in the levels of free intracellular calcium, demonstrating that the excessive levels might lead to cell death, which provides a key target for the calcium channel blockers might be used as the neuroprotective agents in Alzheimer’s disease.

  18. Analysis of calcium-induced conformational changes in calcium-binding allergens and quantitative determination of their IgE binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parody, Nuria; Fuertes, Miguel Angel; Alonso, Carlos; Pico de Coaña, Yago

    2013-01-01

    The polcalcin family is one of the most epidemiologically relevant families of calcium-binding allergens. Polcalcins are potent plant allergens that contain one or several EF-hand motifs and their allergenicity is primarily associated with the Ca(2+)-bound form of the protein. Conformation, stability, as well as IgE recognition of calcium-binding allergens greatly depend on the presence of protein-bound calcium ions. We describe a protocol that uses three techniques (SDS-PAGE, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and ELISA) to describe the effects that calcium has on the structural changes in an allergen and its IgE binding properties.

  19. Phase dynamics of oscillating magnetizations coupled via spin pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical formalism is developed to simultaneously solve equation of motion of the magnetizations in two ferromagnets and the spin-pumping induced spin transport equation. Based on the formalism, a coupled motion of the magnetizations in a self-oscillation state is studied. The spin pumping is found to induce an in-phase synchronization of the magnetizations for the oscillation around the easy axis. For an out-of-plane self-oscillation around the hard axis, on the other hand, the spin pumping leads to an in-phase synchronization in a small current region, whereas an antiphase synchronization is excited in a large current region. An analytical theory based on the phase equation reveals that the phase difference between the magnetizations in a steady state depends on the oscillation direction, clockwise or counterclockwise, of the magnetizations.

  20. Transfected parvalbumin alters calcium homeostasis in teratocarcinoma PCC7 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, B K; Kabos, P; Belhage, B

    1996-01-01

    Indirect evidence supports a protective role of some EF-hand calcium-binding proteins against calcium-induced neurotoxicity. Little is known about how these proteins influence cytosolic calcium levels. After cloning the parvalbumin cDNA into an expression vector, teratocarcinoma cells (PCC7) were...

  1. Mutual influence between current-induced giant magnetoresistance and radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2DES

    OpenAIRE

    Samaraweera, R. L.; Liu, H.-C.; Wang, Z.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Mani, R. G.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations are examined in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D system in the regime where an observed concurrent giant magnetoresistance is systematically varied with a supplementary dc-current, I dc . The I dc tuned giant magnetoresistance is subsequently separated from the photo-excited oscillatory resistance using a multi-conduction model in order to examine the interplay between the two effects. The results show that the invoked multiconduction model describes the obs...

  2. The use of (double) relaxation oscillation SQUIDs as a sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duuren, M.J.; Brons, G.C.S.; Kattouw, H.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst

    1997-01-01

    Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (ROSs) and Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUIDs (DROSs) are based on relaxation oscillations that are induced in hysteretic dc SQUIDs by an external L-R shunt. The relaxation frequency of a ROS varies with the applied flux Φ, whereas the output of a DROS is a dc

  3. Stochastic resonance induced by the novel random transitions of two-dimensional weak damping bistable duffing oscillator and bifurcation of moment equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangjun; Xu Jianxue; Wang Jue; Yue Zhifeng; Zou Hailin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper stochastic resonance induced by the novel random transitions of two-dimensional weak damping bistable Duffing oscillator is analyzed by moment method. This kind of novel transition refers to the one among three potential well on two sides of bifurcation point of original system at the presence of internal noise. Several conclusions are drawn. First, the semi-analytical result of stochastic resonance induced by the novel random transitions of two-dimensional weak damping bistable Duffing oscillator can be obtained, and the semi-analytical result is qualitatively compatible with the one of Monte Carlo simulation. Second, a bifurcation of double-branch fixed point curves occurs in the moment equations with noise intensity as their bifurcation parameter. Third, the bifurcation of moment equations corresponds to stochastic resonance of original system. Finally, the mechanism of stochastic resonance is presented from another viewpoint through analyzing the energy transfer induced by the bifurcation of moment equation.

  4. Inhibition of polar calcium movement and gravitropism in roots treated with auxin-transport inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Mulkey, T. J.; Evans, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) exhibit strong positive gravitropism. In both species, gravistimulation induces polar movement of calcium across the root tip from the upper side to the lower side. Roots of onion (Allium cepa L.) are not responsive to gravity and gravistimulation induces little or no polar movement of calcium across the root tip. Treatment of maize or pea roots with inhibitors of auxin transport (morphactin, naphthylphthalamic acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid) prevents both gravitropism and gravity-induced polar movement of calcium across the root tip. The results indicate that calcium movement and auxin movement are closely linked in roots and that gravity-induced redistribution of calcium across the root cap may play an important role in the development of gravitropic curvature.

  5. Can atorvastatin calcium cause asymptomatic hypercalcemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipekçi, Süleyman Hilmi; Baldane, Süleyman; Sözen, Mehmet; Kebapçılar, Levent

    2014-10-01

    The use of statins may have unnatural effects. A 54-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with an incidental finding of hypercalcemia (10.8 mg/dL). There was no disease other than hyperlipidemia, and the patient had been on a course of atorvastatin calcium 10 mg for 1.5 years. A workup investigation to diagnose the cause of hypercalcemia was completed. The investigation did not reveal any pathological diseases that may have caused the hypercalcemia. The hypercalcemia resolved after atorvastatin-calcium was stopped, and the patient developed hypercalcemia shortly after the initiation of the atorvastatin calcium. Here, we report a clinical case of recurrent hypercalcemia possibly induced by atorvastatin calcium administration.

  6. Rapid and Sustained Nuclear-Cytoplasmic ERK Oscillations Induced by Epidermal Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankaran, Harish; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Chrisler, William B.; Resat, Haluk; Bollinger, Nikki; Opresko, Lee K.; Wiley, H. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mathematical modeling has predicted that ERK activity should oscillate in response to cell stimulation, but this has never been observed. To explore this inconsistency, we expressed an ERK1-GFP fusion protein in mammary epithelial cells. Following EGF stimulation, we observed rapid and continuous ERK oscillations between the nucleus and cytoplasm with a periodicity of approximately 15 minutes. These oscillations were remarkably persistent (>45 cycles), displayed an asymmetric waveform, and were highly dependent on cell density, essentially disappearing at confluency. We conclude that the ERK pathway is an intrinsic oscillator. Although the functional implications of the observed oscillations are uncertain, this property can be used to continuously monitor ERK activity in single cells.

  7. Beta-Estradiol Regulates Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Estrogen Receptors in Telocytes from Human Myometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Banciu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors are essential players in uterine physiology, and their association with different calcium signaling pathways contributes to healthy and pathological conditions of the uterine myometrium. Among the properties of the various cell subtypes present in human uterine myometrium, there is increasing evidence that calcium oscillations in telocytes (TCs contribute to contractile activity and pregnancy. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of beta-estradiol on voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from human uterine myometrium and to understand their role in pregnancy. For this purpose, we employed patch-clamp recordings, ratiometric Fura-2-based calcium imaging analysis, and qRT-PCR techniques for the analysis of cultured human myometrial TCs derived from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine samples. In human myometrial TCs from both non-pregnant and pregnant uterus, we evidenced by qRT-PCR the presence of genes encoding for voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav3.1, Ca3.2, Cav3.3, Cav2.1, estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2, GPR30, and nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCOA3. Pregnancy significantly upregulated Cav3.1 and downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, ESR1, ESR2, and NCOA3, compared to the non-pregnant condition. Beta-estradiol treatment (24 h, 10, 100, 1000 nM downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, Cav1.2, ESR1, ESR2, GRP30, and NCOA3 in TCs from human pregnant uterine myometrium. We also confirmed the functional expression of voltage-gated calcium channels by patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging analysis of TCs from pregnant human myometrium by perfusing with BAY K8644, which induced calcium influx through these channels. Additionally, we demonstrated that beta-estradiol (1000 nM antagonized the effect of BAY K8644 (2.5 or 5 µM in the same preparations. In conclusion, we evidenced the presence of voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from non-pregnant and pregnant

  8. Beta-Estradiol Regulates Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Estrogen Receptors in Telocytes from Human Myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Mustaciosu, Cosmin Catalin; Radu, Mihai; Cretoiu, Dragos; Xiao, Junjie; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria; Suciu, Nicolae; Radu, Beatrice Mihaela

    2018-05-09

    Voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors are essential players in uterine physiology, and their association with different calcium signaling pathways contributes to healthy and pathological conditions of the uterine myometrium. Among the properties of the various cell subtypes present in human uterine myometrium, there is increasing evidence that calcium oscillations in telocytes (TCs) contribute to contractile activity and pregnancy. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of beta-estradiol on voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from human uterine myometrium and to understand their role in pregnancy. For this purpose, we employed patch-clamp recordings, ratiometric Fura-2-based calcium imaging analysis, and qRT-PCR techniques for the analysis of cultured human myometrial TCs derived from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine samples. In human myometrial TCs from both non-pregnant and pregnant uterus, we evidenced by qRT-PCR the presence of genes encoding for voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav3.1, Ca3.2, Cav3.3, Cav2.1), estrogen receptors (ESR1, ESR2, GPR30), and nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCOA3). Pregnancy significantly upregulated Cav3.1 and downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, ESR1, ESR2, and NCOA3, compared to the non-pregnant condition. Beta-estradiol treatment (24 h, 10, 100, 1000 nM) downregulated Cav3.2, Cav3.3, Cav1.2, ESR1, ESR2, GRP30, and NCOA3 in TCs from human pregnant uterine myometrium. We also confirmed the functional expression of voltage-gated calcium channels by patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging analysis of TCs from pregnant human myometrium by perfusing with BAY K8644, which induced calcium influx through these channels. Additionally, we demonstrated that beta-estradiol (1000 nM) antagonized the effect of BAY K8644 (2.5 or 5 µM) in the same preparations. In conclusion, we evidenced the presence of voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from non-pregnant and pregnant human uterine

  9. Regulation of intracellular calcium in resting and stimulated rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    Intracellular calcium regulation was studied in a cell line of mast cells, the rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells with the purpose of determining (1) The properties of the plasma membrane calcium permeability pathway and (2) The role of intracellular calcium stores. The first set of experiments showed that depolarization did not induce calcium entry or secretion in resting cells and did inhibit antigen-stimulated calcium uptake and secretion. In the second set of experiments the ionic basis of antigen-induced depolarization was studied using the fluorescent potential-sensitive probe bis-oxonol. The properties of the calcium entry pathway were more consistent with a calcium channel than a calcium transport mechanism such as Na:Ca exchange. The third set of experiments examined the effects of the proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) on RBL cells. CCCP inhibited antigen-stimulated 45 Ca uptake and secretion by depolarizing the plasma membrane

  10. Chaotic synchronization of two complex nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Mahmoud, Emad E.; Farghaly, Ahmed A.; Aly, Shaban A.

    2009-01-01

    Synchronization is an important phenomenon commonly observed in nature. It is also often artificially induced because it is desirable for a variety of applications in physics, applied sciences and engineering. In a recent paper [Mahmoud GM, Mohamed AA, Aly SA. Strange attractors and chaos control in periodically forced complex Duffing's oscillators. Physica A 2001;292:193-206], a system of periodically forced complex Duffing's oscillators was introduced and shown to display chaotic behavior and possess strange attractors. Such complex oscillators appear in many problems of physics and engineering, as, for example, nonlinear optics, deep-water wave theory, plasma physics and bimolecular dynamics. Their connection to solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation has also been pointed out. In this paper, we study the remarkable phenomenon of chaotic synchronization on these oscillator systems, using active control and global synchronization techniques. We derive analytical expressions for control functions and show that the dynamics of error evolution is globally stable, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. This means that, for a relatively large set initial conditions, the differences between the drive and response systems vanish exponentially and synchronization is achieved. Numerical results are obtained to test the validity of the analytical expressions and illustrate the efficiency of these techniques for inducing chaos synchronization in our nonlinear oscillators.

  11. Effects of Coupled Rolling and Pitching Oscillations on Transonic Shock-Induced Vortex-Breakdown Flow of a Delta Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic vortex-breakdown flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock which induces of the leading edge vortex cores to breakdown. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex-breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while keeping the maximum pitch and roll amplitude equal.

  12. Turbulence modulation induced by interaction between a bubble swarm and decaying turbulence in oscillating-grid turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Ryota; Morikawa, Koichi; Higuchi, Masamori; Saito, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the interaction between a bubble swarm and homogeneous isotropic turbulence was experimentally investigated. The objective is to clarify the turbulence modulation induced by interaction between the bubble swarm and the homogeneous isotropic turbulence without mean flow. In order to generate simultaneously ideally homogeneous isotropic turbulence and a sufficiently controlled bubble swarm, we employed both oscillating grid and bubble generators equipped with audio speakers. First, the homogeneous isotropic turbulence was formed by operating the oscillating grid cylindrical acrylic pipe (height: 600 mm, inner diameter: 149 mm) filled with ion-exchanged and degassed water. Second, we stopped the oscillating-grid in arbitrary time after the homogeneous isotropic turbulence was achieved. A few moments later, the controlled bubble swarm (number of bubbles: 3, average equivalent diameter of bubble: 3 mm, bubble Reynolds number: 859, Weber number: 3.48) was launched into the decaying turbulence described above, using the bubble generators. The bubble formation, bubble size and bubble-launch timing are controlled arbitrarily and precisely by this device. In this study, we conducted the following experiments: 1) measurement of the motion of bubbles in rest water and oscillating grid turbulence via high-speed visualization, 2) measurement of the liquid phase motion around the bubbles in rest water via PIV system with LIF method, 3) measurement of the liquid phase motion around the bubbles in oscillating-grid turbulence via PIV system with LIF method. In the vitalization of the liquid-phase motion of both experiments, two high speed video cameras were employed in order to simultaneously film large- and small-scale interrogation areas. The liquid-phase ambient turbulence hastened the change of the bubble motion from zigzag mode to spiral mode. The interaction between the bubble swarm and liquid-phase turbulence increased decay-rate of the turbulence. (author)

  13. Exciton-plasmon quantum metastates: self-induced oscillations of plasmon fields in the absence of decoherence in nanoparticle molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, S. M., E-mail: seyed.sadeghi@uah.edu [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Department of Physics and Nano and Mirco Device Center (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We investigate formation of unique quantum states (metastates) in quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle systems via self-induced coherent dynamics generated by interaction of these systems with a visible and an infrared laser fields. In such metastates, the quantum decoherence rates of the quantum dots can become zero and even negative while they start to rapidly change with time. Under these conditions, the energy dissipation rates and plasmon fields of the nanoparticle systems undergo undamped oscillations with gigahertz frequency, while the amplitudes of both visible and the infrared laser fields are considered to be time-independent. These dynamics also lead to variation of the plasmon absorption of the metallic nanoparticles between high and nearly zero values, forming electromagnetically induced transparency oscillations. We show that under these conditions, the effective transition energies and broadening of the quantum dots undergo oscillatory dynamics, highlighting the unique aspects of the metastates. These results extend the horizon for investigation of light-matter interaction in the presence of zero or negative polarization dephasing rates with strong time dependency.

  14. Aeroelastic Limit-Cycle Oscillations resulting from Aerodynamic Non-Linearities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, A.C.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aerodynamic non-linearities, such as shock waves, boundary layer separation or boundary layer transition, may cause an amplitude limitation of the oscillations induced by the fluid flow around a structure. These aeroelastic limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs) resulting from aerodynamic non-linearities

  15. Diagram of Calcium Movement in the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This diagram shows the normal pathways of calcium movement in the body and indicates changes (green arrows) seen during preliminary space flight experiments. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts have participated in a study of calcium kinetics -- that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  16. Oscillation effects on high-energy neutrino fluxes from astrophysical hidden sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, Olga; Mocioiu, Irina; Razzaque, Soebur

    2007-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos are expected to be produced in a variety of astrophysical sources as well as in optically thick hidden sources. We explore the matter-induced oscillation effects on emitted neutrino fluxes of three different flavors from the latter class. We use the ratio of electron and tau induced showers to muon tracks, in upcoming neutrino telescopes, as the principal observable in our analysis. This ratio depends on the neutrino energy, density profile of the sources, and on the oscillation parameters. The largely unknown flux normalization drops out of our calculation and only affects the statistics. For the current knowledge of the oscillation parameters we find that the matter-induced effects are non-negligible and the enhancement of the ratio from its vacuum value takes place in an energy range where the neutrino telescopes are the most sensitive. Quantifying the effect would be useful to learn about the astrophysics of the sources as well as the oscillation parameters. If the neutrino telescopes mostly detect diffuse neutrinos without identifying their sources, then any deviation of the measured flux ratios from the vacuum expectation values would be most naturally explained by a large population of hidden sources for which matter-induced neutrino oscillation effects are important

  17. Calcium induces long-term legacy effects in a subalpine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Schaffner

    Full Text Available Human activities have transformed a significant proportion of the world's land surface, with profound effects on ecosystem processes. Soil applications of macronutrients such as nitrate, phosphorus, potassium or calcium are routinely used in the management of croplands, grasslands and forests to improve plant health or increase productivity. However, while the effects of continuous fertilization and liming on terrestrial ecosystems are well documented, remarkably little is known about the legacy effect of historical fertilization and liming events in terrestrial ecosystems and of the mechanisms involved. Here, we show that more than 70 years after the last application of lime on a subalpine grassland, all major soil and plant calcium pools were still significantly larger in limed than in unlimed plots, and that the resulting shift in the soil calcium/aluminium ratio continues to affect ecosystem services such as primary production. The difference in the calcium content of the vegetation and the topmost 10 cm of the soil in limed vs. unlimed plots amounts to approximately 19.5 g m(-2, equivalent to 16.3% of the amount that was added to the plots some 70 years ago. In contrast, plots that were treated with nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer in the 1930s did not differ from unfertilized plots in any of the soil and vegetation characteristics measured. Our findings suggest that the long-term legacy effect of historical liming is due to long-term storage of added calcium in stable soil pools, rather than a general increase in nutrient availability. Our results demonstrate that single applications of calcium in its carbonated form can profoundly and persistently alter ecosystem processes and services in mountain ecosystems.

  18. Electrophoretic mobility shift in native gels indicates calcium-dependent structural changes of neuronal calcium sensor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviano, Jeffrey; Krishnan, Anuradha; Wu, Hao; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2016-02-01

    In proteins of the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family, changes in structure as well as function are brought about by the binding of calcium. In this article, we demonstrate that these structural changes, solely due to calcium binding, can be assessed through electrophoresis in native gels. The results demonstrate that the NCS proteins undergo ligand-dependent conformational changes that are detectable in native gels as a gradual decrease in mobility with increasing calcium but not other tested divalent cations such as magnesium, strontium, and barium. Surprisingly, such a gradual change over the entire tested range is exhibited only by the NCS proteins but not by other tested calcium-binding proteins such as calmodulin and S100B, indicating that the change in mobility may be linked to a unique NCS family feature--the calcium-myristoyl switch. Even within the NCS family, the changes in mobility are characteristic of the protein, indicating that the technique is sensitive to the individual features of the protein. Thus, electrophoretic mobility on native gels provides a simple and elegant method to investigate calcium (small ligand)-induced structural changes at least in the superfamily of NCS proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cholinergic enhancement of visual attention and neural oscillations in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Markus; Kluge, Christian; Bach, Dominik; Bradbury, David; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon

    2012-03-06

    Cognitive processes such as visual perception and selective attention induce specific patterns of brain oscillations. The neurochemical bases of these spectral changes in neural activity are largely unknown, but neuromodulators are thought to regulate processing. The cholinergic system is linked to attentional function in vivo, whereas separate in vitro studies show that cholinergic agonists induce high-frequency oscillations in slice preparations. This has led to theoretical proposals that cholinergic enhancement of visual attention might operate via gamma oscillations in visual cortex, although low-frequency alpha/beta modulation may also play a key role. Here we used MEG to record cortical oscillations in the context of administration of a cholinergic agonist (physostigmine) during a spatial visual attention task in humans. This cholinergic agonist enhanced spatial attention effects on low-frequency alpha/beta oscillations in visual cortex, an effect correlating with a drug-induced speeding of performance. By contrast, the cholinergic agonist did not alter high-frequency gamma oscillations in visual cortex. Thus, our findings show that cholinergic neuromodulation enhances attentional selection via an impact on oscillatory synchrony in visual cortex, for low rather than high frequencies. We discuss this dissociation between high- and low-frequency oscillations in relation to proposals that lower-frequency oscillations are generated by feedback pathways within visual cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. First integral method for an oscillator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Gong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the nonlinear Duffing-van der Pol-type oscillator system by means of the first integral method. This system has physical relevance as a model in certain flow-induced structural vibration problems, which includes the van der Pol oscillator and the damped Duffing oscillator etc as particular cases. Firstly, we apply the Division Theorem for two variables in the complex domain, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra, to explore a quasi-polynomial first integral to an equivalent autonomous system. Then, through solving an algebraic system we derive the first integral of the Duffing-van der Pol-type oscillator system under certain parametric condition.

  1. Polymer-induced liquid precursor (PILP) phases of calcium carbonate formed in the presence of synthetic acidic polypeptides - relevance to biomineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, A.S.; Zope, H.; Kim, Y.; Kros, A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Meldrum, F.C.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer-induced liquid precursor (PILP) phases of calcium carbonate have attracted significant interest due to possible applications in materials synthesis, and their resemblance to intermediates seen in biogenic mineralisation processes. Further, these PILP phases have been formed in vitro using

  2. Tetany: quantitative interrelationships between calcium and alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, J W; Brashear, R E; Li, T K

    1975-04-01

    Tetany occurs with hypocalcemia and alkalosis or both. The interrelationship of calcium and acid-base balance necessary for inducing tetany, the role of the central nervous system, and the rate of development of hypocalcemia have been investigated. Tetany occurred in less than 50 percent of one group of dogs made alkalotic by hyperventilation or made hypocalcemic by infusion of ethylene glycol-bis(beta-amino ethyl ether) N, N'-tetraacetate. In contrast, hypocalcemia combined with hypocapnic alkalosis always produced tetany. Slowly evolving hypocalcemia was achieved inanother group of dogs by thyroparathyroidectomy, and tetany was induced postoperatively by hypocapnic alkalosis. An identical relationship between serum calcium ion concentration and arterial pH or CO2 tension was found in both groups. Tetany could not be related to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) calcium ion content in either group. Hypocalcemia and alkalosis are therefore coparticipants in the development of tetany and are independent of the rate of development of hypocalcemia and of CSF calcium ion concentration. The importance of alkalosis in tetany with hypoparathyroidism is emphasized.

  3. Transverse centroid oscillations in solenoidially focused beam transport lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Steven M.; Wootton, Christopher J.; Lee, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Transverse centroid oscillations are analyzed for a beam in a solenoid transport lattice. Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable 'alignment functions' and 'bending functions' that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by both mechanical misalignments of the solenoids and dipole steering elements. The alignment and bending functions depend only on the properties of the ideal lattice in the absence of errors and steering, and have associated expansion amplitudes set by the misalignments and steering fields, respectively. Applications of this formulation are presented for statistical analysis of centroid oscillations, calculation of actual lattice misalignments from centroid measurements, and optimal beam steering.

  4. Autonomous Oscillation of Nonthermoresponsive Polymers and Gels Induced by the Belousov–Zhabotinsky Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Hara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review introduces the self-oscillating behavior of two types of nonthermoresponsive polymer systems with Ru catalyst moieties for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction: one with a poly-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP main chain, and the other with a poly(2-propenamide (polyacrylamide (PAM main chain. The amplitude of the VP-based self-oscillating polymer chain and the activation energy for self-oscillation are hardly affected by the initial concentrations of the BZ substrates. The influences of the initial concentrations of the BZ substrates and the temperature on the period of the swelling-deswelling self-oscillation are examined in detail. Logarithmic plots of the period against the initial concentration of one BZ substrate, when the concentrations of the other two BZ substrates are fixed, show good linear relationships. The period of the swelling-deswelling self-oscillation decreases with increasing temperature, in accordance with the Arrhenius equation. The maximum frequency (0.5 Hz of the poly(VP-co-Ru(bpy3 gel is 20 times that of the poly(NIPAAm-co-Ru(bpy3 gel. It is also demonstrated that the amplitude of the volume self-oscillation for the gel has a tradeoff with the self-oscillation period. In addition, this review reports the self-oscillating behavior of an AM-based self-oscillating polymer chain as compared to that of the VP-based polymer chain.

  5. Oral Exposure to Atrazine Induces Oxidative Stress and Calcium Homeostasis Disruption in Spleen of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuying Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide atrazine (ATR can cause many adverse effects including immunotoxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The current study investigated the role of oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis in ATR-induced immunotoxicity in mice. ATR at doses of 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg body weight was administered to Balb/c mice daily for 21 days by oral gavage. The studies performed 24 hr after the final exposure showed that ATR could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species in the spleen of the mice, increase the level of advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP in the host serum, and cause the depletion of reduced glutathione in the serum, each in a dose-related manner. In addition, DNA damage was observed in isolated splenocytes as evidenced by increase in DNA comet tail formation. ATR exposure also caused increases in intracellular Ca2+ within splenocytes. Moreover, ATR treatment led to increased expression of genes for some antioxidant enzymes, such as HO-1 and Gpx1, as well as increased expression of NF-κB and Ref-1 proteins in the spleen. In conclusion, it appears that oxidative stress and disruptions in calcium homeostasis might play an important role in the induction of immunotoxicity in mice by ATR.

  6. Hyperthyroidism enhances 5-HT-induced contraction of the rat pulmonary artery: role of calcium-activated chloride channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriowo, Mabayoje A; Oommen, Elsie; Khan, Islam

    2011-11-01

    Experimentally-induced hyperthyroidism in rodents is associated with signs and symptoms of pulmonary hypertension. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of thyroxine-induced pulmonary hypertension on the contractile response of the pulmonary artery to 5-HT and the possible underlying signaling pathway. 5-HT concentration-dependently contracted artery segments from control and thyroxine-treated rats with pD(2) values of 5.04 ± 0.19 and 5.34 ± 0.14, respectively. The maximum response was significantly greater in artery segments from thyroxine-treated rats. Neither BW 723C86 (5-HT(2B)-receptor agonist) nor CP 93129 (5-HT(1B)-receptor agonist) contracted ring segments of the pulmonary artery from control and thyroxine-treated rats at concentrations up to 10(-4)M. There was no significant difference in the level of expression of 5-HT(2A)-receptor protein between the two groups. Ketanserin (3 × 10(-8)M) produced a rightward shift of the concentration-response curve to 5-HT in both groups with equal potency (-logK(B) values were 8.1 ± 0.2 and 7.9 ± 0.1 in control and thyroxine-treated rats, respectively). Nifedipine (10(-6)M) inhibited 5-HT-induced contractions in artery segments from control and thyroxine-treated rats and was more effective against 5-HT-induced contraction in artery segments for thyroxine-treated rats. The calcium-activated chloride channel blocker, niflumic acid (10(-4)M) also inhibited 5-HT-induced contractions in artery segments from control and thyroxine-treated rats and was more effective against 5-HT-induced contraction in artery segments for thyroxine-treated rats. It was concluded that hyperthyroidism enhanced 5-HT-induced contractions of the rat pulmonary artery by a mechanism involving increased activity of calcium-activated chloride channels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Zinc oxide nanoparticles decrease the expression and activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng; Wang, Daoguang; Wu, Qiuxin

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important materials with diverse applications. However, it has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to organisms, and that oxidative stress is often hypothesized to be an important factor in cytotoxicity mediated by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles has not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the possible molecular mechanism involved in calcium homeostasis mediated by plasma membrane calcium ATPase in rat retinal ganglion cells. Real-time cell electronic sensing assay showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles could exert cytotoxic effect on rat retinal ganglion cells in a concentration-dependent manner; flow cytometric analysis indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles could lead to cell damage by inducing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, zinc oxide nanoparticles could also apparently decrease the expression level and their activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, which finally disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis and result in cell death. Taken together, zinc oxide nanoparticles could apparently decrease the plasma membrane calcium ATPase expression, inhibit their activity, cause the elevated intracellular calcium ion level and disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis. Further, the disrupted calcium homeostasis will trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, generate excessive reactive oxygen species, and finally initiate cell death. Thus, the disrupted calcium homeostasis is involved in the zinc oxide nanoparticle-induced rat retinal ganglion cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acrolein induces Hsp72 via both PKCdelta/JNK and calcium signaling pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misonou, Yoshiko; Takahashi, Motoko; Park, Yong Seek; Asahi, Michio; Miyamoto, Yasuhide; Sakiyama, Haruhiko; Cheng, Xinyao; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2005-05-01

    Acrolein is a highly electrophilic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes to which humans are exposed in a variety of environment situations and is also a product of lipid peroxidation. Increased levels of unsaturated aldehydes play an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis and diabetes. A number of studies have reported that acrolein evokes downstream signaling via an elevation in cellular oxidative stress. Here, we report that low concentrations of acrolein induce Hsp72 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and that both the PKCdelta/JNK pathway and calcium pathway were involved in the induction. The findings confirm that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is not directly involved in the pathway. The induction of Hsp72 was not observed in other cells such as smooth muscle cells (SMC) or COS-1 cells. The results suggest that HUVEC have a unique defense system against cell damage by acrolein in which Hsp72 is induced via activation of both the PKCd/JNK and the calcium pathway.

