WorldWideScience

Sample records for indoor risk indicators

  1. Performance indicators of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance indicators of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) assessment in hospital buildings: a ... Four-factor parameters of IEQ were assessed; such as thermal quality, acoustic quality, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Many College Women Ignore Indoor Tanning's Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu ... Ignore Indoor Tanning's Risks 7 out of 10 surveyed overlook connection to skin cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ...

  3. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...... indices provide substantially new information and constitute much better decision tools....

  4. Indoor radon risk potential of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of radon risk potential in the State of Hawaii indicates that the potential for Hawaii is low. Using a combination of factors including geology, soils, source-rock type, soil-gas radon concentrations, and indoor measurements throughout the state, a general model was developed that permits prediction for various regions in Hawaii. For the nearly 3,100 counties in the coterminous U.S., National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data was the primary input factor. However, NURE aerorad data was not collected in Hawaii, therefore, this study used geology and soil type as the primary and secondary components of potential prediction. Although the radon potential of some Hawaiian soils suggests moderate risk, most houses are built above ground level and the radon soil potential is effectively decoupled from the house. Only underground facilities or those with closed or recirculating ventilation systems might have elevated radon potential. ?? 2005 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  5. Indicators of airborne fungal concentrations in urban homes: understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Judith A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Anagnost, Susan E; Hunt, Andrew; Abraham, Jerrold L

    2015-06-01

    Indoor fungal exposure can compromise respiratory health. Low-income urban areas are of concern because of high asthma and allergy rates and housing disrepair. Understanding the conditions that affect indoor fungal exposures is important for assessing health risks and for developing mitigation strategies. We examined the types and concentrations of airborne fungi inside and outside of homes in low-income areas of Syracuse, NY as well as the effect of snow cover on fungal levels. At 103 homes, air samples for viable fungi were collected, occupants were interviewed and homes were inspected for visible mold, musty odors, water problems and other factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to relate high fungal levels to home conditions. Predominant indoor fungi included Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and hyaline unknowns. Basidiomycetes and an uncommon genus Acrodontium were also found frequently due to analysis methods developed for this project. With snow cover, outdoor total fungal levels were depressed and indoor concentrations were three times higher than outdoor on average with a maximum of 29 times higher. Visible mold was related to elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 4.11 95% CI 1.37-14.0) and bacteria (OR 3.79 95% CI 1.41-11.2). Musty, moldy odors were associated with elevated concentrations of total fungi (OR 3.48 95% CI 1.13-11.6) and basidiomycetes. Cockroaches, an indicator of moisture, were associated with elevated levels of Penicillium (OR 3.66 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and Aspergillus (OR 4.36 95% CI 1.60-13.4). Increasing relative humidity was associated with higher concentrations of Penicillium, yeasts and basidiomycetes. Visible mold, musty odors, indoor humidity and cockroaches are modifiable factors that were important determinants of indoor fungal exposures. Indoor air investigators should interpret indoor:outdoor fungal ratios cautiously when snow cover is present.

  6. RECEIVED SIGNAL STRENGTH INDICATION MODELING IN INDOOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Taira Procopio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify mathematical models that represent the relation between Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI and objects in an indoor Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Using the Least Squares Method, four linear models have been identified: The first one relates uplink RSSI and objects; the second one relates downlink RSSI and objects; the third one relates uplink RSSI and obstacles and the fourth one relates downlink RSSI and obstacles. The obtained results, characterized by small residual values, attest the validation of all four models.

  7. Calculating Least Risk Paths in 3d Indoor Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanclooster, A.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Fack, V.; Van de Weghe, N.

    2013-08-01

    Over the last couple of years, research on indoor environments has gained a fresh impetus; more specifically applications that support navigation and wayfinding have become one of the booming industries. Indoor navigation research currently covers the technological aspect of indoor positioning and the modelling of indoor space. The algorithmic development to support navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. However, alternative algorithms for outdoor navigation have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behaviour (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). These algorithms are currently restricted to outdoor applications. The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas…). As such, the clarity and easiness of route instructions is of paramount importance when distributing indoor routes. A shortest or fastest path indoors not necessarily aligns with the cognitive mapping of the building. Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-storey building. The results of several least risk path calculations are compared to the shortest paths in indoor environments in terms of total length, improvement in route description complexity and number of turns. Several scenarios are tested in this comparison: paths covering a single floor, paths crossing several building wings and/or floors. Adjustments to the algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the

  8. Online Risk Prediction for Indoor Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Calders, Toon

    2016-01-01

    Technologies such as RFID and Bluetooth have received considerable attention for tracking indoor moving objects. In a time-critical indoor tracking scenario such as airport baggage handling, a bag has to move through a sequence of locations until it is loaded into the aircraft. Inefficiency...

  9. In search of the comfortable indoor environment: A comparison of the utility of objective and subjective indicators of indoor comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Niklas; Skoog, Jennie [Building Services Engineering, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Vaestfjaell, Daniel [Department of Psychology, Goeteborg University (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Today, many procedures for assessing the indoor environment rely on both subjective and objective indicators (e.g. ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004; ISO 10551). It is however unclear how these two types of measurements are related to perceived comfort. This article aims at assessing the relative utility of subjective (rating scale measures) and objective indicators of perceived comfort of indoor environments. In a hospital setting, physical environmental variables (e.g. temperature, relative humidity and noise level) were simultaneously measured as respondents (both patients and staff) rated their perception of the indoor environment. Regression analyses indicated that the subjective sensory ratings were significantly better than objective indicators at predicting overall rated indoor comfort. These results are discussed in relation to existing measurement procedures and standards. (author)

  10. Predicting Indoor Heat Exposure Risk during Extreme Heat Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Ashlinn; Tamerius, James D.; Perzanowski, Matthew; Jacobson, Judith S.; Goldstein, Inge; Acosta, Luis; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Increased heat-related morbidity and mortality are expected direct consequences of global warming. In the developed world, most fatal heat exposures occur in the indoor home environment, yet little is known of the correspondence between outdoor and indoor heat. Here we show how summertime indoor heat and humidity measurements from 285 low- and middle-income New York City homes vary as a function of concurrent local outdoor conditions. Indoor temperatures and heat index levels were both found to have strong positive linear associations with their outdoor counterparts; however, among the sampled homes a broad range of indoor conditions manifested for the same outdoor conditions. Using these models, we simulated indoor conditions for two extreme events: the 10-day 2006 NYC heat wave and a 9-day event analogous to the more extreme 2003 Paris heat wave. These simulations indicate that many homes in New York City would experience dangerously high indoor heat index levels during extreme heat events. These findings also suggest that increasing numbers of NYC low- and middle-income households will be exposed to heat index conditions above important thresholds should the severity of heat waves increase with global climate change. The study highlights the urgent need for improved indoor temperature and humidity management. PMID:24893319

  11. [sup 210] Po as a long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to radon (Rn-222) decay products in the indoor environment is suspected of being a significant lung cancer agent in many countries. But quantification of the contemporary lung cancer risk (i.e. probability) on an individual basis is not an easy task. Only past exposures are relevant and assessing individual exposures in retrospect is associated with large uncertainties, if possible at all. One way to extend the validity of contemporary measurements to past decades is to measure long-lived decay products of radon, the long-lived radon daughters. After our laboratory had exemplified the correlation between implanted Po-210 and the estimated radon exposures in six different dwellings, the US Department of Energy and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute granted funds for a one-year study, [sup 210]Po as a Long-Term Integrating Radon Indicator in the Indoor Environment.'' In this report the work performed under these two contracts is reported.

  12. Determination of heavy metals in indoor dust from Istanbul, Turkey: estimation of the health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur

    2012-12-01

    Levels of eight potentially toxic heavy metals in indoor dust from homes and offices in Istanbul were investigated. The concentrations of heavy metals in indoor dust from homes+office ranged from 62 to 1800 μgg(-1) for Cu, 3-200 μgg(-1) for Pb, 0.4-20 μgg(-1) for Cd, 210-2800 μgg(-1) for Zn, 2.8-460μgg(-1) for Cr, 8-1300μgg(-1) for Mn, 2.4-25μgg(-1) for Co, 120-2600μgg(-1) for Ni. Results of the study were comparable to other studies conducted on indoor dust and street dust from a variety of cities globally. Considering only ingestion + inhalation, the carcinogenic risk level of Cr for adults and children (3.7×10(-5) and 2.7×10(-5)) in Istanbul was in the range of EPA's safe limits (1×10(-6) and 1×10(-4)), indicating that cancer risk of Cr due to exposure to indoor dust in Istanbul can be acceptable. According to calculated Hazard Quotient (HQ), for non-cancer effects, the ingestion of indoor dust appears to be the major route of exposure to the indoor dust that results in a higher risk for heavy metals, followed by dermal contact and inhalation pathways. However, compared to ingestion and dermal contact exposure, exposure through inhalation is almost negligible. Hazard Index (HI) values for all studied elements were lower than safe limit of 1 and this result suggested that none of the population groups would likely to experience potential health risk due to exposure to heavy metals from indoor dust in the study area.

  13. Source specific risk assessment of indoor aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, A.J.

    2013-05-15

    In the urban environment, atmospheric aerosols consist mainly of pollutants from anthropogenic sources. The majority of these originate from traffic and other combustion processes. A fraction of these pollutants will penetrate indoors via ventilation. However, indoor air concentrations are usually predominated by indoor sources due to the small amount of dilution air. In modern societies, people spend most of their time indoors. Thus, their exposure is controlled mainly by indoor concentrations from indoor sources. During the last decades, engineering of nanosized structures has created a new field of material science. Some of these materials have been shown to be potentially toxic to human health. The greatest potential for exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) occurs in the workplace during production and handling of ENMs. In an exposure assessment, both gaseous and particulate matter pollutants need to be considered. The toxicities of the particles usually depend on the source and age. With time, particle morphology and composition changes due to their tendency to undergo coagulation, condensation and evaporation. The PM exposure risk is related to source specific emissions, and thus, in risk assessment one needs to define source specific exposures. This thesis describes methods for source specific risk assessment of airborne particulate matter. It consists of studies related to workers' ENM exposures during the synthesis of nanoparticles, packing of agglomerated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, and handling of nanodiamonds. Background particles were distinguished from the ENM concentrations by using different measurement techniques and indoor aerosol modelings. Risk characterization was performed by using a source specific exposure and calculated dose levels in units of particle number and mass. The exposure risk was estimated by using non-health based occupational exposure limits for ENMs. For the nanosized TiO{sub 2}, the risk was also assessed from dose

  14. Indicators of Disaster Risk and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Omar D. Cardona

    2005-01-01

    This document is the summary report of the IDB-sponsored system of disaster risk and risk management indicators presented at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Japan, 2005. The indices estimate disaster risk loss, distribution, vulnerability and management for 12 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The objective of this program is to facilitate access to relevant information on disaster risk and risk management by national decision-makers, thus making possible the i...

  15. Risk of Lung Cancer and Indoor Radon Exposure in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysson, H.; Tirmarche, M.; Tymen, G.; Ducloy, F.; Laurier, D.

    2004-07-01

    It is well established that radon exposure increases risks of lung cancer among underground miners. to estimate the lung cancer risk linked to indoor radon exposure, a hospital based case-control study was carried out in France, With a focus on precise reconstruction of past indoor radon exposure over the 30 years preceding the lung cancer diagnosis. The investigation rook place from 1992 to 1998 in four regions of France: Auvergne, Brittany, Languedoc and Limousin. During face-to-face interviews a standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic characteristics, information on active and passive smoking, occupational exposure, medical history as well as extensive details on residential history. Radon concentrations were measured in the dwellings where subjects had lived at least one year during the 5-30 year period before interview. Measurements of radon concentrations were performed during a 6-month period, using two Kodalpha LR 115 detectors, one in the living room and one in the bedroom. The time-weighted average (TWA) radon concentration for a subject during the 5-30 year period before interview was based on radon concentrations over all addresses occupied by the subject weighted by the number of years spent at each address. For the time intervals without available measurements, we imputed the region-specific arithmetic average of radon concentrations for measured addresses of control subjects. Lung cancer risk was examined in relation to indoor radon exposure after adjustment for age, sex, region, cigarette smoking and occupational exposure. The estimated relative a risk per 100 Bq/m''3 was 1.04, at the borderline of statistical significance (95 percent Confidence Interval: 0.99, 1..1). These results are in agreement with results from other indoor radon case-control studies and with extrapolations from underground miners studies. (Author) 31 refs.

  16. Indoor aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawska, L.; Afshari, Alireza; N. Bae, G.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by growing considerations of the scale, severity, and risks associated with human exposure to indoor particulate matter, this work reviewed existing literature to: (i) identify state-of-the-art experimental techniques used for personal exposure assessment; (ii) compare exposure levels...... reported for domestic/school settings in different countries (excluding exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and particulate matter from biomass cooking in developing countries); (iii) assess the contribution of outdoor background vs indoor sources to personal exposure; and (iv) examine scientific...... understanding of the risks posed by personal exposure to indoor aerosols. Limited studies assessing integrated daily residential exposure to just one particle size fraction, ultrafine particles, show that the contribution of indoor sources ranged from 19% to 76%. This indicates a strong dependence on resident...

  17. Pollution distribution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in indoor dust in Anhui rural, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuesheng; Fang, Fengman; Wang, Fei; Xu, Minglu

    2015-09-01

    Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As concentrations of indoor dust in Anhui rural were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The degrees of metal pollution in indoor dust ranked as follows: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > V > Ni > Co > As, on average. The arithmetic means of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As were 427.17, 348.73, 107.05, 113.68, 52.64, 38.93, 10.29, and 4.46 mg/kg, respectively. These were higher than background values of Anhui soil for Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni, especially for Pb with the mean value of 13.21 times the background value. Heavy metal concentrations of indoor dust were different from different rural areas. House type (bungalows or storied house), sweeping frequency, and external environment around the house (such as the road grade) affected heavy metal concentrations in indoor dust. The results of factor analysis and correlation analysis indicated that Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Co concentrations were mainly due to interior paint, metal objects, and building materials. Pb and As concentrations were due to vehicle emissions. V concentration was mainly of natural source. Average daily doses for the exposure pathway of the studied heavy metals decreased in children in the following order: hand-to-mouth ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The non-carcinogenic risks of heavy metals ranked as Pb > V > Cr > Cu > Zn > As > Co > Ni, and the carcinogenic risks of metals decreased in the order of Cr > Co > As > Ni. The non-carcinogenic hazard indexes and carcinogenic risks of metals in indoor dust were both lower than the safe values.

  18. Sound construction of risk indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Thomsen, Marianne

    . The purpose is to develop a novel approach for risk indicators that can support risk minimization. Risk indicators can identify risk reduction and thus yield a time trend analysis of the progress in risk level. Another option is to evaluate the current condition in relation to a reference condition defined......). If the target is humans then every human that are covered by the risk assessment activity (e.g. all inhabitants in EU) will be a single PU or if the target is lakes then every single lake is a PU. The principle of the paradigm is to identify all, or at least a representative fraction, of PUs and to set up risk......  In spite of the great effort in the area of environmental risk assessment of chemicals, a critical amount of uncertainty is still a reality due to high complexity of the governing risk problem. Unexpected adverse effects may thus take place event though the risk assessment predicts no-risk. Some...

  19. CFD analysis of dense gas dispersion in indoor environment for risk assessment and risk mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M; Jayanti, S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-03-30

    Environmental risks are inherent in the operation of any complex chemical process industry. The indoor release of hazardous chemicals that are denser than air is a topic of special concern, since dense clouds tend to persist at ground level or human breath level which leads to a magnification of their harmful potential. In the present work, we propose a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based model for indoor risk assessment considering accidental release of a sustained, small, undetected leak of a dense toxic gas (chlorine) in an industrial indoor environment. Results from simulations show that the denser chlorine gas spreads like a liquid and flows all along the floor. At the same time, its concentration at a point away from the ground level increases slowly, thus showing that both stratification and dilution effects are present as the dense gas spreads. The implications of this spreading pattern from a risk assessment and risk mitigation point of view are discussed.

  20. {sup 210}Po as a long-term integrating radon indicator in the indoor environment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Exposure to radon (Rn-222) decay products in the indoor environment is suspected of being a significant lung cancer agent in many countries. But quantification of the contemporary lung cancer risk (i.e. probability) on an individual basis is not an easy task. Only past exposures are relevant and assessing individual exposures in retrospect is associated with large uncertainties, if possible at all. One way to extend the validity of contemporary measurements to past decades is to measure long-lived decay products of radon, the long-lived radon daughters. After our laboratory had exemplified the correlation between implanted Po-210 and the estimated radon exposures in six different dwellings, the US Department of Energy and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute granted funds for a one-year study, ``{sup 210}Po as a Long-Term Integrating Radon Indicator in the Indoor Environment.`` In this report the work performed under these two contracts is reported.

  1. A Comprehensive Real-Time Indoor Air-Quality Level Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about Indoor Air-Quality has accelerated the development of small, low-cost air-quality monitoring systems. These systems are capable of monitoring various indoor air pollutants in real time, notifying users about the current air-quality status and gathering the information to the central server. However, most Internet of Things (IoT-based air-quality monitoring systems numerically present the sensed value per pollutant, making it difficult for general users to identify how polluted the air is. Therefore, in this paper, we first introduce a tiny air-quality monitoring system that we developed and, based on the system, we also test the applicability of the comprehensive Air-Quality Index (AQI, which is widely used all over the world, in terms of its capacity for a comprehensive indoor air-quality indication. We also develop design considerations for an IoT-based air-quality monitoring system and propose a real-time comprehensive indoor air-quality level indication method, which effectively copes with dynamic changes and is efficient in terms of processing and memory overhead.

