WorldWideScience

Sample records for indsats pae brintomraedet

  1. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  2. Palliativ indsats og sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Halskov

    2016-01-01

    Dette kapitel handler om palliativ sygepleje, dvs. sygepleje til mennesker, der lider af livstruende og uhelbredelig sygdom, samt støtte til deres pårørende og efterladte. Først defineres palliativ indsats, efterfulgt af en beskrivelse af, hvordan den palliative indsats er organiseret i Danmark...

  3. Alkoholmisbrug og social indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breumlund, Anne; Hansen, Inger Bruun

    Bogen giver viden og redskaber til socialarbejdere, lærere og pædagoger i forhold til social indsats overfor mennesker med alkoholproblemer.......Bogen giver viden og redskaber til socialarbejdere, lærere og pædagoger i forhold til social indsats overfor mennesker med alkoholproblemer....

  4. Palliativ indsats og sygepleje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Halskov

    2013-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om palliativ sygepleje, dvs. sygepleje til mennesker, der lider af livstruende og uhelbredelig sygdom, samt støtte til deres pårørende og efterladte. Først defineres palliativ sygepleje, med en beskrivelse af, hvordan den palliative indsats er organiseret i Danmark. Derefter følger...

  5. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Jørgensen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet......Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet...

  6. Pae aeg Meistrite hoovis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Metallikunstnike Liidu näitus "Pae aeg". Näituse kujundaja ja algataja Urve Küttner. Osaleb 34 kunstnikku. Näha saab Helle Perensi paetahvlite kollektsiooni ja geoloogide leitud kivistisi. Avamisel anti Ede Kurreli nim. Metallikunstnike Liidu aastapreemia Urve Küttnerile

  7. 24 CFR 401.201 - How does HUD select PAEs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.201 How does HUD select PAEs? (a) Selection of PAE. HUD will select qualified PAEs in accordance... responsibility for projects in the jurisdiction. If the agencies are unable to agree, HUD will choose a PAE...

  8. En forstærket indsats over for kriminalitetstruede børn og unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Carøe Christiansen, Connie

    Regeringens voldspakke fra 1997 resulterede bl.a. i nye institutionsformer og behandslingstilbud og en forstærket opsøgende indsats i arbejdet med børn og unge, der allerede har begået kriminalitet, eller er socialt belastede og derfor er kriminalitetestruede. Socialforskningsinstituttet evaluere...

  9. Brud og bevægelser i den danske miljøindsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Holm, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    sektorer og politikker kan ses som en modernisering af samfundet. Netop en forestilling om økologisk modernisering er vundet frem siden 1980'erne i den miljøfaglige debat blandt akademikere, planlæggere og praktikere. Grundtanken er at en miljøindsats ikke bare er til gavn for miljøet men også for industri...

  10. 24 CFR 401.200 - Who may be a PAE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may be a PAE? 401.200 Section...-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.200 Who may be a PAE? A PAE must qualify under the definition in section 512(10) of MAHRA. It must...

  11. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.407 Closing conducted by PAE. After the owner has executed the Restructuring Commitment, the PAE must arrange for a closing to execute all documents necessary...

  12. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a) Review and certification of owner evaluation. (1) The PAE must independently evaluate the physical...

  13. 24 CFR 401.304 - PRA provisions on PAE compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PRA provisions on PAE compensation... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.304 PRA provisions on PAE compensation. (a) Base fee. (1) The PRA will provide for...

  14. Pommihirm Pae tänaval kestab / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2005-01-01

    Lasnamäe elanikud ei ole kindlad, kas Pae tänava pommiplahvatustega seoses vahistati õige inimene. Kaitsepolitseiameti komissari Henno Kuurmanni sõnul annavad kogutud tõendid piisava aluse kahtlustada vahistatud meest seotuses mitme Pae tänaval toimunud plahvatusega

  15. Pae uus pommimees tahtis end õhku lasta / Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagge, Rasmus, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 20. apr. lk. 2. Tallinnas Pae tänav 64 majast leiti isevalmistatud lõhkeseadeldis. Kaitsepolitsei andmetel ei ole alust seostada kinnipeetud Aleksandrit varasemate Pae tänava piirkonna plahvatustega. Vt. samas: Ringmaale lisandub kahtlustusi

  16. Indsats for forældre til børn med ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Et nyt review, udarbejdet af forskergruppen omkring Morris Zwi, undersøger om interventionsprogrammer til forældre til børn med ADHD er effektive, når det gælder reducering af børnenes ADHD-relaterede adfærd og associerede problemer som eksempelvis indlæringsproblemer. Reviewet peger på, at en...... indsats til forældre til børn med ADHD kan have en gavnlig effekt på børnenes adfærd. Interventionen kan også være med til at sænke stressniveauet hos forældre til disse børn, og forbedre forældrenes selvtillid....

  17. Variations in phthalate ester (PAE) accumulation and their formation mechanism in Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.) cultivars grown on PAE-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Chen, Yi-Liang; Lu, Lei-An; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2015-11-01

    Phthalate ester (PAE) accumulation in crops poses great risks to human health and has aroused great concern. Here, we investigated variations in di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) accumulation by various Chinese flowering cabbage cultivars and revealed their variation mechanism. There were significant differences (p PAE concentrations of 28 cultivars. Moreover, significant positive correlations between DBP and DEHP concentrations in shoots of all cultivars indicated that they could be taken up simultaneously by various cultivars. Due to the lower translocation factor of low-PAE accumulator, its shoot PAEs concentrations were much lower than root compared to high-PAE accumulator. Further, subcellular distribution showed that PAE concentrations of root cell walls and organelles were much higher than those of shoots in low-PAE accumulator. Therefore, lower translocation from root to shoot and more PAEs accumulating in cell walls and organelles of root might act as main formation mechanism of low-PAE accumulator.

  18. Merko Ehitus ostavit tshast karjera Pae netronutoi / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Pae karjääri arendaja Merko Ehitus peab pargi osaliselt võssa jätma, et kindlustada alal pesitsevate linnuliikide allesjäämine. Detailplaneeringu eskiisi koostab arhitektuuribüroo Ruum ja Maastik

  19. PAPER STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT AND RECYCLABILITY WITH POLYAMIDEAMINE-EPICHLOROHYDRIN (PAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielong Su,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tensile strength behavior and recyclability of the paper prepared with the addition of polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE were investigated. The dry and wet tensile strengths obtained with different PAE dosage were measured. The highest wet-to-dry strength ratio of 35% was obtained at 10 mg/g; above this addition level wet strength dropped slightly and then remained constant. The repulpability of strengthened paper was correlated directly with wet strength. The effect of electrolyte on tensile strength was also quantified by varying sodium chloride and calcium chloride concentration in the furnish stock. Without PAE, high salt concentrations (100 mM reduced the tensile strength by 15-20%. At constant PAE addition level of 10 mg/g, low levels of salt addition (of either 10 mM NaCl or 10 mM CaCl2 slightly improved the strength; paper strength decreased at high salts concentrations. The cation valency and concentration in the process water were important variables which affected the efficiency of PAE. These results present the significance of developing sustainable wet strength agents that can be applied in demanding salty conditions while maintaining the product recyclability.

  20. [Anaerobic biodegradation of phthalic acid esters (Paes) in municipal sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Wen; Lin, Qing-Qi; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Cai, Xin-De; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a class of organic pollutants with potent endocrine-disrupting properties, are widely present in municipal sludge. Study of PAEs biodegradation under different anaerobic biological treatment processes of sludge is, therefore, essential for a safe use of sludge in agricultural practice. In this study, we selected two major sludge PAEs, i.e. di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-enthylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), to investigate their biodegradation behaviors in an anaerobic sludge digestion system and a fermentative hydrogen production system. The possible factors influencing PAEs biodegradation in relation to changes of sludge properties were also discussed. The results showed that the biodegradation of DBP reached 99.6% within 6 days, while that of DEHP was 46.1% during a 14-day incubation period in the anaerobic digestion system. By comparison, only 19.5% of DBP was degraded within 14 days in the fermentative hydrogen production system, while no degradation was detected for DEHP. The strong inhibition of the degradation of both PAEs in the fermentative hydrogen production system was ascribed to the decreases in microbial biomass and ratios of gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria and fungi/ bacteria, and the increase of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (e. g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) during the fermentative hydrogen-producing process.

  1. Deskstudie naar de mogelijkheden voor het aanwijzen van fosfaatarme gronden op basis van P-PAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Bussink, D.W.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.; Erp, P.J.; Riemsdijk, van, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Het Bedrijfslaboratorium voor Grond- en Gewasonderzoek hanteert sinds twee jaar het onderzoekspakket Plant Available Elements (PAE). In dit pakket is fosfaat opgenomen (P-PAE). P-PAE is niet opgenomen in het protocol voor het aanwijzen van landbouwpercelen die in aanmerking komen voor een verhoogde fosfaatgebruiksnorm. Een deskstudie naar het opnemen van P-PAE als derde methode voor het aanwijzen van fosfaatarme gronden is uitgevoerd.

  2. 24 CFR 401.313 - Consequences of PAE violations; finality of HUD determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consequences of PAE violations... HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.313 Consequences of PAE violations; finality of...

  3. Deskstudie naar de mogelijkheden voor het aanwijzen van fosfaatarme gronden op basis van P-PAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Bussink, D.W.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Erp, P.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Het Bedrijfslaboratorium voor Grond- en Gewasonderzoek hanteert sinds twee jaar het onderzoekspakket Plant Available Elements (PAE). In dit pakket is fosfaat opgenomen (P-PAE). P-PAE is niet opgenomen in het protocol voor het aanwijzen van landbouwpercelen die in aanmerking komen voor een verhoogde

  4. Pae pommiduo liige elas aastaid kaksikelu / Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagge, Rasmus, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Kaitsepolitsei kahtlustab, et Tallinna Pae tänava pommiplahvatuste väidetav organiseerija Märt Ringmaa ja tema kaasosaline Hendrik Lori tegutsesid ka kelmidena, kes esinesid valenime all ja võltsisid tööraamatuid, et saada kõrgemat pensioni. Lisa: Arvatavad pommimehed

  5. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu rezhiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist ning Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  6. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu rezhiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist ning Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  7. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  8. José Paulo Paes e a anatomia do poema

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Alberto Lopes de

    2006-01-01

    Dissertação(mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Letras, Instituto de Letras e Artes, 2006. Esta Dissertação de Mestrado em História da Literatura, intitulada José Paulo Paes e a anatomia do poema, aborda os processos de formação da dicção poética peculiar de José Paulo Paes, centrando a análise em poemas contidos em um recorte temporal específico que compreende três livros: Anatomias (1967), Meia palavra: cívicas, eróticas e metafísicas (19...

  9. [Behavior ethogram and PAE coding system of Cervus nippon sichuanicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wen-Hua; Yue, Bi-Song; Ning, Ji-Zu; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Quan, Qiu-Mei; Guo, Yan-Shu; Mi, Jun; Zuo, Lin; Xiong, Yuan-Qing

    2010-02-01

    A monthly 5-day periodic observation at 06:00-18:00 from March to November 2007 was conducted to record the behavioral processes, contents, and results, and the surrounding habitats of Sichuan sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) in Donglie, Chonger, and Reer villages of Tiebu Natural Reserve of Sichuan Province. The behavioral ethogram, vigilance behaviors ethogram and its PAE (posture, act, and environment) coding system of the Sichuan sika deer were established, which filled the gap of the PAE coding of ungulates vigilance behaviors. A total of 11 kinds of postures, 83 acts, and 136 behaviors were recorded and distinguished, with the relative frequency of each behavior in relation to gender, age, and season described. Compared with other ungulates, the behavioral repertoire of Sichuan sika deer was mostly similar to that of other cervid animals.

  10. Inimesed linnas = People in the city / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2006-01-01

    Eesti näitus "Joint Space" Veneetsia 10. arhitektuuribiennaalil. AB Urban Mark: Ülar Mark, Indrek Tiigi, Kaja Pae, Yoko Alender, Raul Kalvo, Tartu Ülikooli Geograafiainstituut: Rein Ahas, Anto Aasa, Siiri Silm, Positium ICT: Margus Tiru, Erki Saluveer. Näitusel oli eksponeeritud kolm mobiilpositsioneerimisega läbi viidud case study (EKA liikmete liikumisuuring, Eestit külastanud turistide uuring, Tallinna regiooni pendelrändajate uuring). Bibliograafia lk. 33

  11. Inimesed linnas = People in the city / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2006-01-01

    Eesti näitus "Joint Space" Veneetsia 10. arhitektuuribiennaalil. AB Urban Mark: Ülar Mark, Indrek Tiigi, Kaja Pae, Yoko Alender, Raul Kalvo, Tartu Ülikooli Geograafiainstituut: Rein Ahas, Anto Aasa, Siiri Silm, Positium ICT: Margus Tiru, Erki Saluveer. Näitusel oli eksponeeritud kolm mobiilpositsioneerimisega läbi viidud case study (EKA liikmete liikumisuuring, Eestit külastanud turistide uuring, Tallinna regiooni pendelrändajate uuring). Bibliograafia lk. 33

  12. Can prostatic arterial embolisation (PAE) reduce the volume of the peripheral zone? MRI evaluation of zonal anatomy and infarction after PAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yen-Ting [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Department of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung City (China); Amouyal, Gregory; Pereira, Helena; Del Giudice, Costantino; Dean, Carole [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Correas, Jean-Michel [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Hopital Necker, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Pellerin, Olivier; Sapoval, Marc [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris. Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Vascular and Oncological Interventional Radiology, Paris (France); Inserm (Institut national de la sante et de la recherche medicale) U970, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Thiounn, Nicolas [Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Urology, Paris (France)

    2016-10-15

    To assess the impact of prostatic arterial embolisation (PAE) on various prostate gland anatomical zones. We retrospectively reviewed paired MRI scans obtained before and after PAE for 25 patients and evaluated changes in volumes of the median lobe (ML), central gland (CG), peripheral zone (PZ) and whole prostate gland (WPV) following PAE. We used manual segmentation to calculate volume on axial view T2-weighted images for ML, CG and WPV. We calculated PZ volume by subtracting CG volume from WPV. Enhanced phase on dynamic contrasted-enhanced MRI was used to evaluate the infarction areas after PAE. Clinical results of International Prostate Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function questionnaires and the urodynamic study were evaluated before and after PAE. Significant reductions in volume were observed after PAE for ML (26.2 % decrease), CG (18.8 %), PZ (16.4 %) and WPV (19.1 %; p < 0.001 for all these volumes). Patients with clinical failure had smaller volume reductions for WPV, ML and CG (all p < 0.05). Patients with significant CG infarction after PAE displayed larger WPV, ML and CG volume reductions (all p < 0.01). PAE can significantly decrease WPV, ML, CG and PZ volumes, and poor clinical outcomes are associated with smaller volume reductions. (orig.)

  13. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu režiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist, Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  14. Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae : inimlik headus ei sõltu režiimist / Pille Pae ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Pille

    2006-01-01

    Desintegraatori juhi Johannes Hindi tütar Pille Pae vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema isa armuandmispalve esitamist, isale toetusallkirjade kogumist, Arnold Rüütli suhteid Johannes Hindiga. Lisa: Kes oli Johannes Hint ja mis Desintegraator?

  15. Beyond Barriers: Involving Hispanic Families in the Education Process. Padres a la escuela (PAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Magdalena C.

    The Padres a la escuela (PAE) or Parents in the School program in San Antonio (Texas) encouraged the participation of Hispanic parents in the education of their children. The successes of the PAE program are used in this guidebook to help parents, program staff, and policy makers in similar efforts. This handbook describes the history,…

  16. Pae pommimehe ebaõnn päästis elanikud / Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagge, Rasmus, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 1. veebr. lk. 3. Kaitsepolitsei andmetel ebaõnnestus Tallinna Pae tänava plahvatusteseeria organiseerimises kahtlustataval Märt Ringmaal plahvatuse korraldamine 2003. aasta 19. novembril, kuna Pae 23 ühiselamu elanikud avastasid trepikotta jäetud võimsa pommi. Lisa: Milles Ringmaad kahtlustatakse?

  17. Merko sai Pae karjääri hoonestusõiguse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tallinna linn seab Lasnamäel asuva Pae karjääri alale hoonestusõiguse Merko Ehituse tütarfirma OÜ Constancia kasuks. Hoonestaja kohustused ja õigused. Pae karjääri ala peaks saama korrastatud 2011. aastaks. Kommenteerib Eha Võrk

  18. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  19. Tesauro P.A.E.: características documentales y sistemas de gestión

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Martínez, Ángeles; Alonso-Echave, Jesús; González-García, Angeles; Marino-Canosa, Margarita; Rubio-Liniers, Isabel; Serrano-Blanes, Juan Ignacio; Solanes-Razola, Pilar

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the PAE Thesaurus, created for the recovery of information in electronic yellow pages (PAE), automated business directory with products and services provided by Spanish companies, accessible through videotex.

  20. Study on the preparation and application of carboxyl modified PAE resin%羧基改性 PAE 树脂的制备及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 严维博; 王志杰; 玉丽芳; 宋建伟

    2013-01-01

    This paper researched on the modified method of PAE resin with carboxyl modifi-er ,discussed the dosage of modifier ,characterized modified PAE resin and studied the appli-cation of the modified PAE resin .The results showed that carboxyl modifier can undertake modification of PAE resin ,and also improve the effect of the dry strength of PAE resin .Ex-perimental results show that add carboxyl modifier into the PAE resin product is the best process .Modified PAE resin has high dry strength performance and low strong wet strength performance .The better dosage of carboxyl modifier is 9% .When modified PAE resin dosage was 0 .5% ,compared with traditional PAE resin can improve the paper dry tensile index a-bout 11% ,and reduce about 8% wet tensile index ,folding resistance degree increases by a-bout 17% , tearing index increases by about 27% , the bond strength increases by about 47% .The results of this research had a strong reference value on the modified PAE resin study ,exploitation and application .%探讨了羧基改性剂对PAE树脂的改性方式、改性剂用量,并对改性PAE树脂进行表征,研究了改性PAE树脂的应用效果.结果表明羧基改性剂可以对PAE树脂进行改性,且改性后提高了PAE树脂的增干强效果.实验结果显示:羧基改性剂对PAE树脂的末端改性优于过程改性;末端改性时,羧基改性剂的较佳引入量为9%;当末端改性后的PAE树脂用量为0.5%时,与改性前相比,能够使纸张干抗张指数提高约11%,湿抗张指数降低约8%,耐折度提高约17%,撕裂指数提高约27%,内结合强度提高约47%.另外,在PAE树脂成品中引入羧基改性剂改性,有利于PAE树脂成本的降低,也有利于损纸的回收.

  1. Biomarkers for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov; Bager, Heidi; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful...... method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing...... literature. Studies were selected to give an overview on clinically relevant neonatal and maternal biomarkers. The direct biomarkers fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate, and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) were found to be the most appropriate biomarkers in relation...

  2. 改性PAE-St纸张湿强剂的合成与应用%Synthesis and Application of the Modified PAE-St Wet Strength Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军海; 陈均志

    2008-01-01

    研究了接入疏水侧链聚酰胺(PAE)与环氧氯丙烷反应合成的改性PAE与苯乙烯乳液聚合制得一种纸张增强剂改性PAE-St,探讨了各步反应的物料配比、反应时间、反应温度等影响因素,确定了改性PAE-St的最佳合成条件:改性PAE与St的摩尔比为1:2,反应温度为60℃,反应时间为6h,引发剂用量为所有单体总质量的0.3%.比较了改性PAE-St和传统PAE对纸张的增强效果,结果表明,与传统PAE增强剂相比,改性PAE-St增强纸张的干湿强度都有所提高.

  3. Kaitsepolitsei tabas Pae tänava pommipanemistes kahtlustatava / Garel Püüa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Püüa, Garel

    2005-01-01

    Kaitsepolitsei peadirektori Aldis Aluse ja riigiprokurör Margus Kurmi pressikonverentsist seoses isiku tabamisega, keda kaitsepolitsei kahtlustab plahvatuste korraldamises Tallinnas Pae tänavas. Lisa: Kaitsepolitsei edukas töö pommipanijate avastamisel

  4. Pae pommimaniakina tabati kõrgharitud pensionär / Toomas Sildam, Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 14. nov. lk. 2. Kaitsepolitsei töötajad vahistasid 11. novembril Harjumaal 67-aastase eesti rahvusest mehe, keda kahtlustatakse Pae tänava piirkonnas toimunud pommiplahvatuste organiseerimises. Kaart: Pae ja Punase tänava pomminurk. Lisad: Kes on salapärane pommimees?; 10 aastat hirmu. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud Kaitsepolitseiameti politseidirektori Jaanis Muruga: KAPO uurijad töötasid läbi tuhandeid nimesid

  5. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 1, Pathological Background and Clinical Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei, E-mail: feisun@ccmijesususon.com; Crisóstomo, Verónica, E-mail: crisosto@ccmijesususon.com; Báez-Díaz, Claudia, E-mail: cbaez@ccmijesususon.com; Sánchez, Francisco M., E-mail: msanchez@ccmijesususon.com [Jesús Usón Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Pathological features of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) dictate various responses to prostatic artery embolization (PAE). Typically, BPH originates in the transition zone and periurethral region, where should be considered the primary target area in PAE procedures. Given that histological heterogeneity of components in hyperplasia nodules, epithelial or stromal, identifying the more responsive nodules to PAE will have clinical implications. Since some lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with BPH are usually related to bladder outlet obstruction-induced changes in bladder function rather than to outflow obstruction directly, proper selection of candidate patients prior to PAE is of great clinical importance. BPH is a typical chronic progressive condition, suggesting PAE could aim not only to relieve LUTS but also to delay or prevent the clinical progression. Awareness of the pathological background of BPH is essential for interventional radiologists to improve clinical outcomes and develop new treatment strategies in clinical practice of PAE.

  6. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 1, Pathological Background and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Crisóstomo, Verónica; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Sánchez, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    Pathological features of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) dictate various responses to prostatic artery embolization (PAE). Typically, BPH originates in the transition zone and periurethral region, where should be considered the primary target area in PAE procedures. Given that histological heterogeneity of components in hyperplasia nodules, epithelial or stromal, identifying the more responsive nodules to PAE will have clinical implications. Since some lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with BPH are usually related to bladder outlet obstruction-induced changes in bladder function rather than to outflow obstruction directly, proper selection of candidate patients prior to PAE is of great clinical importance. BPH is a typical chronic progressive condition, suggesting PAE could aim not only to relieve LUTS but also to delay or prevent the clinical progression. Awareness of the pathological background of BPH is essential for interventional radiologists to improve clinical outcomes and develop new treatment strategies in clinical practice of PAE.

  7. PET's indsats under lup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peer Henrik

    2006-01-01

    En undersøgelseskommission nedsat i 1999. Fem medlemmer skal undersøge PET's efterretningsvirksomhed i forhold til politiske partier, faglige konflikter og politisk ideologiske bevægelser i Danmark under den kolde krig. Kommissionens rapport forventes færdig næste år. Udgivelsesdato: 2. juli 2006...

  8. Adoption som indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Hammen, Ida; Raft Andersen, Karen

    Denne rapport er en systematisk forskningsoversigt over udenlandske erfaringer med adoption i forhold til anbringelse uden for hjemmet, fx familiepleje, institutionsanbringelse og hjemgivelse til de biologiske forældre. Konklusionerne i rapporten er overraskende entydige: Adopterede børn klarer sig...

  9. Livreddende praehospital indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramberg, Emilie; Skak, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Loumann

    2009-01-01

    of convulsions/unconsciousness and trauma where only 0.6% and 6% of the treatments were lifesaving, respectively. After 30 days, 60.4% of the patients who received lifesaving treatment were alive. We found considerable differences among the individual diagnoses regarding both the 30-day survival...

  10. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided.

  11. An Octave Bandwidth, High PAE, Linear, Class J GaN High Power Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    versus the modeled small-signal gain and return loss response of the Class J amplifier using a 45-W CREE GaN HEMT . The amplifier has a gain of 13 to...AFFTC-PA-12055 An Octave Bandwidth, High PAE, Linear, Class J GaN High Power Amplifier Kris Skowronski, Steve Nelson, Rajesh Mongia, Howard...Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11/11 – 03/12 (etc.) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Octave Bandwidth, High PAE, Linear, Class J GaN High

  12. Parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE and studies of Mexican biogeography PAE y el estudio de la biogeografía de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Townsend Peterson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE has become a popular analytical approach in efforts to map the biogeography of Mexican biotas. Although attractive, the technique has serious drawbacks that make correct inferences of biogeographic history unlikely, which has been noted amply in the broader literature.El PAE se ha convertido en un método popular en los esfuerzos por resumir, en forma de mapas, la biogeografía de la biota de México. A pesar de su atractivo, la técnica tiene problemas serios que impiden que las conclusiones resultantes sean las correctas. Estos problemas se han hecho ampliamente evidentes en la literatura sobre este campo.

  13. Genome Sequence of a Typical Ultramicrobacterium, Curvibacter sp. Strain PAE-UM, Capable of Phthalate Ester Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dan; Hao, Zhenyu; Sun, Rui; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-14

    Curvibacter sp. strain PAE-UM, isolated from river sediment, is a typical ultramicrobacterium capable of phthalate ester degradation. The genome of Curvibacter sp. PAE-UM consists of 3,284,473 bp, and its information will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying its degradation ability.

  14. Genome Sequence of a Typical Ultramicrobacterium, Curvibacter sp. Strain PAE-UM, Capable of Phthalate Ester Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Dan; Hao, Zhenyu; Sun, Rui; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Curvibacter sp. strain PAE-UM, isolated from river sediment, is a typical ultramicrobacterium capable of phthalate ester degradation. The genome of Curvibacter sp. PAE-UM consists of 3,284,473 bp, and its information will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying its degradation ability.

  15. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 2, Insights into the Technical Rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Crisóstomo, Verónica; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Sánchez, Francisco M

    2016-02-01

    Rationale of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is conventionally believed to include two parts: shrinkage of the enlarged prostate gland as a result of PAE-induced ischemic infarction and potential effects to relax the increased prostatic smooth muscle tone by reducing the number and density of α1-adrenergic receptor in the prostate stroma. This review describes new insights into the likely mechanisms behind PAE, such as ischemia-induced apoptosis, apoptosis enhanced by blockage of androgens circulation to the embolized prostate, secondary denervation following PAE, and potential effect of nitric oxide pathway immediately after embolization. Studies on therapeutic mechanisms in PAE may shed light on potentially new treatment strategies and development of novel techniques.

  16. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 2, Insights into the Technical Rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei, E-mail: feisun@ccmijesususon.com; Crisóstomo, Verónica, E-mail: crisosto@ccmijesususon.com; Báez-Díaz, Claudia, E-mail: cbaez@ccmijesususon.com; Sánchez, Francisco M., E-mail: msanchez@ccmijesususon.com [Jesús Usón Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Rationale of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is conventionally believed to include two parts: shrinkage of the enlarged prostate gland as a result of PAE-induced ischemic infarction and potential effects to relax the increased prostatic smooth muscle tone by reducing the number and density of α{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor in the prostate stroma. This review describes new insights into the likely mechanisms behind PAE, such as ischemia-induced apoptosis, apoptosis enhanced by blockage of androgens circulation to the embolized prostate, secondary denervation following PAE, and potential effect of nitric oxide pathway immediately after embolization. Studies on therapeutic mechanisms in PAE may shed light on potentially new treatment strategies and development of novel techniques.

  17. Tallinna Suur-Pae lasteaia lastel on head keeleõpetajad / Tiina Vapper

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vapper, Tiina, 1955-

    2014-01-01

    SA Innove keelekümbluskeskuse korraldatud konkursi tulemusel avati neljas vene õppekeelega lasteaias eesti keele kui teise keele piirkondlik metoodikakeskus. Need on Kohtla-Järve Kirju-Mirju lasteaed ja Narva Päikese lasteaed Ida-Virumaal, Tartu Kellukese lasteaed Lõuna-Eestis ning Tallinna Suur-Pae lasteaed Harjumaal

  18. Pae pommid : kahtlasi kotte ja ämbreid ei tohi puutuda / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Pae tänava pommid on olnud asetatud igapäevastesse esemetesse, plahvatus on hävitanud enamiku kuriteo asetõendeid. Kaitsepolitsei pressijuhi Henno Kuurmani sõnul on osal plahvatustel sarnaseid jooni. Lisa: Politsei ootab kõiki vihjeid

  19. Pae tänava pommipanija sõber sai vabaks / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Hendrik Lori, keda kahtlustati Märt Ringmaa aitamises Pae tänava pommiplahvatuste korraldamisel, lasti pärast 11 kuu pikkust vahi all hoidmist vabaks. Tema suhtes on algatatud kriminaalasi, mis puudutab dokumentide võltsimist suurema pensioni saamiseks

  20. Pommihirm pole Pae tänavalt veel kadunud / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Politsei kutsuti Pae tänavale uurima, kas kahtlases seljakotis võib olla pomm. Plahvatusejärgsetel päevadel kasvab väljakutsete arv hüppeliselt. Lisad: Pommihäired Tallinnas; Kapo kontrollis üle 10 000 isiku

  1. Merko peab Pae pargi lindude kaitseks osaliselt võssa jätma / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Lasnamäel asuvast Pae karjäärist saab puhkeala. Osa kinnistust peab jääma seal pesitsevate laululindude säilitamiseks võsasse. Ala detailplaneering valmib arhitektuuribüroos Ruum ja Maastik

  2. Linn annab kohtuvaidluse toonud Pae karjääri Merko kujundada / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 10. okt. 2007, lk. 9. Tallinna linnavalitsus kavatseb kohtuvaidluse kaasa toonud Pae karjääri konkursi võitjaks kuulutada Merko Ehituse tütarfirma Constancia, kes kujundab sinna puhkepiirkonna ning rajab kortermaju

  3. Current status and historical variations of phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in the sediments from a large Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lei; Wang, Qing-Mei; He, Qi-Shuang; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2016-06-01

    The residual levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface and two core sediments from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The temporal-spatial distributions, compositions of PAEs, and their effecting factors were investigated. The results indicated that di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were three dominant PAE components in both the surface and core sediments. The residual level of total detected PAEs (∑PAEs) in the surface sediments (2.146 ± 2.255 μg/g dw) was lower than that in the western core sediments (10.615 ± 9.733 μg/g) and in the eastern core sediments (5.109 ± 4.741 μg/g). The average content of ∑PAEs in the surface sediments from the inflow rivers (4.128 ± 1.738 μg/g dw) was an order of magnitude higher than those from the lake (0.323 ± 0.093 μg/g dw), and there were similar PAE compositions between the lake and inflow rivers. This finding means that there were important effects of PAE input from the inflow rivers on the compositions and distributions of PAEs in the surface sediments. An increasing trend was found for the residual levels of ΣPAEs, DnBP, and DIBP from the bottom to the surface in both the western and eastern core sediments. Increasing PAE usage with the population growth, urbanization, and industrial and agricultural development in Lake Chaohu watershed would result in the increasing production of PAEs and their resulting presence in the sediments. The significant positive relationships were also found between the PAE contents and the percentage of sand particles, as well as TOC contents in the sediment cores.

  4. Gas/solid particulate phthalic esters (PAEs) in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wen-xin, E-mail: wenxin973@foxmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fan, Chinbay Q. [Gas Technology Institute, 1700 S. Mt. Prospect Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60018 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The pine needle/rhizosphere soil distribution of PAEs was related to P{sub L} and K{sub P}. • The P{sub L} and K{sub P} determined the PAE deposition to surface soils and to needles. • High regression parameters of log Rs/n − log P{sub L} and log K{sub P} − log P{sub L} were achieved. • Log Rs/n carried the information of K{sub P} and lineally correlated with log P{sub L}. - Abstract: Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are used in many branches of industry and are produced in huge amounts throughout the world. An investigation on particulate- and gas-phase distribution of PAEs has been conducted between January 2011 and December 2012 in Nanjing (China). Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils were sampled from urban to suburban/remote sites, to investigate the pine needle/soil distribution of PAEs. The results showed that the average total PAE concentration (gas + particle) was 97.0 ng m{sup −3}. The six PAE congeners considered predominantly existed in the gas phase and the average contribution of gas phase to total PAEs ranged from 75.0% to 89.1%. The PAE concentrations in rhizosphere soils and pine needles were positively correlated with their particulate- and gas-phase concentrations, respectively, which suggested that surface soils accumulated PAEs mainly through gravity deposition of particles and pine needle stomata absorbed PAEs mainly from the gas phase. The gas/particle partitioning (K{sub P}) and soil-pine needle ratio (Rs/n) were determined. Experimentally determined K{sub P} values correlated well with the subcooled liquid vapor pressures (P{sub L}). A set of interesting relationships of log Rs/n − log K{sub P} − log P{sub L} was employed to explain the experimental findings of PAEs deposition to surface soils and to needles. This data set offered a unique perspective into the influence that Rs/n played in K{sub P} and correlated with P{sub L}.

  5. Matemaatika mänguline õppimine hoiab rutiini eemal : Kohtla-Järve Slaavi Põhikool, Tallinna Pae Gümnaasium

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Vestlusest Kohtla-Järve Slaavi Põhikooli matemaatikaõpetaja ja keelekümblusvaldkonna õppealajuhataja Jelena Bezvoditskaja ja Tallinna Pae Gümnaasiumi matemaatikaõpetaja ning algklasside keelekümblusprogrammi juhi Roza Skatškovaga

  6. Matemaatika mänguline õppimine hoiab rutiini eemal : Kohtla-Järve Slaavi Põhikool, Tallinna Pae Gümnaasium

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Vestlusest Kohtla-Järve Slaavi Põhikooli matemaatikaõpetaja ja keelekümblusvaldkonna õppealajuhataja Jelena Bezvoditskaja ja Tallinna Pae Gümnaasiumi matemaatikaõpetaja ning algklasside keelekümblusprogrammi juhi Roza Skatškovaga

  7. Dissipative Particle Dynamics Study on Aggregation of MPEG- PAE-PLA Block Polymer Micelles Loading Doxorubicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨楚芬; 孙尧; 章莉娟; 朱国典; 张灿阳; 钱宇

    2012-01-01

    To guide the molecular design of the pH-sensitive triblock amphiphilic polymer MPEG-PAE-PLA and the for- mula design of its doxorubicine (DOX)-loaded micelles, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations are em- ployed to investigate the aggregation behaviors of the DOX-loaded micelles. The simulation results showed that the aggregate morphologies of micelles and DOX distribution are influenced by degree of polymerization of blocks, and the proposed structure of polymer is MPEG44-PAE3-PLA4. With different contents of polymer or DOX, differ- ent aggregate morphologies of the micelles, like microsphere, spindle/column, reticulation or lamella are observed. To prepare the micro-spherical DOX-loaded micelles, the polymer content is proposed as 10%--15%, and the DOX content less than 10%.

  8. A C-band GaN based linear power amplifier with 55.7% PAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weijun; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Guoguo; Zheng, Yingkui; Liu, Xinyu

    2010-04-01

    A C-band linear power amplifier is successfully developed with a one-chip 2 mm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Two kinds of matching circuits for the linear power amplifier are compared. Besides, stabilization methods for the amplifier are also discussed. At 5.4 GHz, the developed GaN HEMTs linear power amplifier delivers a 37.2 dBm (5.2 W) cw P1 dB output power with 9 dB linear gain and 55.7% maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) with a drain voltage of 25 V. To our best knowledge, the achieved PAE is the state-of-the-art result ever reported for 2 mm gate width single die GaN-based hybrid microwave integrated power amplifier at C-band.

  9. O LEITOR-DETETIVE E O LEITOR-INVENTOR NO JOGO POÉTICO DE JOSÉ PAULO PAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma análise dos elementos: ritmo, linguagem,forma e imagem na poesia inafantil de José Paulo Paes: . Com base nestes quatro elementos pretende-se demonstrar como o leitor, seja ele criança ou adulto, cada um ao seu modo, pode entrar no jogo poético de José Paulo Paes e entender como se brinca com as palavras.

  10. Spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface water of a large, shallow Chinese lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiangzhen; Liu, Wenxiu; He, Qishuang; Ouyang, Huiling; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yujiao; Wang, Qingmei; Yang, Bin; Xu, Fuliu, E-mail: xufl@urban.pku.edu.cn

    2013-09-01

    The spatio-temporal distributions and the ecological and health risks of PAEs in surface water of Lake Chaohu, the fifth largest lake in China, were studied based on the monthly monitoring of six PAE congeners from May 2010 to April 2011. The annual total concentration of the six PAE congeners (Σ{sub 6}PAE) in the surface water ranged from 0.467 to 17.953 μg L{sup −1}, with the average value of 4.042 ± 3.929 μg L{sup −1}. The di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) that dominated the Σ{sub 6}PAE at 65.8% was found at its highest and lowest levels in the western lake (TX) and eastern drinking water source area (JC), respectively. The temporal distributions of Σ{sub 6}PAE showed that the highest and lowest levels were observed in September 2010 and June 2010, respectively. The different relationships between the runoff and the PAEs with low and high levels of carbon might suggest their different sources. The DnBP had much greater ecological risks than the other studied PAE congeners as indicated by its potential affected fractions (PAFs) and the margin of safety (MOS10). The PAE congeners studied posed little health risk to the nearby male and female citizens. - Highlights: • Monthly variation in PAEs was first investigated in a large Chinese shallow lake. • Ecological and health risks with uncertainty were determined. • PAEs with low and high level of carbon would be from different sources. • DnBP predominated within PAE congeners and posed a much greater ecological risks. • The studied PAE congeners posed little health risks to the nearby citizens.

  11. 苯丙乳液在添加PAE/CMC增强剂的浆料中的施胶性能%Internal Sizing of the Stock Containing PAE/CMC Dual-polymer Strengthening System with Styrene-acrylic Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万彬; 王高升; 许骥

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the efficiency of styrene-acrylic emulsion as internal size was discussed when both cationic polyelectrolyte polyamid-eamine epichlorohydrine (PAE) and anionic poly-electrolyte carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC) were added as strength additives in the paper-making process. The added amount of styrene-acrylic emulsion had a remarkable effect on internal sizing and paper strength. When the dosages of PAE and CMC were constant, and breaking length increased while tear index decreased. Raised amount of PAE could improve sizing degree, but CMC had an adverse effect on sizing degree. Therefore, when PAE/CMC dual-polymer strengthening system and styrene-acrylic emulsion are added simultaneously into stock, electric charge ratio of PAE and CMC is the key factor influencing the internal sizing efficiency of styrene-acrylic emulsion. Sizing degree rapidly increases with the increase of charge ratio of PAE to CMC in the range of 1. 5 to 4.0, then begin to level off. The sizing degree is 90% of the control sample when the charge ratio of PAE to CMC is 8. 0.%针对扬声器纸盆、纸浆餐盒等抗水性要求高的模塑产品,研究了在阳离子聚酰胺-环氧氯丙烷树脂(PAE)和羧甲基纤维素(CMC)组成的PAE/CMC二元增强体系中苯丙乳液浆内施胶效果.结果表明,在PAE/CMC二元增强体系中,PAE与CMC的电荷比影响苯丙乳液施胶效果,当PAE与CMC的电荷比在1.5 ~4.0之间,随着PAE和CMC的电荷比的增加,纸张施胶度快速增加,继续增加PAE与CMC的电荷比,纸张施腔度变化趋缓,当PAE与CMC的电荷比为8.0时,继续增加PAE与CMC的电荷比,纸张的施胶度基本不变.

  12. PVA改性PAE树脂的制备及应用%Preparation and application on hydroxyl modiifed PAE resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严维博; 王建; 王志杰; 玉丽芳; 张丹

    2014-01-01

    探讨了羟基改性剂对PAE树脂的改性方式、改性剂用量,并对改性PAE树脂的增强性能进行分析。研究表明,羟基改性剂可以对PAE树脂进行改性,改性后不仅降低了PAE树脂的生产成本,还提高了PAE树脂的增干强效果。结果显示羟基改性剂对PAE树脂的末端改性优于过程改性;此时改性剂的较佳用量为15%;改性后的PAE树脂具有高的增干强性能及低的增湿强性能;当改性后的PAE树脂用量为0.5%时,与改性前相比,能够进一步提高纸张干抗张指数约7%,而降低湿抗张指数约23%,耐折度提高约13%,撕裂指数提高约25%,内结合强度提高约42%。%This paper researched on the modiifed method of PAE resin with hydroxy modiifer, discussed the dosage of modiifer, characterized modiifed PAE resin and studied the application of the modiifed PAE resin. The results showed that hydroxyl modiifer can undertake modiifcation of PAE resin, which can not only reduces the production cost of PAE resin, also improve the effect of the dry strength of PAE resin. Experimental results show that add hydroxy modiifer into the PAE resin product is the best process. Modified PAE resin has high dry strength performance and low strong wet strength performance. The better dosage of hydroxy modiifer is 15%. When modiifed PAE resin dosage was 0.5%, compared with traditional PAE resin can improve the paper dry tensile index about 7%, and reduce about 23% wet tensile index, folding resistance degree increases by about 13%, tearing index increases by about 25%, the bond strength increases by about 42%.

  13. High PAE high reliability AlN/GaN double heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjdoub, F.; Zegaoui, M.; Linge, A.; Grimbert, B.; Silvestri, R.; Meneghini, M.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2015-11-01

    We report on AlN/GaN double heterostructures for high frequency applications. 600 h preliminary reliability assessment has been performed on these emerging RF devices, showing promising millimeter-wave 100 nm gate length GaN-on-Si device stability for the first time. A 150 nm AlN/GaN double heterostructure has been developed and evaluated on SiC substrate. State-of-the-art CW power-added-efficiencies (PAE) up to 40 GHz have been achieved on ultrathin barrier (6 nm) GaN devices while operating at a drain bias exceeding 30 V.

  14. The Synthesis of Modified PAE-St Emulsion and the Influence to Performance of Paper%改性PAE-St乳液的合成及对纸张性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军海; 陈均志

    2008-01-01

    合成改性PAE后,与苯乙烯进行乳液聚合得到一种纸张增强剂.用乳液的粒子形态、稳定性、红外谱图等对改性PAE-St进行表征.最后与传统PAE增强剂作比较分别进行抄纸实验,考察对纸张性能的影响.结果表明,改性PAE-St较传统PAE增强剂对纸张性能的提高帮助更大.

  15. 环境中邻苯二甲酸酯类(PAEs)污染物研究进展%Research progress on phthalate esters (PAEs) organic pollutants in the environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆; 杨红军; 史衍玺; 舒龙

    2012-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)是一种环境激素类化合物,在生物体内有极强的富集作用,对环境安全和人体健康的威胁极大,目前已引起了人们的广泛关注.本文从PAEs有机污染物在环境中的分布特征、分析与检测方法、生物富集与迁移以及生物与非生物降解等方面综述了国内外最新研究进展,认为环境中的PAEs大部分来源于人工合成途径,可被土壤、沉积物及一些悬浮泥沙中的有机物质所吸附.PAEs进入土壤或大气环境后,通过作物吸收作用会在作物体内有一定残留,环境中的PAEs可通过生物与非生物两种方式进行降解,生物降解被认为是PAEs降解的主要形式.文章指出了已有研究中存在的不足之处并对未来的研究进行展望,认为今后应着重从PAEs的环境行为、PAEs健康风险评价、PAEs污染的治理与削减技术以及PAEs替代产品开发等方面开展相关研究.%Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used as plasticizers, serving as important additives to increase flexibility of polymers and to make them ideal for use as plasticizers. A variety of possible chemical structures of PAEs induces a wide range of physicochemical properties and enhances environmental partitioning behavior for this class of compounds. As organic pollutants, PAEs can intensely accumulate in biotic organisms and poses immense security problems to the environment and human life. PAEs have therefore gained tremendous attention due to the threat they pose. This paper presented a comprehensive and critical review on research progress regarding PAEs in the environment, distribution in the environment, analysis and detection methods, migration and transformation behaviors, bioaccumulations, and abiotic and biotic degradations. A more consistent trend was that PAEs in the environment were mainly from synthetic sources. PAEs were appreciably absorbable by organic matter in soils and sediments, aerosol particles or some

  16. Järjekordne Pae tänava pomm tappis juhusliku möödakäija / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Pommiplahvatusest Pae 17A lähedal asuval tühermaal. Lisa: Möödunud aastal võeti inimestelt ära 30 kilo ebaseaduslikku lõhkeainet. Andres Anvelt ja Olari Valtin vastavad küsimusele, miks pole pommipanijaid suudetud avastada. Kaart

  17. Helhedsorienteret indsats for anderledes unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Rapporten har gennem 3 år fulgt en række projekter inden for rammen DHI. Det drejer sig om implementering af STU på 4 uddannelsesinstitutioner, EGU i fire kommuner plus særligt udvalgte projekter blandt Netværket DHIs medlemsorganisationer.......Rapporten har gennem 3 år fulgt en række projekter inden for rammen DHI. Det drejer sig om implementering af STU på 4 uddannelsesinstitutioner, EGU i fire kommuner plus særligt udvalgte projekter blandt Netværket DHIs medlemsorganisationer....

  18. ROPE Registry Project to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE) for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Caused by Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE); Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE); Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP); Open Prostatectomy; Laser Enucleation or Ablation of the Prostate

  19. Spatial and temporal variation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 and the influence of ambient temperature in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Liu, Lingling; Chen, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Jiajun; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2013-08-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are produced in large amounts throughout the world and are excessively used in various industries, which have posed a serious threat to human health and the environment. An investigation of six major PAEs congeners in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 was synchronously conducted at seven sites belonging to different functional zones in spring, summer and winter in Tianjin, China in 2010. Results showed that the average concentrations of DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DOP in PM10 were 0.88, 0.73, 12.90, 0.15, 98.29 and 0.83 ng m-3, respectively, and in PM2.5, they were 0.54, 0.30, 8.72, 0.08, 75.68 and 0.33 ng m-3, respectively. DEHP and DBP were the predominant species. The industrial site exhibited highest PAEs values as 135.9 ± 202.8 ng m-3. In winter, the detected percentages for DOP were low. The other five PAEs concentrations were higher in winter than those in spring and summer, which may be related to the influence of emission sources, meteorological parameters and the chemical-physical characteristic of themselves. Except for DOP, other PAEs were negatively correlated with ambient temperature and the relationships were the best fitted as exponential forms. Significant positive correlations were found for PAEs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating common sources. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios (0.53-0.70) for the six PAEs concentrations suggested that they were preferentially concentrated in finer particles. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products, plasticizers and sewage and industrial wastewater may be important sources for PAEs in atmospheric particulate matter in Tianjin.

  20. Self-assembled pH-responsive MPEG-b-(PLA-co-PAE) block copolymer micelles for anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can Yang; Yang, You Qiang; Huang, Tu Xiong; Zhao, Bin; Guo, Xin Dong; Wang, Ju Fang; Zhang, Li Juan

    2012-09-01

    A series of amphiphilic pH-responsive poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether-b-(poly lactic acid-co-poly (β-amino esters)) (MPEG-b-(PLA-co-PAE)) block copolymers with different PLA/PAE ratios were designed and synthesized via a Michael-type step polymerization. The molecular structures of the copolymers were confirmed with (1)H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). These amphiphilic copolymers were shown to self-assemble into core/shell micelles in aqueous solution at low concentrations, and their critical micelle concentrations (CMC) in water were 1.2-9.5 mg/L. The pH-responsive PAE segment was insoluble at pH 7.4, but it became positively charged and soluble via protonation of amino groups at pH lower than 6.5. The average particle size and zeta potential of micelles increased from 180 nm and 15 mV to 220 nm and 40 mV, respectively, when the pH decreased from 7.4 to 5.0. Doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into the core of these micelles with a high drug loading of 18%. The in vitro DOX release from the micelles was significantly accelerated when solution pH decreased from 7.4 to 5.0. DOX release in the first 10 h appeared to follow Fickian diffusion mechanism. Toxicity test showed that the copolymers had low toxicity whereas the DOX-loaded micelles remained high cytotoxicity for HepG2 cells. The results indicate the pH-sensitive MPEG-b-(PLA-co-PAE) micelle may be a potential hydrophobic drug delivery carrier for cancer targeting therapy with sustained release.