  9. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca 2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch ( 2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  10. Plasmon field enhancement oscillations induced by strain-mediated coupling between a quantum dot and mechanical oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong

    2017-06-23

    We utilize the surface plasmon field of a metal nanoparticle (MNP) to show strain-mediated coupling in a quantum dot-mechanical resonator hybrid system including a quantum dot (QD) embedded within a conical nanowire (NW) and a MNP in the presence of an external field. Based on the numerical solutions of the master equation, we find that a slow oscillation, originating from the strain-mediated coupling between the QD and the NW, appears in the time evolution of the plasmon field enhancement. The results show that the period (about [Formula: see text]) of the slow oscillation is equal to that of the mechanical resonator of NW, which suggests that the time-resolved measurement of the plasmon field enhancement can be easily achieved based on the current experimental conditions. Its amplitude increases with the increasing strain-mediated coupling strength, and under certain conditions there is a linear relationship between them. The slow oscillation of the plasmon field enhancement provides valuable tools for measurements of the mechanical frequency and the strain-mediated coupling strength.

  11. Analysis of calcium-induced effects on the conformation of fengycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Mehmet Nail; Laurent, Pascal; Flore, Christelle; Lins, Laurence; Ongena, Marc; Deleu, Magali

    2013-06-01

    Fengycin is a natural lipopeptide with antifungal and eliciting properties and able to inhibit the activity of phospholipase A2. A combination of CD, FT-IR, NMR and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques was applied to elucidate its conformation in a membrane-mimicking environment and to investigate the effect of calcium ions on it. We mainly observed that fengycin adopts a turn conformation. Our results showed that calcium ions are bound by the two charged glutamates. The calcium binding has an influence on the fengycin conformation and more particularly, on the environment of the tyrosine residues. The modulation of the fengycin conformation by the environmental conditions may influence its biological properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kit W-sh Mutation Prevents Cancellous Bone Loss during Calcium Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Suwanwela, Jaijam; Poolthong, Suchit; Baron, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Calcium is essential for normal bone growth and development. Inadequate calcium intake increases the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Kit ligand/c-Kit signaling plays an important role in regulating bone homeostasis. Mice with c-Kit mutations are osteopenic. The present study aimed to investigate whether impairment of or reduction in c-Kit signaling affects bone turnover during calcium deprivation. Three-week-old male WBB6F1/J-Kit W /Kit W-v /J (W/W v ) mice with c-Kit point mutation, Kit W-sh /HNihrJaeBsmJ (W sh /W sh ) mice with an inversion mutation in the regulatory elements upstream of the c-Kit promoter region, and their wild-type controls (WT) were fed either a normal (0.6% calcium) or a low calcium diet (0.02% calcium) for 3 weeks. μCT analysis indicated that both mutants fed normal calcium diet had significantly decreased cortical thickness and cancellous bone volume compared to WT. The low calcium diet resulted in a comparable reduction in cortical bone volume and cortical thickness in the W/W v and W sh /W sh mice, and their corresponding controls. As expected, the low calcium diet induced cancellous bone loss in the W/W v mice. In contrast, W sh /W sh cancellous bone did not respond to this diet. This c-Kit mutation prevented cancellous bone loss by antagonizing the low calcium diet-induced increase in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in the W sh /W sh mice. Gene expression profiling showed that calcium deficiency increased Osx, Ocn, Alp, type I collagen, c-Fms, M-CSF, and RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in controls; however, the W sh mutation suppressed these effects. Our findings indicate that although calcium restriction increased bone turnover, leading to osteopenia, the decreased c-Kit expression levels in the W sh /W sh mice prevented the low calcium diet-induced increase in cancellous bone turnover and bone loss but not the cortical bone loss.

  13. Polymerization of calcium caseinates solutions induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Jobin, M.; Mezgheni, E.; Srour, M.; Boileau, S.

    1998-01-01

    Solutions of calcium caseinate (5%) combined with propylene glycol (PG) or triethylene glycol(TEG) (0, 2.5% and 5%) and used for the development of edible films and coatings, were irradiated at doses between 0 to 128 kGy. Solutions were chromatographed through toyopearl HW 55F resin to observe the effect of irradiation on cross-link reactions. In unirradiated calcium caseinate solutions, two peaks could be observed (fractions 30 and 37) while samples irradiated at 64 kGy and 128 kGy showed one shifted peak at fraction 32 and 29 respectively. No effect of the plasticizers was observed. According to proteins standards of knowed molecular weights, the molecular weight of calcium caseinate increased approximately 10 times when irradiated at 128 kGy and 5 times when irradiated at 64 kGy. The physico-chemical properties of bio-films prepared with the irradiated solutions, demonstrated that tensile strength at break increased with increase of irradiation dose. A maximum dose was obtained at 16 kGy

  14. Broad-scale small-world network topology induces optimal synchronization of flexible oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovič, Rene; Gosak, Marko; Marhl, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of small-world and scale-free properties of many man-made and natural complex networks has attracted increasing attention. Of particular interest is how the structural properties of a network facilitate and constrain its dynamical behavior. In this paper we study the synchronization of weakly coupled limit-cycle oscillators in dependence on the network topology as well as the dynamical features of individual oscillators. We show that flexible oscillators, characterized by near zero values of divergence, express maximal correlation in broad-scale small-world networks, whereas the non-flexible (rigid) oscillators are best correlated in more heterogeneous scale-free networks. We found that the synchronization behavior is governed by the interplay between the networks global efficiency and the mutual frequency adaptation. The latter differs for flexible and rigid oscillators. The results are discussed in terms of evolutionary advantages of broad-scale small-world networks in biological systems

  15. Calcium as a cardiovascular toxin in CKD-MBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Sharon M

    2017-07-01

    Disordered calcium balance and homeostasis are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Such alterations are commonly associated with abnormal bone remodeling, directly and indirectly. Similarly, positive calcium balance may also be a factor in the pathogenesis of extra skeletal soft tissue and arterial calcification. Calcium may directly affect cardiac structure and function through direct effects to alter cell signaling due to abnormal intracellular calcium homeostasis 2) extra-skeletal deposition of calcium and phosphate in the myocardium and small cardiac arterioles, 3) inducing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through calcium and hormone activation of NFAT signaling mechanisms, and 4) increased aorta calcification resulting in chronic increased afterload leading to hypertrophy. Similarly, calcium may alter vascular smooth muscle cell function and affect cell signaling which may predispose to a proliferative phenotype important in arteriosclerosis and arterial calcification. Thus, disorders of calcium balance and homeostasis due to CKD-MBD may play a role in the high cardiovascular burden observed in patients with CKD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Altered elementary calcium release events and enhanced calcium release by thymol in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentesi, Péter; Szappanos, Henrietta; Szegedi, Csaba; Gönczi, Monika; Jona, István; Cseri, Julianna; Kovács, László; Csernoch, László

    2004-03-01

    The effects of thymol on steps of excitation-contraction coupling were studied on fast-twitch muscles of rodents. Thymol was found to increase the depolarization-induced release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which could not be attributed to a decreased calcium-dependent inactivation of calcium release channels/ryanodine receptors or altered intramembrane charge movement, but rather to a more efficient coupling of depolarization to channel opening. Thymol increased ryanodine binding to heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, with a half-activating concentration of 144 micro M and a Hill coefficient of 1.89, and the open probability of the isolated and reconstituted ryanodine receptors, from 0.09 +/- 0.03 to 0.22 +/- 0.04 at 30 micro M. At higher concentrations the drug induced long-lasting open events on a full conducting state. Elementary calcium release events imaged using laser scanning confocal microscopy in the line-scan mode were reduced in size, 0.92 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.70 +/- 0.01, but increased in duration, 56 +/- 1 vs. 79 +/- 1 ms, by 30 micro M thymol, with an increase in the relative proportion of lone embers. Higher concentrations favored long events, resembling embers in control, with duration often exceeding 500 ms. These findings provide direct experimental evidence that the opening of a single release channel will generate an ember, rather than a spark, in mammalian skeletal muscle.

  17. Space flight calcium: implications for astronaut health, spacecraft operations, and Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; McCoy, Torin; Gazda, Daniel; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R

    2012-12-18

    The space flight environment is known to induce bone loss and, subsequently, calcium loss. The longer the mission, generally the more bone and calcium are lost. This review provides a history of bone and calcium studies related to space flight and highlights issues related to calcium excretion that the space program must consider so that urine can be recycled. It also discusses a novel technique using natural stable isotopes of calcium that will be helpful in the future to determine calcium and bone balance during space flight.

  18. The effect of loss of immunity on noise-induced sustained oscillations in epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, J; Kuske, R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of loss of immunity on sustained population oscillations about an endemic equilibrium is studied via a multiple scales analysis of a SIRS model. The analysis captures the key elements supporting the nearly regular oscillations of the infected and susceptible populations, namely, the interaction of the deterministic and stochastic dynamics together with the separation of time scales of the damping and the period of these oscillations. The derivation of a nonlinear stochastic amplitude equation describing the envelope of the oscillations yields two criteria providing explicit parameter ranges where they can be observed. These conditions are similar to those found for other applications in the context of coherence resonance, in which noise drives nearly regular oscillations in a system that is quiescent without noise. In this context the criteria indicate how loss of immunity and other factors can lead to a significant increase in the parameter range for prevalence of the sustained oscillations, without any external driving forces. Comparison of the power spectral densities of the full model and the approximation confirms that the multiple scales analysis captures nonlinear features of the oscillations.

  19. Inhibition of 4NQO-Induced Oral Carcinogenesis by Dietary Oyster Shell Calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Tang, Shengan; Yang, Qing; Sun, Lihua; Li, Yujie; Gao, Shuangrong; Xie, Zhongjian

    2016-03-01

    Oyster has gained much attention recently for its anticancer activity but it is unclear whether calcium, the major antitumor ingredient in oyster shell, is responsible for the anticarcinogenic role of the oyster. To address this issue, C57BL/6 mice were fed with the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, 50 µg/mL) and normal diet or a diet containing oyster powder, oyster calcium, or calcium depleted oyster powder. The tongue tissue specimens isolated from these mice were histologically evaluated for hyperplasia, dysplasia, and papillary lesions, and then analyzed for proliferation and differentiation markers by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that mice on the diet containing oyster calcium significantly reduced rates of tumors in the tongue and proliferation and enhanced differentiation in the oral epithelium compared with the diet containing calcium depleted oyster powder. These results suggest that calcium in oyster plays a critical role in suppressing formation of oral squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation and promoting differentiation of the oral epithelium. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Failure of Elevating Calcium Induces Oxidative Stress Tolerance and Imparts Cisplatin Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Liwei; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Chunyan; Su, Jing; Xie, Qi; Xu, Lu; Yu, Yang; Liu, Shibing; Li, Songyan; Xu, Ye; Li, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug, used for the treatment of malignant ovarian cancer, but acquired resistance limits its application. There is therefore an overwhelming need to understand the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, that is, ovarian cancer cells are insensitive to cisplatin treatment. Here, we show that failure of elevating calcium and oxidative stress tolerance play key roles in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cell lines. Cisplatin induce...

  1. Direct therapeutic applications of calcium electroporation to effectively induce tumor necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    in vivo. Calcium electroporation elicited dramatic antitumor responses in which 89% of treated tumors were eliminated. Histologic analyses indicated complete tumor necrosis. Mechanistically, calcium electroporation caused acute ATP depletion likely due to a combination of increased cellular use of ATP......, decreased production of ATP due to effects on the mitochondria, as well as loss of ATP through the permeabilized cell membrane. Taken together, our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of electroporation to load cancer cells with calcium as an efficient anticancer treatment...

  2. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  3. Effects of Calcium Source on Biochemical Properties of Microbial CaCO3 Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Du, Yali; Jiang, Zhengwu; She, Anming

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical properties of CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii, an ureolytic type microorganism, were investigated. Effects of calcium source on the precipitation process were examined, since calcium source plays a key role in microbiologically induced mineralization. Regardless of the calcium source type, three distinct stages in the precipitation process were identified by Ca(2+), NH4 (+), pH and cell density monitoring. Compared with stage 1 and 3, stage 2 was considered as the most critical part since biotic CaCO3 precipitation occurs during this stage. Kinetics studies showed that the microbial CaCO3 precipitation rate for calcium lactate was over twice of that for calcium nitrate, indicating that calcium lactate is more beneficial for the cell activity, which in turn determines urease production and CaCO3 precipitation. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the CaCO3 crystal as calcite, although scanning electron microscopy revealed a difference in crystal size and morphology if calcium source was different. The findings of this paper further suggest a promising application of microbiologically induced CaCO3 precipitation in remediation of surface and cracks of porous media, e.g., cement-based composites, particularly by using organic source of calcium lactate.

  4. Effect of orally administered dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate on oral glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Svetlana E Nikoulina1, Dietmar Fuchs2, Phillip Moheno11SanRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, AustriaAbstract: Calcium pterins have been shown to be significant immunotherapeutic agents in models of breast cancer, hepatitis B, and tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin mycobacteria. These compunds modulate the immuno-enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO and the blood levels of several identified inflammatory cytokines. Recent research into the pathology of diabetes implicates inflammatory factors in the progression of the disease, leading the authors to study its possible control by one of the calcium pterins, dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP.The investigators tested DCP as a novel therapeutic for type 2 diabetes. Female C57BL/6 J mice with diet-induced obesity were fed a high-fat diet and were administered DCP in 0.4% carboxymethylcellulose for 21 days. Blood glucose was followed during the dosing period, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was carried out on day 21. Measurements of plasma indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase metabolites (tryptophan and kynurenine and certain cytokines and chemokines were also taken. DCP 7 mg/kg/day reduced OGTT area under the curve (OGTT/AUC by 50% (P < 0.05. A significant multivariate regression (P = 0.013; R2 = 0.571 of OGTT/AUC was derived from DCP dosage and plasma Trp. Elevated plasma Trp concentration, likely from heterogeneity in diet and/or indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity, was found to correlate with higher OGTT/AUC diabetic measures, possibly via inhibition of histamine degradation. In conclusion, an optimum dose of DCP 7 mg/kg/day significantly improved the OGTT diabetic state in these female diet-induced obese mice.Keywords: diabetes, immunotherapy, oral glucose tolerance test, tryptophan, kynurenine

  5. Calcium binding properties of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CaCDPK1) from Cicer arietinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ajay Kumar; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2015-05-01

    Calcium plays a crucial role as a secondary messenger in all aspects of plant growth, development and survival. Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are the major calcium decoders, which couple the changes in calcium level to an appropriate physiological response. The mechanism by which calcium regulates CDPK protein is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the interactions of Ca(2+) ions with the CDPK1 isoform of Cicer arietinum (CaCDPK1) using a combination of biophysical tools. CaCDPK1 has four different EF hands as predicted by protein sequence analysis. The fluorescence emission spectrum of CaCDPK1 showed quenching with a 5 nm red shift upon addition of calcium, indicating conformational changes in the tertiary structure. The plot of changes in intensity against calcium concentrations showed a biphasic curve with binding constants of 1.29 μM and 120 μM indicating two kinds of binding sites. Isothermal calorimetric (ITC) titration with CaCl2 also showed a biphasic curve with two binding constants of 0.027 μM and 1.7 μM. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed two prominent peaks at 208 and 222 nm indicating that CaCDPK1 is a α-helical rich protein. Calcium binding further increased the α-helical content of CaCDPK1 from 75 to 81%. Addition of calcium to CaCDPK1 also increased fluorescence of 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) indicating exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. Thus, on the whole this study provides evidence for calcium induced conformational changes, exposure of hydrophobic surfaces and heterogeneity of EF hands in CaCDPK1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Xenon-induced power oscillations in a generic small modular reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitcher, Evans Damenortey

    As world demand for energy continues to grow at unprecedented rates, the world energy portfolio of the future will inevitably include a nuclear energy contribution. It has been suggested that the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) could play a significant role in the spread of civilian nuclear technology to nations previously without nuclear energy. As part of the design process, the SMR design must be assessed for the threat to operations posed by xenon-induced power oscillations. In this research, a generic SMR design was analyzed with respect to just such a threat. In order to do so, a multi-physics coupling routine was developed with MCNP/MCNPX as the neutronics solver. Thermal hydraulic assessments were performed using a single channel analysis tool developed in Python. Fuel and coolant temperature profiles were implemented in the form of temperature dependent fuel cross sections generated using the SIGACE code and reactor core coolant densities. The Power Axial Offset (PAO) and Xenon Axial Offset (XAO) parameters were chosen to quantify any oscillatory behavior observed. The methodology was benchmarked against results from literature of startup tests performed at a four-loop PWR in Korea. The developed benchmark model replicated the pertinent features of the reactor within ten percent of the literature values. The results of the benchmark demonstrated that the developed methodology captured the desired phenomena accurately. Subsequently, a high fidelity SMR core model was developed and assessed. Results of the analysis revealed an inherently stable SMR design at beginning of core life and end of core life under full-power and half-power conditions. The effect of axial discretization, stochastic noise and convergence of the Monte Carlo tallies in the calculations of the PAO and XAO parameters was investigated. All were found to be quite small and the inherently stable nature of the core design with respect to xenon-induced power oscillations was confirmed. Finally, a

  7. Calcium-induced stabilization of -amylase against guanidine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) denaturation of native and Ca- depleted Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA) was investigated both in the absence and presence of 2 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and biological activity. In both states (Cadepleted and native form), ...

  8. Noise-induced synchronization, desynchronization, and clustering in globally coupled nonidentical oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi Ming

    2013-07-09

    We study ensembles of globally coupled, nonidentical phase oscillators subject to correlated noise, and we identify several important factors that cause noise and coupling to synchronize or desynchronize a system. By introducing noise in various ways, we find an estimate for the onset of synchrony of a system in terms of the coupling strength, noise strength, and width of the frequency distribution of its natural oscillations. We also demonstrate that noise alone can be sufficient to synchronize nonidentical oscillators. However, this synchrony depends on the first Fourier mode of a phase-sensitivity function, through which we introduce common noise into the system. We show that higher Fourier modes can cause desynchronization due to clustering effects, and that this can reinforce clustering caused by different forms of coupling. Finally, we discuss the effects of noise on an ensemble in which antiferromagnetic coupling causes oscillators to form two clusters in the absence of noise. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  9. Enhanced stimulus-induced gamma activity in humans during propofol-induced sedation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Saxena

    Full Text Available Stimulus-induced gamma oscillations in the 30-80 Hz range have been implicated in a wide number of functions including visual processing, memory and attention. While occipital gamma-band oscillations can be pharmacologically modified in animal preparations, pharmacological modulation of stimulus-induced visual gamma oscillations has yet to be demonstrated in non-invasive human recordings. Here, in fifteen healthy humans volunteers, we probed the effects of the GABAA agonist and sedative propofol on stimulus-related gamma activity recorded with magnetoencephalography, using a simple visual grating stimulus designed to elicit gamma oscillations in the primary visual cortex. During propofol sedation as compared to the normal awake state, a significant 60% increase in stimulus-induced gamma amplitude was seen together with a 94% enhancement of stimulus-induced alpha suppression and a simultaneous reduction in the amplitude of the pattern-onset evoked response. These data demonstrate, that propofol-induced sedation is accompanied by increased stimulus-induced gamma activity providing a potential window into mechanisms of gamma-oscillation generation in humans.

  10. The Function of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajin Liao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU—a calcium uniporter on the inner membrane of mitochondria—controls the mitochondrial calcium uptake in normal and abnormal situations. Mitochondrial calcium is essential for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP; however, excessive calcium will induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Calcium homeostasis disruption and mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in many neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role and regulatory mechanism of the MCU in the development of these diseases are obscure. In this review, we summarize the role of the MCU in controlling oxidative stress-elevated mitochondrial calcium and its function in neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibition of the MCU signaling pathway might be a new target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Hydrogen-enriched water restoration of impaired calcium propagation by arsenic in primary keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Tai; Chiu, Yi-Ching; Lee, Chih-Hung; Yoshioka, Tohru; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2013-11-01

    Endemic contamination of artesian water for drinking by arsenic is known to cause several human cancers, including cancers of the skin, bladder, and lungs. In skin, multiple arsenic-induced Bowen's disease (As-BD) can develop into invasive cancers after decades of arsenic exposure. The characteristic histological features of As-BD include full-layer epidermal dysplasia, apoptosis, and abnormal proliferation. Calcium propagation is an essential cellular event contributing to keratinocyte differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, all of which occur in As-BD. This study investigated how arsenic interferes calcium propagation of skin keratinocytes through ROS production and whether hydrogen-enriched water would restore arsenic-impaired calcium propagation. Arsenic was found to induce oxidative stress and inhibit ATP- and thapsigaragin-induced calcium propagation. Pretreatment of arsenic-treated keratinocytes by hydrogen-enriched water or beta-mercaptoethanol with potent anti-oxidative effects partially restored the propagation of calcium by ATP and by thapsigaragin. It was concluded that arsenic may impair calcium propagation, likely through oxidative stress and interactions with thiol groups in membrane proteins.

  12. A Markovian Entropy Measure for the Analysis of Calcium Activity Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marken, John P; Halleran, Andrew D; Rahman, Atiqur; Odorizzi, Laura; LeFew, Michael C; Golino, Caroline A; Kemper, Peter; Saha, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    Methods to analyze the dynamics of calcium activity often rely on visually distinguishable features in time series data such as spikes, waves, or oscillations. However, systems such as the developing nervous system display a complex, irregular type of calcium activity which makes the use of such methods less appropriate. Instead, for such systems there exists a class of methods (including information theoretic, power spectral, and fractal analysis approaches) which use more fundamental properties of the time series to analyze the observed calcium dynamics. We present a new analysis method in this class, the Markovian Entropy measure, which is an easily implementable calcium time series analysis method which represents the observed calcium activity as a realization of a Markov Process and describes its dynamics in terms of the level of predictability underlying the transitions between the states of the process. We applied our and other commonly used calcium analysis methods on a dataset from Xenopus laevis neural progenitors which displays irregular calcium activity and a dataset from murine synaptic neurons which displays activity time series that are well-described by visually-distinguishable features. We find that the Markovian Entropy measure is able to distinguish between biologically distinct populations in both datasets, and that it can separate biologically distinct populations to a greater extent than other methods in the dataset exhibiting irregular calcium activity. These results support the benefit of using the Markovian Entropy measure to analyze calcium dynamics, particularly for studies using time series data which do not exhibit easily distinguishable features.

  13. A Markovian Entropy Measure for the Analysis of Calcium Activity Time Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Marken

    Full Text Available Methods to analyze the dynamics of calcium activity often rely on visually distinguishable features in time series data such as spikes, waves, or oscillations. However, systems such as the developing nervous system display a complex, irregular type of calcium activity which makes the use of such methods less appropriate. Instead, for such systems there exists a class of methods (including information theoretic, power spectral, and fractal analysis approaches which use more fundamental properties of the time series to analyze the observed calcium dynamics. We present a new analysis method in this class, the Markovian Entropy measure, which is an easily implementable calcium time series analysis method which represents the observed calcium activity as a realization of a Markov Process and describes its dynamics in terms of the level of predictability underlying the transitions between the states of the process. We applied our and other commonly used calcium analysis methods on a dataset from Xenopus laevis neural progenitors which displays irregular calcium activity and a dataset from murine synaptic neurons which displays activity time series that are well-described by visually-distinguishable features. We find that the Markovian Entropy measure is able to distinguish between biologically distinct populations in both datasets, and that it can separate biologically distinct populations to a greater extent than other methods in the dataset exhibiting irregular calcium activity. These results support the benefit of using the Markovian Entropy measure to analyze calcium dynamics, particularly for studies using time series data which do not exhibit easily distinguishable features.

  14. B-periodic oscillations in the Hall-resistance induced by a dc-current-bias under combined microwave-excitation and dc-current bias in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Chun; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Mani, R G

    2018-05-18

    We report the observation of dc-current-bias-induced B-periodic Hall resistance oscillations and Hall plateaus in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D system under combined microwave radiation- and dc bias excitation at liquid helium temperatures. The Hall resistance oscillations and plateaus appear together with concomitant oscillations also in the diagonal magnetoresistance. The periods of Hall and diagonal resistance oscillations are nearly identical, and source power (P) dependent measurements demonstrate sub-linear relationship of the oscillation amplitude with P over the span 0 < P ≤ 20 mW.

  15. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenganayil, Muth M.; Decho, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya’s agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries. PMID:29023506

  16. Exopolysaccharides regulate calcium flow in cariogenic biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer

    Full Text Available Caries-associated biofilms induce loss of calcium from tooth surfaces in the presence of dietary carbohydrates. Exopolysaccharides (EPS provide a matrix scaffold and an abundance of primary binding sites within biofilms. The role of EPS in binding calcium in cariogenic biofilms is only partially understood. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the calcium dissolution rates and calcium tolerance of caries-associated bacteria and yeast as well as to examine the properties of EPS to quantify its binding affinity for dissolved calcium. Calcium dissolution was measured by dissolution zones on Pikovskaya's agar. Calcium tolerance was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC by adding CaCl2 to the bacterial cultures. Acid-base titration and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy were used to identify possible functional groups responsible for calcium binding, which was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci demonstrated calcium dissolution in the presence of different carbohydrates. All strains that demonstrated high dissolution rates also revealed higher rates of calcium tolerance by IMC. In addition, acidic functional groups were predominantly identified as possible binding sites for calcium ions by acid-base titration and FTIR. Finally, ITC revealed EPS to have a higher binding affinity for calcium compared, for example, to lactic acid. In conclusion, this study illustrates the role of EPS in terms of the calcium tolerance of cariogenic microbiota by determining the ability of EPS to control free calcium concentrations within the biofilms as a self-regulating mode of action in the pathogenesis of dental caries.

  17. Contracture of Slow Striated Muscle during Calcium Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Richard L.; Hein, Manfred M.