  2. Organophosphorus flame retardants and phthalate esters in indoor dust from different microenvironments: Bioaccessibility and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruiwen; Li, Yunzi; Xiang, Ping; Li, Chao; Zhou, Chunyang; Zhang, Shujun; Cui, Xinyi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    Incidental ingestion of indoor dust is an important pathway for human exposure to organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). However, little is known about their bioaccessibility in indoor dust. In this study, indoor dust samples were collected from houses, offices, public microenvironments (PMEs), and university dorms, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was used to measure the bioaccessibility of OPFRs and PAEs in these dust samples. Total concentrations of OPFRs in dust samples ranged from 0.01 to 63.2 μg g(-1), with significantly lower concentrations in dorm dust (median = 0.30 μg g(-1)) than those in houses (3.12), offices (5.94), and PMEs (11.6). Total PAEs ranged from 5.49 to 2161 μg g(-1) with significantly lower concentrations in dorm dust (379 μg g(-1)) than those in the other three types of dust (767, 515, and 731 μg g(-1)). When subject to PBET, the bioaccessibility of OPFRs ranged from 8.18% (triphenyl phosphate) to 54.5% (Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) for OPFRs, and from 1.21% (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP) to 81.1% (dimethyl phthalate) for PAEs. Estimated exposure doses for adults and infants to OPFRs via dust ingestion were much lower than the reference doses (RfD), but intake dose of DEHP for infants was higher than the RfD of 20 μg kg(-1) d(-1). However, the DEHP intake dose did not exceed the RfD after incorporating bioaccessibility into risk assessment. Our data indicated the importance of considering contaminant bioaccessibility during risk assessment of indoor dust.

  3. INEMO: Distributed RF-Based Indoor Location Determination with Confidence Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxian Sun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using radio signal strength (RSS in sensor networks localization is an attractive method since it is a cost-efficient method to provide range indication. In this paper, we present a two-tier distributed approach for RF-based indoor location determination. Our approach, namely, INEMO, provides positioning accuracy of room granularity and office cube granularity. A target can first give a room granularity request and the background anchor nodes cooperate to accomplish the positioning process. Anchors in the same room can give cube granularity if the target requires further accuracy. Fixed anchor nodes keep monitoring status of nearby anchors and local reference matching is used to support room separation. Furthermore, we utilize the RSS difference to infer the positioning confidence. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed RF-based indoor location determination.

  4. Preliminary indoor radon risk assessment at the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, MG - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, L.H.S. E-mail: Iene@ird.gov.br; Koifman, S.; Melo, V.P.; Sachet, I.; Amaral, E.C.S

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims to present an assessment of the environmental radiological exposure at a Brazilian area of high natural radiation and discusses the indoor radon exposure risk. A survey of inhabitant exposures arising from the inhalation of radon progeny and external gamma exposure was conducted in urban and rural areas of the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, which is recognized worldwide as a high natural radiation region. The results of this survey indicated that highest radiation exposure was restricted to the rural area of Pocos de Caldas. The radiation exposure in urban locations was quite similar to the values observed in normal background areas in some Brazilian counties. By the application of a constant relative risk model, an additional 20% in the lifetime risk of lung cancer mortality due to the exposure to radon progeny was estimated at Pocos de Caldas. It was also estimated that 16% of all lung cancer deaths at Pocos de Caldas county could be attributable to radon exposure.

  5. Development of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan1, B Mohd Rafee1, Juahir Hafizan2, AZF Azman1, AM Nizar3, Z Izwyn4, AA Muhaimin5, MA Syafiq Yunos6, AR Anita1, J Muhamad Hanafiah1, MS Shaharuddin1, A Mohd Ibthisham7, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail8, MN Mohamad Azhar1, HS Azizan1, I Zulfadhli9, J Othman101Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia; 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division (BTI, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Malaysia; 7Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 8Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 9Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 10Department of Counsellor Education and Counselling Psychology (DCECP, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: To meet the current diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in nonindustrial workplaces in developing countries, an indoor air quality (IAQ component of a participatory occupational safety and health survey should be included.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and suggest a multidisciplinary, integrated IAQ checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants. This IAQ checklist proposed to support

  6. Metodology for Risk-based Indicators Impementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the principle of creating a riskbased indicators in companies operating in an air transport. The first part deals with the description of safety indicators and introduce the concept of risk-based indicators. The next section describes the procedure for creating the base of risk-based indicators and describes specific examples of developed indicators.

  7. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  8. Risk from inhaled mycotoxins in indoor office and residential environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Bruce J; Robbins, Coreen A; Swenson, Lonie J; Hardin, Bryan D

    2004-01-01

    Mycotoxins are known to produce veterinary and human diseases when consumed with contaminated foods. Mycotoxins have also been proposed to cause adverse human health effects after inhalation exposure to mold in indoor residential, school, and office environments. Epidemiologic evidence has been inadequate to establish a causal relationship between indoor mold and nonallergic, toxigenic health effects. In this article, the authors model a maximum possible dose of mycotoxins that could be inhaled in 24 h of continuous exposure to a high concentration of mold spores containing the maximum reported concentration of aflatoxins B1 and B2, satratoxins G and H, fumitremorgens B and C, verruculogen, and trichoverrols A and B. These calculated doses are compared to effects data for the same mycotoxins. None of the maximum doses modeled were sufficiently high to cause any adverse effect. The model illustrates the inefficiency of delivery of mycotoxins via inhalation of mold spores, and suggests that the lack of association between mold exposure and mycotoxicoses in indoor environments is due to a requirement for extremely high airborne spore levels and extended periods of exposure to elicit a response. This model is further evidence that human mycotoxicoses are implausible following inhalation exposure to mycotoxins in mold-contaminated home, school, or office environments.

  9. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  10. Indoor air quality risk assessment on the Canadian campus by a multilevel integrated weighted average method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Rui; ZHANG Yuan; ZHANG Meng-heng; LIU Ke-xin; WU Jie-yun; ZHENG Zhi-rong; GONG Yao

    2015-01-01

    Increasing incidents of indoor air quality (IAQ) related complaints lead us to the fact that IAQ has become a significant occupational health and environmental issue. However, how to effectively evaluate IAQ under different scale of multiple indicators is still a challenge. The traditional single-indicator method is subjected to uncertainties in assessing IAQ due to different subjectivity on good or bad quality and scalar differences of data set. In this study, a multilevel integrated weighted average IAQ method including initial walking through assessment (IWA) and two-layers weighted average method are developed and applied to evaluate IAQ of the laboratory building at the University of Regina in Canada. Some important chemical parameters related to IAQ in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methanol (HCHO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) are evaluated based on 5 months continuous monitoring data. The new integrated assessment result can not only indicates the risk of an individual parameter, but also able to quantify the overall IAQ risk on the sampling site. Finally, some recommendations based on the result are proposed to address sustainable IAQ practices in the sampling area.

  11. ALTERNATE PATHWAY TO LUNG CANCER INDICATED BY KRAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN NONSMOKERS EXPOSED TO INDOOR SMOKY COAL EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternate Pathway to Lung Cancer Indicated by KRAS and P53 Mutations in Nonsmokers Exposed to Indoor Smoky Coal Emissions Use of smoky coal in unvented homes in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China, is associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking females. Such wome...

  12. Influence of a portable air treatment unit on health-related quality indicators of indoor air in a classroom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Hout, S.P. van; Anzion, R.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    During periods of two weeks in February and June 2010 the performance of portable air treatment units (PATUs) was evaluated in a primary school classroom using indicators of indoor air quality. Air samples were collected in an undisturbed setting on weekend days and in an occupied setting during tea

  13. Indoor tanning and the MC1R genotype: risk prediction for basal cell carcinoma risk in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Annette M; Ferrucci, Leah M; Cartmel, Brenda; Loftfield, Erikka; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T

    2015-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence is increasing, particularly in young people, and can be associated with significant morbidity and treatment costs. To identify young individuals at risk of BCC, we assessed existing melanoma or overall skin cancer risk prediction models and built a novel risk prediction model, with a focus on indoor tanning and the melanocortin 1 receptor gene, MC1R. We evaluated logistic regression models among 759 non-Hispanic whites from a case-control study of patients seen between 2006 and 2010 in New Haven, Connecticut. In our data, the adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for a model by Han et al. (Int J Cancer. 2006;119(8):1976-1984) with 7 MC1R variants was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 0.78), while that by Smith et al. (J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(15 suppl):8574) with MC1R and indoor tanning had an AUC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.75). Our base model had greater predictive ability than existing models and was significantly improved when we added ever-indoor tanning, burns from indoor tanning, and MC1R (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.81). Our early-onset BCC risk prediction model incorporating MC1R and indoor tanning extends the work of other skin cancer risk prediction models, emphasizes the value of both genotype and indoor tanning in skin cancer risk prediction in young people, and should be validated with an independent cohort. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Incidence and Risk Factors for Upper Extremity Climbing Injuries in Indoor Climbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Middelkoop, M.; Bruens, M. L.; Coert, J. H.; Selles, R. W.; Verhagen, E.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M A; Koes, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for climbing-related injuries of the upper extremities in recreational climbers. A total of 426 recreational climbers were recruited from indoor climbing halls. The baseline questionnaire included questions on

  15. Indoor air quality assessment of daycare facilities with carbon dioxide, temperature, and humidity as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferng, Shiaw-Fen; Lee, Li-Wen

    2002-11-01

    Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in daycare facilities affects both attending children and care providers. Incident rates of upper-respiratory-tract infections have been reported to be higher in children who attend daycare. Excessive carbon dioxide (CO2) exposure can cause several health effects and even sudden infant death. For this study, 26 facilities were randomly selected in a Midwestern county of the United States. CO2, room temperature, and relative humidity were used as indicators for IAQ and comfort levels. These IAQ parameters were continuously monitored for eight hours at each facility by a direct-reading instrument that was calibrated before each measurement. More than 50 percent of the facilities had an average CO2 level over the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard of 1,000 parts per million (ppm). For temperature and relative humidity, respectively, 42.3 percent and 15.4 percent of facilities were outside of the ASHRAE-recommended comfort zones. The nap-time average CO2 level was about 117 ppm higher than the non-nap-time level. The increment of the nap-time CO2 level in the sleeping-only room over the level in multipurpose rooms was statistically significant (p standard for daycare facilities be established and that children should not be placed in a completely isolated room during nap time.

  16. Risk indicators of depression in residential homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisses, AMH; Kluiter, H; Jongenelis, K; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To assess risk indicators of depressive symptoms in social and personal domains of residents of residential homes. Methods In a cross-sectional study risk indicators for depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) were examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses, four hundred and

  17. Risk indicators of depression in residential homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisses, AMH; Kluiter, H; Jongenelis, K; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J

    Objectives To assess risk indicators of depressive symptoms in social and personal domains of residents of residential homes. Methods In a cross-sectional study risk indicators for depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) were examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses, four hundred and

  18. Numerical Assessment of Indoor Air Exposure Risk from Subsurface NAPL Contamination under Hydrologic Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, A.; Yu, S.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the risk of indoor air exposure to residual contaminants in the subsurface following the redevelopment of contaminated land redevelopment project is a central issue at many brownfield sites. In this study, we examine various mechanisms controlling vapor phase intrusion into the indoor air of a typical residential dwelling from a NAPL source located below the water table, and consequently assess the indoor air exposure risk under multiple hydrologic uncertainties. For this purpose, a multi-phase multi-component numerical model, CompFlow Bio is used to simulate the evolution of a TCE source zone and dissolved plume in a variably saturated heterogeneous aquifer, along with the transport of dissolved TCE upwards through the capillary fringe with subsequent migration of TCE vapors in the vadose zone subject to barometric pressure fluctuations. The TCE vapors then enter the basement of the residential dwelling through a crack in the foundation slab, driven by a slight vacuum within the basement relative to the ambient atmosphere as well as the barometric pressure fluctuations. Hydrologic uncertainties affecting the indoor air concentration of TCE include the vacuum in the basement, the aperture of the crack in the foundation slab, the heterogeneous permeability field, the thickness of the capillary fringe, barometric fluctuations, recharge rates and the location of the TCE source zone. CompFlow Bio is then used to determine the future concentration of TCE into the basement as a consequence of imperfect knowledge in the various hydrologic parameters, and to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative remedial and foundation design options to minimize the exposure risk to the indoor air conditional upon the available data collected at the site. The outcome of this approach is two-fold. First, the owner of the site can reasonably evaluate the future indoor air exposure risk following the redevelopment of a formerly contaminated site following remediation

  19. Attendance at chlorinated indoor pools and risk of asthma in adult recreational swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marcello; Schenk, Kai; Mantovani, William; Papadopoulou, Christina; Posenato, Chiara; Ferrari, Pietro; Poli, Albino; Tardivo, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    To study a potential correlation between attendance at chlorinated indoor pools and the onset of asthma in adult leisure swimmers. 1136 adult swimmers attending indoor pools in the city of Verona completed a modified ECRHS questionnaire. The cumulative time spent in the pools was calculated on the basis of the mean frequency and duration of weekly swim activity for every year of attendance. The median value (320 h) was used to divide participants into 2 groups. Other questions concerned the family history of allergies, the medical diagnosis and the onset of asthma. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the study group was compared with that of a general population sample. New-onset asthma, first identified at least 12 months after the start of regular pool attendance, was more prevalent among swimmers characterized by a higher cumulative pool attendance (23/514, 4.5%) than in swimmers who were attending indoor pools less frequently (2/508, 0.4%; ratio 11.1, 95% CI 2.6-47.4). The statistical analysis revealed an independent association between the cumulative lifetime hours spent in indoor swimming pools and new onset asthma (relative risk 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07). Respiratory symptoms were less frequent in the study population versus a general population sample (prevalence ratio 0.26-0.68). Attendance at chlorinated indoor pools may constitute a risk factor for developing asthma in leisure adult swimmers. Future research and efforts should aim at improving disinfection techniques, hygiene and ventilation in indoor swimming pools in order to provide an unobjectionable ambient for salubrious swim activities. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the risk of lung cancer from inhalation of radon daughters indoors: review and evaluation. Final report, October 1986-April 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borak, T.B.; Johnson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    A review of the dosimetric models and epidemiological studies with regard to the relation between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer indicates that the Working Level is an appropriate unit for indoor radon exposure; that the uncertainty in applying risk estimates derived from uranium miner data may be reduced by determining nose vs. mouth breathing ratios, residential aerosol characteristics, and lung cancer risk vs. age at exposure; that there is persuasive evidence of an association between radon exposure indoors and lung cancer; and that epidemiological studies in progress may provide a basis for revision or validation of current models but only is experimental designs are employed that will permit pooling of data to obtain greater statistical power.

  1. Residual indoor contamination from world trade center rubble fires as indicated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Funk, William E; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2006-02-15

    The catastrophic destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on Sept. 11, 2001 (9/11) created an immense dust cloud followed by fires that emitted smoke and soot into the air of New York City (NYC) well into December. Outdoor pollutant levels in lower Manhattan returned to urban background levels after about 200 days as the fires were put out and the debris cleanup was completed. However, particulate matter (PM) from the original collapse and fires also penetrated into commercial and residential buildings. This has created public concern because WTC dust is thought to cause adverse pulmonary symptoms including "WTC cough" and reduced lung capacity. Additionally, some recent studies have suggested a possible link between exposure to WTC contamination and other adverse health effects. Distinguishing between normal urban pollutant infiltration and residual WTC dust remaining in interior spaces is difficult; efforts are underway to develop such discriminator methods. Some progress has been made in identifying WTC dust by the content of fibers believed to be associated with the initial building collapse. There are also contaminants created by the fires that burned for 100 days in the debris piles of the building rubble. Using WTC ambient air samples, we have developed indicators for fire related PM based on the relative amounts of specific particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mass fraction of PAHs per mass of PM. These two parameters are combined, and we show a graphical method for discriminating between fire sources and urban particulate sources as applied to samples of settled dusts. We found that our PAHs based discriminator method can distinguish fire source contributions to WTC related particulate matter and dusts. Other major building fires or large open burn events could have similar PAHs characteristics. We found that random samples collected approximately 3.5 years after the WTC event from occupied indoor spaces (primarily residential

  2. Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA’s Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) is a geographically-based model that helps policy makers and communities explore data on releases of toxic...

  3. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

  4. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Parnell, L.D.; Werff-van der Vat, B.J.C. van der; Ommen, B. van; Greef, J. van der; Ordovás, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves

  5. Indoor Soiling Method and Outdoor Statistical Risk Analysis of Photovoltaic Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Vidyashree

    This is a two-part thesis. Part 1 presents an approach for working towards the development of a standardized artificial soiling method for laminated photovoltaic (PV) cells or mini-modules. Construction of an artificial chamber to maintain controlled environmental conditions and components/chemicals used in artificial soil formulation is briefly explained. Both poly-Si mini-modules and a single cell mono-Si coupons were soiled and characterization tests such as I-V, reflectance and quantum efficiency (QE) were carried out on both soiled, and cleaned coupons. From the results obtained, poly-Si mini-modules proved to be a good measure of soil uniformity, as any non-uniformity present would not result in a smooth curve during I-V measurements. The challenges faced while executing reflectance and QE characterization tests on poly-Si due to smaller size cells was eliminated on the mono-Si coupons with large cells to obtain highly repeatable measurements. This study indicates that the reflectance measurements between 600-700 nm wavelengths can be used as a direct measure of soil density on the modules. Part 2 determines the most dominant failure modes of field aged PV modules using experimental data obtained in the field and statistical analysis, FMECA (Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis). The failure and degradation modes of about 744 poly-Si glass/polymer frameless modules fielded for 18 years under the cold-dry climate of New York was evaluated. Defect chart, degradation rates (both string and module levels) and safety map were generated using the field measured data. A statistical reliability tool, FMECA that uses Risk Priority Number (RPN) is used to determine the dominant failure or degradation modes in the strings and modules by means of ranking and prioritizing the modes. This study on PV power plants considers all the failure and degradation modes from both safety and performance perspectives. The indoor and outdoor soiling studies were jointly

  6. Semi volatile organic compounds and flame retardants. Occurrence in indoor environments and risk assessment for indoor exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaernstroem, H.; Vares, S.; Airaksinen, M.