  1. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p3.00mgkg(-1) but were greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion.

  2. A Ku band internally matched high power GaN HEMT amplifier with over 30% of PAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ge; Xiaojuan, Chen; Weijun, Luo; Tingting, Yuan; Yan, Pu; Xinyu, Liu

    2012-01-01

    We report a high power Ku band internally matched power amplifier (IMPA) with high power added efficiency (PAE) using 0.3 μm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on 6H-SiC substrate. The internal matching circuit is designed to achieve high power output for the developed devices with a gate width of 4 mm. To improve the bandwidth of the amplifier, a T type pre-matching network is used at the input and output circuits, respectively. After optimization by a three-dimensional electromagnetic (3D-EM) simulator, the amplifier demonstrates a maximum output power of 42.5 dBm (17.8 W), PAE of 30% to 36.4% and linear gain of 7 to 9.3 dB over 13.8-14.3 GHz under a 10% duty cycle pulse condition when operated at Vds = 30 V and Vgs = -4 V. At such a power level and PAE, the amplifier exhibits a power density of 4.45 W/mm.

  3. A Ku band internally matched high power GaN HEMT amplifier with over 30%of PAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Qin; Chen Xiaoiuan; Luo Weijun; Yuan Tingting; Pu Yan; Liu Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    We report a high power Ku band internally matched power amplifier (IMPA) with high power added efficiency (PAE) using 0.3 μm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on 6H-SiC substrate.The internal matching circuit is designed to achieve high power output for the developed devices with a gate width of 4 mm.To improve the bandwidth of the amplifier,a T type pre-matching network is used at the input and output circuits,respectively.After optimization by a three-dimensional electromagnetic (3D-EM) simulator,the amplifier demonstrates a maximum output power of 42.5 dBm (17.8 W),PAE of 30% to 36.4% and linear gain of 7 to 9.3 dB over 13.8-14.3 GHz under a 10% duty cycle pulse condition when operated at Vds =30 V and Vgs =-4 V.At such a power level and PAE,the amplifier exhibits a power density of 4.45 W/mm.

  4. 高效液相色谱-质谱联用技术测定土壤中PAEs%Determination of PAEs in Soil by HPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀娟; 吴静娜; 王运儒; 杜国冬; 农耀京

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to determine 22-PAEs in soil samples and establish detection and evaluation method.[Method] By using HPLC-MS/MS method, 22-PAEs were determined with multi reaction monitoring scanning mode.[Result] Detection of samples at the level of 0.50 to 2.00 mg/kg, 22 kinds of PAEs compounds in the detection of mass concentration range:0.10-3.00 mg/L with a good linear rela-tionship, the correlation coefficient r >0.990 0, the linear equation was obtained; recovery rate was 80.20%-139.50%, detection limit was 0.000 1-0.050 0 mg/kg.[Conclusion] HPLC-MS/MS detection method for PAEs compounds is established, which is suitable for resi-due analysis of PAEs compounds in soil.%[目的]测定土壤样品中22种PAEs,建立检测与评价方法。[方法]应用高效液相色谱-质谱联用(HPLC-MS/MS)法,以多反应监测扫描方式测定22种塑化剂(PAEs)。[结果]被检测样品在添加水平为0.50~2.00 mg/kg时,22种PAEs类化合物检测质量浓度范围为0.10~3.00 mg/L,具有良好的线性关系,相关系数r>0.9900,拟合出线性方程;回收率为80.20%~139.50%,检出限值为0.0001~0.0500 mg/kg。[结论]建立了PAEs类化合物的HPLC-MS/MS检测方法,该方法适合应用于土壤中PAEs类化合物的残留分析。

  5. Isolation and characteristics of Arthrobacter sp. strain CW-1 for biodegradation of PAEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Isolation of new bacterial strains and recognition of their metabolic activities are highly desirable for sustainability of natural ecosystems. Biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) under anoxic conditions has been shown to occur as a series of sequential steps using strain CW-1 isolated from digested sludge of Sibao Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hangzhou, China. The microbial colony on LB medium was yellowish, 3~5 mm in diameter, convex in the center, and embedded in mucous externally.The individual cells of strain CW-1 are irregular rods, measuring (0.6~0.7)×(0.9~1.0) μm, V-shaped, with clubbed ends, Gram positive and without any filaments. 16S rDNA (1438 bp) sequence analysis showed that the strain was related to Arthrobacter sp.CW-1 and can degrade PAEs utilizing nitrate as electron acceptor, but cannot mineralize DMP completely. The degradation pathway was recommended as: dimethyl phthalate (DMP)→monomethyl phthalate (MMP)→phthalic acid (PA). DMP biodegradation was a first order reaction with degradation rate constant of 0.3033 d-1 and half-life 2.25 d. The DMP conversion to PA by CW-1 could be described by using sequential kinetic model.

  6. Effects of Chung-Pae Inhalation Therapy on a Mouse Model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joon-Ho; Lee, Beom-Joon; Jung, Hee Jae; Kim, Kwan-Il; Choi, Jun-Yong; Joo, Myungsoo; Jung, Sung-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Chung-pae (CP) inhalation therapy is a method frequently used in Korea to treat lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the effects of CP inhalation on a COPD animal model. C57BL/6 mice received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alternately three times for 3 weeks to induce COPD. Then, CP (5 or 20 mg/kg) was administered every 2 h after the final LPS administration. The effect of CP was evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, histological analysis of lung tissue, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, and tumor growth factor- (TGF-) β. Intratracheal CP administration reduced the number of leukocytes and neutrophils in BAL fluid, inhibited the histological appearance of lung damage, and decreased the mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β. Intratracheal CP administration effectively decreased the chronic inflammation and pathological changes in a PPE- and LPS-induced COPD mouse model. Therefore, we suggest that CP is a promising strategy for COPD.

  7. 丙烯酸改性PAE树脂性能的研究%A study on the properties of acrylic modified PAE resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      用丙烯酸对PAE树脂进行改性,以期替代传统PAE树脂作为纸张的增强剂。探讨了在PAE树脂中引入丙烯酸的改性工艺及其应用,同时对改性PAE树脂的增强性能进行了研究。研究结果表明:在PAE树脂成品中引入9%的丙烯酸为最佳改性工艺,在此工艺条件下制备的改性PAE树脂对纸张的增强效果最佳;当改性PA E树脂用量为0.6%时,与使用1.0%传统PAE树脂的增强作用效果基本相当;另外在PAE树脂成品中引入丙烯酸,有利于PAE树脂成本的降低。研究成果对改性PAE树脂的研究、开发及应用具有较强的参考价值。%PAE resin was modified with acrylic resin, instead of traditional PAE resin as paper strengthening agent. The improvement process and its application for the combination of acrylic with PAE resin were discussed, as well as the performance of the modified PAE resin as paper strengthening agent. The results show that adding amount of 9%acrylic into the PAE resin can reach to the best strengthening effect; when dosage of modified PAE resin is 0.6%, the strengthening effect is equal to the traditional PAE resin at the dosage of 1.0%; in addition, adding acrylic into PAE resin can reduce the cost of the PAE resin. The results will provide as a reference on the research, development and application of modified PAE resin.

  8. pH-sensitive drug loading/releasing in amphiphilic copolymer PAE-PEG: integrating molecular dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhonglin; Jiang, Jianwen

    2012-08-20

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations are integrated to investigate the loading/releasing of anti-cancer drug camptothecin (CPT) in pH-sensitive amphiphilic copolymer, composed of hydrophobic poly(β-amino ester) (PAE) and hydrophilic methyl ether-capped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). MD simulation is used to estimate the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters and miscibility of binary components. On this basis, DPD simulation is applied to examine the micellization of PAE-PEG, CPT loading in PAE-PEG, and CPT releasing in PAEH-PEG. With increasing concentration, PAE-PEG forms spherical then disk-like micelles and finally vesicles, as a competitive counterbalance of free energies for the formation of shell, interface and core. CPT loading in PAE-PEG micelles/vesicles is governed by adsorption-growth-micellization mechanism, and CPT is loaded into both hydrophobic core and interface of hydrophobic core/hydrophilic shell. The predicted loading efficiency is close to experimental value. Similar to literature reports, the loading of high concentration of CPT is observed to cause morphology transition from micelles to vesicles. Upon protonation, CPT is released from micelles/vesicles by swelling-demicellization-releasing mechanism. This multi-scale simulation study provides microscopic insight into the mechanisms of drug loading and releasing, and might be useful for the design of new materials for high-efficacy drug delivery.

  9. PAE改性物在造纸中的应用%Application of Modified PAE in Paper Manufacture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱青; 赵传山; 逄锦江

    2010-01-01

    该文介绍了聚酰胺多胺环氧氯丙烷(PAE)改性物在造纸中的应用,包括丙烯酰胺对PAE的改性、聚脲改性、乙醇胺和环氧树脂WEP对PAE的改性、苯乙烯的改性以及聚丙烯酸丁醋/甲基丙烯酸甲醋核壳共混乳液对PAE的改性,还有壳聚糖对PAE的改性.

  10. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) Versus Original and PErFecTED Prostate Artery Embolization (PAE) Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Preliminary Results of a Single Center, Prospective, Urodynamic-Controlled Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Iscaife, Alexandre, E-mail: iscaifeboni@yahoo.com.br; Yoshinaga, Eduardo M., E-mail: dumuracca@ig.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil); Moreira, Airton Mota, E-mail: motamoreira@gmail.com [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br; Srougi, Miguel, E-mail: srougi@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo compare clinical and urodynamic results of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to original and PErFecTED prostate artery embolization (PAE) methods for benign prostatic hyperplasia.MethodsWe prospectively randomized 30 patients to receive TURP or original PAE (oPAE) and compared them to a cohort of patients treated by PErFecTED PAE, with a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Patients were assessed for urodynamic parameters, prostate volume, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), and quality of life (QoL).ResultsAll groups were comparable for all pre-treatment parameters except bladder contractility and peak urine flow rate (Q{sub max}), both of which were significantly better in the TURP group, and IIEF score, which was significantly higher among PErFecTED PAE patients than TURP patients. All groups experienced significant improvement in IPSS, QoL, prostate volume, and Q{sub max}. TURP and PErFecTED PAE both resulted in significantly lower IPSS than oPAE but were not significantly different from one another. TURP resulted in significantly higher Q{sub max} and significantly smaller prostate volume than either original or PErFecTED PAE but required spinal anesthesia and hospitalization. Two patients in the oPAE group with hypocontractile bladders experienced recurrence of symptoms and were treated with TURP. In the TURP group, urinary incontinence occurred in 4/15 patients (26.7 %), rupture of the prostatic capsule in 1/15 (6.7 %), retrograde ejaculation in all patients (100 %), and one patient was readmitted for temporary bladder irrigation due to hematuria.ConclusionsTURP and PAE are both safe and effective treatments. TURP and PErFecTED PAE yield similar symptom improvement, but TURP is associated with both better urodynamic results and more adverse events.

  11. On the multiple polymeric retention system of PAE in the production of decorative base paper%装饰原纸生产过程中PAE多元聚合物助留体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 王立军; 孟庆松

    2009-01-01

    通过模拟装饰原纸生产的配料过程,考察了PAE的湿部化学特性和增强作用,比较了PAE/CPAM/APAM、PAE/APAM、PAE/CPAM等多种聚合物助留体系的效果.研究表明:PAE在纸料上的吸附率约为60%~77%;单一的PAE体系在较小的用量下即可达到其本身最佳的助留助滤效果,但是对留着、滤水和增湿强的贡献均不足;为保证湿强度,需加入更大量的PAE;综合考虑效果和成本,PAE/APAM双元体系是最佳的选择.

  12. Pae tänava väidetava pommimehe protsess võib venida sügisesse / Peeter Kuimet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuimet, Peeter

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 19. apr. lk. 4. Tallinna Pae tänava pommiplahvatustes süüdistatava Märt Ringmaa üle peetav kohtuprotsess lükkus edasi, sest Ringmaa kaitsja Raul Otsa taandas ennast. Lisa: Ringmaale süüks pandud teod

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces the size of the forepaw representation in forepaw barrel subfield (FBS) cortex in neonatal rats: relationship between periphery and central representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margret, Cecilia P; Chappell, Tyson D; Li, Cheng X; Jan, Taha A; Matta, Shannon G; Elberger, Andrea J; Waters, Robert S

    2006-07-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters limb development that may lead to structural and functional abnormalities of the limb reported in children diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. To determine whether PAE alters the central representation of the forelimb we used the rodent barrel cortex as our model system where it was possible to visualize and quantitatively measure the size of the forepaw representation in the forepaw barrel subfield (FBS) in first somatosensory cortex. In the present study, we examined the effects of PAE on pattern and size of the forepaw and forepaw representation in FBS in neonatal rats at gestational day 32 that corresponds to postnatal day 9. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically intubated with binge doses of ethanol (6 g/kg) from gestational day 1 through gestational day 20. The offspring of the ethanol treated dams comprised the ethanol (EtOH) group. The effect of PAE on the EtOH group was compared with a nutritional-controlled pairfed (PF) group and a normal chowfed (CF) group. The ventral (glabrous) surface area of the forepaw digits, length of digit 2 through digit 5, and the corresponding glabrous forepaw digit representations in the FBS were measured and compared between treatment groups. In rats exposed to in utero alcohol, the sizes of the overall glabrous forepaw and forepaw digits were significantly reduced in EtOH pups compared to CF and PF pups; overall glabrous forepaw area was 11% smaller than CF controls. Glabrous digit lengths were also smaller in EtOH rats compared to CF controls and significantly smaller in digit 2 through digit 4. The glabrous digit representation in FBS was 18% smaller in the EtOH group when compared to the CF treatment. However, PAE did not produce malformations in the forepaw or alter the pattern of the forepaw representation in FBS; instead, PAE significantly reduced both body and brain weights compared to controls. Unexpectedly, little or no correlation was observed between the

  14. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A 900 MHz, 21 dBm CMOS linear power amplifier with 35% PAE for RFID readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefeng, Han; Shengguo, Cao; Xi, Tan; Na, Yan; Junyu, Wang; Zhangwen, Tang; Hao, Min

    2010-12-01

    A two-stage differential linear power amplifier (PA) fabricated by 0.18 μm CMOS technology is presented. An output matching and harmonic termination network is exploited to enhance the output power, efficiency and harmonic performance. Measurements show that the designed PA reaches a saturated power of 21.1 dBm and the peak power added efficiency (PAE) is 35.4%, the power gain is 23.3 dB from a power supply of 1.8 V and the harmonics are well controlled. The total area with ESD protected PAD is 1.2 × 0.55 mm2. System measurements also show that this power amplifier meets the design specifications and can be applied for RFID reader.

  15. Adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven from aqueous solution: the study of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wei, Junfu; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Han

    2014-05-30

    A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application.

  16. “I Want It All, and I Want It Now”: Lifetime Prevalence and Reasons for Using and Abstaining from Controlled Performance and Appearance Enhancing Substances (PAES among Young Exercisers and Amateur Athletes in Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambros Lazuras

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping use in recreational sports is an emerging issue that has received limited attention so far in the psychological literature. The present study assessed the lifetime prevalence of controlled performance and appearance enhancing substances (PAES, and used behavioral reasoning theory to identify the reasons for using and for avoiding using controlled PAES in young exercisers across five European countries, in the context of the “SAFE YOU” Project. Participants were 915 young amateur athletes and exercisers (M = 21.62; SD = 2.62 from Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Italy, and UK who completed an anonymous questionnaire that included measures of self-reported use of controlled PAES, as well as reasons for using and not using controlled PAES. The results of the descriptive analyses demonstrated that almost one out five exercisers in the sample had a previous experience with controlled PAES. Higher prevalence rates were found in Greece and Cyprus and lower in Italy. The most frequently reported reasons for using controlled PAES included achieving the desired results faster; pushing the self to the (physical limits; and recovering faster after exercise/training. Furthermore, the most frequently reported reasons for not using controlled PAES involved worry about any possible adverse health effects; not feeling the need for using them; and wanting to see what can be achieved naturally without using any controlled PAES. The findings of the present study indicate that the use of controlled PAES is fast becoming a crisis in amateur sports and exercise settings and highlight the need for preventive action and concerted anti-doping education efforts.

  17. Los programas de alimentación escolar (PAE) en América Latina: una propuesta de modernización para Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Cárdenas, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Las investigaciones de los PAE en América Latina y la cooperación internacional más reciente a este Programa y su devenir histórico en Costa Rica llevaron a plantear las interrogantes: ¿Cómo son las condiciones de los PAE en América Latina y ¿Cómo es y cómo funciona las fases del proceso administrativo de la gestión del Programa de Alimentación y Nutrición del Escolar y el Adolescente (PANEA) del MEP de Costa Rica? Los propósitos de esta investigación están centrados en buscar respuesta a est...

  18. Los programas de alimentación escolar (PAE) en América Latina: una propuesta de modernización para Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Cárdenas, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Las investigaciones de los PAE en América Latina y la cooperación internacional más reciente a este Programa y su devenir histórico en Costa Rica llevaron a plantear las interrogantes: ¿Cómo son las condiciones de los PAE en América Latina y ¿Cómo es y cómo funciona las fases del proceso administrativo de la gestión del Programa de Alimentación y Nutrición del Escolar y el Adolescente (PANEA) del MEP de Costa Rica? Los propósitos de esta investigación están centrados en buscar respuesta a est...

  19. A C-band 55% PAE high gain two-stage power amplifier based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Xin; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Yang; Zhao, Bo-Chao; Zhang, Hong-He; Zhang, Meng; Cao, Meng-Yi; Hao, Yue

    2015-10-01

    A C-band high efficiency and high gain two-stage power amplifier based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is designed and measured in this paper. The input and output impedances for the optimum power-added efficiency (PAE) are determined at the fundamental and 2nd harmonic frequency (f0 and 2f0). The harmonic manipulation networks are designed both in the driver stage and the power stage which manipulate the second harmonic to a very low level within the operating frequency band. Then the inter-stage matching network and the output power combining network are calculated to achieve a low insertion loss. So the PAE and the power gain is greatly improved. In an operation frequency range of 5.4 GHz-5.8 GHz in CW mode, the amplifier delivers a maximum output power of 18.62 W, with a PAE of 55.15% and an associated power gain of 28.7 dB, which is an outstanding performance. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00606), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-12-0915), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61334002).

  20. A C-band 55%PAE high gain two-stage power amplifier based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳欣; 马晓华; 卢阳; 赵博超; 张宏鹤; 张濛; 曹梦逸; 郝跃

    2015-01-01

    A C-band high efficiency and high gain two-stage power amplifier based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is designed and measured in this paper. The input and output impedances for the optimum power-added efficiency (PAE) are determined at the fundamental and 2nd harmonic frequency ( f0 and 2 f0). The harmonic manipulation networks are designed both in the driver stage and the power stage which manipulate the second harmonic to a very low level within the operating frequency band. Then the inter-stage matching network and the output power combining network are calculated to achieve a low insertion loss. So the PAE and the power gain is greatly improved. In an operation frequency range of 5.4 GHz–5.8 GHz in CW mode, the amplifier delivers a maximum output power of 18.62 W, with a PAE of 55.15%and an associated power gain of 28.7 dB, which is an outstanding performance.

  1. 白酒生产过程中邻苯二甲酸酯类物质迁移规律的探讨%The Migration Law of PAEs in Baijiu Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆步诗; 李新社; 徐忠; 汪小鱼; 马利群

    2016-01-01

    The effects of liquor fermenting degree, liquor transportation&storage apparatus, liquor filtration modes, and liquor storage time&temperature on PAEs content were investigated by GC-MS (liquor produced in Xiangjiao Distillery Co.Ltd. as the research object). The results showed that, with the increase of liquor fermenting degree, DBP and DEHP content increased gradually;plastic transportation&storage prod-ucts had certain influence on PAEs content;active carbon could absorb some PAEs, and higher dosage of active carbon within certain range had higher absorption capacity of PAEs, however, the filtration times of active carbon had no significant effects on the removal of PAEs;the exten-sion of liquor storage time and temperature rise might increase PAEs content. Under simulation test conditions, there was significant difference in PAEs migration amount between PET and BSB plastic materials. Accordingly, proper selection of apparatus and production management were the two key factors for the control of PAEs.%以湖南湘窖酒业有限公司白酒生产为研究对象,采用气质联用法(GC-MS法)分别对白酒发酵程度、输贮酒器材、过滤方式、贮存时间与温度等对邻苯二甲酸酯类(PAEs)含量影响进行探讨。结果表明,随着发酵程度的推进,DBP、DEHP的含量有逐渐增加的趋势;输贮酒用塑料制品对PAEs含量有一定影响;活性炭对PAEs具有一定的吸附能力,在一定的范围内,活性炭剂量越大,对PAEs吸附力越大,但活性炭过滤次数对PAEs的去除影响并不明显;贮存时间延长与温度升高,PAEs含量有增加的趋势。模拟试验条件下,PET和BSB材质塑料制品迁移量明显不同。因此,设备选型与生产管理是控制PAEs的两大关键因子。

  2. Sodium Alginate Adsorption with PAE as Paper Strength Agent%褐藻酸钠与PAE二元体系对纸张的增强作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓磊; 姚春丽; 王乐; 杜越

    2011-01-01

    通过利用不同黏度的褐藻酸钠(SA)与聚酰胺多胺环氧氯丙烷(PAE)协同作用来提高纸张的抗张强度,得出了与PAE协同作用的SA的最佳黏度在350mParS附近,并通过SA与PAE的不同用量配比得出黏度为350mPa·s的SA与PAE协同作用的最佳配比为PAE:SA=3:2,此时纸张的湿抗张指数达到了43.3N·m·g^-1,较空白纸页和单独加入0.75%的PAE所抄造纸页分别提高了43.3倍和2.5倍;然后通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对本实验所抄造的空白纸页、单独加入PAE纸页和加入PAE—SA二元体系纸页的微观结构进行了观察,结果表明,加入PAE—SA二元体系可在纸页纤维表面会形成明显的抗水膜,从而提高纸页的抗张强度;最后就浆料打浆度对PAE—SA二元体系的影响进行了探究。%In this paper sodium alginate (SA) was used together with a cationic polylelectrolyte, poly(amideamine) epichlorohydrin (PAE) to enhance the wet and the dry strength of paper. The best viscosity of SA adsorption with PAE was near 350mPa-s. What's more, it was ascertained that the optimal mass ratio of PAE to SA was of 3:2. Under these circumstances, the wet tensile index of the PAE-SA papers were 43.3N·m·g^-1, which were 43.3 times greater than the papers with no addition and 2.5 times greater than the PAE papers. Microstructure of papers in this study were observed by scanning electron microscopy (8EM). The result showed that adding PAE-SA binary system could form the anti-water film on the surface of paper fibers which could increase paper tensile strength. Finally the effect of beating degree of the pulp to PAE-SA was researched.

  3. 大棚植物中邻苯二甲酸酯类(PAEs)污染现状与检测方法%Status Review of PAEs Pollution and Its Detection Method in Greenhouse Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林梦茜; 王飞娟; 余佳悦; 朱诚

    2011-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸酯(PathalicAcidEsters,PAEs)又称酞酸酯,广泛应用于塑料、汽车、服装、化妆品、润滑剂和农药等行业而不断进入环境。PAEs在环境中稳定、持久,通常具有生物累积效应和放大效应,可进入食物链而危及人体的健康安全。该文综述了大棚植物中PAEs含量的检测、大棚作物对PAEs的吸收累计途径和PAEs生物降解方法等。%Acid esters (PAEs), also known as phthalates, which is widely used in plastics, automotive, clothing, cosmetics, lubricants and pesticides industries can enter into the environment constantly. PAEs are stable and durable in the environment, and often have cumulative effect and amplification of biological effects, which can enter the food chain and endanger human health. The paper had introduced the content of PAEs greenhouse plants for PAEs detection, the PAEs accumulation pathway of greenhouse crops and PAEs biodegradable method, etc.

  4. Self-assembled micelles based on pH-sensitive PAE-g-MPEG-cholesterol block copolymer for anticancer drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can Yang; Xiong, Di; Sun, Yao; Zhao, Bin; Lin, Wen Jing; Zhang, Li Juan

    2014-01-01

    A novel amphiphilic triblock pH-sensitive poly(β-amino ester)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-cholesterol (PAE-g-MPEG-Chol) was designed and synthesized via the Michael-type step polymerization and esterification condensation method. The synthesized copolymer was determined with proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. The grafting percentages of MPEG and cholesterol were determined as 10.93% and 62.02%, calculated from the area of the characteristic peaks, respectively. The amphiphilic copolymer was confirmed to self-assemble into core/shell micelles in aqueous solution at low concentrations. The critical micelle concentrations were 6.92 and 15.14 mg/L at pH of 7.4 and 6.0, respectively, obviously influenced by the changes of pH values. The solubility of pH-responsive PAE segment could be transformed depending on the different values of pH because of protonation-deprotonation of the amino groups, resulting in pH sensitivity of the copolymer. The average particle size of micelles increased from 125 nm to 165 nm with the pH decreasing, and the zeta potential was also significantly changed. Doxorubicin (DOX) was entrapped into the polymeric micelles with a high drug loading level. The in vitro DOX release from the micelles was distinctly enhanced with the pH decreasing from 7.4 to 6.0. Toxicity testing proved that the DOX-loaded micelles exhibited high cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, whereas the copolymer showed low toxicity. The results demonstrated how pH-sensitive PAE-g-MPEG-Chol micelles were proved to be a potential vector in hydrophobic drug delivery for tumor therapy.

  5. PAE柴油降凝剂的合成及性能评价%The Synthesis and Evaluation of PAE as Pour Point Depressant for Diesels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦宏涛; 赵捷

    2010-01-01

    在本文中,合成了一定分子量或粘度的聚甲基丙烯酸高级酯(PAE).在实验室评价了PAE对几种0#柴油的低温流动性能的改进效果.研究表明:PAE一般能降低柴油的冷滤点3~7℃,与其它柴油降凝剂相比,PAE对国内主要油区、主要炼厂的柴油都具有良好的感受性.

  6. Respuesta a Escalante (2011 "De cómo el análisis de parsimonia de endemismos (PAE tampoco explica la selección natural" A reply to Escalante (2011 "About how Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity does not explain natural selection either"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Donato

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Discutimos algunos tópicos que a nuestro entender son controvertidos del trabajo de Escalante (2011. Tanto la definición del PAE como las clasificaciones de los tipos de PAE propuestas por la autora, no reflejan exactamente la propuesta por los autores originales. La defensa que la autora hace a críticas que se han hecho del PAE, creemos que no está justificada. El argumento que utiliza para descalificar estas críticas se contradice con respecto a una de las clasificaciones que propone para el PAE. PAE como método histórico, tiene como objetivo el descubrimiento de relaciones entre áreas. De esta manera, consideramos que el hecho de tener los mismos objetivos que los métodos de la biogeografía cladística es lo que permite su comparación. El PAE considera las especies endémicas de algunas áreas (análogas a sinapomorfías en sistemática filogenética como indicadoras de una historia biótica compartida entre ellas, similar a la aplicación del supuesto 0. La presencia de tales especies en esas áreas también podría explicarse por eventos de dispersión recientes, o bien, porque se encuentran condiciones ecológicas favorables. La pregunta que se le hace al PAE es fundamental para la obtención de hipótesis coherentes, pero no necesariamente la respuesta correcta se obtiene con PAE.We discuss some topics which we believe are controversial on Escalante's work (2011. Both, the definition of PAE and the classification of the types of PAE proposed by the author do not accurately reflect the proposal by the original authors. The defense that the author makes is not justified. The argument used to dismiss these criticisms are inconsistent with the classification proposed for the PAE. PAE as historical method aims at discovering relationships between areas. Thus, we believe that having the same objectives as the methods of cladistic biogeography allow us the comparison. PAE considers the endemic species in shared areas as indicative of

  7. SPE-UPLC-MS/MS for the determination of phthalate monoesters in rats urine and its application to study the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of priority controlling PAEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R; Gao, H T; Zhu, F; Cao, W X; Yan, Y H M; Zhou, X; Xu, Q; Ji, W L

    2016-02-15

    This research was mainly focused on the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of six priority controlling phthalate acid esters (PAEs) for the further accurate assessment of their toxic effects, using the corresponding phthalate acid monoesters (PAMEs) in rats urine as biomarkers. Glycerin monostearate was chosen as typical food emulsifier. A method was established to determine PAMEs in urine from rats either in experimental group (integrated gavaged with glycerin monostearate and PAEs) or in control group (gavaged with PAEs only), by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS). Extraction recoveries were more than 75% for all the PAMEs; the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.0-1000.0ng/mL with R(2)>0.995; the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.30ng/mL-0.50ng/mL. In addition, by analysing quality control (QC) urine samples in 3 days, it showed that the method was precise and accurate, for the intra-day and inter-day RSD within 16%, and the accuracy more than 82%. Internal exposure amount of all PAEs in experimental group was significantly higher than that in control group with p values of less than 0.05 except for butyl benzyl phthalates (BBP) (P=0.07). The bioavailability of all PAEs ranged from 5.03% to 109.35% with the presence of food emulsifiers glycerin monostearate, observably higher than that without glycerin monostearate (1.12% to 54.39%). It indicated that food emulsifiers increased the bioavailability of PAEs and may lead to potential food safety risk, which should bring awareness and be further studied.

  8. THE SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF PAE AS POUR POINT DEPRESSANT FOR DIESELS%PAE柴油降凝剂的合成及性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商红岩; 姜翠玉; 高建宏; 韩哲茵; 蒋路

    2001-01-01

    合成了一定相对分子质量或粘度的聚甲基丙烯酸高级酯(PAE),并在实验室评价了PAE对几种0#柴油的低温流动性能的改进效果。结果表明,PAE一般能降低柴油的冷滤点3~7 ℃;与其它柴油降凝剂相比,PAE对国内主要油区、主要炼厂的柴油都具有良好的感受性。%Polymethacrylate esters(PAE) with different viscosities were synthesized and evaluated in laboratory as pour point depressant (PPD) for many kinds of 0# diesels. It was clear that PAE was superior to some other pour point depressants in adaptability to diesels of some main refineries and oil fields, while the cold filter plugging point(CFPP) reduction ranged from 3 to 7 ℃.

  9. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de profesionales en farmacia sobre la anticoncepción hormonal de emergencia (PAE en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Barrientos Esquivel

    Full Text Available El embarazo no deseado continúa siendo un problema de salud pública que afecta a muchas parejas en todo el mundo. En Costa Rica, a pesar que la prevalencia de uso de anticonceptivos entre las mujeres es 82,1%; un 47% de ellas refirió que el embarazo del último hijo no fue deseado.Por ello, se estudian los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de una muestra de profesionales de farmacia. Mediante un cuestionario se indaga respecto a las indicaciones, efectos secundarios, mecanismo de acción, eficacia, disposición a la prescripción y prescripción de píldoras anticonceptivas de emergencia. Los resultados muestran un alto conocimiento de la existencia y efectos secundarios de las PAE. Asimismo, el conocimiento de su eficacia y mecanismo de acción es bajo; al igual que la prescripción que llega apenas a 10%. Se concluye que, a pesar del alto conocimiento, la baja prescripción se relaciona con el bajo conocimiento de la evidencia vigente de su mecanismo de acción. Se recomienda la actualización continua de la formación de este grupo profesional en Farmacia en Costa Rica en relación con las PAE.

  10. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de profesionales en farmacia sobre la anticoncepción hormonal de emergencia (PAE en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Barrientos Esquivel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El embarazo no deseado continúa siendo un problema de salud pública que afecta a muchas parejas en todo el mundo. En Costa Rica, a pesar que la prevalencia de uso de anticonceptivos entre las mujeres es 82,1%; un 47% de ellas refirió que el embarazo del último hijo no fue deseado. Por ello, se estudian los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de una muestra de profesionales de farmacia. Mediante un cuestionario se indaga respecto a las indicaciones, efectos secundarios, mecanismo de acción, eficacia, disposición a la prescripción y prescripción de píldoras anticonceptivas de emergencia. Los resultados muestran un alto conocimiento de la existencia y efectos secundarios de las PAE. Asimismo, el conocimiento de su eficacia y mecanismo de acción es bajo; al igual que la prescripción que llega apenas a 10%. Se concluye que, a pesar del alto conocimiento, la baja prescripción se relaciona con el bajo conocimiento de la evidencia vigente de su mecanismo de acción. Se recomienda la actualización continua de la formación de este grupo profesional en Farmacia en Costa Rica en relación con las PAE.

  11. Self-assembled micelles based on pH-sensitive PAE-g-MPEG-cholesterol block copolymer for anticancer drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang CY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Can Yang Zhang, Di Xiong, Yao Sun, Bin Zhao, Wen Jing Lin, Li Juan Zhang School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A novel amphiphilic triblock pH-sensitive poly(ß-amino ester-g-poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether-cholesterol (PAE-g-MPEG-Chol was designed and synthesized via the Michael-type step polymerization and esterification condensation method. The synthesized copolymer was determined with proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. The grafting percentages of MPEG and cholesterol were determined as 10.93% and 62.02%, calculated from the area of the characteristic peaks, respectively. The amphiphilic copolymer was confirmed to self-assemble into core/shell micelles in aqueous solution at low concentrations. The critical micelle concentrations were 6.92 and 15.14 mg/L at pH of 7.4 and 6.0, respectively, obviously influenced by the changes of pH values. The solubility of pH-responsive PAE segment could be transformed depending on the different values of pH because of protonation–deprotonation of the amino groups, resulting in pH sensitivity of the copolymer. The average particle size of micelles increased from 125 nm to 165 nm with the pH decreasing, and the zeta potential was also significantly changed. Doxorubicin (DOX was entrapped into the polymeric micelles with a high drug loading level. The in vitro DOX release from the micelles was distinctly enhanced with the pH decreasing from 7.4 to 6.0. Toxicity testing proved that the DOX-loaded micelles exhibited high cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, whereas the copolymer showed low toxicity. The results demonstrated how pH-sensitive PAE-g-MPEG-Chol micelles were proved to be a potential vector in hydrophobic drug delivery for tumor therapy. Keywords: micelle, pH-sensitive, cholesterol, poly(ß-amino ester, drug delivery

  12. 笼养家鸽行为的PAE编码系统研究%Studies on PAE Coding System of Behaviors in Captive Pigeons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩志伟; 李小龙; 王振龙

    2015-01-01

    动物行为的PAE编码系统是把动物的行为分解为姿势( postures, P)、动作( acts, A)及其所发生的环境( environments, E),是目前较完善的动物行为编码系统之一。为构建笼养家鸽( Columba livia)的PAE行为谱,以本地健康、成年家鸽(n=16)为研究对象,采用目标动物采样法和全事件记录法,观察并记录家鸽的行为,编制了基于PAE编码系统的家鸽行为谱。共记录到笼养家鸽的43种行为,以及8种姿势、35种动作和6种环境。根据行为的生物学功能,上述43种行为可划分为10大类,即摄食、排遗、运动、休息、体温调节、通讯、繁殖、攻击、自我清洁和杂类行为。初步构建了基于PAE编码系统的笼养家鸽行为谱,家鸽行为的时间属性可描述为瞬时性行为、延续性行为和弹性行为3个时间属性类别。%Animals’ PAE coding system was used to describe the postures ( P) , acts ( A) and environ-ments ( E) of animal from their behaviors;it was a relatively improved system and fundamental in the re-search of animal behaviors. In order to establish PAE ethogram of captive pigeons ( Columba livia) , 16 pigeons’ behaviors were recorded by using the focus animal sampling and all occurrence recording. In to-tal, 8 postures, 35 acts, 6 environments and 43 behaviors of captive pigeons were recorded and identi-fied. Based on biological function of behaviors, all the recorded behaviors were categorized into 10 types including ingestion, elimination, locomotiveness, resting, thermoregulation, communication, breeding, attack, self-cleaning and miscellaneous behavior. Finally, PAE ethogram of captive pigeons was estal-ished. According to the time traits, these 43 behaviors were divided into instantaneous behaviors, contin-uous behaviors and elastic behaviors.

  13. Determination of PAEs in Tomato Bagged with Plastic Film Bag by GC-MS%GCMS法测定番茄中的邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贝峰; 左一鸣; 王超; 聂梅

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the pollution levels of PAEs in Tomato bagged with plastic film bag , Tomato samples bagged with different plastic bags were chosen as subjects. By using GC-MS , 11 PAEs compounds in peel and pulp were determined. Results showed that 6 PAEs were detected in tomato peel bagged with single plastic bag , the contents were 0-2.70 mg/kg;4 PAEs were detected in pulp, which between 0-0.04 mg/kg. The contents of 5 PAEs in tomato peel bagged with paper-film composite bag were 0-5.17 mg/kg , while the 2 PAEs in pulp were 0-0.07 mg/kg. It was concluded that PAEs do exist in tomato bagged with plastic film bag ,which mainly enriched in the part of the tomato peel, with lower concentrations in the pulp.%为了解塑膜袋中的PAEs对番茄的污染程度。以套塑膜袋番茄为试材,采用GC-MS法测定番茄皮和番茄肉中的11种PAEs化合物。结果表明,套塑膜袋番茄皮中检出6种PAEs,浓度在0~2.70 mg/kg范围内;茄肉中含有4种PAEs,浓度在0~0.04 mg/kg之间。套纸膜复合袋番茄皮中检出5种PAEs,含量在0~5.17 mg/kg之间;茄肉中检出2种PAEs,浓度为0~0.07 mg/kg。可见塑膜袋中的PAEs对番茄有一定污染,主要富集于番茄皮部分,番茄肉中PAEs浓度较低。

  14. 邻苯二甲酸酯类生殖内分泌毒性%Toxicity of Phthalic Acid Esters(PAEs) on Reproductive Endocrine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉邦; 王心如

    2003-01-01

    @@ 近年来,有多篇文献报道了人类的生育能力特别是精子的质量和数量已发生了显著的下降[1].究其原因,可能与人类长期暴露于环境中的某些化学物质有关,尤其是在机体内对正常内分泌功能具有干扰作用的化学物质,即环境内分泌干扰物(environmental endocrine disruptors,EEDs).其中邻苯二甲酸酯类(phthalic acid esters,PAEs)已被确认为EEDs.在动物实验中,已证明PAES能干扰正常的生殖功能.本文对PAEs生殖内分泌毒性作一综述.

  15. Research Trends of Modified PAE Wet-strengthening Agent in Papermaking%造纸湿强剂PAE的改性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何裔鑫; 薛国新; 陈金龙; 姚晓红

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarized the wet-strengthening mechanisms of modified polyamidoamine epichlorohydrin(PAE) resins and their preparation methods.By carful analysis on the research situations on these resins,and it can be concluded that the research trend should be on developing more environment-friendly PAE resins with high solid contents.%该文探讨了造纸湿强剂聚酰胺环氧氯丙烷(PAE)树脂的作用机理以及改性的方法,重点分析了PAE的改性研究进展;并认为作为造纸湿强剂,环境友好型的高固含量改性PAE是今后的发展趋势。

  16. Enhancement Effect of PAE on AKD Sizing for Straw Pulp%PAE对草浆AKD施胶的增效作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 胡惠仁

    2008-01-01

    由于草浆的中性施胶要比木浆困难得多,本文研究了PAE对AKD草浆施胶的增效作用,结果表明:PAE对AKD草浆施胶具有良好的增效作用,与未加入PAE相比,当加入0.03%PAE时可提高纸页施胶度约60%;同时,加入PAE的纸页熟化0.5h后就可获到较好的施胶度,并且与未加入PAE的纸页熟化2h的施胶度相近.因此,可以明显缩短AKD施胶时施胶度滞后的时间,从而大大改善AKD草浆施胶的滞后现象.

  17. 活性炭-Fenton组合法去除水中PAEs的研究%Removal of PAEs by Combined Activated Carbon-Fenton Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大贵; 陶长元; 刘作华; 杜军; 刘仁龙

    2007-01-01

    采用活性炭-Fenton组合方法催化氧化去除水中的邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs),研究了H2O2、Fe2+、H2O2/Fe2+及活性炭的用量、pH值、反应时间以及PAEs的初始浓度等对水中PAEs去除率的影响.结果表明,在Fenton试剂与活性炭的协同作用下,对PAEs具有较好的去除效果.PAEs水溶液(DMP、DEP、DBP、DOP各为12 mg·L-1),经活性炭-Fenton法处理15 h后,PAEs的平均去除率可达到99.1%.

  18. 高固含量PAE湿强剂的制备与应用%The preparation and application for high solid content PAE wet-strength agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱先梅; 杨志波; 薛国新

    2008-01-01

    PAE为活性高分子树脂,固含量越高稳定性越难控制.市场销售的产品多为12.5%PAE.本文研究了25%PAE的制备方法和应用效果,通过实验评价和有机氮化物分析,表明应用效果和稳定性与市售的12.5%PAE效果一样,保质期可达6个月.采用高浓度反应,产品含氮量更低,更环保;其固含量高,运输方便,更具有市场应用价值.

  19. PAE与海藻胶增强体系在纸张中的应用研究%The application study on sodium alginate with PAE as a paper strengthening agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓磊; 姚春丽; 王乐; 杜越

    2011-01-01

    通过利用不同黏度的海藻胶(SA)与PAE共同作用来提高纸张的干湿抗张强度,得出了与PAE共同作用的SA的最佳黏度在350mPa.s附近,并通过SA与PAE的不同用量配比得出黏度为350mPa..s的SA与PAE的较优配比为PAE:SA=3:2(PAE用量0.75%,SA用量0.5%),此时纸张的湿抗张指数达到了43.3N·m/g,较空白纸页和单独加入0.75%的PAE所抄造纸页分别提高了43.3倍和2.5倍.然后对PAE/SA的最佳配比和最佳用量进行探讨,并通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对空白纸页、单独加入PAE纸页和加入PAE/SA二元体系纸页的微观结构进行了观察,结果表明加入PAE/SA二元体系可在纸页纤维表面形成明显的膜结构,从而提高纸页的湿抗张强度.最后对加填碳酸钙和滑石粉对PAE/SA二元体系的影响进行了探讨.

  20. PAE的低成本改性及其在双元增强系统中的应用%The synthesis of low cost modified PAE and its application in dual Strengthening system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建同; 赵传山; 滕铭辉; 袁瑞红

    2009-01-01

    该文通过改性剂M对PAE改性,探讨了改性剂的用量、反应时间、反应温度、反应物的固含量对产品结果的影响.同时和市售的PAE进行其它增强指标如撕裂度、耐折度、耐破度的比较.实验结果表明:经改性的PAE(M-PAE)熟化期明显缩短;作为增湿强剂其性能达到了市售PAE的增强效果;与APAM和CMC协同作用时(PAE用量1.0%,APAM和CMC为0.3%)比单独添加PAE要好.

  1. PAE与褐藻酸钠二元体系对纸张增强作用的研究%Sodium Alginate Adsorption with PAE as Paper Strength Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜越; 姚春丽; 宋晓磊

    2014-01-01

    以PAE单元体系为基础,引入海藻酸钠(SA)做阴离子助剂,比较了不同黏度SA与PAE协同作用对纸张的干湿抗张强度的影响,及PAE/SA二元体系最佳配比和最佳用量进行了研究.并通过扫描电镜SEM与电位滴定的研究对PAE/SA协同作用对纸张干湿抗张强度的影响做了充分说明.研究结果表明,与PAE协同作用的SA最佳黏度在350 mPa·S附近,在此黏度下,PAE/SA协同作用的最佳配比为PAE∶SA =3∶2,此时纸张的湿抗张指数达到了43.3 N·m/g,较空白纸页和单独加入0.75%的PAE所抄造纸页分别提高了43.3倍和2.5倍.

  2. Study on the PAE of Tiamulin and It's Combined with Maduramicin Against S.aureus in Vitro%泰妙菌素与马杜霉素联用对金葡菌体外PAE的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立香; 郝艳云; 肖振晶

    2013-01-01

    分别测定了泰妙菌素及其与马社霉素联用对金黄色葡萄球菌的体外PAE.当药物以2MIC、4MIC和8MIC浓度作用于金黄色葡萄球菌时,泰妙菌素的体外PAE分别为1.56h、2.15h、3.02h;马杜霉素的体外PAE分别为1.59h、2.44h、3.15h;泰妙菌素与马杜霉素联用的体外PAE分别为3.46h、4.81h、6.48h.结果表明:泰妙菌素和马杜霉素在体外对金黄色葡萄球菌均有较长的PAE,且随药物浓度的升高其PAE也相应地延长呈明显的剂量依赖性.联用对金黄色葡萄球菌也有较长的PAE,且呈现相加或协同作用.

  3. Therapeutic Effect of Chung-Pae, an Experimental Herbal Formula, on Acute Lung Inflammation Is Associated with Suppression of NF-κB and Activation of Nrf2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyun Ha Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is an inflammatory disease with high mortality, but therapeutics against it is unavailable. Recently, we elaborated a formula, named Chung-pae (CP, that comprises four ethnic herbs commonly prescribed against various respiratory diseases in Asian traditional medicine. CP is being administered in aerosol to relieve various respiratory symptoms of patients in our clinic. Here, we sought to examine whether CP has a therapeutic effect on ALI and to uncover the mechanism behind it. Reporter assays show that CP suppressed the transcriptional activity of proinflammatory NF-κB and activated that of anti-inflammatory Nrf2. Similarly, CP suppressed the expression of NF-κB dependent, proinflammatory cytokines and induced that of Nrf2 dependent genes in RAW 264.7. An aerosol intratracheal administration of CP effectively reduced neutrophilic infiltration and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hallmarks of ALI, in the lungs of mice that received a prior intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. The intratracheal CP administration concomitantly enhanced the expression of Nrf2 dependent genes in the lung. Therefore, our results evidenced a therapeutic effect of CP on ALI, in which differential regulation of the two key inflammatory factors, NF-κB and Nrf2, was involved. We propose that CP can be a new therapeutic formula against ALI.

  4. Behavior Ethogram and PAE Coding System of Rhinopithecus bieti%滇金丝猴的行为谱及PAE编码系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 任宝平; 李艳红; 黎大勇; 胡杰

    2013-01-01

    2012年6月到2013年3月,在云南白马雪山国家级自然保护区响古箐区域,依据以“姿势-动作-环境”(Posture-act-environment,PAE)为轴心、以行为生态功能为依据的PAE编码系统,对滇金丝猴的行为进行分类和系统编码并构建PAE行为谱.分辨并记录了滇金丝猴的14种姿势、82种动作及143种行为,描述了各种行为的相对发生频次与性别、年龄的关系.与川金丝猴相比,滇金丝猴的行为有些不同,这可能与两者生活环境的差异有关.

  5. Nivel de conocimiento de los farmacéuticos acerca de las píldoras anticonceptivas de emergencia (PAE en San José de Costa Rica, en el año 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Marín

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: El objetivo es evaluar el conocimiento y aceptabilidad de PAE en proveedores de salud. El 56% de las mujeres que usaron protección anticonceptivo en su primer encuentro sexual la obtuvieron de farmacéuticos. Sólo se usó protección en 30%. de los primeros encuentros sexuales. La falta de protección puede conducir al aborto, que es causa de muerte materna, o al embarazo no deseado, reportado en 42% de las costarricenses con hijos (Chen, 1999. Métodos: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado de 20 preguntas a una muestra representativa de farmacéuticos del área metropolitana de San José para indagar sus conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en relación con las PAE. Resultados: Aunque 77% había escuchado sobre las PAE, sólo 13% la había indicado en el último año. Se obtuvo un alto conocimiento: 56% identificó las indicaciones y 76% los efectos secundarios. Pero sólo el 4% acertó cómo se usa, 3% cómo actúa y 24% respondió que el porcentaje de éxito en evitar un embarazo es alto. El 42% respondió equivocadamente que actúa produciendo aborto. Conclusiones: Se observó en los farmacéuticos costarricenses un bajo conocimiento del mecanismo de acción, modo de uso y eficacia de las PAE, en contraste con el conocimiento de su existencia, sus indicaciones y efectos secundarios. Este es el primer estudio hecho en Costa Rica que explora los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de las PAE en proveedores de salud, en este artículo se reporta los resultados en farmacéuticos. CCP está realizando un estudio similar en médicos gineco-obstetras.