    1963-01-01

    When deprived of calcium the slow striated muscle fibers of the frog develop reversible contractures in either hypertonic or isotonic solutions. While calcium deprivation continues because of a flowing calcium-free solution the muscles relax slowly and completely. Restoration of calcium during contracture relaxes the muscle promptly to initial tension. When relaxed during calcium lack the return of calcium does not change tension and the muscle stays relaxed. When contractures are induced by solutions containing small amounts of calcium relaxation does not occur or requires several hours. The rate of tension development depends upon the rate at which calcium moves outward since the contractures develop slower in low concentrations of calcium and are absent or greatly slowed in a stagnant calcium-free solution. Withdrawal of calcium prevents the contractile responses to ACh, KCl, or electrical stimulation through the nerve. Muscles return to their original excitability after calcium is restored. Origin of the contractures is unrelated to nerve activity since they are maximal during transmission failure from calcium lack, occur in denervated muscles, and are not blocked by high concentrations of d-tubocurarine, procaine, or atropine. The experiments also indicate that the contractures do not originate from repetitive activity of muscle membranes. The findings are most simply explained by relating the outward movement of calcium as a link for initiating contraction in slow type striated muscle. PMID:14065284

  18. T-type calcium channel antagonism decreases motivation for nicotine and blocks nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslaner, Jason M; Vardigan, Joshua D; Drott, Jason M; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Lee, Ariel; Li, Zhaoxia; Lê, A D; Hutson, Pete H

    2010-10-15

    Recent evidence suggests an involvement of T-type calcium channels in the effects of drugs of abuse. We examined the influence of the novel, potent, and selective T-type calcium channel antagonist [2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-{5-[2,2,2-trifluoroethyl]oxo}pyridine-2-yl)ethyl]acetamide] (TTA-A2) (.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) on motivation for nicotine, as measured by nicotine self-administration on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, and nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine delivery (n = 11 or 12 Long Evans rats/group). Furthermore, we examined the specificity of the TTA-A2 effects by characterizing its influence on PR responding for food (in the absence or presence of nicotine-potentiated responding), food- versus nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food administration (n = 11 or 12 Wistar Hannover rats/group), and its ability to induce a conditioned place aversion. TTA-A2 dose-dependently decreased self-administration of nicotine on a PR schedule and the ability of both nicotine and a cue paired with nicotine to reinstate responding. The effects were specific for nicotine's incentive motivational properties, as TTA-A2 did not influence responding for food on a PR schedule but did attenuate the ability of nicotine to potentiate responding for food. Likewise, TTA-A2 did not alter food-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food but did decrease nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement. Finally, TTA-A2 did not produce an aversive state, as indicated by a lack of ability to induce conditioned place aversion. These data suggest that T-type calcium channel antagonists have potential for alleviating nicotine addiction by selectively decreasing the incentive motivational properties of nicotine. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Collective neutrino oscillations and r-process nucleosynthesis in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2012-10-01

    Neutrinos can oscillate collectively in a core-collapse supernova. This phenomenon can occur much deeper inside the supernova envelope than what is predicted from the conventional matter-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, and hence may have an impact on nucleosynthesis. The oscillation patterns and the r-process yields are sensitive to the details of the emitted neutrino fluxes, the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, the modeling of neutrino oscillations and the astrophysical conditions. The effects of collective neutrino oscillations on the r-process will be illustrated using representative late-time neutrino spectra and outflow models.

  20. Optogenetically evoked gamma oscillations are disturbed by cocaine administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Dilgen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drugs of abuse have enormous societal impact by degrading the cognitive abilities, emotional state and social behavior of addicted individuals. Among other events involved in the addiction cycle, the study of a single exposure to cocaine, and the contribution of the effects of that event to the continuous and further use of drugs of abuse are fundamental. Gamma oscillations are thought to be important neural correlates of cognitive processing in the prefrontal cortex (PFC which include decision making, set shifting and working memory. It follows that cocaine exposure might modulate gamma oscillations, which could result in reduced cognitive ability. Parvalbumin-positive fast-spiking interneurons play an orchestrating role in gamma oscillation induction and it has been shown recently that gamma oscillations can be induced in an anesthetized animal using optogenetic techniques. We use a knock-in mouse model together with optogenetics and in vivo electrophysiology to study the effects of acute cocaine on PFC gamma oscillation as a step toward understanding the cortical changes that may underlie continuous use of stimulants. Our results show that acute cocaine administration increases entrainment of the gamma oscillation to the optogentically induced driving frequency. Our results also suggest that this modulation of gamma oscillations is driven trough activation of DAD1 receptors. The acute cocaine-mediated changes in mPFC may underlie the enhancement of attention and awareness commonly reported by cocaine users and may contribute to the further use and abuse of psychostimulants.

  1. pH-regulated chemical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Miklós; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Epstein, Irving R

    2015-03-17

    The hydrogen ion is arguably the most ubiquitous and important species in chemistry. It also plays a key role in nearly every biological process. In this Account, we discuss systems whose behavior is governed by oscillations in the concentration of hydrogen ion. The first chemical oscillators driven by changes in pH were developed a quarter century ago. Since then, about two dozen new pH oscillators, systems in which the periodic variation in pH is not just an indicator but an essential prerequisite of the oscillatory behavior, have been discovered. Mechanistic understanding of their behavior has grown, and new ideas for their practical application have been proposed and, in some cases, tested. Here we present a catalog of the known pH oscillators, divide them into mechanistically based categories based on whether they involve a single oxidant and reductant or an oxidant and a pair of reductants, and describe general mechanisms for these two major classes of systems. We also describe in detail the chemistry of one example from each class, hydrogen peroxide-sulfide and ferricyanide-iodate-sulfite. Finally, we consider actual and potential applications. These include using pH oscillators to induce oscillation in species that would otherwise be nonoscillatory, creating novel spatial patterns, generating periodic transitions between vesicle and micelle states, stimulating switching between folded and random coil states of DNA, building molecular motors, and designing pulsating drug delivery systems. We point out the importance for future applications of finding a batch pH oscillator, one that oscillates in a closed system for an extended period of time, and comment on the progress that has been made toward that goal.

  2. Multiparameter imaging of calcium and abscisic acid and high-resolution quantitative calcium measurements using R-GECO1-mTurquoise in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Krebs, Melanie; Kudla, Jörg; Schumacher, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Calcium signals occur in specific spatio-temporal patterns in response to various stimuli and are coordinated with, for example, hormonal signals, for physiological and developmental adaptations. Quantification of calcium together with other signalling molecules is required for correlative analyses and to decipher downstream calcium-decoding mechanisms. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of calcium and abscisic acid has been performed here to investigate the interdependence of the respective signalling processes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Advanced ratiometric genetically encoded calcium indicators have been generated and in vivo calcium calibration protocols were established to determine absolute calcium concentration changes in response to auxin and ATP. In roots, abscisic acid induced long-term basal calcium concentration increases, while auxin triggered rapid signals in the elongation zone. The advanced ratiometric calcium indicator R-GECO1-mTurquoise exhibited an increased calcium signal resolution compared to commonly used Förster resonance energy transfer-based indicators. Quantitative calcium measurements in Arabidopsis root tips using R-GECO1-mTurquoise revealed detailed maps of absolute calcium concentration changes in response to auxin and ATP. Calcium calibration protocols using R-GECO1-mTurquoise enabled high-resolution quantitative imaging of resting cytosolic calcium concentrations and their dynamic changes that revealed distinct hormonal and ATP responses in roots. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Cortical dendritic activity correlates with spindle-rich oscillations during sleep in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Julie; Richard, Clément J; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Takahashi, Naoya; Kaplan, David I; Doron, Guy; de Limoges, Denis; Bocklisch, Christina; Larkum, Matthew E

    2017-09-25

    How sleep influences brain plasticity is not known. In particular, why certain electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are linked to memory consolidation is poorly understood. Calcium activity in dendrites is known to be necessary for structural plasticity changes, but this has never been carefully examined during sleep. Here, we report that calcium activity in populations of neocortical dendrites is increased and synchronised during oscillations in the spindle range in naturally sleeping rodents. Remarkably, the same relationship is not found in cell bodies of the same neurons and throughout the cortical column. Spindles during sleep have been suggested to be important for brain development and plasticity. Our results provide evidence for a physiological link of spindles in the cortex specific to dendrites, the main site of synaptic plasticity.Different stages of sleep, marked by particular electroencephalographic (EEG) signatures, have been linked to memory consolidation, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, the authors show that dendritic calcium synchronisation correlates with spindle-rich sleep phases.

  4. Letrozole induced low estrogen levels affected the expressions of duodenal and renal calcium-processing gene in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Zhao, Xingkai; Wang, Shujie; Zhou, Zhenlei

    2018-01-01

    Estrogen regulates the calcium homeostasis in hens, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear fully. In this study, we investigated whether letrozole (LZ) induced low estrogen levels affected the calcium absorption and transport in layers. In the duodenum, we observed a significant decrease of mRNA expressions of Calbindin-28k (CaBP-28k) and plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA 1b) while CaBP-28k protein expression was declined in birds with LZ treatment, and the mRNA levels of duodenal transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) and Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) were not affected. Interestingly, we observed the different changes in the kidney. The renal mRNA expressions of TRPV6 and NCX1 were unregulated while the PMCA1b was down-regulated in low estrogen layers, however, the CaBP-28k gene and protein expressions were no changed in the kidney. Furthermore, it showed that the duodenal estradiol receptor 2 (ESR2) transcripts rather than parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) and calcitonin receptor (CALCR) played key roles to down-regulate calcium transport in LZ-treated birds. In conclusion, CaBP-28k, PMCA 1b and ESR2 genes in the duodenum may be primary targets for estrogen regulation in order to control calcium homeostasis in hens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of soaking and acidification on physicochemical properties of calcium-fortified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisoontaralak, Porntip; Limboon, Pailin; Jatuwong, Sujitra; Chavanalikit, Arusa

    2016-06-01

    Calcium-fortified rice was prepared by soaking milled rice in calcium lactate solution, steaming and drying, and physicochemical properties were determined to evaluate effects of calcium concentration (0, 30, 50 g L(-1) ), soaking temperature (ambient temperature, 40 °C, 60 °C) and acidification. Calcium-fortified rice had less lightness. More total solid loss was observed, especially at high soaking temperature. Harder texture was detected with increased calcium concentration. Calcium fortification lowered pasting viscosity of milled rice. Panelists accepted all fortified rice; however, only rice soaked at 50 g L(-1) concentration could be claimed as a good source of calcium. Increasing of soaking temperature induced more penetration of calcium to rice kernels but calcium was lost more easily after washing. With addition of acetic acid to the soaking solution, enriched calcium content was comparable to that of high soaking temperature but with better retention after washing and calcium solubility was improved. Acid induced reduction of lightness and cooked rice hardness but increased total solid loss and pasting viscosity. Although the taste of acetic acid remained, panelists still accepted the fortified rice. Calcium-fortified rice (190.47-194.3 mg 100 g(-1) ) could be successfully produced by soaking milled rice in 50 g L(-1) calcium lactate solution at 40 °C or at ambient temperature with acidification. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Synchronisation Induced by Repulsive Interactions in a System of van der Pol Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, T. V.; Toral, R.

    2011-09-01

    We consider a system of identical van der Pol oscillators, globally coupled through their velocities, and study how the presence of competitive interactions affects its synchronisation properties. We will address the question from two points of view. Firstly, we will investigate the role of competitive interactions on the synchronisation among identical oscillators. Then, we will show that the presence of a fraction of repulsive links results in the appearance of macroscopic oscillations at that signal's rhythm, in regions where the individual oscillator is unable to synchronise with a weak external signal.

  7. Endogenously generated gamma-band oscillations in early visual cortex: A neurofeedback study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Nina; Wibral, Michael; Bland, Gareth; Singer, Wolf

    2018-04-26

    Human subjects were trained with neurofeedback (NFB) to enhance the power of narrow-band gamma oscillations in circumscribed regions of early visual cortex. To select the region and the oscillation frequency for NFB training, gamma oscillations were induced with locally presented drifting gratings. The source and frequency of these induced oscillations were determined using beamforming methods. During NFB training the power of narrow band gamma oscillations was continuously extracted from this source with online beamforming and converted into the pitch of a tone signal. We found that seven out of ten subjects were able to selectively increase the amplitude of gamma oscillations in the absence of visual stimulation. One subject however failed completely and two subjects succeeded to manipulate the feedback signal by contraction of muscles. In all subjects the attempts to enhance visual gamma oscillations were associated with an increase of beta oscillations over precentral/frontal regions. Only successful subjects exhibited an additional marked increase of theta oscillations over precentral/prefrontal and temporal regions whereas unsuccessful subjects showed an increase of alpha band oscillations over occipital regions. We argue that spatially confined networks in early visual cortex can be entrained to engage in narrow band gamma oscillations not only by visual stimuli but also by top down signals. We interpret the concomitant increase in beta oscillations as indication for an engagement of the fronto-parietal attention network and the increase of theta oscillations as a correlate of imagery. Our finding support the application of NFB in disease conditions associated with impaired gamma synchronization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Perturbation Analysis of Calcium, Alkalinity and Secretion during Growth of Lily Pollen Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Lawrence J; Rounds, Caleb; Hepler, Peter K

    2016-12-30

    Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily ( Lilium formosanum Wallace) pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate. Calcium, as a follower, is unlikely to be a stimulator of growth, whereas the alkaline band, as a leader, may be an activator. To gain further insight herein we reversibly inhibited growth with potassium cyanide (KCN) and followed the re-establishment of calcium, pH and secretion patterns as growth resumed. While KCN markedly slows growth and causes the associated gradients of calcium and pH to sharply decline, its removal allows growth and vital processes to fully recover. The calcium gradient reappears before growth restarts; however, it is preceded by both the alkaline band and secretion, in which the alkaline band is slightly advanced over secretion. Thus the pH gradient, rather than the tip-focused calcium gradient, may regulate pollen tube growth.

  9. Perturbation Analysis of Calcium, Alkalinity and Secretion during Growth of Lily Pollen Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J. Winship

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tubes grow by spatially and temporally regulated expansion of new material secreted into the cell wall at the tip of the tube. A complex web of interactions among cellular components, ions and small molecule provides dynamic control of localized expansion and secretion. Cross-correlation studies on oscillating lily (Lilium formosanum Wallace pollen tubes showed that an increase in intracellular calcium follows an increase in growth, whereas the increase in the alkaline band and in secretion both anticipate the increase in growth rate. Calcium, as a follower, is unlikely to be a stimulator of growth, whereas the alkaline band, as a leader, may be an activator. To gain further insight herein we reversibly inhibited growth with potassium cyanide (KCN and followed the re-establishment of calcium, pH and secretion patterns as growth resumed. While KCN markedly slows growth and causes the associated gradients of calcium and pH to sharply decline, its removal allows growth and vital processes to fully recover. The calcium gradient reappears before growth restarts; however, it is preceded by both the alkaline band and secretion, in which the alkaline band is slightly advanced over secretion. Thus the pH gradient, rather than the tip-focused calcium gradient, may regulate pollen tube growth.

  10. Biophysical characterization and functional studies on calbindin-D28K: A vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leathers, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    Vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein, or calbindin-D, is the principal protein induced in the intestine in response to the steroid hormone 1,25(OH) 2 -vitamin D 3 . A definitive role for calbindin-D in vitamin D 3 mediated biological responses remains unclear. Biophysical and functional studies on chick intestinal calbindin-D 28K (CaBP) were initiated so that some insight might be gained into its relevance to the process of intestinal calcium transport. Calbindin-D belongs to a class of high affinity calcium binding proteins which includes calmodulin, parvalbumin and troponin C. The Ca 2+ binding stoichiometry and binding constants for calbindin-D 28K were quantitated by Quin 2 titration analysis. The protein was found to bind 5-6 Ca 2+ ions with a K D on the order of 10 -8 , in agreement with the 6 domains identified from the amino acid sequence. A slow Ca 2+ exchange rate (80 s -1 ) as assessed by 43 Ca NMR and extensive calcium dependent conformational changes in 1 H NMR spectra were also observed. Functional studies on chick intestinal CaBP were carried out by two different methods. Interactions between CaBP and intestinal cellular components were assessed via photoaffinity labeling techniques. Specific calcium dependent complexes for CaBP were identified with bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase and brush border membrane proteins of 60 and 150 kD. CaBP was also found to co-migrate with the alkaline phosphatase activity of chick intestinal brush border membranes as evaluated by gel filtration chromatography. The second procedure for evaluating CaBP functionality has involved the quantitation of CaBP association with vesicular transport components as assessed by ELISA. CaBP, immunoreactivity was observed in purified lysosomes, microsomes and microtubules

  11. The Acid Test: Calcium Signaling in the Skeletogenic Layer of Reef-Building Coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florn, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have increased more than 40%. This increased atmospheric CO2 drives ocean acidification and has potentially serious consequences for all marine life, especially calcifying organisms. The specific goal of this study was to examine calcium homeostasis and signaling dynamics within the skeletogenic tissue layers (calicodermal cells) of two coral species (Pavona maldivensis and Porites rus) at three pH treatments corresponding to present-future ocean acidification levels. Confocal microscopy techniques were used to analyze in vivo calcium dynamics of the calicodermal cells in Pavona maldivensis and Porites rus. The results show biological variation between the two reef-building coral species and their response to ocean acidification. Pavona maldivensis showed a significant difference (p < 0.01) in the ionomycin-induced calcium response among the pH treatments, but not among the microcolonies. Porites rus did not show a significant difference (p < 0.01) in the ionomycin-induced calcium response among the pH treatments or the microcolonies. Upon comparing the calcium response curves, the ionomycin-induced calcium response exhibited by Pavona maldivensis is phenomenologically similar to a calcium response that is commonly found in vertebrates. This well-studied phenomenon in vertebrate biology is known as store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (MAM) calcium stores. This study provides insight into the preliminary steps needed to understand in vivo calcium signaling in the calicodermis of reef-building coral and the associated consequences of ocean acidification.

  12. Activation of L-type calcium channels is required for gap junction-mediated intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of mechanically induced intercellular calcium waves (ICW) among osteoblastic cells occurs both by activation of P2Y (purinergic) receptors by extracellular nucleotides, resulting in "fast" ICW, and by gap junctional communication in cells that express connexin43 (Cx43), resulting...... in "slow" ICW. Human osteoblastic cells transmit intercellular calcium signals by both of these mechanisms. In the current studies we have examined the mechanism of slow gap junction-dependent ICW in osteoblastic cells. In ROS rat osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW were inhibited by removal...... of extracellular calcium, plasma membrane depolarization by high extracellular potassium, and the L-type voltage-operated calcium channel inhibitor, nifedipine. In contrast, all these treatments enhanced the spread of P2 receptor-mediated ICW in UMR rat osteoblastic cells. Using UMR cells transfected to express Cx...

  13. Exchange magnon induced resistance asymmetry in permalloy spin-Hall oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenfeld, S. [Microelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Walter Schottky Institut and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tshitoyan, V.; Fang, Z.; Ferguson, A. J., E-mail: ajf1006@cam.ac.uk [Microelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wells, A.; Moore, T. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-09

    We investigate magnetization dynamics in a spin-Hall oscillator using a direct current measurement as well as conventional microwave spectrum analysis. When the current applies an anti-damping spin-transfer torque, we observe a change in resistance which we ascribe mainly to the excitation of incoherent exchange magnons. A simple model is developed based on the reduction of the effective saturation magnetization, quantitatively explaining the data. The observed phenomena highlight the importance of exchange magnons on the operation of spin-Hall oscillators.

  14. Relaxation oscillations induced by amplitude-dependent frequency in dissipative trapped electron mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Ware, A.S.; Newman, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear frequency shift in dissipative trapped electron mode turbulence is shown to give rise to a relaxation oscillation in the saturated power density spectrum. A simple non-Markovian closure for the coupled evolution of ion momentum and electron density response is developed to describe the oscillations. From solutions of a nonlinear oscillator model based on the closure, it is found that the oscillation is driven by the growth rate, as modified by the amplitude-dependent frequency shift, with inertia provided by the memory of the growth rate of prior amplitudes. This memory arises from time-history integrals common to statistical closures. The memory associated with a finite time of energy transfer between coupled spectrum components does not sustain the oscillation in the simple model. Solutions of the model agree qualitatively with the time-dependent numerical solutions of the original dissipative trapped electron model, yielding oscillations with the proper phase relationship between the fluctuation energy and the frequency shift, the proper evolution of the wave number spectrum shape and particle flux, and a realistic period

  15. Arsenite reduces insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β-cells by decreasing the calcium-dependent calpain-10 proteolysis of SNAP-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Burns, Anna L.; Salazar, Ana Maria; Sordo, Monserrat; Hiriart, Marcia; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been consistently observed among residents of high arsenic exposure areas. We have previously shown that in rat pancreatic β-cells, low arsenite doses impair the secretion of insulin without altering its synthesis. To further study the mechanism by which arsenite reduces insulin secretion, we evaluated the effects of arsenite on the calcium-calpain pathway that triggers insulin exocytosis in RINm5F cells. Cell cycle and proliferation analysis were also performed to complement the characterization. Free [Ca 2+ ]i oscillations needed for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were abated in the presence of subchronic low arsenite doses (0.5-2 μM). The global activity of calpains increased with 2 μM arsenite. However, during the secretion of insulin stimulated with glucose (15.6 mM), 1 μM arsenite decreased the activity of calpain-10, measured as SNAP-25 proteolysis. Both proteins are needed to fuse insulin granules with the membrane to produce insulin exocytosis. Arsenite also induced a slowdown in the β cell line proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, reflected by a reduction of dividing cells and in their arrest in G2/M. Data obtained showed that one of the mechanisms by which arsenite impairs insulin secretion is by decreasing the oscillations of free [Ca 2+ ]i, thus reducing calcium-dependent calpain-10 partial proteolysis of SNAP-25. The effects in cell division and proliferation observed with arsenite exposure can be an indirect consequence of the decrease in insulin secretion

  16. Spatiotemporal multiple coherence resonances and calcium waves in a coupled hepatocyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao-Hua, Wang; Qi-Shao, Lu; Shu-Juan, Lü; Xiu-Feng, Lang

    2009-01-01

    Spatiotemporal multiple coherence resonances for calcium activities induced by weak Gaussian white noise in coupled hepatocytes are studied. It is shown that bi-resonances in hepatocytes are induced by the interplay and competition between noise and coupling of cells, in other words, the cell in network can be excited either by noise or by its neighbour via gap junction which can transfer calcium ions between cells. Furthermore, the intercellular annular calcium waves induced by noise are observed, in which the wave length decreases with noise intensity augmenting but increases monotonically with coupling strength increasing. And for a fixed noise level, there is an optimal coupling strength that makes the coherence resonance reach maximum. (general)

  17. Inflammation and insulin resistance induced by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid depend on intracellular calcium levels in primary cultures of human adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, Arion; Martinez, Kristina; Chung, Soonkyu

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induced inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes by activating nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling. In this study, we demonstrated...... that the initial increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mediated by 10,12 CLA was attenuated by TMB-8, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), by BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, and by D609, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor. Moreover, BAPTA, TMB-8, and D609 attenuated......, and suppression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma protein levels and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These data suggest that 10,12 CLA increases inflammation and insulin resistance in human adipocytes, in part by increasing [Ca2+]i levels, particularly calcium from the ER....

  18. No evidence for role of extracellular choline-acetyltransferase in generation of gamma oscillations in rat hippocampal slices in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, J O; ul Haq, R; Behrens, C J; Maslarova, A; Mody, I; Heinemann, U

    2015-01-22

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is well known to induce persistent γ-oscillations in the hippocampus when applied together with physostigmine, an inhibitor of the ACh degrading enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Here we report that physostigmine alone can also dose-dependently induce γ-oscillations in rat hippocampal slices. We hypothesized that this effect was due to the presence of choline in the extracellular space and that this choline is taken up into cholinergic fibers where it is converted to ACh by the enzyme choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT). Release of ACh from cholinergic fibers in turn may then induce γ-oscillations. We therefore tested the effects of the choline uptake inhibitor hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) on persistent γ-oscillations either induced by physostigmine alone or by co-application of ACh and physostigmine. We found that HC-3 itself did not induce γ-oscillations and also did not prevent physostigmine-induced γ-oscillation while washout of physostigmine and ACh-induced γ-oscillations was accelerated. It was recently reported that ChAT might also be present in the extracellular space (Vijayaraghavan et al., 2013). Here we show that the effect of physostigmine was prevented by the ChAT inhibitor (2-benzoylethyl)-trimethylammonium iodide (BETA) which could indicate extracellular synthesis of ACh. However, when we tested for effects of extracellularly applied acetyl-CoA, a substrate of ChAT for synthesis of ACh, physostigmine-induced γ-oscillations were attenuated. Together, these findings do not support the idea that ACh can be synthesized by an extracellularly located ChAT. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habenicht, Bradley F.; Tani, Noriyuki P.; Provorse, Makenzie R.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S 0 state and the doubly-excited S 2 state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation

  20. Periodic synchronization and chimera in conformist and contrarian oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyunsuk

    2014-06-01

    We consider a system of phase oscillators that couple with both attractive and repulsive interaction under a pinning force and explore collective behavior of the system. The oscillators can be divided into two subpopulations of "conformist" oscillators with attractive interaction and "contrarian" ones with repulsive interaction. We find that the interplay between the pinning force and the opposite relationship of the conformist and contrarian oscillators induce peculiar dynamic states: periodic synchronization, breathing chimera, and fully pinned state depending on the fraction of the conformists. Using the Watanabe-Strogatz transformation, we reduce the dynamics into a low-dimensional one and find that the above dynamic states are generated from the reduced dynamics.

  1. R-matrix and q-covariant oscillators for Uq(sl(n|m))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Wallet, J.C.

    1993-02-01

    An R-matrix formalism is used to construct covariant quantum oscillator algebras for U q (sl(n|m)). It is shown that the complete structure of the twisted oscillator algebras can be obtained from the properties of the intertwining matrix obeying a Hecke type relation, combined with covariance of the oscillators at the deformed level and associativity. The resulting twisted algebras, involving q-bosons and q-fermions, are invariant under natural q-transformations of the oscillators induced by the coproduct. (author) 11 refs

  2. Calcium-containing scaffolds induce bone regeneration by regulating mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Martínez, Rubén; Angelo, Alcira P; Pujol, Francesc Ventura

    2017-11-16

    Osteoinduction and subsequent bone formation rely on efficient mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment. It is also known that migration is induced by gradients of growth factors and cytokines. Degradation of Ca 2+ -containing biomaterials mimics the bone remodeling compartment producing a localized calcium-rich osteoinductive microenvironment. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) on MSC migration. In addition, to evaluate the influence of CaSO 4 on MSC differentiation and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. A circular calvarial bone defect (5 mm diameter) was created in the parietal bone of 35 Balb-C mice. We prepared and implanted a cell-free agarose/gelatin scaffold alone or in combination with different CaSO 4 concentrations into the bone defects. After 7 weeks, we determined the new bone regenerated by micro-CT and histological analysis. In vitro, we evaluated the CaSO 4 effects on MSC migration by both wound healing and agarose spot assays. Osteoblastic gene expression after BMP-2 and CaSO 4 treatment was also evaluated by qPCR. CaSO 4 increased MSC migration and bone formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Micro-CT analysis showed that the addition of CaSO 4 significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to the scaffold alone. The histological evaluation confirmed an increased number of endogenous cells recruited into the cell-free CaSO 4 -containing scaffolds. Furthermore, MSC migration in vitro and active AKT levels were attenuated when CaSO 4 and BMP-2 were in combination. Addition of LY294002 and Wortmannin abrogated the CaSO 4 effects on MSC migration. Specific CaSO 4 concentrations induce bone regeneration of calvarial defects in part by acting on the host's undifferentiated MSCs and promoting their migration. Progenitor cell recruitment is followed by a gradual increment in osteoblast gene expression. Moreover, CaSO 4 regulates BMP-2-induced MSC migration by differentially activating the PI3

  3. Analysis and model-tests on vortex-induced oscillation of bridges; Kyoryo no uzu reishin ni kansuru sanjigen oto kaiseki to fudo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, N. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Ogasawara, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Shiraishi, N. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Nanjo, M.