    2009-05-15

    The first part of the project presented in this publication reviews the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and flame retardants in commonly used building and furnishing materials in Finland. SVOCs included in the review are plasticisers, like phthalates, flame retardants (FRs), like brominated organic compounds and organophosphate esters. In addition, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are constituents in coal tar/ creosote and have been used for moisture proofing in structures, are also discussed. On the basis of present knowledge, risk assessment for exposure indoors is presented. In addition, sources of SVOCs and the waste potential in the old building stock are clarified. The knowledge for the review was gathered from housing statistics, building product statistics, the chemical registry at The National Product Control Agency's (STTV), The National Board of Antiquities and Historical Monuments in Finland, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), and from interviews with the construction product industry. In the second part of the project, SVOCs were measured from a total of 13 building materials including flooring materials, paints, insulations and a levelling agent (screed). Both short and long term (up to 60 days) emissions were measured by modifying the existing standard sampling method for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Emissions were measured at room temperature 23 deg C and at 40 deg C. The elevated temperature was considered to simulate real life situations, such as when a floor structure has heating or a surface gets warmed up by direct sunlight. The results showed that the initial specific emission rates (SER) of SVOCs are typically low, less than 5 mug/m2h. An exception was newly prepared foam type polyurethane insulations, which emitted SVOCs up to 65 mug/m2h. The SVOC SERs were higher at 40 deg C, up to 165 mug/m2h. No phthalates were detected from the air samples collected at room temperauture during

  7. Cancer risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via indoor and outdoor dust based on probit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan; Shao, Dingding; Li, Ning; Yang, Gelin; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Zhong, Wenfeng

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust and outdoor dust including road and window dust around the traffic road in Hunan Province, China, were sampled and detected. The ∑PAHs in indoor dust ranged from 5007-24,236 ng g(-1), with a median of 14,049 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in road dust ranged from 3644-12,875 ng g(-1), with a median of 10,559 ng g(-1). The ∑PAHs in window dust ranged from 803-12,590 ng g(-1), with a median of 5459 ng g(-1). Similar pattern of PAHs was observed in road and window dust except in H3W and H4W samples, which was dominated by naphthalene (Nap), benzo(b+k)fluoranthene (B(b+k)F), phenanthrene (Phe), and fluorine (Fle). Indoor dust showed slightly different PAHs profiles, which was dominated by Nap, fluoranthene (Fla) and Phe. Risk assessment indicated that dermal contact and dust ingestion exposure pathways were more important than the inhalation pathway. Cancer risk of PAHs via dust varied from 2.73 × 10(-8)-8.04 × 10(-6), with a median of 2.06 × 10(-6) for children, and from 2 × 10(-8)-5.89 × 10(-6), with a median of 1.52 × 10(-6) for adult. Probit model showed that 76 and 71 % of samples in the sampling area would result in the risk of children and adult exposure to PAHs via dust higher than the acceptable level (1 × 10(-6)), respectively.

  8. Risk Analysis in Road Tunnels – Most Important Risk Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, Florian; Knaust, Christian; Thöns, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    the effects and highlights the most important risk indicators with the aim to support further developments in risk analysis. Therefore, a system model of a road tunnel was developed to determine the risk measures. The system model can be divided into three parts: the fire part connected to the fire model Fire...... Dynamics Simulator (FDS); the evacuation part connected to the evacuation model FDS+Evac; and the frequency part connected to a model to calculate the frequency of fires. This study shows that the parts of the system model (and their most important risk indicators) affect the risk measures in the following......, further research can focus on these most important risk indicators with the aim to optimise risk analysis....

  9. Indoor Intelligent Vehicle localization using WiFi Received Signal Strength Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh-Van, Nguyen; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Thanh-Huong, Nguyen; Castelli, Eric

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Success of Intelligent Vehicle navigation largely depends on the ability to localize precisely the vehicle in the environment. In general, all intelligent vehicle seemed to agree on a combination of non-cumulative error localization method like GPS with more precise localization method but suffered from cumulative errors like Laser-SLAM with an odometer. However, as GPS is only available for outdoor environment and since the indoor environment is also an important scen...

  10. Study of epidemiological risk of lung cancer in Mexico due indoor radon exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles, A.; Espinosa, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this work the lifetime relative risks (LRR) of lung cancer due to exposure to indoor 222Rn on the Mexican population is calculated. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer (LC), because that, to calculate the number of cases of LC due to exposure to 222Rn is necessary considers the number of cases of LC for smoking cigarette. The lung cancer mortality rates published by the "Secretaría de Salud" (SSA), the mexican population data published by the "Consejo Nacional de Población" (CONAPO), smoking data in the mexican population, published by the "Comisión Nacional Contra las Adicciones" (CONADIC), the "Organización Panamericana de la Salud" (OPS) and indoor 222Rn concentrations in Mexico published in several recent studies are used. To calculate the lifetime relative risks (LRR) for different segments of the Mexican population, firstly the Excess Relative Risk (ERR) is calculated using the method developed by the BEIR VI committee and subsequently modified by the USEPA and published in the report "EPA Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes". The excess relative risks were then used to calculate the corresponding lifetime relative risks, again using the method developed by the BEIR VI committee. The lifetime relative risks for Mexican male and female eversmokers and Mexican male and female never-smokers were calculated for radon concentrations spanning the range found in recent studies of indoor radon concentrations in Mexico. The lifetime relative risks of lung cancer induced by lifetime exposure to the mexican average indoor radon concentration were estimated to be 1.44 and 1.40 for never-smokers mexican females and males respectively, and 1.19 and 1.17 for ever-smokers Mexican females and males respectively. The Mexican population LRR values obtained in relation to the USA and Canada LRR published values in ever-smokers for both gender are similar with differences less than 4%, in case of never-smokers in relation with Canada

  11. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.; Amigo, H.; Bustos, P. [Kings College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. for Public Health Science

    2008-04-15

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  12. Indoor phthalate concentration in residential apartments in Chongqing, China: Implications for preschool children's exposure and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhongming; Zhang, Yinping; Mmereki, Daniel; Yu, Wei; Li, Baizhan

    2016-02-01

    Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) - in indoor gas-phase and dust samples were measured in thirty residential apartments for the first time in Chongqing, China. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate preschool children's exposure via inhalation, non-dietary ingestion and dermal absorption based on gas-phase and dust concentrations. Risk assessment was evaluated by comparing the modeled exposure doses with child-specific benchmarks specified in California's Proposition 65. The detection frequency for all the targeted phthalates was more than 80% except for BBzP. DMP was the most predominant compound in the gas-phase (median = 0.91 μg/m3 and 0.82 μg/m3 in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), and DEHP was the most predominant compound in the dust samples (median = 1543 μg/g and 1450 μg/g in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively). Correlation analysis suggests that indoor DiBP and DnBP might come from the same emission sources. The simulations showed that the median DEHP daily intake was 3.18-4.28 μg/day/kg-bw in all age groups, suggesting that it was the greatest of the targeted phthalates. The risk assessment indicated that the exposure doses of DnBP and DEHP exceeded the child-specific benchmarks in more than 90% of preschool children in Chongqing. Therefore, from a children's health perspective, efforts should focus on controlling indoor phthalate concentrations and exposures.

  13. Occurrence and health risk assessment of halogenated disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Chen; Zhang, Beibei; Gong, Tingting; Xian, Qiming

    2016-02-01

    Swimming pool disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have become a concern in many countries all over the world. In this study, the concentrations of several categories of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones (HKs) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM), in 13 public indoor swimming pools in Nanjing, China were determined, the correlations between DBPs and water quality parameters as well as between different DBP categories were evaluated, and the health risks of the DBPs to human were examined. The results indicate that the DBP levels in the swimming pools in Nanjing were relatively high, with HAAs as the most dominant category, followed by THMs, HANs, HKs and TCNM sequentially. Bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA), trichloromethane (TCM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were the most dominant species among HAAs, THMs, HANs, and HKs, respectively. For all the different categories of DBPs, the concentrations in the pool disinfected with ozonation/chlorination were lower than those in the pool disinfected with chlorination. The DBP levels were generally not affected by the number of swimmers and the DBP levels on different dates were relatively stable. Besides, the chlorine residual seemed to be a critical concern in most of the swimming pools in this study. Moreover, there were some correlations between DBPs and water quality parameters as well as between different DBP categories. It is to be noted that the predicted cancer and health risks of the DBPs in these swimming pools were generally higher than the regulatory limits by USEPA, and thus DBPs in these swimming pools should be concerned.

  14. Towards the definition of indicators for assessment of indoor air quality and energy performance in low-energy residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cony Renaud Salis, Louis; Abadie, Marc; Wargocki, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    A major obstacle for integrating energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) strategies in the design and optimization of buildings is the non-existence of an agreed measure, which can quantitatively describes the IAQ and will allow the assessment of measures to improve energy performance. A complication...... of the burden of disease caused by the compounds of concern expressed as the sum of disability-adjusted life years. It is recognized that the proposed IAQ indices are crude, and the list of compounds is incomplete. It should be progressively updated once new data on exposure limits and pollutants of concern...

  15. Risk of HIV infection among indoor and street sex workers and their use of health services in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HIV in Serbia is most often transmitted through sexual contact, and therefore numerous prevention activities are geared towards sex workers (SW. Objective. To analyze the differences in knowledge, attitudes and risky behaviour between indoor and street SW in Belgrade; to examine the accessibility of health services to this vulnerable group. Methods. In this behavioural cross-sectional study, 113 street and 78 indoor SW were included. The sampling method used was snowball samples. Data were gathered through structured questionnaires. Results. Around 15% of respondents used drugs intravenously. Around 60% of SW used a condom during the last sexual intercourse with their private partner, and around 90% with a commercial partner. Indoor SW had lower levels of education more often than outdoor SW, and they used marijuana, sedatives and painkillers on a daily basis. A significantly higher number of indoor SW were informed about HIV, HBV and HCV testing, and that the risk for HIV infection is not lower if a condom is used exclusively for vaginal sex. Indoor SW reported using health services and testing and counseling for HIV, HBV and HCV more frequently than outdoor SW. Outdoor SW had significantly more sex partners in the previous month than indoor SW. Indoor SW recognized more frequently that providing sex services posed a higher risk for HIV infection. Conclusion. The results of this research study show that even though outdoor SW had higher levels of education than indoor SW, their level of knowledge about HIV transmission was lower and they reported more risky behaviour than indoor SW. Data show that both groups reported not taking care of their health.

  16. Indoor radon risk associated to post-tectonic biotite granites from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L M O; Gomes, M E P; Teixeira, R J S; Pereira, A J S C; Neves, L J P F

    2016-11-01

    At Vila Pouca de Aguiar area, northern Portugal, crops out a post-tectonic Variscan granite pluton, related with the Régua-Vila Real-Verín fault zone, comprising three types of biotite granites. Among these granites, PSG granite yield the highest average contents of U, probably due to its enrichment in accessory U-bearing minerals such as zircon. In the proximity of faults and joints, these granites are often affected by different degrees of hydrothermal alteration, forming reddish altered rocks, commonly known as "episyenites". These altered rocks are probably associated to the occurrence of hydrothermal processes, which led to uranium enrichment in the most advanced stages of episyenitization. In these granites, both average gamma absorbed dose rates in outdoor and indoor air are higher than those of the world average. Furthermore, even in the worst usage scenario, all these granites can be used as a building material, since their annual effective doses are similar to the limit defined by the European Commission. The geometric mean of radon activity of 91 dwellings located at the Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton is 568Bqm(-3), exceeding that of other northern Portuguese granites. Measurements carried out during a winter season, indicate that 62.6% of the analysed dwellings yield higher indoor radon average values than the Portuguese legislation limit (400Bqm(-3)), and annual effective doses due higher than the world's average value (1.2mSvy(-1)). The interaction of geogenic, architectural and anthropogenic features is crucial to explain the variance in the geometric mean of radon activity of dwellings from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, but the role of geologic faults is probably the most important decisive factor to increase the indoor radon concentration in dwellings. Hence, the development of awareness campaigns in order to inform population about the incurred radiological risks to radon exposure are highly recommended for this specific area. Copyright © 2016

  17. Monitoring, Human Health Risk Assessment and Optimized Management for Typical Pollutants in Indoor Air from Random Families of University Staff, Wuhan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyao Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 31 workers at a university were randomly selected for indoor environmental monitoring in Wuhan. Two indicators, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC, and using 139 monitoring points, monitored the indoor environment (including home and workplace as well as the interior space of the main furniture. This study carried out the environmental quality assessment for TVOC based on the dB index method and the health risk assessment of indoor formaldehyde for the university staff receptors and, then focused on health risk in home environment to carry out detailed environmental health management. The results showed that TVOC in the three types of home spaces exceeded about 80% of the national standard. The excessive formaldehyde ratios for kitchens (79%, bedrooms (77% and living rooms (74% were calculated. Formaldehyde health risks all exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency, (USEPA acceptable risk threshold. The formaldehyde concentrations in workplaces were about 0.03 mg·m−3. While the risk contribution of the home environment to the total average health risk (0.0014, whether male and female is about 96%. For the adapted and unadapted persons, 90% and 55% of the monitoring points were located within the long-term tolerable range of TVOC decibel application, respectively. Long-term exposure to such an environment can lead to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS. On the other hand, through comparison of the concentration of pollutants in the interior spaces of furniture and home spaces, it was determined tentatively that the pollutants were mainly concentrated in rarely used furniture. In summary, the air pollution in the studied homes of university staff was much serious than that in workplaces, which showed a need to manage TVOC and formaldehyde pollution by the three means: the purchase of green products, removal of internal pollution from furniture, and creating a good indoor volatile diffusion

  18. Monitoring of Credit Risk through the Cycle: Risk Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Yashkir, Olga; Yashkir, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    The new Credit Risk Indicator (CRI) based on credit rating migration matrices is introduced. We demonstrate strong correlation between CRI and a number of defaults through several business cycles. The new model for the simulation of the annual number of defaults, based on the 1st quarter CRI data, is proposed.

  19. Indoor aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawska, L.; Afshari, Alireza; N. Bae, G.;

    2013-01-01

    reported for domestic/school settings in different countries (excluding exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and particulate matter from biomass cooking in developing countries); (iii) assess the contribution of outdoor background vs indoor sources to personal exposure; and (iv) examine scientific......Motivated by growing considerations of the scale, severity, and risks associated with human exposure to indoor particulate matter, this work reviewed existing literature to: (i) identify state-of-the-art experimental techniques used for personal exposure assessment; (ii) compare exposure levels...... are likely to be a dominant environmental factor affecting human health. However, due to challenges associated with conducting epidemiological assessments, the role of indoor-generated particles has not been fully acknowledged, and improved exposure/risk assessment methods are still needed, together...

  20. Indoor air quality and the risk of lower respiratory tract infections in young Canadian Inuit children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovesi, Thomas; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Stocco, Corinne; Fugler, Don; Dales, Robert E; Guay, Mireille; Miller, J David

    2007-07-17

    Inuit infants have the highest reported rate of hospital admissions because of lower respiratory tract infections in the world. We evaluated the prevalence of reduced ventilation in houses in Nunavut, Canada, and whether this was associated with an increased risk of these infections among young Inuit children. We measured ventilation in 49 homes of Inuit children less than 5 years of age in Qikiqtaaluk (Baffin) Region, Nunavut. We identified the occurrence of lower respiratory tract infections using a standardized questionnaire. Associations between ventilation measures and lower respiratory tract infection were evaluated using multiple logistic regression models. The mean number of occupants per house was 6.1 people. The mean ventilation rate per person was 5.6 L/s (standard deviation [SD] 3.7); 80% (37/46) of the houses had ventilation rates below the recommended rate of 7.5 L/s per person. The mean indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration of 1358 (SD 531) ppm was higher than the recommended target level of 1000 ppm. Smokers were present in 46 homes (94%). Of the 49 children, 27 (55%) had a reported history of lower respiratory tract infection. Reported respiratory infection was significantly associated with mean CO2 levels (odds ratio [OR] 2.85 per 500-ppm increase in mean indoor CO2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-6.59) and occupancy (OR 1.81 for each additional occupant, 95% CI 1.14-2.86). Reduced ventilation and crowding may contribute to the observed excess of lower respiratory tract infection among young Inuit children. The benefits of measures to reduce indoor smoking and occupancy rates and to increase ventilation should be studied.

  1. Indoor fungal contamination: health risks and measurement methods in hospitals, homes and workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méheust, Delphine; Le Cann, Pierre; Reboux, Gabriel; Millon, Laurence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Indoor fungal contamination has been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects, including infectious diseases, toxic effects and allergies. The diversity of fungi contributes to the complex role that they play in indoor environments and human diseases. Molds have a major impact on public health, and can cause different consequences in hospitals, homes and workplaces. This review presents the methods used to assess fungal contamination in these various environments, and discusses advantages and disadvantages for each method in consideration with different health risks. Air, dust and surface sampling strategies are compared, as well as the limits of various methods are used to detect and quantify fungal particles and fungal compounds. In addition to conventional microscopic and culture approaches, more recent chemical, immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are described. This article also identifies common needs for future multidisciplinary research and development projects in this field, with specific interests on viable fungi and fungal fragment detections. The determination of fungal load and the detection of species in environmental samples greatly depend on the strategy of sampling and analysis. Quantitative PCR was found useful to identify associations between specific fungi and common diseases. The next-generation sequencing methods may afford new perspectives in this area.

  2. Risk indicators and risk predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25 was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17 or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37 presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68 and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87. Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren.

  3. Methodology for development of risk indicators for offshore platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeien, K.; Sklet, S. [SINTEF Industrial Management Safety and Reliability (Norway)

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a generic methodology for development of risk indicators for petroleum installations and a specific set of risk indicators established for one offshore platform. The risk indicators should be used to control the risk during operation of platforms. The methodology is purely risk-based and the basis for development of risk indicators is the platform specific quantitative risk analysis (QRA). In order to identify high risk contributing factors, platform personnel are asked to assess whether and how much the risk influencing factors will change. A brief comparison of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants and quantitative risk analysis (QRA) for petroleum platforms is also given. (au)

  4. Assessment of indoor air concentrations of VOCs and their associated health risks in the library of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Bhupendra Pratap; Punia, Monika; Singh, Deepak; Kumar, Krishan; Jain, V K

    2014-02-01

    The present work investigated the levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene, and o-xylene (BTEX) in different microenvironments in the library of Jawaharlal Nehru University in summer and winter during 2011-2012. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks due to organic compounds were also evaluated using US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conventional approaches. Real-time monitoring was done for TVOC using a data-logging photo-ionization detector. For BTEX measurements, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method which consists of active sampling of air through activated charcoal, followed by analysis with gas chromatography, was performed. Simultaneously, outdoor measurements for TVOC and BTEX were carried out. Indoor concentrations of TVOC and BTEX (except benzene) were higher as compared to the outdoor for both seasons. Toluene and m/p-xylene were the most abundant organic contaminant observed in this study. Indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios of BTEX compounds were generally greater than unity and ranged from 0.2 to 8.7 and 0.2 to 4.3 in winter and summer, respectively. Statistical analysis and I/O ratios showed that the dominant pollution sources mainly came from indoors. The observed mean concentrations of TVOC lie within the second group of the Molhave criteria of indoor air quality, indicating a multifactorial exposure range. The estimated lifetime cancer risk (LCR) due to benzene in this study exceeded the value of 1 × 10(-6) recommended by USEPA, and the hazard quotient (HQ) of non-cancer risk came under an acceptable range.