  6. 闽南地区水产品中邻苯二甲酸酯类(PAEs)的分布特征及风险评价%The Distribution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Phthalic Acid Esters (PAEs) in Aquatic Products in Minnan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜琳琳

    2015-01-01

    根据2013年1月和7月对闽南沿海地区(厦门、漳州、泉州)水产品中邻苯二甲酸酯类(PAEs)的调查,探讨该地区不同类型水产品中 PAEs 的残留水平和分布特征,并对 PAEs 的污染状况及其生态风险进行了评价。结果显示,海水鱼类 PAEs 总量为2.45×102−1.13×103µg/kg(湿重,下同),均值为6.78×102µg/kg;淡水鱼类 PAEs 含量范围为4.36×102−1.37×103µg/kg,均值为8.73×102µg/kg;虾类 PAEs含量范围为3.22×102−1.27×103µg/kg,均值为7.76×102µg/kg;蟹类 PAEs 含量范围为6.17×102−1.20×103µg/kg,均值为7.91×102µg/kg;贝类PAEs含量范围为9.77×102−1.35×103µg/kg,均值为1.22×103µg/kg。所有水产品中均未检测出邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP)和邻苯二甲酸二正辛酯(DNOP)残留,其他4种PAEs 的残留量按邻苯二甲酸二-(2-乙基己基)酯(DEHP)、邻苯二甲酸二正丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二乙酯(DEP)、邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMP)的顺序递减。PAEs 在不同类型水产品中均有不同程度的残留,表明环境中 PAEs 在水产品体内的富集已是一个较为普遍的现象。针对食用水产品进入人体的 DEHP 和 DBP,进行健康风险评价,结果显示,该地区水产品中的接触风险指数 ERI 均小于1,表明闽南地区通过食用水产品途径暴露于 PAEs 的接触风险是可接受的。%According to the results of the Phthalic Acid Esters (PAEs) content in the aquatic products collected from Minnan region (Xiamen, Zhangzhou, and Quanzhou) in January and July of 2013, we discussed the PAEs residue levels and the distribution characteristics in different aquatic products and evaluated the contamination status and the ecological risk caused by PAEs. The results showed that the content of PAEs in seawater fish varied from 2.45×102 to 1.13×103 µg/kg (wet weight, similarly hereinafter) and the mean value was 6.78×102 µg/kg. The PAEs content in freshwater fish

  7. 15种抗菌药物对大肠埃希氏菌抗生素后效应(PAE)的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方翼; 王睿; 陈迁

    1999-01-01

    本文采用光密度法测定15种抗菌药物对医院感染主要致病菌——大肠埃希氏菌的抗生素后效应(PAE),结果表明在亚抑菌浓度时,青霉素类和头孢菌素类对大肠埃希氏菌的PAE很短甚至为负值,氨基糖甙类和磷霉素的PAE较短,碳青霉烯和氟喹诺酮类PAE很明显,随浓度的增加,PAE显著延长;在4倍MIC时.青霉素类和头孢菌素类PAE有一定延长,磷霉素、碳青霉烯类、氨基糖甙类及氟睦诺酮类PAE显著延长,其中氟喹诺酮类药物在4倍MIC时PAE可达4.5h左右。青霉素类和头孢菌素类对大肠埃希氏菌PAE较短.呈部分浓度依赖性;磷霉素、碳青霉烯类、氨基糖甙类及氟喹诺酮类PAE很明显,且显示出显著的浓度依赖性,各类药物PAE的不同可能与其产生机制不同有关。

  8. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) pollution in farmland soils: A review%农业土壤中邻苯二甲酸酯污染研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯荣; 崔明明; 史衍玺

    2013-01-01

    由邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)引起的环境污染和食品安全问题已经引起全球性关注.我国既是邻苯二甲酸酯生产大国,又是消费大国,其环境污染问题不容忽视.本文综述了美国国家环保署所列出的6种优先控制PAEs污染物在我国农田土壤中的污染现状,分析了其来源,重点阐述了不同类型农作物对PAEs化合物的吸收累积特征及PAEs类污染物的生物毒害效应.我国多数地区农业土壤中PAEs的含量显著高于美国和欧洲等国家.大气沉降、农用薄膜、施用污泥和污水灌溉是我国农业土壤中PAEs的主要来源.不同作物对PAEs的吸收、累积和分配特征具有显著的差异性.PAEs不但影响土壤质量、作物生长和生理生化性质,而且具有生物累积效应.最后指出了当前研究中的不足及对今后研究的展望,建议扩大PAEs污染调查范围,深入揭示PAEs对农作物的毒害机理,重点研发PAEs污染土壤的原位修复技术.

  9. 改性PAE树脂的制备及性能研究%Study on the Preparation of Carboxyl Modified PAE Resin and Its Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严维博; 王建; 王志杰; 玉丽芳; 羿克庆

    2014-01-01

    采用羧甲基纤维素(CMC)对聚酰胺多胺环氧氯丙烷(PAE)树脂进行改性,以期在保持原有增湿强作用不变的前提下,提高PAE树脂的使用性能,并赋予其一定的增强性能,降低PAE树脂的使用成本.探讨了PAE树脂的改性工艺,并对改性PAE树脂进行傅里叶红外光谱表征,研究了改性PAE树脂对纸张的增强效果及对浆料Zeta电位、滤水性能的影响.结果表明,在PAE树脂成品中引入9%的CMC为最优改性工艺;在此工艺条件下制备的改性PAE树脂用量为0.6%时,浆料的滤水性能最优;在相同用量下(0.6%),与传统PAE树脂相比,添加改性PAE树脂所抄纸张的抗张指数提高约22%,湿抗张指数提高约19%,耐折度提高约13%,撕裂指数提高约5%,内结合强度提高约6%.

  10. Effect of municipal sludge and chemical fertilizers on phthalic acid esters (PAEs) contents in Ipomoea aquatica grown on paddy soils%城市污泥和化肥对水稻土种植的通菜中邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡全英; 莫测辉; 朱夕珍; 吴启堂; 王伯光; 蒋成爱; 李海芹

    2003-01-01

    对水稻土施用城市污泥和化肥盆栽通菜,应用GC/MS联机检测技术对通菜中6种邻苯二甲酸酯化合物(PAEs)进行分析,探讨施肥对通菜中PAEs含量的影响.结果表明,各处理通菜中6种PAEs化合物的总含量(∑PAEs)在2.129~7.111mg*kg-1之间,依次为广州污泥+化肥(7.111mg*kg-1) >广州污泥(4.767 mg*kg-1)>佛山污泥(3.569mg*kg-1)>佛山污泥+化肥(3.305mg*kg-1)>化肥(2.638mg*kg-1)>空白对照(2.129mg*kg-1),显示了施肥造成通菜中∑PAEs不同程度的提高.各处理通菜中的PAEs均以个别化合物为主,其中空白对照、化肥、佛山污泥和广州污泥处理的通菜中邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP)占∑PAEs的 40%~81%,佛山污泥+化肥处理的通菜中邻苯二甲酸正二丁酯(DnBP)占∑PAEs的56%,而广州污泥+化肥处理的通菜中邻苯二甲酸丁基苄基酯(BBP)、邻苯二甲酸正二辛酯(DnOP)和邻苯二甲酸(2-乙基己基)酯(DEHP)各占∑PAEs的30%左右.通菜中∑PAEs和多数化合物的含量不同程度地大于其在根系中的含量.

  11. 基于PAE编码系统的太行山猕猴行为谱%PAE coding system-based ethogram of Taihangshan macaque (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis ), Jiyuan, Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田军东; 王振龙; 路纪琪; 郭相保; 刘金栋

    2011-01-01

    2009年2月至2010年3月,在河南太行山猕猴国家级自然保护区济源管理局愚公管理分局所辖的天坛山管护区,利用焦点动物取样法,观察并记录了野生太行山猕猴行为的发生过程、内容和环境.基于以"姿势-动作-环境"(Posture-act-environment,PAE)为轴心、以行为生态功能为依据的PAE编码系统,对野生太行山猕猴的行为进行分类和系统编码并构建PAE行为谱.结果:1)研究中分辨并记录到猕猴的14种姿势,93种动作,121种行为;2)将所记录到的行为分别划归于摄食、排遗、调温、配对、交配、育幼、竞争、亲密、聚群、通讯、休息、运动和其他等13个类别中;3)得到了基于PAE编码系统的野生太行山猕猴行为谱.%From February 2009 to March 2010, by using focal animal sampling method, we recorded the processes, contents, and surrounding habitat of behaviors of free - ranging Taihangshan macaques ( Macaca mulatta tcheliensis ) in Henan Taihangshan Macaque National Nature Reserve ( HTMNNR ).We collected behavioral data and coded them following the " posture-act-environment" ( PAE ) coding system which concerns posture, act, environment, and ecological function of behaviors.The results showed that: 1 ) a total of 14 postures, 93 acts and 121 behaviors of Taihangshan macaques were recorded and identified; 2) based on ecological function of behaviors, all of the recorded behaviors were categoried into 13 groups including foraging, eliminate, thermo-regulatory, paring, mating, parental, agonistic, affiliative, aggregation, communication, resting, locomotive, and miscellaneous behaviors; and 3 ) PAE ethogram of free-ranging Taihangshan macaques was successfully established following the PAE coding system.

  12. Monitoring of PAEMs and beta-agonists in urine for a small group of experimental subjects and PAEs and beta-agonists in drinking water consumed by the same subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yang, Gordon C C; Wang, Chih-Lung; Chiu, Yu-Han

    2014-07-30

    This 5-month study contains two parts: (1) to monitor the concentrations of 11 phthalate esters metabolites (PAEMs) and two beta-agonists in human urine samples collected from a small group of consented participants including 16 females and five males; and (2) to analyze the residues of phthalate esters (PAEs) and beta-agonists in various categories of drinking water consumed by the same group of subjects. Each category of human urine and drinking water had 183 samples of its own. The analytical results showed that nine PAEMs were detected in human urine and eight PAEs were detected in drinking water samples. It was found that average concentrations of PAEMs increased as the age increased, but no significant difference between sexes. Further, using the principal component analysis, the loadings of age effect were found to be two times greater than that of gender effect in terms of four DEHP metabolites. Regarding beta-agonists of concern (i.e., ractopamine and salbutamol), they were neither detected in human urine nor drinking water samples in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetics Research of UV/H2O2 Combination Method in PAEs Degradation%UV/H2O2联用技术降解水中PAEs的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敬慧

    2015-01-01

    针对水体中较高含量的邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)污染,采用UV/H2O2联用技术降解PAEs,考察H2O2浓度、PAEs初始浓度及反应体系中pH等因素对PAEs降解效果的影响.结果表明:UV/H2O2对DMP、DEP的处理效果要优于UV、H2O2单一处理.且PAEs的降解效率随反应体系中H2O2浓度增大而升高,随着PAEs初始浓度的增加而降低,不同pH对于光降解PAEs产生的影响不大.在优化实验条件下,采用UV/H2O2降解DMP、DEP,当PAEs初始浓度为5 mg/L、H2O2投加量为330 mg/L时,DMP和DEP的降解率可分别达到80.7%和84%.

  14. A Teaching Experiment about PAEs Detection in Food Packaging Materials by GC-MS%气质联用检测食品包装材料中的PAEs的教学实验探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宰德欣; 朱丽琚; 钱洁尘

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive teaching experiment was designed by using pre-treatment memou ultrasonic extraction, chemical leaching and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The value of PAEs in six kinds of representative food packaging materials was detected. According to analyzing the total ion chromatogram in abundance and the target compounds, types and contents of PAEs in the packaging materials are found. This experiment was applied in the experimental teaching successfully, and its effect was good.%设计了一个综合性教学实验,采用超声萃取、化学浸出等前处理方法,并应用气相色谱质谱联用仪,对学生取样的六种有代表性的食品包装材料中的PAEs迁移值进行了检测。通过分析总离子流图中的丰度值和目标化合物的质谱图,确定了各包装材料中所含PAEs的种类和含量。本实验成功应用于学生的教学实验中,效果良好。

  15. Post-antibiotic effect of Amoxicillin nanoparticles against main pathogenic bacteria of Bovine mastitis in vitro%阿莫西林纳米粒对奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌的体外PAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 欧阳五庆; 孙江才; 李向辉

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究阿莫西林纳米粒(AMX-NP)对奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌金黄色葡萄球菌标准株ATCC25923及其临床分离株、无乳链球菌、大肠杆菌标准株ATCC25922及其临床分离株的体外抗菌后效应(PAE).[方法]制备AMX-NP,试管二倍稀释法测定其对乳房炎主要病原菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC).采用细菌显微镜直接计数法,于AMX-NP PAE期的不同时间点分别测定其在0.5×MIC、1×MIC、2×MIC和4×MIC时的体外PAE.[结果]当AMX-NP质量浓度分别为0.5×MIC、1×MIC、2×MIC和4×MIC时,其对乳房炎主要病原菌均产生一定的PAE,PAE值与AMX-NP质量浓度(0.5×MIC~4×MIC)呈剂量依赖性,且该药物对金黄色葡萄球菌和无乳链球菌产生的PAE值均较大肠杆菌长.[结论]临床应用AMX-NP防治奶牛乳房炎时,对于金黄色葡萄球菌性和无乳链球菌性乳房炎,可适当延长给药间隔时间,对于大肠杆菌性乳房炎,宜缩短给药间隔或持续给药.

  16. 生物有机肥对酞酸酯污染农田土壤的微生物效应研究%Effects of PAEs on Soil Microbe in Agricultural Soil Amended with Organic Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小彬; 宗春琴; 张裕; 周夏曦; 高军

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to supply a reference for bioremediation agricultural soil contaminated with phthalate acid esters (PAEs). [Method] The soil microbe population,microbial mass C and soil basic respiration were analyzed in PAEs contaminated soils amended with sterilized/unsterilized organic fertilizer in lab. [Result] The effects of DBP/DEHP at 50 mg/kg in soils on soil bacteria and fungi were observed , whereas the effects on actinomycetes weren' t presented. The depressive effects of DBP/DEHP on soil bacteria and fungi, microbial mass C and soil basic respiration were significantly weakened by sterilized/unsterilized organic fertilizer in soils. [Conclusion] The buffering capacity of agricultural soil for PAEs organic contaminant and soil bioremediation function for itself were enhanced by applying organic fertilizer to agricultural soil.%[目的]为酞酸酯污染农田土壤生物修复提供参考.[方法]采用室内培养,分析酞酸酯污染土壤以及加入灭菌与未灭菌处理有机肥的酞酸酯污染土壤中微生物数量、生物量碳以及土壤基础呼吸的变化特征.[结果]50 mg/kg土壤浓度的DBP与DEHP主要影响土壤细菌、真菌数量,但对放线菌数量几乎没有影响.无论添加灭菌还是未灭菌的有机肥,均能显著降低DBP与DEHP对土壤细菌、真菌以及微生物生物量碳与土壤基础呼吸的抑制效应.[结论]农田土壤有机肥的施用加强了土壤对酞酸酯有机污染物的缓冲能力,提高了土壤自身的生物修复功能.

  17. Analysis of residual characteristics of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in vegetables from greenhouse vegetable production bases in Beijing%北京设施蔬菜基地蔬菜中邻苯二甲酸酯残留特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳祎; 李成; 栾云霞; 王纪华; 陆安祥

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究北京设施农业蔬菜中的邻苯二甲酸酯类(phthalic acid ester, PAEs)的污染水平,分析北京设施农业蔬菜中PAEs污染物特征。方法采集北京市昌平区、延庆区和顺义区的8个典型设施蔬菜基地16份蔬菜样品,利用超声提取、固相萃取柱净化、内标法定量,气相色谱质谱联用技术分析蔬菜中15种PAEs。结果在分析的蔬菜样品中均检测出PAEs,15种PAEs总浓度(∑PAEs)为0.15~6.94 mg/kg,平均含量为4.91 mg/kg。蔬菜中PAEs的单体分布相似,其中以邻苯二甲酸(2-乙基)己酯(DEHP)含量最高,占∑PAEs的36.9%,邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)和邻苯二甲酸二异丁酯(DIBP)含量次之,分别占∑PAEs的33.5%和19.2%。结论设施蔬菜基地地膜的使用导致PAEs存在于各类蔬菜,蔬菜中的PAEs残留量应引起重视。%Objective To study the pollution level of phthalic acid ester (PAEs) and analyze the pollution characteristics in vegetables of facility vegetable base. Methods The 16 vegetable samples were collected from 8 typical vegetable production bases located in Changping, Yanqing and Shunyi District. Fifteen kinds of PAEs were analyzed through ultrasonic extraction, solid phase extraction column purification, isotope internal standard quantization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results PAEs were ubiquitous contaminants in vegetables, and total PAE concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 6.94 mg/kg, with the average content of 4.91 mg/kg in the vegetable samples. The distribution of PAEs monomer in various vegetables was similar. The concentration of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was the highest, followed by dibutyl phthalate and diisobutyl phthalate. The proportion of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and diisobutyl phthalate in PAEs was 36.9%, 33.5% and 19.2%, respectively. Conclution The residual value of PAEs in vegetables deserves more attention due to widely application of film in facility vegetable base.

  18. Ethogram of Macaca thibetana in Minshan Mountains on the Basis of PAE Coding System%基于PAE编码的岷山藏酋猴(Macaca thibetana)行为谱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖俊; 郑维超; 金贵祥; 黎大勇

    2016-01-01

    2015年3月至11月,在位于岷山山系的唐家河国家级自然保护区毛香坝区域,以“姿势—动作—环境”(Posture-act-environment,PAE)为轴心,以行为生态功能为依据的PEA编码系统,对藏酋猴的行为进行分类和系统编码构建PEA行为谱.分辨并记录了藏酋猴的15种姿势,91种动作以及116种行为,描绘了各种行为的相对发生频次与成年雄性、成年雌性、未成年个体、婴幼猴等不同性别/年龄的关系.

  19. Research Progress in the Phthalate Acid Esters (PAEs) Pollution and Remediation in the Soil of Vegetable Greenhouses in China%我国设施菜地邻苯二甲酸酯污染现状及防治研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽芝; 陆扣萍; 秦华; 王海龙

    2012-01-01

    综述了我国设施菜地土壤邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物的污染现状及其防治方法,并对未来的研究方向进行了展望.分析表明,我国设施菜地土壤已受到不同程度的污染,对其治理迫在眉睫;不同种类的PAEs在土壤中的分布具有空间和时间规律;设施菜地土壤PAEs主要污染来源为大棚和地膜、污灌、肥料等途径:目前PAEs污染土壤主要通过在土壤中添加堆肥、污泥以及接种降解菌株等方法治理.%The paper reviewed the phthalate acid esters ( PAEs) pollution and remediation methods, and then forecasted its future research direction. As indicated by the analytic results, the vegetation greenhouse soils in China are contaminated to different degrees, and in urgent need for treatment; the different types of PAEs in soils presented spatial and temporal distribution rules; plastic roofing materials, mulching film, and fertilizers are the potential sources of PAEs in greenhouse soils; the PAEs contaminated soils are mainly remediated through the application of compost and bio-solids, and the inoculation with selected PAEs degrading microorganisms.

  20. Studied on the PAE of Apramycin and It's Combined with Amoxicillin or Ampicillin on E.coli%安普霉素及其联合用药对大肠杆菌的PAE研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宝明; 王新; 崔一喆

    2009-01-01

    采用菌落计数法和中性粒细胞减少的小鼠股部感染模型,分别测定了安普霉素及其与阿莫西林或氨苄西林联用对大肠杆菌的体内、外PAE.当药物以2xMIC、4×MIC和8×MIC浓度作用于大肠杆菌时,安普霉素体外PAE分别为1.15、2.04、3.27 h,体内PAE分别为3.46、4.49、5.77 h;安普霉素与阿莫西林联用的体外PAE分别为1.53、3.06、4.75 h,体内PAE分别为4.95、6.50、8.47 h;安普霉素与和氨苄西林联用的体外PAE分别为1.95、3.57、5.58 h,体内PAE分别为5.24、6.95、9.28 h.结果表明:安普霉素在体内外对大肠杆菌均有较长的PAE,且随药物浓度的升高其PAE也相应的延长,呈明显的剂量依赖性.安普霉素与阿莫西林、氨苄西林联用对大肠杆菌体内、外PAE呈现相加或协同作用.

  1. 半散养东北虎繁殖期PAE编码行为谱的构建%PAE coding ethogram in breeding of semi-free-ranging Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔征磊; 张洪海; 马建章; 韦钦国

    2015-01-01

    2006-2007年,采用全事件记录法、目标动物取样法和行为取样法对泰山东北虎园半散养东北虎繁殖期的各种行为进行了观察.基于以“姿势-动作-环境”(posture-act-environment,PAE)为轴心,以行为生态功能为依据的PAE编码系统,对半散养东北虎的行为进行分类和系统编码并构建PAE行为谱.研究结果区分和定义了14种姿势、47种动作和98种行为型;并将所区分、命名和编码的所有行为型归类于摄食、排遗、调温、发情、交配、分娩、冲突、育幼、通讯、聚群、休息、运动和杂类等13类;由此构建了基于PAE编码系统的半散养东北虎首个繁殖期行为谱.

  2. Bæredygtighed som demokratisk forandringshorisont

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Den etablerede miljøindsats oplever i disse år et stadig større civilsamfundsmæssigt akkompagnement: Økologiske initiativer, transition towns og urbane haver spirer frem som hverdagslivsbaserede modsvar på stadig mere omfattende økologiske og sociale udfordringer. Men hvordan skabes synergi melle...... for Aktionsforskning og Demokratisk Samfundsudvikling, etableret på tværs af ENSPAC og PAES ved Roskilde Universitet...

  3. 笼养褐马鸡行为的PAE编码及行为谱特征∗%PAE ethogram characteristics of captive Brown-eared Pheasant(Crossoptilon mantchuricum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝爱霞; 邓文洪

    2014-01-01

    Pre-observation of captive Brown-eared Pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum ) in Shanxi Pangquangou National Nature Reserve was conducted from April to March,2010.An experimental behavior scheme was designed.Scan sampling,focal sampling and all occurrence sampling were used for the behaviors of the captive Brown-eared Pheasants,both in comprehensive enrichment section and in respective enrichment section from December,2010 to August,2011.Descriptive ethogram was established.In totall,56 actions in 8 categories were defined including 5 2 normal actions in 7 categories and abnormal actions in 2 categories.Sand bath,foraging behavior,drink and preen have been reported before,all other behaviors are now reported for the first time. Stereotyped behavior, over-maintenance, invalid peck and aggressive behavior have been observed and described in the captive Brown-eared Pheasant population for the first time.PAE action coding system consists of 9 posture code (P),39 action code (A)and 15 environment code (E).Just considering whether an action is performed in this observation section,gender,age and breeding state were added to the coding system.The PAE action coding ethogram of captive Brown-eared Pheasant is therefore obtained.%2010年4月—2010年5月和2010年12月—2011年8月,对山西庞泉沟国家自然保护区内的笼养褐马鸡(Crossoptilonmantchuricum)种群进行了行为学研究。根据行为的功能性,共定义描述8大类56种行为,其中正常行为7类52种,异常行为2类4种,除沙浴、取食、理羽、饮水等行为在前人研究中有所涉及,其他多种行为均为首次报道,特别是包括机械行走、过度整理、空啄以及啄羽在内的4种异常行为是在笼养褐马鸡群体中首次发现。根据褐马鸡行为的结构、特征及功能,制定了褐马鸡的PAE行为编码以及编码全谱。其中姿态编码(P码)9种,动作编码(A码)6类39种,环境编码(E码)4类15种。在只考虑现有

  4. Src与胶原同源插头蛋白(Shc)调控曲格列酮引起的PAE细胞自噬%Src homology and collagen homology (Shc) mediates autophagy induced by troglitazone in PAE cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁栋栋; 吴向琴; 陈秀玲; 姜学军

    2013-01-01

    [目的]明确Src与胶原同源插头蛋白(Src homology and collagen homology,Shc)调控曲格列酮(troglitazone,TZ)引起的猪血管内皮(porcine aortic endothelial,PAE)细胞自噬的机制.[方法]我们先利用激光共聚焦显微镜、蛋白免疫杂交检测了TZ引起的PAE细胞自噬;然后通过siRNA干扰敲降Shc,转染wtShc、3mShc等质粒的方法确定了p52Shc参与自噬的调控;最后通过siRNA干扰敲降Ulk1得到最终结论.[结果]通过研究发现,敲降Shc,会增加细胞的自噬;而过量表达p52Shc抑制了TZ引起的细胞自噬;p52Shc抑制自噬与其自身的酪氨酸磷酸化位点Tyr239、Tyr240和Tyr317相关;同时发现,p52Shc能抑制自噬调节分子磷酸腺苷激活的蛋白激酶(AMP-activated protein kinase,AMPK)及其下游底物Unc51样激酶1(UNC-51-like kinase-1,Ulk1)的活性.[结论]Shc通过调控AMPK与Ulk1的磷酸化调节TZ引起的细胞自噬.

  5. Application of Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction to Dissolution of PAEs in Plastic Packaging Materials Under Acid Simulation System%分散液液微萃取在酸性模拟体系中塑料包装材料PAEs的溶出应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芃岩; 李冰; 李睿; 王有旺; 陈晓景

    2011-01-01

    A effective, rapid, simple and convenient method, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combination gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector(GC-FID), was used for the determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) in plastic packaging materials which was soaked in acid simulation system (3% acetic acid liquid). Under the optimum extraction conditions (carbon tetrachloride as extraction solvent, acetonitrile as dispersive solvent), a good linear relationship was obtained in the range of 1.0 - 100.0 μg/L, the correlation coefficients was 0. 999 8 - 0. 999 9 and the limits of detection was between 1.5- 15 μg/kg(S/N = 3). The PAEs in plastic packaging materials were successfully analyzed by using the proposed method under acid simulative system condition. The influencing factors of dissolving PAEs from plastic packaging materials, such as storage time, heating temperature, heating time and microwave heating, were researched. The recoveries, which had been spiked with different levels, fell in the range of 72.9% - 113.7% and the relative standard deviations were between 1.9% and 12.6%.%将分散液液微萃取(DLLME)与气相色谱-氢火焰离子化检测器(GC-FID)技术相结合,建立了一种简单快速测定塑料包装材料在酸性模拟体系(体积分数为3%乙酸水溶液)中6种邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)溶出量的方法.采用四氯化碳作萃取荆,乙腈为分散剂,在优化条件下,6种PAEs在1.0~100.0μg/L质量浓度内呈良好的线性关系,线性相关系数为0.999 8~0.999 9,检出限为1.5~15μg/kg(S/N=3).并考察了自然放置时间、加热温度、加热时间及微波对于塑料包装材料中PAEs溶出的影响,加标回收率72.9%~113.7%,相对标准偏差1.9%~12.6%.

  6. 手机涂料及涂膜中邻苯二甲酸酯类有害物质的测定%Determination of Harmful PAEs in Mobile Coating and Paint Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪蓉; 卢志刚; 孙蓓玲

    2011-01-01

    涂料经溶剂提取或涂膜经索氏提取后,提出液中邻苯二甲酸酯类单体DEHP、DBP、BBP、DNOP可用DB-1 30.0 m×φ0.25 mm ×0.5 μm色谱柱同时分离,GC - FID或GC- MSD全扫描测定,DINP、DIDP宜采用GC - MSD选择离子扫描单独测定.采用GC - MSD测定时,方法的回收率不低于95%,DEHP、DBP、BBP、DNOP的最小检出限(LODs)均为0.04μg/mL,最低定量限(LOQ)均为0.35 μg/mL.选择扫描时,DINP、DIDP的LODs、LOQ分别为0.4μg/mL、3.5μg/mL.实验结果表明:某些丙烯酸树脂涂料以及手机外壳涂层含有高含量生殖致癌物PAEs类单体,应为制定手机涂料中邻苯二甲酸酯类有害物质最高允许限量进行评价.%After coating film was extracted by soxhlet method, phthalate ester compounds of DEHP, DBP, BBP, DNOP, DINP and DIDP in extraction solution could be separated by chromatographic column DB -1 30. 0 m x 0. 25 mm xO. 5 (xm. Those four compounds ( DEHP, DBP, BBP and DNOP) could be determined using Flame Ionization Detector ( FID) or Mass Spectrograph Detector ( MSD) , whereas the other two compounds ( DINP and DIDP) could only be measured using MSD with Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM). For DEHP, DBP, BBP and DNOP, when MSD was employed as detector, the limits of detection ( LODs) were 0. 04 p^g/mL and the limits of quantity (LOQs) 0. 35 |xg/mL for all for DINP and DIDP, the LODs were 0. 04 (ig/mL, and the LOQs were 3.5 u,g/mL. The results of the experiment ( s) showed that carcinogenic PAEs exists in members of the acrylic resin coatings and film coat of mobile, Therefore its necessary to conduct safety evaluation and establish the allowable maximum concentration in mobile coatings.

  7. Vestlus = Conversation / Tiit Sild ; intervjueerinud Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sild, Tiit, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Tartu linnaarhitektiga linnaplaneerimisest Tartus, osapoolte läbirääkimistest planeerimisprotsessis, lühidalt pärast Tartu linnafoorumit linnavalitsuse algatatud "Tartu linna ülikoolide, rakenduskõrgkoolide ja TÜ Kliinikumi ruumilise arengu" teemaplaneeringust

  8. Vestlus = Conversation / Toomas Paaver ; intervjueerinud Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paaver, Toomas, 1976-

    2011-01-01

    Kõige tarvilikumad ja võimalikumad viisid väikelinnade ruumiga tegelemiseks. Ühistranspordi ühendusi tuleks käsitleda üleriigilise avaliku ruumi olulise osana. Linnaäärtega tegelemisest, kvaliteetsete linnaservade loomisest. Planeerimise kvaliteedist, kultuursusest, loomingulisusest ja seadusandlusest

  9. Investigation and Analysis of Production in a Given Area of PVC Material in Plastic Food Containers by PAEs Plasticizer Pollution%某地区生产的非PVC材质食品用塑料容器受PAEs增塑剂污染情况的调查和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 杜锡勇; 孙卫良; 詹剑良

    2015-01-01

    目的:初步调查浙江省某地区生产的非PVC材质食品用塑料容器受PAEs类增塑剂污染情况。方法:通过深入研究相关文献、国家标准和欧盟法规后,结合研究中PAEs类增塑剂含量及其特定食品模拟物迁移量检出情况,对其污染范围、程度及其安全性进行探索性调查。结果:在20批次的抽检容器中, PAEs类增塑剂DEHP、DBP和DIBP检出率分别为100.0%、35.0%和40.0%,检出量在0.10~57.70 mg/kg;在橄榄油模拟迁移试验中,5个样品中有DEHP检出,其迁移率最高可达15.4%。结论:PAEs类增塑剂在该地区食品用塑料容器的分布较广;通过特定食品模拟物迁移试验发现,在盛装高温油性食品时,PAEs类增塑剂会加速向食品中迁移,迁移量会超过相关标准限量,存在质量风险。%Objective: By sampling and texting, PAEs plasticizer contamination in a region of Zhejiang plastic Non-PVC food containers produced was studied. Methods: Through in-depth study of the relevant literature, standards and EU regulations, and binding of the data of plastic food packaging containers PAEs plasticizer content and specific detection of food simulant migration situation, this paper surveyed the scope of its pollution and the the secrity level exploratory. Results: In 20 batches of plastic food packaging containers, DEHP, DBP and DIBP detection rates were 100.0%、35.0%和40.0%, and PAEs detectable amount of 0.10 ~ 57.70 mg/kg; In the olive oil migration simulation tests, DEHP were detected in each sample, the maximum migration rate could reach to 15.4%. Conclusion: PAEs plasticizer in plastic food container in the region is widespread; Found by specific migration in food simulants: Especially at high temperature containing oily food, PAEs plasticizer will accelerate the migration from contain to food, migration may exceed the standard limit, and there is a quality risk.

  10. Modificação e caracterização do resíduo pó de aciaria elétrica (PAE para aplicação em reações de redução de cromo (VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Neves de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD was thermally modified at different temperatures under H2 flow or charcoal in order to obtain reduced iron phases (Fe3O4, FeO and Fe0. The formation of these phases was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The tests performed for reducing Cr (VI using resultant materials obtained after thermal treatment of the EAFD showed excellent results, with PAE600H (EAFD reduced at 600 ºC under H2 flow decreasing around 100% of the Cr (VI in only 10 minutes of reaction. These results indicate the possibility of adding value to the residue, obtaining materials that offer great potential for environmental applications.

  11. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin

    2017-01-01

    Evaluering af indsatsen i Københavns Kommune for at imødegå social dumping ved hjælp af målopfyldelses-model......Evaluering af indsatsen i Københavns Kommune for at imødegå social dumping ved hjælp af målopfyldelses-model...

  12. Sammenhængende palliativ indsats i sundhedsvæsenet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens; Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Sjøgren, Per

    2011-01-01

    Effective palliative care requires continuous contact, exchange of information, and mutual professional respect between all the relevant health-care professionals. At least one of the professionals should coordinate care. Many patients with advanced cancer report uncovered palliative care needs. ....... In order to assure that all cancer patients receive optimal palliative care, earlier initiation and better integration of basic palliative care (at hospitals and in primary care) and specialist palliative care teams are needed....

  13. Sammenhængende palliativ indsats i sundhedsvæsenet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens; Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Sjøgren, Per

    2011-01-01

    Effective palliative care requires continuous contact, exchange of information, and mutual professional respect between all the relevant health-care professionals. At least one of the professionals should coordinate care. Many patients with advanced cancer report uncovered palliative care needs....... In order to assure that all cancer patients receive optimal palliative care, earlier initiation and better integration of basic palliative care (at hospitals and in primary care) and specialist palliative care teams are needed....

  14. Udvikling af studerendes akademiske skrivekompetencer – en indsats på fakultetsniveau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Andersen, Per

    ." Studies in higher education 23.2 (1998): 157-172. Russell, David R. Writing in the Academic Disciplines, 1870-1990: A Curricular History. Southern Illinois University Press, (1991). Wingate, Ursula. "Doing away with ‘study skills’." Teaching in Higher Education. 11.4 (2006): 457-469. Murphy, Christina...... og perspektiver på akademisk skrivning. Særlige temaer udpeges som fremtidige indsatsområder (fx på baggrund af de studerendes oplevelser med brugen af peer feedback i undervisningen). Referencer Lea, Mary R., and Brian V. Street. "Student writing in higher education: An academic literacies approach......, and Joe Law. Landmark essays on writing centers. Vol. 9. Routledge, (2013). Gillespie, Paula, et al., eds. Writing center research: Extending the conversation. Routledge, (2001). Lillis, Theresa, and Joan Turner. "Student writing in higher education: contemporary confusion, traditional concerns." Teaching...

  15. Videnbaseret indsats over for udsatte børn i dagtilbud – modelprogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik; Kousholt, Dorte;

    Rapporten beskriver baseline for Vida programmets institutioner. Baseline er sat gennem en spørgeskemaundersøgelse af program institutioner samt kontrolgruppe institutioner......Rapporten beskriver baseline for Vida programmets institutioner. Baseline er sat gennem en spørgeskemaundersøgelse af program institutioner samt kontrolgruppe institutioner...

  16. Vidensbaseret indsats over for udsatte børn i dagtilbud - modelprogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte; Berliner, Peter

    Status over VIDA-forældreprogrammet og sætter fokus på, hvordan dagtilbuddene har arbejdet med forældreinddragelse sin følge af VIDA......Status over VIDA-forældreprogrammet og sætter fokus på, hvordan dagtilbuddene har arbejdet med forældreinddragelse sin følge af VIDA...

  17. Vidensbaseret indsats over for udsatte børn i dagtilbud - modelprogram - uddannelse og implementering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VIDA-modelrapport 2 præsenterer den samlede uddannelses- og implementeringsproces, der har fundet sted i VIDA-projektet 2011-2013. Rapporten beskriver i detaljer, hvordan VIDA-uddannelsesforløbet er bygget op i tre faser samt det curriculum, uddannelsen var bygget op over. Rapporten er udarbejdet...

  18. Vidensbaseret indsats over for udsatte børn i dagtilbud - modelprogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte; Berliner, Peter

    Status over VIDA-forældreprogrammet og sætter fokus på, hvordan dagtilbuddene har arbejdet med forældreinddragelse sin følge af VIDA......Status over VIDA-forældreprogrammet og sætter fokus på, hvordan dagtilbuddene har arbejdet med forældreinddragelse sin følge af VIDA...

  19. Sygemeldte og førtidspensionister med handicap: Jobcentermedarbejderes perspektiver på jobcentrenes indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Weibel, Kristina

    Denne rapport belyser udvalgte jobcentermedarbejderes syn på beskæftigelsesindsatsen over for sygedagpengemodtagere og førtidspensionister med handicap. Rapporten bygger på kvalitative interviews med medarbejdere og ledelsesrepræsentanter i tre jobcentre. Der er gennemført interview med i alt 12 ...

  20. Udvikling af studerendes akademiske skrivekompetencer – en indsats på fakultetsniveau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Andersen, Per

    ." Studies in higher education 23.2 (1998): 157-172. Russell, David R. Writing in the Academic Disciplines, 1870-1990: A Curricular History. Southern Illinois University Press, (1991). Wingate, Ursula. "Doing away with ‘study skills’." Teaching in Higher Education. 11.4 (2006): 457-469. Murphy, Christina...... skrivekompetencer kan designes på forskellige måder, og er indlejret i en større, international debat. Særligt diskussioner som er meget tæt koblet til amerikanske uddannelsesforhold og traditioner (Russell, 1991) fylder meget i litteraturen, fx om WAC (writing across the curricuilum) og WID (writing...... in the diciplines) og størstedelen af litteraturen om writing centers (Murphy & Law, 2013; Gillespie, 2001). Spørgsmålet er, hvor meget der meningsfuldt kan overføres til danske forhold. En diskussion, der har vist sig relevant og produktiv at inddrage i samtaler med de faglige miljøer er hvorvidt akademisk...

  1. Symptomscreening af patienter med KOL kan identificere patienter med behov for palliativ indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durakovic, Amal; Rasmussen, Dorte Lander; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study developed and tested a collaboration model to improve the quality of palliative care for all patients with life-threatening illness who require palliation. Journal audit was performed on 79 in-hospital patients. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life...

  2. 基于PAE编码系统构建的半自然条件下长江江豚行为谱%PAE coding system-based ethogram of Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) in a semi-natural environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燃; 魏垚麟; 吴亮; 郑邦友; 李进华

    2015-01-01

    识别和编制动物行为谱是深入研究动物行为及其与环境复杂关系的基础和前提.本研究于2013年8月至2014年4月以栖息在铜陵淡水豚国家级自然保护区半自然水域的8头长江江豚为研究对象,采用焦点动物取样法和随机动物取样法观察记录了动物行为发生的过程、内容和环境,并以“姿势—动作—环境”(posture-act-environment,PAE)为轴心,以行为的功能为依据,构建了长江江豚的PAE行为谱.共分辨记录了半自然水域长江江豚的8种姿势、33种动作和46种行为,并定性描述了不同行为出现频率与年龄组、性别的关系.该行为谱综合了姿势和环境信息,有助于进一步研究长江江豚的生态与行为、促进长江江豚的保护.

  3. Study on Plasticizer(Phthalic Acid Esters,PAEs)Pollution in Soils from Typical Cities in Pearl River Delta%塑料增塑剂(邻苯二甲酸酯)对珠三角城市群典型中小城市土壤的污染研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵胜利; 杨国义; 张天彬; 黄宁生; 朱照宇

    2009-01-01

    选择了经济相对发达的珠江三角洲城市群中的典型中小城市的菜地和果园土壤进行调查取样,对16种PAEs(邻苯二甲酸酯)化合物进行了检测,以研究其分布特征,并初步探讨了本区域的PAEs的污染控制问题.结果表明,在珠三角城市中,东莞土壤的PAEs含量最高,各地土壤中的PAEs平均含量依次为东莞>深圳(珠海)>中山(惠州);从珠三角城市菜地和果园的平均PAEs分布来看,东莞和深圳的菜地PAEs明显高于果园;珠海、中山和惠州菜地的平均PAEs与果园基本持平.16种PAEs类化合物在珠江三角洲不同城市的分布各异,东莞市果同和菜地土壤中有11种PAEs含量是采样的5个城市中最高的,表明东莞市土壤受到PAEs污染相对严重,并且值得关注的是东莞土壤中的HEP含量要远远高于其他PAEs化合物.虽然与国内外其他城市土壤相比,所取样调查的珠江三角洲城市土壤中的PAEs含量相对不高,但与美国土壤PAEs控制标准相比,珠三角城市果园和菜地土壤的PAEs主要表现为DEP和DnBP超标,这两类PAEs化合物应该成为重点的污染控制对象.

  4. Tunda ära korratamatut = Recognizing the unrepeatable / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    Ruumiplaneerimisest. Linnaplaneerimisest 20. sajandil. Fredric Jamesoni düstoopia kontseptsioonist. Ehitusbuumiaegsest ehitusest Hiina näitel. Monumentaalsetest linnaehitusprogrammidest. Ehitusbuumiaegses Eestis tekkinud ruumilisest situatsioonist. Linna tihedusest, spontaansest ruumist. Avaliku ruumi kasutamisest. Kirjeldamatuse ilmingust

  5. Elades düstoopias = Living in dystopia / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    Linnast ja teooriatest. Linnast kui utoopiast. Tänapäeva linnadest. Linnaplaneerimisest, planeeringute realiseeritavusest ja realiseerumisest, planeerimatusest. Eesti buumiaegsest ehituspraktikast ja planeeringutest. Põldude muutumisest kinnisvaraküladeks, maastiku muutumisest juhuslikul viisil. Buumiaegsetest asumitest

  6. Elades düstoopias = Living in dystopia / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    Linnast ja teooriatest. Linnast kui utoopiast. Tänapäeva linnadest. Linnaplaneerimisest, planeeringute realiseeritavusest ja realiseerumisest, planeerimatusest. Eesti buumiaegsest ehituspraktikast ja planeeringutest. Põldude muutumisest kinnisvaraküladeks, maastiku muutumisest juhuslikul viisil. Buumiaegsetest asumitest

  7. Tunda ära korratamatut = Recognizing the unrepeatable / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    Ruumiplaneerimisest. Linnaplaneerimisest 20. sajandil. Fredric Jamesoni düstoopia kontseptsioonist. Ehitusbuumiaegsest ehitusest Hiina näitel. Monumentaalsetest linnaehitusprogrammidest. Ehitusbuumiaegses Eestis tekkinud ruumilisest situatsioonist. Linna tihedusest, spontaansest ruumist. Avaliku ruumi kasutamisest. Kirjeldamatuse ilmingust

  8. Evaluation of the Effective Factors on Customers' Satisfaction Using INDSAT Model; Case Study: Household Appliances' Customers of Mobarakeh Steel Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers and consumers are always looking for suppliers who offer better products or services to their clients. Lots of documents show that in today's competitive world, exploring and meeting customers' needs and and requirements before other competitors, is the essential condition for companies to be successful. vices provided by organizations is the assessment of customer satisfaction. this study deals with identification and investigation of factors affecting industrial customer's satisfaction at Mobarake Steel Company of Esfahan. Statistical population included 125 company of the Household Appliances' Customers of Mobarakeh Steel Company. Field methods and questionnaire were used to gather essential information. In this study, 161 questionnaires were randomly distributed to Customers. Eventually 117 questionnaires were returned. SPSS and Amos were used to analyze data descriptively, assess the credibility of the model and test hypotheses. Results indicated that all satisfaction factors (product- sales people- product-related information- order handling- technical services- interaction with supplier's internal staff- complaint handling as the aspects of have positive effects on overall customer satisfaction. Also, all of these factors are not of the same preference to the customers; sales staff and product satisfactions the scored highest and complaint handling the lowest.

  9. Survey of the Danish power sector's Smart Grid R and D activities; Kortlaegning af den danske elbranches Smart Grid FUD-indsats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Strunge, C.; Johansen, Knud (Energinet.dk (Denmark)); Norsk Jensen, A.; Nordentoft, N.C. (Dansk Energi (Denmark)); Dybdal Cajar, P. (Dong Energy (Denmark)); Soerensen, Per (Tre-For El-net (Denmark)); Andreasen, J. (SydEnergi Net (Denmark)); Graves Christensen, N. (SydEnergi Service (Denmark))

    2011-01-15

    The expectation for the structure of the future power system causes many challenges for the grid. A significantly higher proportion of renewable energy in electricity generation will lead to more and more hours with few or no central power plants in operation. Electric cars and heat pumps in the Danish homes will lead to a higher load of the distribution network. The power system of today is challenged towards the future power system. Control and flexibility in consumption is a new instrument to obtain balanced consumption and production in the future, but there are also major challenges in implementation of intelligent control systems, which still must be resolved. In the identification of the challenges we face the following three main categories have been reviewed: 1) Power grid and management; 2) Communications; 3) Markets. Based on an overview of completed and ongoing research, development and demonstration (RDD) activities in Denmark a gap analysis is conducted in order to provide recommendations and guidance on the need to coordinate already completed and ongoing projects, and to initiate new projects or activities that fill the gaps in relation to the already decided RDD activities. (ln)

  10. Børne- og ungdomspsykiatrisk indsats til unge med funktionelle somatiske symptomer. Sygdomsforståelse og empowerment efter familieterapeutisk intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Ditte Roth; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    Formål og baggrund: Funktionelle somatiske symptomer (FSS) er almindelige hos børn og unge. FSS er ofte selvlimiterende, men for nogle udvikler symptomerne sig med konsekvenser som dårlig trivsel, skolefravær og stort forbrug af sundhedsydelser til følge. Funktionelle symptomer forstås i dag ud fra...... en biospsykosocial forklaringsmodel, hvor særligt familiære forhold vurderes at have betydning for FSS hos børn. Alligevel er der kun få studier der undersøger en egentlig familieterapeutisk tilgang i behandlingen af børn og unge med FSS. Ph.d. projektet vil undersøge, hvordan barnets og forældrenes...... velbeskrevet kvalitativ metode, der har rødder i en fænomenologisk og hermeneutisk tænkning. 10 – 12 deltagere udvælges blandt de børn, der er diagnosticeret med FSS på børneafdeling H3, Odense Universitetshospital og er henvist til videre behandling ved det funktionelle team i Børne- og ungdomspsykiatrien...

  11. Effekt og pædagogisk indsats ved inklusion af børn med særlige behov i grundskolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Tiftikci, Neriman

    med særlige behov i almenundervisningen, og det kan have en positiv effekt på alle elevers faglige og sociale udvikling. Det kræver, at lærerne har adgang til efteruddannelse, ressourcepersoner og kendskab til undervisningsmetoder og interventionstiltag, som er målrettet elever med særlige behov...

  12. Ülev ja igapäevane = The sublime and the everyday / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    Eesti linnade suurima elanike tihedusega piirkonnad on vabaplaneeringu alad. Paneelelamupiirkondade avalik ruum on jäänud lõpetamata, valmis on ehitatud kortermajad, koolid ja lasteaiad ning suurem infrastruktuur, kuid majadevahelise vaba ruumi täpsema läbimõtestamiseni pole jõutud.Tartu linnavalitsus korraldas 2014. aastal Annelinna visioonikonkursi, et planeeringulisi võimalusi edasi arendada ja avalikku ruumi parandada.

  13. Viimsi ja Haabneeme alevike arengud = Developments in Viimsi and Haabneeme townships / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    7. ja 8. septembril 2010 toimunud Viimsi foorumi teemaks oli Viimsi ja Haabneeme alevike ruumilise arengu mõtestamine. Foorum otsis lahendusi looduse ja kultuuriliste kihistuste kasutamiseks, et luua Viimsi vallale tugevat keskust, mis toimiks mitmekesise elukeskkonnana

  14. Ülev ja igapäevane = The sublime and the everyday / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    Eesti linnade suurima elanike tihedusega piirkonnad on vabaplaneeringu alad. Paneelelamupiirkondade avalik ruum on jäänud lõpetamata, valmis on ehitatud kortermajad, koolid ja lasteaiad ning suurem infrastruktuur, kuid majadevahelise vaba ruumi täpsema läbimõtestamiseni pole jõutud.Tartu linnavalitsus korraldas 2014. aastal Annelinna visioonikonkursi, et planeeringulisi võimalusi edasi arendada ja avalikku ruumi parandada.