    1996-07-21

    In order to predict the three-dimensional response to vortex-induced oscillation of bridges, a model was investigated using the aerodynamic force coefficient including vortex-induced and self-excited forces, and the nonlinear response coefficient expressing constancy of response to vortex-induced oscillation. In the analysis, change of frequency in wind by the self-excited force, aerodynamic damping term, effect of the mode, and correlation of the vortex-induced force along member axis were taken into account. The aerodynamic force and nonlinear response coefficients were identified from the homogeneous and turbulent flow results of wind tunnel tests using a two-dimensional spring support rigid body model with varied damping factor. The aerodynamic damping term can be estimated from the nonlinear aerodynamic force coefficient, but it was enough to calculate it from the quasi-stationary coefficient in general bridge profiles. The correlation of the vortex-induced force was obtained from measurements of the vertical variation components of trailing flow under the resonance state, or the pressure distribution of the member surface. When comparing to the wind tunnel test of three-dimensional model of cable-stayed bridge, the response amplitude by the present analysis method was consistent well with the test results rather than by the method in which the amplitude of two-dimensional model was corrected. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. A probabilistic analysis of the crystal oscillator behavior at low drive levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmaliy, Yuriy S.; Brendel, Rémi

    2008-03-01

    The paper discusses a probabilistic model of a crystal oscillator at low drive levels where the noise intensity is comparable with the oscillation amplitude. The stationary probability density of the oscillations envelope is derived and investigated for the nonlinear resonator loses. A stochastic explanation is given for the well-known phenomenon termed sleeping sickness associated with losing a facility of self-excitation by a crystal oscillator after a long storage without a power supply. It is shown that, with low drive levels leading to an insufficient feedback, a crystal oscillator generates the noise-induced oscillations rather than it absolutely "falls in sleep".

  5. Adaptive elimination of synchronization in coupled oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shijie; Ji, Peng; Zhou, Qing; Feng, Jianfeng; Kurths, Jürgen; Lin, Wei

    2017-08-01

    We present here an adaptive control scheme with a feedback delay to achieve elimination of synchronization in a large population of coupled and synchronized oscillators. We validate the feasibility of this scheme not only in the coupled Kuramoto’s oscillators with a unimodal or bimodal distribution of natural frequency, but also in two representative models of neuronal networks, namely, the FitzHugh-Nagumo spiking oscillators and the Hindmarsh-Rose bursting oscillators. More significantly, we analytically illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme with a feedback delay and reveal how the exact topological form of the bimodal natural frequency distribution influences the scheme performance. We anticipate that our developed scheme will deepen the understanding and refinement of those controllers, e.g. techniques of deep brain stimulation, which have been implemented in remedying some synchronization-induced mental disorders including Parkinson disease and epilepsy.

  6. Adaptive elimination of synchronization in coupled oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shijie; Lin, Wei; Ji, Peng; Feng, Jianfeng; Zhou, Qing; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We present here an adaptive control scheme with a feedback delay to achieve elimination of synchronization in a large population of coupled and synchronized oscillators. We validate the feasibility of this scheme not only in the coupled Kuramoto’s oscillators with a unimodal or bimodal distribution of natural frequency, but also in two representative models of neuronal networks, namely, the FitzHugh–Nagumo spiking oscillators and the Hindmarsh–Rose bursting oscillators. More significantly, we analytically illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme with a feedback delay and reveal how the exact topological form of the bimodal natural frequency distribution influences the scheme performance. We anticipate that our developed scheme will deepen the understanding and refinement of those controllers, e.g. techniques of deep brain stimulation, which have been implemented in remedying some synchronization-induced mental disorders including Parkinson disease and epilepsy. (paper)

  7. Role of polyhydroxybutyrate in mitochondrial calcium uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithen, Matthew; Elustondo, Pia A.; Winkfein, Robert; Zakharian, Eleonora; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Pavlov, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biological polymer which belongs to the class of polyesters and is ubiquitously present in all living organisms. Mammalian mitochondrial membranes contain PHB consisting of up to 120 hydroxybutyrate residues. Roles played by PHB in mammalian mitochondria remain obscure. It was previously demonstrated that PHB of the size similar to one found in mitochondria mediates calcium transport in lipid bilayer membranes. We hypothesized that the presence of PHB in mitochondrial membrane might play a significant role in mitochondrial calcium transport. To test this, we investigated how the induction of PHB hydrolysis affects mitochondrial calcium transport. Mitochondrial PHB was altered enzymatically by targeted expression of bacterial PHB hydrolyzing enzyme (PhaZ7) in mitochondria of mammalian cultured cells. The expression of PhaZ7 induced changes in mitochondrial metabolism resulting in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 but not in U87 and HeLa cells. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited mitochondrial calcium uptake in intact HepG2, U87 and HeLa cells stimulated by the ATP or by the application of increased concentrations of calcium to the digitonin permeabilized cells. Calcium uptake in PhaZ7 expressing cells was restored by mimicking calcium uniporter properties with natural electrogenic calcium ionophore - ferutinin. We propose that PHB is a previously unrecognized important component of the mitochondrial calcium uptake system. PMID:23702223

  8. Extrinsic CPT violation in neutrino oscillations in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Magnus; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    We investigate matter-induced (or extrinsic) CPT violation effects in neutrino oscillations in matter. Especially, we present approximate analytical formulas for the CPT-violating probability differences for three flavor neutrino oscillations in matter with an arbitrary matter density profile. Note that we assume that the CPT invariance theorem holds, which means that the CPT violation effects arise entirely because of the presence of matter. As special cases of matter density profiles, we consider constant and step-function matter density profiles, which are relevant for neutrino oscillation physics in accelerator and reactor long baseline experiments as well as neutrino factories. Finally, the implications of extrinsic CPT violation on neutrino oscillations in matter for several past, present, and future long baseline experiments are estimated

  9. Stimulus-dependent modulation of spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in the rat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liangming; Liu, Yadong; Gui, Jianjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Dewen

    2014-08-06

    Research on spontaneous low-frequency oscillations is important to reveal underlying regulatory mechanisms in the brain. The mechanism for the stimulus modulation of low-frequency oscillations is not known. Here, we used the intrinsic optical imaging technique to examine stimulus-modulated low-frequency oscillation signals in the rat visual cortex. The stimulation was presented monocularly as a flashing light with different frequencies and intensities. The phases of low-frequency oscillations in different regions tended to be synchronized and the rhythms typically accelerated within a 30-s period after stimulation. These phenomena were confined to visual stimuli with specific flashing frequencies (12.5-17.5 Hz) and intensities (5-10 mA). The acceleration and synchronization induced by the flashing frequency were more marked than those induced by the intensity. These results show that spontaneous low-frequency oscillations can be modulated by parameter-dependent flashing lights and indicate the potential utility of the visual stimulus paradigm in exploring the origin and function of low-frequency oscillations.

  10. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-10-06

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  11. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  12. Extreme Wave-Induced Oscillation in Paradip Port Under the Resonance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulshan

    2017-12-01

    A mathematical model is constructed to analyze the long wave-induced oscillation in Paradip Port, Odisha, India under the resonance conditions to avert any extreme wave hazards. Boundary element method (BEM) with corner contribution is utilized to solve the Helmholtz equation under the partial reflection boundary conditions. Furthermore, convergence analysis is also performed for the boundary element scheme with uniform and non-uniform discretization of the boundary. The numerical scheme is also validated with analytic approximation and existing studies based on harbor resonance. Then, the amplification factor is estimated at six key record stations in the Paradip Port with multidirectional incident waves and resonance modes are also estimated at the boundary of the port. Ocean surface wave field is predicted in the interior of Paradip Port for the different directional incident wave at various resonance modes. Moreover, the safe locations in the port have been identified for loading and unloading of moored ship with different resonance modes and directional incident waves.

  13. Impaired Compensation for Salt-Induced Urinary Calcium Loss in a Space Flight Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidi, Meena; Harper, J. S.; Evans, J.; Fung, P.; Wolinsky, I.; Arnaud, S. B.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The loss of urinary calcium (UCa) induced by high sodium (HiNa) diets is compensated for by an increase in net intestinal Ca absorption (abs.). To determine the capacity of the intestine to absorb Ca in a space flight model in which the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) is suppressed, we induced Ca loss with HiNa diets (8%) and restricted dietary Ca (0.2%). In 200 g rats with hind limbs unloaded by tail suspension (S), we examined intestinal Ca abs. by direct measurement in the duodenum (everted gut sac or S/M), vitamin D receptors (VDR) and Ca balance. We also measured serum ionized calcium (ICa), pH, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25D. PTH was related to ICa (r = -0.44, p is less than 0.02), pH (r = -0.47, p is less than 0.02) and %Ca abs. (r = -0.40, p is less than 0.05). 1,25-D was related to %Ca abs. (r = 0.60, p is less than 0.001) but not VDR or S/M. Effects of the model were lower serum 1,25-D (110 +/- 59 vs. 199 +/- 80 pg/ml, p is less than 0.005), %Ca abs. (83 +/- 6.9 vs. 93 +/- 3.2, p is less than 0.03) and Ca balance (27 +/- 0.2 vs. 30 +/- 0.3 mg/d, p is less than 0.001) in S than controls (C). The HiNa diet increased UCa excretion from 2 to 13% of dietary Ca. Responses to HiNa diets, compared to normal Na, revealed no differences in 1,25-D, Ca abs. or VDR. Ca balances were lower in HiNa (27 +/- 0.3 vs. 30 +/- 0.4 mg/d, p is less than 0.001) in spite of higher Ca intakes. The failure of S rats fed HiNa diets to increase Ca abs. in response to Na-induced Ca loss appears to be related to suppressed 1,25-D in the space flight model, the cause of which remains obscure.

  14. Role of calcium-enriched mixture in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kabbinale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM has been recently introduced as a hydrophilic tooth-colored cement. The CEM cement powder is composed of calcium oxide, calcium sulfate, phosphorus oxide, and silica as major elements. CEM is alkaline cement (pH~11 that releases calcium hydroxide (CH during and after setting. The physical properties of CEM, such as flow, film thickness, and primary setting time are favorable. This cement is biocompatible and induces formation of cementum, dentin, bone and periodontal tissues. This novel cement has an antibacterial effect comparable to CH and superior to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and sealing ability similar to MTA. Its clinical applications include pulp capping, pulpotomy, root-end filling and perforation repair. This review describes the composition, properties and clinical applications of CEM in endodontics.

  15. Omega-conotoxin- and nifedipine-insensitive voltage-operated calcium channels mediate K(+)-induced release of pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone-connecting peptides Ps4 and Ps5 from perifused rat hypothalamic slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, K; Tranchand Bunel, D; Vaudry, H

    1992-07-01

    The rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) precursor (prepro-TRH) contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence linked together by intervening sequences. Recently, we have shown that the connecting peptides prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and prepro-TRH-(178-199) (Ps5) are released from rat hypothalamic neurones in response to elevated potassium concentrations, in a calcium-dependent manner. In the present study, the role of voltage-operated calcium channels in potassium-induced release of Ps4 and Ps5 was investigated, using a perifusion system for rat hypothalamic slices. The release of Ps4 and Ps5 stimulated by potassium (70 mM) was blocked by the inorganic ions Co2+ (2.6 mM) and Ni2+ (5 mM). In contrast, the stimulatory effect of KCl was insensitive to Cd2+ (100 microM). The dihydropyridine antagonist nifedipine (10 microM) had no effect on K(+)-evoked release of Ps4 and Ps5. Furthermore, the response to KCl was not affected by nifedipine (10 microM) in combination with diltiazem (1 microM), a benzothiazepine which increases the affinity of dihydropyridine antagonists for their receptor. The dihydropyridine agonist BAY K 8644, at concentrations as high as 1 mM, did not stimulate the basal secretion of Ps4 and Ps5. In addition, BAY K 8644 had no potentiating effect on K(+)-induced release of Ps4 and Ps5. The marine cone snail toxin omega-conotoxin, a blocker of both L- and N-type calcium channels had no effect on the release of Ps4 and Ps5 stimulated by potassium. Similarly, the omega-conopeptide SNX-111, a selective blocker of N-type calcium channels, did not inhibit the stimulatory effect of potassium. The release of Ps4 and Ps5 evoked by high K+ was insensitive to the non-selective calcium channel blocker verapamil (20 microM). Amiloride (1 microM), a putative blocker of T-type calcium channels, did not affect KCl-induced secretion of the two connecting peptides. Taken together, these results indicate that two connecting peptides derived from the pro-TRH, Ps

  16. Pressure induced reactions amongst calcium aluminate hydrate phases

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Ju-hyuk; Oh, Jae Eun; Balonis, Magdalena; Glasser, Fredrik P.; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The compressibilities of two AFm phases (strätlingite and calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) and hydrogarnet were obtained up to 5 GPa by using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction with a diamond anvil cell. The AFm phases show abrupt

  17. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  18. Xenon oscillation tests in four-loop PWR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Norihiko; Osaka, Kenichi; Shimada, Shoichiro; Tochihara, Hiroshi; Machii, Seigo

    1980-01-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co.'s OHI Unit 1 and 2 are the first 4-loop PWRs in Japan which use 17 x 17 fuel assemblies and have essentially the same plant parameters. A 4-loop core has larger core radius and higher power density than those of 2- or 3-loop cores, and is less stable for Xe oscillation. It is therefore important to confirm that Xe oscillations in radial direction are sufficiently stable in a 4-loop core. Radial and axial Xe oscillation tests were performed during the startup physics tests of OHI Unit 1 and 2; Xe oscillation was induced by perturbation of control rods and the Xe effect on power distribution observed periodically. The test results show that the transverse Xe oscillation in the 4-loop core is sufficiently stable and that the agreement between the measurement and the calculated prediction is good. (author)

  19. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  20. Calcium and α-tocopherol suppress cured-meat promotion of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and reduce associated biomarkers in human volunteers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Océane CB; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Audebert, Marc; Dupuy, Jacques; Meunier, Nathalie; Attaix, Didier; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Mirvish, Sidney S; Kuhnle, Gunter CG; Cano, Noel; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Processed meat intake has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. We have shown that cured meat promotes carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and increases specific biomarkers in the colon of rats. Objectives: We investigated whether cured meat modulates biomarkers of cancer risk in human volunteers and whether specific agents can suppress cured meat–induced preneoplastic lesions in rats and associated biomarkers in rats and humans. Design: Six additives (calcium carbonate, inulin, rutin, carnosol, α-tocopherol, and trisodium pyrophosphate) were added to cured meat given to groups of rats for 14 d, and fecal biomarkers were measured. On the basis of these results, calcium and tocopherol were kept for the following additional experiments: cured meat, with or without calcium or tocopherol, was given to dimethylhydrazine-initiated rats (47% meat diet for 100 d) and to human volunteers in a crossover study (180 g/d for 4 d). Rat colons were scored for mucin-depleted foci, putative precancer lesions. Biomarkers of nitrosation, lipoperoxidation, and cytotoxicity were measured in the urine and feces of rats and volunteers. Results: Cured meat increased nitroso compounds and lipoperoxidation in human stools (both P meat (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Data suggest that the addition of calcium carbonate to the diet or α-tocopherol to cured meat may reduce colorectal cancer risk associated with cured-meat intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00994526. PMID:24025632

  1. Suppression of Rabi oscillations for moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, B.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Muga, J. G.; Hegerfeldt, G. C.

    2003-01-01

    The well-known laser-induced Rabi oscillations of a two-level atom are shown to be suppressed under certain conditions when the atom is entering a laser-illuminated region. For temporal Rabi oscillations the effect has two regimes: a first classical-like one, taking place at intermediate atomic velocities, and a second purely quantum case at low velocities. The classical regime is associated with the formation of incoherent internal states of the atom in the laser region, whereas in the quantum, low velocity regime the laser projects the atom onto a pure internal state that can be controlled by detuning. Spatial Rabi oscillations are only suppressed in this low velocity, quantum regime

  2. Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1994-07-01

    Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs

  3. The Influence of Acoustic Field Induced by HRT on Oscillation Behavior of a Single Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ruan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study on the effects of an acoustic field induced by Hartmann Resonance Tube (HRT on droplet deformation behavior. The characteristics of the acoustic field generated by HRT are investigated. Results show that the acoustic frequency decreases with the increase of the resonator length, the sound pressure level (SPL increases with the increase of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR, and it is also noted that increasing resonator length can cause SPL to decrease, which has rarely been reported in published literature. Further theoretical analysis reveals that the resonance frequency of a droplet has several modes, and when the acoustic frequency equals the droplet’s frequency, heightened droplet responses are observed with the maximum amplitude of the shape oscillation. The experimental results for different resonator cavity lengths, nozzle pressure ratios and droplet diameters confirm the non-linear nature of this problem, and this conclusion is in good agreement with theoretical analysis. Measurements by high speed camera have shown that the introduction of an acoustic field can greatly enhance droplet oscillation, which means with the use of an ultrasonic atomizer based on HRT, the quality of atomization and combustion can be highly improved.

  4. Kidney stone matrix proteins ameliorate calcium oxalate monohydrate induced apoptotic injury to renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Shifa; Tandon, Simran; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Tandon, Chanderdeep

    2016-11-01

    Kidney stone formation is a highly prevalent disease, affecting 8-10% of the human population worldwide. Proteins are the major constituents of human kidney stone's organic matrix and considered to play critical role in the pathogenesis of disease but their mechanism of modulation still needs to be explicated. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effect of human kidney stone matrix proteins on the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) mediated cellular injury. The renal epithelial cells (MDCK) were exposed to 200μg/ml COM crystals to induce injury. The effect of proteins isolated from human kidney stone was studied on COM injured cells. The alterations in cell-crystal interactions were examined by phase contrast, polarizing, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, its effect on the extent of COM induced cell injury, was quantified by flow cytometric analysis. Our study indicated the antilithiatic potential of human kidney stone proteins on COM injured MDCK cells. Flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence imaging ascertained that matrix proteins decreased the extent of apoptotic injury caused by COM crystals on MDCK cells. Moreover, the electron microscopic studies of MDCK cells revealed that matrix proteins caused significant dissolution of COM crystals, indicating cytoprotection against the impact of calcium oxalate injury. The present study gives insights into the mechanism implied by urinary proteins to restrain the pathogenesis of kidney stone disease. This will provide a better understanding of the formation of kidney stones which can be useful for the proper management of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Unilateral vestibular deafferentation-induced changes in calcium signaling-related molecules in the rat vestibular nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumura, Chisako; Horii, Arata; Mitani, Kenji; Kitahara, Tadashi; Uno, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Takeshi

    2007-03-23

    Inquiries into the neurochemical mechanisms of vestibular compensation, a model of lesion-induced neuronal plasticity, reveal the involvement of both voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC) and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. Indeed, our previous microarray analysis showed an up-regulation of some calcium signaling-related genes such as the alpha2 subunit of L-type calcium channels, calcineurin, and plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 1 (PMCA1) in the ipsilateral vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) following unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD). To further elucidate the role of calcium signaling-related molecules in vestibular compensation, we used a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to confirm the microarray results and investigated changes in expression of these molecules at various stages of compensation (6 h to 2 weeks after UVD). We also investigated the changes in gene expression during Bechterew's phenomenon and the effects of a calcineurin inhibitor on vestibular compensation. Real-time PCR showed that genes for the alpha2 subunit of VGCC, PMCA2, and calcineurin were transiently up-regulated 6 h after UVD in ipsilateral VNC. A subsequent UVD, which induced Bechterew's phenomenon, reproduced a complete mirror image of the changes in gene expressions of PMCA2 and calcineurin seen in the initial UVD, while the alpha2 subunit of VGCC gene had a trend to increase in VNC ipsilateral to the second lesion. Pre-treatment by FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, decelerated the vestibular compensation in a dose-dependent manner. Although it is still uncertain whether these changes in gene expression are causally related to the molecular mechanisms of vestibular compensation, this observation suggests that after increasing the Ca(2+) influx into the ipsilateral VNC neurons via up-regulated VGCC, calcineurin may be involved in their synaptic plasticity. Conversely, an up-regulation of PMCA2, a brain-specific Ca(2+) pump, would increase an efflux of Ca

  6. Calcium Co-regulates Oxidative Metabolism and ATP Synthase-dependent Respiration in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Umberto; Thevenet, Jonathan; Hermant, Aurelie; Dioum, Elhadji; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial energy metabolism is essential for glucose-induced calcium signaling and, therefore, insulin granule exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells. Calcium signals are sensed by mitochondria acting in concert with mitochondrial substrates for the full activation of the organelle. Here we have studied glucose-induced calcium signaling and energy metabolism in INS-1E insulinoma cells and human islet beta cells. In insulin secreting cells a surprisingly large fraction of total respiration under resting conditions is ATP synthase-independent. We observe that ATP synthase-dependent respiration is markedly increased after glucose stimulation. Glucose also causes a very rapid elevation of oxidative metabolism as was followed by NAD(P)H autofluorescence. However, neither the rate of the glucose-induced increase nor the new steady-state NAD(P)H levels are significantly affected by calcium. Our findings challenge the current view, which has focused mainly on calcium-sensitive dehydrogenases as the target for the activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. We propose a model of tight calcium-dependent regulation of oxidative metabolism and ATP synthase-dependent respiration in beta cell mitochondria. Coordinated activation of matrix dehydrogenases and respiratory chain activity by calcium allows the respiratory rate to change severalfold with only small or no alterations of the NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio. PMID:24554722

  7. Role of Calcium Sensing Receptor in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Exposed to Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (RI/RI is a common complication of diabetes, and it may be involved in altering intracellular calcium concentrations at its onset, which can result in inflammation, abnormal lipid metabolism, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and nitroso-redox imbalance. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is a G-protein coupled receptor, however, the functional involvement of CaSR in diabetic RI/ RI remains unclear. The present study was intended to investigate the role of CaSR on RI/RI in diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods: The bilateral renal arteries and veins of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats were subjected to 45-min ischemia followed by 2-h reperfusion with or without R-568 (agonist of CaSR and NPS-2143 (antagonist of CaSR at the beginning of I/R procedure. DM without renal I/R rats served as control group. The expressions of CaSR, calmodulin (CaM, and p47phox in the renal tissue were analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The renal pathomorphology, renal function, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and calcium disorder were evaluated by detection of a series of indices by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, transmission electron microscope (TEM, commercial kits, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and spectrophotofluorometry, respectively. Results: Results showed that the expressions of CaSR, CaM, and p47phox in I/R group were significantly up-regulated as compared with those in DM group, which were accompanied by renal tissue injury, increased calcium, oxidative stress, inflammation, and nitroso-redox imbalance. Conclusion: These results suggest that activation of CaSR is involved in the induction of damage of renal tubular epithelial cell during diabetic RI/RI, resulting in lipid peroxidation, inflammatory response, nitroso-redox imbalance, and apoptosis.

  8. Clarification of serotonin-induced effects in peripheral artery disease observed through the femoral artery response in models of diabetes and vascular occlusion: The role of calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Marko; Prostran, Milica; Janković, Radmila; Radenković, Miroslav

    2017-07-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that serotonin is an important participant in the development and progression of peripheral artery diseases. Taking this into consideration, the goals of this study were to investigate the effects of serotonin on isolated Wistar rat femoral arteries in both healthy and diabetic animals, with and without artery occlusion, with a particular focus on determining the role of calcium in this process. Contraction experiments with serotonin on intact and denuded femoral artery rings, in the presence or absence of nifedipine and ouabain (both separately, or in combination), as well as Ca 2+ -free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution were performed. The serotonin-induced results were concentration dependent, but only in healthy animals. The endothelium-dependent contraction of the femoral artery was assessed. In healthy animals, the endothelium-reliant part of contraction was dependent on the extracellular calcium, while the smooth muscle-related part was instead dependent on the intracellular calcium. In diabetic animals, both nifedipine and ouabain influenced serotonin-induced vascular effects by blocking intracellular calcium pathways. However, this was diminished after the simultaneous administration of both blockers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Effect of cadmium on myocardial contractility and calcium fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilati, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on myocardial mechanical performance and calcium fluxes was studied in kitten isometric papillary muscles and in isovolumic Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Therefore, it is concluded that cadmium-induced decreases in contractility are not primarily the result of cadmium interference with ATP metabolic processes. Furthermore, these results imply that cadmium causes no structural alterations of the contractile proteins. These data suggest that cadmium may be competing with the calcium needed for excitation-contraction coupling. During experiments using radioisotopic calcium, a statistically significant cellular influx of calcium was observed following the onset of 100 μM Cd ++ perfusion of isolated, Langendorff-prepared rabbit hearts

  10. Detecting Friedel oscillations in ultracold Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Keno; Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Investigating Friedel oscillations in ultracold gases would complement the studies performed on solid state samples with scanning-tunneling microscopes. In atomic quantum gases interactions and external potentials can be tuned freely and the inherently slower dynamics allow to access non-equilibrium dynamics following a potential or interaction quench. Here, we examine how Friedel oscillations can be observed in current ultracold gas experiments under realistic conditions. To this aim we numerically calculate the amplitude of the Friedel oscillations which are induced by a potential barrier in a 1D Fermi gas and compare it to the expected atomic and photonic shot noise in a density measurement. We find that to detect Friedel oscillations the signal from several thousand one-dimensional systems has to be averaged. However, as up to 100 parallel one-dimensional systems can be prepared in a single run with present experiments, averaging over about 100 images is sufficient.

  11. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  12. Basic calcium phosphate crystal-induced Egr-1 expression stimulates mitogenesis in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiao R.; Sun Yubo; Wenger, Leonor; Cheung, Herman S.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals stimulate mitogenesis and synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases in cultured human foreskin and synovial fibroblasts. However, the detailed mechanisms involved are still unclear. In the present study, using RT-PCR and Egr-1 promoter analysis we showed that BCP crystals could stimulate early growth response gene Egr-1 transcription through a PKCα-dependent p44/p42 MAPK pathway. Using a retrovirus gene expression system (Clontech) to overexpress Egr-1 in human fibroblast BJ-1 cells resulted in promotion of mitogenesis measured either by MTT cell proliferation analysis or by direct cell counting. The results demonstrate that Egr-1 may play a key role in mediating BCP crystal-induced synovial fibroblast mitogenesis

  13. Noise-Induced Synchronization among Sub-RF CMOS Analog Oscillators for Skew-Free Clock Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utagawa, Akira; Asai, Tetsuya; Hirose, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    We present on-chip oscillator arrays synchronized by random noises, aiming at skew-free clock distribution on synchronous digital systems. Nakao et al. recently reported that independent neural oscillators can be synchronized by applying temporal random impulses to the oscillators [1], [2]. We regard neural oscillators as independent clock sources on LSIs; i. e., clock sources are distributed on LSIs, and they are forced to synchronize through the use of random noises. We designed neuron-based clock generators operating at sub-RF region (CMOS implementation with 0.25-μm CMOS parameters. Through circuit simulations, we demonstrate that i) the clock generators are certainly synchronized by pseudo-random noises and ii) clock generators exhibited phase-locked oscillations even if they had small device mismatches.

  14. Inhibition Mechanism of Uranyl Reduction Induced by Calcium-Carbonato Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. E.; Bargar, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Uranium mobility in the subsurface is controlled by the redox state and chemical speciation, generally as minimally soluble U(IV) or soluble U(VI) species. In the presence of even low carbonate concentrations the uranyl-carbonato complex quickly becomes the dominant aqueous species; they are, in fact, the primary aqueous species in most groundwaters. Calcium in groundwater leads to ternary calcium-uranyl-carbonato complexes that limit the rate and extent of U(VI) reduction. This decrease in reduction rate has been attributed to surface processes, thermodynamic limitations, and kinetic factors. Here we present a new mechanism for the inhibition of ferrous iron reduction of uranyl-carbonato species in the presence of calcium. A series of experiments under variable Ca conditions were preformed to determine the role of Ca in the inhibition of U reduction by ferrous iron. Calcium ions in the Ca2UO2(CO3)3 complex sterically prevent the interaction of Fe(II) with U(VI), in turn preventing the Fe(II)-U(VI) distance required for electron transfer. The mechanism described here helps to predict U redox transformations in suboxic environments and clarifies the role of Ca in the fate and mobility of U. Electrochemical measurements further show the decrease of the U(VI) to U(V) redox potential of the uranyl-carbonato complex with decreasing pH suggesting the first electron transfer is critical determining the rate and extent of uranium reduction.