  5. Lung cancer attributable to indoor radon exposure in France using different risk models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O.C.; Laurier, D.L.; Rogel, A.R.; Billon, S.B.; Tirmarche, M.T. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Hemon, Dh. [INSERM -U170-IFR69, 94 - Villejuif (France); Verger, P.V. [Regional Health Observatory Provence Alpes Cote d' Azur, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radon exposure is omnipresent for the general public, but at variable levels, because radon mainly comes from granitic and volcanic subs oils as well as from certain construction materials. Inhalation of radon is the main source of exposure to radioactivity in the general population of most countries. In 1988, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared radon to be carcinogenic for humans (lung cancer): radon is classed in the group 1. The exposure of the overall general population to a carcinogenic component led scientists to assess the lung cancer risk associated to indoor radon. The aim of this work is to provide the first lung cancer risk assessment associated with indoor radon exposure in France, using all available epidemiological results and performing an uncertainty analysis. The number of lung cancer deaths potentially associated with radon in houses is estimated for the year 1999 according to several dose-response relationships which come from either cohorts of miners or joint analysis of residential case-controls studies. The variability of indoor radon exposure in France and uncertainties related to each of the dose-response relationships are considered. The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miners cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interaction between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980's by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the INSERM. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions and b y 96 departments for the year

  6. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the Dan...

  7. Lung Cancer Attributable to Indoor Radon Exposure in France: Impact of the Risk Models and Uncertainty Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Catelinois, Olivier; Rogel, Agnès; Laurier, Dominique; Billon, Solenne; Hemon, Denis; VERGER, Pierre; Tirmarche, Margot

    2006-01-01

    Objective The inhalation of radon, a well-established human carcinogen, is the principal—and omnipresent—source of radioactivity exposure for the general population of most countries. Scientists have thus sought to assess the lung cancer risk associated with indoor radon. Our aim here is to assess this risk in France, using all available epidemiologic results and performing an uncertainty analysis. Methods We examined the exposure–response relations derived from cohorts of miners and from joi...

  8. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, AI; Rafee, B Mohd; Juahir, Hafizan; Azman, AZF; Nizar, AM; Izwyn, Z; Syahidatussyakirah, K; Muhaimin, AA; Yunos, MA Syafiq; Anita, AR; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, MS; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Hasmadi, I Mohd; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Azizan, HS; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J; Rozalini, M; Kamarul, FT

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial workplace setting. Design A cross-sectional study based on a participatory occupational health program conducted by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (Malaysia) and Universiti Putra Malaysia. Method A modified version of the indoor environmental checklist published by the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, based on the literature and discussion with occupational health and safety professionals, was used in the evaluation process. Summated scores were given according to the cluster analysis and principal component analysis in the characterization of risk. Environmetric techniques was used to classify the risk of variables in the checklist. Identification of the possible source of item pollutants was also evaluated from a semiquantitative approach. Result Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of factorial components into three clusters (high complaint, moderate-high complaint, moderate complaint), which were further analyzed by discriminant analysis. From this, 15 major variables that influence indoor air quality were determined. Principal component analysis of each cluster revealed that the main factors influencing the high complaint group were fungal-related problems, chemical indoor dispersion, detergent, renovation, thermal comfort, and location of fresh air intake. The moderate-high complaint group showed significant high loading on ventilation, air filters, and smoking-related activities. The moderate complaint group showed high loading on dampness, odor, and thermal comfort. Conclusion This semiquantitative assessment, which graded risk from low to high based on the intensity of the problem, shows promising and reliable results. It should be used as an important tool in the preliminary assessment of indoor air quality and as a

  9. The correlation of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system with other environmental parameters in commercial buildings as possible indicator for indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    OOI, Soo Shen; MAK, Joon Wah; CHEN, Donald K.F.; AMBU, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The free-living protozoan Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen that is ubiquitous in our environment. However, its role in affecting indoor air quality and ill-health of indoor occupants is relatively unknown. The present study investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba from the ventilation system and its correlation with other indoor air quality parameters, used in the industry code of practice and its potential as an indicator for indoor air quality. Indoor air quality assessments were carried out in nine commercial buildings with approval from the building management, and the parameters assessed were as recommended by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. The presence of Acanthamoeba was determined through dust swabs from the ventilation system and indoor furniture. Logistic regression was performed to study the correlation between assessed parameters and occupants’ complaints. A total of 107 sampling points were assessed and 40.2% of the supplying air diffuser and blowing fan and 15% of the furniture were positive for cysts. There was a significant correlation between Acanthamoeba detected from the ventilation system with ambient total fungus count (r=0.327; p=0.01) and respirable particulates (r=0.276; p=0.01). Occupants’ sick building syndrome experience also correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba in the ventilation system (r=0.361; p=0.01) and those detected on the furniture (r=0.290; p=0.01). Logistic regression showed that there was a five-fold probability of sick building syndrome among occupants when Acanthamoeba was detected in the ventilation system. PMID:27476379

  10. Measuring indoor air quality of hookah lounges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Steven C; Morris, Daniel S; Pawlak, Rebecca L

    2012-11-01

    Many states have implemented smoke-free workplace laws to protect employees and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke. However, exemptions in these laws have allowed indoor tobacco smoking in hookah lounges to proliferate in recent years. To describe the amount of secondhand smoke in hookah lounges, we measured the indoor air quality of 10 hookah lounges in Oregon. Air quality measurements ranged from "unhealthy" to "hazardous" according to Environmental Protection Agency standards, indicating a potential health risk for patrons and employees.

  11. Bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of arsenic in soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanzhong; Ma, Junwei; Yan, Hongxia; Ren, Yuqing; Wang, Beibei; Lin, Chunye; Liu, Xitao

    2016-04-01

    Incidental oral ingestion is the main exposure pathway by which human intake contaminants in both soil and indoor dust, and this is especially true for children as they frequently exhibit hand-to-mouth behaviour. Research on comprehensive health risk caused by incidental ingestion of both soil and indoor dust is limited. The aims of this study were to investigate the arsenic concentration and to characterize the health risks due to arsenic (As) exposure via soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province within central China. Soil and indoor dust samples were collected from schools and residential locations and bioaccessibility of arsenic in these samples was determined by a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET). The total arsenic content in indoor dust samples was 1.78-2.60 times that measured in soil samples. The mean As bioaccessibility ranged from 75.4% to 83.2% in indoor dust samples and from 13.8% to 20.2% in soil samples. A Pearson's analysis showed that As bioaccessibility was significantly correlated with Fe and Al in soil and indoor dust, respectively, and activity patterns of children were utilised in the assessment of health risk via incidental ingestion of soil and indoor dust. The results suggest no non-carcinogenic health risks (HQhealth risks (1×10(-6)health risk incurred during daily indoor and outdoor activities. The HQ and CR values for children in urban areas were 1.59-1.95 times those for children in rural areas. The HQ and CR values for children three to five years of age were 1.40-1.47 times those for children six to nine years of age. The health risk accounting for bioaccessibility was only 50.8-59.8% of that obtained without consideration of bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Indoor exposure to toluene from printed matter matters: complementary views from life cycle assessment and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Tobias; Juraske, Ronnie; Demou, Evangelia; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    A pronounced presence of toluene from rotogravure printed matter has been frequently observed indoors. However, its consequences to human health in the life cycle of magazines are poorly known. Therefore, we quantified human-health risks in indoor environments with Risk Assessment (RA) and impacts relative to the total impact of toxic releases occurring in the life cycle of a magazine with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We used a one-box indoor model to estimate toluene concentrations in printing facilities, newsstands, and residences in a best, average, and worst-case scenario. The modeled concentrations are in the range of the values measured in on-site campaigns. Toluene concentrations can be close or even surpass the occupational legal thresholds in printing facilities in realistic worst-case scenarios. The concentrations in homes can surpass the US EPA reference dose (69 μg/kg/day) in worst-case scenarios, but are still at least 1 order of magnitude lower than in press rooms or newsstands. However, toluene inhaled at home becomes the dominant contribution to the total potential human toxicity impacts of toluene from printed matter when assessed with LCA, using the USEtox method complemented with indoor characterization factors for toluene. The significant contribution (44%) of toluene exposure in production, retail, and use in households, to the total life cycle impact of a magazine in the category of human toxicity, demonstrates that the indoor compartment requires particular attention in LCA. While RA works with threshold levels, LCA assumes that every toxic emission causes an incremental change to the total impact. Here, the combination of the two paradigms provides valuable information on the life cycle stages of printed matter.

  13. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dusts of Guizhou, southwest of China: status, sources and potential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Chen, Huaguo; Li, Baizhan

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ∑18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 μg•g-1 to 14.20 μg•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 μg•g-1. The highest Σ18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of Σ18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4-6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ∑18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10-6, 5.00×10-6, 3.08×10-6, 6.02×10-6 for children and 5.92×10-6, 4.83×10-6, 2.97×10-6, 5.81×10-6 for adults, respectively.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in indoor dusts of Guizhou, southwest of China: status, sources and potential human health risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ∑18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 μg•g-1 to 14.20 μg•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 μg•g-1. The highest Σ18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of Σ18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4-6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ∑18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10-6, 5.00×10-6, 3.08×10-6, 6.02×10-6 for children and 5.92×10-6, 4.83×10-6, 2.97×10-6, 5.81×10-6 for adults, respectively.

  16. Indoor radon levels and lung cancer risk estimates in seven cities of the Bahawalpur Division, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiullah; Ahad, A; Rehman, S; Mirza, M L

    2003-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels were measured in seven major cities of the Bahawalpur Division, Pakistan. These included Fort Abbas, Minchin Abad, Hasilpur, Bahawalpur, Liaqatpur, Rahimyar Khan and Sadiq Abad. In order to select houses for this survey, the inhabitants were approached through their school-registered children. Due to several constraints, only those 100 houses were chosen in each city that were relatively the best representatives of the built-up area. The selected houses were then divided into live categories according to the house locations and building characteristics. CR-39 detectors, placed in polyethylene bags. were installed at head height in bedrooms and sitting rooms of all the selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughter products for 90 days. Four such measurements were performed over a year in order to average out the seasonal variation in radon levels. After exposure, all the detectors were etched and counted under an optical microscope. The track densities of four measurements were averaged out and related to radon concentration levels. The radon levels were found to be 20, 20, 26, 28, 34, 42, 47 Bq m(-3) in the bedrooms and 24, 26, 27, 26, 37, 40, 43 Bq m(-3) in sitting rooms of Hasilpur, Rahimyar Khan, Minchin Abad, Fort Abbas, Sadiq Abad, Bahawalpur and Liaqatpur respectively. The observed variation in the radon level may be attributed to the geological variation in the area. Based on the observed data, excess lung cancer risk was assessed using the risk factors recommended by the USEPA, UNSCEAR and the ICRP. According to the EPA model, the lifetime excess lung cancer risk due to the lifetime exposure is found to vary from 12-102 per million per year in the houses surveyed. This variation is from 16-114 and 26-62 per million per year if UNSCEAR and ICRP limits are applied respectively.

  17. From phenology models to risk indicator analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Ladányi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline a phenology model for estimating budbreak and full bloom starting dates of sour cherry on the effective heat sums with reasonable accuracy. With the help of RegCM3.1 model the possible trends of the phenology timing in the middle of the 21st century the shift of 12-13 days earlier budbreak and 6-7 days earlier of full bloom due to the warmer weather conditions can be clearly indicated. For the climatic characterization of sour cherry bloom period in between 1984-2010 and for the description of the expected changes in this very sensitive period of sour cherry withrespect to the time slice 2021-2050, we introduce seven climatic indicators as artificial weather parameters such as the numbers of days when the temperature was under 0°C and above 10 °C, the numbers of days when there was no and more than 5 mm precipitation as well as the absolute minimum, the mean of minimum and the mean of maximum daily temperatures. We survey the changes of the indicators in the examined period (1984-2010 and, regarding the full bloom start model results, we formulate the expectations forthe future and make comparisons.

  18. The Effects of Air Permeability, Background Ventilation and Lifestyle on Energy Performance, Indoor Air Quality and Risk of Condensation in Domestic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient ventilation is essential when improving energy performance and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ of buildings. Reducing air permeability can considerably improve the energy performance of buildings; however, making the buildings more airtight may result in lower rates of natural ventilation which may in turn increase the risks of condensation and unacceptable IAQ. This study evaluates the effects of different air permeability rates, background ventilation and occupants’ lifestyles on the energy performance as well as the risk of condensation and CO2 concentration in domestic buildings. Dynamic computer simulations were conducted in EnergyPlus. Results indicated direct relations between the ventilation rates, energy performance and IAQ. Higher air permeability along with background ventilation resulted in considerably better IAQ while energy consumption increased by up to four times. Occupants’ lifestyles were identified as a major contributor to the risk of condensation.

  19. Analysis of indoor air pollutants checklist using environmetric technique for health risk assessment of sick building complaint in nonindustrial workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan,1 B Mohd Rafee,1 Hafizan Juahir,2 AZF Azman,1 AM Nizar,3 Z Izwyn,4 K Syahidatussyakirah,1 AA Muhaimin,5 MA Syafiq Yunos,6 AR Anita,1 J Muhamad Hanafiah,1 MS Shaharuddin,7 A Mohd Ibthisham,8 I Mohd Hasmadi,9 MN Mohamad Azhar,1 HS Azizan,1 I Zulfadhli,10 J Othman,11 M Rozalini,12 FT Kamarul131Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Environmental Science/ Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 7Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 8Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 9Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 10Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, 11Department of Counselor Education and Psychology Counseling, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 12Occupational Safety, Health and Environment Unit, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, 13ERALAB SDN. BHD. (Environmental Research and Analytical Laboratory Sdn. Bhd., Selangor, MALAYSIAPurpose: To analyze and characterize a multidisciplinary, integrated indoor air quality checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants in a nonindustrial

  20. Metals compositions of indoor PM2.5, health risk assessment, and birth outcomes in Lanzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqun; Cao, Suzhen; Xu, Xiaoying; Qiu, Jie; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Dennis; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Wang, Xiao; Dong, Bowen; Huang, Huang; Zhao, Nan; Jin, Lan; Bai, Yana; Duan, Xiaoli; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the metal compositions in indoor PM2.5 and the potential health risks they pose to residents of an urban area in China. A total of 41 and 54 households were surveyed in February and September 2013, respectively. The results showed that the indoor concentrations of metals varied depending on the types of cooking fuels used. All measured concentrations of metals were highest among households using coal for cooking. In the majority of households, non-carcinogenic risks were posed by the use of coal. The carcinogenic risks posed by chromium (VI) and arsenic were generally higher among households using coal for cooking than among those using gas or electricity. The multivariate linear regression model suggested a potential adverse effect from arsenic and cadmium on birth weight and gestational weeks. This study also found that cooking fuel was the most significant factor that contributed to the differences in concentrations of metals in indoor PM2.5 and highlighted the importance of using clean energy for cooking and heating.

  1. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Hao [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: luhaozju@163.com; Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Chen Shuguang [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: chenshuguang@zju.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM{sub 2.5} accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM{sub 2.5-10} fraction (17.6%) and >PM{sub 10} fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10{sup -3} life-time lung cancer risk.

  2. Towards Validating Risk Indicators Based on Measurement Theory (Extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, Ayse; Wieringa, Roel

    2010-01-01

    Due to the lack of quantitative information and for cost-efficiency, most risk assessment methods use partially ordered values (e.g. high, medium, low) as risk indicators. In practice it is common to validate risk indicators by asking stakeholders whether they make sense. This way of validation is s

  3. Reducing Health Risks from Indoor Exposures in Rapidly Developing Urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Weschler, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    materials. As a consequence, indoor exposures (to pollutants with outdoor and indoor sources) have changed significantly. Objectives: We briefly discuss the inferred impact that urbanization and modernization have had on indoor exposures and public health in China. We argue that growing adverse health costs...... associated with these changes are not inevitable, and we present steps that could be taken to reduce indoor exposures to harmful pollutants. Discussion: As documented by China's Ministry of Health, there have been significant increases in morbidity and mortality among urban residents over the past 20 years......Background: Over the past two decades there has been a large migration of China's population from rural to urban regions. At the same time, residences in cities have changed in character from single-story or low-rise buildings to high-rise structures constructed and furnished with many synthetic...

  4. Mathematical models for predicting indoor air quality from smoking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, W R

    1999-05-01

    Much progress has been made over four decades in developing, testing, and evaluating the performance of mathematical models for predicting pollutant concentrations from smoking in indoor settings. Although largely overlooked by the regulatory community, these models provide regulators and risk assessors with practical tools for quantitatively estimating the exposure level that people receive indoors for a given level of smoking activity. This article reviews the development of the mass balance model and its application to predicting indoor pollutant concentrations from cigarette smoke and derives the time-averaged version of the model from the basic laws of conservation of mass. A simple table is provided of computed respirable particulate concentrations for any indoor location for which the active smoking count, volume, and concentration decay rate (deposition rate combined with air exchange rate) are known. Using the indoor ventilatory air exchange rate causes slightly higher indoor concentrations and therefore errs on the side of protecting health, since it excludes particle deposition effects, whereas using the observed particle decay rate gives a more accurate prediction of indoor concentrations. This table permits easy comparisons of indoor concentrations with air quality guidelines and indoor standards for different combinations of active smoking counts and air exchange rates. The published literature on mathematical models of environmental tobacco smoke also is reviewed and indicates that these models generally give good agreement between predicted concentrations and actual indoor measurements.

  5. Towards Validating Risk Indicators Based on Measurement Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, Ayse; Wieringa, Roel

    2010-01-01

    Due to the lack of quantitative information and for cost-efficiency purpose, most risk assessment methods use partially ordered values (e.g. high, medium, low) as risk indicators. In practice it is common to validate risk scales by asking stakeholders whether they make sense. This way of validation

  6. Allostatic load and heart rate variability as health risk indicators.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uncertainty often exists about the comparability of results obtained by different health risk indicator systems. Objectives: To compare two health risk indicator systems, i.e, allostatic load .... ployed by the same company and had passed the routine ..... Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2006; 1088:.