  15. Ühest 1855. aastal ilmunud osalt eestikeelsest kaardist / Taavi Pae, Raivo Aunap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Taavi, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Kaardi muudavad eriliseks 231 paralleelnimetustena esitatud eestikeelset toponüümi. Kaart on loodud eelkõige andmaks ettekujutust baltisaksa maailmast. Kõige rohkem andmeid on toodud Kuramaa kubermangust. Kaardi sisust, retseptsioonist ja seostest

  16. Optimizing gas extraction at landfills in Denmark; Optimering af gasindvinding pae deponeringsanlaeg i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H.C. [LFG Consult (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    In landfills which contain organic material and anaerobic decomposition takes place, and landfill gas (LFG) is produced. The LFG contains approximately 50% methane, which contributes to the greenhouse effect when emitting from the landfill. Approximately 19% of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are methane, and around 8% of this is emission from landfills. This means that roughly 1.5% of the global warming is related to emission from landfills. Extraction of LFG for energy purposes was started 30 years ago in USA. In Denmark 26 LFG plants have been established since 1985. The gas is utilized for CHP or pure power production in gas engine/generator units. In some cases the LFG is used in gas burners in connection with boilers for district heating systems. 24 million m{sup 3} was recovered in 2004, which is equivalent to a reduction of CO{sub 2} of 160.000 tons CO{sub 2}/year. (BA)

  17. Fra teori til praksis - om evaluering af arbejdsmiljøindsatser i en ustyrlig virkelighed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Nielsen, Klaus T.; Limborg, Hans Jørgen;

    tilgængelige ressourcer og den politiske virkelighed, desuden vil valget være meget afhængig af hvilken type arbejdsmiljøindsats, der er tale om – en begrænset indsats med et relativt lille budget, en omfattende indsats, en tværgående indsats eller et større program med flere koordinerede aktiviteter. I...

  18. Research info materials technology for wind turbine blade surfaces and development of test methods for surface lifetime; Forskning af maerialeteknologi til overfladebelaegning pae vindmoellevinger og udvikling af testmetoder for levetid pae belaegninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damgaard, Susanne

    2006-02-15

    This article analyses inventories for energy input and output at farm level, i.e. the energy input for manufacturing and transport after the products have left the farm is not included. It has been proven that especially cropped clover is rewarding to grow organic as regards energy. This is partly due to the fact that cows at these fields get the feed units themselves and that insignificant quantities of fertilizer are added. However, there is no significant deviation in energy consumption per feed unit between the remaining assessed crops - neither between the different organic crops nor between similar organic and conventional crops as the higher energy use for e.g. fertilizer is made up for by increased yield. The extra energy use for mechanical weed control in organic plant production is insignificant compared to the rest of the entries in the energy balance. Simulation of energy flow in animal husbandry has as yet shown a smaller consumption of energy per kg organic meat and milk compared to conventional production, but the difference is small. (BA)

  19. 土壤中酞酸酯(PAEs)对丛枝菌根化植物生长的影响%Effect of PAEs in soil on arbuscular mycorrhizal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曙光; 林先贵; 尹睿

    2003-01-01

    以豇豆(Vigna unguiculata)为供试植物,分别接种AM真菌Acaulospora lavis(光壁无梗球囊霉,菌号:34)和Glomus caledonium(苏格兰球囊霉,菌号:90036),通过温室盆栽试验,观察2、10和50 mg*kg-1DEHP和DBP对菌根化植物生长的影响.试验结果表明,土壤添加DEHP和DBP后,植物地上和地下部分干重均有不同程度下降,高浓度DEHP和DBP还使植物叶绿素a和b的含量及根瘤数降低,接种AM真菌后明显促进了植物的生长,尤其对植物早期地下部分和植物后期地上部分的促进作用较为明显;同时,也增加了植物叶绿素a和b的含量及根瘤数.

  20. Investments and price formation in a liberalized electric power market; Investering og prisdannelse pae et liberaliseret elmarked

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2005-05-01

    How will the electric power prices in the Nordic electric power market develop if the generation capacity in the coming 10 to 15 years is increased considerably? And what are the conditions for investors to initiate new investments in power plants? Briefly speaking - these are the issues for the project that is reported in this report. The basis for the project has been the Nordic electric power market model and its capability to handle the future extension of the necessary generating capacity. The main issue in the project has been a quantitative analysis of what the prices in the Nordic electric power market will be in the future, depending on the size of new investments in the power generating capacity. Using the Balmorel model, a basic scenario until the year 2020 is made which contains the present decisions about capacity extension only. Up to 2010 this basic scenario can be seen as a probable development. For the period 2010 to 2020, however, the calculations can primarily be seen as illustrations of how the prices may develop, provided that no further investments are made. Thus, for the period 2010 - 2020 it is a 'worst case' that has been analysed. In the basic scenario several cases for the year 2015 are analysed, among others the consequences of wet and dry years and an unusually cold winter. The project also analyses how the price development impacts the profitability of new investments in power capacity, depending on several exogenous events, like use of more wind power and the price on the carbon dioxide market. The analyses present three cases: 1) A single investor not owing other power plants, 2) a single investor owing a number of power plants in which case a new plant will compete with him self, 3) two competing investors investing in the same known power plants. In all cases investments are made in a natural gas combined cycle plant producing both electric power and heat. Furthermore, the investor's own possibility to time his investment has been quantified, i.e. at which time investments will be optimum. (LN)

  1. Prices and risks for flexible mechanisms on the international markets; Priser og risici pae internationale markeder for de fleksible mekanismer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J. [Copenhagen Economics Aps, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this report is to calculate the expected equilibrium prices on flexible mechanisms in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012) and the equilibrium prices on the EU quota trading market in the period 2005-2007. The calculation will combined with additional information be used for evaluating to what extend it is socio-economic recommendable to use flexible mechanisms in the Danish climate strategy. The calculations are made by means of Copenhagen Economics' climate model, CECM, which has been extended with a module performing Monte-Carlo simulations. The report concludes, that before the budget period (2005-2007) the principal element of uncertainty for price fixing will be the individual country's ambition to reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions before the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. Whether it is socio-economic recommendable to use flexible mechanisms before the budget period is primarily dependent on the expectations to future prices of the flexible mechanisms. (ba)

  2. Mis on väikese linna avalik ruum? = What is public space in a small city? / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    24. ja 25. novembril 2009 toimunud Rakvere linnafoorum keskendus linna avalikule ruumile. Rakveres elamise headest külgedest ja linna puudustest (Rakvere linna mainekujunduskampaania alusuuring. Emor, 2004). Virumaa pealinna staatuse nihkumisest

  3. Migration of PAE in Paper Drying%PAE树脂在纸张干燥中的迁移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 齐亮; 周晓伟

    2008-01-01

    对PAE树脂在纸张干燥过程中的迁移现象进行了研究,研究结果显示:在纸张中利用PAE树脂进行增湿强处理时,PAE树脂在干燥过程中会发生迁移,黏度低的PAE树脂迁移程度较严重;迁移是向着热源方向进行的,干燥温度越高,迁移程度越严重.

  4. 专利主张实体(PAE)的反垄断应对%The View from the Antitrust Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡向宏; 韩伟

    2015-01-01

    PAE的日益活跃在全球引起广泛关注,法学方面的讨论也从知识产权法扩展到反垄断法.以美国为代表的部分反垄断司法辖区更是高度重视PAE专利运营活动带来的问题.目前来看,PAE的专利交易和权利主张活动并未对传统反垄断法分析框架带来实质性挑战,也未出现PAE专属的新型排除、限制竞争行为,基于PAE这一主体维度设计特殊的反垄断规则并无必要.PAE与其他主体应平等适用反垄断法,执法部门应基于PAE拥有的特殊能力与动机,结合个案环境具体评估PAE实施的特定行为所带来的竞争影响.

  5. The Modified and Application of PAE Resin%PAE树脂的改性及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严维博; 王志杰; 王建

    2014-01-01

    本文研究醚化改性剂对PAE树脂的改性工艺,探讨醚化改性PAE树脂的应用性能,研究显示经醚化改性后的PAE树脂具有比传统PAE树脂更优的性能.实验结果表明:醚化剂对PAE树脂的末端改性优于过程改性,醚化剂的较佳用量为15%;在此条件下改性后的PAE树脂用量为0.5%时,与改性前相比能够进一步提高纸张干抗张指数约3%,而降低湿抗张指数约19%,耐折度提高约9%,撕裂指数提高约19%,内结合强度提高约37%.

  6. 改性PAE树脂的制备及其应用%Preparation and Application of Modified PAE Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 玉丽芳

    2013-01-01

    本实验探讨了羧基改性剂对PAE树脂的改性方式、改性剂用量,并研究了改性PAE树脂的应用效果.结果显示,羧基改性剂可以对PAE树脂进行改性,改性后不仅降低了PAE树脂的生产成本,还提高了PAE树脂的增干强效果.实验结果显示,与未改性PAE树脂相比,当使用末端改性PAE树脂(用量为1%)时纸张干抗张指数提高了23.51%,增加幅度明显高于湿抗张指数,其他性能指标也相应得到改善.

  7. The Danish government's climate plan. Towards a society without greenhouse gases; Regeringens klimaplan. Pae vej mod et samfund uden drivhusgasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The Danish government's goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with 40% by the year 2020, compared to 1990 levels. A major step towards reaching that goal was accomplished in March 2012, with the political agreement on energy policy. The remaining reductions to achieve the goal will come primarily from the transportation, agriculture and construction sectors, and from waste management. In order to reach the government's goal, we must eliminate the equivalent of approximately four million tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions by 2020. Reaching the goal in 2020 also depends on factors such as the economy as we progress toward 2020, as well as on EU climate policy. The government will continue to work proactively to ensure that ambitious climate and energy policies are pursued by the EU. The EU policies will contribute significantly in order to achieve the national objectives. The government will engage in a dialogue with parliament, business society and civil society to discuss what kind of national policy initiatives to be decided on to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The government will introduce a climate change bill during the upcoming session of parliament. The purpose of this upcoming bill is to ensure progress and transparency in the climate policy development. The bill will include requirements for an annual climate policy progress report to show whether Denmark is on track to meet the goal of a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2020. As part of its work on the climate policy plan, an inter-ministerial working group has developed a catalogue of about 80 possible climate policy initiatives to address climate change. These policy proposals, along with the proposed legislation, will be the government's main instruments in the coming years in order to continuously monitor and adjust its climate policy. (Author)

  8. Prices and risks for flexible mechanisms on the international markets; Priser og risici pae internationale markeder for de fleksible mekanismer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J. [Copenhagen Economics Aps, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this report is to calculate the expected equilibrium prices on flexible mechanisms in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012) and the equilibrium prices on the EU quota trading market in the period 2005-2007. The calculation will combined with additional information be used for evaluating to what extend it is socio-economic recommendable to use flexible mechanisms in the Danish climate strategy. The calculations are made by means of Copenhagen Economics' climate model, CECM, which has been extended with a module performing Monte-Carlo simulations. The report concludes, that before the budget period (2005-2007) the principal element of uncertainty for price fixing will be the individual country's ambition to reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions before the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. Whether it is socio-economic recommendable to use flexible mechanisms before the budget period is primarily dependent on the expectations to future prices of the flexible mechanisms. (ba)

  9. Performance of Cement-Based Materials in Aggressive Aqueous Environments State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 211 - PAE

    CERN Document Server

    Bertron, Alexandra; Belie, Nele

    2013-01-01

    Concrete and cement-based materials must operate in increasingly aggressive aqueous environments, which may be either natural or industrial.  These materials may suffer degradation in which ion addition and/or ion exchange reactions occur, leading to a breakdown of the matrix microstructure and consequent weakening.  Sometimes this degradation can be extremely rapid and serious such as in acidic environments, while in other cases degradation occurs over long periods.  Consequences of material failure are usually severe – adversely affecting the health and well-being of human communities and disturbing ecological balances. There are also large direct costs of maintaining and replacing deteriorated infrastructure and indirect costs from loss of production during maintenance work, which place a great burden on society. The focus of this book is on addressing issues concerning performance of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments , by way of this State-of-the-Art Report. The book represe...

  10. Analysis of the competition on the retail market for electric power; Analyse af konkurrencen pae detailmarkedet for el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    This year it is almost ten years ago, that it was made possible for all electricity consumers to choose their supplier. Specifically, this was done by changes in the Electricity Supply Act, whereby increased competition was designated as the central means of achieving the energy policy objectives of security of supply, economics, environment, and consumer protection. The retail electricity market's turnover today is approx. 43 billion. DKK, but it is expected to grow significantly in the coming years because consumers are increasingly expected to use electricity from renewable energy for heating and transport. It is obvious that it is also for this reason essential to the economy that competition in the retail market works as well as possible. In practice, competition as an instrument is aimed at production and retail sales in the electricity market, with the significant exception that the smaller consumers are protected by both the competition itself as well as by the special supply regulation. The protective supply regulation means that a majority of consumers and small and medium-sized enterprises do not have sufficient incentive to trade electricity on the free market, which in turn means that there is not exercised pressure on suppliers that can lead to innovation, product development, or to provide electricity at the lowest possible prices. The Secretariat of the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority has against this background made an in-depth analysis of the competition in the retail market for electricity and for the general supply regulation. The analysis shows that there are a number of barriers that stand in the way of effective competition in the retail market, and thus of fostering innovation, product development and potential improvements in infrastructure. The Danish government and parliament have taken a number of initiatives that remove some of the barriers. But challenges still remain. They all originate from inertia and low mobility at customer level. The overall conclusion is that it is doubtful whether the necessary product development and innovation at the lowest possible electricity prices may be encouraged with the current regulation of the power supply. (LN)

  11. Mis on väikese linna avalik ruum? = What is public space in a small city? / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    24. ja 25. novembril 2009 toimunud Rakvere linnafoorum keskendus linna avalikule ruumile. Rakveres elamise headest külgedest ja linna puudustest (Rakvere linna mainekujunduskampaania alusuuring. Emor, 2004). Virumaa pealinna staatuse nihkumisest

  12. The energy consumption of households - technical and social explanations of variations; Boligers energiforbrug - sociale og tekniske forklaringer pae forskelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hansen, K.

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that the amount of energy consumed in different households varies greatly with respect to both heat and electricity. Previous research has focused on either technical or social explanations for this and the social explanations have focused on the big variations between social groups. In contrast to this, the aim of this project has been to explain differences in energy consumption between quite similar households and to seek social and technical explanations. Seven high-dense, low-rise neighbourhoods in the municipality of Albertslund have been investigated. The eco-account of the municipality shows large variations in the level of energy consumption both between households in the same neighbourhood and between the neighbourhoods. Noticeably larger heat consumption was found in neighbourhoods with rented apartments rather than with owner-occupied apartments. On this background the aim of this project has been: To explore technical and social explanations for large variations in energy consumption in similar neighbourhoods; To investigate connections between technical and social explanations; To point to relevant strategies concerning behaviour and lifestyle to reduce energy consumption. To answer these questions several investigations were carried out in the seven neighbourhoods including computer calculations of the buildings' heat loss, a survey among 500 residents, qualitative interviews with ten families and detailed measures of the indoor climate in thirty households. Based on the results the following strategies to reduce energy consumption are formulated: Emphasising positive aspect of a modest life to promote families with a saving attitude to stick to this in spite of societal pressure for increased consumption; Continuing information strategies towards a more environmentally sound behaviour, bur with greater emphasis on reducing consumption than on the attitude towards environment; Concerning new information technologies, technology development has to be linked together with the use phase and the removal phase; Campaigns explaining that hygiene is good, but more hygiene is not better. (BA)

  13. Arbejdsmiljøindsatsen i 25 år - succes eller fiasko?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Broberg, Ole; Hvenegaard, Hans

    Denne udredning er udarbejdet af CASA på foranledning af arbejdsmiljøudvalget i Ingeniørforeningen i Danmark (IDA). Udvalget har ønsket en indledende udredning om effekterne af den forebyggende arbejdsmiljøindsats i Danmark de sidste 25 år samt nogle bud på, hvordan denne indsats kan styrkes...

  14. Præstationsløn og motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Individualiseret løndannelse kommer ofte til at erodere indre motivation. Fælles rammer og indsats giver de bedste resultater.......Individualiseret løndannelse kommer ofte til at erodere indre motivation. Fælles rammer og indsats giver de bedste resultater....

  15. Sammenhængende palliative forløb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Åbom, Birgit; Jespersen, Bodil Abild;

    2009-01-01

    Almen praksis har altid spillet en central rolle i palliative forløb. I de senere år er der sket en udbygning af den specialiserede palliative indsats, og det stiller krav om en integreret og sammenhængende indsats med shared care, klar ansvarsfordeling og let tilgængelige kommunikationslinjer...

  16. Midtvejsevaluering af EGA handlingsplanen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hasle, Peter; Christiansen, Jørgen Møller

    reduktion af det ensidige gentage arbejde i den første del af handlingsplanens periode i størrelsesordenen 25%. Mange virksomheder har foretaget en omfattende indsats overfor arbejdsmiljøproblemet, men der er også virksomheder som intet har gjort. I mange tilfælde er virksomhedernes indsats kvalitetsmæssig...

  17. Arbejdsmiljøindsatsen i 25 år - succes eller fiasko?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Broberg, Ole; Hvenegaard, Hans

    Denne udredning er udarbejdet af CASA på foranledning af arbejdsmiljøudvalget i Ingeniørforeningen i Danmark (IDA). Udvalget har ønsket en indledende udredning om effekterne af den forebyggende arbejdsmiljøindsats i Danmark de sidste 25 år samt nogle bud på, hvordan denne indsats kan styrkes frem...

  18. Particle filters on light diesel vehicles - a socio-economic analysis on the introduction of particle filters; Partikelfiltre pae lette dieselkoeretoejer - en samfundsoekonomisk analyse af fremskyndelse af partikelfiltre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, M.; Larsen, Thommy; Carlsen, Kirsten; Mulvad Jeppesen, L.

    2006-09-15

    Emission of particles into the atmosphere is one of the biggest air pollution problems of our times. The emission of particles causes severe health problems such as respiratory and circulatory diseases, lung cancer, asthma, bronchitis and even causes premature deaths. The emission of particles comes from a number of different sources, where traffic is a considerable contributor. The effects of particle emissions from the traffic on the population are substantial, as the emission comes from mobile sources which create a high local pollution in city areas and in consequence high exposure of the local population. Exhaust particle emissions come mainly from diesel engines, and the introduction of particle filters would have a considerable impact on particle emissions. Vehicle emissions regulation is controlled by the EU. The coming emission regulation, EURO 5, is expected to be put into effect by the beginning of 2010. The current suggestions for the EURO 5 restrictions on particles are set so strict that they will be impossible to fulfil without a particle filter. This report performs a socio-economic analysis on the introduction of particle filters on all light vehicles (<3,500 kg). The analysis assumes that all newly registered diesel powered cars and vans should have a factory installed particle filter from the beginning of 2007. This thereby gives a period of three years before implementation of the EURO 5. (au)

  19. Experimental study of thermosyphons applied in bakery ovens; Estudo experimental do comportamento de termossifoes aplicado a fornos de coccao de paes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupka, Alexandre; Penteado, Ricardo Assis [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: kupka@labsolar.ufsc.br; boto@labsolar.ufsc.br; Mantelli, Marcia B.H. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica]. E-mail: marcia@labsolar.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The present paper study thermosyphons applied to bakery ovens with special attention in the energy conservation and the quality of final baked product. A prototype simulating one internal section of a commercial oven was built for the experimental study. Stainless steel/water thermosyphons are installed vertically, close to the two lateral walls of this section The thermosyphons are very efficient heat exchangers and improves the temperature distribution inside the oven, saving energy and avoiding the product waste by under or overcooking. This research also intends to replace electric power and GLP by natural gas as the energy source, that is available in the South of Brazil, after the recent implantation of the Brazil/Bolivia gas line. The gas combustion happens in a separated chamber, so that, just the heated air are in contact with be bread in the cooking chamber. The final product has better quality and is free from the combustion residues. (author)

  20. Report on the future planning of on-shore sites for wind power plants. [Denmark]; Rapport om fremtidens planlaegning for vindmoeller pae land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    A working group appointed by the Minister for the Environment has looked at a number of challenges with municipal planning for new onshore wind turbines. The reason was a desire to review the existing planning basis in order to assess the opportunities and constraints found in the current regulations, on which the wind turbine planning is based. The intention has been to look at whether municipalities have the right planning tools to help to ensure the government's objectives for the continued expansion of wind turbines onshore, and whether new planning tools can be identified. In addition, there has been a desire to bring attention to a good planning process with a positive citizen participation and a fact-based information effort, because there often in the context of local and municipal planning emerges local discussions about the proper placement of new wind turbines. With this report the working group make a number of recommendations to the Minister for the Environment. The recommendations deal with proposals for clarification of the rules (the wind turbine directive and the instructions to the directive), proposals for new planning tools, and proposals for new forms of cooperation and information efforts. The review of the current regulations shows that municipalities generally have the tools they need for planning for siting wind turbines, but there is a need for some adjustments and clarifications of the wind turbine directive. No proposed extensive changes in the laws are proposed, but the working group propose a change of the rural zone regulations. (LN)

  1. Biomass for biogas plants in Denmark - in the short and long term; Biomasse til biogasanlaeg i Danmark - pae kort og langt sigt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmose, T.; Hjort-Gregersen, K.; Stefanek, K.

    2013-04-15

    In the short term, it is one of the major challenges for the developments of the biogas sector that resources of organic waste of the type (organic industrial wastes) that have heretofore been used, generally are estimated to be nearly exhausted. This has led to a number of new biogas projects based on the use of corn (energy crops) as additional biomass to livestock manure. However, Danish policy now has implemented a restriction on the use of corn and other energy crops for biogas production. It is with the restriction clarified that there is a need to use other additional biomass for biogas production. There is a need in the short term to clarify how alternative biomasses such as straw, nature preservation biomass, household waste, etc. in a technically and economically reliable and satisfactory way can be used for biogas production, so that the dependence of energy crops can be reduced. Additionally, it will be essential if the yield of using manure can be increased to reduce economic dependence on energy crops. In the longer term it is essential to strengthen the assessment of the resource potential of biomass available for the production of biogas, and thus what the contribution of biogas in the long term is estimated to be in the future energy supply based on renewable energy. The present report presents the current and future biomass resources potential and biogas production potential. The biomass resources are primarily agricultural and municipal wastes. (LN)

  2. 改性PAE湿强剂的制备及应用试验%Preparation and Application of Modified PAE Resin Wet-Strength Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国运; 程芳玲; 彭莉; 肖翼

    2007-01-01

    本文用改性剂M改性PAE树脂,制备了4组不同的PAE树脂,讨论了影响PAE树脂制备的因素,做了一系列的抄纸试验,通过对试验的分析确定了最佳方案,其加入量为0.5%时,湿强效果对苇浆达到28.04%,对桉木浆达到30.18%.

  3. Preparation and Application of Modified PAE Resin Wet-strength Agent%改性PAE湿强剂的制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国运; 程芳玲; 彭莉; 肖翼

    2007-01-01

    用改性剂M改性PAE树脂,制备了四组不同的PAE树脂,讨论了影响PAE树脂制备的因素,做了一系列的抄纸试验,通过对试验的分析确定了4#方案是最佳方案,其加入量为0.5%时,湿强效果对苇浆达到28.04%,对按木浆达到30.18%.

  4. Correlation between polymer architecture, mesoscale structure and photovoltaic performance in side-chain-modified PAE-PAV:fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathgeber, S.; Kuehnlenz, F.; Hoppe, H.; Egbe, D. A. M.; Tuerk, S.; Perlich, J.; Gehrke, R.

    2012-02-01

    A poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) statistical copolymer carrying linear and branched alkoxy side chains along the conjugated backbone in a random manner, yields, compared to its regular substituted counterparts, an improved performance in polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Results obtained from GiWAXS experiments show that the improved performance of the statistical copolymer may be attributed to the following structural characteristics: 1) Well, ordered stacked domains that promote backbone planarization and thus improve the ππ-overlap. 2) Partly face-on alignment of domains relative to the electrodes for an improved active layer electrode charge transfer. Branched side chains seem to promote face-on domain orientation. Most likely they can minimize their unfavorable contact with the interface by just bringing the CH3 groups of the branches into direct contact with the surface so that favorable phenylene-substrate interaction can promote face-on orientation. 3) A more isotropic domain orientation throughout the active layer to ensure that the backbone alignment direction has components perpendicular and parallel to the electrodes in order to compromise between light absorption and efficient intra-chain charge transport.

  5. Järjekordne Pae tänaval lõhkenud pomm tappis korteriühistu töömehe / Sigrid Laev, Tanel Õunapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    Pommiplahvatusest Lasnamäel, mis on selle aasta jooksul juba teine Paekaare gümnaasiumi lähinaabruses juhtunud õnnetus. Lisad: Vigastused; Pealtnägijad; Kronoloogia. Vt. samas: Teine pomm poole aasta jooksul viis õpilased shokki

  6. Research on Preparation Process of High Solid Content PAE Resin%高固含量PAE树脂的制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐亮; 王志杰; 郭焱

    2008-01-01

    针对目前生产PAE树脂过程中所产生的凝胶问题,以及由于PAE树脂产品固含量低导致运输成本增加的问题,该实验以二乙烯三胺、己二酸和环氧氯丙烷为原料,通过正交试验分析了反应中各因素对PAE树脂凝胶时间、黏度、阳离子度的影响,结合环氧树脂固化机理,研究了PAE树脂在制备时出现的凝胶问题,提出了有效的解决方法,优化了制备PAE树脂的工艺,生产出高固含量的PAE树脂产品,并收到了良好的湿强效果.

  7. Prowess in the Research and Application of Modified PAE Resin%改性PAE树脂的研究及应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严维博; 王志杰; 王建

    2014-01-01

    本文综述了改性PAE树脂在造纸工业中的研究及应用,包括阴离子丙烯酰胺对PAE树脂的改性、PAE树脂聚脲改性、PAE树脂与壳聚糖共聚接枝改性、PAE树脂与苯乙烯接枝共聚改性、松香改性PAE树脂、酸醛改性PAE树脂、PAE树脂与蒙脱土接技共聚改性、乙醇胺/水溶性环氧树脂/PAE树脂热交联改性、PAE树脂与聚丙烯酸丁酯/甲基丙烯酸甲酯核壳乳液的共混改性、PAE树脂与碱性木素接枝共聚改性,环境友好型高固含量PAE树脂,最后展望其前景.

  8. Simple models of district heating systems for load and demand side management and operational optimisation; Simple modeller for fjernvarmesystemer med henblik pae belastningsudjaevning og driftsoptimering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Larsen, H.V. [Risoe National Lab., System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this research project has been to further develop and test simple (aggregated) models of district heating (DH) systems for simulation and operational optimization, and to investigate the influence of Load Management and Demand Side Management (DMS) on the total operational costs. The work is based on physical-mathematical modelling and simulation of DH systems, and is a continuation of previous EFP-96 work. In the present EFP-2001 project the goals have been to improve the Danish method of aggregation by addressing the problem of aggregation of pressure losses, and to test the methods on a much larger data set than in the EFP-1996 project. In order to verify the models it is crucial to have good data at disposal. Full information on the heat loads and temperatures not only at the DH plant but also at every consumer (building) is needed, and therefore only a few DH systems in Denmark can supply such data. (BA)

  9. Smart energy services to low-energy houses based on user-driven innovation; Intelligente energiydelser i lavenergiboliger baseret pae brugerdreven innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Ditte Marie; Hoej Christensen, A.; Hansen, Lars; Braendgaard Nielsen, S.; Huet, J.-M. [Teknologisk Institut. Energieffektivisering og Ventilation, Aarhus (Denmark); Bay Christensen, A. [Asger BC Lys, Koebenhavn (Denmark); Degn Larsen, E. [Fischer, Koege (Denmark); Lux, D. [Seluxit, Aalborg (Denmark); Jacobsen, Lis [Nilan, Hedensted (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    The project tested and documented the energy and use advantages of simple or more complex control concepts and systems for energy services. This has been done with a focus on the control solution being able to control the comfort in the house as efficient and energy-efficient as possible, while the users' requirements and needs for information about and for being able to control comfort and energy consumption in the home also must be taken into account. The experiments with several control strategies in cooperation with the family in the low-energy demonstration house EnergyFlexHouse (EFH), show that one can not develop an adequate control strategy without involving the users. Thus, users will not be satisfied with the indoor environment if they have no influence on control. This should be seen in the context that an energy-efficient management require as little user influence as possible, in order to realize the expected energy efficiency. The optimal control is thus characterized in that it at the same time takes into account the requirements of the user and at the same time results in a change in user behavior that adapts to the control system. The project also shows that there is a significant barrier to getting products of different manufacturers to communicate. Based on the concept, developed in collaboration with the residents of EFH, the companies involved and Technological Institute, a prototype of the advanced control applications was developed and tested by the family in EnergyFlexHouse. Trials were carried out with the 3 advanced control strategies, indoor climate optimized, energy optimized, and user-driven management, for a period of 7 days per strategy. The experiments showed that the degree day adjusted space heating consumption was about. 30% lower for the energy optimized control compared to the user-driven control. For the indoor-optimized control was the degree day adjusted space heating was approx. 21% lower compared to the user-driven control. The family expressed general satisfaction with the indoor climate regardless of the selected control strategy. The family was surprised that their space heating consumption was almost 30% higher at the user-driven control strategy and indicated, that the energy-optimized strategy was absolutely acceptable, especially when the consequences were visible. The family found the control panel on the iPad was user-friendly and intuitively simple in its layout. (LN)

  10. Tartu Ülikool Tartu linnas = The University of Tartu in the city of Tartu / Kaja Pae, Merje Müürisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2011-01-01

    Maarjamõisa välja ja kesklinna hoonestu suhted. Ülikool ja kesklinn, ülikooli ruumiline imidž. Ülikooli ajalooline hoonestu. Tartu Ülikooli hoonete paiknemisega linnaruumis tegeldi 27. ja 28. aprillil 2010 toimunud Tartu linnafoorumil

  11. 笼养黑鹳求偶行为谱及其PAE编码%Courtship behaviour ethogram and PAE coding system of captive black stork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振群; 谷德海; 王姣姣; 侯建华; 刘建平

    2016-01-01

    2015年1-4月,为获得黑鹳(Ciconia nigra)求偶行为谱,对河北保定动物园内的5对黑鹳进行了行为学研究.采用全事件记录法获取每对黑鹳的行为视频资料,通过逐秒分析的方法筛选出求偶行为并编订PAE求偶行为谱.结果发现:雄鹳求偶行为包含10种姿势、42种动作、11种行为,并获得了包含这些行为的PAE行为谱.依据求偶行为发生的方式将求偶行为划分为鸣声求偶行为、动作求偶行为.鸣声求偶行为包含扬喙鸣叫、面面对鸣.动作求偶行为包含啄草理巢、衔草入巢、啄草出巢、俯身卧巢、对立转圈、理配偶羽、追逐、交颈、俯身近喙;其中,面面对鸣、啄草理巢、衔草入巢、啄草出巢、俯身卧巢、对立转圈、追逐、俯身近喙8种行为为新纪录求偶行为.

  12. Behavior ethogram and PAE coding system of Cervus nippon sichuanicus%四川梅花鹿的行为谱及PAE编码系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚文华; 岳碧松; 宁继祖; 蒋雪梅; 权秋梅; 郭延蜀; 米军; 左林; 熊远清

    2010-01-01

    2007年3-11月每月定期5 d,每天06:00-18:00在四川省铁布自然保护区的冻列乡、崇尔乡、热尔乡观察记录四川梅花鹿行为发生过程、内容、结果及其周围生境.建立了四川梅花鹿的行为谱、警戒行为谱及其PAE编码系统,填补了有蹄类警戒行为PAE编码的空白.分辨并记录了四川梅花鹿的11种姿势、83种动作及136种行为,描述了各种行为的相对发生频次与性别、年龄、季节的关系.与其他有蹄类相比,梅花鹿的行为与鹿科其他动物有相似之处.

  13. Regulating power for gas boilers in houses. Surplus power from wind power plants for natural gas boilers; Regulerkraft pae villakedelomraedet. Overskuds-el fra vindmoeller til naturgaskedler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Michael; Frederiksen, Karsten V.

    2011-08-15

    The aim of the project is to clarify the potential development of a simple electric heating unit to gas installations in houses, so that natural gas for heating can be replaced with surplus wind power. The gas network in this way becomes an energy storage for power. In this preliminary project the aim is to estimate the value of these solutions and to verify in the lab, whether it is possible to establish and activate a simple and inexpensive electric heating unit on a typical gas boiler installation. In addition, it must be clarified whether it is possible to establish a simple communication with price signal from the balancing responsible. Based on the preliminary analyses and based on the electric heating unit, which is used in this project, it is estimated that there is a potential for the use of an electric heating unit on gas boilers in houses, and there is also a market, although there are limitations in relation to space and possibly also to the price. The price is estimated to be between 1,500 and 3,000 DKK per. installation (installed). However, this should be further investigated, including that the power balancing responsible /electricity trading companies assess the social value of using the electric heating unit as an element in the regulating power market. Regarding price signal, it is clear that communication opportunities are present at least with two of the balancing responsible companies, but it requires adaptation before a simple price signal to a gas boiler installation can be established. Price wise it is considered feasible. (LN)

  14. Understanding Specific Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiangchuan; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary E; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with various adverse effects on human brain and behavior. Recently, neuroimaging studies have begun to identify PAE effects on specific brain structures. Investigation of such specific PAE effects is important for understanding the teratogenic mechanism of PAE on human brain, which is critical for differentiating PAE from other disorders. In this structural MRI study with young adults, PAE effects on the volumes of automatically segmented cortical...

  15. 24 CFR 401.410 - Standards for determining comparable market rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rents for project-based assistance at comparable market rents unless the PAE finds that exception rents... rents charged for properties that the PAE determines to be comparable properties (as defined in section... control and other characteristics determined by the PAE. The PAE may make appropriate adjustments...

  16. 24 CFR 401.302 - PRA administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement.... The PAE must keep complete and accurate records of all activities related to the PAE's performance under the PRA. The PAE must retain the records for at least 3 years after the PRA terminates....

  17. 24 CFR 401.503 - Access to information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.503 Access to information. (a) PAE responsibilities. The PAE must provide to parties entitled to notice under § 401.501 access to information obtained by the PAE about the project and its management if the PAE determines that such information is reasonably likely...

  18. 24 CFR 401.402 - Cooperation with owner and qualified mortgagee in Restructuring Plan development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with owner and qualified mortgagee in Restructuring Plan development. A PAE must comply with section... demonstrated by reasonable progress in development of a Restructuring Plan) to the satisfaction of the PAE and HUD agrees, the PAE must notify the owner that the PAE will not develop a Restructuring Plan....

  19. 24 CFR 401.450 - Owner evaluation of physical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... information to the PAE in a form acceptable to the PAE: (1) All work items required to bring the project to... evaluation. If the PAE, after its independent review under § 401.451, determines that the owner's evaluation... rehabilitation, the owner may modify its evaluation to satisfy the concerns of the PAE....

  20. 24 CFR 401.501 - Delivery of notices and recipients of notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notices. (a) Whom must the owner or PAE notify? The PAE must notify, or ensure that the owner notifies... notices required by §§ 401.500 and 401.502. (b) Whom must the PAE notify? The PAE must notify: (1)...

  1. 24 CFR 401.473 - HUD grants for rehabilitation under section 236(s) of NA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...'s evaluation of physical condition under § 401.450, as certified by the PAE. The owner must execute a grant agreement with terms and conditions acceptable to HUD. If the PAE is a State or local government, or an agency or instrumentality of such a government, the PAE and HUD may agree that the PAE...

  2. Demonstration of cost effective low-energy buildings. Final report of the project 'Danish activities in the EU-CONCERTO project CLASS 1 in Stenloese'; Demonstration af omkostningseffektive lavenergibygninger. Afslutningsrapport fra EFP 2007 projektet 'Dansk indsats i EU-CONCERTO projektet CLASS 1 i Stenloese Syd'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J. (SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)); Dates Joergensen, M. (Egedal Kommune, Stenloese (Denmark))

    2011-01-15

    The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to strengthen the energy requirements for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings was to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the new Danish low-energy standard referred to as 'low-energy class 1' in a new settlement called Stenloese Syd. 65 dwellings were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m{sup 2}. Furthermore the Concerto community includes a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. After 3 years the kindergarten, the centre for elderly people, 65 dense lowrise housing units and 30 single family houses have been constructed. In parallel 15 deliverables/reports have been produced covering a number of different aspects: User preferences, proactive planning processes, product development, design guidelines, ecolabelling and training activities. A comparison was made of the calculated and measured energy consumption in a single-family house and in the KAB social housing project (65 dwellings). In the coming months the next demonstration buildings are to be completed, the extended district heating network (Plan B) including a woodchip furnace and a large array of solar collectors is to be implemented and the monitoring continued. The users will be followed and assisted and the lessons learned will be documented. It is expected that the experiences, lessons learned and R and D carried out as part of the Class 1 project will pave the way for the development, design and construction of sustainable, low or zero CO2-emission communities in the future. Further information about the Class1 project is to be found on the project website: www.class1.dk. (Author)

  3. Demonstration of cost effective low-energy buildings. Final report of the project 'Danish activities in the EU-CONCERTO project CLASS 1 in Stenloese'; Demonstration af omkostningseffektive lavenergibygninger. Afslutningsrapport fra EFP 2007 projektet 'Dansk indsats i EU-CONCERTO projektet CLASS 1 i Stenloese Syd'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J. (SBi, Aalborg (Denmark)); Dates Joergensen, M. (Egedal Kommune, Stenloese (Denmark))

    2011-01-15

    The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to strengthen the energy requirements for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings was to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the new Danish low-energy standard referred to as 'low-energy class 1' in a new settlement called Stenloese Syd. 65 dwellings were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m{sup 2}. Furthermore the Concerto community includes a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. After 3 years the kindergarten, the centre for elderly people, 65 dense lowrise housing units and 30 single family houses have been constructed. In parallel 15 deliverables/reports have been produced covering a number of different aspects: User preferences, proactive planning processes, product development, design guidelines, ecolabelling and training activities. A comparison was made of the calculated and measured energy consumption in a single-family house and in the KAB social housing project (65 dwellings). In the coming months the next demonstration buildings are to be completed, the extended district heating network (Plan B) including a woodchip furnace and a large array of solar collectors is to be implemented and the monitoring continued. The users will be followed and assisted and the lessons learned will be documented. It is expected that the experiences, lessons learned and R and D carried out as part of the Class 1 project will pave the way for the development, design and construction of sustainable, low or zero CO2-emission communities in the future. Further information about the Class1 project is to be found on the project website: www.class1.dk. (Author)

  4. Don Juan, Misantropen, Tartuffe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2011-01-01

    En kritisk analyse af tre Molière-opsætninger i 2010/2011 indsat i en diskussion af teaterkritiske principper, dramaturgi og forestillingsanalyse inddragende en generel diskussion af moderne iscenesættelser af klassiske skuespil....

  5. Alfred Hansen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Wind, Peter; Pedersen, Henrik Ærenlund

    2008-01-01

    Nekrolog over botanikeren Alfred Hansen, leder af Dansk Herbarium på Botanisk Museum, Københavns Universitet, med gennemgang af hans videnskabelige og formidlende publikationer og indsats som samler af videnskabeligt materiale.......Nekrolog over botanikeren Alfred Hansen, leder af Dansk Herbarium på Botanisk Museum, Københavns Universitet, med gennemgang af hans videnskabelige og formidlende publikationer og indsats som samler af videnskabeligt materiale....

  6. Nordlyset og skæbnen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2012-01-01

    Sophus Tromholt. Udforskningen af nordlyset blev hans livsopgave, men han var langt forud for sin tid, og i dag er hans indsats stort set ukendt. Det rådes der nu bod på.......Sophus Tromholt. Udforskningen af nordlyset blev hans livsopgave, men han var langt forud for sin tid, og i dag er hans indsats stort set ukendt. Det rådes der nu bod på....

  7. Bæredygtig transport- En undersøgelse af status og behov i samarbejde med DHL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Henning de; Pedersen, Anne; Søndergaard, Mads

      Formålet med undersøgelsen er, at tage temperaturen på et antal udvalgte virksomheders fokus og indsats omkring miljø og transport. Undersøgelsen er opdelt i tre hovedområder: Miljøpåvirkning fra transportMiljø som konkurrenceparameterMiljø indsats i forhold til forsyningskæden Undersøgelsen sk...

  8. Oluf Bertolt, 1891-1958. Manden, der ikke havde tid til at have travlt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Erik Strange

    2009-01-01

    Biografisk artikel om Oluf Bertolt. Med særlig vægt på hans indsats i arbejderbevægelsens oplysningsarbejde, specielt som leder af ABA og AOF, samt hans historiske og kulturhistoriske forfatterskab.......Biografisk artikel om Oluf Bertolt. Med særlig vægt på hans indsats i arbejderbevægelsens oplysningsarbejde, specielt som leder af ABA og AOF, samt hans historiske og kulturhistoriske forfatterskab....

  9. Use of the Malthus Microbial Growth Analyser to study the post antibiotic effect of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, I M; Jason, A C; Milne, K

    1989-10-01

    The post antibiotic effect (PAE) of ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, mecillinam and imipenem alone and in combination against Gram-negative bacteria was assessed by a new technique using a Malthus Microbial Growth Analyser. Ciprofloxacin gave the most prolonged and consistent PAE (1.3-2.9 h) and imipenem also gave a significant PAE against some bacterial strains (up to 1.3 h). The PAE of both antibiotics was dependent on concentration. The PAE of combinations of ciprofloxacin and imipenem often showed less PAE than was present with either agent alone. Ceftazidime gave no significant PAE (-1.5-0.4 h), though mecillinam consistently gave a short PAE (approximately 0.5 h) against Escherichia coli. The new method allows for the rapid and labour saving evaluation of PAE. We believe that further studies on PAE of antibiotic combinations are desirable.

  10. Support for Afghanistan’s Justice Sector: State Department Programs Need Better Management and Stronger Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    component from the contractor that previously implemented the JSSP— PAE Incorporated ( PAE )—to IDLO. This audit assesses (1) INL’s management of...from PAE to IDLO affects INL’ s oversight of the program, and (3) State’s efforts to coordinate justice sector programs in Afghanistan across...management and oversight of the Justice Sector Support Program (JSSP) contract with PAE Incorporated ( PAE ) limited its ability to assess the

  11. Loss of Life, Evacuation and Emergency Management - Application of Dutch Models to US Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    calculated for a reference situation, reflecting the ‘standard’ parameter settings for departure (departure curve), travel ( PAE , speed, road...3. PAE : on average there are 3 persons in one vehicle 4. Speed: vehicles travel with 12.5 mph 5. Out flow factor: 0.2, i.e., road capacities on the...times (nine variations): 1. Departure curve: 8 hrs departure curve 2. PAE : a. PAE : 2 persons per vehicle b. PAE : 4 persons per vehicle 3

  12. A cost-effective fulfilment of Denmark's reduction commitments. Documentation of projection and analyses of the energy sector; En omkostningseffektiv opfyldelse af Danmarks reduktionsforpligtelse - dokumentation af fremskrivning og analyser pae energiomraedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This documentation report describes the projections and analyses that formed the basis of an interdepartmental report 'En omkostningseffektiv klimastrategi' prepared by the Danish Ministry of Finance, the Danish Ministry of the Environment, the Danish Ministry of Economics and Business Affairs and the Danish Ministry of Taxation. The report contains: Projections of fuel prices, emissions and estimations of additional environmental impacts; Documentation for projections of future greenhouse gas emissions in the energy field; Documentation of the analyses of undertakings in the energy field. (ba)

  13. CO{sub 2} reduction cost for bio-diesel, Danish produced bio-diesel based on rape seed; CO{sub 2} reduktionsomkostninger ved biodiesel. Dansk produceret biodiesel pae raps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Kjellingbro, M.; Mogensen, Martin Frank; Kohl, M.

    2006-12-15

    Bio-diesel based on rape seed (RME, Rape Methyl Esther), often referred to as first generation bio-diesel, is a renewable fuel with CO{sub 2} reduction potential. Mixed with conventional diesel it can be used directly in existing diesel engines. The EU target for the use of bio-fuels in the transport sector was 2 % by 2005 and is 5.75 % by 2010. In Denmark, the use of bio-fuels in the transport sector is not viewed as a cost-effective CO{sub 2} reduction measure. This conclusion concerning the cost-effectiveness of bio-fuels was partly based on calculations of the CO2 reduction cost for Danish-produced RME made by the Danish Energy Authority in 2003. At that time the cost was estimated at 360 DKK/tonne CO{sub 2}. Since then some of the assumptions behind the calculations have changed. The overall objective of this report is to update the Danish Energy Authority's study from 2003, taking into account revised assumptions. The report also attempts to examine the uncertainties associated with the calculations by including extended sensitivity analyses. The report draws the following conclusions: 1) The CO{sub 2} reduction cost for Danish produced RME is estimated at 860 DKK/tonne CO{sub 2}, which is significantly higher than the result obtained by the Danish Energy Authority in 2003. 2) The difference from the Danish Energy Authority's original calculations is principally due to a higher rape seed price based on the market price on rape seed. 3) The uncertainty in both estimates is substantial, and there is about 15 % probability of the reduction costs being lower than the target of 180 DKK/tonne CO2 set by the government. (au)

  14. 封闭聚氨酯改性PAE纸张增湿强剂的研究%Study on Paper Wet Strength Agent of PAE Modified with Blocked Polyurethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚辉; 沈一丁; 唐新; 赖小娟

    2009-01-01

    以咪唑为封闭剂制备出封闭聚氨酯(BPU),用BPU代替部分环氧氯丙烷(ECH)与聚酰胺多胺反应得到改性PAE纸张增湿强剂(MPAE).研究了BPU封闭率、ECH添加量、助留剂及抄造系统pH值等因素对纸张件能的影响.结果表明,异氰酸酯基团比PAE分子中活性基团对提高纸张湿强性能更有效;ω(ECH)为25.71%时,纸张湿抗张指数和湿强度保留率分别达到7.08 N·m/g和33.6%;助留剂CPAM可间接提高MPAE的留着率;抄造系统的中(弱)碱性有利于发挥增湿强剂的应用性能.

  15. 封闭聚氨酯/PAE复合体的制备及其对纸张的增强作用%Preparation of Blocked Polyurethane/PAE Composite and Its Application in Paper Strengthening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚辉; 沈一丁; 唐新; 赖小娟

    2009-01-01

    以咪唑为封闭剂制备出含羧基封闭聚氨酯(BPU),聚酰胺多胺与环氧氯丙烷在封闭聚氨酯中反应得到封闭聚氨酯/聚酰胺多胺环氧氯丙烷复合体纸张增强剂.研究了增强剂组分和添加量对纸张的增强作用,并用FT-IR和TEM分别对BPU分子结构及乳胶粒形态进行了表征.结果表明,增强剂中适量添加BPU可使湿抗张指数从4.93 N·m/g增至7.08 N·m/g,增幅高达43.61%;产物分子结构中出现了咪唑环和聚氨酯结构;乳胶粒粒径与BPU质量分数密切相关,乳胶粒形态呈不规则球形.

  16. "See on ülesanne, mis mõtlevate inimeste üle jõu on käinud" : valdade liitmise reformid Eestis / Taavi Pae, Erki Tammiksaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Taavi, 1976-

    2015-01-01

    Esimeset valdade reformist Eesti alal. Valdade reformi takerdumisest iseseisvas Eestis. 1939. aastal jõustunud omavalitsuste reformi tagamaadest. Teise valdade liitmise reformi käigust. Peamistest probleemidest vallapiiride muutmisel.

  17. "See on ülesanne, mis mõtlevate inimeste üle jõu on käinud" : valdade liitmise reformid Eestis / Taavi Pae, Erki Tammiksaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Taavi, 1976-

    2015-01-01

    Esimeset valdade reformist Eesti alal. Valdade reformi takerdumisest iseseisvas Eestis. 1939. aastal jõustunud omavalitsuste reformi tagamaadest. Teise valdade liitmise reformi käigust. Peamistest probleemidest vallapiiride muutmisel.