  15. N-acetyl-l-cysteine and Mn2+ attenuate Cd2+-induced disturbance of the intracellular free calcium homeostasis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, Nickolay K; Avilkina, Svetlana; Golyshev, Sergey A; Genrikhs, Elisaveta E; Alexandrova, Olga P; Kapkaeva, Marina R; Stelmashook, Elena V

    2018-01-15

    Cadmium is a highly toxic heavy metal that is capable of accumulating in the body via direct exposure or through the alimentary and respiratory tract, leading to neurodegeneration. In this article, we show that the application of CdCl 2 (0.001-0.005mM) for 48h induced high dose-dependent death rate of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Unlike Trolox or vitamin E, antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, 1mM) and Mn 2+ (0.0025-0.005mM) significantly protected CGNs from this toxic effect. Using Fluo-4 AM, measurements of intracellular calcium ions demonstrated that 24h-exposure to Cd 2+ induced intensive increase of Fluo-4 fluorescence in neurons accompanied by mitochondria swelling. These data imply that the cadmium-induced Ca 2+ increase is an important element in the death of neurons due to toxic effect of cadmium and the mechanism of protective action of manganese and NAC is mediated by the prevention of increase in calcium levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of large conductance calcium-dependent potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conductance, calcium and voltage- dependent potassium (BKCa) channels thereby promoting vasoconstriction. Our results show that the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, induced concentration-dependent relaxation in rat mesenteric artery.

  17. Density wave oscillations of a boiling natural circulation loop induced by flashing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Masahiro; Inada, Fumio; Yasuo, Akira [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Experiments are conducted to investigate two-phase flow instabilities in a boiling natural circulation loop with a chimney due to flashing in the chimney at lower pressure. The test facility used in this experiment is designed to have non-dimensional values which are nearly equal to those of natural circulation BWR. Stability maps in reference to the heat flux, the inlet subcooling, the system pressure are presented. This instability is suggested to be density wave oscillations due to flashing in the chimney, and the differences from other phenomena such as flow pattern oscillations and geysering phenomena are discussed by investigating the dynamic characteristics, the oscillation period, and the transient flow pattern.

  18. High calcium concentration in bones promotes bone metastasis in renal cell carcinomas expressing calcium-sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, Elke; Haber, Tobias; Prawitt, Dirk; Junker, Kerstin; Hampel, Christian; Thüroff, Joachim W; Roos, Frederik C; Brenner, Walburgis

    2014-02-28

    The prognosis for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is related to a high rate of metastasis, including 30% of bone metastasis. Characteristic for bone tissue is a high concentration of calcium ions. In this study, we show a promoting effect of an enhanced extracellular calcium concentration on mechanisms of bone metastasis via the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and its downstream signaling molecules. Our analyses were performed using 33 (11/category) matched specimens of normal and tumor tissue and 9 (3/category) primary cells derived from RCC patients of the 3 categories: non-metastasized, metastasized into the lung and metastasized into bones during a five-year period after nephrectomy. Expression of CaSR was determined by RT-PCR, Western blot analyses and flow cytometry, respectively. Cells were treated by calcium and the CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143. Cell migration was measured in a Boyden chamber with calcium (10 μM) as chemotaxin and proliferation by BrdU incorporation. The activity of intracellular signaling mediators was quantified by a phospho-kinase array and Western blot. The expression of CaSR was highest in specimens and cells of patients with bone metastases. Calcium treatment induced an increased migration (19-fold) and proliferation (2.3-fold) exclusively in RCC cells from patients with bone metastases. The CaSR inhibitor NPS 2143 elucidated the role of CaSR on the calcium-dependent effects. After treatment with calcium, the activity of AKT, PLCγ-1, p38α and JNK was clearly enhanced and PTEN expression was almost completely abolished in bone metastasizing RCC cells. Our results indicate a promoting effect of extracellular calcium on cell migration and proliferation of bone metastasizing RCC cells via highly expressed CaSR and its downstream signaling pathways. Consequently, CaSR may be regarded as a new prognostic marker predicting RCC bone metastasis.

  19. Heterogeneity induces spatiotemporal oscillations in reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andrew L.; Klika, Václav; Woolley, Thomas E.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.

    2018-05-01

    We report on an instability arising in activator-inhibitor reaction-diffusion (RD) systems with a simple spatial heterogeneity. This instability gives rise to periodic creation, translation, and destruction of spike solutions that are commonly formed due to Turing instabilities. While this behavior is oscillatory in nature, it occurs purely within the Turing space such that no region of the domain would give rise to a Hopf bifurcation for the homogeneous equilibrium. We use the shadow limit of the Gierer-Meinhardt system to show that the speed of spike movement can be predicted from well-known asymptotic theory, but that this theory is unable to explain the emergence of these spatiotemporal oscillations. Instead, we numerically explore this system and show that the oscillatory behavior is caused by the destabilization of a steady spike pattern due to the creation of a new spike arising from endogeneous activator production. We demonstrate that on the edge of this instability, the period of the oscillations goes to infinity, although it does not fit the profile of any well-known bifurcation of a limit cycle. We show that nearby stationary states are either Turing unstable or undergo saddle-node bifurcations near the onset of the oscillatory instability, suggesting that the periodic motion does not emerge from a local equilibrium. We demonstrate the robustness of this spatiotemporal oscillation by exploring small localized heterogeneity and showing that this behavior also occurs in the Schnakenberg RD model. Our results suggest that this phenomenon is ubiquitous in spatially heterogeneous RD systems, but that current tools, such as stability of spike solutions and shadow-limit asymptotics, do not elucidate understanding. This opens several avenues for further mathematical analysis and highlights difficulties in explaining how robust patterning emerges from Turing's mechanism in the presence of even small spatial heterogeneity.

  20. Movement of the pulsars and neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkovich, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The astronomical observations show that the pulsars are not in the center of the remainder of the supernovae that gave its origin, but rather are displaced of the same one and moving to a speed of about 500 km/s, which is much bigger that of the progenitor star. This fact constitutes a strong evidence that the pulsars is accelerated in the moment of its birth and by this it is denominated to this phenomenon 'pulsars kick'. They exist numerous and varied mechanisms to explain this effect, but none makes it in way completely satisfactory. In this thesis we will study in detail a mechanism proposed originally by Kusenko and Segre and that is based on an asymmetric emission of the neutrinos flow induced by the oscillations of the same ones when its spread in a magnetized media. For this end we will develop, in first instance, the Eddington model. This is based on the transport of the neutrino flux and it describes in a reasonable way the atmosphere of a neutron protostar, place where take place the oscillations. Next we will study the problem of the emission of a neutrino gas from a resonance volume. These results will be applied to the study of the kick in the cases of oscillations among active neutrinos and actives with sterile to determine the magnetic field and the oscillation parameters (difference of the square of the masses of those neutrinos and mixture angle in vacuum) required. Finally we will analyze those neutrino oscillations induced by a possible violation of the Equivalence principle and it implication in the pulsars dynamics. (Author)

  1. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, P.; Santa-Coloma, T.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Department of Biochemistry, Albany Medical College, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induced uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium.

  2. Turbulence modulation induced by bubble swarm in oscillating-grid turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Koichi; Urano, Shigeyuki; Saito, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, liquid-phase turbulence modulation induced by a bubble swarm ascending in arbitrary turbulence was experimentally investigated. Liquid-phase homogeneous isotropic turbulence was formed using an oscillating grid in a cylindrical acrylic vessel of 149 mm in inner diameter. A bubble swarm consisting of 19 bubbles of 2.8 mm in equivalent diameter was examined; the bubble size and launching time were completely controlled using a bubble launching device through audio speakers. This bubble launching device was able to repeatedly control the bubble swarm arbitrarily and precisely. The bubble swarm was launched at a frequency of 4 Hz. The liquid phase motion was measured via two LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometer) probes. The turbulence intensity, spatial correlation and integral scale were calculated from LDA data obtained by the two spatially-separate-point measurement. When the bubble swarm was added, the turbulence intensity dramatically changed. The original isotropic turbulence was modulated to the anisotropic turbulence by the mutual interference between the bubble swarm and ambient isotropic turbulence. The integral scales were calculated from the spatial correlation function. The effects of the bubble swarm on the integral scales showed the tendencies similar to those on turbulence intensity. (author)

  3. Local inertial oscillations in the surface ocean generated by time-varying winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2015-12-01

    A new relationship is presented to give a review study on the evolution of inertial oscillations in the surface ocean locally generated by time-varying wind stress. The inertial oscillation is expressed as the superposition of a previous oscillation and a newly generated oscillation, which depends upon the time-varying wind stress. This relationship is employed to investigate some idealized wind change events. For a wind series varying temporally with different rates, the induced inertial oscillation is dominated by the wind with the greatest variation. The resonant wind, which rotates anti-cyclonically at the local inertial frequency with time, produces maximal amplitude of inertial oscillations, which grows monotonically. For the wind rotating at non-inertial frequencies, the responses vary periodically, with wind injecting inertial energy when it is in phase with the currents, but removing inertial energy when it is out of phase. The wind rotating anti-cyclonically with time is much more favorable to generate inertial oscillations than the cyclonic rotating wind. The wind with a frequency closer to the inertial frequency generates stronger inertial oscillations. For a diurnal wind, the induced inertial oscillation is dependent on latitude and is most significant at 30 °. This relationship is also applied to examine idealized moving cyclones. The inertial oscillation is much stronger on the right-hand side of the cyclone path than on the left-hand side (in the northern hemisphere). This is due to the wind being anti-cyclonic with time on the right-hand side, but cyclonic on the other side. The inertial oscillation varies with the cyclone translation speed. The optimal translation speed generating the greatest inertial oscillations is 2 m/s at the latitude of 10 ° and gradually increases to 6 m/s at the latitude of 30 °.

  4. Protein kinase C interaction with calcium: a phospholipid-dependent process.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bazzi, M D

    1990-08-21

    The calcium-binding properties of calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated by equilibrium dialysis in the presence and the absence of phospholipids. Calcium binding to PKC displayed striking and unexpected behavior; the free proteins bound virtually no calcium at intracellular calcium concentrations and bound limited calcium (about 1 mol\\/mol of PKC) at 200 microM calcium. However, in the presence of membranes containing acidic phospholipids, PKC bound at least eight calcium ions per protein. The presence of 1 microM phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) in the dialysis buffer had little effect on these calcium-binding properties. Analysis of PKC-calcium binding by gel filtration under equilibrium conditions gave similar results; only membrane-associated PKC bound significant amounts of calcium. Consequently, PKC is a member of what may be a large group of proteins that bind calcium in a phospholipid-dependent manner. The calcium concentrations needed to induce PKC-membrane binding were similar to those needed for calcium binding (about 40 microM calcium at the midpoint). However, the calcium concentration required for PKC-membrane binding was strongly influenced by the phosphatidylserine composition of the membranes. Membranes with higher percentages of phosphatidylserine required lower concentrations of calcium. These properties suggested that the calcium sites may be generated at the interface between PKC and the membrane. Calcium may function as a bridge between PKC and phospholipids. These studies also suggested that calcium-dependent PKC-membrane binding and PKC function could be regulated by a number of factors in addition to calcium levels and diacylglycerol content of the membrane.

  5. GABA level, gamma oscillation, and working memory performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Ming A; Stanford, Arielle D; Mao, Xiangling; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Shungu, Dikoma C; Lisanby, Sarah H; Schroeder, Charles E; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case-control pilot study (N = 24) compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7) had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9). However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16) significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia.

  6. Carbon monoxide releasing molecule induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation through a calcium and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Min; Huang, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Wung, Being-Sun

    2016-12-01

    The production of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a major role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. This study elucidated the potential role of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CORMs) in NO production and explored the underlying mechanisms in endothelial cells. We observed that 25μM CORM-2 could increase NO production and stimulate an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ level. Furthermore, ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid caused CORM-2-induced NO production, which was abolished by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxy-methyl ester (BAPTA-AM), indicating that intracellular Ca 2+ release plays a major role in eNOS activation. The inhibition of the IP3 receptor diminished the CORM-2-induced intracellular Ca 2+ increase and NO production. Furthermore, CORM-2 induced eNOS Ser 1179 phosphorylation and eNOS dimerization, but it did not alter eNOS expression. CORM-2 (25μM) also prolonged Akt phosphorylation, lasting for at least 12h. Pretreatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors (wortmannin or LY294002) inhibited the increases in NO production and phosphorylation but did not affect eNOS dimerization. CORM-2-induced eNOS Ser 1179 phosphorylation was intracellularly calcium-dependent, because pretreatment with an intracellular Ca 2+ chelator (BAPTA-AM) inhibited this process. Although CORM-2 increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), pretreatment with antioxidant enzyme catalase and N-acetyl-cysteine did not abolish the CORM-2-induced eNOS activity or phosphorylation, signifying that ROS is not involved in this activity. Hence, CORM-2 enhances eNOS activation through intracellular calcium release, Akt phosphorylation, and eNOS dimerization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An attempt of application of short lived 44K activity induced in the 44Ca(n,p)44K reaction using 14 MeV neutrons for total body calcium assessment in human subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haratym, Z.; Kempisty, T.; Mikolajewski, S.; Rurarz, E.

    1999-01-01

    The status of in vivo neutron activation analysis techniques for the measurement of total body calcium in human subject is reviewed. Relevant data on the nuclear characteristics of calcium isotopes during interaction with neutrons ranging from slow up to 14 MeV neutrons are presented. Physical aspects of the measurement of in vivo total body calcium (TBCa) using 44 K activity induced in the 44 Ca(n,p) 44 K(T 1/2 =22.3 min) reaction by 14 MeV neutrons are discussed. The measurement of delayed γ-ray emitted during decay of activities induced in enriched 44 Ca, nat Ca, phantom filled with water solution of natural calcium and skeletal arm are considered. Results of measurements on the phantom and skeletal arm indicate a possibility to measure the TBCa using the 44 K activity. (author)

  8. Acute Cocaine Exposure elicits rises in calcium in Arousal Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Mads; Ipsen, Theis; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2017-01-01

    Cocaine has strong reinforcing properties, which underlie its high addiction potential. Reinforcement of use of addictive drugs is associated with rises in dopamine (DA) in mesoaccumbal circuitry. Excitatory afferent input to mesoaccumbal circuitry sources from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus...... (LDT). Chronic, systemic cocaine exposure has been shown to have cellular effects on LDT cells, but acute actions of local application have never been demonstrated. Using calcium imaging, we show that acute application of cocaine to mouse brain slices induces calcium spiking in cells of the LDT....... Spiking was attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and low calcium solutions, and abolished by prior exhaustion of intracellular calcium stores. Further, DA receptor antagonists reduced these transients, whereas DA induced rises with similar spiking kinetics. Amphetamine, which also results in elevated levels...

  9. Calcium signaling properties of a thyrotroph cell line, mouse TαT1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Melanija; Bargi-Souza, Paula; Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Nunes, Maria Tereza; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-12-01

    TαT1 cells are mouse thyrotroph cell line frequently used for studies on thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit gene expression and other cellular functions. Here we have characterized calcium-signaling pathways in TαT1 cells, an issue not previously addressed in these cells and incompletely described in native thyrotrophs. TαT1 cells are excitable and fire action potentials spontaneously and in response to application of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), the native hypothalamic agonist for thyrotrophs. Spontaneous electrical activity is coupled to small amplitude fluctuations in intracellular calcium, whereas TRH stimulates both calcium mobilization from intracellular pools and calcium influx. Non-receptor-mediated depletion of intracellular pool also leads to a prominent facilitation of calcium influx. Both receptor and non-receptor stimulated calcium influx is substantially attenuated but not completely abolished by inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels, suggesting that depletion of intracellular calcium pool in these cells provides a signal for both voltage-independent and -dependent calcium influx, the latter by facilitating the pacemaking activity. These cells also express purinergic P2Y1 receptors and their activation by extracellular ATP mimics TRH action on calcium mobilization and influx. The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine prolongs duration of TRH-induced calcium spikes during 30-min exposure. These data indicate that TαT1 cells are capable of responding to natively feed-forward TRH signaling and intrapituitary ATP signaling with acute calcium mobilization and sustained calcium influx. Amplification of TRH-induced calcium signaling by triiodothyronine further suggests the existence of a pathway for positive feedback effects of thyroid hormones probably in a non-genomic manner. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Analysis of Spontaneous and Nerve-Evoked Calcium Transients in Intact Extraocular Muscles in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Hennig, Grant W.; Corrigan, Robert D.; Smith, Terence K.; von Bartheld, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) have unique calcium handling properties, yet little is known about the dynamics of calcium events underlying ultrafast and tonic contractions in myofibers of intact EOMs. Superior oblique EOMs of juvenile chickens were dissected with their nerve attached, maintained in oxygenated Krebs buffer, and loaded with fluo-4. Spontaneous and nerve stimulation-evoked calcium transients were recorded and, following calcium imaging, some EOMs were double-labeled with rhodamine-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin (rhBTX) to identify EOM myofiber types. EOMs showed two main types of spontaneous calcium transients, one slow type (calcium waves with 1/2max duration of 2–12 s, velocity of 25–50 μm/s) and two fast “flash-like” types (Type 1, 30–90 ms; Type 2, 90–150 ms 1/2max duration). Single pulse nerve stimulation evoked fast calcium transients identical to the fast (Type 1) calcium transients. Calcium waves were accompanied by a local myofiber contraction that followed the calcium transient wavefront. The magnitude of calcium-wave induced myofiber contraction far exceeded those of movement induced by nerve stimulation and associated fast calcium transients. Tetrodotoxin eliminated nerve-evoked transients, but not spontaneous transients. Alpha-bungarotoxin eliminated both spontaneous and nerve-evoked fast calcium transients, but not calcium waves, and caffeine increased wave activity. Calcium waves were observed in myofibers lacking spontaneous or evoked fast transients, suggestive of multiply-innervated myofibers, and this was confirmed by double-labeling with rhBTX. We propose that the abundant spontaneous calcium transients and calcium waves with localized contractions that do not depend on innervation may contribute to intrinsic generation of tonic functions of EOMs. PMID:22579493

  11. Calcium signal communication in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Katleen; Cabooter, Liesbet; Paemeleire, Koen; Leybaert, Luc

    2004-02-01

    The communication of calcium signals between cells is known to be operative between neurons where these signals integrate intimately with electrical and chemical signal communication at synapses. Recently, it has become clear that glial cells also exchange calcium signals between each other in cultures and in brain slices. This communication pathway has received utmost attention since it is known that astrocytic calcium signals can be induced by neuronal stimulation and can be communicated back to the neurons to modulate synaptic transmission. In addition to this, cells that are generally not considered as brain cells become progressively incorporated in the picture, as astrocytic calcium signals are reported to be communicated to endothelial cells of the vessel wall and can affect smooth muscle cell tone to influence the vessel diameter and thus blood flow. We review the available evidence for calcium signal communication in the central nervous system, taking into account a basic functional unit -the brain cell tripartite- consisting of neurons, glial cells and vascular cells and with emphasis on glial-vascular calcium signaling aspects.

  12. Bifurcation of the roots of the characteristic polynomial and the destabilization paradox in friction induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov O.N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxical effect of small dissipative and gyroscopic forces on the stability of a linear non-conservative system, which manifests itself through the unpredictable at first sight behavior of the critical non-conservative load, is studied. By means of the analysis of bifurcation of multiple roots of the characteristic polynomial of the non-conservative system, the analytical description of this phenomenon is obtained. As mechanical examples two systems possessing friction induced oscillations are considered: a mass sliding over a conveyor belt and a model of a disc brake describing the onset of squeal during the braking of a vehicle.

  13. Nuclear calcium signaling induces expression of the synaptic organizers Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Stefanie N; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-02-27

    Calcium transients in the cell nucleus evoked by synaptic activity in hippocampal neurons function as a signaling end point in synapse-to-nucleus communication. As an important regulator of neuronal gene expression, nuclear calcium is involved in the conversion of synaptic stimuli into functional and structural changes of neurons. Here we identify two synaptic organizers, Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2, as targets of nuclear calcium signaling. Expression of both Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 increased in a synaptic NMDA receptor- and nuclear calcium-dependent manner in hippocampal neurons within 2-4 h after the induction of action potential bursting. Induction of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 occurred independently of the need for new protein synthesis and required calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and the nuclear calcium signaling target CREB-binding protein. Analysis of reporter gene constructs revealed a functional cAMP response element in the proximal promoter of Lrrtm2, indicating that at least Lrrtm2 is regulated by the classical nuclear Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV-CREB/CREB-binding protein pathway. These results suggest that one mechanism by which nuclear calcium signaling controls neuronal network function is by regulating the expression of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Nuclear Calcium Signaling Induces Expression of the Synaptic Organizers Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Stefanie N.; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Calcium transients in the cell nucleus evoked by synaptic activity in hippocampal neurons function as a signaling end point in synapse-to-nucleus communication. As an important regulator of neuronal gene expression, nuclear calcium is involved in the conversion of synaptic stimuli into functional and structural changes of neurons. Here we identify two synaptic organizers, Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2, as targets of nuclear calcium signaling. Expression of both Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 increased in a synaptic NMDA receptor- and nuclear calcium-dependent manner in hippocampal neurons within 2–4 h after the induction of action potential bursting. Induction of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 occurred independently of the need for new protein synthesis and required calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and the nuclear calcium signaling target CREB-binding protein. Analysis of reporter gene constructs revealed a functional cAMP response element in the proximal promoter of Lrrtm2, indicating that at least Lrrtm2 is regulated by the classical nuclear Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV-CREB/CREB-binding protein pathway. These results suggest that one mechanism by which nuclear calcium signaling controls neuronal network function is by regulating the expression of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2. PMID:25527504

  15. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate PTHrP secretion and milk calcium transport with calcium availability. To test this idea genetically, we bred BLG-Cre mice with CaSR-floxed mice to ablate the CaSR specifically from mammary epithelial cells only at the onset of lactation (CaSR-cKO mice). Loss of the CaSR in the lactating mammary gland did not disrupt alveolar differentiation or milk production. However, it did increase the secretion of PTHrP into milk and decreased the transport of calcium from the circulation into milk. CaSR-cKO mice did not show accelerated bone resorption, but they did have a decrease in bone formation. Loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in hypercalcemia, decreased PTH secretion, and increased renal calcium excretion in lactating mothers. Finally, loss of the mammary gland CaSR resulted in decreased calcium accrual by suckling neonates, likely due to the combination of increased milk PTHrP and decreased milk calcium. These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. PMID:23782944

  16. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus: basis for morphology modulation of nuclear calcium signaling and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Gillian; Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons.

  17. Calcium-containing scaffolds induce bone regeneration by regulating mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Aquino-Martínez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoinduction and subsequent bone formation rely on efficient mesenchymal stem cell (MSC recruitment. It is also known that migration is induced by gradients of growth factors and cytokines. Degradation of Ca2+-containing biomaterials mimics the bone remodeling compartment producing a localized calcium-rich osteoinductive microenvironment. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of calcium sulfate (CaSO4 on MSC migration. In addition, to evaluate the influence of CaSO4 on MSC differentiation and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Methods A circular calvarial bone defect (5 mm diameter was created in the parietal bone of 35 Balb-C mice. We prepared and implanted a cell-free agarose/gelatin scaffold alone or in combination with different CaSO4 concentrations into the bone defects. After 7 weeks, we determined the new bone regenerated by micro-CT and histological analysis. In vitro, we evaluated the CaSO4 effects on MSC migration by both wound healing and agarose spot assays. Osteoblastic gene expression after BMP-2 and CaSO4 treatment was also evaluated by qPCR. Results CaSO4 increased MSC migration and bone formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Micro-CT analysis showed that the addition of CaSO4 significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to the scaffold alone. The histological evaluation confirmed an increased number of endogenous cells recruited into the cell-free CaSO4-containing scaffolds. Furthermore, MSC migration in vitro and active AKT levels were attenuated when CaSO4 and BMP-2 were in combination. Addition of LY294002 and Wortmannin abrogated the CaSO4 effects on MSC migration. Conclusions Specific CaSO4 concentrations induce bone regeneration of calvarial defects in part by acting on the host’s undifferentiated MSCs and promoting their migration. Progenitor cell recruitment is followed by a gradual increment in osteoblast gene expression. Moreover, CaSO4 regulates BMP-2-induced

  18. Mobility induces global synchronization of oscillators in periodic extended systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peruani, Fernando; Nicola, Ernesto M; Morelli, Luis G

    2010-01-01

    We study the synchronization of locally coupled noisy phase oscillators that move diffusively in a one-dimensional ring. Together with the disordered and the globally synchronized states, the system also exhibits wave-like states displaying local order. We use a statistical description valid for a large number of oscillators to show that for any finite system there is a critical mobility above which all wave-like solutions become unstable. Through Langevin simulations, we show that the transition to global synchronization is mediated by a shift in the relative size of attractor basins associated with wave-like states. Mobility disrupts these states and paves the way for the system to attain global synchronization.

  19. Typhoon Rammasun-Induced Near-Inertial Oscillations Observed in the Tropical Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind-induced near-inertial oscillations (NIOs have been known to propagate their energy downward and equatorward, yet few observations have confirmed this in tropical regions. Using measurements from a moored ADCP in the tropical northwestern Pacific, we report an energetic NIO event associated with Typhoon Rammasun in May 2008, when an anti-cyclonic warm eddy existed around the mooring site. Our analyses reveal that the anti-cyclonic eddy traps the NIO energy at two layers around 120 and 210 m where the buoyancy frequency show high values. The NIO energy continuously decays at layers below its maximum at 210 m, and disappears at depths below the thermocline. During their propagation from 137 to 649 stretched-meter depths (equivalent to 100 - 430 m, NIOs shift their frequencies from 0.92f to 1.05f probably due to the effective f, which changes its magnitude from smaller to larger than local inertial frequency f in the anti-cyclonic eddy. In addition, their vertical energy propagation becomes faster from 0.17 to 0.64 mm s-1. Decomposition of downward and upward NIO energy propagation shows that the typhoon-induced NIOs remain 29% of their energy in the upper layer, and transfer 71% to the subsurface layers. Our results suggest that typhoon-induced NIOs interacting with meso-scale eddies can play an important role in providing the energy source available for ocean mixing in the tropical regions.

  20. The effect of radiopacifiers agents on pH, calcium release, radiopacity, and antimicrobial properties of different calcium hydroxide dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; García-Godoy, Franklin; Moldauer, Bertram Ivan; Gagliardi Minotti, Paloma; Tercília Grizzo, Larissa; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, pH level, calcium ion release, and radiopacity of calcium hydroxide pastes associated with three radiopacifying agents (iodoform, zinc oxide, and barium sulfate). For the pH and calcium release tests, 45 acrylic teeth were utilized and immersed in ultrapure water. After 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days the solution was analyzed by using a pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Polyethylene tubes filled with the pastes were used to perform the radiopacity test. For the antimicrobial test, 25 dentin specimens were infected intraorally in order to induce the biofilm colonization and treated with the pastes for 7 days. The Live/Dead technique and a confocal microscope were used to obtain the ratio of live cells. Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were performed to show differences among the groups (P calcium release test on the 7th day (P > 0.05). The calcium hydroxide/iodoform samples had the highest radiopacity and antimicrobial activity against the biofilm-infected dentin in comparison to the other pastes (P Calcium hydroxide mixed with 17% iodoform and 35% propylene glycol into a paste had the highest pH, calcium ion release, radiopacity, and the greatest antimicrobial action versus similar samples mixed with BaSO4 or ZnO. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. GABA level, gamma oscillation, and working memory performance in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming A. Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case–control pilot study (N = 24 compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7 had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9. However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16 significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia.