  7. Indicators of hazard, vulnerability and risk in urban drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauger, Mikkel Boye; Mouchel, J.-M.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2006-01-01

    An alternative definition of risk is proposed as risk being a function of the hazard, which is related to the risk source and the vulnerability, which is related to the risk object. The same hazard will not cause the same effect on all risk objects, Therefore, vulnerability is introduced...... as a system-dependent property to be the link between the hazard and the effect so that the combination of the occurrence of a hazard and the vulnerability of an object results in the effect. In risk communication indicators are helpful since they help to simplify the message that has to be communicated...

  8. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  9. Comparison of Country Risk, Sustainability and Economic Safety Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Stankeviciene; Tatjana Sviderskė; Algita Miečinskienė

    2014-01-01

    Country risk, sustainability an economic safety are becoming more important in the contemporary economic world. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of comparison formalisation of country risk, sustainability, and economic safety indices for strategic alignment. The work provides an analysis on the relationship between country risk, sustainability an economic safety in EU countries, based on statistical data. Investigations and calculations of rankings provided by Euromoney Coun...

  10. Extreme Risk In Resource Indices And The Generalized Logistic Distribution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chun-Kai Huang; Venelle Pather; Jahvaid Hammujuddy; Knowledge Chinhamu

    2017-01-01

    .... In this article, we compare performances of classical extreme value models against the recently suggested generalized logistic distribution, for estimating value-at-risk and expected shortfall in resource indices...

  11. Breast Density May Be Leading Indicator of Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163386.html Breast Density May Be Leading Indicator of Cancer Risk Study ... on their study of 200,000 women, breast density may be the most important gauge of breast ...

  12. The health risks of incense use in the home: an underestimated source of indoor air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Debbie; Pontin, David

    2016-03-01

    The health impact of indoor air pollution is a growing area of interest for public health professionals. People typically spend up to 90 per cent of their time indoors, particularly women, young children and elders. Although the adverse health effects of second-hand tobacco smoke are well recognised, the impact of burning incense in the home has received little attention in Western literature. Incense burning in the home is common in a number of cultures (particularly Asian, North African or Arabic). Many health visitors (HVs) work with communities who use incense regularly for religious/cultural reasons and it is a neglected area of study and research.The literature suggests that home incense use can have significant adverse health effects, particularly on cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Further research is needed to identify which individuals are most susceptible, which types of incense are most harmful, and whether any actions can be taken to minimise exposure.

  13. Indoor and outdoor dust in Damaturu Nigeria : composition, exposure and risk to human health

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Fatima Sule

    2013-01-01

    Harmattan and Dust (sand) storms together with anthropogenic activities including the use of firewood and kerosene as fuel for cooking, and diesel/petrol generators for electricity generation are potential sources of particulate and gaseous pollutants in homes in Damaturu town, Nigeria. Other activities like the burning of locally produced incense and mosquito coils as well as the use of aerosol sprays are further possible sources of indoor pollution, which may result in exposure of people to...

  14. Risk Control of Offshore Installations. A Framework for the Establishment of Risk Indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeien, Knut

    2001-07-01

    Currently quantitative risk assessments are carried out to analyze the risk level of offshore installations and to evaluate whether or not the risk level is acceptable. By way of the quantitative risk analysis the risk status of a given installation is obtained. However, the risk status is obtained so infrequently that it is inadequate for risk control. It can be compared to economic control having the economic status presented about each fifth year, which is obviously inadequate. It is important to know the risk status because this may provide an early warning about the need for remedial actions. Without frequent information about the risk status, control of risk cannot be claimed. The main objective of this thesis has been the development of a framework for the establishment of risk indicators. These risk indicators provide a status of the risk level through measuring of changes in technical, operational and organizational factors important to risk, and is thus a means to control risk during operation of offshore petroleum installations. The framework consists of a technical methodology using the quantitative risk assessment as a basis, an organizational model, and an organizational quantification methodology. Technical risk indicators are established from the technical methodology covering the risk factors explicitly included in the quantitative risk assessment. Organizational risk indicators measure changes in the organizational risk factors included in the organizational model, but not included in the quantitative risk assessment. The organizational model is an extension to the risk model in the quantitative risk assessment. The organizational quantification methodology calculates the effect of the changes measured by the organizational risk indicators. The organizational model may also be applied as a qualitative tool for root cause analysis of incidents (process leaks). Other results are an intermediate-level expert judgment procedure applicable for

  15. Associations between seasonal sleep change and indoor tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culnan, Elizabeth; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Darlow, Susan; Heckman, Carolyn J

    2015-04-01

    Identification of risk factors for indoor tanning may ultimately aid the development of better indoor tanning prevention strategies, which is pertinent given the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. This study aimed to examine the relationship between seasonal sleep change and indoor tanning. Female tanners (N=139) completed self-report measures including items relating to seasonal sleep changes, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), reasons for tanning, tanning during the winter months, and the Tanning Pathology Scale (TAPS), which measures problematic tanning motives and symptoms of tanning dependence. It was hypothesized that seasonal sleep change and SAD would be associated with greater indoor tanning during the winter, more tanning to improve mood and to relax, and higher scores on the TAPS. Findings indicated that more seasonal sleep change was associated with tanning to improve mood and higher scores on the TAPS. Similarly, the presence of SAD was related to tanning to improve mood, tanning to relax, and more problematic tanning.

  16. Indoor Environment Program. 1992 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides.

  17. Indoor Airflow Patterns, Dispersion of Human Exhalation Flow and Risk of Airborne Cross-infection between People in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés

    In recent years, an interest in understanding the mechanisms of cross-infection between people in the same room has increased significantly. The SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak occurred in Asia in 2003 reopened the study of the airborne disease transmission as one of the most...... in the air. These tiny particles or droplet nuclei can follow the air flow pattern in the room and produce high contaminant concentration in different areas of the indoor environment. This fact can provoke a high exposure to exhaled contaminants and a risk of cross-infection to a susceptible person situated...... in the same room. Abundant evidence shows that the air flow distribution systems play a crucial role in the dispersion of these human exhaled contaminants. However, there are many parameters that influence the cross-infection risk between people situated close to each other in a ventilated room, such as...

  18. Indoor Airflow Patterns, Dispersion of Human Exhalation Flow and Risk of Airborne Cross-Infection between People in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés

    In recent years, an interest in understanding the mechanisms of cross-infection between people in the same room has increased significantly. The SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak occurred in Asia in 2003 reopened the study of the airborne disease transmission as one of the most...... in the air. These tiny particles or droplet nuclei can follow the air flow pattern in the room and produce high contaminant concentration in different areas of the indoor environment. This fact can provoke a high exposure to exhaled contaminants and a risk of cross-infection to a susceptible person situated...... in the same room. Abundant evidence shows that the air flow distribution systems play a crucial role in the dispersion of these human exhaled contaminants. However, there are many parameters that influence the cross-infection risk between people situated close to each other in a ventilated room, such as...

  19. Indoor Airflow Patterns, Dispersion of Human Exhalation Flow and Risk of Airborne Cross-Infection between People in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés

    prevalent transmission routes. Airborne cross-infection of diseases is caused by the transmission of pathogens, such as viruses or bacteria, between people and across environments. When a person is breathing, talking, sneezing or coughing, small particles, which may carry biological contaminants, are spread...... in the air. These tiny particles or droplet nuclei can follow the air flow pattern in the room and produce high contaminant concentration in different areas of the indoor environment. This fact can provoke a high exposure to exhaled contaminants and a risk of cross-infection to a susceptible person situated...... the persons. This thesis analyzes some of these parameters in the influence of cross-infection risk between two people in a room, which are simulated by two breathing thermal manikins. One of the manikins is considered the source of contaminants, which is exhaling contaminated air through the mouth...

  20. Linking indices for biodiversity monitoring to extinction risk theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael A; Moore, Alana L; Krauss, Jochen; Morgan, John W; Clements, Christopher F

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity indices often combine data from different species when used in monitoring programs. Heuristic properties can suggest preferred indices, but we lack objective ways to discriminate between indices with similar heuristics. Biodiversity indices can be evaluated by determining how well they reflect management objectives that a monitoring program aims to support. For example, the Convention on Biological Diversity requires reporting about extinction rates, so simple indices that reflect extinction risk would be valuable. We developed 3 biodiversity indices that are based on simple models of population viability that relate extinction risk to abundance. We based the first index on the geometric mean abundance of species and the second on a more general power mean. In a third index, we integrated the geometric mean abundance and trend. These indices require the same data as previous indices, but they also relate directly to extinction risk. Field data for butterflies and woodland plants and experimental studies of protozoan communities show that the indices correlate with local extinction rates. Applying the index based on the geometric mean to global data on changes in avian abundance suggested that the average extinction probability of birds has increased approximately 1% from 1970 to 2009.

  1. Obstetric risk indicators for labour dystocia in nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Hanne; Olsen, Jørn; Ottesen, Bent

    2008-01-01

    In nulliparous women dystocia is the most common obstetric problem and its etiology is largely unknown. The frequency of augmentation and cesarean delivery related to dystocia is high although it is not clear if a slow progress justifies the interventions. Studies of risk factors for dystocia often...... do not provide diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to identify obstetric and clinical risk indicators of dystocia defined by strict and explicit criteria....

  2. The risk of ultraviolet radiation exposure from indoor lamps in lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel S.; Sayre, Robert M.; Dowdy, John C.; Werth, Victoria P.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that ultraviolet radiation can exacerbate skin disease in patients with lupus erythematosus. While many patients are advised to avoid sunlight and artificial tanning, it is not clear how best to counsel patients regarding the use of indoor lamps. Indeed, many of the light bulbs commonly used in the home and workplace emit low-dose ultraviolet radiation. The irradiance is considerably lower than that of the sun, however the exposure time can last for hours and is typically repeated on a daily basis. Therefore, it is possible that this chronic exposure could ultimately result in a significant accumulation of damage. PMID:18992852

  3. Geographical Correlations between Indoor Radon Concentration and Risks of Lung Cancer, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, and Leukemia during 1999-2008 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kang, Sungchan; Park, No-Wook; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae

    2017-03-24

    Indoor radon is the second most important risk factor for lung cancer and may also be a risk factor for hematopoietic cancers, particularly in children and adolescents. The present study measured indoor radon concentration nationwide at 5553 points during 1989-2009 and spatially interpolated using lognormal kriging. The incidences of lung cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and leukemia, stratified by sex and five-year age groups in each of the 234 administrative regions in the country during 1999-2008, were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and used to calculate the standardized incidence ratios. After considering regional deprivation index values and smoking rates by sex in each region as confounding variables, the cancer risks were estimated based on Bayesian hierarchical modeling. We found that a 10 Bq/m³ increase in indoor radon concentration was associated with a 1% increase in the incidence of lung cancer in male and a 7% increase in NHL in female children and adolescents in Korea aged less than 20 years. Leukemia was not associated with indoor radon concentration. The increase in NHL risk among young women requires confirmation in future studies, and the radon control program should consider children and adolescents.

  4. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence : The trails study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Huizink, A. C.

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys

  5. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F.V.A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  6. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence : The trails study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Huizink, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  7. Maternal and paternal indoor or outdoor smoking and the risk of asthma in their children: a nationwide prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ozaki, Koken; Kondo, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the differential impact of combinations of parental smoking behavior (indoor or outdoor smoking, or not smoking) on preventing childhood asthma. Our objective was to examine the association between parental smoking behavior and children's asthma. A nationally representative population-based birth cohort of 40,580 babies, aged 0.5 years in 2001 (response rate, 87.8%), was studied to estimate adjusted odds ratios of combinations of maternal and paternal indoor or outdoor smoking at home for physician visits and hospitalization for childhood asthma up to 8-years-old, and population attributable fractions. Odds of hospitalization for asthma among children whose father alone smokes indoors at home did not largely increase (up to 20%). However, if the mother also smokes indoors at home, the odds strongly increased. After adjusting for demographic, perinatal and socioeconomic factors, the increase in odds for children whose father and mother both smoke indoors compared to children with non-smoking parents was 54% (95% confidence interval: 21-96%), 43% (8-90%) and 72% (22-143%) for children aged 0.5children for asthma could be reduced by 8.3% (2.2-14.3%), 9.3% (0.9-17.6%) and 18.2% (7.7-28.8%), respectively. Parental indoor smoking at home increased and exacerbated children's asthma. Smoking at home, whether it is indoors or outdoors, may increase the risks for asthma attacks of their children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Country Risk, Sustainability and Economic Safety Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankeviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Country risk, sustainability an economic safety are becoming more important in the contemporary economic world. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of comparison formalisation of country risk, sustainability, and economic safety indices for strategic alignment. The work provides an analysis on the relationship between country risk, sustainability an economic safety in EU countries, based on statistical data. Investigations and calculations of rankings provided by Euromoney Country Risk Index, European Economic Sustainability Index as well as for Economic Security Index were made and the results of EU country ranking based on three criteria were provided. Furthermore, the data for the Baltic States was summarised and the corresponding index of consistency for random judgments was evaluated.

  9. Indoor allergen sensitization and the risk of asthma and eczema in children in Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Brook M; MacGinnitie, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sensitization to cockroach and mouse allergens is correlated with presence and severity of asthma, especially among children living in inner cities. This study evaluated the prevalence of positive skin testing to indoor allergens in the Pittsburgh area and the association with asthma and eczema. A retrospective analysis was performed of 540 children from the Pittsburgh area who underwent skin testing to indoor allergens. Presence of asthma and eczema were determined by parent and/or physician report. Asthma and eczema are not significantly more frequent among children who had positive skin testing to cockroaches or mice. However, asthma was more common among children who had positive skin testing to dogs (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65), cats (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58), and dust mites (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37). Eczema was more common in children who had positive skin testing to cats (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02). Both asthma (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.18-1.58) and eczema (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92) were more prevalent among children with any positive skin test. We did not find that sensitization to cockroaches or mice was correlated with the diagnosis or asthma or eczema in the Pittsburgh area. However, sensitization to any allergen, and to cats and/or dogs specifically, was associated with diagnosis of both asthma and eczema. Our result suggests that allergic sensitization is associated with these diseases, but the implicated allergens may vary.

  10. Public views on drinking water standards as risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2008-12-01

    Government agencies often compare contaminant levels to standards and other regulatory benchmarks to convey relative risk to public audiences, as well as for enforcement. Yet we know little of how citizens interpret these risk indicators or factors influencing interpretations. Owners of private residential wells in New Jersey were surveyed by mail. A majority appreciated this comparison, trusted the standard, and could effectively compare the contaminant level to the standard. Most people who recalled that their own well water quality was unsatisfactory simply installed treatment systems. However, there was also a surprising amount of inability to tell whether pollution levels were better or worse than the standard, perhaps exacerbated by confusing institutional language to summarize the comparison (e.g., pollution "exceeds" or is "less than" the standard) and innumeracy. There was also substantial skepticism about the degree to which pollution levels below, or (to a lesser extent) above, the standard are harmless or harmful, respectively. Skepticism was variously due to distrust of standards, disbelief in thresholds for health effects, inability to accurately compare standards and contaminant levels, information processing, and demographics. Discontinuity in reactions below versus above the standard did not exist in the aggregate, and rarely among individuals, contrary to some previous findings. At identical standards and contaminant levels, familiar toxins (mercury, arsenic, lead) elicited higher risk ratings than less familiar ones. Given the wide institutional use of this risk indicator, further research on how to improve the design and use of this indicator, and consideration of alternatives, is warranted.

  11. Indices to measure risk of HIV acquisition in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Targeting most-at-risk individuals with HIV preventive interventions is cost-effective. We developed gender-specific indices to measure risk of HIV among sexually active individuals in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate time-to-HIV infection associated with candidate predictors. Reduced models were determined using backward selection procedures with Akaike's information criterion (AIC as the stopping rule. Model discrimination was determined using Harrell's concordance index (c index. Model calibration was determined graphically. Nomograms were used to present the final prediction models. RESULTS: We used samples of 7,497 women and 5,783 men. 342 new infections occurred among females (incidence 1.11/100 person years, and 225 among the males (incidence 1.00/100 person years. The final model for men included age, education, circumcision status, number of sexual partners, genital ulcer disease symptoms, alcohol use before sex, partner in high risk employment, community type, being unaware of a partner's HIV status and community HIV prevalence. The Model's optimism-corrected c index was 69.1 percent (95% CI = 0.66, 0.73. The final women's model included age, marital status, education, number of sex partners, new sex partner, alcohol consumption by self or partner before sex, concurrent sexual partners, being employed in a high-risk occupation, having genital ulcer disease symptoms, community HIV prevalence, and perceiving oneself or partner to be exposed to HIV. The models optimism-corrected c index was 0.67 (95% CI = 0.64, 0.70. Both models were well calibrated. CONCLUSION: These indices were discriminative and well calibrated. This provides proof-of-concept that population-based HIV risk indices can be developed. Further research to validate these indices for other populations is needed.

  12. New insight into the levels, distribution and health risk diagnosis of indoor and outdoor dust-bound FRs in colder, rural and industrial zones of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Usman; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    This is the first robust study designed to probe selected flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones of Pakistan with special emphasis upon their occurrence, distribution and associated health risk. For this purpose, we analyzed FRs such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the total of 82 dust samples (indoor and outdoor) collected three from each zone: industrial, rural and background. We found higher concentrations of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) in industrial zones as compared to the rural and background zones. Our results reveal that the concentrations of studied FRs are relatively higher in the indoor dust samples being compared with the outdoor dust and they are ranked as: ∑OPFRs > ∑NBFRs > ∑PBDEs > ∑DP. A significant correlation in the FRs levels between the indoor and outdoor dust suggest the potential intermixing of these compounds between them. The principal component analysis/multiple linear regression predicts the percent contribution of FRs from different consumer products in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones to trace their source origin. The FRs detected in the background zones reveal the dust-bound FRs suspended in the air might be shifted from different warmer zones or consumers products available/used in the same zones. Hazard quotient (HQ) for FRs via indoor and outdoor dust intake at mean and high dust scenarios to the exposed populations (adults and toddlers) are found free of risk (HQ Pakistan.