  18. PAE湿强剂在彩色纱管(贴面)纸中的应用%The Application of PAE Wet Strength Agent in Colored Bobbin Paper(Surface)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡安琍

    2014-01-01

    该文介绍了湿强剂聚酰胺多胺环氧氯丙烷树脂(PAE树脂)在纺织用彩色纱管(贴面)纸中的应用,研究了PAE湿强剂对不施胶纸、施胶纸、不同酸值的施胶纸和染色施胶纸的湿增强作用,同时研究了PAE湿强剂与其他助剂的共用效果,研究了PAE湿强剂用量对湿增强效果的影响.结果表明,PAE湿强剂对经过施胶具有抗水性的纸张,其湿增强效果明显.

  19. PAE砂浆在水工混凝土防渗加固修补中的应用%Application of PAE Mortar in Reinforcement and Repair for Seepage Prevention of Hydraulic Concrete Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚爱民; 彭玉林

    2002-01-01

    简述PAE砂浆的材料组成、配比、性能及施工工艺,指出采用PAE砂浆作为修补材料应用于水工混凝土防渗加固修补中,其施工工艺简单,性能可靠,是一种较为可行的处理措施.

  20. Development and demonstration of Denmark's first low-energy class 1 office building with focus on electricity consumption. Final report; Udvikling og demonstration af Danmarks foerste lavenergiklasse 1 kontorbyggeri med fokus pae elforbrug. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephansen, C. [En2tech, Skanderborg (Denmark); Nellemose Knudsen, H. [Aalborg Univ., Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Koebenhavn (Denmark); Busk Rohde, T. [EnergiMidt, Silkeborg (Denmark); Nielsen, Allan [Insight Building Automation, Silkeborg (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The company EnergiMidt's new office building is established as a low-energy class 1 building, and although it has shown a significantly higher consumption than expected in the first 1.5 years of operation, extensive experience and knowledge of the development and implementation of a low-energy class 1 building was provided, as well as of the possibilities for improvements so that low energy requirements can realistically be achieved. Employees' expectations for the new systems and indoor climate are largely met, but considerable experience is also gained about how to introduce and adapt new technology in the workplace for the employees. (LN)

  1. Breeding Season Behavior Ethogram and PAE Coding System of Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia)%白琵鹭(Platalea leucorodia)繁殖期行为谱及PAE编码系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秉书; 高智晟; 崔守斌; 张翼翔; 陈辉

    2014-01-01

    本研究采用焦点动物取样法和所有事件记录法对七星河保护区白琵鹭繁殖期的行为进行了观察,建立其繁殖期行为谱及PAE编码系统.本研究共分辨并记录了白琵鹭的10种姿势、51种动作和92种行为;并将繁殖期白琵鹭的行为依其功能的不同分为16类,在PAE编码系统中把各种行为的相对发生频次与性别、年龄、季节的关系直接对应.结果表明:雌雄行为差别不大,只是雄性在繁殖期会出现求偶炫耀行为,雏鸟行为比较简单;繁殖期行为和个体行为中温度调节行为、通讯行为和杂项行为表现出季节性特点.

  2. Towards the methane society? Use of hydrogen for upgrading biogas and synthetic methane production. Phase 1. Final report; Pae vej mod metansamfundet? - anvendelse af brint til opgradering af biogas og kunstig metanfremstilling. Fase 1. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Claus [Agro Business Park, Tjele (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Biogas consists of methane (CH4) and CO{sub 2}. If you react hydrogen produced with wind power with CO{sub 2} in sulfur purified biogas you get biogas upgraded to pure methane, ie. to natural gas quality. The pure methane can for example be sold via the natural gas grid or pressurized and sold for transport. The purpose of the present project is to contribute to the development of a concept and a technology that can store wind energy into the existing natural gas network through the upgrading of CO{sub 2} in biogas. Overall the project combines the technique and concept of electrolysis, biogas upgrading and natural gas network, so that: - electrolysis creates hydrogen and heat from wind turbines; - CO{sub 2} in biogas reacts with H2 from the electrolysis and produces CH4 and high-value steam by biogas reacting directly with H2 in a catalyst ; - The natural gas network is used as distribution and storage of the produced methane. The following main results are achieved in the first phase: - Design and construction of a pilot plant for the purification of biogas, which allows a Sabatier reaction later in the methanization process; - Sensitivity analyses have been carried out of methane prices, which have proven to be competitive compared to other upgrading technologies in the market; - A business plan is developed for a demonstration plant, which among other things will be used in phase 2: demonstration plant. The competitor analysis shows, among other things, a higher efficiency rate of the Danish technology than on the methanization plants being developed in Germany. (LN)

  3. DESIK final report. Energy wise design and regulation of the secondary side of indirect cooling systems with natural coolants; DESIK slutrapportering. Energirigtig design og regulering af sekundaersiden pae indirekte koeleanlaeg med naturlige koelemidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsen, Arne

    2006-02-15

    The project's aim was to produce knowledge and tools to facilitate the process of implementing energy efficient secondary cooling systems, or merely to avoid overconsumption of energy on account of insufficient relevant professional background. The project has been communicated as a PC tool, which can be ordered from aj(commercial at)ipu.dk. Project focus has been on some general aspects of secondary systems as well as two scopes of application: supermarket cooling systems and air conditioning of office buildings. (BA)

  4. 仿酶催化剂制备及催化降解PAEs类污染物%Preparation of Mimetic Enzyme Catalyst and Its Application in the Degradation of PAES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫绍轩; 王何圆; 靳松; 李乃瑄

    2013-01-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared through the method of advanced ultrasound-assisted reverse co-precipitation, then hydroxyl-functionalized magnetic nanocomposite microspheres were prepared by way of seed emulsion co-polymerization utilizing Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles as seeds, at last the mimetic enzyme catalyst was prepared by means of binding hemins to the above-mentioned magnetic nanocomposite microspheres using cyanuric chloride as the bridging agents. The catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), UV-visible (LTV-Vis) spectrophotometer with integrating sphere, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Results showed that the catalyst, with an average particle size of 10~12nm, had a smooth granularity and good dispersibility and displayed some degree of paramagnetic behavior at 300 K, with the saturation magnetization and magnetic nanoparticles content being 21.61 emu/g and 52.50 wt% respectively. The catalyst, in the presence of ultraviolet light and H2O2, exhibited a high oxidative degradation activity for DMP in aqueous solution and still had a good effect after repeated use, so a possible reaction mechanism was proposed.%采用超声辅助反向共沉淀法制得磁纳米Fe3O4颗粒,然后以磁纳米Fe3O4颗粒为种子采用种子乳液聚合法制得羟基功能化的磁纳米复合物微球,再以三聚氯氰为桥联剂键合氯化血红素制得仿酶催化剂.利用傅里叶变换红外光谱仪(FT-IR)、配置积分球的紫外-可见(UV-Vis)分光光度计、透射电子显微镜(TEM)、热重分析仪(TGA)和振动样品磁强计(VSM)对催化剂进行了表征.结果表明,催化剂粒径大小为10~12 nm,粒度均一,分散性好,在300 K下具有一定顺磁性,饱和磁化强度为21.61 emu/g,磁性物质含量为52.50 wt%.催化剂在紫外光照和H2O2存在下对水中邻苯二甲酸二甲酯(DMP)有较高的氧化降解活性,且重复使用效果较好,因此对其反应机理进行了探讨.

  5. 24 CFR 401.2 - What special definitions apply to this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a project and any purchaser of the project. PAE means a participating administrative entity as.... PCA means a physical condition assessment of a project prepared by a PAE under § 401.451. PRA means...

  6. 24 CFR 401.303 - PRA indemnity provisions for SHFAs and HAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring... PAE in accordance with section 513(a)(2)(G) of MAHRA, any payment under this indemnity is...

  7. 24 CFR 401.401 - Consolidated Restructuring Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.401 Consolidated Restructuring Plans. A PAE may request... contribute to more efficient use of the PAE's resources. Notwithstanding the more efficient use of a...

  8. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  9. 24 CFR 401.405 - Restructuring Commitment review and approval by HUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... condition for approval, or reject the Plan. If the Plan is rejected, HUD will inform the PAE of the reasons for rejection, and the PAE will inform the owner. HUD's rejection of the Plan is subject to...

  10. 24 CFR 401.472 - Rehabilitation funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... extent the PAE determines that those accounts will not be needed for the initial deposit to the reserves... respect to significant added features, the required owner contribution will be as proposed by the PAE and... plan includes additions other than those specified, and the PAE considers the additions...

  11. 24 CFR 401.502 - Notice requirement when debt restructuring will not occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will not occur. (a) PAE responsibility. If an owner of an eligible project requests a renewal of a section 8 contract without a Restructuring Plan under § 402.4 of this chapter, HUD or the PAE must notify.... The PAE should remove project expense, property valuation, and profit and loss information...

  12. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) Broadband Power Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Pcomp-6x50 µm PHEMT). .............4 Figure 4. An 8-GHz load-pull simulation of PAE (6x50 µm PHEMT). ........................................4...layout. ..........................................................................9 Figure 12. MMIC 5–11 GHz output power and PAE performance...6x50 µm PHEMT). ...........11 Figure 16. A 4-GHz load-pull simulation of PAE (6x50 µm PHEMT). ......................................12 Figure 17

  13. 24 CFR 401.460 - Modification or refinancing of first mortgage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgage. (a) Principal amount. As part of the Restructuring Plan, the PAE will determine the size of the... modification under the Restructuring Plan. The debt service coverage used by the PAE must be adequate for... determined by the PAE to be above normal processing fees must be paid by the owner from non-project funds...

  14. 24 CFR 401.311 - Standards of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA... performance of any PRA and during the term of such PRA, a PAE or other restricted person (as defined in § 401... any person who is seeking official action from HUD or the PAE in connection with the PRA or...

  15. 24 CFR 401.480 - Sale or transfer of project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to sell or transfer. (1) The owner must provide notice to the PAE affirming the owner's intent to sell or transfer the property. This notice must be received by the PAE no later than 30 days after a... result in the PAE's determination to reject the owner's request for a Restructuring Plan. The owner...

  16. 24 CFR 402.4 - Contract renewals under section 524(a)(1) of MAHRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... part, HUD or a PAE will determine whether renewal under this section, instead of through a... § 401.502(c) of this chapter. (ii) If HUD or the PAE determines that renewal under this section would be sufficient, HUD will not require a Restructuring Plan. (iii) If HUD or the PAE determines that renewal...

  17. 24 CFR 401.309 - PRA term and termination provisions; other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring... agreement of both parties. The PRA will provide for HUD to pay final compensation to the PAE and to assign... required by HUD as provided in the PRA only for matters authorized by the PRA and performed by the PAE...

  18. 24 CFR 401.403 - Rejection of a request for a Restructuring Plan because of actions or omissions of owner or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Restructuring Plan, the PAE is responsible for a further more complete and ongoing assessment of the eligibility of the owner and project while the Restructuring Plan is developed. The PAE must advise HUD if at any... rejection—(1) Suspension or debarment. Neither a PAE nor HUD will continue to develop or consider...

  19. 24 CFR 401.421 - Rental Assistance Assessment Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... For any project not subject to mandatory project-based assistance under § 401.420, the PAE must... units should be converted to tenant-based assistance. (b) Matters to be assessed. The PAE must include... assistance may occur over a period of not more than 5 years if the PAE decides the transition period...

  20. 24 CFR 401.554 - Contract renewal and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authority). The offer will be made by HUD directly or through a PAE that has contracted with HUD to be a contract administrator for such contracts. HUD will offer to any PAE that is qualified to be the section 8... restructured under a Restructuring Plan developed by the PAE under the Mark-to-Market Program....

  1. 24 CFR 401.481 - Subsidy layering limitations on HUD funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.481 Subsidy layering limitations on HUD funds. (a) PAE subsidy layering certification required for Restructuring Plan. The PAE must certify to HUD that any... limit a PAE from presenting for approval a Restructuring Plan that includes project reconfiguration...

  2. 78 FR 71613 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... part of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``PAE Reports: Paperwork Comment; Project No... to use this information to add to the existing literature and evidence on PAE activity. These... before December 16, 2013. Write ``PAE Reports: Paperwork Comment; Project No. P131203'' on your...

  3. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish management... or referenced in the Restructuring Plan. (b) HUD guidelines. At a minimum, the PAE's management..., including termination of the management agent for cause. (c) Conflicts of interest. The PAE...

  4. 24 CFR 401.500 - Required notices to third parties and meeting with third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... third parties and meeting with third parties. (a) General. The PAE must solicit, and document the...) and (f) of this section, in form and substance acceptable to HUD, must be provided. The PAE may... Project Number; (ii) The responsible PAE and contact person, including the address and telephone...

  5. Competitive adsorption of a phthalate esters mixture by chitosan bead and alpha-cyclodextrin-linked chitosan bead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ying-Chien; Chen, Chih-Yu

    2009-12-01

    The competitive adsorption effect by chitosan bead and alpha-cyclodextrin-linked chitosan bead on a mixture of six phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated. The adsorption efficiency of short-chain hydrophilic PAEs was reduced when long-chain hydrophobic PAEs co-existed in the solution. Moreover, the adsorption efficiency of adsorbents for PAE is correlated to the distribution ratio (Kd), which shows that the Kd of hydrophobic PAEs is higher than that of hydrophilic PAEs. Both chitosan bead and alpha-cyclodextrin-linked chitosan bead exhibit the same phenomenon. The effect of alpha-cyclodextrin (CD)-linked chitosan bead is more significant compared with that of chitosan bead. Furthermore, it is observed that both adsorbents spontaneously adsorb PAEs by free energy (deltaG0), but the hydrophilic PAE co-existing with DMP (dimethyl phthalate) results in less entropy (deltaS0) change compared with a hydrophobic PAE co-existing with DMP. In a continuous system to treat a PAE mixture, hydrophobic PAE shows a higher breakthrough capacity than hydrophilic PAE. Moreover, the competitive adsorption results in the laboratory were comparable with those in field studies.

  6. Strategi og samtænkning, input til afsnit 7.a i Forsvarskommissionens sikkerhedspolitiske udredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2008-01-01

    Dette notat definerer samtænkning, introducerer den strategiske kontekst som samtænkning udspringer af, foretager en kort evaluering af den danske indsats til dato og opstiller tre anbefalinger til hvordan den fremtidige indsats kan styrkes. Det konkluderes, at:   1) samtænkning er logisk...... konsekvens af vestens forsøg på at bruge militær magt til at skabe varig fred og demokrati siden afslutningen på den kolde krig. Samtænkning er følgelig kommet for at blive og vil ikke gå af mode, når Afghanistan og Irak er ovre; 2) den danske indsats til dato er tilfredsstillende set i lyset af...

  7. Fra krigshelt til bums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamshiri-Petersen, Kaveh

    2010-01-01

    Der er behov for en helhedsorienteret indsats med både et psykologisk og et sociologisk sigte, når udstationerede soldater vender hjem til de rutiner, hverdage og sociale relationer, der har været på hold i forbindelse med udsendelse til et missionsområde......Der er behov for en helhedsorienteret indsats med både et psykologisk og et sociologisk sigte, når udstationerede soldater vender hjem til de rutiner, hverdage og sociale relationer, der har været på hold i forbindelse med udsendelse til et missionsområde...

  8. Laboratorieforsøg med fuger omkring trævinduer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, U.

    Rapporten beskriver en undersøgelse af fugtforholdene i fuger og karmtræ i vinduer indsat i massivt murværk. Ved undersøgelsen er ikke konstateret skadelige virkninger af at bruge et-trins fugemassefuger omkring trævinduer i ældre massive mure.......Rapporten beskriver en undersøgelse af fugtforholdene i fuger og karmtræ i vinduer indsat i massivt murværk. Ved undersøgelsen er ikke konstateret skadelige virkninger af at bruge et-trins fugemassefuger omkring trævinduer i ældre massive mure....

  9. Thermal and enzymatic pretreatment of sludge containing phthalate esters prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Yenal, U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of thermal pretreatment of sludge at 70degreesC on the anaerobic degradation of three commonly found phthalic acid esters (PAE): di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Also, the enzymatic treatment....../biological activity. Therefore, thermal pretreatment of sludge containing PAE should be either avoided or combined with a treatment step focusing on PAE reduction. On the other hand, enzymatic treatment was very efficient in the removal of PAE. The enzymatic degradation of DBP, DEP, and DEHP could be one to two...... at 28degreesC with a commercial lipase was studied as a way to enhance PAE removal. Pretreatment at 70degreesC of the sludge containing PAE negatively influenced the anaerobic biodegradability of phthalate esters at 37degreesC. The observed reduction of PAE biodegradation rates after the thermal...

  10. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Green

    Full Text Available A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae, is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae. On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae, isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree.

  11. Måling af fremdriften i arbejdsmiljøarbejdet: Arbejdsmiljøet for børn og unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jørgen Møller; Ørhede, Elsa; Hasle, Peter

    En undersøgelse af virksomhedernes indsats for at beskytte børn og unge fra risici og for at overholde arbejdsmiljølovgivningen. Baseret på telefoninterview og virksomhedsbesøg i en stikprøve af virksomheder....

  12. Sundhedsfremmende egenomsorg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Dette kapitel giver et billede af, hvordan patienterfaringer kan bidrage til at kaste nyt lys over et sundhedsfagligt begreb – her begrebet egenomsorg. Egenomsorg er et centralt begreb i den sundhedsprofessionelle indsat for patienter med kroniske lidelser og for geriatriske patienter, men vi ved...

  13. Konsensusstyring i kvarterløft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, L.A.; Bayer, S.; Tarnø, C.S.

    i 4 af de 7 kvarterløftområder: Holmbladsgadekvarteret i København, Avedøre Stationsby i Hvidovre Kommune, Aalborg Øst og Tøjhushavekvarteret i Randers. Kommunernes arbejde med at omsætte kvarterløftstrategien i en effektiv indsats kan anskues som netværksstyring. Rapportens centrale pointe er...

  14. Publicering og arbejdsmiljø, Department of Business Studies - Institut 3, Aalborg Universitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ane Søndergaard; Baldursson, Einar Baldvin

    2011-01-01

    Et organisationspsykologisk projekt med det formål at danne et organisationsportræt og fremkomme med anbefalinger om, hvordan kan man styrke instituttets indsats omkring publicering. Herunder hvordan man kan hjælpe de mindre aktive i gang. Resultatet er præsenteret på institutseminar og i aftager...

  15. Hurtigt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Graversen, Brian; Damgaard, Bodil; Rosdahl, Anders

    hurtigere i job. Det gjaldt for alle grupper af ledige, men effekten var særlig stor for akademikere. Tilsyneladende har mange stærke ledige hurtigt selv fundet et job, for at undgå at deltage i aktiviteterne under den intensive indsats. Svagere ledige synes derimod at være blevet hjulpet i gang af...

  16. Den europæiske koncert og Europas syge mand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    At Osmannerriget i flere perioder blev beskyttet af England og Frankrig og endte med at blive Tysklands og Østrig-Ungarns allierede under Første Verdenskrig er en af de ejendommelige, og i sidste ende afgørende, facetter af Første Verdenskrig. Det skyldtes i høj grad en tysk diplomatisk indsats, ...

  17. Krisen som udfordring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Om Thorupstrand Kystfiskerlaug, Han Herred Puljefiskeri og Han Herred Havbådes innovative bidrag til en samlet indsats for at sikre kystfiskeriet i Skagerrak fra åben strand som en levende og håndværksbåret kystkultur i Danmark. Den venturekapitalistiske højkonjunktur, regeringens privatiseringsp...

  18. Økologisk risikovurdering af genmodificeret amylopectin-kartoffel AM04-1020 med ændret stivelsesindhold i anmeldelse vedr. markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov;

    2011-01-01

    DMUs konklusioner for den økologiske risikovurdering af den genmodificerede kartoffel AM04-1020 i Danmark Den genmodificerede kartoffel, AM04-1020, adskiller sig fra konventionelle kartofler ved at have indsat gener der ændrer sammensætningen af stivelse i knoldene fra amylose mod øget indhold af...

  19. Hurtigt i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Graversen, Brian; Damgaard, Bodil; Rosdahl, Anders

    hurtigere i job. Det gjaldt for alle grupper af ledige, men effekten var særlig stor for akademikere. Tilsyneladende har mange stærke ledige hurtigt selv fundet et job, for at undgå at deltage i aktiviteterne under den intensive indsats. Svagere ledige synes derimod at være blevet hjulpet i gang af...

  20. The effect of medicines management at the emergency department on medication appropriateness and hospitalization – a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Graabæk

    Baggrund: Det er vist, at mellem 5 % og 30 % af alle akutte indlæggelser skyldes lægemiddelrelaterede problemer, hvoraf mange er vurderet forebyggelige. Flere nyere udenlandske studier har vist, at en omfattende klinisk farmaceutisk indsats resulterer i signifikant mere hensigtsmæssig lægemiddelb...

  1. Management and implementation of ecological measures in human resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrose, I.(red.); Christiansen, U.(red.)

    Rapporten, der er på engelsk, indeholder kollokviets foredrag og konklusioner. Overskriften var "Forvaltning og gennemførelse af byøkologiske forholdsregler". To hovedområder for den økologiske indsats i byerne blev behandlet: Fornyelse af centrale bydele og forbedring af grønne områder i byer og...

  2. Gregory Bateson - Systemisk læringsteori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Laursen, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen giver en kort introduktion til den engelske antropolog og læringsforsker Gregory Bateson (1904 -1980). Udgangspunktet er, at Bateson har leveret en banebrydende original indsats inden for konstruktivistisk læringsteori og den dag i dag kan tilbyde os nye, overraskende og perspektivrige...

  3. Evaluering af lokale udviklingsprocesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    Rapporten udgør arbejdspapir nr 14 i forskningsprojektet "Handlekompetence i pædagogiske arbejde med socialt udsatte børn og unge - indsats og effekt (HPA-projektet). Rapporten diskuterer det grundlæggende spørgsmål: Hvad er evaluering? Herunder spørgsmål om hvilke dimensioner der skal medtænkes ...

  4. Livsstil & risiko

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lisbet Vestergaard; Reinhold, Anette; Nauerby, Tom

    Hensigtsmæssig sundhedsadfærd forstået ud fra en dansk kontekst vil måske ikke altid give mening for etniske minoriteter i Danmark. Bogen vil inspirere og anvise måder at handle på, så sundhedspersonalets indsats giver mening på tværs af kulturelle barrierer....

  5. Bad management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita

    Burn Out (udbrændthed) beskrives i organisationslitteraturen som et individuelt fænomen, der viser sig som følge af ubalance mellem indsats og belønning i arbejdsmæssige relationer. Burn out er karakteriseret ved reaktionsformer, der indebærer depersonalisering og tilbagetrækning fra sociale rela...

  6. Adaptation, data quality and confirmatory factor analysis of the Danish version of the PACIC questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sokolowski, Ineta; Vedsted, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Internationalt bruges PACIC-spørgeskemaet til at måle patienter med kronisk sygdom til evaluering af sundhedsvæsenets indsats. Vi lavede en videnskabelig og standardiseret oversættelse af den engelske version. Vi genfandt de fem skalaer, som endvidere viste gode egenskaber for et spørgeskema. Der...

  7. Evaluering af lokale udviklingsprocesser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    Rapporten udgør arbejdspapir nr 14 i forskningsprojektet "Handlekompetence i pædagogiske arbejde med socialt udsatte børn og unge - indsats og effekt (HPA-projektet). Rapporten diskuterer det grundlæggende spørgsmål: Hvad er evaluering? Herunder spørgsmål om hvilke dimensioner der skal medtænkes ...

  8. Traumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    I filmen betragtes traumer som uoprettelige sår, der ikke heles. Det understreges, hvor vigtigt det er med en sammenhængende indsats overfor den traumatiserede. Vi følger bl.a. Aminula fra Afghanistan, Hazim fra Bosnien og Inen fra Irak, som oplever den vanskelige vej ud af isolationen med traume...

  9. Strukturreformen og beskæftigelsespolitikken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    2006-01-01

    Med strukturreformen følger en omfattende reform af det beskæftigelsespolitiske system. En fuldstændig kommunalisering blev det dog ikke til. Der er potentiale for en bedre indsats, men også mange snubletråde. Hele operationen gennemføres, mens der er fuldt tryk på det danske arbejdsmarked...

  10. Hvordan ender det?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmvig, Helle; Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    Danmark vil efter al sandsynlighed være engageret i krigene i Irak og Syrien i mange år fremover, og i den periode kan USA meget vel skrue op for den militære indsats. Hvis ikke den danske regering præsenterer en langsigtet strategi for engagementet i de to lande, kan det ende med en situation so...

  11. Danish general practitioners' self-reported competences in end-of-life care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Anna; Neergaard, Mette; Vedsted, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    % gjorde altid/ofte) end til patienter med kronisk obstruktiv lungesygdom og hjertesvigt. Den palliative indsats i almen praksis var dårligt organiseret, da kun 9 % af lægerne havde registreret deres palliative patienter, og kun 18 % havde faste palliative procedurer. Resultaterne viser, at der er...

  12. Fra kold krig til internationalt engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren; Muusfeldt, Henrik; Hansen, Bent

    Historien om de tre korvetter Niels Juel, Olfert Fischer og Peter Tordenskiold er det danske søværns historie fra den Kolde Krig og frem til dagens globale indsats. Oprindeligt tiltænkt en rolle som lillebrødre til søværnets fregatter kom korvetterne efter fregatternes udfasning i 1988 til at opt...

  13. Økologisk modernisering på dansk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    sektorer og politikker kan ses som en modernisering af samfundet. Netop en forestilling om økologisk modernisering er vundet frem siden 1980'erne i den miljøfaglige debat blandt akademikere, planlæggere og praktikere. Grundtanken er at en miljøindsats ikke bare er til gavn for miljøet men også for industri...

  14. Inklusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Ane; Qvortrup, Lars

    Siden 2012, hvor inklusion i almenundervisningen for alvor kom på dagsordenen, har der været en stor interesse for inklusion og mulige måder de enkelte institutioner kan gøre en indsats for inklusion. Men holdningen til og erfaringen med inklusion har været vidt forskellige. "Inklusion - Den inkl...

  15. Mange måder at lære på

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted

    2010-01-01

    Formidlingsartikel, der præsenterer resultater fra min "MMALP" (Mange måder at lære på) følgeforskning på skoler i Vejle kommune - i denne artikel med hovedvægt på effekten af ICDP-indsats (Karsten Hundeides samspilstemaer for gode relationer og kommunkation i klassen)...

  16. Management and implementation of ecological measures in human resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrose, I.(red.); Christiansen, U.(red.)

    Rapporten, der er på engelsk, indeholder kollokviets foredrag og konklusioner. Overskriften var "Forvaltning og gennemførelse af byøkologiske forholdsregler". To hovedområder for den økologiske indsats i byerne blev behandlet: Fornyelse af centrale bydele og forbedring af grønne områder i byer og...

  17. Midtvejsevaluering af Pulje til Landsbyfornyelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Blach, Vigdis E. Magnusdatter

    og bidrage til en helhedsorienteret og fremadrettet indsats i en række kommuner i de danske yderområder. Midtvejsevalueringen belyser effekten af puljen og kommunernes erfaringer med administrationen af puljen. Evalueringen er gennemført som en internet-baseret spørgeskemaundersøgelse (survey) blandt...

  18. Om zeppelinere, forsvaret af København, blokaden af Tyskland og spionanklagen mod ritmester Frederik Moltke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Michael Hesselholt

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen følger Hærens indkøbschef, ritmester Frederik Moltkes, virksomhed i England fra eftersommeren 1915. Han endte på grund af sin energiske indsats også som fungerende militærattaché samt gennem halvbrorens profil som dansk gesandt i Berlin med at blive spionmistænkt og fanget i den britiske...

  19. Kan daginstitutioner gøre en forskel?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    Rapporten/artiklen udgør nummer fire i en serie på ialt 14 arbejdspapirer i serien af arbejdspapirer knyttet til forksningsprojektet "Handlekompetence i pædagogisk arbejde med socialt udsatte børn og unge - indsats og effekt" (HPA-projektet) HPA-Serie No1. Rapporten indkredser på baggrund af...

  20. Implementeringsprocesser i pædagogisk praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente; Rasbech Nelsen, Mie

    Rapporten/artiklen er nummer tolv i serien af arbejdspapirer knyttet til forskningsprojektet "Handlekompetencer i pædagogisk arbejde med socialt udsatte børn og unge - indsats og effekt" (HPA-projektet). Det grundlæggende spørgsmål i HPA-projektets interventionsdel, som antages at få afgørende...

  1. Evaluering af "Organisering og Samspilsrelationer" Aalborg Kommunes projekt om Kræftrehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Byg, Vibeke; Seemann, Janne

    2009-01-01

    Rapporten evaluerer et forsøg på tidlig indsats i kræftrehabilitering og vurderer de organisatoriske og ledelsesmæssige forhold i forsøget som involverer et samarbejde mellem kommune, Aalborg Sygehus og Kræftens Bekæmpelse...

  2. Manual reduktion af pattegrisedødelighed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Serup, Tove

    svært at opretholde en målrettet indsats. Aarhus Universitet, Det Jordbrugsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Foulum har siden 2007 arbejdet på forskningsprojektet Reduceret pattegrisedødelighed og fravænningsdiarre. Et af produkterne fra dette projekt er denne manual for reduktion af pattegrisedødelighed...

  3. Afghanistan erfaringsopsamling 2001-2014 del III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steen Bornholdt; Klingenberg Vistisen, Niels; Hansen Schøning, Anna Sofie

    perspektivering for fremtidige indsatser i muligt omfang søges sammenholdt med indikatorerne for Fremskridt: Sikkerhed, Regeringsførelse og Udvikling. Rapporten beskriver således kun et udsnit af den samlede indsats i Afghanistan 2001-2014, nemlig stabiliseringsmidler for ca. 16 mio. kr. og CIMIC-midler for ca. 7...... mio. kr....

  4. Evaluering - Den særlige byfornyelsesindsats 2004-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne; Graulund, Aske; Scherg, Rune Holst

    Rapporten belyser og sammenfatter resultaterne af den særlige byfornyelsesindsats. Baggrunden er, at Socialministeriet i 2004 fordelte 100 mio.kr. til udvikling af nye metoder til helhedsorienteret indsats i udsatte boligområder. Midlerne blev fordelt til 11 kommuner til at igangsætte en udvikling...

  5. Planer for den andens liv II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breumlund, Anne; Hansen, Inger Bruun

    Undersøgelsen viser, hvordan den socialpædagogiske indsats på botilbuddet Højskolebakken skaber forandringer i hveragslivet for en gruppe unge med autisme, som har tillægsdiagnoser, udfordrende adfærd, misbrug eller har udøvet kriminalitet. Anden rapport fra forskningsprojektet: "Den pædagogiske og...

  6. Kortlægning og måling af opgaver i efterskolernes vejledning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    DPU har i samarbejde med Efterskoleforeningen gennemført Kortlægning og måling af opgaver i efterskolernes vejledning. Resultatet af dette arbejde præsenteres i denne rapport. Undersøgelsen indgår i en større forskningsmæssig indsats med titlen Evaluering og dokumentation af efterskolernes vejled...

  7. It og udvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachmann, Roland; Carlsen, Dorthe

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen sætter fokus på fagteamets arbejde med at udvikle fagene med fokus på it og digitale læremidler. Der gives, gennem konkrete modeller og værktøjer, eksempler på hvordan fagteamet kan gøre en indsats i forhold til deres nuværende praksis....

  8. Sundhedspædagogik og kommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engers, Anna C.; Hagstrøm, Jean; Gøtzsche, Birgitte

    Undervisningen i faget 'Sundhedspædagogik og kommunikation' fokuserer på SOSU-assistentens opgaver i forbindelser med at inddrage og ansvarliggøre borgerne i deres egen indsats på at fremme sundhed og forebygge sygdomme, samt i rehabiliterende forløb. Lærebogen "Sundhedspædagogik og kommunikation...

  9. Høringssvar til høring om partnerlande – Hvor Danmark skal gøre en forskel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2010-01-01

    udviklingsrelaterede) er kendt fra bl.a. Forsvarskommissionen af 2008 og det nyligt udgivne Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review fra US Department of State. I en integreret indsats skelnes mellem den strategiske prioritering og instrumenternes anvendelse. Dette høringssvar opstiller principper for, hvordan man...

  10. Aarhus Universitet - Åbent mod Verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Ebbe

    forandring, og det engang så lukkede land lader eksperter få et indblik, som vil styrke vores forbindelser med den dynamiske asiatiske stormagt. I Ecuador er naturens rigdomme under pres. Den første betingelse for at standse nedslidningen er større viden – og derefter en indsats for genopretning og bevarelse...

  11. Sygeplejersken skal tale med selvmordstruede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Inger; Bech, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Dødstanker. Hvert år tager omkring 730 mennesker i Danmark deres eget liv, mens 10 gange så mange forsøger på det. Sygeplejersker kan med en aktiv indsats være med til at forebygge problemet....

  12. Fate of phthalate esters in municipal wastewater treatment plant and their environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minghao; Song, Yonghui; Zhang, Yizhang; Liu, Ruixia; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The fate and distribution of six phthalate esters (PAEs) in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) employing an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process were investigated. The process achieved relatively high removal efficiencies of PAEs in the range 55-97%. It illustrated that biotransformation and sludge-adsorption were major elimination pathways by analyzing the mass balance and flux of PAEs. About 83% of ∑PAEs was entirely removed by A(2)/O bioreactors indicating biotransformation is the dominant removal mechanism. PAEs with shorter alkyl chain length and higher water solubility were more biodegradable. Less than 6% of ∑PAEs were removed by excess sludge adsorption. The sludge-adsorption capacity of PAE depends on its hydrophobicity. The levels and fluxes of PAEs were analyzed by monitoring different sites of the receiving river of the WWTP effluent to clarify the potential impact of discharge. Daily flux of PAEs upstream and downstream of the discharging point were 113 kg·d(-1) and 205 kg·d(-1), respectively, which were higher than the effluent devotion value of 6.67 kg·d(-1). It suggested that the emissions from the WWTP appeared to be less than those from the other possible sources, such as potential untreated discharge and surface runoff. Improvement of wastewater collection efficiencies is necessary to eliminate the PAE load in the urban river.

  13. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-08-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250–2000 μm) and fine sand (53–250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources.

  14. Phthalate Esters in Indoor Window Films in a Northeastern Chinese Urban Center: Film Growth and Implications for Human Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Wen-Long; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Wu, Yong-Kai; Han, Ya-Meng; Peng, Zhi-Xiang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-07-19

    Indoor window film samples were collected in buildings during 2014-2015 for the determination of six phthalate diesters (PAEs). Linear regression analysis suggested that the film mass was positively and significantly correlated with the duration of film growth (from 7 to 77 days). PAEs were detected in all window film samples (n = 64). For all the samples with growth days ranged from 7 to 77 days, the median concentrations of total six PAEs (∑6PAEs) in winter and summer window film samples were 9900 ng/m(2) film (2000 μg/g film) and 4700 ng/m(2) film (650 μg/g film), respectively. Among PAEs analyzed, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the major compound (71 ± 9.7%), followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 20 ± 7.4%) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP; 5.1 ± 2.2%). Positive correlations among PAEs suggested their common sources in the window film samples. Room temperature and relative humidity were negatively and significantly correlated with PAEs concentations (in ng/m(2)). Poor ventilation in cold winter in Noreastern China significantly influenced the concentrations of PAEs in window film which suggested higher inhalation exposure dose in winter. The median hazard quotient (HQ) values from PAEs exposure were below 1, suggesting that the intake of PAEs via three exposure pathways was considered as acceptable.

  15. Incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of popliteal artery embolization in the superficial femoral artery interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTA + stent has gained acceptance as a primary treatment modality for the superficial femoral artery (SFA diseases. Popliteal artery embolization (PAE is a severe complication in SFA interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, treatment and prognosis of PAE in primary SFA PTA + stent. METHODS: Chronic SFA arteriosclerosis cases that underwent primary PTA + stent were reviewed from a retrospectively maintained database. Runoff vessels were evaluated in all cases before and after the interventions for PAE detection. The primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using log-rank analysis. Cox multivariate regression was performed to evaluate predictors of patency and limb salvage rates. RESULTS: There were 436 lesions treated in 388 patients with 10 PAE events (2.3% in total. PAE rate was significantly higher in Transatlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC C/D group compared with TASC A/B group (OR = 8.91, P = .002, in chronic total occlusion (CTO lesions compared with stenotic lesions (P<.0001, and in group with history of cerebral ischemic stroke (OR = 6.11, P = .007. PAE rates were not significantly affected by age, sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and runoff status. The binary logistic regression showed that only the TASC C/D was an independent predictor of PAE (P = .031. The 12-month and 24-month primary patency, secondary patency and limb salvage rates in PAE group showed no significant differences comparing with non-PAE group. CONCLUSIONS: PAE is a rare event in primary SFA PTA + stent. TASC C/D lesion, CTO and cerebral ischemic stroke history are risk factors for PAE. PAE is typically reversible by comprehensive techniques. If the popliteal flow is restored in time, PAE has no significant effect on long-term patency and limb

  16. Biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: cloning, sequencing, and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Morita, Tomotake; Cao, Xiao-hong; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-04-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317 exhibits a strong degradation activity for biodegradable plastics (BPs) such as agricultural mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). An enzyme named PaE was isolated and the gene encoding PaE was cloned from the strain by functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaE contains 198 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 20,362.41. High identity was observed between this sequence and that of cutinase-like enzymes (CLEs) (61-68%); therefore, the gene encoding PaE was named PaCLE1. The specific activity of PaE against emulsified PBSA was 54.8±6.3 U/mg. In addition to emulsified BPs, PaE degraded solid films of PBS, PBSA, poly(ε-caprolactone), and poly(lactic acid).

  17. The study of the in-vivo postantibiotic effect induced by netilmicin in lower respiratory tract infection%奈替米星的体内抗生素后效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岳松; 王睿; 纪树国; 方翼; 宋艳红

    2000-01-01

    目的:测定奈替米星体内PAE,并探讨奈替米星AUC与PAE 的相关性.方法:用荧光偏振免疫分析仪检测病人血中奈替米星浓度并计算 AUC;用光密度法测定病人血中奈替米星对9种受试菌的PAE.结果:奈替米星对耐药菌PAE很短甚至没有,对标准菌及临床分离敏感菌产生较长的PAE,12 h体内累加PAE最大值达36.8 h,AUC与累加PAE相关良好.结论:奈替米星对敏感菌可产生明显的体内PAE,以AUC值可以估算体内PAE.

  18. Studies on retention and drainage system for high filler paper%高填料纸张助留助滤体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓红; 薛国新; 周林祥; 夏军

    2011-01-01

    在优化了针、阔叶木浆料与配比的前提下,考察了CPAM和PAE的湿部化学特性和增强作用,比较了CPAM/MMT、PAE/APAM、PAE/CPAM/MMT、PAE/CPAM/APAM对高填料纸的助留助滤效果的影响.结果表明:CPAM和PAE单独使用时,加入量最佳为绝干纸料的0.2%和1.25%;CPA M/MM T双元体系的助留助滤效果最好;PAE/CPAM/MMT的助留效果远好于PAE/CPAM/APAM,但其助滤效果仅略好于PAE/CPAM/APAM.

  19. An evaluation of social skills in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, C; Becker, M; McLennan, J; Urichuk, L; Andrew, G

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine social skills deficits among children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) who were both referred to a respite programme. Thirty-seven children with PAE and 23 non-exposed children (aged 3 to 8 years) were evaluated on the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) by their caregivers and respite workers. As compared with the non-exposed children, those with PAE showed more deficits on caregiver ratings of responsibility, hyperactivity, internalizing problems and overall social skills, as well as respite worker ratings of hyperactivity. The social skills among the PAE group were not related to home placement variables. Among both groups, caregivers rated social skills lower than respite workers, and among the PAE group, girls tended to display more social skills deficits than boys. The SSRS is useful in identifying unique social skills deficits among children with PAE. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

    2014-01-01

    Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.

  1. Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chai

    Full Text Available Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP, diethyl phthalate (DEP and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.

  2. High Frequency Integrated Vacuum Electronics (HiFIVE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-10

    record PAE of 10 % at 210 GHz, and two-stage balanced PA MMIC with output power > 100mW from 210 to 220 GHz. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed...output power and PAE versus frequency for PA5 power amplifier cell. 17 Figure 28: Simplified schematic of PA6 power amplifier...output power (Pout), power gain, and PAE of the single-stage power amplifier circuit (PA6

  3. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) Broadband Power Amplifiers (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    2 Figure 2. A 2-GHz load-pull simulation of output power (Pcomp-6 x 65 µm PHEMT). ..............2 Figure 3. A 2-GHz load-pull simulation of PAE (6...5. MMIC 1–5 GHz output power and PAE performance simulation (1, 2, 3, and 4 GHz...load-pull simulation of PAE (6 x 50 µm PHEMT). .......................................7 Figure 9. MMIC 10–19 GHz broadband power amplifier linear

  4. Building an Amphibious Capability for New Zealand in the 21st Century: Essential in an Uncertain Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    assets limit opportunities for joint training. In November 2012, the NZDF conducted Exercise Pae Tata. This exercise provided an opportunity for...date of access 2 Jan 2012. 34 The Army News, “Exercise Pae Tata Tests New Zealand Defence Force Developing Amphibious Capability” The New Zealand...Plan, 2008 – 2025. Wellington, New Zealand: Royal New Zealand Navy, 2008. The Army News, “Exercise Pae Tata Tests New Zealand Defence Force

  5. 树枝状荧光聚(胺-酯)与金属离子和有机染料的作用%INTERACTION OF DENDRITIC FLUORESCENCE POLY(AMINE-ESTER) WITH METAL IONS AND ORGANIC DYES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁春花; 栾明明; 曹虎

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic fluorescence poly(amine-ester)(PAE-BZA) is synthesized from ethylenediamine (EDA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and benzaldehyde (BZA).The effects of Fe3+,Cu2+ ,Co2+ , Zn2+ on fluorescence properties of PAE-BZA are studied.Fluorescence of PAE-BZA is quenched by Fe3+ , Cu2+ and Co2+ in the solution, fluorescence of PAE-BZA is first increased then decreased by Zn2+ in the solution.At the same time, PAE-BZA of Eosine B and methyl orange dye with adsorption properties are found.When the concentration of PAE-BZA was 6.4 × 10-6 and 5.2 × 10-6,the of concentration Eosine B and methyl orange were reached constant.Each PAE-BZA molecular respectively adsorbed one Eosine B and three methyl orange dye.%以乙二胺(EDA)、三羟甲基丙烷三丙烯酸酯(TMPTA)和苯甲酸(BZA)为原料,合成了树枝状荧光聚(胺-酯)(PAE-BzA).研究了Fe、Cu、Co、Zn对其荧光性能的影响.结果表明:溶液中的Fe、cu及Co对PAE-BZA的荧光具有猝灭效应;溶液中的Zn对PAE-BZA 的荧光具有先增强后减弱作用;当PAE-BZA浓度分别为6.4和5.2μmol/L时,吸附曙红B和甲基橙浓度达到恒定,且每个PAE-BZA分子分别吸附曙红B和甲基橙为1和3个.

  6. Monitoring of phthalates in foodstuffs using gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled with GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Yang, Cui; Geng, Renjie; Zhao, Xiangai; Hong, Lian; Piao, Xiangfan; Chen, Tie; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-06-16

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are commonly used as nonreactive plasticisers in vinyl plastics to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Numerous studies have indicated that the PAEs as a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition, the studies have also shown that a major source of human exposure to phthalates is the diet. To date, the largest problem in PAEs analysis is the high blank value because PAEs are widely used in various applications and products. To overcome this shortcoming, gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) was applied, which established a new and low-blank-value analytical method for PAE analysis to analyse PAEs in foodstuffs. In this study, GP-MSE was used as a clean-up method, and the overall recoveries ranged from 85.7 to 102.6%, and the RSD was less than 10%. More importantly, this method can overcome the problem of the high blank value in PAE analysis. This method was applied for measuring PAEs in 78 foodstuffs. The results showed that a wide variety of PAE concentrations were found in the different groups, and the content of PAEs (varies from 658 to 1610 ng g(-1) fresh weight) is greatest in seafood. The concentrations were in the following order: DEHP>DBP>DEP≈DMP>BBP≈DNOP. Finally, the daily intake of PAEs was estimated for adults based on the levels of PAEs in foodstuffs. The total EDIdiet values of 3.2 and 12.9 μg kg(-1) bw d(-1) were calculated for DEHP based on the mean and highest concentrations in foodstuffs, respectively.

  7. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir—the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%, the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies.

  8. Effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ["Avocado"] ethanolic leaf extract on blood glucose and kidney function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on kidney cell lines of the proximal (LLCPK1) and distal tubules (MDBK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, M; Kamadyaapa, D R; Tufts, M A; Chuturgoon, A A; Ojewole, J A O; Musabayane, C T

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ("Avocado") have been traditionally used to treat hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, we studied the hypoglycaemic and renal function effects of P. americana leaf ethanolic extracts (PAE) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance responses to various doses of PAE were monitored in fasted rats following a glucose load. Rats treated with deionized water or standard hypoglycaemic drugs acted as untreated and treated positive controls, respectively. Acute renal effects of PAE were investigated in anesthetized rats challenged with 0.077 M NaCl after a 3.5-h equilibration for 4 h comprising 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. PAE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Hepatic glycogen concentration was measured after 6 weeks of daily treatment with PAE. PAE induced dose-dependent hypoglycaemic responses in STZ-induced diabetic rats while subchronic PAE treatment additionally increased hepatic glycogen concentrations. Acute PAE infusion decreased urine flow and electrolyte excretion rates, whilst subchronic treatment reduced plasma creatinine and urea concentrations. These results indicate not only the basis of the ethnomedicinal use of P. americana leaf extract in diabetes management, but also of need for further studies to identify and evaluate the safety of PAE's bioactive compounds.

  9. Influence of water solubility, side chain degradability and side chain configuration on the degradation of phthalic acid esters under methanogenic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnervik, M.