  2. Enzymatic pH control for biomimetic depostion of calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.W.G.; Nejadnik, M.R.; Nudelman, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Riet, te J.; Habibovic, P.; Birgani, Z.T.; Li, Y.B.; Bomans, P.H.H.; Jansen, J.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the enzymatic decomposition of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia as a means to increase the pH during biomimetic deposition of calcium phospate (CaP) onto implant surfaces. The kinetics of the enzymatically induced pH increase were studied by monitoring pH, calcium

  3. Enzymatic pH control for biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.W.G.; Nejadnik, M.R.; Nudelman, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Riet, J. te; Habibovic, P.; Tahmasebi Birgani, Z.; Li, Y.; Bomans, P.H.; Jansen, J.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines the enzymatic decomposition of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia as a means to increase the pH during biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) onto implant surfaces. The kinetics of the enzymatically induced pH increase were studied by monitoring pH, calcium

  4. An integrated platform for simultaneous multi-well field potential recording and Fura-2-based calcium transient ratiometry in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Georg; Weber, Jürgen; Disch, Christoph; Schuck, Elmar; Ittrich, Carina; Guth, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are available from various sources and they are being evaluated for safety testing. Several platforms are available offering different assay principles and read-out parameters: patch-clamp and field potential recording, imaging or photometry, impedance measurement, and recording of contractile force. Routine use will establish which assay principle and which parameters best serve the intended purpose. We introduce a combination of field potential recording and calcium ratiometry from spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes as a novel assay providing a complementary read-out parameter set. Field potential recording is performed using a commercial multi-well multi-electrode array platform. Calcium ratiometry is performed using a fiber optic illumination and silicon avalanche photodetectors. Data condensation and statistical analysis are designed to enable statistical inference of differences and equivalence with regard to a solvent control. Simultaneous recording of field potentials and calcium transients from spontaneously beating monolayers was done in a nine-well format. Calcium channel blockers (e.g. nifedipine) and a blocker of calcium store release (ryanodine) can be recognized and discriminated based on the calcium transient signal. An agonist of L-type calcium channels, FPL 64176, increased and prolonged the calcium transient, whereas BAY K 8644, another L-type calcium channel agonist, had no effect. Both FPL 64176 and various calcium channel antagonists have chronotropic effects, which can be discriminated from typical "chronotropic" compounds, like (±)isoprenaline (positive) and arecaidine propargyl ester (negative), based on their effects on the calcium transient. Despite technical limitations in temporal resolution and exact matching of composite calcium transient with the field potential of a subset of cells, the combined recording platform enables a refined interpretation of the field potential

  5. Oscillations of a spring-magnet system damped by a conductive plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladera, C. L.; Donoso, G.

    2013-09-01

    We study the motion of a spring-magnet system that oscillates with very low frequencies above a circular horizontal non-magnetizable conductive plate. The magnet oscillations couple with the plate via the Foucault currents induced therein. We develop a simple theoretical model for this magneto-mechanical oscillator, a model that leads to the equation of a damped harmonic oscillator, whose weak attenuation constant depends upon the system parameters, e.g. the electrical conductivity of the constituent material of the plate and its thickness. We present a set of validating experiments, the results of which are predicted with good accuracy by our analytical model. Additional experiments can be performed with this oscillating system or its variants. This oscillator is simple and low-cost, easy to assemble, and can be used in experiments or project works in physics teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level.

  6. Oscillations of a spring–magnet system damped by a conductive plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladera, C L; Donoso, G

    2013-01-01

    We study the motion of a spring–magnet system that oscillates with very low frequencies above a circular horizontal non-magnetizable conductive plate. The magnet oscillations couple with the plate via the Foucault currents induced therein. We develop a simple theoretical model for this magneto-mechanical oscillator, a model that leads to the equation of a damped harmonic oscillator, whose weak attenuation constant depends upon the system parameters, e.g. the electrical conductivity of the constituent material of the plate and its thickness. We present a set of validating experiments, the results of which are predicted with good accuracy by our analytical model. Additional experiments can be performed with this oscillating system or its variants. This oscillator is simple and low-cost, easy to assemble, and can be used in experiments or project works in physics teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level. (paper)

  7. Stereoselective inhibition of thromboxane-induced coronary vasoconstriction by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltze, M.; Boer, R.; Sanders, K.H.; Boss, H.; Ulrich, W.R.; Flockerzi, D.

    1990-01-01

    The biological activity of the (+)-S- and (-)-R-enantiomers of niguldipine, of the (-)-S- and (+)-R-enantiomers of felodipine and nitrendipine, and of rac-nisoldipine and rac-nimodipine was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction due to the thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mimetic U-46619 in guinea pig Langendorff hearts, displacement of (+)-[ 3 H]isradipine from calcium channel binding sites of guinea pig skeletal muscle T-tubule membranes, and blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats were determined. The enantiomers were obtained by stereoselective synthesis. Cross-contamination was less than 0.5% for both S- and R-enantiomers of niguldipine and nitrendipine and less than 1% for those of felodipine. From the doses necessary for a 50% inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction, stereoselectivity ratios for (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine, and (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine of 28, 13, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The potency ratio rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine was 3.5. Ratios obtained from binding experiments and antihypertensive activity were (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine = 45 and 35, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine = 12 and 13, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine = 8 and 8, and rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine = 8 and 7, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between the in vitro potency of the substances to prevent U-46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction and their affinity for calcium channel binding sites as well as their antihypertensive activity

  8. Calcium-induced conformational changes of Thrombospondin-1 signature domain: implications for vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Agarwal, Rahul; Singh, Ashutosh; Bhatnagar, Sonika

    2017-06-01

    Thrombospondin1 (TSP1) participates in numerous signaling pathways critical for vascular physiology and disease. The conserved signature domain of thrombospondin 1 (TSP1-Sig1) comprises three epidermal growth factor (EGF), 13 calcium-binding type 3 thrombospondin (T3) repeats, and one lectin-like module arranged in a stalk-wire-globe topology. TSP1 is known to be present in both calcium-replete (Holo-) and calcium-depleted (Apo-) state, each with distinct downstream signaling effects. To prepare a homology model of TSP1-Sig1 and investigate the effect of calcium on its dynamic structure and interactions. A homology model of Holo-TSP1-Sig1 was prepared with TSP2 as template in Swissmodel workspace. The Apo-form of the model was obtained by omitting the bound calcium ions from the homology model. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies (100 ns) were performed on the Holo- and Apo- forms of TSP1 using Gromacs4.6.5. After simulation, Holo-TSP1-Sig1 showed significant reorientation at the interface of the EGF1-2 and EGF2-3 modules. The T3 wire is predicted to show the maximum mobility and deviation from the initial model. In Apo-TSP1-Sig1 model, the T3 repeats unfolded and formed coils with predicted increase in flexibility. Apo-TSP1-Sig1model also predicted the exposure of the binding sites for neutrophil elastase, integrin and fibroblast growth factor 2. We present a structural model and hypothesis for the role of TSP1-Sig1 interactions in the development of vascular disorders. The simulated model of the fully calcium-loaded and calcium-depleted TSP1-Sig1 may enable the development of its interactions as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of vascular diseases.

  9. Involvement of the cervical sympathetic nervous system in the changes of calcium homeostasis during turpentine oil-induced stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J E; Ladizesky, M G; Keller Sarmiento, M I; Cardinali, D P

    1993-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a common finding during stress. The objective of this study was to examine: (a) the changes in circulating calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (CT) concentration in rats stressed by being given a subcutaneous injection of turpentine oil, and (b) the involvement of the sympathetic cervical pathway in stress-induced changes of calcium homeostasis. Four hours after receiving turpentine oil or vehicle, rats were subjected either to hypocalcemia, by being given EDTA intraperitoneally, or to hypercalcemia, by being injected CaCl2 intraperitoneally. Significant changes in serum calcium (10% decrease), serum PTH (28% increase) and CT levels (40% decrease) were observed in stressed rats. EDTA administration brought about a significantly greater hypocalcemia, and a higher PTH secretory response in turpentine oil-stressed rats. During stress, the increase of serum calcium after CaCl2 was significantly smaller, and the rise of CT was greater than in controls. In the case of CT the changes were still observed in rats subjected to superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) 14 days earlier. In the case of PTH, the increase found in stressed rats, but not the augmented response after EDTA, was blunted by SCGx. The potentiation of hypocalcemia brought about by turpentine oil was no longer observed in SCGx rats. In vehicle-treated controls, SCGx delayed PTH response to hypocalcemia, but did not affect the increased response of CT to CaCl2 challenge. The results indicate that a number of changes in calcium homeostasis arise during turpentine oil stress in rats. SCGx was effective to modify the set point for PTH release, but played a minor role in affecting the augmentation of CT release during stress.

  10. The putative imidazoline receptor agonist, harmane, promotes intracellular calcium mobilisation in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Paul E; Hills, Claire E; Rogers, Gareth J; Garland, Patrick; Farley, Sophia R; Morgan, Noel G

    2004-10-06

    beta-Carbolines (including harmane and pinoline) stimulate insulin secretion by a mechanism that may involve interaction with imidazoline I(3)-receptors but which also appears to be mediated by actions that are additional to imidazoline receptor agonism. Using the MIN6 beta-cell line, we now show that both the imidazoline I(3)-receptor agonist, efaroxan, and the beta-carboline, harmane, directly elevate cytosolic Ca(2+) and increase insulin secretion but that these responses display different characteristics. In the case of efaroxan, the increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) was readily reversible, whereas, with harmane, the effect persisted beyond removal of the agonist and resulted in the development of a repetitive train of Ca(2+)-oscillations whose frequency, but not amplitude, was concentration-dependent. Initiation of the Ca(2+)-oscillations by harmane was independent of extracellular calcium but was sensitive to both dantrolene and high levels (20 mM) of caffeine, suggesting the involvement of ryanodine receptor-gated Ca(2+)-release. The expression of ryanodine receptor-1 and ryanodine receptor-2 mRNA in MIN6 cells was confirmed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and, since low concentrations of caffeine (1 mM) or thimerosal (10 microM) stimulated increases in [Ca(2+)](i), we conclude that ryanodine receptors are functional in these cells. Furthermore, the increase in insulin secretion induced by harmane was attenuated by dantrolene, consistent with the involvement of ryanodine receptors in mediating this response. By contrast, the smaller insulin secretory response to efaroxan was unaffected by dantrolene. Harmane-evoked changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) were maintained by nifedipine-sensitive Ca(2+)-influx, suggesting the involvement of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channels. Taken together, these data imply that harmane may interact with ryanodine receptors to generate sustained Ca(2+)-oscillations in pancreatic beta-cells and that this effect

  11. Inotropic effect, binding properties, and calcium flux effects of the calcium channel agonist CGP 28392 in intact cultured embryonic chick ventricular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, S.; Kim, D.; Smith, T.W.; Marsh, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    CGP 28392 is a recently described dihydropyridine derivative with positive inotropic properties. To study the mechanism of action of this putative calcium channel agonist, we have related the effects of CGP 28392 on contraction (measured with an optical video system) and radioactive calcium uptake to ligand-binding studies in cultured, spontaneously beating chick embryo ventricular cells. CGP 28392 produced a concentration-dependent increase in amplitude and velocity of contraction (EC 50 = 2 x 10(-7) M; maximum contractile effect = 85% of the calcium 3.6 mM response). Nifedipine produced a shift to the right of the concentration-effect curve for CGP 28392 without decreasing the maximum contractile response, suggesting competitive antagonism (pA2 = 8.3). Computer analysis of displacement of [ 3 H]nitrendipine binding to intact heart cells by unlabeled CGP 28392 indicated a K /sub D/ = 2.2 +/- 0.95 x 10(-7) M, in good agreement with the EC 50 for the inotropic effect. CGP 28392 increased the rate of radioactive calcium influx (+39% at 10 seconds) without altering beating rate, while nifedipine decreased radioactive calcium influx and antagonized the CGP 28392-induced increase in calcium influx. Our results indicate that, in intact cultured myocytes, CGP 28392 acts as a calcium channel agonist and competes for the dihydropyridine-binding site of the slow calcium channel. In contrast to calcium channel blockers, CGP 28392 increases calcium influx and enhances the contractile state

  12. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  13. Enzymatic pH Control for Biomimetic Deposition of Calcium Phosphate Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.W.; Reza Nejadnik, M.; Nudelman, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; te Riet, J.; Habibovic, Pamela; Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; Yubao, L.; Bomans, P.H.H.; Jansen, J.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study has focused on enzymatic decomposition of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia as a means to increase the pH during biomimetic deposition of Calcium Phospate (CaP) onto implant surfaces. The kinetics of the enzymatically induced pH increase were studied by monitoring pH, calcium

  14. Effects of potassium concentration on firing patterns of low-calcium epileptiform activity in anesthetized rat hippocampus: inducing of persistent spike activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhouyan; Durand, Dominique M

    2006-04-01

    It has been shown that a low-calcium high-potassium solution can generate ictal-like epileptiform activity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, during status epileptiform activity, the concentration of [K+]o increases, and the concentration of [Ca2+]o decreases in brain tissue. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that long-lasting persistent spike activity, similar to one of the patterns of status epilepticus, could be generated by a high-potassium, low-calcium solution in the hippocampus in vivo. Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was perfused over the surface of the exposed left dorsal hippocampus of anesthetized rats. A stimulating electrode and a recording probe were placed in the CA1 region. By elevating K+ concentration from 6 to 12 mM in the perfusate solution, the typical firing pattern of low-calcium ictal bursts was transformed into persistent spike activity in the CA1 region with synaptic transmission being suppressed by calcium chelator EGTA. The activity was characterized by double spikes repeated at a frequency approximately 4 Hz that could last for >1 h. The analysis of multiple unit activity showed that both elevating [K+]o and lowering [Ca2+]o decreased the inhibition period after the response of paired-pulse stimulation, indicating a suppression of the after-hyperpolarization (AHP) activity. These results suggest that persistent status epilepticus-like spike activity can be induced by nonsynaptic mechanisms when synaptic transmission is blocked. The unique double-spike pattern of this activity is presumably caused by higher K+ concentration augmenting the frequency of typical low-calcium nonsynaptic burst activity.

  15. Calcium status in premenopausal and post menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, H.J.; Hussain, G.; Bashir, M.U.; Latif, N.; Riaz, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In postmenopausal women, the two major causes of bone loss are oestrogen deficiency after menopause and age related processes. Bone turnover increases to high levels and oestrogen deficiency may induce calcium loss by indirect effects on extra skeletal calcium homeostasis. Objective of this study was to evaluate calcium status in pre-menopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in 34 premenopausal women and 33 postmenopausal women, in Department of Physiology, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore. Height and weight of each woman were taken to find out the body mass index (BMI). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin levels of each subject were determined. Results: Premenopausal women were obese (BMI>30 Kg/m/sup 2/) while postmenopausal women were overweight (BMI>25 Kg/m/sup 2/). Serum calcium levels were significantly lower in postmenopausal women than in pre-menopausal women, while serum parathyroid hormone levels were significantly higher in postmenopausal woman. Serum calcitonin level was not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women are calcium deficient and have increased bone turnover as indicated by increased serum parathyroid hormone levels. (author)

  16. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4b inhibits nitric oxide generation through calcium-induced dynamic interaction with neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjuan; Zhou, Juefei; Li, Wei; Zhou, Teng; Chen, Qianqian; Yang, Fuyu; Wei, Taotao

    2013-04-01

    The activation and deactivation of Ca(2+)- and calmodulindependent neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the central nervous system must be tightly controlled to prevent excessive nitric oxide (NO) generation. Considering plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) is a key deactivator of nNOS, the present investigation aims to determine the key events involved in nNOS deactivation of by PMCA in living cells to maintain its cellular context. Using time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), we determined the occurrence of Ca(2+)-induced protein-protein interactions between plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4b (PMCA4b) and nNOS in living cells. PMCA activation significantly decreased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i), which deactivates nNOS and slowdowns NO synthesis. Under the basal [Ca(2+)]i caused by PMCA activation, no protein-protein interactions were observed between PMCA4b and nNOS. Furthermore, both the PDZ domain of nNOS and the PDZ-binding motif of PMCA4b were essential for the protein-protein interaction. The involvement of lipid raft microdomains on the activity of PMCA4b and nNOS was also investigated. Unlike other PMCA isoforms, PMCA4 was relatively more concentrated in the raft fractions. Disruption of lipid rafts altered the intracellular localization of PMCA4b and affected the interaction between PMCA4b and nNOS, which suggest that the unique lipid raft distribution of PMCA4 may be responsible for its regulation of nNOS activity. In summary, lipid rafts may act as platforms for the PMCA4b regulation of nNOS activity and the transient tethering of nNOS to PMCA4b is responsible for rapid nNOS deactivation.

  17. Chimera at the phase-flip transition of an ensemble of identical nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, R.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Venkatesan, A.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2018-06-01

    A complex collective emerging behavior characterized by coexisting coherent and incoherent domains is termed as a chimera state. We bring out the existence of a new type of chimera in a nonlocally coupled ensemble of identical oscillators driven by a common dynamic environment. The latter facilitates the onset of phase-flip bifurcation/transitions among the coupled oscillators of the ensemble, while the nonlocal coupling induces a partial asynchronization among the out-of-phase synchronized oscillators at this onset. This leads to the manifestation of coexisting out-of-phase synchronized coherent domains interspersed by asynchronous incoherent domains elucidating the existence of a different type of chimera state. In addition to this, a rich variety of other collective behaviors such as clusters with phase-flip transition, conventional chimera, solitary state and complete synchronized state which have been reported using different coupling architectures are found to be induced by the employed couplings for appropriate coupling strengths. The robustness of the resulting dynamics is demonstrated in ensembles of two paradigmatic models, namely Rössler oscillators and Stuart-Landau oscillators.

  18. Protection of Dentate Hilar Cells from Prolonged Stimulation by Intracellular Calcium Chelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Schwartzkroin, Philip A.

    1989-10-01

    Prolonged afferent stimulation of the rat dentate gyrus in vivo leads to degeneration only of those cells that lack immunoreactivity for the calcium binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin. In order to test the hypothesis that calcium binding proteins protect against the effects of prolonged stimulation, intracellular recordings were made in hippocampal slices from cells that lack immunoreactivity for calcium binding proteins. Calcium binding protein--negative cells showed electrophysiological signs of deterioration during prolonged stimulation; cells containing calcium binding protein did not. When neurons without calcium binding proteins were impaled with microelectrodes containing the calcium chelator BAPTA, and BAPTA was allowed to diffuse into the cells, these cells showed no deterioration. These results indicate that, in a complex tissue of the central nervous system, an activity-induced increase in intracellular calcium can trigger processes leading to cell deterioration, and that increasing the calcium binding capacity of a cell decreases its vulnerability to damage.

  19. Ketamine-induced oscillations in the motor circuit of the rat basal ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Nicolás

    Full Text Available Oscillatory activity can be widely recorded in the cortex and basal ganglia. This activity may play a role not only in the physiology of movement, perception and cognition, but also in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and neurological diseases like schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease. Ketamine administration has been shown to cause an increase in gamma activity in cortical and subcortical structures, and an increase in 150 Hz oscillations in the nucleus accumbens in healthy rats, together with hyperlocomotion.We recorded local field potentials from motor cortex, caudate-putamen (CPU, substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr and subthalamic nucleus (STN in 20 awake rats before and after the administration of ketamine at three different subanesthetic doses (10, 25 and 50 mg/Kg, and saline as control condition. Motor behavior was semiautomatically quantified by custom-made software specifically developed for this setting.Ketamine induced coherent oscillations in low gamma (~ 50 Hz, high gamma (~ 80 Hz and high frequency (HFO, ~ 150 Hz bands, with different behavior in the four structures studied. While oscillatory activity at these three peaks was widespread across all structures, interactions showed a different pattern for each frequency band. Imaginary coherence at 150 Hz was maximum between motor cortex and the different basal ganglia nuclei, while low gamma coherence connected motor cortex with CPU and high gamma coherence was more constrained to the basal ganglia nuclei. Power at three bands correlated with the motor activity of the animal, but only coherence values in the HFO and high gamma range correlated with movement. Interactions in the low gamma band did not show a direct relationship to movement.These results suggest that the motor effects of ketamine administration may be primarily mediated by the induction of coherent widespread high-frequency activity in the motor circuit of the basal ganglia, together with a frequency

  20. Conditional intrinsic voltage oscillations in mature vertebrate neurons undergo specific changes in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guertin, Pierre A; Hounsgaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    cord of adult turtles maintainable for several weeks in culture conditions. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced-tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage oscillations in motoneurons were approximately 10 times faster in culture than in acute preparations. Oscillations in culture were abolished by NMDA...

  1. The homing of bone marrow MSCs to non-osseous sites for ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive calcium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guodong; Habibovic, Pamela; Bao, Chongyun; Hu, Jing; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Yuan, Huipin; Chen, Wenchuan; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are promising for bone repair. There is no direct proof that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) home to non-osseous sites and participate in ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive bioceramics. The objective of this study was to use a sex-mismatched beagle dog model to investigate BMSC homing via blood circulation to participate in ectopic bone formation via osteoinductive biomaterial. BMSCs of male dogs were injected into female femoral marrow cavity. The survival and stable chimerism of donor BMSCs in recipients were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules were implanted in dorsal muscles of female dogs. Y chromosomes were detected in samples harvested from female dogs which had received male BMSCs. At 4 weeks, cells with Y-chromosomes were distributed in the new bone matrix throughout the BCP granule implant. At 6 weeks, cells with Y chromosomes were present in newly mineralized woven bone. TRAP positive osteoclast-like cells were observed in 4-week implants, and the number of such cells decreased from 4 to 6 weeks. These results show that osteoprogenitors were recruited from bone marrow and homed to ectopic site to serve as a cell source for calcium phosphate-induced bone formation. In conclusion, BMSCs were demonstrated to migrate from bone marrow through blood circulation to non-osseous bioceramic implant site to contribute to ectopic bone formation in a canine model. BCP induced new bone in muscles without growth factor delivery, showing excellent osteoinductivity that could be useful for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23298780

  2. Analysis of the role of the low threshold currents IT and Ih in intrinsic delta oscillations of thalamocortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimy eAmarillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thalamocortical neurons are involved in the generation and maintenance of brain rhythms associated with global functional states. The repetitive burst firing of TC neurons at delta frequencies (1-4 Hz has been linked to the oscillations recorded during deep sleep and during episodes of absence seizures. To get insight into the biophysical properties that are the basis for intrinsic delta oscillations in these neurons, we performed a bifurcation analysis of a minimal conductance-based thalamocortical neuron model including only the IT channel and the sodium and potassium leak channels. This analysis unveils the dynamics of repetitive burst firing of TC neurons, and describes how the interplay between the amplifying variable mT and the recovering variable hT of the calcium channel IT is sufficient to generate low threshold oscillations in the delta band. We also explored the role of the hyperpolarization activated cationic current Ih in this reduced model and determine that, albeit not required, Ih amplifies and stabilizes the oscillation.

  3. Influence of whole-body irradiation on calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pento, J.T.; Kenny, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Previous irradiation studies have revealed marked alterations in calcium metabolism. Moreover, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis with parathyroid hormone or calcium salts has been reported to reduce radiation lethality. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the influence of irradiation on calcium homeostasis in the rat. Nine hundred rad of whole-body irradiation produced a significant depression of both plasma calcium and phosphate at 4 days postirradiation. This effect of irradiation was observed to be dose-dependent over a range of 600 to 1200 rad, and possibly related to irradiation-induced anorexia. The physiological significance of these observations is discussed

  4. ATP- and gap junction-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N R; Geist, S T; Civitelli, R

    1997-01-01

    mechanically induced calcium waves in two rat osteosarcoma cell lines that differ in the gap junction proteins they express, in their ability to pass microinjected dye from cell to cell, and in their expression of P2Y2 (P2U) purinergic receptors. ROS 17/2.8 cells, which express the gap junction protein......Many cells coordinate their activities by transmitting rises in intracellular calcium from cell to cell. In nonexcitable cells, there are currently two models for intercellular calcium wave propagation, both of which involve release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3)- sensitive intracellular calcium...... stores. In one model, IP3 traverses gap junctions and initiates the release of intracellular calcium stores in neighboring cells. Alternatively, calcium waves may be mediated not by gap junctional communication, but rather by autocrine activity of secreted ATP on P2 purinergic receptors. We studied...

  5. The interplay between HIF-1 and calcium signalling in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Iman

    2018-04-01

    The interplay between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and calcium in cancer has begun to be unravelled with recent findings demonstrating the relationships between the two in different cancer types. This is an area of significance considering the crucial roles of both HIF-1 and calcium signalling in cancer progression and metastasis. This review summarises the experimental evidence of the crosstalk between HIF-1 and specific calcium channels, pumps and regulators in the context of cancer. HIF-1 as a master regulator of hypoxic transcriptional responses, mediates transcription of several calcium modulators. On the other hand, specific calcium channels and pumps regulate HIF-1 activity through controlling its transcription, translation, stabilisation, or nuclear translocation. Identifying the interplay between HIF-1 and components of the calcium signal will give new insights into mechanisms underlying cellular responses to physiological and pathophysiological cues, and may provide novel and more efficient therapeutic strategies for the control of cancer progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular calcium homeostasis induces head kidney macrophage apoptosis involving the activation of calpain-2 and ERK in Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Chaitali; Goswami, Ramansu; Datta, Soma; Rajagopal, R.; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2011-01-01

    We had earlier shown that exposure to arsenic (0.50 μM) caused caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage (HKM) apoptosis involving the p38-JNK pathway in Clarias batrachus. Here we examined the roles of calcium (Ca 2+ ) and extra-cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), the other member of MAPK-pathway on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved increased expression of ERK and calpain-2. Nifedipine, verapamil and EGTA pre-treatment inhibited the activation of calpain-2, ERK and reduced arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis as evidenced from reduced caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-FITC-propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. Pre-incubation with ERK inhibitor U 0126 inhibited the activation of calpain-2 and interfered with arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Additionally, pre-incubation with calpain-2 inhibitor also interfered with the activation of ERK and inhibited arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride also inhibited ERK activation indicating activation of ERK in arsenic-exposed HKM also depends on signals from NADPH oxidase pathway. Our study demonstrates the critical role of Ca 2+ homeostasis on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. We suggest that arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular Ca 2+ levels initiates pro-apoptotic ERK and calpain-2; the two pathways influence each other positively and induce caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. Besides, our study also indicates the role of ROS in the activation of ERK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus. - Highlights: → Altered Ca 2+ homeostasis leads to arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. → Calpain-2 plays a critical role in the process. → ERK is pro-apoptotic in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. → Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involves cross talk between calpain-2 and ERK.

  7. Effect of ethionine on hepatic mitochondrial and microsomal calcium uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Zinermon, W.D.; Latoni, L.