  13. Current implications of past DDT indoor spraying in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Petra; Holoubek, Ivan; Klánová, Jana; Kohoutek, Jiří; Dvorská, Alice; Magulová, Katarína; Al-Zadjali, Said; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-04-15

    In Oman, DDT was sprayed indoors during an intensive malaria eradication program between 1976 and 1992. DDT can remain for years after spraying and is associated with potential health risk. This raises the concern for human exposure in areas where DDT was used for indoor spraying. Twelve houses in three regions with a different history of DDT indoor spraying were chosen for a sampling campaign in 2005 to determine p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD) levels in indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil. Although DDT was only sprayed indoor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were also found in outdoor soil. The results indicate that release and exposure continue for years after cessation of spraying. The predicted cancer risk based on concentrations determined in 2005, indicate that there was still a significant cancer risk up to 13 to 16years after indoor DDT spraying. A novel approach, based on region-specific half-lives, was used to predict concentrations in 2015 and showed that more than 21years after spraying, cancer risk for exposure to indoor air, dust, and outdoor soil are acceptable in Oman for adults and young children. The model can be used for other locations and countries to predict prospective exposure of contaminants based on indoor experimental measurements and knowledge about the spraying time-schedule to extrapolate region-specific half-lives and predict effects on the human population years after spraying.

  14. The Management Standards Indicator Tool and the estimation of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, A; Houdmont, J; Menear, N

    2010-10-01

    The Health & Safety Executive's (HSE) Indicator Tool offers a measure of exposure to psychosocial work conditions that may be linked to stress-related outcomes. The HSE recommends that Indicator Tool data should be used as a basis for discussions concerned with the identification of psychosocial work conditions that might warrant prioritization for intervention. However, operational constraints may render discussions difficult to convene and, when they do take place, the absence of information on harms associated with exposures can make it difficult to identify intervention priorities. To examine (i) the utility of the Indicator Tool for the identification of a manageable number of psychosocial work conditions as intervention candidates and (ii) whether administration of a measure of stress-related outcomes alongside the Indicator Tool can facilitate the identification of intervention priorities. One thousand and thirty-eight employees in the London region of the Her Majesty's Prison Service completed the Indicator Tool and a measure of psychological well-being. Odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risk of impairment to well-being associated with exposure to psychosocial work conditions. The Indicator Tool identified 34 psychosocial work conditions as warranting improvement. Intervention priority was given to those working conditions that were both reported to be poor by ≥50% of respondents and associated with risk of impairment to well-being. This method allowed for the identification of four areas. Augmentation of the Indicator Tool with a measure of stress-related outcomes and the calculation of simple risk estimation statistics can assist the prioritization of intervention candidates.

  15. Indoor Radon Measurement in Van

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Dogan, I.; Celebi, N.

    2007-04-01

    In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor radon concentrations were determined. Annual effective dose equivalents and the risk probabilities caused by indoor radon inhalation were calculated, and the found results compared with the indoor radon concentrations' data measured in different provinces of Turkey.

  16. Indicators of emerging hazards and risks to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleter, Gijs A; Marvin, Hans J P

    2009-05-01

    There is a widely felt need to develop methods for the early identification of emerging hazards to food safety with the aim of preventing these hazards from becoming real risks and causing incidents. This paper reviews various activities and previous reports that describe methods to select indicators that can be used for the purpose of early identification of hazards. These indicators have been divided over three different environments, including (i) the environment surrounding food production, (ii) the food production chain from farm to fork, and (iii) consumers. Changes in these indicators are signals that may require follow-up action. Besides indicators that are linked to specific kinds of hazards, the indicators used for vulnerability assessment can help identifying weak spots in the food production system that are sensitive to a broader range of hazards. Based on the various indicators for emerging hazards that have thus been identified in literature, a set of generic indicators is provided that can be useful for the early identification of hazards.

  17. Towards improved characterization of high-risk releases using heterogeneous indoor sensor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Priya; Sohn, Michael D.; Nazaroff, William W.; J. Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-06-30

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardous to building occupants. For an acutely toxic contaminant, the speed of the emergency response strongly influences the consequences to occupants. The design of a real time sensor system is made challenging both by the urgency and complex nature of the event, and by the imperfect sensors and models available to describe it. In this research, we use Bayesian modeling to combine information from multiple types of sensors to improve the characterization of a release. We discuss conceptual and algorithmic considerations for selecting and fusing information from disparate sensors. To explore system performance, we use both real tracer gas data from experiments in a three story building, along with synthetic data, including information from door position sensors. The added information from door position sensors is found to be useful for many scenarios, but not always. We discuss the physical conditions and design factors that affect these results, such as the influence of the door positions on contaminant transport. We highlight potential benefits of multisensor data fusion, challenges in realizing those benefits, and opportunities for further improvement.

  18. Indications for and Risks of Elective Cesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Ioannis; Friese, Klaus

    2015-07-20

    Rates of cesarean section have risen around the world in recent years. Accordingly, much effort is being made worldwide to understand this trend and to counteract it effectively. A number of factors have been found to make it more likely that a cesarean section will be chosen, but the risks cannot yet be clearly defined. This review is based on pertinent publications that were retrieved by a selective search in the PubMed, Scopus, and DIMDI databases, as well as on media communications, analyses by the German Federal Statistical Office, and guidelines of the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). The increased rates of cesarean section are thought to be due mainly to changed risk profiles both for expectant mothers and for their yet unborn children, as well as an increase in cesarean section by maternal request. In 1991, 15.3% of all newborn babies in Germany were delivered by cesarean section; by 2012, the corresponding figure was 31.7%, despite the fact that a medical indication was present in less than 10% of all cases. This development may perhaps be explained by an increasing tendency toward risk avoidance, by risk-adapted obstetric practice, and increasing media attention. The intraoperative and postoperative risks of cesarean section must be considered, along with complications potentially affecting subsequent pregnancies. Scientific advances, social and cultural changes, and medicolegal considerations seem to be the main reasons for the increased acceptibility of cesarean sections. Cesarean section is, however, associated with increased risks to both mother and child. It should only be performed when it is clearly advantageous.

  19. Risk indicators for tooth loss in adult workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Jesus Batista

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tooth loss continues to be a prevalent condition in Brazilian adults and elderly individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study, conducted among workers in a wholesale grocery chain in the State of São Paulo, was to identify risk indicators for tooth loss in adults. The presence of caries and periodontal status were examined in 387 adults aged 20-64 years, according to World Health Organization criteria. Two outcomes were analyzed: loss of one or more teeth, and loss of four or more teeth. Independent variables analyzed were demographic and socioeconomic factors, clinical conditions, use of dental services, and self-perceived oral health. Poisson regression models were used for multivariate statistical analysis. Participants were missing a mean of 5.38 teeth, and 76.9% (n = 297 had lost at least one tooth; the most frequently lost teeth were permanent molars. Older age and the presence of visible dental biofilm were associated significantly with the two tooth loss outcomes (p < 0.05. Individuals who had visited the dentist 3 or more years previously showed a lower prevalence of tooth loss (prevalence ratio = 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.91. Those with lower household incomes were significantly more likely to have lost four or more teeth (prevalence ratio = 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.70. Study results indicated that age and dental biofilm were risk indicators for tooth loss, independently of socioeconomic factors. These risk indicators should be considered when planning oral health programs for adults.

  20. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy: Incidence, indications, risk factors and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovina S.M. Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripartum hysterectomy is a major operation and is invariably performed in the presence of life threatening hemorrhage during or immediately after abdominal or vaginal deliveries. Material and Methods: A Medline search was conducted to review the recent relevant articles in English literature on emergency peripartum hysterectomy. The incidence, indications, risk factors and outcome of emergency peripartum hysterectomy were reviewed. Results: The incidence of emergency peripartum hysterectomy ranged from 0.24 to 8.7 per 1000 deliveries. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy was found to be more common following cesarean section than vaginal deliveries. The predominant indication for emergency peripartum hysterectomy was abnormal placentation (placenta previa/accreta which was noted in 45 to 73.3%, uterine atony in 20.6 to 43% and uterine rupture in 11.4 to 45.5 %. The risk factors included previous cesarean section, scarred uterus, multiparity, older age group. The maternal morbidity ranged from 26.5 to 31.5% and the mortality from 0 to 12.5% with a mean of 4.8%. The decision of performing total or subtotal hysterectomy was influenced by the patient′s condition. Conclusion: Emergency peripartum hysterectomy is a most demanding obstetric surgery performed in very trying circumstances of life threatening hemorrhage. The indication for emergency peripartum hysterectomy in recent years has changed from traditional uterine atony to abnormal placentation. Antenatal anticipation of the risk factors, involvement of an experienced obstetrician at an early stage of management and a prompt hysterectomy after adequate resuscitation would go a long way in reducing morbidity and mortality.

  1. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein.

  2. Health behaviours associated with indoor tanning based on the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Harland

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although indoor tanning causes cancer, it remains relatively common among adolescents. Little is known about indoor tanning prevalence and habits in Canada, and even less about associated behaviours. This study explores the prevalence of adolescent indoor tanning in Manitoba and its association with other demographic characteristics and health behaviours. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey data collected from Grade 7 to 12 students (n = 64 174 and examined associations between indoor tanning (whether participants had ever used artificial tanning equipment and 25 variables. Variables with statistically significant associations to indoor tanning were tested for collinearity and grouped based on strong associations. For each group of highly associated variables, the variable with the greatest effect upon indoor tanning was placed into the final logistic regression model. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to better understand sex-based differences, and analyses were adjusted for age. Results: Overall, 4% of male and 9% of female students reported indoor tanning, and prevalence increased with age. Relationships between indoor tanning and other variables were similar for male and female students. Binary logistic regression models indicated that several variables significantly predicted indoor tanning, including having part-time work, being physically active, engaging in various risk behaviours such as driving after drinking for males and unplanned sex after alcohol/drugs for females, experiencing someone say something bad about one's body shape/size/appearance, identifying as trans or with another gender, consuming creatine/other supplements and, for females only, never/rarely using sun protection. Conclusion: Indoor tanning among adolescents was associated with age, part-time work, physical activity and many consumption behaviours and lifestyle risk factors. Though

  3. [Prevalence of asthma and determination of symptoms as risk indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease whose prevalence has increased, especially in developed countries; the results of studies of asthma prevalence vary in different populations and even within the same country; in Mexico we observed fluctuations in prevalence of asthma from 7% to 33%. To determine the prevalence of asthma and severity of symptoms as risk indicators in school population in cities in various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of detection of asthma prevalence and analytical-comparative observational study of determination of symptoms of asthma. The surveys were applied to preschool, elementary, middle and high school population, in the cities of Puebla, Puebla; Tulancingo, Hidalgo; Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, and Cancún, Quintana Roo; new validated questionnaire was used as instrument: Asthma Diagnostic Questionnaire for Epidemiologic Studies, consisting of eight questions with summation value for diagnosis. 8,754 surveys showed a 14% prevalence in Puebla, 17% in Tulancingo, 7% in Tlaxcala, and 14% in Cancún; average in four cities surveyed was 13%; the strength of association with asthma symptoms in descending order with significant odds ratio were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, recurrent cough, cough cold, recurrent cold symptoms, predominantly nocturnal cough, cough that increases with exercise. The average prevalence of asthma in the surveyed cities was 13% and the main symptoms indicators of risk of asthma in school children were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and recurrent cough.

  4. Linking Indices for Biodiversity Monitoring to Extinction Risk Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, Michael A; Moore, Alana L; Krauss, Jochen; Morgan, John W; Clements, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity indices often combine data from different species when used in monitoring programs. Heuristic properties can suggest preferred indices, but we lack objective ways to discriminate between indices with similar heuristics. Biodiversity indices can be evaluated by determining how well they reflect management objectives that a monitoring program aims to support. For example, the Convention on Biological Diversity requires reporting about extinction rates, so simple indices that reflect extinction risk would be valuable. We developed 3 biodiversity indices that are based on simple models of population viability that relate extinction risk to abundance. We based the first index on the geometric mean abundance of species and the second on a more general power mean. In a third index, we integrated the geometric mean abundance and trend. These indices require the same data as previous indices, but they also relate directly to extinction risk. Field data for butterflies and woodland plants and experimental studies of protozoan communities show that the indices correlate with local extinction rates. Applying the index based on the geometric mean to global data on changes in avian abundance suggested that the average extinction probability of birds has increased approximately 1% from 1970 to 2009. Conectando Índices para el Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad con la Teoría de Riesgo de Extinción Resumen Los índices de biodiversidad combinan frecuentemente los datos de diferentes especies cuando se usan en los programas de monitoreo. Las propiedades heurísticas pueden sugerir índices preferidos, pero carecemos de medios objetivos para discriminar a los índices con propiedades heurísticas similares. Los índices de biodiversidad pueden evaluarse al determinar qué tan bien reflejan los objetivos de manejo que un programa de monitoreo busca apoyar. Por ejemplo, la Convención sobre la Diversidad Biológica requiere reportar las tasas de extinción, así que los

  5. Bayesian based design of real-time sensor systems for high-risk indoor contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Priya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardousto building occupants. To respond effectively, the contaminant release must be quicklydetected and characterized to determine unobserved parameters, such as release locationand strength. Characterizing the release requires solving an inverse problem. Designinga robust real-time sensor system that solves the inverse problem is challenging becausethe fate and transport of contaminants is complex, sensor information is limited andimperfect, and real-time estimation is computationally constrained.This dissertation uses a system-level approach, based on a Bayes Monte Carloframework, to develop sensor-system design concepts and methods. I describe threeinvestigations that explore complex relationships among sensors, network architecture,interpretation algorithms, and system performance. The investigations use data obtainedfrom tracer gas experiments conducted in a real building. The influence of individual sensor characteristics on the sensor-system performance for binary-type contaminant sensors is analyzed. Performance tradeoffs among sensor accuracy, threshold level and response time are identified; these attributes could not be inferred without a system-level analysis. For example, more accurate but slower sensors are found to outperform less accurate but faster sensors. Secondly, I investigate how the sensor-system performance can be understood in terms of contaminant transport processes and the model representation that is used to solve the inverse problem. The determination of release location and mass are shown to be related to and constrained by transport and mixing time scales. These time scales explain performance differences among different sensor networks. For example, the effect of longer sensor response times is comparably less for releases with longer mixing time scales. The third investigation explores how information fusion from heterogeneous sensors may improve the sensor

  6. Poor Indoor Air Quality, Mold Exposure, and Upper Respiratory Tract Infections--Are We Placing Our Children at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzois, Dimos; Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Wells, John A; Koulis, Theo

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how respiratory health risks are associated with poor housing is essential to designing effective strategies to improve children's quality of life. The objective of the study described in this article was to determine the relationship between respiratory health and housing conditions. A survey was completed by 3,424 parents of children in third and fourth grade in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. An engineering audit and air samples were also taken in the homes of a subset of 715 homes. Results showed that a child's respiratory health is significantly associated with self-reported visible mold in the home and that a significant association existed between occupant-reported visible mold and tested airborne mold. Findings highlight the need for clearer standards of acceptable CFU/m3 limits for mold genera that are applicable to homes. In the absence of such guidelines, problems associated with indoor mold will continue to impact the health of residents, despite growing evidence of the adverse effects from mold exposure.

  7. The Management of Humidifying Treatment for Low Contamination Risks During Indoor Cultivation of Grey Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md. Tariqul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grey oyster mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius was cultivated in indoor controlled environment to seeking out the possible risks of contamination and ways of treatment to avoid the contamination. For this, mushroom was cultivated in providing artificial humidifying and ventilation system to ensure optimum humidity (80-90% and fresh air recirculation in different ways of treatment. The ways of treatment were included as in position of humidifier, frequency of humidifying, plastic cork of bags opening part and cleaning of humidifier water container. Maximum percentages of bag contamination (2.5-25.30%, cap contamination (5.6-30.75%, stalk contamination (4.75-23.25% and root contamination (2.6-18.45% were found in front to front humidifier position, long humidifying with long interval frequency, without plastic cork, without cleaning and bi-monthly cleaning of humidifier water container treatment but no diseases and pest infection was found. Whereas, very low percentages of contamination (0.1-0.5% were found in surrounding humidifying position, short humidifying duration with short interval frequency, with plastic cork and weekly cleaning of humidifier water container treatment.

  8. Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-11-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was recently performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes, and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and - as a result of salt emanating from the walls - on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair, and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic Bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, was detected on bone. Finally, the high concentration of airborne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors.

  9. PM2.5 pollution from household solid fuel burning practices in central India: 1. Impact on indoor air quality and associated health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matawle, Jeevan Lal; Pervez, Shamsh; Shrivastava, Anjali; Tiwari, Suresh; Pant, Pallavi; Deb, Manas Kanti; Bisht, Diwan Singh; Pervez, Yasmeen F

    2016-09-10

    PM2.5 concentrations were measured in residential indoor environment in slums of central India during 2012-2013. In addition, a suite of chemical components including metals (Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Mo, Se, Sb, Na, Mg, K and Hg), ions (Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), F(-), Cl(-), NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-)) and carbon (OC and EC) were analyzed for all samples. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were found to be several folds higher than the 24-h national ambient air quality standard (60 µg/m(3)) for PM2.5 in India, and the concentrations were found to vary from season to season. Mass closure was attempted for PM2.5 data, and close to 100 % mass was accounted for by organic matter, crustal material, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols and elemental carbon. Additionally, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks associated with exposure to indoor PM2.5 (inhalation, dermal and ingestion) were estimated and while exposures associated with dermal contact and ingestion were found to be within the acceptable limits, risk associated with inhalation exposure was found to be high for children and adults. Elements including Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, As and Pb were present in high concentrations and contributed to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for residents' health. Results from this study highlight the need for efforts to reduce air pollution exposure in slum areas.

  10. Minimizing indoor odors from products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walpot, J.I.

    1996-01-01

    Regarding negative perceptions in indoor environments perceived odors are often mentio-ned as indicating factors. At TNO (Organisation for Applied Scientific Research in The Netherlands) a combination of methods is developed and used for the characterisation and quantification of indoor odor problem

  11. "NORDPET". Pets indoors - a risk factor for or protection against sensitisation/allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlbom, A.; Backman, A.; Bakke, J.;

    1998-01-01

    Ten researchers from the Nordic countries have reviewed the literature on early exposure in childhood, to pets and the risk of sensitisation/allergy. A search of the literature resulted in identification of about 1200 articles, of which 89 were selected for further examination. The group conclude...... allergens in their clothing, etc. The group concluded as a recommendation, that families with atopic individuals should wait until the child is at least two years old before getting a pet.......Ten researchers from the Nordic countries have reviewed the literature on early exposure in childhood, to pets and the risk of sensitisation/allergy. A search of the literature resulted in identification of about 1200 articles, of which 89 were selected for further examination. The group concluded...... that all exposure to pets involves a risk of sensitisation. Exposure in infancy involves an increased risk (normally RR=1-1,5) of sensitisation and to a lesser degree of the development of symptoms. The group also concluded that pet allergens are present "everywhere", as a result of people bringing...