    1996-12-31

    Water solubility and degradability of side chains estrifying phthalic acid are factors possible to influence the degradation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To investigate the importance of these factors degradation of butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BEHP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dihexyl phthalate (DHP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) were examined under methanogenic conditions as well as was the degradability of the alcohols estrifying these PAEs. We also investigated if the degradation of resistant PAEs could be stimulated by the addition of a degradable PAE. Synthesis of degradation intermediates and two methods for PAE analyses are presented. The investigation showed that all alcohols were degraded to methane and carbon dioxide and that the degradation of PAE occurred in incubations amended with BBP, BEHP, DHP and DBP, whilst DEHP, DOP and DDP were unaffected throughout the experimental period. BBP added to incubations with DEHP, could not stimulate DEHP degradation. In conclusion, the degradability of alcohols estrifying phthalic acid in this study does not affect the anaerobic degradability of PAEs. Water solubility of a PAE can not be rejected as a factor limiting phthalate degradation under methanogenic conditions. Anaerobic degradation of persistent PAEs can not be stimulated by mixing it with a degradable phthalate. 23 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  10. [Characteristics of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Soils and Products in Areas of Zhongshan City, South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wu, Shan; Liang, Jin-ming; Liang, Wen-li; Chen, Gui-xian; Li, Yong-jun; Yang, Guo-yi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate and assess the pollution level of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in farm soils and products from typical agricultural fields in areas of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, South China, 65 topsoil and 37 agricultural product samples were collected and contents of 6 PAEs compounds that classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants were determined by the GC-FID. The results indicated that total contents of the PAEs (∑ PAEs) in soils ranged from 0. 14 to 1. 14 mg x kg(-1), and the mean value was 0.43 mg x kg(-1), with the detected ratio of 100%. Various concentrations of PAEs differed in three land-use types were ordered by vegetable soil > orchard soil > paddy soil. Comparing with six U.S. EPA priority pollutants of PAEs, the contents of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) in soils exceeded the control limits of PAEs in the American soil by 93.85% and 27.69% respectively, but the rest four PAEs compounds were lower than the control limits. Generally, the pollution level of soils contaminated by PAEs in agricultural fields of Zhongshan City was relatively low. The contents of 3 PAEs in agricultural products ranged from 0.15 to 3.15 mg x kg(-1) with the average of 1.12 mg x kg(-1), which was lower than the suggested standards in USA and Europe and with low health risk. Meanwhile, ∑ PAEs concentrations in vegetables were higher than those both in rice and fruits. DBP and DEHP were the main components of PAEs both in agricultural soils and products, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. ∑ PAEs and DBP contents in various agricultural products-soils had a significantly positive correlation, with Pearson coefficients (r) in vegetables-vegetable soils were 0.81 (P = 0.000), 0.75 (P = 0.000), and corresponding r among rice-paddy soil and fruits-fruit soils were 0.74 (P = 0.036), 0.65 (P = 0.041) and 0.66 (P = 0.029), 0.78 (P = 0.045), respectively. Although there existed a

  11. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jin [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Cai Zhonghua, E-mail: caizh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xing Kezhi [Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 {mu}g/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-pump and Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+}-pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17{beta}-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: > PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. > The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. > The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  12. Chronic supplementation of paeonol combined with danshensu for the improvement of vascular reactivity in the cerebral basilar artery of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Li, Ya-Ling; Li, Zi-Lin; Li, Hua; Zhou, Xuan-Xuan; Qiu, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Qian; Wang, Si-Wang

    2012-11-08

    One of the leading causes of death in the world is cerebrovascular disease. Numerous Chinese traditional medicines, such as Cortex Moutan (root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew) and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), protect against cerebrovascular diseases and exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effects. Traditional medicines have been routinely used for a long time in China. In addition, these two herbs are prescribed together in clinical practice. Therefore, the pharmacodynamic interactions between the active constituents of these two herbs, which are paeonol (Pae) and danshensu (DSS), should be particularly studied. The study of Pae and DSS can provide substantial foundations in understanding their mechanisms and empirical evidence to support clinical practice. This study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of the pharmacodynamic interaction between Pae and DSS on cerebrovascular malfunctioning in diabetes. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats, which was then treated with Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS for eight weeks. Afterward, cerebral arteries from all groups were isolated and equilibrated in an organ bath with Krebs buffer and ring tension. Effects of Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS were observed on vessel relaxation with or without endothelium as well as on the basal tonus of vessels from normal and diabetic rats. Indexes about oxidative stress were also determined. We report that the cerebral arteries from diabetic rats show decreased vascular reactivity to acetylcholine (ACh) which was corrected in Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS treated groups. Furthermore, phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction response decreased in the treated groups. Phenylephrine and CaCl(2)-induced vasoconstrictions are partially inhibited in the three treated groups under Ca2+-free medium. Pre-incubated with tetraethylammonium, a non-selective K+ channel blocker, the antagonized relaxation responses increased in DSS and Pae + DSS treated diabetic

  13. Chronic Supplementation of Paeonol Combined with Danshensu for the Improvement of Vascular Reactivity in the Cerebral Basilar Artery of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Qiu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading causes of death in the world is cerebrovascular disease. Numerous Chinese traditional medicines, such as Cortex Moutan (root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, protect against cerebrovascular diseases and exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effects. Traditional medicines have been routinely used for a long time in China. In addition, these two herbs are prescribed together in clinical practice. Therefore, the pharmacodynamic interactions between the active constituents of these two herbs, which are paeonol (Pae and danshensu (DSS, should be particularly studied. The study of Pae and DSS can provide substantial foundations in understanding their mechanisms and empirical evidence to support clinical practice. This study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of the pharmacodynamic interaction between Pae and DSS on cerebrovascular malfunctioning in diabetes. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats, which was then treated with Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS for eight weeks. Afterward, cerebral arteries from all groups were isolated and equilibrated in an organ bath with Krebs buffer and ring tension. Effects of Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS were observed on vessel relaxation with or without endothelium as well as on the basal tonus of vessels from normal and diabetic rats. Indexes about oxidative stress were also determined. We report that the cerebral arteries from diabetic rats show decreased vascular reactivity to acetylcholine (ACh which was corrected in Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS treated groups. Furthermore, phenylephrine (PE-induced contraction response decreased in the treated groups. Phenylephrine and CaCl2-induced vasoconstrictions are partially inhibited in the three treated groups under Ca2+-free medium. Pre-incubated with tetraethylammonium, a non-selective K+ channel blocker, the antagonized relaxation responses increased in DSS and Pae + DSS

  14. Occurrence and distribution of phthalate esters in riverine sediments from the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Cui, Kunyan; Zeng, Feng; Chen, Lixuan; Cheng, Yating; Li, Huiru; Li, Shuocong; Zhou, Xi; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng; Luan, Tiangang; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2014-06-15

    Sixty-eight sediment samples collected from Dongjiang River, Xijiang River, Beijiang River and Zhujiang River in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, Southern China, were analyzed for 16 phthalate esters (PAEs). PAEs were detected in all riverine sediments analyzed, which indicate that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The Σ16PAEs concentrations in riverine sediments in the PRD region ranged from 0.567 to 47.3 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw), with the mean and median concentrations of 5.34 μg g(-1) dw and 2.15 μg g(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated PAEs concentrations in riverine sediments in the PRD region were found in the highly urbanized and industrialized areas. Of the 16 PAEs, diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAEs, with the mean and median concentrations of 1.12 μg g(-1)dw, 0.420 μg g(-1) dw and 3.72 μg g(-1) dw, and 0.429 μg g(-1) dw, 0.152 μg g(-1) dw and 1.55 μg g(-1) dw, respectively, and accounted for 94.2-99.7% of the Σ16PAEs concentrations. Influenced by local sources and the properties of PAEs, a gradient trend of concentrations and a fractionation of composition from more to less industrialized and urbanized areas were discovered. As compared to the results from other studies, the riverine sediments in the PRD region were severely contaminated with PAEs. Information about PAEs contamination status and its effect on the aquatic organisms in the PRD region may deserve further attention.

  15. Pemisahan dan Pemurnian Phthalic Acid Ester dari Minyak Nyamplung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ekaputra Taifan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Minyak nyamplung dikenal sebagai minyak yang tidak dapat dikonsumsi. Oleh sebab itu, penelitian tentang minyak ini hanya fokus pada konversi minyak menjadi biodiesel. Pada penelitian ini, kami berusaha untuk memisahkan resin beracun dari fraksi metanol menggunakan ekstraksi pelarut diikuti kolom kromatografi. Resin beracun ini diidentifikasi sebagai phthalic acid ester (PAE. PAE ini biasanya digunakan sebagai zat aditif di industri polimer. Minyak nyamplung mengandung 1,8% PAE, yang masih jauh melebihi nilai ambang batas. Isolasi PAE dari minyak ini diharapkan dapt mengubah minyak yang tidak dapat dikonsumsi menjadi suplemen makanan yang bernilai. Proses isolasi PAE dimulai dengan memisahkan senyawa yang diinginkan dari lipid menggunakan ekstraksi pelarut bertingkat dengan metanol dan n-heksan. Analisa mass spectra dari fraksi pertama dan fraksi kedua metanol menunjukkan kandungan PAE sebesar 60% dan 6% pada tiap fraksi. Fraksi heksan tidak mengandung PAE. PAE yang terkandung pada fraksi metanol diisolasi lebih lanjut dari asam lemak menggunakan liquid column chromatography dengan n-heksan – etil asetat sebagai mobile phase. Bis- 2ethylhexyl phthalate diidentifikasi pada ketiga fraksi sesuai dengan hasil analisa GC-MS. Fraksi pertama diambil pada kondisi mobile phase 5% etil asetat, sedangkan fraksi kedua merupakan campuran 5% etil asetat dan 10% etil asetat. Fraksi ketiga diambil pada kondisi mobile phase 10% etil asetat mengandung PAE sebesar 98%. Fraksi keempat merupakan campuran 10% dan 15% mobile phase dan mengandung PAE sebesar 97%. Akhirnya, kandungan PAE pada fraksi metanol sebesar 58%. Dari hasil analisa, dapat disimpulkan bahwa mobile phase yang optimum untuk kromatografi adalah 10- 15% etil asetat dalam n-heksan.

  16. Differential effects of the histamine H3 receptor agonist methimepip on dentate granule cell excitability, paired-pulse plasticity and long-term potentiation in prenatal alcohol-exposed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael K.; Rosenberg, Martina J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that prenatal alcohol-induced deficits in dentate gyrus (DG) long-term potentiation (LTP) are ameliorated by the histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist ABT-239. ABT-239 did not enhance LTP in control rats, suggesting a heightened H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamate release in prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE) offspring. As the modulation of glutamate release is one important facet of LTP, we examined the effect of methimepip, a histamine H3 receptor agonist, on DG granule cell excitability, glutamate release and LTP in control and PAE rats. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or 5% ethanol solution four hours daily throughout gestation. Male adult offspring were anesthetized with urethane and electrodes implanted into the entorhinal cortex and DG. PAE reduced coupling of excitatory post-synaptic field potentials to population spikes, an effect mimicked in control rats treated with 1 mg/kg methimepip. Methimepip decreased release probability in controls but not in PAE offspring. GABAergic feedback inhibition of granule cell responsiveness was not affected by either PAE or methimepip. PAE reduced LTP in the DG, another effect mimicked in methimepip-treated control rats. Again, methimepip did not exacerbate the PAE-induced LTP deficit. Thus, while methimepip treatment of control rats mimicked some baseline and activity-dependent deficits observed in saline-treated PAE offspring, methimepip treatment of PAE rats did not exacerbate these deficits. Whether the absence of an added methimepip effect in PAE offspring is a consequence of a “floor effect” for the responses measured or is due to differential drug dose responsiveness will require further investigation. Further, more detailed studies of H3 receptor-mediated responses in vitro may provide clearer insights into the role of the H3 receptor regulation of excitatory transmission at the perforant path - DG synapse in PAE rats. PMID:24818819

  17. Methods of supporting learning and development of competence's with a view to electricity conservation - exemplified by hotels and restaurants; Metoder der kan stoette medarbejdernes laering og kompetanceudvikling med henblik pae el-besparelser - eksemplificeret ved hoteller og restauranter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This report explains the R and D project and provides the background for the developed overview model and the established homepage under www.horesta/elfor.dk, where the results from the project are published. The aim of this project has been to develop and test a method that can support learning and competence development in relation to energy consumption in hotels and restaurants. The aim being to support the employee's ability and will to act towards occurring problems and provide solutions to energy consumption. The project has resulted in the development of an overview model, which support the learning, and competence development of the employees. The model has three main elements or pillars: the hotel, the strategy of involvement and the energy conservation process. Each of them contains a 'descriptive level' and a 'result layer' with conclusions in relation to potentials and barriers. Furthermore there is included a layer of examples. Initial there has been made a systematic mapping of the energy consumption in hotels and restaurants in relation to the building design and the behaviours of the employees. Special focus has been given to the possibilities for energy conservation through change in the behaviour and habits of consuming energy. The mapping is based on already available materials/methods to up-date these materials/methods the energy consumption was registered in 6 typical hotels and restaurants. The mapping covered measurement of the total electricity consumption and the consumption at selected areas/apparatus followed by a registration of the utilisation of locations and apparatus to identify significant possibilities for conservation of electricity. The effect for savings on electricity and especially the behavioural related savings was evaluated and good practices were established. The most promising possibilities for savings were described in guidelines. These guidelines, which are registered at the project homepage and have been forwarded to the project participants, have been used in connection with dialog meetings with the involved companies. The method in the project is based on involvement of the employees from the selected hotels and restaurants a method anchored in action research or the research based development work. Insight in the location is seen as the crucial for the employee's competence/ability to act and the employees are seen as the 'experts' in relation to the changes, which can be made. The projects is based on qualitative research methods and learning and competence development. The project has taken its foundation in this knowledge with regard to develop a new understanding on how knowledge can be connected to action within the area investigated in the project. I.e.: 1) Specify the kind of knowledge that contribute to the employee's ability and will to act and change. 2) Pin point the barriers of different groups in relation to take action, including problems in relation to use explicit knowledge in decision processes which have consequences for the action and behaviour. 3) Enlighten connections between knowledge, actions and participation in learning- and change processes, which include energy consumption and behaviour. 4) Educated understanding of how employees can expand their ways and means to act in relation to consumption of energy, including a way to document technological, normative and organisatorial support structures for action. There has been established a homepage containing information of the project and the results of the project: www.horesta/elfor.dk. The homepage can be used by both case companies and non-participating companies having a general interest in energy conservation. The target group is the employees at hotel (and restaurants). There has been elaborated a folder describing ways and means to involve employees and it can serve as inspiration for both contributors and non-participating companies. The folder has been placed on the homepage under 'materials'. The folder has however also been send to th

  18. Version pediátrica del protocolo de evaluación de la adecuación (PAE: Aplicación a los cuatro Grupos Diagnósticos relacionados más frecuentes en un hospital infantil de la Coruña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleta Canosa Jesús Luis

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Existe un amplio consenso en que una parte de la utilización de los recursos hospitalarios es inadecuada, en el sentido de que los pacientes reciben servicios que no les proporcionan beneficios significativos, o bien, que podrían ser más beneficiosos, o menos costosos, en un nivel asistencial inferior. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es determinar, mediante la aplicación retrospectiva de la versión pediátrica del Protocolo de Evaluación de la Adecuación (AEP, el porcentaje de ingresos y estancias inadecuadas de los 4 Grupos Relacionados con el Diagnóstico (GDR más frecuentes en un hospital materno-infantil. MÉTODO: Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo en el que se analizan 353 historias clínicas (HC de las 361 que constituyen la población de estudio. Como análisis estadístico se utiliza Chi cuadrado y análisis de tendencia lineal. Sobre las medias obtenidas se aplicó un análisis de la varianza y la prueba de comparación múltiple de Scheffé. RESULTADOS: Las admisiones fueron juzgadas como adecuadas en 284 (80,5% de los casos e inadecuadas en 69 (19,5%. El 76% de las estancias revisadas fueron juzgadas como apropiadas y el 24% como inapropiadas. En el GDR 030 (estupor y coma de origen traumático, coma<1 hora, edad 0-17 se aprecia una relación directa entre duración de la estancia y uso inapropiado de la hospitalización. CONCLUSIONES: De los resultados de este estudio se desprende que una sustancial proporción de la utilización en el hospital es inapropiada y que, particularmente en el GDR 030, es probable se esté efectuando un manejo especialmente conservador.

  19. Version pediátrica del protocolo de evaluación de la adecuación (PAE): Aplicación a los cuatro Grupos Diagnósticos relacionados más frecuentes en un hospital infantil de la Coruña

    OpenAIRE

    Saleta Canosa Jesús Luis; Rodriguez Sotillo Antonio; Aboal Seijas Arturo

    1997-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: Existe un amplio consenso en que una parte de la utilización de los recursos hospitalarios es inadecuada, en el sentido de que los pacientes reciben servicios que no les proporcionan beneficios significativos, o bien, que podrían ser más beneficiosos, o menos costosos, en un nivel asistencial inferior. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es determinar, mediante la aplicación retrospectiva de la versión pediátrica del Protocolo de Evaluación de la Adecuación (AEP), el porcentaje ...

  20. Assessment of SCR catalysts on heavy vehicles as a tool to reduce NO{sub 2} emissions in larger Danish towns; Vurdering af anvendelse af SCR-katalysatorer pae tunge koeretoejer som virkemiddel til nedbringelse af NO{sub 2}-forureningen i de stoerre danske byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, F.; Berkowicz, R.; Ketzel, M. [DMU, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe (Denmark); Winther, M. [DMU, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The project assesses SCR catalysts as an efficient tool to obtain compliance with the EU limit value fo NO{sub 2}. It is expected that Denmark and the other EU member states are not able to comply with the limit value at 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (annual average) in 2010 without further measures (EU, 2006). (au)

  1. Methods of supporting learning and development of competence's with a view to electricity conservation - exemplified by hotels and restaurants; Metoder der kan stoette medarbejdernes laering og kompetanceudvikling med henblik pae el-besparelser - eksemplificeret ved hoteller og restauranter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    This report explains the R and D project and provides the background for the developed overview model and the established homepage under www.horesta/elfor.dk, where the results from the project are published. The aim of this project has been to develop and test a method that can support learning and competence development in relation to energy consumption in hotels and restaurants. The aim being to support the employee's ability and will to act towards occurring problems and provide solutions to energy consumption. The project has resulted in the development of an overview model, which support the learning, and competence development of the employees. The model has three main elements or pillars: the hotel, the strategy of involvement and the energy conservation process. Each of them contains a 'descriptive level' and a 'result layer' with conclusions in relation to potentials and barriers. Furthermore there is included a layer of examples. Initial there has been made a systematic mapping of the energy consumption in hotels and restaurants in relation to the building design and the behaviours of the employees. Special focus has been given to the possibilities for energy conservation through change in the behaviour and habits of consuming energy. The mapping is based on already available materials/methods to up-date these materials/methods the energy consumption was registered in 6 typical hotels and restaurants. The mapping covered measurement of the total electricity consumption and the consumption at selected areas/apparatus followed by a registration of the utilisation of locations and apparatus to identify significant possibilities for conservation of electricity. The effect for savings on electricity and especially the behavioural related savings was evaluated and good practices were established. The most promising possibilities for savings were described in guidelines. These guidelines, which are registered at the project homepage and have been forwarded to the project participants, have been used in connection with dialog meetings with the involved companies. The method in the project is based on involvement of the employees from the selected hotels and restaurants a method anchored in action research or the research based development work. Insight in the location is seen as the crucial for the employee's competence/ability to act and the employees are seen as the 'experts' in relation to the changes, which can be made. The projects is based on qualitative research methods and learning and competence development. The project has taken its foundation in this knowledge with regard to develop a new understanding on how knowledge can be connected to action within the area investigated in the project. I.e.: 1) Specify the kind of knowledge that contribute to the employee's ability and will to act and change. 2) Pin point the barriers of different groups in relation to take action, including problems in relation to use explicit knowledge in decision processes which have consequences for the action and behaviour. 3) Enlighten connections between knowledge, actions and participation in learning- and change processes, which include energy consumption and behaviour. 4) Educated understanding of how employees can expand their ways and means to act in relation to consumption of energy, including a way to document technological, normative and organisatorial support structures for action. There has been established a homepage containing information of the project and the results of the project: www.horesta/elfor.dk. The homepage can be used by both case companies and non-participating companies having a general interest in energy conservation. The target group is the employees at hotel (and restaurants). There has been elaborated a folder describing ways and means to involve employees and it can serve as inspiration for both contributors and non-participating companies. The folder has been placed on the homepage under 'materials'. The folder has however also been send to the contributing companies. Furthermore here has been elaborated an idea catalogue for companies which plan to start projects on electricity savings involving employees. Information of the learning's and experiences from the project has been prepared in form of an overview model, which has been put on the homepage. The model is made in a way that different target groups can utilise it as the tool to support the implementation of the electric saving process with involvement of the employees. There has been made a short introduction to the overview model on the homepage especially directed to employees at the hotels. The information can also be used as a folder. Highlights from the project were summaries in connection with the conclusion of the project on dialogue meetings with companies and energy advisers. One of the conclusions of the project is that the model for involvement of employees and the highlights from the development project are exemplary and can be utilised by other businesses that hotels and restaurants, when companies and energy advisers initiates electricity savings and involvement of employees. The project has been carried through with a working group of employees from the Environmental department at HORESTA, HTS, Groen Noegle, Dansk Energianalyse and DPU. Researchers and project participants from DPU have been responsible for the content of the project and for the development and test of methods for involving employees with the aim to carry through electricity savings. Dansk Energi Analyse has carried through the mapping of energy consumption and the information of results to the companies. HORESTA has been responsible for the contact to the companies and the information of the results of the project shown on HORESTAs homepage. (au)

  2. Ionizing radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological of bread with addition of linseed (Linum usitatissimum); Efeitos da radiacao ionizante de cobalto-60 nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas sensoriais e microbiolgicas de paes com adicao de linhaca (Linum usitatissimum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de

    2011-07-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients on breading products has grown very much lately, because of the preoccupation with the consumers' health. The linseed has awakened the interest by its high level of fiber, lignin, omega-3 and antioxidants compounds. The objective of the present work is evaluate the ionizing radiation effect of {sup 60}Co on the physical-chemical, sensorial and microbiological characteristics of bread with addition of different concentration of brown linseed. There were elaborated 3 types of bread: French roll, form bread prepared with the mixture and form bread produced with conventional ingredients. It was added smashed brown linseed on the bread dough, with concentrations of 8% and 12%. After the preparation, the three kinds of bread packed with polypropylene packages and taken to the IPEN/USP (Institute of Nuclear Energetic Research/University of São Paulo) and irradiated with doses of 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Treatments were elaborated without the addition of linseed and without irradiation, for control, totalizing 12 distinct treatments, to each bread formula tested. Chemical analyses were made (centesimal composition, anti-nutritional compounds, anti-oxidant activity, glycemic index, fat acids, complex B vitamins and minerals); physical analyses (cooking index, volume, color and water activity); sensorial analyses (preference tests and Descriptive Quantitative Analysis - ADQ); microbiological analysis and a survey about irradiated products. It could be seen that the addition of linseed was efficient to increase the level of alimentary fiber and the level of lipids on the 3 bread formula. The three kinds of bread that received the linseed addition and that were not irradiated presented increase on the level of total phenolic; however, when the samples which received the linseed addition were submitted to the irradiation process, it could be noticed the decrease of the antioxidant capacity. There was an increase on the level of omega-3, depending on the percentage of linseed added to the bread. The linseed addition was effective to raise the level of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. But, the irradiation decrease the level of vitamin B1 and vitamin B6 of the three kinds of bread. The irradiation did not influence the quality of the obtained bread. The sample tasters, not trained, accepted the bread independently of the doses of applied radiation. The ADQ test evidenced that the sensorial characteristics of the samples depend on the ingredient variation used on the formulas and on the radiation. The irradiated samples presented mold counting considerably lower than the non-irradiated samples, which increased the shelf-life of those products. The survey reveals that the majority of the people interviewed has little or any knowledge about radiation and believe that the irradiation can generate some kind of harm for human beings. Therefore, the bread production enriched with mashed linseed and submitted to gamma radiation is promising, given that the chemical and sensorial properties were considered satisfactory, besides the increasing of the shelf-time. (author)

  3. DanGrid. Report from working group 24. Roadmap for Smart Grid in Denmark with emphasis on the transmission companies' role; DanGrid. Delrapport. Arbejdsgruppe 24. Roadmap for Smart Grid i Danmark med saerlig vaegt pae netselskabernes rolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomholt Finnemann, K. [DONG Energy, Virum (Denmark); Soerensen, Per [TRE-FOR, Kolding (Denmark); Larsen, Jim [EnergiMidt, Silkeborg (Denmark); Balasiu, A. [Siemens, Ballerup (Denmark); Holmberg Rasmussen, L. [Nordjysk Elhandel, Aalborg (Denmark); Moeller Joergensen, J. [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark); Norsk Jensen, A.; Nejsum, T.; Andersen, Kim [Dansk Energi, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The present report identifies a number of recommendations where specifically grid companies, but also authorities, customers and market players must initiate actions and activities to realize Smart Grid in Denmark by 2020. The report forms the basis for each network operator to implement Smart Grid, and is divided such that: 1 the management can create an overview of the steps to be taken in connection with the implementation, and 2. the technical department can develop a series of concrete actions to be implemented in the Smart Grid. The measures are divided into four groups: 1 - Establishment of business case and strategy: Efforts that support that each network operator prepares a business case and define a strategy for the creation of a Smart Grid. 2 - New technology in the grid: Measures relating to the importation of new technology in the grid, for example establishment of technology solutions for automating and monitoring the load on the network, and installing additional measurements at strategic points in the distribution network. 3 - Enabling customers' demand response: Initiatives that support that the grid company actively involves end users through price signals or by entering into agreements to regulate or move power consumption to a time of free capacity in the grid. 4 - Other activities: Measures which are horizontal and support that network companies develop a Smart Grid. New economic regulation of network companies is required to support the introduction of new technology in the grid, and at the same time crucial to enable customers' demand response. IT and data security must be established and customer engagement as active consumers of electricity should be strengthened. (LN)

  4. Assessment of SCR catalysts on heavy vehicles as a tool to reduce NO{sub 2} emissions in larger Danish towns; Vurdering af anvendelse af SCR-katalysatorer pae tunge koeretoejer som virkemiddel til nedbringelse af NO{sub 2}-forureningen i de stoerre danske byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, F.; Berkowicz, R.; Ketzel, M. [DMU, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe (Denmark); Winther, M. [DMU, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The project assesses SCR catalysts as an efficient tool to obtain compliance with the EU limit value fo NO{sub 2}. It is expected that Denmark and the other EU member states are not able to comply with the limit value at 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (annual average) in 2010 without further measures (EU, 2006). (au)

  5. Environmental assessment of speeding up use of particle filters on passenger cars and vans. Air quality and population exposure for PM{sub 2.5}; Miljoevurdering af fremskyndelse af partikelfiltre pae person- og varebiler. Luftkvalitet og befolkningseksponering for PM{sub 2.5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M. [DMU, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe (Denmark)

    2006-11-15

    New stringent European Union emission standards for particles are expected to be implemented around 2010 for diesel-powered passenger cars and vans. Provided that such standards are agreed upon diesel-powered passenger cars and vans are expected to be equipped with particle filters that effectively will remove particle emissions. Against this background, the Danish Environmental Assessment Institute wanted to carry out a cost-benefit analysis of a scenario where the emission standards came into force in 2007 instead of 2010. The objective of the project is to assess the effects on particle emissions and air quality of PM{sub 2.5} (particles less than 2.5 micrometer) of moving forward the emission standards for passenger cars and vans. An assessment of a scenario is carried out that assumes that all new diesel-powered passenger cars and vans entering the vehicle fleet during January 1st, 2007 and December 31st, 2009 will be equipped with particle filters. The National Environmental Research Institute has carried out this assessment. (au)

  6. DoD Infrastructure: Why It Is & What Does It Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    support decision makers. 46 LMI Comparison of CORM Example to PA&E Infrastructure Categories Roles and Missions Example PA&E Categories 1 echnology ...On-line BQ registration & check in/out »Replace cash counting, manual head counts at galleys » Replaces weapons cards »Automates mobilization

  7. Biodegradation of phthalate esters during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.

    2003-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAE) are commonly found in the sludge generated in the wastewater treatment plants. Anaerobic digestion followed by land application is a common treatment and disposal practice of sludge. To date, many studies exist on the anaerobic biodegradation rates of PAE, especially...

  8. Simple Model of a Photoacoustic System as a CR Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the photoacoustic educational system (PAES), by which we can identify which gas causes the greenhouse effect in a classroom (Kaneko "et al" 2010 "J. Chem. Educ." 87 202-4). PAES is an experimental system in which a pulse of infrared (IR) is absorbed into gas as internal energy, an oscillation of pressure (sound) appears, and then we…

  9. Trap Characterization in High Field, High Temperature Stressed Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    based SSPAs offer equal power-added efficiency ( PAE ) but at four to five times greater power density [4]. The Department of Defense (DoD) wishes to...previously with stable devices. Lifetime for the parts developed was increased by a factor of 105 [6]. A PAE of 62% was achieved for frequencies

  10. Analysis of power efficiencies of polar transmitter and HPA in OFDM communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Heung-Gyoon

    2014-02-01

    Polar transmitter is known as good candidates for high data rate systems such as OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) because they can obtain high-efficiency switched-mode radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers. But it is important to consider the nonlinear effects and power efficiency of the amplifier in the OFDM communication systems. High PAPR (peak-to-average power ratio) causes performance degradation by non-linear distortion in OFDM communication system. So to avoid non-linear distortion, back-off is needed. In addition, output of amplifier is lower and the power efficiency is reduced because of back-off. In this article, we compare PAE (power added efficiency) of polar transmitter in OFDM system and PAE of HPA (high power amplifier) in OFDM system. Also, we analyse PAE according to back-off in DFT-spread OFDM (discrete Fourier transform-spread OFDM), which is PAPR reduction method and we compare with PAE of polar transmitter in OFDM system. And we analyse output spectrum of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM system. Through spectrum analysis, we analyse PAE of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM, which is satisfied with output spectrum mask of 3rd generation long term evolution (3G LTE) and also compare with PAE polar transmitter of OFDM system, which is satisfied with spectrum mask. Finally, we analyse PAE according to modulation method and analyse PAE of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM at same bit error rate.

  11. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altintas, Ümit; Helgstrand, Ulf Johan Vilhelm; Hansen, Marc A;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) with special emphasis on the applicability of duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS) when diagnosing PAES. In addition to examining the correlation between DUS and intraoperative findings...

  12. Occurrence, fate, behavior and ecotoxicological state of phthalates in different environmental matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net, Sopheak; Sempéré, Richard; Delmont, Anne; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-04-01

    Because of their large and widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in all the environmental compartements. They have been widely detected throughout the worldwide environment. Indoor air where people spend 65-90% of their time is also highly contaminated by various PAEs released from plastics, consumer products as well as ambient suspended particulate matter. Because of their widespread application, PAEs are the most common chemicals that humans are in contact with daily. Based on various exposure mechanisms, including the ingestion of food, drinking water, dust/soil, air inhalation and dermal exposure the daily intake of PAEs may reach values as high as 70 μg/kg/day. PAEs are involved in endocrine disrupting effects, namely, upon reproductive physiology in different species of fish and mammals. They also present a variety of additional toxic effects for many other species including terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. Therefore, their presence in the environment has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health. This paper is a synthesis of the extensive literature data on behavior, transport, fate and ecotoxicological state of PAEs in environmental matrices: air, water, sediment, sludge, wastewater, soil, and biota. First, the origins and physicochemical properties of PAEs that control the behavior, transport and fate in the environment are reviewed. Second, the compilation of data on transport and fate, adverse environmental and human health effects, legislation, restrictions, and ecotoxicological state of the environment based on PAEs is presented.

  13. Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers as Agents of Change in Oklahoma and the Adoption of Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickeson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that precision agricultural education (PAE) in Oklahoma affects environmental quality, water conservation, and crop yields. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the nature and perceived effectiveness of PAE in Oklahoma secondary agricultural education classes. The study was framed by the diffusion of…

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0539 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0539 ref|YP_002016101.1| hypothetical protein Paes_1434 [Prosthecochloris aes...tuarii DSM 271] gb|ACF46454.1| hypothetical protein Paes_1434 [Prosthecochloris aestuarii DSM 271] YP_002016101.1 1.1 26% ...

  15. Pollution levels and characteristics of phthalate esters in indoor air in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueqing; Song, Min; Guo, Min; Chi, Chenchen; Mo, Feifei; Shen, Xueyou

    2015-11-01

    The concentrations of phthalate esters (PAEs) in Chinese hospitals were investigated by simultaneously determining concentrations of gas- and particle-phase PAEs. PAEs were detected in two third-class first-grade hospitals, two second-class first-grade hospitals, and a community health service center. Hospital drugstores had the highest concentration (24.19μg/m(3)), which was 1.54 times that of newly decorated houses. The second highest concentration was found in the transfusion rooms, averaging 21.89μg/m(3); this was followed by the concentrations of PAEs in the nurse's workstations, the wards, and the doctor's offices, with mean concentrations of 20.66, 20.0, and 16.92μg/m(3), respectively. The lowest concentrations were found in the hallways (16.30μg/m(3)). Of the six different kinds of PAEs found, major pollutants included diethyl phthalates, dibutyl phthalates, butylbenzyl phthalates and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates, comprising more than 80% of all PAEs present. Meanwhile, a comparison between different wards showed that PAE concentrations in the maternity wards were 1.63 times higher than in the main wards. Based on known health hazards, our results suggest that the PAEs seriously influence the health of the pregnant women and babies; therefore, it is of great importance to take the phthalate concentrations in hospitals into consideration. In addition, hospital indoor air was more seriously contaminated than the air of newly decorated houses.

  16. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film.

  17. Status of phthalate esters contamination in agricultural soils across China and associated health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lili; Xu, Yang; Xu, Chao; Yun, Lingxiang; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The extensive utilization of phthalate-containing products has lead to ubiquitous contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) in various matrices. However, comprehensive knowledge of their pollution in Chinese farmland and associated risks is still limited. In this study, 15 PAEs were determined in soils from agricultural fields throughout the Mainland China. The concentrations of Σ15PAEs were in the range of 75.0-6369 μg kg(-1). Three provinces (i.e., Fujian, Guangdong and Xinjiang, China) showed the highest loadings of PAEs. Bis(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found as the most abundant component and contributed 71.5% to the ∑15PAEs. The major source of PAEs in arable soils was associated with the application of agricultural plastic films, followed by the activities for soil fertility. Furthermore, the non-cancer and carcinogenic risks of target PAEs were estimated. The hazard indexes (HIs) of PAEs in all samples were below 1 and the carcinogenic risk levels were all within 10(-4). Results from this study will provide valuable information for Chinese agricultural soil management and risk avoidance.

  18. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-23

    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑5PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log Kow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  19. 24 CFR 401.550 - Monitoring and compliance agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgage insurance programs. The regulatory agreement must contain remedies for breach, including monetary..., or contract with other parties to perform, the PAE's functions under this section if: (1) The project is subject to a PRA with a PAE that is not qualified to be a section 8 contract administrator; or...

  20. Filologen N.M. Petersen - grundlægger og fornyer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen indeholder syv bidrag om sproghistorikeren, litteraturhistorikeren, oversætteren og filologen Niels Matthias Petersen (1791-1862), som i 1845 blev den første professor i nordiske sprog ved Københavns Universitet. N.M. Petersens indsats er nævnt i fagbøgerne, men ukendt i den store offentlig......Bogen indeholder syv bidrag om sproghistorikeren, litteraturhistorikeren, oversætteren og filologen Niels Matthias Petersen (1791-1862), som i 1845 blev den første professor i nordiske sprog ved Københavns Universitet. N.M. Petersens indsats er nævnt i fagbøgerne, men ukendt i den store...

  1. Halvering af dagpengeperioden og akutpakken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Klara; Holt, Helle

    Formålet med denne undersøgelse er at give et øjebliksbillede af jobcentrenes og a-kassernes beskæftigelsesindsats her og nu. Gennem en række kvalitative interview med medarbejdere fra jobcentre og a-kasser belyses det, hvordan henholdsvis jobcentre og a-kasser har håndteret halveringen af...... at finde et job, hvilket blandt andet har betydet en tidligere og intensiveret indsats overfor de ledige. Den særlige indsats har derfor bidraget med et større fokus og sammenhæng i indsatsen for den enkelte borger gennem blandt andet en personlig jobformidler og fællessamtaler mellem den ledige, a...

  2. Sundhedsøkonomi ved underernæring blandt ældre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kjeld Møller

    2009-01-01

    . Meromkostninger for medicinske patienter på grund af underernæring: 1. Antal medicinske patienter med underernæring: 82.000 x 0,35= 28.700.   2. 28.700 indlæggelser a 3,4 dage ekstra: 97.580 sengedage.  3. 97.580 sengedage a 1.477 kr. (2003) eller 1.726 kr. (2008)=Totale meromkostninger: 144 mio. kr. (2003) eller...... 168 mio. kr. (2008) ved en bedre ernæringsmæssig indsats. ved en bedre ernæringsmæssig indsats. 1. Antal medicinske patienter med underernæring: 82.000 x 0,35= 28.700.   2. 28.700 indlæggelser a 3,4 dage ekstra: 97.580 sengedage.  3. 97.580 sengedage a 1.477 kr. (2003) eller 1.726 kr. (2008)=ved en...

  3. Skolens gode og onde cirkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Leif Glud; Andersen, F. B.; Bro, K.

    Baseret på en undersøgelse med deltagelse af 5000 danske elever og 200 lærere, gives et vidensbaseret grundlag for diskussionerne om børns udbytte af undervisning, lærernes indsats, uro og mobning og sammenhængen mellem det, lærere gør og det, elever får ud af det.......Baseret på en undersøgelse med deltagelse af 5000 danske elever og 200 lærere, gives et vidensbaseret grundlag for diskussionerne om børns udbytte af undervisning, lærernes indsats, uro og mobning og sammenhængen mellem det, lærere gør og det, elever får ud af det....

  4. Vurdering og feedback i den danske skole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen giver et overblik over, hvordan evaluering som pædagogisk indsats og redskab igennem de seneste 20 år har påvirket og forandret skolens og lærernes pædagogiske arbejde. Artiklen giver også et bud på, hvordan der i de kommende år vil blive fokuseret på lærerens evne til at skabe læring i ...

  5. Samtænkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veicherts, Nicolas Teodors

    2005-01-01

    Konklusionen på to DIIS briefs i denne serie er, at “samtænkning af militær og civil indsats er kommet for at blive”, se www.diis.dk/sw1506.afp og 14827.afp. Den konklusion ændres ikke i denne tredje og sidste publikation i serien, der fortsat har militære interventioner som ramme. Rapporten...

  6. Liv med pædagogerne - om at sætte mål i socialpædagogisk praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Ida

    2009-01-01

    Pædagogiske mål er kommet i fokus, i takt med at det socialpædagogiske arbejdsområde underlægges stigende krav om dokumentation. Udformningen af specifikke og målbare mål antages at bidrage til styring af den socialpædagogiske indsats i retning mod bedre kvalitet. Med udgangspunkt i et forsknings...

  7. Kontemplativ opmærksomhedskultur i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj; Kolmos, Marie

    2013-01-01

    I denne artikel præsenterer vi resultater af en kvalitativ undersøgelse af en længerevarende indsats med kontemplativ undervisning i en dansk skoleklasse. Til forskel fra de fleste andre undersøgelser på området, som vedrører kortvarige indsatser (typisk omkring 8 uger), kan denne undersøgelse vi...

  8. Ikke alle lærer ens – heller ikke sygeplejestuderende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Kelly, Hélène

    2008-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i regeringens ønske om, at der gøres en særlig indsats for at øge gennemførelsen i sundhedsuddannelserne, blev der i CVU Syd regi gennemført et projekt vedrørende ”Øget gennemførelse på sundhedsuddannelserne”. Projektet skulle evaluere eksisterende indsatser for at fastholde stud...

  9. Fra hjemløshed til egen bolig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen Stigaard, Dorte

    Tidligere hjemløse kan have meget svært ved at fastholde en tilværelse i egen bolig. Denne rapport undersøger, hvilke udfordringer de tidligere hjemløse oplever som størst ved overgangen til egen bolig, og hvilke elementer i den sociale indsats de oplever som vigtigst. Blandt de væsentligste risi...

  10. Working with socially endangered children in danish daycare institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen sætter fokus på socialt udsatte børn i daginstitutionens almenpædagogiske praksis. Der redegøres dels for internationale og danske undersøgelser, som har fokuseret på at undersøge daginstitutionens betingelser og muligheder for at arbejde på, gennem pædagogisk indsats, at forbedre social...

  11. Økologisk risikovurdering af genmodificeret majs-krydsning: BT11x59122xMIR604x1507xGA21 i anmeldelse vedr. markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Damgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    "Den genmodificerede fem-stakkede majskrydsning adskiller sig fra konventionelle majs ved at have indsat gener der gør planterne tolerante over for herbiciderne glufosinat-ammonium og glyfosat. Desuden er majsen tolerant over for angreb af sommerfuglearter såsom kornboreren (Ostrinia nubilalis) o...... or no adverse environmental consequences. In case of accidental mixing and/or dispersal of GMO-seed, this will probably be detected by the procedures performed by the Danish NaturErhvervstyrelse. "...

  12. Økologisk risikovurdering af genmodificeret majs-krydsning: BT11x59122xMIR604x1507xga21 i anmeldelse vedr. markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    "Den genmodificerede fem-stakkede majskrydsning adskiller sig fra konventionelle majs ved at have indsat gener der gør planterne tolerante over for herbiciderne glufosinat-ammonium og glyfosat. Desuden er majsen tolerant over for angreb af sommerfuglearter såsom kornboreren (Ostrinia nubilalis) o...... or no adverse environmental consequences. In case of accidental mixing and/or dispersal of GMO-seed, this will probably be detected by the procedures performed by the Danish NaturErhvervstyrelse. "...

  13. Økologisk risikovurdering af genmodificeret majs-krydsning: BT11xMIR162x1507xGA21 i anmeldelse vedr. markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Damgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    "Den genmodificerede fire-stakkede majskrydsning adskiller sig fra konven-tionelle majs ved at have indsat gener der gør planterne tolerante over for herbiciderne glufosinat-ammonium og glyfosat. Desuden er majsen tolerant over for angreb af sommerfuglearter såsom kornboreren (Ostrinia nubilalis)...... consequences. In case of accidental mixing and/or dispersal of GMO-seed, this will probably be detected by the procedures performed by the Danish NaturErhvervstyrelse....

  14. Den store fred på vej i Tyrkiet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Necef, Mehmet Ümit

    2013-01-01

    Der har de seneste måneder foregået seriøse fredsforhandlinger mellem den tyrkiske stat og PKK (Det kurdiske Arbejderparti) for at løse den 30-årige blo-dige konflikt. Denne artikel diskuterer, hvorfor det netop er en moderat isla-misk regering, der gør en stor indsats for at stoppe krigen med en...

  15. Den store fred

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Necef, Mehmet Ümit

    2013-01-01

    Der har de seneste måneder foregået seriøse fredsforhandlinger mellem den tyrkiske stat og PKK (Det kurdiske Arbejderparti) for at løse den 30-årige blo-dige konflikt. Denne artikel diskuterer, hvorfor det netop er en moderat isla-misk regering, der gør en stor indsats for at stoppe krigen med en...

  16. Måltidsvaner for voksne med kort uddannelse 2005-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lene Møller; Kørup, Karsten; Trolle, Ellen

    fredag aftensmad til søndag sen aften) er af en mindre god ernæringsmæssig kvalitet end kosten i hverdagene. På nær alkohol er forskellene dog små. En indsats til forbedring af de kortuddannede voksnes kostvaner bør derfor både fokusere på hverdagenes og weekendens måltider. Den største andel af...

  17. Kommentarer til SNS, Glycine max (A2704-12), vurdering af konsekvenserne ved at importere og anvende sojabønnerne på den måde, det er beskrevet i ansøgningen, modtaget 20-02-2006, deadline 01-05-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2006-01-01

    "Den genmodificerede sojabønne A2704-12 adskiller sig fra konventionelle sojabønner ved at have indsat et gen der gør planterne tolerante over for glufosinat-ammonium herbicider. Sojabønnen søges kun godkendt til import og viderebearbejdning til bl.a. dyrefoder og fødevarer, men ikke til dyrkning...

  18. Særligt pesticidfølsomme lerområder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Bertel; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Nygaard, Erik;

    daværende amter til opgave at udpege de områder, som er særligt følsomme for bestemte typer af forurening samt at prioritere den indsats, der skal gennemføres i disse områder for at beskytte vandressourcen. Lovgrundlaget er L 56 26/6 1998 om ændring af lov om vandforsyning m.v., samt lov om miljø...

  19. EMTC. Europæisk registrering af musikterapeuter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    med en 5-årig universitetsuddannelse. Mon ikke også musikterapeuter som har fx uddannelse i ’Guided Imagery and Music’ tæller med her? De autodidakte/pionererne skiller sig ud fra det grå marked ved at de har gjort en særlig indsats for at fremme musikterapifaget. Flere af dem har været med til...

  20. Særligt pesticidfølsomme lerområder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Bertel; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Nygaard, Erik

    daværende amter til opgave at udpege de områder, som er særligt følsomme for bestemte typer af forurening samt at prioritere den indsats, der skal gennemføres i disse områder for at beskytte vandressourcen. Lovgrundlaget er L 56 26/6 1998 om ændring af lov om vandforsyning m.v., samt lov om miljø...

  1. Planer for den andens liv I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breumlund, Anne; Hansen, Inger Bruun

    Undersøgelsen viser, hvordan den socialpædagogiske indsats på botilbuddet Højskolebakken må udvikles i mødet med en gruppe unge med autisme, som har tillægsdiagnoser, udfordrende adfærd, misbrug eller har udøvet kriminalitet. Første rapport fra forskningsprojektet: "Den pædagogiske og sociale...

  2. Møder med hinaden i øjenhøjde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2009-01-01

    - i form af spørgsmål om lærerens forberedelse og indsats. En kognitivistisk model baseret på Piaget-tanker vil arbejde ud fra mentale skemaer i forandring. Her vil spørgsmål af typen der går på elevens forståelse og forforståelse i forhold til stoffet være relevante. Den model jeg har anvendt i min...

  3. Snublestensanalyse i byggeriet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apelgren, Søren; Richter, Anne; Koch, Christian

    indebære et kompetenceløft for de implicerede. Handlingsplaner i den enkelte virksomhed må naturligvis omhandle et afgrænset felt, som er særligt relevant for denne. Nyere koncepter, som f.eks. partnering og lean construction, kan være indgange til en systematisk indsats for at imødegå snublesten. Men der...

  4. Operation Unified Protector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2012-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at se nærmere på erfaringerne fra den maritime kampagne under den militære indsats i konflikten i Libyen i 2011, som i NATO regi blev kendt som Operation Unified Protector (OUP). Dækningen i de danske medier fokuserede primært på luftkampagnen, hvilket må tilskrives,...

  5. Gratisme, frivillighed og tillid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet omhandler “gratisme” – også kaldet “køren-på-frihjul” eller “free-riding” forstået som det at modtage fra fællesskabet uden at bidrage. Hvorledes påvirker gratistproblemet den frivillige indsats i en given gruppe? Økonomen Mancur Olson forudsiger i sin bog Logic of Collective Action fra...

  6. Ved Irena Sendlers og præsident Lech Kaczynskis død

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen handler hovedsagelig om den polske kvinde Irena Sendler, som blev nomineret til Nobels fredspris for sin enestående indsats for at redde jødiske børn i Warszawas ghetto, men døde i en alder af 98 år uden at have fået den – kort før flystyrtet som berøvede den polske præsident Kaczynski l...

  7. Fra amt til region: Status og udviklingsperspektiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Thomas

      Den 1. januar 2007 nedlægges de nuværende amter og erstattes af regionerne. Det er en passende anledning til at gøre status over amternes indsats. Artiklens hovedkonklusion er, at amterne gjorde det godt, især fordi det lykkedes dem at sikre en mådeholden økonomisk udvikling på sygehusområdet...

  8. Adsorption of Phthalates on Municipal Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates (PAEs are commonly detected in discharge of municipal wastewater treatment plants. This study investigated the removal of six typical PAEs with activated sludge and the results revealed that concentrations of aqueous PAEs decreased rapidly during the beginning 15 min and reached equilibrium within 2 hours due to the adsorption of activated sludge. The process followed first-order kinetic equation, except for dioctyl phthalate (DOP. The factors influencing the adsorption were also evaluated and it was found that higher initial concentrations of PAEs enhanced the removal but affected little the adsorption equilibrium time. The adsorption of PAEs favored lower operating temperature (the optimum temperature was approximately 25°C in this research, which could be an exothermic process. Additionally, lower aqueous pH could also benefit the adsorption.

  9. Toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the anaerobic digestion of wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Iranpour, R.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    are considered recalcitrant. Moreover, they inhibit methanogenesis. However, studies have not been made on the effect of feeding a combination of recalcitrant and biodegradable PAEs into anaerobic digesters treating wastewater sludge. The present study was conducted with wastewater sludge from the Los Angeles...... Bureau of Sanitation's Hyperion Treatment Plant. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most common persistent PAE found in wastewater, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a common PAE with short ester chains, were sorbed into the sludge fed to a bench-scale digester for a period of 12 weeks. DEHP...... populations in the anaerobic bioreactor. Our results imply that high levels of DEHP or other recalcitrant PAEs in wastewater sludge are likely to compromise methanogenesis and removal of biodegradable PAEs in sludge digesters....