    1988-01-01

    Ethionine, an ethyl analog of methionine, produces a variety of physiological and pathological effects in animals. These range from acute effects in the liver, kidney, pancreas, and other organs to liver carcinogenesis. Female rats when injected with ethionine exhibit a rapid decrease in hepatic adenosine triphosphate levels followed by a marked inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis and accumulation of triglycerides. Since calcium transport in mitochondria and microsomes is ATP dependent, it becomes interesting to find out if ethionine administration has any effect on subcellular calcium transport. Calcium has recently gained an increased controversy regarding its role in chemical induced lethal cell damage. Certain groups believe that influx of extracellular calcium across the damaged plasma membrane might actually mediate the irreversible damage to the cell, whereas according to other, entry of calcium into the cell is secondary to the damage. The present study was carried out to investigate the calcium [ 45 Ca] transport in mitochondria and microsomes following ethionine administration. The effect of carbon tetrachloride on calcium uptake in ethionine treated rats was also studied

  8. Synchronization of muscular oscillations between two subjects during isometric interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura V. Schaefer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscles oscillate with a frequency around 10 Hz. But what happens with myofascial oscillations, if two neuromuscular systems interact? The purpose of this study was to examine this question, initially, on the basis of a case study. Oscillations of the triceps brachii muscles of two subjects were determined through mechanomyography (MMG during isometric interaction. The MMG-signals were analyzed concerning the interaction of the two subjects with algorithms of nonlinear dynamics. In this case study it could be shown, that the muscles of both neuromuscular systems also oscillate with the known frequency (here 12 Hz during interaction. Furthermore, both subjects were able to adapt their oscillations against each other. This adjustment induced a significant ( < .05 coherent behavior, which was characterized by a phase shifting of approximately 90°. The authors draw the conclusion, that the complementary neuromuscular partners potentially have the ability of mutual synchronization.

  9. Development of a degradable cement of calcium phosphate and calcium sulfate composite for bone reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, H; Wei, J; Liu, C S

    2006-01-01

    A new type of composite bone cement was prepared and investigated by adding calcium sulfate (CS) to calcium phosphate cement (CPC). This composite cement can be handled as a paste and easily shaped into any contour, which can set within 5-20 min, the setting time largely depending on the liquid-solid (L/S) ratio; adding CS to CPC had little effect on the setting time of the composite cements. No obvious temperature increase and pH change were observed during setting and immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The compressive strength of the cement decreased with an increase in the content of CS. The degradation rate of the composite cements increased with time when the CS content was more than 20 wt%. Calcium deficient apatite could form on the surface of the composite cement because the release of calcium into SBF from the dissolution of CS and the apatite of the cement induced the new apatite formation; increasing the content of CS in the composite could improve the bioactivity of the composite cements. The results suggested that composite cement has a reasonable setting time, excellent degradability and suitable mechanical strength and bioactivity, which shows promising prospects for development as a clinical cement

  10. Self-sustained oscillations in nanoelectromechanical systems induced by Kondo resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taegeun; Kiselev, Mikhail N; Kikoin, Konstantin; Shekhter, Robert I; Gorelik, Leonid Y

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the instability and dynamical properties of nanoelectromechanical systems represented by a single-electron device containing movable quantum dots attached to a vibrating cantilever via asymmetric tunnel contacts. The Kondo resonance in electron tunneling between the source and shuttle facilitates self-sustained oscillations originating from the strong coupling of mechanical and electronic/spin degrees of freedom. We analyze a stability diagram for the two-channel Kondo shuttling regime due to limitations given by the electromotive force acting on a moving shuttle, and find that the saturation oscillation amplitude is associated with the retardation effect of the Kondo cloud. The results shed light on possible ways to experimentally realize the Kondo-cloud dynamical probe by using high mechanical dissipation tunability as well as supersensitive detection of mechanical displacement

  11. Self-sustained oscillations in nanoelectromechanical systems induced by Kondo resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taegeun; Kiselev, Mikhail N.; Kikoin, Konstantin; Shekhter, Robert I.; Gorelik, Leonid Y.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the instability and dynamical properties of nanoelectromechanical systems represented by a single-electron device containing movable quantum dots attached to a vibrating cantilever via asymmetric tunnel contacts. The Kondo resonance in electron tunneling between the source and shuttle facilitates self-sustained oscillations originating from the strong coupling of mechanical and electronic/spin degrees of freedom. We analyze a stability diagram for the two-channel Kondo shuttling regime due to limitations given by the electromotive force acting on a moving shuttle, and find that the saturation oscillation amplitude is associated with the retardation effect of the Kondo cloud. The results shed light on possible ways to experimentally realize the Kondo-cloud dynamical probe by using high mechanical dissipation tunability as well as supersensitive detection of mechanical displacement.

  12. 17β-estradiol rapidly activates calcium release from intracellular stores via the GPR30 pathway and MAPK phosphorylation in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jian

    2012-03-06

    Estrogen regulates critical cellular functions, and its deficiency initiates bone turnover and the development of bone mass loss in menopausal females. Recent studies have demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E 2) induces rapid non-genomic responses that activate downstream signaling molecules, thus providing a new perspective to understand the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated rapid estrogen responses, including calcium release and MAPK phosphorylation, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. E 2 elevated [Ca 2+] i and increased Ca 2+ oscillation frequency in a dose-dependent manner. Immunolabeling confirmed the expression of three estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [GPR30]) in MLO-Y4 cells and localized GPR30 predominantly to the plasma membrane. E 2 mobilized calcium from intracellular stores, and the use of selective agonist(s) for each ER showed that this was mediated mainly through the GPR30 pathway. MAPK phosphorylation increased in a biphasic manner, with peaks occurring after 7 and 60 min. GPR30 and classical ERs showed different temporal effects on MAPK phosphorylation and contributed to MAPK phosphorylation sequentially. ICI182,780 inhibited E 2 activation of MAPK at 7 min, while the GPR30 agonist G-1 and antagonist G-15 failed to affect MAPK phosphorylation levels. G-1-mediated MAPK phosphorylation at 60 min was prevented by prior depletion of calcium stores. Our data suggest that E 2 induces the non-genomic responses Ca 2+ release and MAPK phosphorylation to regulate osteocyte function and indicate that multiple receptors mediate rapid E 2 responses. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Quenching oscillating behaviors in fractional coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongkui; Xiao, Rui; Yang, Xiaoli; Xu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Oscillation quenching has been widely studied during the past several decades in fields ranging from natural sciences to engineering, but investigations have so far been restricted to oscillators with an integer-order derivative. Here, we report the first study of amplitude death (AD) in fractional coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with partial and/or complete conjugate couplings to explore oscillation quenching patterns and dynamics. It has been found that the fractional-order derivative impacts the AD state crucially. The area of the AD state increases along with the decrease of the fractional-order derivative. Furthermore, by introducing and adjusting a limiting feedback factor in coupling links, the AD state can be well tamed in fractional coupled oscillators. Hence, it provides one an effective approach to analyze and control the oscillating behaviors in fractional coupled oscillators.

  14. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may...

  15. Inward rectifier potassium current IKir promotes intrinsic pacemaker activity of thalamocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo, Yimy; Tissone, Angela I; Mato, Germán; Nadal, Marcela S

    2018-06-01

    Slow repetitive burst firing by hyperpolarized thalamocortical (TC) neurons correlates with global slow rhythms (rectifier potassium current I Kir induces repetitive burst firing at slow and delta frequency bands. We demonstrate this in mouse TC neurons in brain slices by manipulating the Kir maximum conductance with dynamic clamp. We also performed a thorough theoretical analysis that explains how the unique properties of I Kir enable this current to induce slow periodic bursting in TC neurons. We describe a new ionic mechanism based on the voltage- and time-dependent interaction of I Kir and hyperpolarization-activated cationic current I h that endows TC neurons with the ability to oscillate spontaneously at very low frequencies, even below 0.5 Hz. Bifurcation analysis of conductance-based models of increasing complexity demonstrates that I Kir induces bistability of the membrane potential at the same time that it induces sustained oscillations in combination with I h and increases the robustness of low threshold-activated calcium current I T -mediated oscillations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The strong inwardly rectifying potassium current I Kir of thalamocortical neurons displays a region of negative slope conductance in the current-voltage relationship that generates potassium currents activated by hyperpolarization. Bifurcation analysis shows that I Kir induces bistability of the membrane potential; generates sustained subthreshold oscillations by interacting with the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current I h ; and increases the robustness of oscillations mediated by the low threshold-activated calcium current I T . Upregulation of I Kir in thalamocortical neurons induces repetitive burst firing at slow and delta frequency bands (<4 Hz).

  16. Analysis of delay-induced basal ganglia oscillations: the role of external excitatory nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Ihab; Pasillas-Lépine, William; Panteley, Elena; Chaillet, Antoine; Palfi, Stéphane; Senova, Suhan

    2014-09-01

    Basal ganglia are interconnected deep brain structures involved in movement generation. Their persistent beta-band oscillations (13-30 Hz) are known to be linked to Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. In this paper, we provide conditions under which these oscillations may occur, by explicitly considering the role of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). We analyse the existence of equilibria in the associated firing-rate dynamics and study their stability by relying on a delayed multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) frequency analysis. Our analysis suggests that the PPN has an influence on the generation of pathological beta-band oscillations. These results are illustrated by simulations that confirm numerically the analytic predictions of our two main theorems.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Calcium supplementation to prevent pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During early pregnancy BP normally falls, climbing slowly ... Resource Centre for Randomised Trials, Institute of Health Sciences, Old Road. Headington, Oxford, UK ... Subgroup analyses were used to test whether these effects ..... Prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension by calcium supplementation in angiotensin.

  18. Molecular Basis of the Extracellular Ligands Mediated Signaling by the Calcium Sensing Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+-sensing receptors (CaSRs play a central role in regulating extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o homeostasis and many (pathophysiological processes in multiple organs. This regulation is orchestrated by a cooperative response to extracellular stimuli such as small changes in Ca2+, Mg2+, amino acids and other ligands. In addition, CaSR is a pleiotropic receptor regulating several intracellular signaling pathways, including calcium mobilization and intracellular calcium oscillation. Nearly 200 mutations and polymorphisms have been found in CaSR in relation to a variety of human disorders associated with abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis. In this review, we summarize efforts directed at identifying binding sites for calcium and amino acids. Both homotropic cooperativity among multiple calcium binding sites and heterotropic cooperativity between calcium and amino acid were revealed using computational modeling, predictions, and site-directed mutagenesis coupled with functional assays. The hinge region of the bilobed Venus flytrap (VFT domain of CaSR plays a pivotal role in coordinating multiple extracellular stimuli, leading to cooperative responses from the receptor. We further highlight the extensive number of disease-associated mutations that have also been shown to affect CaSR’s cooperative action via several types of mechanisms. These results provide insights into the molecular bases of the structure and functional cooperativity of this receptor and other members of family C of the G protein-coupled receptors (cGPCRs in health and disease states, and may assist in the prospective development of novel receptor-based therapeutics.

  19. GABA level, gamma oscillation, and working memory performance in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chi-Ming A.; Stanford, Arielle D.; Mao, Xiangling; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Schroeder, Charles E.; Kegeles, Lawrence S.

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case–control pilot study (N = 24) compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance ...

  20. Thalamocortical Oscillations in the Sleeping and Aroused Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steriade, Mircea; McCormick, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    1993-10-01

    Sleep is characterized by synchronized events in billions of synaptically coupled neurons in thalamocortical systems. The activation of a series of neuromodulatory transmitter systems during awakening blocks low-frequency oscillations, induces fast rhythms, and allows the brain to recover full responsiveness. Analysis of cortical and thalamic networks at many levels, from molecules to single neurons to large neuronal assemblies, with a variety of techniques, ranging from intracellular recordings in vivo and in vitro to computer simulations, is beginning to yield insights into the mechanisms of the generation, modulation, and function of brain oscillations.

  1. Aberrant Splicing Induced by Dysregulated Rbfox2 Produces Enhanced Function of CaV1.2 Calcium Channel and Vascular Myogenic Tone in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Fan, Jia; Zhu, Huayuan; Ji, Li; Fan, Wenyong; Kapoor, Isha; Wang, Yue; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Guoqing; Wang, Juejin

    2017-12-01

    Calcium influx from activated voltage-gated calcium channel Ca V 1.2 in vascular smooth muscle cells is indispensable for maintaining myogenic tone and blood pressure. The function of Ca V 1.2 channel can be optimized by alternative splicing, one of post-transcriptional modification mechanisms. The splicing factor Rbfox2 is known to regulate the Ca V 1.2 pre-mRNA alternative splicing events during neuronal development. However, Rbfox2's roles in modulating the key function of vascular Ca V 1.2 channel and in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain elusive. Here, we report that the proportion of Ca V 1.2 channels with alternative exon 9* is increased by 10.3%, whereas that with alternative exon 33 is decreased by 10.5% in hypertensive arteries. Surprisingly, the expression level of Rbfox2 is increased ≈3-folds, presumably because of the upregulation of a dominant-negative isoform of Rbfox2. In vascular smooth muscle cells, we find that knockdown of Rbfox2 dynamically increases alternative exon 9*, whereas decreases exon 33 inclusion of Ca V 1.2 channels. By patch-clamp studies, we show that diminished Rbfox2-induced alternative splicing shifts the steady-state activation and inactivation curves of vascular Ca V 1.2 calcium channel to hyperpolarization, which makes the window current potential to more negative. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rbfox2 increases the pressure-induced vascular myogenic tone of rat mesenteric artery. Taken together, our data indicate that Rbfox2 modulates the functions of vascular Ca V 1.2 calcium channel by dynamically regulating the expressions of alternative exons 9* and 33, which in turn affects the vascular myogenic tone. Therefore, our work suggests a key role for Rbfox2 in hypertension, which provides a rational basis for designing antihypertensive therapies. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Determination of percent calcium carbonate in calcium chromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The precision, accuracy and reliability of the macro-combustion method is superior to the Knorr alkalimetric method, and it is faster. It also significantly reduces the calcium chromate waste accrual problem. The macro-combustion method has been adopted as the official method for determination of percent calcium carbonate in thermal battery grade anhydrous calcium chromate and percent calcium carbonate in quicklime used in the production of calcium chromate. The apparatus and procedure can be used to measure the percent carbonate in inorganic materials other than calcium chromate. With simple modifications in the basic apparatus and procedure, the percent carbon and hydrogen can be measured in many organic material, including polymers and polymeric formulations. 5 figures, 5 tables

  3. Surface Waves and Flow-Induced Oscillations along an Underground Elliptic Cylinder Filled with a Viscous Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, A.

    2015-12-01

    I made a linear analysis of flow-induced oscillations along an underground cylindrical conduit with an elliptical cross section on the basis of the hypothesis that volcanic tremor is a result of magma movement through a conduit. As a first step to understand how the self oscillation occurs because of magma flow, I investigated surface wave propagation and attenuation along an infinitely long fluid-filled elliptic cylinder in an elastic medium. The boundary element method is used to obtain the two-dimensional wave field around the ellipse in the frequency-wavenumber domain. When the major axis is much greater than the minor axis of the ellipse, we obtain the analytic form of the dispersion relation of both the crack-wave mode (Korneev 2008, Lipovsky & Dunham 2015) and the Rayleigh-wave mode with flexural deformation. The crack-wave mode generally has a slower phase speed and a higher attenuation than the Rayleigh-wave mode. In the long-wavelength limit, the crack-wave mode disappears because of fluid viscosity, but the Rayleigh-wave mode exists with a constant Q-value that depends on viscosity. When the aspect ratio of the ellipse is finite, the surface waves can basically be understood as those propagating along a fluid pipe. The flexural mode does exist even when the wavelength is much longer than the major axis, but its phase speed coincides with that of the surrounding S-wave (Randall 1991). As its attenuation is zero in the long-wavelength limit, the flexural mode differs in nature from surface wave. I also obtain a result on linear stability of viscous flow through an elliptic cylinder. In this analysis, I made an assumption that the fluid inertia is so small that the Stokes equation can be used. As suggested by the author's previous study (Sakuraba & Yamauchi 2014), the flexural (Rayleigh-wave) mode is destabilized at a critical flow speed that decreases with the wavelength. However, when the wavelength is much greater than the major axis of the ellipse, the

  4. Cross talk among calcium, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide and activation of gene expression involving calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein kinases in Ulva compressa exposed to copper excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Cabrera, M de Los Ángeles; Henríquez, M Josefa; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Morales, Bernardo; Moenne, Alejandra

    2012-03-01

    To analyze the copper-induced cross talk among calcium, nitric oxide (NO), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the calcium-dependent activation of gene expression, the marine alga Ulva compressa was treated with the inhibitors of calcium channels, ned-19, ryanodine, and xestospongin C, of chloroplasts and mitochondrial electron transport chains, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and antimycin A, of pyruvate dehydrogenase, moniliformin, of calmodulins, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide, and of calcium-dependent protein kinases, staurosporine, as well as with the scavengers of NO, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, and of H(2)O(2), ascorbate, and exposed to a sublethal concentration of copper (10 μm) for 24 h. The level of NO increased at 2 and 12 h. The first peak was inhibited by ned-19 and 3-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and the second peak by ned-19 and antimycin A, indicating that NO synthesis is dependent on calcium release and occurs in organelles. The level of H(2)O(2) increased at 2, 3, and 12 h and was inhibited by ned-19, ryanodine, xestospongin C, and moniliformin, indicating that H(2)O(2) accumulation is dependent on calcium release and Krebs cycle activity. In addition, pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoxglutarate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities of the Krebs cycle increased at 2, 3, 12, and/or 14 h, and these increases were inhibited in vitro by EGTA, a calcium chelating agent. Calcium release at 2, 3, and 12 h was inhibited by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and ascorbate, indicating activation by NO and H(2)O(2). In addition, the level of antioxidant protein gene transcripts decreased with N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalene sulfonamide and staurosporine. Thus, there is a copper-induced cross talk among calcium, H(2)O(2), and NO and a calcium-dependent activation of gene expression involving calmodulins and calcium-dependent protein

  5. Serum deprivation induces glucose response and intercellular coupling in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Shapira, Yuval; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Oron, Yoram

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the previously described differentiating islet-like aggregates of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (PANC-1) develop glucose response and exhibit intercellular communication. Fura 2-loaded PANC-1 cells in serum-free medium were assayed for changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca]i) induced by depolarization, tolbutamide inhibition of K(ATP) channels, or glucose. Dye transfer, assayed by confocal microscopy or by FACS, was used to detect intercellular communication. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of genes of interest were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Proliferation was assayed by the MTT method. Serum-deprived PANC-1 cell aggregates developed [Ca]i response to KCl, tolbutamide, or glucose. These responses were accompanied by 5-fold increase in glucokinase mRNA level and, to a lesser extent, of mRNAs for K(ATP) and L-type calcium channels, as well as increase in mRNA levels of glucagon and somatostatin. Trypsin, a proteinase-activated receptor 2 agonist previously shown to enhance aggregation, modestly improved [Ca]i response to glucose. Glucose-induced coordinated [Ca]i oscillations and dye transfer demonstrated the emergence of intercellular communication. These findings suggest that PANC-1 cells, a pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, can be induced to express a differentiated phenotype in which cells exhibit response to glucose and form a functional syncytium similar to those observed in pancreatic islets.

  6. Influence of cyanide on diauxic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Smrcinova, Miroslava; Sørensen, Preben Graae

    2012-01-01

    Coherent glycolytic oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are a multicellular property induced by addition of glucose to a starved cell population of sufficient density. However, initiation of oscillations requires an additional perturbation, usually addition of cyanide. The fate of cyanide...... during glycolytic oscillations has not previously been studied, and is the subject of the present paper. Using a cyanide electrode, a substantial decrease in cyanide concentration was observed. In the pH range 6-7, we found experimentally that the electrode behaves reasonably well, provided changes in p......H are taken into account. To our knowledge, use of a cyanide electrode to study cyanide dynamics in living biological systems is new. Cyanide was found to enter starving yeast cells in only negligible amounts, and did not react significantly with glucose. Thus, cyanide consumption must be explained...

  7. Oscillators and Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    1997-01-01

    In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear wit...... with negative resistance), Kennedy's Colpitts-oscillator (with and without chaos) and a new 4'th order oscillator with hyper-chaos....

  8. Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts by reinforcing intracellular calcium transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jie; Sun, Lijun; Zhu, Bin; Fan, Yun; Ma, Xingfeng; Yu, Liyin; Zhang, Jianbao

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) can be used to treat bone-related diseases, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear, especially the process by which PEMFs initiate biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of PEMF on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts using the model of calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium. Our results showed that PEMF can increase both the percentage of responding cells and amplitude of intracellular calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium stimulation. Compared with corresponding extracellular calcium levels, PEMF stimulation increased proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and related gene expressions, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin (OCN), which can be completely abolished by BAPTA-AM. Moreover, PEMF did not affect proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts if no intracellular calcium transient was present in osteoblasts during PEMF exposure. Our results revealed that PEMF affects osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through enhanced intracellular calcium transients, which provided a cue to treat bone-related diseases with PEMF. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:541-549, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Modeling Bloch oscillations in nanoscale Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Heli; Kautz, R. L.; Nam, S. W.; Aumentado, J.

    2018-01-01

    Bloch oscillations in nanoscale Josephson junctions with a Coulomb charging energy comparable to the Josephson coupling energy are explored within the context of a model previously considered by Geigenmüller and Schön that includes Zener tunneling and treats quasiparticle tunneling as an explicit shot-noise process. The dynamics of the junction quasicharge are investigated numerically using both Monte Carlo and ensemble approaches to calculate voltage-current characteristics in the presence of microwaves. We examine in detail the origin of harmonic and subharmonic Bloch steps at dc biases I = (n/m)2ef induced by microwaves of frequency f and consider the optimum parameters for the observation of harmonic (m = 1) steps. We also demonstrate that the GS model allows a detailed semiquantitative fit to experimental voltage-current characteristics previously obtained at the Chalmers University of Technology, confirming and strengthening the interpretation of the observed microwave-induced steps in terms of Bloch oscillations. PMID:29577106

  10. Recent neutrino oscillation results from T2K

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-10

    Nov 10, 2012 ... observations were confirmed by reactor and accelerator-based experiments [4,5] leading to a phase study where the parameters of the oscillations are being ... full three-family mixing needed to induce CP-violation effects in ...

  11. Polyamines mediate abnormal Ca2+ transport and Ca2+-induced cardiac cell injury in the calcium paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, J.J.; Koenig, H.; Goldstone, A.D.; Lu, C.Y.; Fan, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Ca 2+ -free perfusion renders heart cells Ca 2+ -sensitive so that readmission of Ca 2+ causes a sudden massive cellular injury attributed to abnormal entry of Ca 2+ into cells (Ca paradox). Hormonal stimulation of Ca 2+ fluxes was earlier shown to be mediated by polyamines (PA). 5 min perfusion of rat heart with Ca 2+ -free medium induce a prompt 40-50% decline in levels of the PA putrescine (PUT), spermidine and spermine and their rate-regulatory synthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and readmission of Ca 2+ -containing medium abruptly ( 2+ reperfusion-induced increases in ODC and PA and also prevented increased 45 Ca 2+ uptake and heart injury, manifested by loss of contractility, release of enzymes (CPK, LDH), myoglobin and protein, and E.M. lesions (contracture bands, mitochondrial changes). 1 mM PUT negated DFMO inhibition, repleted heart PA and restored Ca 2+ reperfusion-induced 45 Ca 2+ influx and cell injury. These data indicate that the Ca 2+ -directed depletion-repletion cycle of ODC and PA triggers excessive transsarcolemmal Ca 2+ transport leading to the calcium paradox

  12. Slow oscillation electrical brain stimulation during waking promotes EEG theta activity and memory encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirov, Roumen; Weiss, Carsten; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2009-01-01

    typically occurring during this state of sleep were also enhanced. Here, we show that the same tSOS applied in the waking brain also induced an increase in endogenous EEG slow oscillations (0.4-1.2 Hz), although in a topographically restricted fashion. Applied during wakefulness tSOS, additionally, resulted......The application of transcranial slow oscillation stimulation (tSOS; 0.75 Hz) was previously shown to enhance widespread endogenous EEG slow oscillatory activity when applied during a sleep period characterized by emerging endogenous slow oscillatory activity. Processes of memory consolidation...... induced by tSOS critically depend on brain state. In response to tSOS during wakefulness the brain transposes stimulation by responding preferentially with theta oscillations and facilitated encoding....

  13. Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flauger, Raphael [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); McAllister, Liam [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Westphal, Alexander, E-mail: flauger@physics.ucsd.edu, E-mail: mcallister@cornell.edu, E-mail: evas@stanford.edu, E-mail: alexander.westphal@desy.de [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.

  14. Drifting oscillations in axion monodromy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flauger, Raphael; Westphal, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We study the pattern of oscillations in the primordial power spectrum in axion monodromy inflation, accounting for drifts in the oscillation period that can be important for comparing to cosmological data. In these models the potential energy has a monomial form over a super-Planckian field range, with superimposed modulations whose size is model-dependent. The amplitude and frequency of the modulations are set by the expectation values of moduli fields. We show that during the course of inflation, the diminishing energy density can induce slow adjustments of the moduli, changing the modulations. We provide templates capturing the effects of drifting moduli, as well as drifts arising in effective field theory models based on softly broken discrete shift symmetries, and we estimate the precision required to detect a drifting period. A non-drifting template suffices over a wide range of parameters, but for the highest frequencies of interest, or for sufficiently strong drift, it is necessary to include parameters characterizing the change in frequency over the e-folds visible in the CMB. We use these templates to perform a preliminary search for drifting oscillations in a part of the parameter space in the Planck nominal mission data.

  15. Behaviour of Bichromatic Microwave Induced Magnetoresistance Oscillations in the High Mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardana, Binuka; Liu, Han-Chun; Samaraweera, Rasanga L.; Mani, R.G.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W

    2017-01-01

    Microwave radiation-induced magneto-resistance oscillations are examined under bichromatic excitation for various frequency combinations in order to obtain a better understanding of the lineshape observed in the dual excitation experiment of the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron system. Here, we examine superposition- or lack thereof- in the lineshape observed in the bichromatic experiment, and report a trend observed between the monochromatic and bichromatic responses of the oscillatory diagonal resistance. (paper)

  16. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and met...

  17. WATER HAMMER OSCILLATIONS IN THE IRRIGATION FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Kouichi; Sasaki, Katsuhito; Makihata, Toshiaki

    In case a gate installed at the end of discharge conduit is vibrating during discharge, or an air valve is vibrating during water-filling operation into the conduit pipe between main gate and auxiliary gate, and vibration period tv is larger than tc (water hammer propagation time) that is equivalent to the phenomenon of slow closure, there is a possibility that water hammer oscillation in the discharge conduit could be induced. In this paper, by using two case examples, vibration phenomena transmitted to each part are analyzed, on the basis of water pressure fluctuation and pressure wave propagation due to occurrence of water hammer oscillation.

  18. Myogenic activation and calcium sensitivity of cannulated rat mesenteric small arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanBavel, E.; Wesselman, J. P.; Spaan, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure-induced activation of vascular smooth muscle may involve electromechanical as well as nonelectromechanical coupling mechanisms. We compared calcium-tone relations of cannulated rat mesenteric small arteries during pressure-induced activation, depolarization (16 to 46 mmol/L K+), and

  19. Magnetisation oscillations, boundary conditions and the Hofstadter butterfly in graphene flakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Brada, Matej; Kusmartsev, Feodor V. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University (United Kingdom); Mele, Eugene J. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    New quantum oscillations in the magnetization of graphene flakes induced by magnetic fields, which depend on the shape of the flake, are described. At small values of the field they are due to the Aharonov-Bohm effect and with increasing field they are transformed into dHvA oscillations. The specific form of the dHvA oscillations is analyzed in terms of their energy spectrum, which has a form of Hofstadter's butterfly. Numerical results using a lattice tight-binding model and a continuum Dirac equation are presented and compared. Possible experiments to investigate the quantum oscillations in Moire and graphene anti-dot superlattices are discussed. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Generation of a Homozygous Transgenic Rat Strain Stably Expressing a Calcium Sensor Protein for Direct Examination of Calcium Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebényi, Kornélia; Füredi, András; Kolacsek, Orsolya; Pergel, Enikő; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Bender, Balázs; Vajdovich, Péter; Tóvári, József; Homolya, László; Szakács, Gergely; Héja, László; Enyedi, Ágnes; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota; Orbán, Tamás I

    2015-08-03

    In drug discovery, prediction of selectivity and toxicity require the evaluation of cellular calcium homeostasis. The rat is a preferred laboratory animal for pharmacology and toxicology studies, while currently no calcium indicator protein expressing rat model is available. We established a transgenic rat strain stably expressing the GCaMP2 fluorescent calcium sensor by a transposon-based methodology. Zygotes were co-injected with mRNA of transposase and a CAG-GCaMP2 expressing construct, and animals with one transgene copy were pre-selected by measuring fluorescence in blood cells. A homozygous rat strain was generated with high sensor protein expression in the heart, kidney, liver, and blood cells. No pathological alterations were found in these animals, and fluorescence measurements in cardiac tissue slices and primary cultures demonstrated the applicability of this system for studying calcium signaling. We show here that the GCaMP2 expressing rat cardiomyocytes allow the prediction of cardiotoxic drug side-effects, and provide evidence for the role of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and its beneficial pharmacological modulation in cardiac reperfusion. Our data indicate that drug-induced alterations and pathological processes can be followed by using this rat model, suggesting that transgenic rats expressing a calcium-sensitive protein provide a valuable system for pharmacological and toxicological studies.