  12. Localized indoor air quality monitoring for indoor pollutants' healthy risk assessment using sub-principal component analysis driven model and engineering big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Honglan; Kim, MinJeong; Lee, SeungChul; Pyo, SeHee; Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in subway systems shows periodic dynamics due to the number of passengers, train schedules, and air pollutants accumulated in the system, which are considered as an engineering big data. We developed a new IAQ monitoring model using a sub-principal component analysis (sub-PCA) method to account for the periodic dynamics of the IAQ big data. In addition, the IAQ data in subway systems are different on the weekdays and weekend due to weekly effect, since the patterns of the number of passengers and their access time on the weekdays and weekend are different. Sub-PCA-based local monitoring was developed for separating the weekday and weekend environmental IAQ big data, respectively. The monitoring results for the test data at the Y-subway station clearly showed that the proposed method could analyze an environmental IAQ big data, improve the monitoring efficiency and greatly reduce the false alarm rate of the local on-line monitoring by comparison with the multi-way PCA.

  13. Indoor radon exposure and lung cancer risk: a review of case-control studies; Exposition domestique au radon et risque de cancer du poumon: bilan des etudes cas-temoins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baysson, H.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Dir. de la Radioprotection de l' Homme, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2004-04-01

    Background: Radon is a radioactive gas that tends to accumulate in indoor environment. A causal relationship between lung cancer and radon exposure has been demonstrated in epidemiologic studies of miners. The objective of this paper is to present the results of case-control studies of lung cancer risk associated with indoor radon exposure. Methods: Case-control studies published since 1990 are included in this review. This type of proto ol is particularly well suited for studying the relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer risk, taking into account possible confounding factors such as tobacco smoking. The characteristics and results of these studies are summarized. The limitations associated with each of these studies are also discussed. Results: The results of available studies are relatively concordant and suggest a positive association between lung cancer risk and indoor radon exposure with an estimated excess relative risk of about 6 to 9% per 100 Bq/m{sup 3} increase in the observed time-weighted average radon concentration. The order of magnitude of this estimation agrees with extrapolations from miners but some studies may suffer from inadequate statistical power. Conclusion: At present, efforts are underway to pool together the data from the existing studies of indoor radon. This pooling analysis with thousands of cases and controls will provide a more precise estimate of the lung cancer risk from indoor radon exposure and explore the effect of modifying factors, such as smoking. (author)

  14. Indoor risk factors for atopic eczema in school children from East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T; Heinrich, J; Wjst, M; Krause, C; Adam, H; Ring, J; Wichmann, H E

    1999-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relation between environmental influences such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, as well as environmental tobacco smoke, pet keeping, and heating systems on the prevalence of atopic eczema. Therefore, a multicenter cross-sectional study of school children aged 5-14 years, including a standardized questionnaire, blood and urine analyses, and a dermatological examination, was undertaken. A cases-control approach was chosen in order to identify relevant risk factors. A total of 2200 school children (response 79.1%) of two areas (Bitterfeld, Hettstedt) polluted by industrial activities and an agricultural control region (Zerbst) of the former German Democratic Republic were examined. Atopic eczema as identified by dermatological examination and history was the outcome variable of interest. Body burden of arsenic and heavy metals and questionnaire data on environmental tobacco smoke exposure, pet keeping, and heating system were investigated as potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of atopic eczema was 2.6%, with higher prevalences in the industrial areas (2.5 and 2.9%) compared to the control area (1.6%, not significant). Bivariate analyses did not reveal statistically significant associations between atopic eczema and tobacco smoke exposure or the body burden of arsenic and heavy metals. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, atopic eczema was significantly more frequent in predisposed families and those who reported keeping guinea pigs (OR=4.37, CI 2.15-8.91), but not other pets, like dogs, cats, and hamsters. In comparison to a distant heating system, a decreased risk was observed in households with central heating system (OR=0.30, CI 0.10-0.90), whereas the presence of a gas heater with an exhaust pipe connection to the wall was associated with a significantly elevated risk for eczema (OR=8.22, CI 2.44-27.66). The heating system and exposure to certain animal allergens are related to the manifestation

  15. A case report of cor pulmonale in a woman without exposure to tobacco smoke: an example of the risks of indoor wood burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opotowsky, Alexander R; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Mamlin, Joseph J

    2008-01-29

    We present the case of a 67-year-old woman with chronic cor pulmonale. She never smoked tobacco and had no other risk factors for pulmonary disease. In developed nations, chronic obstructive lung disease and cor pulmonale are overwhelmingly associated with tobacco use. However, indoor air pollution, most commonly due to burning of solid biomass fuel such as wood, can cause similar clinical syndromes. At our teaching hospital, there is an epidemic of chronic cor pulmonale among nonsmoking women. We attribute this sex predilection to women's greater exposure to wood smoke. Physicians must be cognizant of its risks and counsel patients on prevention strategies such as improved ventilation.

  16. Medical diagnostics for indoor mold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurraß, Julia; Heinzow, Birger; Aurbach, Ute; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bufe, Albrecht; Buzina, Walter; Cornely, Oliver A; Engelhart, Steffen; Fischer, Guido; Gabrio, Thomas; Heinz, Werner; Herr, Caroline E W; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Klimek, Ludger; Köberle, Martin; Lichtnecker, Herbert; Lob-Corzilius, Thomas; Merget, Rolf; Mülleneisen, Norbert; Nowak, Dennis; Rabe, Uta; Raulf, Monika; Seidl, Hans Peter; Steiß, Jens-Oliver; Szewszyk, Regine; Thomas, Peter; Valtanen, Kerttu; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A

    2017-04-01

    /or impairment of well-being. Predisposing factors for odor effects can be given by genetic and hormonal influences, imprinting, context and adaptation effects. Predisposing factors for impairment of well-being are environmental concerns, anxieties, conditioning and attributions as well as a variety of diseases. Risk groups that must be protected are patients with immunosuppression and with mucoviscidosis (cystic fibrosis) with regard to infections and individuals with mucoviscidosis and asthma with regard to allergies. If an association between mold exposure and health effects is suspected, the medical diagnosis includes medical history, physical examination, conventional allergy diagnosis, and if indicated, provocation tests. For the treatment of mold infections, it is referred to the AWMF guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of invasive Aspergillus infections. Regarding mycotoxins, there are currently no validated test methods that could be used in clinical diagnostics. From the perspective of preventive medicine, it is important that mold damages cannot be tolerated in indoor environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. INFLUENCE OF RISKS ON INDICATORS OF ACCOUNTING FINANCIAL REPORTING

    OpenAIRE

    Sigidov Y. I.; Shetkina E. A.

    2016-01-01

    In terms of financial instability, contributing to increase in risks associated with conducting a business activity on the territory of the Russian Federation, there comes the need for the settlement of the procedure for reflection of information about the risks of the economic activity in financial statements. This article discusses the concepts of risks, their impact on the performance of financial accounting. There is a classification of risks: legal, country, financial and regional, their...

  18. Community perspectives on the risk of indoor air pollution arising from contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jill E; Kramer, Amanda J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    The migration of volatile contaminants into overlying buildings, known as vapor intrusion, is a health concern for people living above contaminated groundwater. As public health and environmental agencies develop protocols to evaluate vapor intrusion exposure, little attention has been paid to the experiences and opinions of communities likely to be affected by vapor intrusion. Using a community-driven research approach and qualitative interviews, we explored community perspectives on the vapor intrusion pathway and the perceived impact on community health and well-being among neighbors living atop a large, shallow-chlorinated solvent plume in San Antonio, TX. Most participants associated vapor intrusion with health risks, expressing concern about the unavoidable and uncontrollable nature of their exposure. Few were satisfied with the responsiveness of public officials. Above all, participants wanted more accurate, transparent information and additional independent scientific investigations. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Risk indicators for tooth loss in adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Marília Jesus; Rihs, Lílian Berta; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de

    2012-01-01

    Tooth loss continues to be a prevalent condition in Brazilian adults and elderly individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study, conducted among workers in a wholesale grocery chain in the State of São Paulo, was to identify risk indicators for tooth loss in adults. The presence of caries and periodontal status were examined in 387 adults aged 20-64 years, according to World Health Organization criteria. Two outcomes were analyzed: loss of one or more teeth, and loss of four or more teeth. Independent variables analyzed were demographic and socioeconomic factors, clinical conditions, use of dental services, and self-perceived oral health. Poisson regression models were used for multivariate statistical analysis. Participants were missing a mean of 5.38 teeth, and 76.9% (n = 297) had lost at least one tooth; the most frequently lost teeth were permanent molars. Older age and the presence of visible dental biofilm were associated significantly with the two tooth loss outcomes (p adults.

  20. Indoor air quality and risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection in Inuit infants in Baffin Region, Nunavut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesi, T. [Children' s Hospital of Easterrn Ontario, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the indoor air quality in the houses of Inuit infants in Nunavut and the health implications. Inuit infants in the Baffin (Qikiqtani) Region of Nunavut have the highest reported rate in the world of severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including bronchiolitis and pneumonia requiring hospitalization. This population also has a high rate of long-term complications after severe LRTI. The houses in the region are small and crowded and tend to be kept warm and humid. Although the homes are heated with low-sulphur Arctic diesel, there is no evidence of leakage from furnaces, as nitrogen dioxide concentrations are low. Houses are generally clean, with very low levels of dust mites and generally low levels of indoor mould. However, indoor smoking is prevalent. According to measured ventilation of indoor carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations, most houses have ventilation rates below recommended standards. A controlled trial of installing heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) in the homes of the 68 young Inuit children in 3 communities in the Baffin Region has shown that active HRVs can significantly reduce mean indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations and increase occupant comfort. Health outcomes are currently undergoing analysis. 11 refs.

  1. Measurements of benzene and formaldehyde in a medium sized urban environment. Indoor/outdoor health risk implications on special population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilidis, Georgios A; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Kassomenos, Pavlos A; Kazos, Elias A; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, the results of a measurement campaign aiming to assess cancer risk among two special groups of population: policemen and laboratory technicians exposed to the toxic substances, benzene and formaldehyde are presented. The exposure is compared to general population risk. The results show that policemen working outdoor (traffic regulation, patrol on foot or in vehicles, etc.) are exposed at a significantly higher benzene concentration (3-5 times) than the general population, while the exposure to carbonyls is in general lower. The laboratory technicians appear to be highly exposed to formaldehyde while no significant variation of benzene exposure in comparison to the general population is recorded. The assessment revealed that laboratory technicians and policemen run a 20% and 1% higher cancer risk respectively compared to the general population. Indoor working place air quality is more significant in assessing cancer risk in these two categories of professionals, due to the higher Inhalation Unit Risk (IUR) of formaldehyde compared to benzene. Since the origin of the danger to laboratory technicians is clear (use of chemicals necessary for the experiments), in policemen the presence of carbonyls in indoor air concentrations due to smoking or used materials constitute a danger equal to the exposure to traffic originated air pollutants.

  2. Economic Risk Assessment Taking Into Account the Volume Oscillator Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Mihaela LAPADUSI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic risk can be assessed from many points of view, but generally speaking it means the firm's inability to match workload with cost structure. Expansion of production capacity, adaptation to new technologies, diversification of products are only a few factors influencing risk. These, along with financial risk and bankruptcy risk constitute the most important category of risk which presents a great interest for the banks, shareholders, managers, business partners, etc. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of tje oscillation of your company's activity from the point of view of economic risk. The main objective of this research lies in economic risk assessment by means of the margin of safety, the safety index and critical time point.

  3. SUMMARY OF A COMPANY RISK INDICATORS NECESSARY FOR ITS EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashkatov V. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the concept and essence of entre-preneurial risk; we have also given the views of vari-ous scientists and economists to determine the essential content of the category of “business risk”. The order of business risk assessment on the example of Urupskiy company has been shown

  4. Documentation Protocols to Generate Risk Indicators Regarding Degradation Processes for Cultural Heritage Risk Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioussi, A.; Karoglou, M.; Bakolas, A.; Labropoulos, K.; Moropoulou, A.

    2013-07-01

    Sustainable maintenance and preservation of cultural heritage assets depends highly on its resilience to external or internal alterations and to various hazards. Risk assessment of a heritage asset's can be defined as the identification of all potential hazards affecting it and the evaluation of the asset's vulnerability (building materials and building structure conservation state).Potential hazards for cultural heritage are complex and varying. The risk of decay and damage associated with monuments is not limited to certain long term natural processes, sudden events and human impact (macroscale of the heritage asset) but is also a function of the degradation processes within materials and structural elements due to physical and chemical procedures. Obviously, these factors cover different scales of the problem. The deteriorating processes in materials may be triggered by external influences or caused because of internal chemical and/or physical variations of materials properties and characteristics. Therefore risk evaluation should be dealt in the direction of revealing the specific active decay and damage mechanism both in mesoscale [type of decay and damage] and microscale [decay phenomenon mechanism] level. A prerequisite for risk indicators identification and development is the existence of an organised source of comparable and interoperable data about heritage assets under observation. This unified source of information offers a knowledge based background of the asset's vulnerability through the diagnosis of building materials' and building structure's conservation state, through the identification of all potential hazards affecting these and through mapping of its possible alterations during its entire life-time. In this framework the identification and analysis of risks regarding degradation processes for the development of qualitative and quantitative indicators can be supported by documentation protocols. The data investigated by such protocols help

  5. Xerotolerant Cladosporium sphaerospermum Are Predominant on Indoor Surfaces Compared to Other Cladosporium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Frank J J; Meijer, Martin; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Wösten, Han A B; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor fungi are a major cause of cosmetic and structural damage of buildings worldwide and prolonged exposure of these fungi poses a health risk. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium species are the most predominant fungi in indoor environments. Cladosporium species predominate under ambient conditions. A total of 123 Cladosporium isolates originating from indoor air and indoor surfaces of archives, industrial factories, laboratories, and other buildings from four continents were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and a part of the translation elongation factor 1α gene (TEF) and actin gene (ACT). Species from the Cladosporium sphaerospermum species complex were most predominant representing 44.7% of all isolates, while the Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium herbarum species complexes represented 33.3% and 22.0%, respectively. The contribution of the C. sphaerospermum species complex was 23.1% and 58.2% in the indoor air and isolates from indoor surfaces, respectively. Isolates from this species complex showed growth at lower water activity (≥ 0.82) when compared to species from the C. cladosporioides and C. herbarum species complexes (≥ 0.85). Together, these data indicate that xerotolerance provide the C. sphaerospermum species complex advantage in colonizing indoor surfaces. As a consequence, C. sphaerospermum are proposed to be the most predominant fungus at these locations under ambient conditions. Findings are discussed in relation to the specificity of allergy test, as the current species of Cladosporium used to develop these tests are not the predominant indoor species.

  6. Seroma indicates increased risk of lymphedema following breast cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Jørgensen, Mads Gustaf; Haugaard, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is one of the most serious complications following breast cancer treatment. While many risk factors are well described the role of seroma formation has recently produced mixed results. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate if seroma is a risk factor for development of lymphedema...... in one of the largest retrospective cohort studies. Material and methods We included all patients with unilateral breast cancer treated in the period of 2008-2014. Data regarding treatment and breast cancer characteristics were retrieved from the national breast cancer registry. Data regarding lymphedema...... treatment and seroma aspirations were retrieved from local treatment codes. Results In total 1822 patients were included of which 291 developed lymphedema. Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that seroma was an independent risk factor (HR 1.92 CI 1.30-2.85, p= 0.001). Other independent risk factors...

  7. Atherosclerosis: Process, Indicators, Risk Factors and New Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis is the major cause of morbidities and mortalities worldwide. In this study we aimed to review the mechanism of atherosclerosis and its risk factors, focusing on new findings in atherosclerosis markers and its risk factors. Furthermore, the role of antioxidants and medicinal herbs in atherosclerosis and endothelial damage has been discussed and a list of important medicinal plants effective in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis is pre...

  8. INFLUENCE OF RISKS ON INDICATORS OF ACCOUNTING FINANCIAL REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigidov Y. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of financial instability, contributing to increase in risks associated with conducting a business activity on the territory of the Russian Federation, there comes the need for the settlement of the procedure for reflection of information about the risks of the economic activity in financial statements. This article discusses the concepts of risks, their impact on the performance of financial accounting. There is a classification of risks: legal, country, financial and regional, their special features. To reduce the decline of the economic performance of the organization a variety of activities was offered. One way to solve this problem is the creation of reserves. For this purpose, various options for the establishment of reserves to reduce the impact of risks of the organization are considered in the article. The first option is the creation of reserves at the expense of the cost of production where the reserves are formed on the credit of account 96 "Reserves of forthcoming expenses". The second option is the reservation of funds as a reserve capital: reserves are formed on the credit of account 82 "Reserve capital". The third option is the creation of reserves due to other expenses; such reserves are used to adjust the value of assets. The article provides the calculation of the valuation of receivables. Based on data of accounting balance and the report on financial results of the buyer-debtor the calculation was carried out for the assessment of the credit risk for the organization, which the debtor must repay the debt to. Calculations are based on the methodology of the scientists of the Department of theory of accounting of Kuban State Agrarian University

  9. Exposure to ultrafine particles in relation to indoor events and dwelling characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Kolarik, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes is associated with health risks such as cardiovascular disease and/or respiratory problems. These risks are heightened by the long time that people spend indoors. Therefore reducing the particle concentration in homes leads to improved health among i....... Furthermore, the winter season was associated significantly with high UFP levels indoors. Results of our study also indicated that owning a pet, wood-type floors and floor levels close to the ground are associated with increased UFP levels....... occupants. The use of particle filtration units may be an effective way of reducing UFP indoors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between UFP concentrations and dwelling characteristics, estimate UFP removal rates indoors and to assess the effectiveness of installed particle filtration...