  10. Distribution of phthalate esters in the groundwater of Jianghan plain, Hubei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan ZHANG; Hui LIU; Ying LIANG; Cheng WANG; Hecheng LIANG; Hesheng CAI

    2009-01-01

    Samples of groundwater were collected from 17 sites in the Jianghan plain in July 2007. Sixteen phthalate esters (PAEs) were detected in samples collected by using solid-phase extraction (SPE)-gas chromatography (GC). The results show that there were one or several PAEs in all the samples, and the concentrations of total PAEs ranged from 80.12 to 1882.18 ng/L. Four PAEs, i.e. di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), bis (2-ethoxyethyl) phthalate (BEEP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate DEHP) were the dominant species. Among these, DIBP, DBP and DEHP concentrations were closely related to the water supply from the Yangtze River, Hanjiang River and Honghu Lake. However, the distribution of BEEP was irregular, which may be due to the application of some kind of products containing BEEP in the related areas. PAE distribution was irrelevant to the electrical conductivity and sample depth.

  11. Xylose induces the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica to produce a cutinase-like enzyme which efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Fujii, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Hiroko Kuze

    2014-03-01

    There is a need to speed up the degradation of used agricultural mulch films that are made of biodegradable plastics (BPs) in the field. Treating them with BP-degrading enzymes could be a solution to this problem. A cutinase-like enzyme of yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) has wide specificity of BPs degradation, but needs to be produced efficiently. Here we report that the production of PaE by P. antarctica can be increased by using xylose as carbon source. BP-degradation activity was analyzed using a polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) emulsion as the substrate. Strain P. antarctica GB-4(1)W was found to be the best PaE producer among the tested strains. Using a 5-L jar fermentor with xylose fed-batch cultivation, high PaE productivity could be maintained and about 21 U/ml of PaE was obtained in 120 h. This amount was 100 times higher than the amount that we obtained previously (0.21 U/ml by flask cultivation using glycerol as carbon source). Under repeated xylose fed-batch cultivation with 24 h intervals, the maximum PaE production rate (0.34 U/ml/h) was maintained and the highest PaE productivity (28,000 U/2 L/d) was repeatedly obtained for 7 intervals. The activity of filtered jar-culture (crude PaE) was stable over 12 weeks at 4°C. Commercially available BP mulch films (20 μm thickness, cut into 1-cm-squares) were completely degraded by submerging them in crude PaE (2 U/ml) at 30°C in 24 h. These results indicated that concentrated PaE can rapidly degrade the strength of BP mulch films in the field so that they do not interfere with plowing.

  12. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used.

  13. 利奈唑胺与万古霉素对耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌抗生素后效应的研究%Post-antibiotic effect of linezolid and vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁蓓蓓; 王瑾; 白楠; 周家军; 裴广胜; 王睿

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究利奈唑胺和万古霉素对耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)的体外抗生素后效应(PAE).方法 用平板菌落计数法测定不同接触浓度、不同接触时间的利奈唑胺和万古霉素对MRSA的PAE;用扫描电镜观察两药PAE期间MRSA形态学的变化.结果 利奈唑胺和万古霉素对MRSA均能产生中度PAE,且随着接触时间的延长、接触浓度的增加,PAE延长.与空白对照组比较,在体外PAE期间没有观察到两药MRSA形态有显著的变化.结论 利奈唑胺和万古霉素在体外对MRSA均能产生中度PAE,两药在体外PAE期间MRSA形态无明显的变化.%Objective To investigate the post - antibiotic effect ( PAE ) of linezolid and vancomycin against methicillin - resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRS A) . Methods PAE of linezolid and vancomycin against MRSA was determined by plate colony counting at different concentrations (1 × MIC , 2 × MIC , 4 × MIC , 8 × MIC ) and different time points( 1,2,3 h). The morphological changes of MRSA during the PAE period were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results All strains were susceptible to linezolid and vancomycin. The PAE was greater at higher concentration and longer exposure time. There was no morphological change of MRSA during the PAE. Conclusion It was demonstrated that linezolid and vacomycin had a moderate in vitro PAE against MRSA. There was no morphological change of MRSA during the PAE.

  14. Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome in Children: Experience With Four Cases of Acute Ischaemia and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settembre, N; Bouziane, Z; Bartoli, M A; Nabokov, V; Venermo, M; Feugier, P; Malikov, S

    2017-04-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is an uncommon anatomical anomaly, frequently described in adults. The most common symptom is claudication. Acute limb ischaemia (ALI) in children is rare, but it may evolve and lead to limb loss or lifelong complications. Clinical and surgical experience of PAES in children is reported. Data from the literature are analysed in order to assess the severity of this disease and to identify the factors characterising the diagnosis and the outcome of treatment in paediatric patients. Four children (aged 7-16 years) were referred with ALI due to PAES. Among the 439 articles reporting cases of PAES, 55 patients under 18 years of age were the focus. The PAES cases were classified according to the Love and Whelan classification modified by Rich. Data from 79 children (106 limbs, 27 bilateral PAES) were collected and analysed. Type I PAES was present in 41 (39%), Type II in 23 (22%), Type III in 24 (23%), Type IV in 12 (11%), and Type V in two (2%) limbs. A functional PAES was present in one patient bilaterally. In two cases, the type of PAES was not reported. Claudication occurred in 68 cases (64%), and ALI in 19 (18%). In 60 cases (57%), revascularisation with or without myotomy was required; myotomy alone was performed in 41 cases (39%). Symptomatic PAES in children should be considered a severe condition requiring urgent investigation in order to avoid any delays in the treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent serious complications. The long-term outcomes of surgical treatment with the correction of the anatomical anomaly and vascular reconstruction are satisfactory with a low complication rate. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy and possible mechanisms of perillaldehyde in control of Aspergillus niger causing grape decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Wang, Yanzhen; Zeng, Hong; Li, Zongyun; Zhang, Peng; Tessema, Akalate; Peng, Xue

    2015-06-02

    A variety of plant products have been recognized for their antifungal activity and recently have attracted food industry attention for their efficacy in controlling postharvest fungal decay of fruits. The antifungal activity of perillaldehyde (PAE) was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, a known cause of grape spoilage, and possible mechanisms were explored. PAE showed notable antifungal activity against A. niger, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 0.25 and 1 μl/ml, respectively. The accumulation of mycelial biomass was also inhibited by PAE in a dose-dependent manner, completely inhibiting mycelial growth at 1 μl/ml. In vivo data confirmed that the vapour treatment of grapes with various concentrations of PAE markedly improved control of A. niger and suppressed natural decay. Concentrations of PAE of 0.075 μl/ml air showed the greatest inhibition of fungal growth compared to the controls. Further experiments indicated that PAE activated a membrane-active mechanism that inhibits ergosterol synthesis, increases membrane permeability (as evidenced by extracellular pH and conductivity measurements), and disrupts membrane integrity, leading to cell death. Our findings suggest that this membrane-active mechanism makes PAE a promising potential antifungal agent for postharvest control of grape spoilage.

  16. Prenatal alcohol exposure modifies glucocorticoid receptor subcellular distribution in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs frontal cortex-dependent learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Allan

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice.

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of structurally diverse phthalic acid esters by porcine and bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takao; Hong, Peng; Tanabe, Rima; Nagai, Kazuo; Kato, Katsuya

    2010-12-01

    A weak hydrolyzing activity against bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was discovered in a commercial crude lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) preparation from porcine pancreas. DEHP was hydrolyzed to mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) not by a pancreatic lipase but by a cholesterol esterase (CEase, EC 3.1.1.13), a trace contaminant in the crude lipase preparation. Enzymatic hydrolysis of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), suspected to be endocrine-disrupting chemicals, was investigated using CEases from two species of mammals and a microorganism. Eight structurally diverse PAEs, namely diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-propyl phthalate (DPrP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPeP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP), DEHP, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), were hydrolyzed to their corresponding monoesters by both porcine and bovine pancreatic CEases, while a microbial CEase from Pseudomonas sp. had no hydrolyzing activity against these PAEs. The hydrolysis experiments with bovine pancreatic CEase (50 U) indicated complete hydrolysis of every PAE (5 μmole) except for BBP and DCHP within 15 min; BBP and DCHP were hydrolyzed within 30 min and 6h, respectively. The rates of PAE hydrolysis could be affected by the bulkiness of alkyl side chains in the PAEs. This study provides important evidence that mammalian pancreatic CEases, such as those from porcine and bovine sources, are potential enzymes for nonspecific degradation of structurally diverse PAEs.

  18. Absorption characteristic of paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Chun; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jun; Asenso, James; Ma, Yong; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    1. Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) was synthesized to improve the poor oral absorption of paeoniflorin (Pae). 2. This study was performed to investigate the absorptive behavior and mechanism of CP-25 in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats, using Pae as a control. 3. The results showed that intestinal absorption of CP-25 was neither segmental nor sex dependent. However, the main segment of intestine that absorbed Pae was the duodenum. Furthermore, passive transport was confirmed to be the main absorption pattern of CP-25. More importantly, the absorption of CP-25 was much higher than Pae in the small intestine. 4. Among the ABC transporter inhibitors, the absorption rate of Pae increased in the presence of P-gp inhibitors verapamil and GF120918, which indicated that Pae was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), however, such was not observed in the presence of breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Finally, the ABC transporter inhibitors did not have any significant impact on CP-25 as demonstrated in the parallel studies. 5. CP-25 could improve the poor absorption of Pae, which may be attributed to both the lipid solubility enhancement and its resistance to P-gp-mediated efflux.

  19. Acetic acid as a decontamination method for sink drains in a nosocomial outbreak of metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjärne Aspelund, A; Sjöström, K; Olsson Liljequist, B; Mörgelin, M; Melander, E; Påhlman, L I

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa may colonize water systems via biofilm formation. In hospital environments, contaminated sinks have been associated with nosocomial transmission. Here we describe a prolonged outbreak of a metallo-β-lactamase-producing P. aeruginosa (Pae-MBL) associated with sink drains, and propose a previously unreported decontamination method with acetic acid. To describe a nosocomial outbreak of Pae-MBL associated with hospital sink drains and to evaluate acetic acid as a decontamination method. The outbreak was investigated by searching the microbiology database, microbiological sampling and strain typing. Antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of acetic acid were evaluated in vitro. Pae-MBL-positive sinks were treated with 24% acetic acid once weekly and monitored with repeated cultures. Fourteen patients with positive cultures for Pae-MBL were identified from 2008 to 2014. The patients had been admitted to three wards, where screening discovered Pae-MBL in 12 sink drains located in the patient bathrooms. Typing of clinical and sink drain isolates revealed identical or closely related strains. Pae-MBL biofilm was highly sensitive to acetic acid with a minimum biofilm eradication concentration of 0.75% (range: 0.19-1.5). Weekly treatment of colonized sink drains with acetic acid resulted in negative cultures and terminated transmission. Acetic acid is highly effective against Pae-MBL biofilms, and may be used as a simple method to decontaminate sink drains and to prevent nosocomial transmission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. [Distribution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Products Around the Pearl River Delta. South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wu, Shan; Liang, Jin-ming; Deng, Jie-fan; Wang, Ke; Liang, Wen-li; Zeng, Cai-ming; Peng, Si-qing; Zhang, Tian-bin; Yang, Guo-yi

    2016-01-15

    In order to investigate and assess the distribution of pathalic acid easters (PAEs) in agricultural products from typical areas of the Pearl River Delta, South China, 131 agricultural products were sampled for determination of 6 PAEs priority pollutants classified by the U. S. EPA by GC-FID. The results showed that the total contents of the PAEs (sigma PAEs) in agricultural products samples ranged from nd to 79.86 mg x kg(-1) and the mean value was 2.84 mg x kg(-1), with the detected ratio of 98.5%. The average concentrations of sigma PAEs in different types of agricultural products were ordered by vegetables (3.03 mg x kg(-1)) > rice (2.52 mg x kg(-1)) > fruits (1.26 mg x kg(-1)). The mean concentration of PAEs distributed in the four typical cities of the Pearl River Delta, and decreased in the sequence of Zhuhai (6.53 mg x kg(-1)) > Dongguan (2.59 mg x kg(-1)) > Huizhou (1.53 mg x kg(-1)) > Zhongshan (1.12 mg x kg(-1)). Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) contributed more than 90. 8% of the total PAEs in samples, and were the main components of PAEs in agricultural products from the Pearl River Delta, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. Meanwhile, the average concentrations of sigma PAEs in cabbage mustard, lettuce occurred in Zhuhai and Dongguan cities, followed by lettuce and leaf lettuce in the corresponding DEHP from Zhuhai city, both exceeded the suggested standards in U.S.A. and Europe and were of high health risk. There were significant differences among 14 various vegetables in the contents of the 6 PAEs compounds, and the sigma PAEs contents in cabbage mustard and lettuce as part of leafy vegetables were higher than those in other vegetables, while the lowest were detected in flowering cabbage and edible amaranth. Therefore, the type of vegetables and its growing environment exposed to the atmosphere and soil were the main factors that significantly affected their accumulation of

  1. MEHP/DEHP: gonadal toxicity and effects on rodent accessory sex organs.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, J A; Curto, K A; Thomas, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The phthalate acid esters (PAEs), and, in particular, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its monoester, monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), can adversely affect rodent testes but only at high doses. Rat gonadal zinc levels can be decreased by the injection of DEHP, but not MEHP. The rat prostate gland seems to be particularly sensitive to PAE-induced zinc depletion. PAE-induced changes in male reproductive organs were more evident in the rat than in the mouse. Some of the effects of MEHP can ...

  2. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uban, Kristina A; Comeau, Wendy L; Ellis, Linda A; Galea, Liisa A M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-10-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine (DA) systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic DA activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and DA systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and DA systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24h following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared to CVS-exposed control

  3. Pharmacodynamic effects of subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an in vitro dynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiolo, F; Taras, A; Frontespezi, S; Legnani, M C; Silanos, M A; Pravettoni, G; Suter, F

    1994-06-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE), sub-MIC effect (SME), and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PASME) of imipenem on Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated with an in vitro dynamic model reproducing in vivo elimination kinetics of the antibiotic. The PASMEs were constantly longer than the corresponding SMEs, but differences between them were not statistically significant. Both PASMEs and SMEs were initially bactericidal and were significantly longer than PAEs. The mean values of both PASMEs and SMEs were over 12 h. SMEs appear to be more relevant for the bacterial growth kinetics than PAEs.

  4. The effects of vacuum annealing on the top-most layer of 6H-SiC measured by Positron annihilation induced Auger Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Nadesalingam, M.; Davis, B.; Brauer, G.; Weiss, A. H.

    2007-03-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) in monocrystalline, hexagonal polytype form is a very interesting material for a wide class of novel application in electronics. The wide range of the band gap offered by different polytype with very little lattice mismatch can be utilized to grow smooth heterojunctions. Till now it has not been achieved and hence the surface characterization of such crystals is critical. Positron Annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) is an established tool to characterize the top most atomic surface layer of solids. Here, PAES has been used to study the surface of 6H- SiC after annealing under different thermal and ambient conditions. The PAES measurements indicate that top-most atomic layer becomes C rich after vacuum annealing at 800 C. In additional a large chemical shift in the Si peak of approximately -12 eV was observed with PAES.

  5. Et ta oleks pomme pannud - mina ei usu / Kirsti Vainküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainküla, Kirsti, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Kaitsepolitsei poolt vahistatud Pae tänava piirkonna pommirünnakute korraldamises kahtlustatavast Märt Ringmaast ja tema kinnivõtmisest kõneleb mehe endine abikaasa Karin Ringmaa. Vt. samas: Ainus kahtlusalune

  6. Active Microwave Technologies Using Ultra-High efficiency P-Band and L -Band Power Amplifiers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AlGaN/GaN devices on SiC substrates will be utilized to achieve Power Added Efficiencies (PAE) in excess of 85%. These wide band-gap solid-state semiconductors...

  7. Postantibiotic effect of ceftaroline against gram-positive organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankuch, G A; Appelbaum, P C

    2009-10-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs), postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA-SMEs), and sub-MIC effects (SMEs) of ceftaroline, a novel injectable cephalosporin, were determined for 15 gram-positive organisms. The pneumococcal, staphylococcal, and enterococcal PAEs were 0.8 to 1.8 h, 0.7 to 2.2 h, and 0.2 to 1.1 h, respectively. The corresponding PA-SMEs (0.4 times the MIC) were 2.5 to 6.7 h, 2.9 to >0.0 h, and 7.9 to >10.3 h, respectively. The PA-SMEs were longer than the PAEs, suggesting that sub-MIC levels extend the PAE of ceftaroline against gram-positive cocci.

  8. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departments of Paediatrics' and Medical Microbiologfi,. University College ... This study is particularly relevant since there is no previ- ous report to guide .... in prescribing these agents in children. close monitoring of pae- diatric patients ...

  9. Cognitive and adaptive outcomes and age at insult effects after non-traumatic coma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forsyth, R J; Wong, C P; Kelly, T P; Borrill, H; Stilgoe, D; Kendall, S; Eyre, J A

    2001-01-01

    ...-traumatic coma; prognosis; age related effects Non-traumatic coma (NTC) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In the first population based epidemiological survey of pae...

  10. [Post-antibiotic effect of imipenem, amikacin and ciprofloxacin against various strains of Serratia marcescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollet, C; Mallet, M N; Bouchemal, H; de Micco, P

    1990-05-01

    The authors compared the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of imipenem, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and latamoxef against Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880 (type strain) and against 12 clinical strains belonging to Grimont's most frequent biotypes: A2a, A3a, A3b, A4a, A4b, A5, A6a, A8a, A8b, A8c, TT, TCT. PAE was determined by measuring bacterial growth kinetics after one hour exposure to concentration of 2 x MIC of 10(6) CFUs in Mueller-Hinton broth. Drug removal was by 10-3 dilution of the exposed culture. A PAE was consistently present with imipenem (range 0.8-2.9 hrs), amikacin (range 1.0-4.9 hrs), ciprofloxacin (range 1.4-2.8 hrs). The duration of PAE did not correlate with MIC or Grimont's biotypes.

  11. F-band, High-Efficiency GaN Power Amplifier for the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder and SOFIA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QuinStar Technology proposes to develop a 4-watt Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA) operating at F-band (106-114 GHz) with a power-added efficiency (PAE) of greater...

  12. Blockade of paeoniflorin on sodium current in mouse hippocampal CA1 neurons%芍药苷对小鼠海马CA1区神经元钠电流的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广钦; 郝雪梅; 陈世忠; 周培爱; 程和平; 吴才宏

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the blockade of paeoniflorin (Pae) on INa in the acutely isolated hippocampus neurons of mice.METHODS: The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used. RESULTS: Pae inhibited INa in frequency-dependentand concentration-dependent manners, with an IC50 of 271 μmol/L. Pae 0.3 mmol/L shifted the activation potential of the maximal INa from -40 mV to -30 mV, shifted the steady-state activation and inactivation curves toward more positive and negative potentials byl0.8 mV, and 18.2 mV, respectively, and postponed the recovery of INa inactivation state from (4.2+0.7) ms to (9.8± 1.2) ms. CONCLUSION: Pae inhibited INa in mouse hippocampus neurons.

  13. Performance of Laser Beam Wavefront Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    13 IV. EXPERIENTAL REUT..... ................ 17 OtCEDflO PAE BLANK-NOT FILMD 3 1* Schematic of the Phase ................... .... 10 2...laser communications , lidar, and electro-optice; communication sciences, applied electronics, semiconductor crystal and device physics, radiometric

  14. Distributional patterns of the American Peiratinae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, del C M.

    1996-01-01

    Based on distributional data of 40 species of Peiratinae, historical relationships of five Amazonian areas (Paranaense, Atlantic, Pacific, Amazonian, and Cerrado) and two Chacoan areas (Chaco and Caatinga), were investigated through a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE). The resulting area

  15. Physical Self-Concept and Physical Activity Enjoyment in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Annette; Tietjens, Maike; Bund, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences and relationships of seven specific domains of physical self-concept (PSC) ("Strength," "Endurance," "Speed," "Flexibility," "Coordination," "Global Sport Competence," and "Appearance") and physical activity enjoyment (PAE) in 447…

  16. Widespread occurrence of phthalic acid esters in raw oilseeds in China used for edible vegetable oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ai-Peng; Liu, Yu-Lan; Shi, Long-Kai

    2016-09-01

    Seven different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were quantified in 124 samples of 16 types of oilseeds from China using a simplified GC-MS method. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were found in all tested oilseed samples. Each made a high contribution to the summed total PAEs. Total PAE concentrations in 124 oilseeds ranged from 0.14 to 3.05 mg kg(-1), and the mean was 0.99 mg kg(-1). Mandulapalka (Cyperus esculentus) samples were the most severely contaminated among all the tested specimens; maize germ samples were least contaminated. Di-n-octyl phthalate and butylbenzyl phthalate were not detected in 12 and five types of oilseeds, respectively. Only eight samples contained all seven analytes. No difference was observed between woody oil-bearing plant and herbaceous oil-bearing plant in terms of PAEs content.

  17. Transient Ischemic Rectitis as a Potential Complication after Prostatic Artery Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Airton Mota, E-mail: motamoreira@gmail.com [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Brazil); Marques, Carlos Frederico Sparapan, E-mail: sparapanmarques@gmail.com [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Colorectal Surgery Division, Department of Gastroenterology (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto Azoubel, E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Urology (Brazil); Nahas, Caio Sergio Rizkallah, E-mail: caionahas@usp.br; Nahas, Sergio Carlos, E-mail: sergionahas@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Colorectal Surgery Division, Department of Gastroenterology (Brazil); Gregorio Ariza, Miguel Angel de, E-mail: mgregori@unizar.es [University of Zaragoza, Division of Minimally Invasive Image Guided Surgery (Spain); Carnevale, Francisco Cesar, E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is an alternative treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Complications are primarily related to non-target embolization. We report a case of ischemic rectitis in a 76-year-old man with significant lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, probably related to nontarget embolization. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an 85.5-g prostate and urodynamic studies confirmed Inferior vesical obstruction. PAE was performed bilaterally. During the first 3 days of follow-up, a small amount of blood mixed in the stool was observed. Colonoscopy identified rectal ulcers at day 4, which had then disappeared by day 16 post PAE without treatment. PAE is a safe, effective procedure with a low complication rate, but interventionalists should be aware of the risk of rectal nontarget embolization.

  18. Radiodermitis After Prostatic Artery Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, Alicia, E-mail: alaborda@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza, Group of Research in Minimally Invasive Techniques (GITMI), Facultad de Veterinaria (Spain); Assis, Andre Moreira De, E-mail: andre.maa@gmail.com [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology and Endovascular Surgery Department, Radiology Institute (Brazil); Ioakeim, Ignatios, E-mail: ignacio.ioakim@hotmail.es; Sánchez-Ballestín, María, E-mail: mirisanba@gmail.com [Universidad de Zaragoza, Group of Research in Minimally Invasive Techniques (GITMI), Facultad de Veterinaria (Spain); Carnevale, Francisco Cesar, E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology and Endovascular Surgery Department, Radiology Institute (Brazil); Gregorio, Miguel Angel De, E-mail: mgregori@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza, Group of Research in Minimally Invasive Techniques (GITMI), Facultad de Veterinaria (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    Prostate artery embolization (PAE) is a technically demanding new treatment option for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We present a case of radiation-induced dermitis in a 63-year-old patient after a technically successful PAE, due to high radiation exposure (KAP: 8,023,949 mGy cm{sup 2}) and long fluoroscopy time (72 min). Anatomical and technical aspects are discussed, as well as recommendations to decrease radiation exposure in these procedures.

  19. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES.

  20. Burden Sharing in the Context of Global Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringius, L.; Frederiksen, P.; Birr-Pedersen, K.

    Occurrence, sources, geographical distribution, transport and fate of the persistent pollutants PAH, NPE, PAE, PCB, PCN and PBDE was investigated in sludge, soil and sediment in a local environment. Further investigated was the vertical distribution in cores of soils and sediment.......Occurrence, sources, geographical distribution, transport and fate of the persistent pollutants PAH, NPE, PAE, PCB, PCN and PBDE was investigated in sludge, soil and sediment in a local environment. Further investigated was the vertical distribution in cores of soils and sediment....

  1. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Soil, Sludge and Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Carlsen, L.;

    Occurrence, sources, geographical distribution, transport and fate of the persistent pollutants PAH, NPE, PAE, PCB, PCN and PBDE was investigated in sludge, soil and sediment in a local environment. Further investigated was the vertical distribution in cores of soils and sediment.......Occurrence, sources, geographical distribution, transport and fate of the persistent pollutants PAH, NPE, PAE, PCB, PCN and PBDE was investigated in sludge, soil and sediment in a local environment. Further investigated was the vertical distribution in cores of soils and sediment....

  2. High Strain Rate Tensile and Compressive Effects in Glassy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    Cheng, Polymer Testing, 21, 113 (2002). 11. D.R. Mears, K.D. Pae , and J.A. Sauer, Journal of Applied Physics, 40 [11], 4229 (1969). 12. J.A. Sauer...D.R. Mears, and K.D. Pae , European Polymer Journal, 6, 1015 (1970). 13. C. Bauwens-Crowet, J-C. Bauwens, and G. Homes, Journal of Materials Science, 7

  3. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilhim, Tiago, E-mail: tiagobilhim@hotmail.com [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); Pisco, Joao; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lucia [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal); Campos Pinheiro, Luis [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Urologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, Jose A. [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal); Oliveira, Antonio G. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Biostatistics Department, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); O' Neill, Joao [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal)

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-{mu}m nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  4. Graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A population-based study in remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Jirikowic, Tracy; Tsang, Tracey W; Watkins, Rochelle E; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have examined graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Graphomotor skills were assessed in 108 predominantly Australian Aboriginal children aged 7.5-9.6 years in remote Western Australia using clinical observations (pencil grasp; writing pressure) and standardised assessment tools (the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting; and the Miller Function and Participation Scales - The Draw-a-Kid Game). Skills were compared between children (i) without PAE, (ii) PAE but not FASD and (iii) FASD. Most children used a transitional pencil grasp and exerted heavy handwriting pressure (83.3% and 30.6% of the cohort). The percentage of letters (M = 62.9%) and words (M = 73.3%) written legibly was low. Children with FASD were more likely than children without PAE to use a cross-thumb grasp (P = 0.027), apply heavy writing pressure (P = 0.036), be unable to write a sentence (P = 0.041) and show poorer word legibility (P = 0.041). There were no significant differences between groups for drawing outcomes, although some children with FASD drew pictures that appeared delayed for their age. There were no significant differences between children without PAE and those with PAE but who were not diagnosed with FASD. Overall, graphomotor skills were poor in this cohort, but children with FASD performed significantly worse than children without PAE. Findings suggest the need for improved occupational therapy services for children in remote regions and evaluation of graphomotor skills in children with PAE. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups.

  6. A qualitative investigation among men who have sex with men on the acceptability of performing a self- or partner anal exam to screen for anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butame, Seyram A; Lawler, Sylvia; Hicks, Joseph T; Wilkerson, J Michael; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Baraniuk, Sarah; Ross, Michael W; Chiao, Elizabeth Yu; Nyitray, Alan G

    2017-08-04

    Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of anal cancer, a disease that disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is no uniform screening protocol to detect anal cancer. This qualitative study explores whether a self-anal exam (SAE) or partner anal exam (PAE), that includes self-palpation or palpation of a partner's anal canal, is an acceptable and self-efficacious screening test, which will cue appropriate follow-up care in MSM. Twenty-four MSM living in Houston took part in four focus group sessions eliciting their responses to a study teaching them to perform an SAE or PAE (SAE/PAE). Participants were asked about the acceptability and feasibility of executing an SAE/PAE routinely. Thematic analysis of session transcripts was used to identify common patterns in participant responses. Overall, participants expressed self-efficacy for performing an SAE/PAE and voiced a preference for being taught the procedure by a clinician. Participants agreed that they would consult with a clinician if they ever discovered an abnormality while performing an SAE/PAE. A lack of knowledge about anal cancer among MSM may present a barrier to adopting SAE/PAE. In discussing their experience of the exams, some participants suggested that it could become a routine practice for them. Our findings suggest that SAE and PAE, as a screen for anal cancer, are acceptable and feasible to MSM. Future research should explore attitudes and beliefs of MSM, with the aim of improving anal cancer education and understanding of pathologic findings.

  7. [Miks uurib politsei Ottise ja ehitusfirma Facio vahelist tüli?] / Tarmo Vahter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahter, Tarmo, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Seoses koolitüdruku Veronika Dari tapmisega, kus tegelikuks sihtmärgiks oli Riigi Kinnisvara juht Tiit Ottis, tunneb politsei huvi kolme riigi poolt tellitud ehitustöö vastu. Need on keskkriminaalpolitsei peakorteri ning Tallinna Pae ja Mustamäe gümnaasiumi renoveerimine. Uurimise käigust. Vt. samas: Katkeid Riigi Kinnisvara ja Facio Ehituse juhtide kirjavahetusest Pae ja Mustamäe gümnaasiumide remondi teemal. Tiit Ottis: "Mehed, te rikastute alusetult!"

  8. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF HYDROPHOBIC AND CATIONIC MONTMORILLONITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Liu; Y. Ni; H. Xiao

    2004-01-01

    Hydrophilic and cationic montmorillonite is desirable for pitch control in the pulp and paper industry. In this paper, polyaminoamide - epichlorohydrin (PAE)modified montmorillonite was prepared. The modified montmorillonite was characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR and thermal gravimetric analysis. The amount of PAE intercalated and cationic charge densities of the modified montmorillonite were determined. Finally, it was found that both the solution and melt-intercalated samples with different charge densities exhibited strong interactions with dispersed colloidal rosin acid.

  9. Pharmacodynamic effects of subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an in vitro dynamic model.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE), sub-MIC effect (SME), and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PASME) of imipenem on Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated with an in vitro dynamic model reproducing in vivo elimination kinetics of the antibiotic. The PASMEs were constantly longer than the corresponding SMEs, but differences between them were not statistically significant. Both PASMEs and SMEs were initially bactericidal and were significantly longer than PAEs. The mean values of both PASMEs and ...

  10. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  11. Formulation of liposomes gels of paeonol for transdermal drug delivery by Box-Behnken statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Ma, Fangli; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Fang; Liao, Huawei

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design and optimize a transdermal liposomes gel formulation for paeonol (PAE). A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was used to derive a second-order polynomial equation to construct three-dimensional (3-D) contour plots for prediction of responses. Independent variables studied were the DC-Chol concentration (X₁), molar ratio of lipid/drug (X₂), and the polymer concentration (X₃), and the levels of each factor were low, medium, and high. The dependent variables studied were the encapsulation efficiency (%EE) of PAE (Y₁), flux of PAE (Y₂), and viscosity of the gels (Y₃). Response surface plots were drawn and statistical validity of the polynomials was established to find the compositions of optimized formulation, which was evaluated using the Franz diffusion cell. The %EE of PAE increased proportionally with the molar ratio of lipid/drug, but decreased with polymer concentration, whereas the flux of PAE increased proportionally with polymer concentration and the DC-Chol concentration. The viscosity of gels increased with the polymer concentration. Gels showed a non-Fickian diffusion release mechanism for PAE, and the in vitro release profiles were fit for Higuchi's order model. The design demonstrated the role of the derived polynomial equation and 3-D contour plots in predicting the values of dependent variables for the preparation and optimization of gel formulation for transdermal drug release.

  12. Production of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from cheese whey by the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica GB-4(1)W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ken; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Kuze Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2014-08-01

    Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese production and has high concentrations of lactose (about 5%) and other nutrients. Pseudozyma antarctica produces a unique cutinase-like enzyme, named PaE, that efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics. A previous study showed that a combination of 1% oil and 0.5% lactose increased cutinase-like enzyme production by another species of yeast. In this study, to produce PaE from cheese whey, we investigated the effects of soybean oil on PaE production (expressed as biodegradable plastic-degrading activity) by P. antarctica growing on lactose or cheese whey. In flask cultures, the final PaE activity was only 0.03 U/ml when soybean oil was used as the sole carbon source, but increased to 1.79 U/ml when a limited amount of soybean oil (under 0.5%) was combined with a relatively high concentration of lactose (6%). Using a 5-L jar fermentor with lactose fed-batch cultivation and periodic soybean oil addition, about 14.6 U/ml of PaE was obtained after 5 days of cultivation. When the lactose was replaced with cheese whey, PaE production was 10.8 U/ml after 3 days of cultivation.

  13. Biodegradation of phthalate esters in compost-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B V; Lu, Y S; Yuan, S Y; Tsao, T M; Wang, M K

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the biodegradation of the phthalate acid esters (PAEs) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in compost and compost-amended soil. DBP (50 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (50 mg kg(-1)) were added to the two types of compost (straw and animal manure) and subsequently added to the soil; they were tested as a single compound and in combination. Optimal PAE degradation in soil was at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. The degradation of PAE was enhanced when DBP and DEHP were simultaneously present in the soil. The addition of either of the two types of compost individually also improved the rate of PAE degradation. Compost samples were separated into fractions with various particle size ranges, which spanned from 0.1-0.45 to 500-2000 microm. We observed that the compost fractions with smaller particle sizes demonstrated higher PAE degradation rates. When the different compost fractions were added to soil, however, compost particle size had no significant effect on the rate of PAE degradation.

  14. Effect of propolis alcoholic extract on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of different rates of propolis alcoholic extract (PAE on the weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH of growing rabbits. Forty White New Zealand rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments and ten replicates per treatment. The rabbits were allocated individually in wire cages containing a nipple drinker and a semi-automatic feeder. The treatments were: T1 = control, T2 = 1ml of ethanol, T3 = 0.8ml of PAE, and T4 = 1.5ml of PAE. Commercial feed and water were provided ad libitum to the animals, and the treatment with cereal alcohol and PAE was administered orally using a 2ml syringe. It was concluded that the addition of PAE to the rabbits’ feeding resulted in weight gain, carcass traits and cecal pH similar to those of animals which received the diets with ethanol without any addition, except for the paw weight, that was higher in the rabbits which were given PAE, and for the gastric system, that had a higher weight in the rabbits which received no addition to their diet.

  15. Paeonol Inhibits Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stimulated by High Glucose via Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in Coculture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paeonol (Pae has been previously reported to protect against atherosclerosis (AS by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation or vascular endothelial cell (VEC injury. But studies lack how VSMCs and VECs interact when Pae plays a role. The current study was based on a coculture model of VSMCs and VECs to investigate the protective mechanisms of Pae on atherosclerosis (AS by determining the secretory function of VECs and proliferation of VSMCs focusing on the Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. VECs were stimulated by high glucose. Our data showed that high concentration (35.5 mM of glucose induced damage in VECs. Injury of VECs stimulated VSMC proliferation in the coculture model. Pae (120 μM decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and platelet derivative growth factor B (PDGF-B release from VECs and inhibited overexpression of Ras, P-Raf, and P-ERK proteins in VSMCs. The results indicate that diabetes modulates the inflammatory response in VECs to stimulate VSMC proliferation and promote the development of AS. Pae was beneficial by inhibiting the inflammatory effects of VECs on VSMC proliferation. This study suggests the inhibitory mechanism of Pae due to the inhibition of VEGF and PDGF-B secretion in VECs and Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 signaling pathway in VSMCs.

  16. The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Young Sung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of a P. aviculare ethanol extract (PAE in high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese mice were investigated. The mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with PAE (400 mg/kg/day for 6.5 weeks. The increased body weights, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte area as well as serum total triglyceride, leptin, and malondialdehyde concentrations were decreased in PAE-treated HFD-induced obese mice relative to the same measurements in untreated obese mice. Furthermore, PAE significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. In addition, PAE treatment of 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PAE exerts antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice through the suppression of lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased antioxidant activity.

  17. Determination of phthalates in food packing materials by electrokinetic chromatography with polymeric pseudostationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinjiong; Xing, Xiaoping; Cao, Yuhua; Cao, Guangqun

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric pseudostationary phase (PSP), formed by random copolymer poly (stearyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(SMA-co-MAA)), was used in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) to separate 15 kinds of phthalates (PAEs). The organic solvent modifier is a key factor for the separation of PAEs. Without organic solvents, only four kinds of PAEs with smaller molecular weight could be separated in the running buffer containing 1% P(SMA-co-MAA). The other eleven kinds of PAEs with larger molecular weight could be separated within 25 min by adding 40% (v/v) methanol and 2% (v/v) 1-butanol in the running buffer. The linear ranges of 15 kinds of PAEs were between 2 and 200mg/L, and the limit of detection based on the ratio of signal to noise of 3 were between 1 and 3mg/L. The method was applied to determination of PAEs in 6 kinds of food packing materials. The recoveries were between 81% and 118% with the RSD less than 4%.

  18. A comprehensive assessment of human exposure to phthalates from environmental media and food in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yaqin; Wang, Fumei; Zhang, Leibo; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong; Liu, Lingling; Shen, Boxiong

    2014-08-30

    A total of 448 samples including foodstuffs (rice, steamed bun, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, milk and fruits), ambient PM10, drinking water, soil, indoor PM10 and indoor dust samples from Tianjin were obtained to determine the distribution of six priority phthalates (PAEs) and assess the human exposure to them. The results indicated that DBP and DEHP were the most frequently detected PAEs in these samples. The concentrations of PAEs in environmental media were higher than those in food. We estimated the daily intake (DI) of PAEs via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption from five sources (food, water, air, dust and soil). Dietary intake was the main exposure source to DEP, BBP, DEHP and DOP, whereas water ingestion/absorption was the major source of exposure to DBP, DEHP and DOP. Although food and water were the overwhelmingly predominant sources of PAEs intake by Tianjin population, contaminated air was another important source of DMP, DEP and DBP contributing to up to 45% of the exposure. The results of this study will help in understanding the major pathways of human exposure to PAEs. These findings also suggest that human exposure to phthalate esters via the environment should not be overlooked.

  19. Characteristics of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Soils and Products in Areas of Zhongshan City, South China%中山市农业区域土壤-农产品中邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)污染特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 吴山; 梁金明; 梁文立; 陈桂贤; 李拥军; 杨国义

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate and assess the pollution level of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in farm soils and products from typical agricultural fields in areas of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, South China, 65 topsoil and 37 agricultural product samples were collected and contents of 6 PAEs compounds that classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants were determined by the GC-FID. The results indicated that total contents of the PAEs ( ∑PAEs ) in soils ranged from 0. 14 to 1. 14 mg•kg - 1 , and the mean value was 0. 43 mg•kg - 1 , with the detected ratio of 100% . Various concentrations of PAEs differed in three land-use types were ordered by vegetable soil ﹥ orchard soil ﹥ paddy soil. Comparing with six U. S. EPA priority pollutants of PAEs, the contents of Di-n-butyl phthalate ( DBP) and Dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) in soils exceeded the control limits of PAEs in the American soil by 93. 85% and 27. 69% respectively, but the rest four PAEs compounds were lower than the control limits. Generally, the pollution level of soils contaminated by PAEs in agricultural fields of Zhongshan City was relatively low. The contents of ∑PAEs in agricultural products ranged from 0. 15 to 3. 15 mg•kg - 1 with the average of 1. 12 mg•kg - 1 , which was lower than the suggested standards in USA and Europe and with low health risk. Meanwhile, ∑PAEs concentrations in vegetables were higher than those both in rice and fruits. DBP and DEHP were the main components of PAEs both in agricultural soils and products, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. ΣPAEs and DBP contents in various agricultural products-soils had a significantly positive correlation, with Pearson coefficients (r) in vegetables-vegetable soils were 0. 81(P = 0. 000), 0. 75(P = 0. 000), and corresponding r among rice-paddy soil and fruits-fruit soils were 0. 74 ( P = 0. 036), 0. 65 (P = 0. 041) and 0. 66 (P = 0. 029), 0. 78 (P = 0. 045), respectively

  20. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natsheh, Mais; Alawi, Mahmoud; Fayyad, Manar; Tarawneh, Ibrahim

    2015-03-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for

  1. Økologisk risikovurdering af genmodificeret herbicidtolerant bomuld GHB614 x LLCotton25 i anmeldelse til godkendelse vedr. markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Strandberg, Morten Tune;

    2011-01-01

    DMUs konklusioner vedr. den økologiske risikovurdering af den genmodificerede, dobbelt insektresistente og herbicidtolerante bomuld GHB614 x LLCotton25 anvendt til import til Danmark Den genmodificerede GHB614 x LLCotton25-bomuldskrydsning adskiller sig fra konventionel bomuld ved at have indsat...... forventes nogen uønskede økologiske konsekvenser for dyre- og planteliv ved import og markedsføring af den genmodificerede bomuldskrydsning GHB614 x LLCotton25, der skal anvendes til andre formål end dyrkning....

  2. Økologisk risikovurdering af genmodificeret majskrydsning NK603 x T25 i anmeldelse vedr. markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Damgaard, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    DMUs konklusioner vedr. den økologiske risikovurdering af den genmodificerede, dobbelt herbicidtolerante NK603 x T25-majs i Danmark. Den genmodificerede hybridmajs NK603 x T25 adskiller sig fra konventionel majs ved at have indsat gener der gør planterne tolerante mod herbiciderne glyfosat og...... overleve vinterperioden. DMU vurderer samlet, at der ikke kan forventes nogen uønskede økologiske konsekvenser for dyre- og planteliv ved markedsføring af den genmodificerede majskrydsning NK603 x T25 til anvendelse som foder og til fødevarer. Kommentarer til EFSA: DMU har ingen specifikke kommentarer til...

  3. Er samfundet kun for sunde borgere?

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Mette Haaning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This Master Thesis, Is society only for healthy citizens? - A study of the National Board of Health’s articulation of obesity in the publication "OPSPORING AF OVERVÆGT OG TIDLIG INDSATS for børn og unge i skolealderen, examines how obesity is expressed by the Health Protection Agency in the publication OPSPORING AF OVERVÆGT. In line with my social constructivism approach I want to examine what discourses and narratives exists when it comes to overweight children. I wish to do so ...

  4. Kommunernes beskæftigelsesindsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volmer Stigaard, Mads; Friisberg, Nina; Fjord Sørensen, Mette;

    Der florerer mange myter om, at sagsbehandlerne ikke har nok fokus på job i deres samtaler med og indsatser for kontanthjælpsmodtagerne. Og at de dermed ikke lever op til deres ansvar for at omsætte beskæftigelseslovgivningen til praksis. Men er der hold i myterne? Denne rapport belyser, i hvilken...... grad, kommunerne lever op til intentionerne i bl.a. ”Flere i arbejde”-reformen. Foretager sagsbehandlerne den foreskrevne systematiske og ensartede vurdering af, hvor arbejdsmarkedsparat den enkelte ledige er, og sikrer deres indsats de ledige den kortest mulige vej til et job? Har de en hyppig og...

  5. Exit Prostitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Theresa Dyrvig; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Christensen, Gunvor

    2015-01-01

    Dette midtvejsnotat omhandler projektet ”Exit prostitution”. Exit-projektet blev påbegyndt i april 2012 og løber til udgangen af 2015 og befinder sig i øjeblikket midtvejs i projektets afprøvningsfase. I projektet anvendes metoden Critical Time Intervention (CTI), der er en evidensbaseret...... til det. Exit-projektet er dermed en central socialpolitisk indsats overfor borgere i prostitution i det danske samfund. I dette notat belyser vi midtvejsresultater for, hvordan udviklingen er for de borgere, der er nået halvt igennem et CTI-forløb. I den afsluttende evaluering af projektet i 2015 vil...

  6. Entrédøres lydisolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J.; Juul Petersen, L.

    Undersøgelse af lydgennemgang i godt 300 entrédøre, dels når dørene var indsat i bygningerne, og dels når boligerne havde været i brug i nogle år. Kun 25 pct. af de målte entrédøre opfyldte minimumskravet i bygningsreglementet, og i de fleste tilfælde fandtes fejl både ved selve dørene og ved ind...

  7. Slutevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    SAMMENFATNING I denne evalueringsrapport præsenterer Rambøll Management Consulting (herefter Rambøll) og Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling ved Aarhus Universitet (herefter NCK) den afsluttende evaluering af FastholdelsesTaskforcens indsats på 47 af de 89 danske erhvervsskoler. Rapporten er...... udarbejdet i marts-april 2017 og indgår som det sidste element i den samlede eva-luering af FastholdelsesTaskforcen, som Rambøll og NCK gennemfører efter opdrag fra Under-visningsministeriet. Evalueringen er en kombineret effekt- og virkningsevaluering. Formålet med den kvantitative effektanalyse er...

  8. Exit Prostitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Theresa Dyrvig; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Christensen, Gunvor

    2015-01-01

    Dette midtvejsnotat omhandler projektet ”Exit prostitution”. Exit-projektet blev påbegyndt i april 2012 og løber til udgangen af 2015 og befinder sig i øjeblikket midtvejs i projektets afprøvningsfase. I projektet anvendes metoden Critical Time Intervention (CTI), der er en evidensbaseret...... til det. Exit-projektet er dermed en central socialpolitisk indsats overfor borgere i prostitution i det danske samfund. I dette notat belyser vi midtvejsresultater for, hvordan udviklingen er for de borgere, der er nået halvt igennem et CTI-forløb. I den afsluttende evaluering af projektet i 2015 vil...

  9. Viden om inklusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    Denne publikation er et bearbejdet uddrag af publikationen "Effekt og pædagogisk indsats ved inklusion af børn med særlige behov i grundskolen", der blev afsluttet i december 2012. Formålet med denne publikationer at præsentere lærere og skoleledere for den viden, vi nu har om hvilke strategier, ......, der har positiv virkning for inklusion i grundskolen på en praksisorienteret, kort, præcis og læsbar måde....

  10. Sprogtilegnelsesperspektivet i faget "Dansk, kultur og kommunikation" efter et år med den nye pædagoguddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Trine; Månsson, Hans; Bleses, Dorthe

    2008-01-01

    En undersøgelse af sprogtilegnelsesperspektivet i faget Dansk, kultur og kommunikation et år efter uddannelsens indførelse peger på, at der kan være grund til øget opmærksomhed på fagets udvikling, hvis forventningerne om et mere ensartet indhold i uddannelsen, der samtidig klæder pædagoger på til...... at varetage de nye praksiskrav om øget opmærksomhed på børns sproglige udvikling og indsats overfor børn med forsinket sprogtilegnelse eller sproglige vanskeligheder, skal indfries....

  11. 1999-2010年医院铜绿假单胞菌感染的耐药趋势及临床分布特点%Drug resistance trend of Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing infection and characteristics of clinical distribution during 1999 -2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀珍; 卢岩; 刘建华; 王艳玲; 张智杰; 孙继梅; 刘勇

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the distribution characteristics and drug resistance of Pseudomonas aerugi-nosa(PAE) in clinical isolates, so as to provide reference for rational use of antibiotics and infection control. METHODS The results of drug susceptibility and clinical distribution of PAE from Jan 1999 to Dec 2010 in our hospital were analyzed. The antimicrobial resistance rates were analyzed by WHONET 5. 4 software. RESULTS The isolation rate of PAE, MDRPA, PDRPA and the resistance rate of PAE to 15 kinds of drugs appeared increasing and PAE strains were mainly distributed at ICU wards and surgery department, Their proportion was 15. 7% and (15. 5%) , respectively. The major strains was isolated from sputum (71.0%) , the older the age ,the higher the appearing rate, accounting for 50. 1%. CONCLUSION PAE has severe drug resistance, the isolation rate of PAE is increasing and the resistance rate to drugs appears increasing trend, the number of MDRPA and PDRPA had been increased sharply from Jan 1999 to Dec 2010, and appeared decreasing after 2009. Infection control should be enhanced in ICU and wards which includes elderly patients.%摘要:目的 了解医院铜绿假单胞菌(PAE)的耐药性变迁和临床分布特点,为合理应用抗菌药物和预防控制医院感染提供依据.方法 回顾性分析1999年1月-2010年12月临床标本中分离的3475株PAE资料;用Who-net 5.4软件分析PAE的耐药率变迁.结果 PAE、多药耐药PAE(MDRPA)和泛耐药PAE(PDRPA)分离率及对临床常用的15种抗菌药物耐药率总体呈上升趋势;PAE感染主要发生在ICU(15.7%)和外科病房(15.5%);痰标本所占比例最高(71.0%);高龄患者检出率高,占50.1%.结论 PAE的耐药形势严峻,2003-2008年MDRPA和PDRPA的检出率不断增加,2009年以后呈下降趋势;ICU及老年患者居多的科室是预防控制的重点科室.