  1. The thickness of odontoblast-like cell layer after induced by propolis extract and calcium hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Dwiandhono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propolis is a substance made from resin collected by bees (Apis mellifera from variety of plants, mixed with its saliva and various enzymes to build a nest. Propolis has potential antimicrobial and antiinflammatory agents with some advantages over calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2. Ca(OH2 has been considered as the “gold standard” of direct pulp-capping materials, but there are still some weakness of its application. First, it can induce pulp inflammation which last up to 3 months. Second, the tissue response to Ca(OH2 is not always predictable. Third, the tunnel defect can probably formed in dentinal bridge with possible bacterial invasion in that gap. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine and compare the thickness of odontoblast-like cells layer after induced by propolis extract and Ca(OH2 in rat’s pulp tissue. Method: Class 1 preparation was done in maxillary first molar tooth of wistar mice until the pulp opened. The Ca(OH2 and propolis extract was applied to induce the formation of odontoblast-like cells, the cavity was filled with RMGIC. The teeth were extracted (after 14 and 28 days of induction. The samples were then processed for histological evaluation. Result: There were significant differences between the thickness of odontoblast-like cells after induced by propolis extract and Ca(OH2. Conclusion: The propolis extract as the direct pulp capping agent produces thicker odontoblast-like cell layer compared to Ca(OH2.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide homeostasis: activation of plant catalase by calcium/calmodulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental stimuli such as UV, pathogen attack, and gravity can induce rapid changes in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels, leading to a variety of physiological responses in plants. Catalase, which is involved in the degradation of H(2)O(2) into water and oxygen, is the major H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzyme in all aerobic organisms. A close interaction exists between intracellular H(2)O(2) and cytosolic calcium in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Studies indicate that an increase in cytosolic calcium boosts the generation of H(2)O(2). Here we report that calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, binds to and activates some plant catalases in the presence of calcium, but calcium/CaM does not have any effect on bacterial, fungal, bovine, or human catalase. These results document that calcium/CaM can down-regulate H(2)O(2) levels in plants by stimulating the catalytic activity of plant catalase. Furthermore, these results provide evidence indicating that calcium has dual functions in regulating H(2)O(2) homeostasis, which in turn influences redox signaling in response to environmental signals in plants.

  3. Electronically induced nuclear transitions - temperature dependence and Rabi oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niez, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a nucleus electromagnetically coupled with the bound states of its electronic surroundings. It describes the temperature dependence of its dynamics and the onset of potential Rabi oscillations by means of a Master Equation. The latter is generalized in order to account for possible strong resonances. Throughout the paper the approximation schemes are discussed and tested. (authors)

  4. Periodic changes in the oxidation states of the center ion in the cobalt-histidine complex induced by the BrO3- - SO32- pH-oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Poros, Eszter; Csepiova, Julianna; Orbán, Miklós

    2018-05-01

    The coupling of acid-base type pH-dependent equilibria to pH-oscillators expanded significantly the number and type of species which can participate in oscillatory chemical processes. Here, we report a new version of oscillatory phenomena that can appear in coupled oscillators. Oscillations in the oxidation states of the center ion bound in a chelate complex were generated in a combined system, when the participants of the oscillator as dynamical unit and the components of the complex formation interacted with each other through redox reaction. It was demonstrated, when the BrO3- - SO32- pH-oscillator and the Co2+ - histidine complex were mixed in a continuous stirred tank reactor, periodic changes in the pH were accompanied with periodic transitions in the oxidation number of the cobalt ion between +2 and +3. The oscillatory build up and removal of the Co(III)-complex were followed by recording the light absorption at the wavelength characteristic for this species with simultaneous monitoring the pH-oscillations. The dual role of the SO32- ion in the explanation of this observation was pointed out. Its partial and consecutive total oxidations by BrO3- give rise to and maintain sustained pH-oscillations in the combined system and its presence induces the rapid conversion of the Co2+ to a highly inert Co(III)-histidine chelate when the system jumps to and remains in the high pH-state. The oscillatory cycle is completed when the Co(III)-complex is washed out from the reactor and the reagents are replenished by the flow during the time the system spends in the acidic range of pH. The idea, to couple a core oscillator to an equilibrium through a redox reaction that takes place between the constituents of the oscillator and the target species of the linked subsystem, may be generally used to bring about forced oscillations in many other combined chemical systems.

  5. Social Stress Induced Pressure Breathing and Consequent Blood Pressure Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meulen, Jan van der; Schoemaker, Regien

    1986-01-01

    A large amplitude blood pressure oscillation occurs during social defeat in a territorial fight between male rats, and during the application of a psychosocial stimulus associated with this defeat. Synchronous recording of blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure and diaphragm activity shows that the

  6. Parathyroid Hormone Induces Bone Cell Motility and Loss of Mature Osteocyte Phenotype through L-Calcium Channel Dependent and Independent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Prideaux

    Full Text Available Parathyroid Hormone (PTH can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R, which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1 promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA, exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac, protein kinase C (PKC or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (Pi3K agonists nor were they blocked by their antagonists. However, the effects of PTH were mediated through calcium signaling, specifically through L-type channels normally expressed in osteoblasts but decreased in osteocytes. PTH was shown to increase expression of this channel, but decrease the T-type channel that is normally more highly expressed in osteocytes. Inhibition of L-type calcium channel activity attenuated the effects of PTH on cell morphology and motility but did not prevent the downregulation of mature osteocyte marker expression. Taken together, these

  7. The alpha hemolisina of Escherichia Coli induces increases in the calcium citoplasmico of neutrofilos and monocytes human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli alpha hemolysin (AH) and the calcium ionophores ionomycin and 4 Br A23187 caused increases in cell fluorescence, indicative of elevations in cytoplasmic calcium, in fura 2-loaded human polymorphonuclear leukocytes(PMN) and monocytes (MN). The increase in fluorescence caused by AH was dose dependent. Quelation of extracellular calcium with EGTA prevented fluorescence increases in PMN exposed to 2 HU50/ml AH, but did not prevent a small increase in 4 μM, ionomycin-treated PMN, indicating that ionomycin treatment under conditions of calcium quelation can mobilize calcium from internal stores, and that entry of external calcium accounts for most of the increases in cell fluorescence in cells treated with both AH and calcium ionophores. AH, as well as calcium ionophores and the chemotactic peptide FMLP caused rease of myeloperoxidase (MPO) from PMM suggesting that increments in intracellular calcium cause degramulation with release of granule contents (Author) [es

  8. Evolution of the Calcium Paradigm: The Relation between Vitamin D, Serum Calcium and Calcium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borje E. Christopher Nordin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the index disease for calcium deficiency, just as rickets/osteomalacia is the index disease for vitamin D deficiency, but there is considerable overlap between them. The common explanation for this overlap is that hypovitaminosis D causes malabsorption of calcium which then causes secondary hyperparathyroidism and is effectively the same thing as calcium deficiency. This paradigm is incorrect. Hypovitaminosis D causes secondary hyperparathyroidism at serum calcidiol levels lower than 60 nmol/L long before it causes malabsorption of calcium because serum calcitriol (which controls calcium absorption is maintained until serum calcidiol falls below 20 nmol/L. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, probably due to loss of a “calcaemic” action of vitamin D on bone first described in 1957, destroys bone and explains why vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin D thus plays a central role in the maintenance of the serum (ionised calcium, which is more important to the organism than the preservation of the skeleton. Bone is sacrificed when absorbed dietary calcium does not match excretion through the skin, kidneys and bowel which is why calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis in experimental animals and, by implication, in humans.

  9. Rabi oscillations in the dissociative continuum: Rotation and alignment effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granucci, Giovanni; Magnier, Sylvie; Persico, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    We have simulated a set of experiments in which Rabi oscillations are induced in bound-free and free-free transitions of a diatomic molecule. Dissociative vibrational states belonging to different electronic terms are involved. We show analytically and confirm computationally that a simple relationship exists between the one-dimensional dynamics of a molecule with fixed orientation with respect to the polarization of the radiation field and the three-dimensional dynamics of a rotating system. It is demonstrated that sufficiently short laser pulses can induce oscillations in the probabilities of two coupled electronic states, and in the yields of the respective dissociation products, as functions of the radiation intensity. As a result of molecular rotation the oscillations are damped but not washed out. The initial thermal distribution on several rotational levels has a negligible effect on the photodissociation yields and other experimentally relevant quantities. Since the molecule undergoes a strong alignment along the polarization axis of the laser field, the ejection of atoms and ions is anisotropic. We have chosen the well known diatomic ion Na2+ as a convenient example.

  10. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  11. In sync: gamma oscillations and emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Drew B; Paré, Denis

    2013-11-21

    Emotional experiences leave vivid memories that can last a lifetime. The emotional facilitation of memory has been attributed to the engagement of diffusely projecting neuromodulatory systems that enhance the consolidation of synaptic plasticity in regions activated by the experience. This process requires the propagation of signals between brain regions, and for those signals to induce long-lasting synaptic plasticity. Both of these demands are met by gamma oscillations, which reflect synchronous population activity on a fast timescale (35-120 Hz). Regions known to participate in the formation of emotional memories, such as the basolateral amygdala, also promote gamma-band activation throughout cortical and subcortical circuits. Recent studies have demonstrated that gamma oscillations are enhanced during emotional situations, coherent between regions engaged by salient stimuli, and predict subsequent memory for cues associated with aversive stimuli. Furthermore, neutral stimuli that come to predict emotional events develop enhanced gamma oscillations, reflecting altered processing in the brain, which may underpin how past emotional experiences color future learning and memory.

  12. Neural Oscillations and Synchrony in Brain Dysfunction and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: It's About Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathalon, Daniel H; Sohal, Vikaas S

    2015-08-01

    Neural oscillations are rhythmic fluctuations over time in the activity or excitability of single neurons, local neuronal populations or "assemblies," and/or multiple regionally distributed neuronal assemblies. Synchronized oscillations among large numbers of neurons are evident in electrocorticographic, electroencephalographic, magnetoencephalographic, and local field potential recordings and are generally understood to depend on inhibition that paces assemblies of excitatory neurons to produce alternating temporal windows of reduced and increased excitability. Synchronization of neural oscillations is supported by the extensive networks of local and long-range feedforward and feedback bidirectional connections between neurons. Here, we review some of the major methods and measures used to characterize neural oscillations, with a focus on gamma oscillations. Distinctions are drawn between stimulus-independent oscillations recorded during resting states or intervals between task events, stimulus-induced oscillations that are time locked but not phase locked to stimuli, and stimulus-evoked oscillations that are both time and phase locked to stimuli. Synchrony of oscillations between recording sites, and between the amplitudes and phases of oscillations of different frequencies (cross-frequency coupling), is described and illustrated. Molecular mechanisms underlying gamma oscillations are also reviewed. Ultimately, understanding the temporal organization of neuronal network activity, including interactions between neural oscillations, is critical for elucidating brain dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein upregulation in dorsal spinal cord mediates spinal cord injury-induced neuropathic pain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroujerdi, Amin; Zeng, Jun; Sharp, Kelli; Kim, Donghyun; Steward, Oswald; Luo, Z David

    2011-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly results in the development of neuropathic pain, which can dramatically impair the quality of life for SCI patients. SCI-induced neuropathic pain can be manifested as both tactile allodynia (a painful sensation to a non-noxious stimulus) and hyperalgesia (an enhanced sensation to a painful stimulus). The mechanisms underlying these pain states are poorly understood. Clinical studies have shown that gabapentin, a drug that binds to the voltage-gated calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Ca(v)α2δ-1) proteins is effective in the management of SCI-induced neuropathic pain. Accordingly, we hypothesized that tactile allodynia post SCI is mediated by an upregulation of Ca(v)α2δ-1 in dorsal spinal cord. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether SCI-induced dysregulation of spinal Ca(v)α2δ-1 plays a contributory role in below-level allodynia development in a rat spinal T9 contusion injury model. We found that Ca(v)α2δ-1 expression levels were significantly increased in L4-6 dorsal, but not ventral, spinal cord of SCI rats that correlated with tactile allodynia development in the hind paw plantar surface. Furthermore, both intrathecal gabapentin treatment and blocking SCI-induced Ca(v)α2δ-1 protein upregulation by intrathecal Ca(v)α2δ-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides could reverse tactile allodynia in SCI rats. These findings support that SCI-induced Ca(v)α2δ-1 upregulation in spinal dorsal horn is a key component in mediating below-level neuropathic pain states, and selectively targeting this pathway may provide effective pain relief for SCI patients. Spinal cord contusion injury caused increased calcium channel Ca(v)α2δ-1 subunit expression in dorsal spinal cord that contributes to neuropathic pain states. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis

  15. Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis.

  16. Supernova Neutrino-Process and Implication in Neutrino Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Fujiya, W.; Mathews, G. J.; Yoshida, T.; Shaku, K.; Nakamura, K.; Hayakawa, T.

    2012-08-01

    We studied the supernova nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and found that several isotopes of rare elements like 7Li, 11B, 138La, 180Ta and many others are predominantly produced by the neutrino-process in core-collapse supernovae. These isotopes are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect. We here propose a new novel method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, θ13 and mass hierarchy simultaneously from the supernova neutrino-process, combined with the r-process for heavy-element synthsis and the Galactic chemical evolution on light nuclei.

  17. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2015-02-27

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  18. Different NaCl-Induced Calcium Signatures in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ecotypes Col-0 and C24

    KAUST Repository

    Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Garcia, Alexandre F.; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark A.; Webb, Alex A. R.; Roy, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    A common feature of stress signalling pathways are alterations in the concentration of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt), which allow the specific and rapid transmission of stress signals through a plant after exposure to a stress, such as salinity. Here, we used an aequorin based bioluminescence assay to compare the NaCl-induced changes in [Ca2+]cyt of the Arabidopsis ecotypes Col-0 and C24. We show that C24 lacks the NaCl specific component of the [Ca2+]cyt signature compared to Col-0. This phenotypic variation could be exploited as a screening methodology for the identification of yet unknown components in the early stages of the salt signalling pathway.

  19. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-07-28

    Traditionally, the necessary and sufficient condition for any system to be oscillating is that its poles are located on the imaginary (jω) axis. In this paper, for the first time, we have shown that systems can oscillate with time-domain oscillating poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating resistance and triangular shape of FFT are also demonstrated with mathematical reasoning and simulation results to support the unusual and surprising characteristics. © 2009 IEEE.

  20. The influence of collective neutrino oscillations on a supernova r process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huaiyu; Friedland, Alexander; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Surman, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that neutrinos in a supernova oscillate collectively. This process occurs much deeper than the conventional matter-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect and hence may have an impact on nucleosynthesis. In this paper we explore the effects of collective neutrino oscillations on the r-process, using representative late-time neutrino spectra and outflow models. We find that accurate modeling of the collective oscillations is essential for this analysis. As an illustration, the often-used 'single-angle' approximation makes grossly inaccurate predictions for the yields in our setup. With the proper multiangle treatment, the effect of the oscillations is found to be less dramatic, but still significant. Since the oscillation patterns are sensitive to the details of the emitted fluxes and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, so are the r-process yields. The magnitude of the effect also depends sensitively on the astrophysical conditions—in particular on the interplay between the time when nuclei begin to exist in significant numbers and the time when the collective oscillation begins. A more definitive understanding of the astrophysical conditions, and accurate modeling of the collective oscillations for those conditions, is necessary.

  1. Radioisotope 45Ca labeling four calcium chemical compounds and tracing calcium bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhen Rong; Niu Huisheng; Li Huaifen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To build up a new method of the radioisotope 45 Ca labeling four calcium chemical compounds, observe and tracing bioavailability change of calcium labeled with radioisotope 45 Ca. Methods: The calcium gluconate (Ca-Glu), calcium citrate (Ca-Cit), calcium carbonate (Ca-Car) and calcium L-threonate (Ca-Thr)were labeled by radioisotope 45 Ca. Four calcium chemical compounds of 45 Ca labeling were used of calcium content 200 mg/kg in the rats and measure the absorption content and bioavailability of calcium in tissue of heart, lever spleen, stomach, kidney, brain, intestine, whole blood, urine, faeces. Results: 1) Radioisotope 45 Ca labeling calcium chemical compound has high radio intensity, more steady standard curve and recover rate. 2) The absorption of organic calcium chemical compounds is higher than the inorganic calcium chemical compound in the study of calcium bioavailability. Conclusion: The method of tracing with radioisotope 45 Ca labeling calcium chemical compounds has the characteristic of the sensitive, objective, accurate and steady in the study of calcium bioavailability

  2. The impact of calcium assay change on a local adjusted calcium equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah L; Hill, Charlotte; Bailey, Lisa M; Davison, Andrew S; Milan, Anna M

    2016-03-01

    Deriving and validating local adjusted calcium equations is important for ensuring appropriate calcium status classification. We investigated the impact on our local adjusted calcium equation of a change in calcium method by the manufacturer from cresolphthalein complexone to NM-BAPTA. Calcium and albumin results from general practice requests were extracted from the Laboratory Information Management system for a three-month period. Results for which there was evidence of disturbance in calcium homeostasis were excluded leaving 13,482 sets of results for analysis. The adjusted calcium equation was derived following least squares regression analysis of total calcium on albumin and normalized to the mean calcium concentration of the data-set. The revised equation (NM-BAPTA calcium method) was compared with the previous equation (cresolphthalein complexone calcium method). The switch in calcium assay resulted in a small change in the adjusted calcium equation but was not considered to be clinically significant. The calcium reference interval differed from that proposed by Pathology Harmony in the UK. Local adjusted calcium equations should be re-assessed following changes in the calcium method. A locally derived reference interval may differ from the consensus harmonized reference interval. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Low calcium culture condition induces mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in normal human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Murakami, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Okano, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Normal human epidermal keratinocytes serially cultured under low calcium concentration were cytokeratin and vimentin double positive cells. → The human keratinocytes expressed some epithelial stem/progenitor cell makers, mesenchymal cell markers, and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. → Mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in the keratinocytes was suppressed under high-calcium condition. -- Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cellular phenomenon in organ developments, cancer invasions, and wound healing, and many types of transformed cell lines are used for investigating for molecular mechanisms of EMT. However, there are few reports for EMT in normal human epithelial cells, which are non-transformed or non-immortalized cells, in vitro. Therefore, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) serially cultured in low-calcium concentration medium (LCM) were used for investigating relations between differentiation and proliferation and mesenchymal-like phenotype in the present study, since long-term cultivation of NHEK is achieved in LCM. Interestingly, NHEK serially cultured in LCM consisted essentially of cytokeratin-vimentin double positive cells (98%), although the NHEK exhibited differentiation under high-calcium culture condition with 3T3 feeder layer. The vimentin expression was suppressed under high-calcium condition. These results may indicate the importance of mesenchymal-like phenotype for serially cultivation of NHEK in vitro.

  4. The negative-differential-resistance (NDR) mechanism of a hydroelastic microfluidic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, H M; Wu, J W; Wang, Z P

    2017-01-01

    A microfluidic oscillator is of interest because it converts a stable laminar flow to oscillatory flow, especially in view of the fact that turbulence is typically absent in miniaturized fluidic devices. One important design approach is to utilize hydroelastic effect-induced autonomous oscillations to modify the flow, so to reduce the reliance on external controllers. However, as complex fluid-structure interactions are involved, the prediction of its mechanism is rather challenging. Here, we present a simple equivalent circuit model and investigate the negative-differential-resistance (NDR) mechanism of a hydroelastic microfluidic oscillator. We show that a variety of complex flow behaviors including the onset of oscillation, formation of different oscillation patterns, collapse of the channel, etc can be well explained by this model. It provides a generic approach for construction of microfluidic NDR oscillators, following which a new design is also proposed. Relevant findings give more insights into the hydroelastic instability problems in microfluidics, and enrich the study of microfluidic flow control devices based on the electric circuit theory. (paper)

  5. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  6. Development of novel titanium nitride-based decorative coatings by calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodroj, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR 7198, Departement CP2S, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, CS 14234, 54042 Nancy cedex (France); Pierson, J.F., E-mail: jean-francois.pierson@ijl.nancy-universite.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR 7198, Departement CP2S, Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, CS 14234, 54042 Nancy cedex (France)

    2011-08-01

    Calcium was added into titanium nitride coatings deposited using a hybrid magnetron sputtering-arc evaporation process. The calcium content in the films was adjusted by the variation of the pulsed DC current applied to the Ca sputtering target. X-ray diffraction analyses suggested that the increase of the calcium content induced the partial substitution of titanium atoms by calcium ones in the TiN lattice and a refinement of the grain size. Optical reflectance investigations showed that the absorption band of TiN was shifted towards higher wavelengths and that (Ti,Ca)N coatings may be suitable for decorative applications. Finally, the decrease of the film reflectivity was interpreted as a consequence of a free electron concentration decrease as confirmed from electrical resistivity measurements.

  7. Development of novel titanium nitride-based decorative coatings by calcium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodroj, A.; Pierson, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium was added into titanium nitride coatings deposited using a hybrid magnetron sputtering-arc evaporation process. The calcium content in the films was adjusted by the variation of the pulsed DC current applied to the Ca sputtering target. X-ray diffraction analyses suggested that the increase of the calcium content induced the partial substitution of titanium atoms by calcium ones in the TiN lattice and a refinement of the grain size. Optical reflectance investigations showed that the absorption band of TiN was shifted towards higher wavelengths and that (Ti,Ca)N coatings may be suitable for decorative applications. Finally, the decrease of the film reflectivity was interpreted as a consequence of a free electron concentration decrease as confirmed from electrical resistivity measurements.

  8. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  9. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating

  10. Properties of calcium silicate-monobasic calcium phosphate materials for endodontics containing tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamparini, Fausto; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo; Taddei, Paola; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna

    2018-05-08

    The aim of the study was to evaluate chemical-physical properties and apatite-forming ability of three premixed calcium silicate materials containing monobasic calcium phosphate (CaH 4 P 2 O 8 ) bioceramic, tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide, recently marketed for endodontics (TotalFill BC-Sealer, BC-RRM-Paste, BC-RRM-Putty). Microchemical and micromorphological analyses, radiopacity, initial and final setting times, calcium release and alkalising activity were tested. The nucleation of calcium phosphates (CaPs) and/or apatite after 28 days ageing was evaluated by ESEM-EDX and micro-Raman spectroscopy. BC-Sealer and BC-RRM-Paste showed similar initial (23 h), prolonged final (52 h) setting times and good radiopacity (> 7 mm Al); BC-RRM-Putty showed fast initial (2 h) and final setting times (27 h) and excellent radiopacity (> 9 mm Al). All materials induced a marked alkalisation (pH 11-12) up to 28 days and showed the release of calcium ions throughout the entire test period (cumulative calcium release 641-806 ppm). After 28 days ageing, a well-distributed mineral layer was present on all samples surface; EDX demonstrated relevant calcium and phosphorous peaks. B-type carbonated apatite and calcite deposits were identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy on all the 28-day-aged samples; the deposit thickness was higher on BC-RRM-Paste and BC-RRM-Putty, in agreement with calcium release data. These materials met the required chemical and physical standards and released biologically relevant ions. The CaSi-CaH 4 P 2 O 8 system present in the materials provided Ca and OH ions release with marked abilities to nucleate a layer of B-type carbonated apatite favoured/accelerated by the bioceramic presence. The ability to nucleate apatite may lead many clinical advantages: In orthograde endodontics, it may improve the sealing ability by the deposition of CaPs at the material-root dentine interface, and in endodontic surgery, it could promote bone and

  11. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  12. Critical heat flux of forced convection boiling in an oscilating acceleration field. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuji, T.; Kurosawa, A.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of periodically varying acceleration on critical heat flux (CHF) of Freon-113 flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical annular channel has been studied experimentally. The freon loop was oscillated vertically to determine the ratio of CHF in the oscillating acceleration field to the corresponding stationary value. The amplitude of inlet flow oscillation induced by variation of acceleration, which causes early CHF, is proportional to the acceleration amplitude. The dependence of inlet flow rate on the oscillating acceleration decreases with increasing inlet subcooling, and no oscillation of inlet flow is observed in the case of negative exit quality (subcooled boiling). Nevertheless the degradation of CHF is more remarkable in the low quality region. This result suggests the necessity to introduce an other mechanism of early CHF than flow oscillation. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic field mediated conductance oscillation in graphene p–n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-Guang

    2018-04-01

    The electronic transport of graphene p–n junctions under perpendicular magnetic field is investigated in theory. Under low magnetic field, the transport is determined by the resonant tunneling of Landau levels and conductance versus magnetic field shows a Shubnikov–de Haas oscillation. At higher magnetic field, the p–n junction subjected to the quasi-classical regime and the formation of snake states results in periodical backscattering and transmission as magnetic field varies. The conductance oscillation pattern is mediated both by magnetic field and the carrier concentration on bipolar regions. For medium magnetic field between above two regimes, the combined contributions of resonant tunneling, snake states oscillation and Aharanov–Bohm interference induce irregular oscillation of conductance. At very high magnetic field, the system is subjected to quantum Hall regime. Under disorder, the quantum tunneling at low magnetic field is slightly affected and the oscillation of snake states at higher magnetic field is suppressed. In the quantum Hall regime, the conductance is a constant as predicted by the mixture rule.

  14. Rumen-protected rice bran to induce the adaptation of calcium metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín-Tereso López, J.

    2010-01-01

    Dairy cows suffer from hypocalcaemia in the days around calving, which may result in a condition generally known as milk fever. Calcium metabolism sharply shifts at the start of lactation, because Ca needs suddenly become much greater than at the end of gestation. Calcium metabolism is able to adapt

  15. Quantifying the dynamics of coupled networks of switches and oscillators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Francis

    Full Text Available Complex network dynamics have been analyzed with models of systems of coupled switches or systems of coupled oscillators. However, many complex systems are composed of components with diverse dynamics whose interactions drive the system's evolution. We, therefore, introduce a new modeling framework that describes the dynamics of networks composed of both oscillators and switches. Both oscillator synchronization and switch stability are preserved in these heterogeneous, coupled networks. Furthermore, this model recapitulates the qualitative dynamics for the yeast cell cycle consistent with the hypothesized dynamics resulting from decomposition of the regulatory network into dynamic motifs. Introducing feedback into the cell-cycle network induces qualitative dynamics analogous to limitless replicative potential that is a hallmark of cancer. As a result, the proposed model of switch and oscillator coupling provides the ability to incorporate mechanisms that underlie the synchronized stimulus response ubiquitous in biochemical systems.

  16. Calcium Nutrition and Extracellular Calcium Sensing: Relevance for the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis, Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlik, Meinrad; Kállay, Enikoe; Cross, Heide S.

    2013-01-01

    Through a systematic search in Pubmed for literature, on links between calcium malnutrition and risk of chronic diseases, we found the highest degree of evidence for osteoporosis, colorectal and breast cancer, as well as for hypertension, as the only major cardiovascular risk factor. Low calcium