  12. 超声萃取-气相色谱法测定棉花秸秆中邻苯二甲酸酯%Determination of Phthalate Ester in Cotton Stalk by Ultrasonic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑛; 王春燕; 张越锋

    2011-01-01

    为了研究PAEs在棉花秸秆中的含量以及积累,将棉花秸秆分为棉桃壳(上段)、近地段(下段)和远地段(中段)3部分分别进行超声萃取处理后,经过柱分离和固相萃取小柱净化后,采用GC法对其所含环境类激素(PAEs)的含量进行分析.结果表明:6种PAEs采用GC分析法在一定范围内呈良好的线性关系,6种物质分离度高;棉花秸秆中PAEs的最高总量为158.86 mg/kg,其中DEHP、DIBP、DBP在3部分中均存在,DEHP含量在棉花秸秆中达到了125.300 mg/kg,也是6种PAEs中最高的,棉花秸秆中段是PAEs的富集区.%This paper aimed to study and analyze the distribution of PAEs in cotton stalk and biological accumulation process. Cotton stalk (not including cotton peach shell) was divided into three section (Upper, middle and lower), and smashed by the grinder. Each section's PAEs was extracted by ultrasonic method, and Ultrasonic' s extraction was detected respectively by gas chromatography method. The results indicated that each sample Contained PAEs, PAEs had transferred from environment to soil, then to plants. Six kinds of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, DAP, DEHP) using GC analysis had a good linear relationship in a certain range, and a high degree of six kinds of material separation. The different section of cotton stalk had different content PAEs. Cotton stalk of the amount of PAEs arrive 158.86 mg/kg, DEHP in cotton stalk reached 125.300 mg/kg. It was the highest in six kinds of PAEs, cotton stalk of PAEs was rich in the middle section.

  13. Evaluation of post-antibiotic effect in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Tavella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the postantibiotic effect (PAE is a well recognized phenomenon, the mechanism by which it is induced has not fully elucidated yet. It has been suggested that PAE is the time required by bacteria to synthesize proteins or mRNA characterized by a short half-life that are consumed during antibiotic treatment.This phenomenon is widely studied on Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods, while information about Gram-positive rods and Gram-negative cocci are scanty.To gain new insights on the PAE, this study was addressed to evaluated the time required by Moraxella catarrhalis and Lactobacillus planctarum to resume their physiological growth rate after exposure to various antibiotics. Methods PAE was estimated in accordance with the method of Craig and Gudmundsson using the following drugs: penicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefalotin, ceftazidime, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and azithromycin. Log-phase bacteria were exposed to drug at a concentration corresponding to 4 times the MIC value for 1h.The drug was inactivated by 1:1000 dilution. Bacterial counts were determined at time zero, immediately after drug dilution, and at each hour after removal for 6 - 7h by a pour-plate technique. The PAE was defined as the difference in time required by test and control cultures to increase by 1 log in CFU number. Results All drugs tested induced a PAE on the strains studied. M. catarrhalis registered PAE values ranging between 0,5 (gentamycin and 2 (ceftazidime, imipenem and azithromycin.With respect to L. plantarum a PAE between 0,8 (cefalotin and 3 hours (ciprofloxacin were detected. Conclusion. These findings demonstrated that all the drugs tested were able to induce a PAE on the strains tested.This observation differs from that observed on Gram-negative rods characterised by negative PAE values induced by penicillins and cephalosporins.This results might reflect the different target of these compounds on these Gram-positive rods or the

  14. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied.

  15. Synergistic effect of combining paeonol and cisplatin on apoptotic induction of human hepatoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-ping XU; Guo-ping SUN; Yu-xian SHEN; Wan-ten PENG; Hua WANG; Wei WE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether paeonol (Pae) has synergistic effects with cisplatin (CDDP) on the growth-inhibition and apoptosis-induction of human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721.Methods: The cytotoxic effect of drugs was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. The coefficient of drug interaction was used to analyze the nature of drug interactions. Morphological changes were observed by acridine orange fluo-rescence staining. Cell cycle and the apoptosis rate were detected by flow cytometry. Bcl-2 and Bax expression were assayed by immunohistochemical staining.Results: Pae or CDDP had antiproliferative effect on the 2 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with different sensitivities to drugs. More interestingly, a synergistic inhibitory effect on the viability of the 2 cell lines was observed after treatment with a combination of Pae (15.63, 31.25, and 62.5 mg/L) with various concentrations of CDDP. Further study showed typical mor-phological changes of apoptosis if the cells were exposed to the two agents for 24 h. The apoptotic rate of the cells with combination treatment was signifi-candy higher than that of cells treated with Pae or CDDP alone. The expression of Bcl-2 decreased and that of Bax increased in the treated groups, especially in the combination group, with the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax decreasing correspondingly.Additionally, a combination of Pae with CDDP resulted in a stronger S phase arrest, compared with Pae or CDDP alone.Conclusion: Pae, in combination with CDDP, had a significantly synergistic growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-in-ducing effect on the 2 human hepatoma cell lines, which may be useful in hepatoma treatment.

  16. Pharmacokinetic comparisons of Paeoniflorin and Paeoniflorin-6'O-benzene sulfonate in rats via different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Ling Ling; Wei, Wei

    2016-12-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics study of Paeoniflorin (Pae) and its acylated derivative (CP-25) was performed. 2. The structure of CP-25 was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The rats were injected with CP-25(6, 12, 24 mg/kg) and orally treated with CP-25 (32, 64, 128 mg/kg), respectively. An high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed to determine the plasma concentrations of Pae and CP-25. 3. The results of MS and NMR showed that the acylated product was Pae-6'O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25). The plasma levels in oral CP-25 groups were detectable, whereas those of Pae in the oral groups (25 and 50 mg/kg) were undetectable. More specifically, the Cmax values of oral CP-25 were 0.12, 0.19 and 0.44 μg/ml, and the corresponding t1/2β of CP-25 were 1.44, 2.12 and 2.11 h, respectively. In addition, the t1/2β values of intravenous CP-25 were 161.99, 152.81 and 153.76 min, respectively. 4. Compared with the venous pharmacokinetics parameters of Pae, those of the t1/2β, MRT, Vd and CL/F in the CP-25 groups increased noticeably. As expected, compared with oral parameters of Pae, those of t1/2a, t1/2β, AUC, MRT and Vd in the CP-25 group increased obviously. Finally, the absolute bioavailability of Pae and CP-25 were 3.6 and 10.6%, respectively. 5. Our results indicate that CP-25 is characterized by improved absorption, well distribution, lower clearance, long mean residence time, and moderate bioavailability in rats.

  17. Anthropometric and Health-Related Behavioral Factors in the Explanation of Social Inequalities in Low Birth Weight in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pfinder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.59, 4.86 and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24. Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  18. Genomic factors that shape craniofacial outcome and neural crest vulnerability in FASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE causes distinctive facial characteristics in some pregnancies and not others; genetic factors may contribute to this differential vulnerability. Ethanol disrupts multiple events of neural crest development including induction, survival, migration, and differentiation. Animal models and genomic approaches have substantially advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these facial changes. PAE during gastrulation produces craniofacial changes corresponding with human fetal alcohol syndrome. These result because PAE reduces prechordal plate extension and suppresses sonic hedgehog, leading to holoprosencephaly and malpositioned facial primordia. Haploinsufficiency in sonic hedgehog signaling increases vulnerability to facial deficits and may influence some PAE pregnancies. In contrast, PAE during early neurogenesis produces facial hypoplasia, preceded by neural crest reductions due to significant apoptosis. Factors mediating this apoptosis include intracellular calcium mobilization, elevated reactive oxygen species, and loss of trophic support from β-catenin/calcium, sonic hedgehog, and mTOR signaling. Genomewide SNP analysis links PDGF receptor genes with facial outcomes in human PAE. Multiple genomic-level comparisons of ethanol-sensitive and –resistant early embryos, in both mouse and chick, independently identify common candidate genes that may potentially modify craniofacial vulnerability, including ribosomal proteins, proteosome, RNA splicing, and focal adhesion. In summary, research using animal models with genome-level differences in ethanol vulnerability, as well as targeted loss- and gain-of-function mutants, has clarified the mechanisms mediating craniofacial change in PAE. The findings additionally suggest that craniofacial deficits may represent a gene-ethanol interaction for some affected individuals. Genetic-level changes may prime individuals toward greater sensitivity or resistance to

  19. Cica-Beta Test试剂盒检测耐亚胺培南铜绿假单胞菌金属β-内酰胺酶的评估%Evaluation of Cica-Beta Test Kit for Detection of Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢国艳; 高志生; 许俊; 秦云; 钱敏健

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate Cica-Beta Test kit for detection of metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAE)in the clinical microbiology laboratory.Methods A total of 82 imipenem-resistant PAE clinical isolates from litera-ture[5]was dectected to metallo-β-lactamase (MBLs)by PAE-MHT and Cica-Beta Test kit.Results The sensitivity,speci-ficity and accuracy rate of PAE-MHT was 84.6%,97.2% and 97.6%,and the sensitivity,specificity and accuracy rate of Cica-Beta Test kit was 76.9%,100% and 96.3%,respectively.Two methods had a good consistency.Conclusion Two methods are simple,quick for detecting to metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas in clinical laboratories.%目的:评估Cica-Beta Test试剂盒对铜绿假单胞菌(PAE)金属β-内酰胺酶(MBLs)检测的临床适用性。方法选取文献[5]中的82株耐亚胺培南 PAE,PAE-MHT法和 Cica-Beta Test试剂盒分别进行 MBLs 检测。结果 PAE-MHT法的敏感度、特异度和准确率分别为84.6%,97.2%和97.6%。Cica-Beta Test试剂盒敏感度、特异度和准确率分别为76.9%,100%和96.3%。PAE-MHT法和Cica-Beta Test试剂盒有非常好的一致性。结论两种方法均适合应用于临床快速筛查非发酵菌产 MBLs。

  20. Perillaldehyde, a Promising Antifungal Agent Used in Food Preservation, Triggers Apoptosis through a Metacaspase-Dependent Pathway in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Wang, Yanzhen; Lu, Zhaoqun; Sun, Chunhui; Zhang, Man; Zhu, Aihua; Peng, Xue

    2016-10-05

    In the present study, we provide detailed insights into perillaldehyde (PAE)'s mechanisms of action on Aspergillus flavus and offer evidence in favor of the induction of an apoptosis-like phenotype. Specifically, PAE's antifungal mode of action was investigated through the detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (MtΔψ) and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) level, reactive oxygen species accumulation, and metacaspase activation. This was done by way of fluorometry, measuring DNA fragmentation, and condensation by fluorescent microscopy. Furthermore, we searched for phenotypic changes characteristic of apoptosis by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry, determining the amount of cytochrome c released using Western blotting. Results indicated that cultivation of A. flavus in the presence of PAE caused depolarization of MtΔψ, rapid DNA condensation, large-scale DNA fragmentation, and an elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) level. The percentage of early apoptotic cells with exposure of PS were 27.4% and 48.7%, respectively, after 9 h incubations with 0.25 and 0.5 μL/mL of PAE. The percentage of stained cells with activated intracellular metacaspases exposed to PAE at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 μL/mL compared with control subjects were increased by 28.4 ± 3.25% and 37.9 ± 4.24%, respectively. The above results has revealed that PAE induces fungal apoptosis through a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. In all, our findings provide a novel mechanism for exploring a possible antifungal agent used in food preservation.

  1. The partitioning behavior of persistent toxicant organic contaminants in eutrophic sediments: Coefficients and effects of fluorescent organic matter and particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Yang, Chen; Liu, Wenxiu; He, Qishuang; Wang, Qingmei; Li, Yilong; Kong, Xiangzhen; Lan, Xinyu; Xu, Fuliu

    2016-12-01

    In the shallow lakes, the partitioning of organic contaminants into the water phase from the solid phase might pose a potential hazard to both benthic and planktonic organisms, which would further damage aquatic ecosystems. This study determined the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and phthalate esters (PAEs) in both the sediment and the pore water from Lake Chaohu and calculated the sediment - pore water partition coefficient (KD) and the organic carbon normalized sediment - pore water partition coefficient (KOC), and explored the effects of particle size, organic matter content, and parallel factor fluorescent organic matter (PARAFAC-FOM) on KD. The results showed that log KD values of PAHs (2.61-3.94) and OCPs (1.75-3.05) were significantly lower than that of PAEs (4.13-5.05) (p  PAHs (4.61-5.86) > OCPs (3.62-4.97). A modified MCI model can predict KOC values in a range of log 1.5 at a higher frequency, especially for PAEs. The significantly positive correlation between KOC and the octanol - water partition coefficient (KOW) were observed for PAHs and OCPs. However, significant correlation was found for PAEs only when excluding PAEs with lower KOW. Sediments with smaller particle sizes (clay and silt) and their organic matter would affect distributions of PAHs and OCPs between the sediment and the pore water. Protein-like fluorescent organic matter (C2) was associated with the KD of PAEs. Furthermore, the partitioning of PARAFAC-FOM between the sediment and the pore water could potentially affect the distribution of organic pollutants. The partitioning mechanism of PAEs between the sediment and the pore water might be different from that of PAHs and OCPs, as indicated by their associations with influencing factors and KOW.

  2. Efficiency of two-way weirs and prepositioned electrofishing for sampling potamodromous fish migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Potamodromy (i.e., migration entirely in freshwater) is a common life history strategy of North American lotic fishes, and efficient sampling methods for potamodromous fishes are needed to formulate conservation and management decisions. Many potamodromous fishes inhabit medium-sized rivers and are mobile during spawning migrations, which complicates sampling with conventional gears (e.g., nets and electrofishing). We compared the efficiency of a passive migration technique (resistance board weirs) and an active technique (prepositioned areal electrofishers; [PAEs]) for sampling migrating potamodromous fishes in Valley River, a southern Appalachian Mountain river, from March through July 2006 and 2007. A total of 35 fish species from 10 families were collected, 32 species by PAE and 19 species by weir. Species richness and diversity were higher for PAE catch, and species dominance (i.e., proportion of assemblage composed of the three most abundant species) was higher for weir catch. Prepositioned areal electrofisher catch by number was considerably higher than weir catch, but biomass was lower for PAE catch. Weir catch decreased following the spawning migration, while PAEs continued to collect fish. Sampling bias associated with water velocity was detected for PAEs, but not weirs, and neither gear demonstrated depth bias in wadeable reaches. Mean fish mortality from PAEs was five times greater than that from weirs. Catch efficiency and composition comparisons indicated that weirs were effective at documenting migration chronology, sampling nocturnal migration, and yielding samples unbiased by water velocity or habitat, with low mortality. Prepositioned areal electrofishers are an appropriate sampling technique for seasonal fish occupancy objectives, while weirs are more suitable for quantitatively describing spawning migrations. Our comparative results may guide fisheries scientists in selecting an appropriate sampling gear and regime for research, monitoring

  3. Aminoglycoside-derived amphiphilic nanoparticles for molecular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miryala, Bhavani; Godeshala, Sudhakar; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Christensen, Matthew D; Tian, Yanqing; Rege, Kaushal

    2016-10-01

    The development of effective drug carriers can lead to improved outcomes in a variety of disease conditions. Aminoglycosides have been used as antibacterial therapeutics, and are attractive as monomers for the development of polymeric materials in various applications. Here, we describe the development of novel aminoglycoside-derived amphiphilic nanoparticles for drug delivery, with an eye towards ablation of cancer cells. The aminoglycoside paromomycin was first cross-linked with resorcinol diglycidyl ether leading to the formation of a poly (amino ether), PAE. PAE molecules were further derivatized with methoxy-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) or mPEG resulting in the formation of mPEG-PAE polymer, which self-assembled to form nanoparticles. Formation of the mPEG-PAE amphiphile was characterized using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and FTIR spectroscopy. Self-assembly of the polymer into nanoparticles was characterized using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the pyrene fluorescence assay. mPEG-PAE nanoparticles were able to carry significant amounts of doxorubicin (DOX), presumably by means of hydrophobic interactions between the drug and the core. Cell-based studies indicated that mPEG-PAE nanoparticles, loaded with doxorubicin, were able to induce significant loss in viabilities of PC3 human prostate cancer, MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer, and MB49 murine bladder cancer cells; empty nanoparticles resulted in negligible losses of cell viability under the conditions investigated. Taken together, our results indicate that the mPEG-PAE nanoparticle platform is attractive for drug delivery in different applications, including cancer.

  4. Anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors in the explanation of social inequalities in low birth weight in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfinder, Manuela

    2014-01-08

    There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW) in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59, 4.86) and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24). Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  5. Study of XAD-2 adsorbent for the enrichment of trace levels of phthalate esters in hydroalcoholic food beverages and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization and ion-trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Giuseppe; Avino, Pasquale; Notardonato, Ivan; Centola, Angela; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Amberlite XAD-2 adsorbent used as stationary phase for determining phthalate esters (PAEs) in hydroalcoholic food beverages by GC-FID (and peak confirmation by GC-IT/MS) has been set up. The XAD-2 resin shows excellent properties for determining PAEs in solutions at very large alcoholic range (10-40% v/v): 500mL of hydroalcoholic solution spiked with a PAE mixture solution (20pgμL(-1) of each PAE) and containing 25gL(-1) of NaCl are passed onto a cartridge containing 500mg XAD-2 adsorbent and re-extracted for GC analysis. The effects of NaCl concentration (0, 12, 25 and 50gL(-1)) and different solvents (CS2, toluene, acetone, n-hexane, ethyl acetate) are extensively studied as well the PAE recoveries both in hydroalcoholic aqueous solutions (ranging between 94% and 103% with a Relative Standard Deviation, RSD, below 8.3) and spiked (5, 10 and 25pgμL(-1) of each PAE) real samples (between 90% and 106% with a RSD below 9.9). The correlation coefficients (R(2)) of each PAE vary between 0.9830 and 0.9950 and they are calculated in the linear range 5-100pgμL(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) in GC-FID vary between 1.21 and 2.51pgμL(-1) (RSD⩽11.1) whereas the Limits of Quantification (LOQ) range between 2.42 and 5.03pgμL(-1) (RSD⩽8.9) whereas the infra-day and inter-day repeatabilities calculated as RSD for hydroalcoholic solutions, are between 6.5% and 13.7%.

  6. Økologisk risikovurdering af en genmodificeret glyfosat-tolerant raps GT73 i anmeldelse til godkendelse vedr. import til markedsføring under forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Damgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    "BIOSCIENCE konklusioner vedr. den økolo-giske risikovurdering af den genmodifice-rede GT73-raps i Danmark Den genmodificerede raps, GT73, adskiller sig fra konventionel raps ved at have indsat gener der gør planten tolerant over for herbicidet glyfosat. Rapsen søges kun godkendt til import til f...... to monitor such dispersal of the GMO-plant into cultivated fields and surroundings. Although, not directly an environmental issue, dispersal of the GT73 could result in problems for co-existence with non-GMO-cultivation. "......"BIOSCIENCE konklusioner vedr. den økolo-giske risikovurdering af den genmodifice-rede GT73-raps i Danmark Den genmodificerede raps, GT73, adskiller sig fra konventionel raps ved at have indsat gener der gør planten tolerant over for herbicidet glyfosat. Rapsen søges kun godkendt til import til...... foder og fødevarer for human konsumtion. DCE, Bioscience anser det for sandsynligt at GT73-rapsen og dens gener kan blive spredt utilsigtet i forbindelse med uheld med iblanding i kon-ventionel raps ved fx håndtering under import, lagring og transport. Spredningen forventes dog at kunne begrænses ved...

  7. Økologisk risikovurdering af en genmodificeret glyfosat-tolerant raps GT73 i anmeldelse til godkendelse vedr. import til markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Kjellsson, Gøsta

    2012-01-01

    BIOSCIENCE konklusioner vedr. den økolo-giske risikovurdering af den genmodifice-rede GT73-raps i Danmark Den genmodificerede raps, GT73, adskiller sig fra konventionel raps ved at have indsat gener der gør planten tolerant over for herbicidet glyfosat. Rapsen søges kun godkendt til import til fo...... to monitor such dispersal of the GMO-plant into cultivated fields and surroundings. Although, not directly an environmental issue, dispersal of the GT73 could result in problems for co-existence with non-GMO-cultivation.......BIOSCIENCE konklusioner vedr. den økolo-giske risikovurdering af den genmodifice-rede GT73-raps i Danmark Den genmodificerede raps, GT73, adskiller sig fra konventionel raps ved at have indsat gener der gør planten tolerant over for herbicidet glyfosat. Rapsen søges kun godkendt til import til...... foder og fødevarer for human konsumtion. DCE, Bioscience anser det for sandsynligt at GT73-rapsen og dens gener kan blive spredt utilsigtet i forbindelse med uheld med iblanding i konventionel raps ved fx håndtering under import, lagring og transport. Spredningen forventes dog at kunne begrænses ved den...

  8. Økologisk risikovurdering af en genmo-dificeret glyfosat-tolerant raps MON 88302 i anmeldelse til godkendelse vedr. import til markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Damgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Den genmodificerede raps, MON88302, adskiller sig fra konventionel raps ved at have indsat et gen der gør planten tolerant over for herbicidet glyfosat. Rapsen søges kun godkendt til import til foder og fødevarer for human konsumtion. DCE, Bioscience anser det for sandsynligt at MON 88302-rapsen ...... and surroundings. Although, not directly an environmental issue, we find that dispersal of the MON 88302 oilseed rape could result in problems for co-existence with non-GMO-cultivation......., Bioscience concludes, that accidental dispersal, hybridisation and persistence of the MON 88302-oilseed rape is likely to take place over time. The consequences to the environment are likely to be small. Fur-thermore, there are methods to monitor such dispersal of the GMO-plant into cultivated fields......Den genmodificerede raps, MON88302, adskiller sig fra konventionel raps ved at have indsat et gen der gør planten tolerant over for herbicidet glyfosat. Rapsen søges kun godkendt til import til foder og fødevarer for human konsumtion. DCE, Bioscience anser det for sandsynligt at MON 88302-rapsen og...

  9. Postantibiotic effects of eleven antimicrobials on five bacteria%十一种抗菌药对五种细菌的抗生素后效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明贵; 张婴元; 朱德妹; 张菁; 施耀国

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the postantibiotic effects (PAE) of different classes of antimicrobials against five different types of bacteria. METHODS: Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by twofold macrodilution in broth. The antimicrobial agents were eliminated by washing method after the bacteria were exposed to antimicrobials for 1 h or 2 h. Growth curves were followed by viable counts, and then the PAE were calculated. RESULTS: Macrolides induced PAE of 3.10h to 4.15 h on S aureus, and 1.85 h to 3.3 h against S pneumoniae, which were longer than PAE induced by other tested antimicrobials (P < 0.01 ).Macrolides induced PAE of 1 h to 4 h against H influenzae, with azithromycin producing the longest PAE of 4 h. Ciprofloxacin and amikacin induced PAE of 1.38 h to 2.00 h on E coli and K pneumoniae, which were longer than that of β-lactams, piperacillin,cefazolin, or cefotaxime, with PAE of 0.1 h to 0.5 h ( P < 0.01 ). CONCLUSION: Different classes of antimicrobials induce different periods of PAE. As an important pharmacodynamic parameter, PAE provide reference data for the determination of the optimal dosing regimen and reasonable use of antimicrobials.%目的:测定不同类别抗菌药对5种细菌的抗生素后效应(PAE).方法:以肉汤稀释法测定抗菌药的最低抑菌浓度,PAE实验采用洗涤法去除抗菌药,以活菌落计数法测定菌液浓度,作生长曲线、计算PAE.结果:大环内酯类红霉素、阿奇霉素、克拉霉素及罗红霉素对金黄色葡萄球菌的PAE为3.10-4.15 h,对肺炎链球菌的PAE为1.85-3.3 h,明显较其他抗菌药的PAE为长(P<0.01).大环内酯类抗菌药对流感嗜血杆菌的PAE为1-4 h,其中阿奇霉素的PAE达4 h.环丙沙星、阿米卡星对大肠杆菌及肺炎克雷伯菌的PAE为1.38-2.00 h,明显较哌拉西林、头孢唑啉或头孢噻肟的PAE(0.1-0.5h)为长(P<0.01). 结论:各类抗菌药对细菌的PAE长短不一,PAE作为一个药效学

  10. Locally delivered salicylic acid from a poly(anhydride-ester): impact on diabetic bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keisuke; Yu, Weiling; Elazizi, Mohamad; Barakat, Sandrine; Ouimet, Michelle A; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Fiorellini, Joseph P; Graves, Dana T; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can impair bone repair, including a prolonged inflammatory response. A salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SA-PAE) provides controlled and sustained release of salicylic acid (SA) that locally resolves inflammation. This study investigates the effect of polymer-controlled SA release on bone regeneration in diabetic rats where enhanced inflammation is expected. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: diabetic group induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection or normoglycemic controls injected with citrate buffer alone. Three weeks after hyperglycemia development or vehicle injection, 5mm critical sized defects were created at the rat mandibular angle and treated with SA-PAE/bone graft mixture or bone graft alone. Rats were euthanized 4 and 12weeks after surgery, then bone fill percentage in the defect region was assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometry. It was observed that bone fill increased significantly at 4 and 12weeks in SA-PAE/bone graft-treated diabetic rats compared to diabetic rats receiving bone graft alone. Accelerated bone formation in normoglycemic rats caused by SA-PAE/bone graft treatment was observed at 4weeks but not at 12weeks. This study shows that treatment with SA-PAE enhances bone regeneration in diabetic rats and accelerates bone regeneration in normoglycemic animals.

  11. Spatial-temporal distribution of phthalate esters from riverine outlets of Pearl River Delta in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Guifang; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Li, Huanyong; Duan, Shunshan

    2015-01-01

    The aquatic environments of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China have been contaminated by various industrial chemicals from local industries. In this study, the spatial-temporal distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in surface water and sediments from the PRD was investigated. The PAEs were detected with total concentrations (Σ6PAEs) ranging from 0.35 to 20.70 μg L⁻¹ in surface water and dry weight ranging from 0.88 to 5.69 μg g⁻¹ in sediments. The Σ6PAEs concentrations in surface water were higher in the wet season than those in the dry season, while the opposite pattern was observed in sediments. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most abundant congener, which was higher than those reported in the literature. Risk quotients for relevant aquatic organisms were obtained and showed that most of these PAEs, in particular, butyl benzyl phthalate, DEHP and di-n-octyl phthalate, have significant potential health and ecological risks for the aquatic environment studied.

  12. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  13. Characterization of five newly isolated bacteriophages active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Magdalena; Mizak, Lidia; Parasion, Sylwia; Gryko, Romuald; Olender, Alina; Niemcewicz, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. It exhibits multiple mechanisms of resistance, including efflux pumps, antibiotic modifying enzymes and limited membrane permeability. The primary reason for the development of novel therapeutics for P. aeruginosa infections is the declining efficacy of conventional antibiotic therapy. These clinical problems caused a revitalization of interest in bacteriophages, which are highly specific and have very effective antibacterial activity as well as several other advantages over traditional antimicrobial agents. Above all, so far, no serious or irreversible side effects of phage therapy have been described. Five newly purified P. aeruginosa phages named vB_PaeM_WP1, vB_PaeM_WP2, vB_PaeM_WP3, vB_PaeM_WP4 and vB_PaeP_WP5 have been characterized as potential candidates for use in phage therapy. They are representatives of the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. Their host range, genome size, structural proteins and stability in various physical and chemical conditions were tested. The results of these preliminary investigations indicate that the newly isolated bacteriophages may be considered for use in phagotherapy.

  14. Determining Phthalic Acid Esters Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Shen, L.; Yang, F.; Han, F.; Hu, P.; Song, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this report terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is applied for determining phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in standard materials. We reported the THz transmission spectrum in the frequency range of 0.2 to 2.0 THz for three PAEs: di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate ester (DEHP). The study provided the refractive indices and absorption features of these materials. The absorption spectra of three PAEs were simulated by using Gaussian software with Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. For pure standard PAEs, the values of the refractive indices changed between 1.50 and 1.60. At 1.0 THz, the refractive indices were 1.524, 1.535, and 1.563 for DINP, DEHP, and DBP, respectively. In this experiment different concentrations of DBP were investigated using THz-TDS. Changes were measured in the low THz frequency range for refractive indices and characteristic absorption. The results indicated that THz-TDS is promising as a new method in determining PAEs in many materials. The results of this study could be used to support the practical application of THz-TDS in quality detection and food monitoring. In particular, this new technique could be used in detecting hazardous materials and other substances present in wine or foods.

  15. Recent advances in photoacoustic endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Jong; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-11-16

    Imaging based on photoacoustic effect relies on illuminating with short light pulses absorbed by tissue absorbers, resulting in thermoelastic expansion, giving rise to ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic waves are then detected by detectors placed around the sample. Photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) is one of four major implementations of photoacoustic tomography that have been developed recently. The prototype PAE was based on scanning mirror system that deflected both the light and the ultrasound. A recently developed mini-probe was further miniaturized, and enabled simultaneous photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. This PAE-endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) system can offer high-resolution vasculature information in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and display differences between optical and mechanical contrast compared with single-mode EUS. However, PAE for endoscopic GI imaging is still at the preclinical stage. In this commentary, we describe the technological improvements in PAE for possible clinical application in endoscopic GI imaging. In addition, we discuss the technical details of the ultrasonic transducer incorporated into the photoacoustic endoscopic probe.

  16. 环境污染物邻苯二甲酸酯类对睾丸间质细胞的雄性生殖毒性作用%Toxic effect of phthalate acid esters on Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛红雨

    2011-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸酯类(phthalate acid esters,PAE)已经成为学术界普遍关注的一类重要的环境有机污染物,其毒性作用的主要靶器官是雄性生殖系统,睾丸间质细胞是PAE生殖毒性的靶细胞之一.文中就PAE对睾丸间质细胞的毒性作用作一综述,为预防PAE的生殖毒性提供理论依据.%Phthalate acid esters ( PAE) , as a major organic environmental pollutant, have aroused wide attention of the academic world. The target organ of PAE toxicity is the male reproductive system, and the Leydig cell is one of its target cells. This article reviews the toxic effect of PAE on Leydig cells, and is meant to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention of the reproductive toxicity of PAE.

  17. Biodegradability of four phthalic acid esters under anaerobic condition assessed using natural sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruttapol Lertsirisopon; Satoshi Soda; Kazunari Sei; Michihiko Ike; Masanori Fujita

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradability of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) under an anaerobic condition was evaluated using three natural sediment microcosms obtained from ponds in Osaka, which had not been significantly polluted by the chemicals. The degradabilities of the four phthalic acid esters(PAEs)were analyzed by a first-order kinetic model with a lag phase and ranked as DBP>BBP>>DEHP>DINP. The PAEs with shorter alkyl-chains, DBP and BBP, were degraded with quite short lag phases near to zero and short half-lives of a few days. The PAEs with longer alkyl-chains, DEHP and DINP, were degraded with lag phases of 5-30 d and the quite long half-lives of a couple of hundred days. Although no data was available on the anaerobic biodegradability of DINP before this study, it was clarified that DINP can be degraded with slow degradation rates. The fact that all the three intact sediments were capable of biodegradation of the PAEs suggests that potential of anaerobic biodegradation of PAEs is widespread in the aquatic environment.

  18. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou J. Y.; Liu C.; Miller, L. M.; Hou, G.; Yu, X.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  19. Postantibiotic effect of disinfection treatment by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odashima, Yu; Nakamura, Keisuke; Ikai, Hiroyo; Kanno, Taro; Meirelles, Luiz; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the postantibiotic effect (PAE) of the disinfection treatment by photolysis of H2O2. Postantibiotic effect was induced in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus salivarius by exposing the bacteria to H2O2 at concentrations of 250-1000 mmol/l, laser irradiation at a wavelength of 405 nm, and the combination of both (photolysis of H2O2) for 10-30 seconds. The photolysis of H2O2 induced significantly longer PAE than other treatments. The PAE was augmented dependently on not only the concentration of H2O2 but the laser irradiation time. Electron spin resonance analysis showed that the hydroxyl radical was also generated dependently on both the concentration of H2O2 and the laser irradiation time, suggesting that the hydroxyl radicals contribute to the PAE. These results suggest that the disinfection treatment by photolysis of H2O2 induces PAE in S. aureus and S. salivarius even though they were treated for only 10-30 seconds.

  20. Conceptualization of a robust performance assessment and evaluation model for consolidating community water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeffrey W; Louis, Garrick E

    2009-02-01

    Community water systems (CWS) face significant competing forces for change from decreasing water resource availability, stricter water quality regulations, decreasing federal subsidies, increasing public scrutiny, decreasing financial health, and increasing infrastructure replacement costs. These competing forces necessitate increasing consolidation responses among financially stressed CWS. Consolidation responses allow financially stressed CWS to increase levels of service by taking advantage of economy of scale benefits, such as eliminating service duplications across administration and operational functions. Consolidation responses also promote improved financial accountability among consolidating CWS, especially when operating as integral subsystems of a larger regional drinking water supply (RDWS) system. The goal of this paper is to propose a conceptual model for robust performance assessment and evaluation (PAE) among consolidating CWS. The objectives of this paper are to conceptualize methods for: (1) consistent performance assessment and (2) uniform summative performance evaluation among consolidating CWS. The expected outcome from implementing robust PAE among consolidating CWS is increased levels of service through transparent benchmarking and improved financial accountability. The proposed robust PAE model provides the basis for constructing decision support system (DSS) tools that estimate efficient solutions for allocating limited financial resources among consolidating CWS. The paper is a significant departure from current CWS PAE approaches in two ways. First, it provides a goal-oriented approach for robust PAE among consolidating CWS. Second, it constructs efficiency-based performance metrics to temporally and spatially monitor the degree of attainment of the RDWS systems' goal.

  1. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Mundotiya, Chaturbhuj; Meghnani, Ekta; Srivastava, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed.

  2. Phthalate esters contamination in soils and vegetables of plastic film greenhouses of suburb Nanjing, China and the potential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Wu, Long Hua; Chen, Like; Zhang, Hai Bo; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming

    2015-08-01

    The contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) has become a potential threat to the environment and human health because they could be easily released as plasticizers from the daily supply products, especially in polyethylene films. Concentration levels of total six PAEs, nominated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in soils and vegetables from four greenhouse areas in suburbs of Nanjing, East China. Total PAEs concentration ranged from 930 ± 840 to 2,450 ± 710 μg kg(-1) (dry weight (DW)) in soil and from 790 ± 630 to 3,010 ± 2,130 μg kg(-1) in vegetables. Higher concentrations of PAEs were found in soils except in Suo Shi (SS) area and in vegetables, especially in potherb mustard and purple tsai-tai samples. Risk assessment mainly based on the exposures of soil ingestion and daily vegetable intake indicated that bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the samples from Gu Li (GL) and Hu Shu (HS) exhibited the highest hazard to children less than 6-year old. Therefore, the human health risk of the PAEs contamination in soils and vegetables should greatly be of a concern, especially for their environmental estrogen analog effects.

  3. Enzymatic degradation of polyester films by a cutinase-like enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shun; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Watanabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-10-01

    Enzymatic degradation of polyester films by a cutinase-like enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica JCM10317 (PaE) was analyzed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The adsorption of PaE and the degradation rate for polyester films were quantitatively monitored by a positive and negative SPR signal shifts, respectively. The decrease in SPR signal and the erosion depth of amorphous poly(L-lactide) (a-PLLA) film measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) had a linear relationship, and the weight loss was estimated from the AFM data combined with a density of a-PLLA film. Furthermore, SPR sensorgrams for various polyester films showed that degradation rate of poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) which contain C6 units was higher than that of other polyesters such as poly(butylene succinate) and a-PLLA. These results suggest that C6 is the preferred chain length as substrates for PaE.

  4. Prostate Artery Embolization as a New Treatment for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: Contemporary Status in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Amir; Fischman, Aaron M

    2016-07-01

    The gold standard treatment for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or open prostatectomy (OP). Recently, there has been increased interest and research in less invasive alternative treatments with less morbidity including prostate artery embolization (PAE). Several studies have shown PAE to be an effective alternative to TURP to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with BPH with decreased morbidity. Specifically, PAE has been advantageous in selected patient populations such as those with prostates too large for TURP or unsuitable surgical candidates, showing a promising potential for the future care of patients with BPH. Further studies are being done to demonstrate the clinical applications and advantages of this therapy in reduction of LUTS.

  5. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  6. An attempt to revisit the global biogeography of limno-terrestrial Tardigrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J.A. PUGH

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The major increase in distribution records of limno-terrestrial tardigrades over the last ten years has enabled us to reassess the global biogeography of the Tardigrada using cluster analysis, principal components analysis and parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE. Although the new clustergram topology shows a close correlation with those we originally presented in 1998, the PAE outputs warrant a radical reinterpretation of the results as they imply that the Laurasian fauna is derived and the Gondwanan groups basal. The distribution of endemic tardigrade genera and families provides some support for this argument though the findings should be viewed with some caution as PAE has its detractors and has not been previously applied on a 'global' scale.

  7. PRICE ON THE ORGANIC FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE ATANASOAIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present prices on PAE market (PAE- organic foods market. Prices are analyzed in terms of importance and the main factors that contribute to their establishment (quality of products, distribution channels, certification and eco-labeling system, customer segments and market development stage. This paper is based on the investigation of secondary sources, of specialized literature related to PAE consumers. The paper shows that are used three strategic options of prices: prices with high rigidity located in a low or high level and fluctuating prices, characterized by variations on short periods of time. Price is a very important barrier to market development but this importance can be mitigated through appropriate communication policies with the market, which are essential especially for markets in early stages of development.

  8. Preparation of C18-functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for extraction and determination of phthalic acid esters in Chinese herb preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bize; Ji, Shunli; Zhang, Feifang; Yang, Bingcheng; Gu, Jiangping; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-11-01

    The extraction and determination of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) residue in Chinese herbal preparations (CHP) by C18-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (C18-FS-MNP) has been firstly performed. It was synthesized through coating Fe3O4 nanoparticles with sodium silicate, followed by freeze-drying technique and then modified with C18 groups. C18-FS-MNPs prepared via freeze-drying technique were superior to those particles prepared via common vacuum drying method in terms of dispersion and extraction recovery. C18-FS-MNPs demonstrated obvious enrichment effect for four model PAEs and 478-627-fold enrichment factors were obtained. The limit of detection was <1.89ng/mL and relative standard deviation was ranging from 3.7 to 5.8%. It was successfully applied for determination of trace PAEs residue in CHP with good recoveries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-06-01

    We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene-poly(arylene ether sulfone)-polystyrene triblock copolymer for proton exchange membrane applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jung-Eun; Hong, Young Talk; Lee, Jae-Suk

    2006-11-01

    The polystyrene-poly(arylene ether sulfone)-polystyrene (PS-PAES-PS) coil-semirod-coil triblock copolymer was synthesized by the condensation reaction of PS-COCI and H2N-PAES-NH2 telechelic polymers. The reaction was facile characterized by high yields with a perfect control over the block lengths. Following a known reaction protocol it was possible to selectively sulfonate the PS block of the triblock copolymer that led to the sulfonated copolymer sPS-PAES-sPS. Studies on its proton conductivity and methanol permeability were carried out to evaluate its use as the proton exchange membrane in direct methanol fuel cells. Proton conductivity of the membranes was increased depending on the sulfonic acid group content in the sulfonated polymer. The membranes exhibited good dimensional and thermal stability, and low methanol permeability compared to Nafion 117.

  11. Progress on Determination and Migration of Phthalate Esters Plasticizer in Foods%食品中邻苯二甲酸酯类塑化剂的测定及迁移研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋继霞; 杨正慧; 陈乐群

    2013-01-01

    综述了2009年以来食品中邻苯二甲酸酯类(PAEs)塑化剂在来源、分析测定方法及迁移方面的研究进展.提出了目前国内邻苯二甲酸酯检验时遇到的主要问题,以及面对食品危机应采取的态度.%Progress on sources, analytical methods and migration of phthalate esters (PAEs) plasticizer in foods since 2009 were reviewed. Major problems of the PAEs inspection in China were pointed out, as well as the attitude to the food safety crisis.

  12. Research Progress of Detection Method for Phthalate Esters in Food Packings Materials%食品包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯检测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余建; 蒋小良

    2014-01-01

    介绍邻苯二甲酸酯的性质及其对人体的危害,综述了近几年来食品包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯的检测方法及样品前处理方法,并对比了其优缺点。展望了食品包装材料中邻苯二甲酸酯分析方法的研究趋势。%The properties and the harm of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) to human health were introduced. The pre-treatment and determination method of PAEs in food packings materials in recently years were summarized as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The development trend of analysis of PAEs in food packings materials were put forward.

  13. Comparison of four kinds of extraction techniques and kinetics of microwave-assisted extraction of vanillin from Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhe; Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-04-15

    Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest R²(adj) was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters C(eq), k₁, k₂, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time.

  14. Analysis and risk forecast of phthalate dissolved in edible oil%食用油中增塑剂溶出的原因分析及风险预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖; 郭立新; 蔡曹盛

    2012-01-01

    Different concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in edible oil collected from the market were determined,and the results showed that the PAEs were detectable in plastic drum packed edible oil. The reasons of phthalate dissolved in edible oil were analyzed and validated, and the hazards of quality safety were forecasted.%通过对市场上销售的食用油样品中邻苯二甲酸酯类(PAEs)物质的检测,发现塑料桶装的食用油均有不同程度的PAEs检出,从而对增塑剂溶出的原因进行了分析和验证,并对可能存在的质量安全风险进行分析预测.

  15. High-resolution MR imaging of periarterial edema associated with biological inflammation in spontaneous carotid dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naggara, Olivier; Marsico, Rodolpho; Meder, Jean-Francois; Oppenheim, Catherine [Paris-Descartes University, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Touze, Emmanuel; Mas, Jean-Louis [Paris-Descartes University, Department of Neurology, Paris (France); Leclerc, Xavier; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre [University Hospital Roger Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Nguyen, Thanh [Boston University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    It has been suggested that spontaneous cervical carotid artery dissection (sCAD) may result from arterial inflammation. Periarterial edema (PAE), occasionally described in the vicinity of the mural hematoma in patients with sCAD, may support this hypothesis. Using cervical high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, three readers, blinded to the mechanism of carotid artery dissection, searched for PAE, defined as periarterial T2-hyperintensity and T1-hypointensity, in 29 consecutive CAD patients categorized as spontaneous CAD (sCAD, n = 18) or traumatic CAD (tCAD, n = 11; i.e., major head or neck trauma within 2 weeks before the clinical onset). The relationships between PAE, inflammatory biological markers, history of infection and CAD mechanism were explored. Multiple CADs (n = 8) were found only in sCAD patients. Compared with tCAD, patients with sCAD were more likely to have a recent history of infection (OR = 12.5 [{sub 95%}CI = 1.3-119], p = 0.03), PAE (83% vs. 27%; OR = 13.3 [{sub 95%}CI = 2.2-82.0], p = 0.005) and to have elevated CRP (OR = 6.1 [{sub 95%}CI = 1.2-32.1], p = 0.0002) or ESR (OR = 8.8 [{sub 95%}CI = 1.5-50.1], p = 0.002) values. Interobserver agreement was 0.84 or higher for PAE identification. sCAD was associated with PAE and biological inflammation. Our results support the hypothesis of an underlying arterial inflammation in sCAD. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES proton exchange membranes (PEMs for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young’s modulus >1400 MPa and low water swelling (λ < 15 even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO2• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  17. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  18. Clinical, Laboratorial, and Urodynamic Findings of Prostatic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Urinary Retention Related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. A Prospective Single-Center Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Alberto A. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil); Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim M. da [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Yoshinaga, Eduardo M. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil); Cerri, Luciana M. O. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Ultrasound Unit (Brazil); Baroni, Ronaldo H. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Magnetic Resonance Unit (Brazil); Marcelino, Antonio S. Z. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Ultrasound Unit (Brazil); Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Radiology Department (Brazil); Srougi, Miguel [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to describe the clinical, laboratorial, and urodynamic findings of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsA prospective study of 11 patients with urinary retention due to BPH was conducted. Patients underwent physical examination, prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement, transrectal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and urodynamic testing were used to assess the outcome before and after 1 year.ResultsClinical success was 91 % (10/11 patients) with a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range, 12-41 months). At the first year follow-up, the mean IPSS score was 2.8 points (p = 0.04), mean QoL was 0.4 points (p = 0.001), mean PSA decreased from 10.1 to 4.3 ng/mL (p = 0.003), maximum urinary flow (Qmax) improved from 4.2 to 10.8 mL/sec (p = 0.009), and detrusor pressure (Pdet) decreased from 85.7 to 51.5 cm H{sub 2}O (p = 0.007). Before PAE, Bladder Outlet Obstruction Index (BOOI) showed values >40 in 100 % of patients. After PAE, 30 % of patients were >40 (obstructed), 40 % were between 20 and 40 (undetermined), and 30 % were <20 (unobstructed). Patients with a BOOI <20 had higher PSA values at 1-day after PAE.ConclusionsClinical and urodynamic parameters improved significantly after PAE in patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH. Total PSA at day 1 after PAE was higher in patients with unobstructed values in pressure flow studies.

  19. Effects and toxicity of phthalate esters to hemocytes of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H.-H.; Kao, W.-Y.; Su, Y.-J

    2003-06-19

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) have been considered as environmental pollutants and have been subject to control in the United States of America and Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and toxicity of eight PAEs to hemocytes and the defense functions of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), including hemocytic adhesion, pseudopodia formation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) production, by means of in vitro exposure experiments. After hemocytes were treated separately with eight PAEs at concentrations of 100 {mu}g/ml, the results showed that two PAEs (dipropyl phthalate, DPrP and diethyl phthalate, DEP) increased cells with pseudopodia formation, but decreased adhesive cells; reduction in the percentages of both pseudopodia formation and adhesive cells were detected in the dihexyl phthalate (DHP) and diphenyl phthalate (DPP) experiment groups; and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased pseudopodia formation, but did not affect the adhesion. In addition, both PO activity and O{sub 2}{sup -} production were decreased after hemocytes were treated with five PAEs (benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), DEP, DHP and DPrP), respectively. At the same time, microscopy showed that both DPrP and DHP altered morphology of the cell nucleus and led to the presence of vacuoles in cytosol of hemocytes. Using the annexin assay, and after analysis of DNA fragmentation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it was found that hemocytes exposed to DHP and DPrP for more than 10 min would primarily die via apoptosis, the fatality correlates with increasing treatment time; and hemocytes treated with either BBP, dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCP), DEP or DPP would primarily die via necrosis. According to these results, we suggest that all eight PAEs examined could damage hemocytes and further influence the defense mechanism of prawns. This study reveals an important precaution for prawn cultivation.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced resistance to doxorubicin is reversed by paeonol treatment in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress is generally activated in solid tumors and results in tumor cell anti-apoptosis and drug resistance. Paeonol (Pae, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone, is a natural product extracted from the root of Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrew. Although Pae displays anti-neoplastic activity and increases the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in various cell lines and in animal models, studies related to the effect of Pae on ER stress-induced resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response during resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to doxorubicin. Treatment with the ER stress-inducer tunicamycin (TM before the addition of doxorubicin reduced the rate of apoptosis induced by doxorubicin. Interestingly, co-pretreatment with tunicamycin and Pae significantly increased apoptosis induced by doxorubicin. Furthermore, induction of ER stress resulted in increasing expression of COX-2 concomitant with inactivation of Akt and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP (GADD153 in HepG2 cells. These cellular changes in gene expression and Akt activation may be an important resistance mechanism against doxorubicin in hepatocellular carcinoma cells undergoing ER stress. However, co-pretreatment with tunicamycin and Pae decreased the expression of COX-2 and levels of activation of Akt as well as increasing the levels of CHOP in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that Pae reverses ER stress-induced resistance to doxorubicin in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting COX-2 mediated inactivation of PI3K/AKT/CHOP.