  10. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  11. Savannah River Reactor Operation: Indices of risk for emergency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    Periodically it is necessary to re-examine the implications of new source terms for neighboring offsite populations as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Severe Accident studies mature, and lead to a better understanding of the progression of hypothetical core melt accidents in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. In this application multiple-system failure, low-frequency events, and consequently higher radiological source terms than from normal operation or design basis accidents (DBAs) are considered. Measures of consequence such as constant dose vs distance, boundary doses, and health effects to close-in populations are usually examined in this context. A set of source terms developed for the Safety Information Document (SID) for support of the Reactor Operation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) forms the basis for the revised risk evaluation discussed herein. The intent of this review is not to completely substantiate the sufficiency of the current Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). However, the two principal measures (200-rem red-bone marrow dose vs distance and 300-rem thyroid dose vs distance) for setting an EPZ are considered. Additional dose-at-distance calculations and consideration of DBA doses would be needed to complete a re-evaluation of the current EPZ. These subject areas are not addressed in the current document. Also, this report evaluates the sensitivity of individual risk estimates to the extent of offsite evacuation assumed from a K reactor severe accident and compares these risks to the Draft DOE Safety Guidelines. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  13. Evaluation of passenger health risk assessment of sustainable indoor air quality monitoring in metro systems based on a non-Gaussian dynamic sensor validation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinJeong; Liu, Hongbin; Kim, Jeong Tai; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2014-08-15

    Sensor faults in metro systems provide incorrect information to indoor air quality (IAQ) ventilation systems, resulting in the miss-operation of ventilation systems and adverse effects on passenger health. In this study, a new sensor validation method is proposed to (1) detect, identify and repair sensor faults and (2) evaluate the influence of sensor reliability on passenger health risk. To address the dynamic non-Gaussianity problem of IAQ data, dynamic independent component analysis (DICA) is used. To detect and identify sensor faults, the DICA-based squared prediction error and sensor validity index are used, respectively. To restore the faults to normal measurements, a DICA-based iterative reconstruction algorithm is proposed. The comprehensive indoor air-quality index (CIAI) that evaluates the influence of the current IAQ on passenger health is then compared using the faulty and reconstructed IAQ data sets. Experimental results from a metro station showed that the DICA-based method can produce an improved IAQ level in the metro station and reduce passenger health risk since it more accurately validates sensor faults than do conventional methods.

  14. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  15. Indoorgml - a Standard for Indoor Spatial Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ki-Joune

    2016-06-01

    With recent progress of mobile devices and indoor positioning technologies, it becomes possible to provide location-based services in indoor space as well as outdoor space. It is in a seamless way between indoor and outdoor spaces or in an independent way only for indoor space. However, we cannot simply apply spatial models developed for outdoor space to indoor space due to their differences. For example, coordinate reference systems are employed to indicate a specific position in outdoor space, while the location in indoor space is rather specified by cell number such as room number. Unlike outdoor space, the distance between two points in indoor space is not determined by the length of the straight line but the constraints given by indoor components such as walls, stairs, and doors. For this reason, we need to establish a new framework for indoor space from fundamental theoretical basis, indoor spatial data models, and information systems to store, manage, and analyse indoor spatial data. In order to provide this framework, an international standard, called IndoorGML has been developed and published by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium). This standard is based on a cellular notion of space, which considers an indoor space as a set of non-overlapping cells. It consists of two types of modules; core module and extension module. While core module consists of four basic conceptual and implementation modeling components (geometric model for cell, topology between cells, semantic model of cell, and multi-layered space model), extension modules may be defined on the top of the core module to support an application area. As the first version of the standard, we provide an extension for indoor navigation.

  16. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations.

  17. Indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  18. Indoor fungi: companions and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, A; Täubel, M; Hyvärinen, A

    2015-04-01

    This review discusses the role of fungi and fungal products in indoor environments, especially as agents of human exposure. Fungi are present everywhere, and knowledge for indoor environments is extensive on their occurrence and ecology, concentrations, and determinants. Problems of dampness and mold have dominated the discussion on indoor fungi. However, the role of fungi in human health is still not well understood. In this review, we take a look back to integrate what cultivation-based research has taught us alongside more recent work with cultivation-independent techniques. We attempt to summarize what is known today and to point out where more data is needed for risk assessment associated with indoor fungal exposures. New data have demonstrated qualitative and quantitative richness of fungal material inside and outside buildings. Research on mycotoxins shows that just as microbes are everywhere in our indoor environments, so too are their metabolic products. Assessment of fungal exposures is notoriously challenging due to the numerous factors that contribute to the variation of fungal concentrations in indoor environments. We also may have to acknowledge and incorporate into our understanding the complexity of interactions between multiple biological agents in assessing their effects on human health and well-being.

  19. Indoor Air Quality: Maryland Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, College Park. Office of Administration and Finance.

    Less than adequate indoor air quality in schools can lead to a higher risk of health problems, an increase in student and teacher absenteeism, diminished learning, and even hazardous conditions. An indoor air quality program that addresses the planning, design, maintenance, and operation of public school buildings should be implemented at the…

  20. The Study Elements and Indicators of Risk Management System for Secondary Schools in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandee, Methenan; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Leamvijarn, Subunn

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this research aimed 1) to study the elements and indicators of risk management system for secondary schools in Thailand. 2) to study suitable the elements and indicators of the risk management system for secondary schools in Thailand. 3) to study the results of CFA (Confirmatory Factors Analysis) risk management process of risk…

  1. Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients : the AGED study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2004-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder in later life. Particular frail nursing home patients seem to be at increased risk. Nursing home-based studies on risk indicators of depression are scarce. Methods: Prevalence and risk indicators of depression were assessed in 333

  2. Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients : the AGED study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2004-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder in later life. Particular frail nursing home patients seem to be at increased risk. Nursing home-based studies on risk indicators of depression are scarce. Methods: Prevalence and risk indicators of depression were assessed in 333

  3. [Doppler flowmetric fetal indices in low-risk pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Gutiérrez, G; Ponce de León, A L; Ramos Palma, S

    1999-10-01

    In order to measure the umbilical resistance and pulsatility Doppler indexes 60 pregnant women with low risk pregnancies were studied in a descriptive, observational and prospective study carried out at the Hospital de Gineco-Pediatria numero 48 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Umbilical Doppler measurements were done of the fetal umbilical cord from the week 30 at the 40 of gestation. We carried out a total of 337 measurements and 178 (52.8%) corresponded to the resistance index and 159 (47.2%) to the pulsatility index. The average of the resistance index was 0.64 with a range average (average plus two standard deviations was 0.48-0.79) and the pulsatility index had an average value of 0.94 with an average range of 0.58-1.30. The percentil values of the resistance index were 0.52, 0.66 and 0.79 respectively in the percentil 5, 50 and 95 whereas the percentil values of the pulsatility index were 0.64, 0.94 and 1.28 respectively in the percentil 5, 50 and 95. The analysis of variance with the Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons showed that our found indexes can be applied from the week 31 to the 40 of gestation. Our findings are in according to reported by other authors and it should be kept in mind that the concept of normality of the Doppler velocimetry indexes is strictly statistical and that only its judicious use will offer the benefit to our pregnant patients to obtain products under good conditions of health.

  4. Indications and Risks of Fibrinogen in Surgery and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Donat R; Spahn, Gabriela H; Stein, Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Fibrinogen has a central role in coagulation. Following trauma and perioperatively, low fibrinogen levels have been found to be risk factors for exaggerated bleeding, transfusion needs, and adverse outcome. Conversely, treatment with exogenous fibrinogen in critically bleeding patients with low fibrinogen levels has been shown to decrease transfusion needs. Because following trauma and in many perioperative situations fibrinogen is the first coagulation "element" to become critically low, it appears reasonable to target fibrinogen in clinical coagulation algorithms aiming at early specific and goal-directed treatment. A low fibrinogen can be a low plasma concentration or a low functional fibrinogen as assessed by point-of-care techniques such as thromboelastography (TEG) or thromboelastometry (ROTEM). This review summarizes the evidence base for perioperative algorithm-based fibrinogen administration, including the exact thresholds for fibrinogen administration used in the different algorithms. Algorithm-based individualized goal-directed use of fibrinogen resulted in highly significant reduction in transfusion needs, adverse outcomes, in certain studies even mortality, and where investigated reduced costs, with high safety levels at the same time. Best evidence exists in cardiac surgery, followed by trauma, postpartum hemorrhage, and liver transplantation. The introduction of these concepts is highly demanding and requires a tremendous educational effort to familiarize all health care workers with the necessary knowledge and the skills of how to run TEG/ROTEM tests. Future research is needed to compare the efficacy, safety, and costs of different algorithms. This, however, should not prevent us from introducing these expedient point-of-care-based algorithms clinically today.

  5. Personal UV biodosimeter for healthy indoor tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenetskaya, I. P.; Orlova, T. N.

    2008-04-01

    The practice of indoor tanning has led to the development of a large artificial tanning industry. In addition to psychological benefits, exposure to UVB light helps the body produce the activated form of vitamin D, which is necessary for many cellular functions. But uncontrolled tanning and UV overexposure can increase the risk of skin cancer. For direct checkout of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of a UV source the bio-equivalent UV dosimeter has been developed that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin and makes possible both instrumental and visual indication of vitamin D synthesis.

  6. Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ≈ TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

  7. Risk of exposure to second hand smoke for adolescents in Las Vegas casinos: an evaluation of the Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Christopher; Henriques, Dominic; York, Nancy; Lee, Kiyoung

    2012-01-01

    Since the Surgeon General's groundbreaking report of 1964, "Smoking and Health," the medical and scientific communities have uncovered the devastating effects of tobacco smoke on health. In reaction to these findings, local and state governments have enacted a variety of clean air acts to prevent unnecessary exposure to this known carcinogen. The Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA), a non-comprehensive smoke-free law, permits smoking in designated areas of casinos, bars, and taverns. With many Las Vegas casinos catering to all ages, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of NCIAA in protecting children from second hand smoke exposure. Using a device that measures ambient air particle matter concentrations, this study sampled the air quality in 15 casino gaming areas and corresponding non-smoking, children-friendly areas. The results indicate that current policy fails to preserve indoor air quality in these children-friendly areas. Furthermore, this research suggests the adoption of a more comprehensive, 100% smoke-free policy as the only effective remedy.

  8. Covariance of metabolic and hemostatic risk indicators in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H; Vrijkotte, TGM; Meijer, P; Kluft, C; de Geus, Eco J.

    2001-01-01

    Background and objective: Multivariate analyses on clusters of metabolic and hemostatic risk indicators implicitly assume good test-retest reliability of these variables, substantial covariance among the various indicators, stability of covariance structure over time, and comparable covariance struc

  9. Geologic influence on indoor radon concentrations and gamma radiation levels in Norwegian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundal, Aud Venche

    2003-09-01

    dose rates are measured in the areas covered by nearly impermeable silt and clay deposits. Indoor gamma dose rates as high as 620 nGy/h are obtained in the areas of exposed carbonatites, primarily due to enhanced thorium concentrations in these rock types. The observed correlations between geological factors and indoor radon concentrations in Norway indicate that geological information is a useful tool in radon risk analysis. Resources can be concentrated to regions of high geologic radon potential when screening programs are planned, and efficient follow-up surveys can be established based on geological data in combination with radon measurements in a representative sample of the building stock. The observed contrasts in radon risk potential between different types of building grounds also enable the prediction of radon risk in areas which are not currently inhabited. (Author)

  10. Powernext weather, benchmark indices for effective weather risk management; Powernext Weather, des indices de reference pour gerer le risque meteo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the Powernext/Meteo France partnership for the elaboration of efficient weather-related risk management indices. (J.S.)

  11. Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economicbenefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Seppanen, Olli

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific evidence that improved indoor environmental quality can improve work performance and health. The review indicates that work and school work performance is affected by indoor temperature and ventilation rate. Pollutant source removal can sometimes improve work performance. Based on formal statistical analyses of existing research results, quantitative relationships are provided for the linkages of work performance with indoor temperature and outdoor air ventilation rate. The review also indicates that improved health and related financial savings are obtainable from reduced indoor tobacco smoking, prevention and remediation of building dampness, and increased ventilation. Example cost-benefit analyses indicate that many measures to improve indoor temperature control and increase ventilation rates will be highly cost effective, with benefit-cost ratios as high as 80 and annual economic benefits as high as $700 per person.

  12. Risk indicators for hearing loss in infants treated in different neonatal intensive care units.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Mohangoo, A.D.; Verkerk, P.H.; Ploeg, C.P. van der; Straaten, H.L.M. van; Steiner, K.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess which infants' characteristics and specialized procedures are risk indicators for unilateral or bilateral hearing loss (HL) and to evaluate whether these risk indicators are associated with variation in prevalence of HL between Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). METHODS: For 2002-

  13. Risk indicators for hearing loss in infants treated in different Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dommelen, P.; Mohangoo, A. D.; Verkerk, P. H.; van der Ploeg, C. P. B.; van Straaten, H. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To assess which infants' characteristics and specialized procedures are risk indicators for unilateral or bilateral hearing loss (HL) and to evaluate whether these risk indicators are associated with variation in prevalence of HL between Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). Methods: For 2002-

  14. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning;

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators.......This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators....

  15. Mysterious multiculturalism: the risks of using model-based indices for making meaningful comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvendak, J.W.; van Reekum, R.; El-Hajjari, F.; Bertossi, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss key problems of model-based indices and their indicators used by the students of cross-national differences in the field of immigration, integration and citizenship policies. Model-based indices aggregate scores on a variety of indicators. We scrutinize the risks of

  16. Position-specific performance indicators that discriminate between successful and unsuccessful teams in elite women's indoor field hockey: implications for coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Don; Peters, Derek M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to establish median performance profiles for the six playing positions in elite women's indoor hockey and then identify whether these position-specific profiles could discriminate between qualifying (top four), mid-table and relegated teams in the 2011-2012 England Hockey premier league. Successful passing in relegated teams was significantly lower (P teams in four of the five outfield positions. Furthermore, the right backs of qualifying teams demonstrated significantly fewer (P teams (x̃ = 19.5 ± CLs 21.0 and 17.0; x̃ = 7.5 ± CLs 8.0 and 6.0, respectively). Finally, the right forwards of relegated teams demonstrated significantly fewer (P teams (x̃ = 5.0 ± CLs 6.0 and 3.0, respectively) and significantly more (P teams (x̃ = 3.0 ± CLs 3.0 and 2.0, respectively). Based on these findings, coaches should adapt tactical strategies and personnel deployment accordingly to enhance the likelihood of preparing a qualifying team. Research should build from these data to examine dribbling, pressing and patterns of play when outletting.

  17. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to differen

  18. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to

  19. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  20. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  1. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  2. Indoor multipath mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragünas, Kostas; Borre, Kai

    2010-01-01

    There are many applications that require continuous positioning in combined outdoor urban and indoor environments. GNSS has been used for a long time in outdoor environments, while indoor positioning is still a challenging task. One of the major degradations that GNSS receivers experience indoors...

  3. Insights into Indoor/Outdoor PM Concentration Ratios due to Dust Storms in an Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Krasnov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust storms have impacts on both human and physical environments, associated with an increase in atmospheric particulate matter (PM concentrations. Most studies on exposure to PM have focused on the outdoor air, while information on indoor pollution, is still lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of desert dust events on PM concentrations in indoor environments. A total of over 200 real time measurements of PM were conducted in houses in the Negev Desert during dust storms. Indoor and outdoor PM concentrations were characterized, as well as the relationships between the two datasets. The findings indicated that atmospheric PM10 concentrations can increase from 20–120 μg·m−3 on non-dust days to more than 1500 μg·m−3 during dust events. Indoor concentrations can reach as high as 1000 μg·m−3. The calculated indoor/outdoor (I/O PM ratio ranged from 0.79 for low-level storms to 0.58 during stronger events. Indoor PM concentrations were found to be dependent on the dust storm intensity (low, medium, high and duration with a time lag. The information obtained in this study is critical for assessment of policy interventions to reduce exposure risk and health effects due dust storms.

  4. Job strain and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease in young female nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, H; Van Doornen, L J; Houtman, I L; De Geus, E J

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the possible effects of job demands, decision latitude, and job-related social support on risk indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 165 female nurses. Job strain was measured with the Job Content Questionnaire; CVD risk was measured with insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fibrinogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen, tPA activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, and blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance and regression analyses revealed no effects of either job strain or social support on these risk indicators. All risk indicators deteriorated with age and body mass index. Oral contraceptive use improved fibrinolytic potential and increased HDL-C but had adverse effects on TG levels. Results suggest that in healthy young women job strain is not associated with an unfavorable metabolic or fibrinolytic risk profile.

  5. Explanatory risk factors in the relations between schizotypy and indicators of suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2016-04-30

    Schizotypy has been linked to suicide risk, but it is not known whether established suicide-related risk factors mediate this relation. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of depressive symptoms, social anxiety, self-esteem, and intimate disclosure in peer relationships in the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. This aim was tested in 590 young adults using a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure. After inclusion of the mediators, interpersonal schizotypy was no longer directly associated with either suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. Depression and self-esteem mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation. No variables mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and lifetime suicide attempts, and there were no significant direct relations when mediators were included. Schizotypy appears to be a distal risk factor for suicidal behavior; assessing depressive symptoms and self-esteem may provide more proximal information about suicide risk, and may be targets for mitigating suicide risk in individuals with schizotypy.

  6. Middle School Predictors of High School Performance: A Case Study of Dropout Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M. Todd; Caldarella, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of high school has negative results and implications for individuals and society. The likelihood of dropping out is attributed to both social and academic risk factors. Poor high school attendance, low course completion, and low grade-point-average (GPA) have been identified as three leading indicators that students are at risk for…

  7. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries.

  8. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  9. Job strain and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease in young female nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H; Van Doornen, LJP; Houtman, ILD; De Geus, EJC

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the possible effects of job demands, decision latitude, and job-related social support on risk indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 165 female nurses. Job strain was measured with the Job Content Questionnaire; CVD risk was measured with insulin, total cholesterol, trig

  10. Job strain and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease in young female nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H; Van Doornen, LJP; Houtman, ILD; De Geus, EJC

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the possible effects of job demands, decision latitude, and job-related social support on risk indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 165 female nurses. Job strain was measured with the Job Content Questionnaire; CVD risk was measured with insulin, total cholesterol, trig

  11. Job strain and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease in young female nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, H; Van Doornen, LJP; Houtman, ILD; De Geus, EJC

    This study examined the possible effects of job demands, decision latitude, and job-related social support on risk indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 165 female nurses. Job strain was measured with the Job Content Questionnaire; CVD risk was measured with insulin, total cholesterol,

  12. Exposure data and risk indicators for safety performance assessment in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. & Cardoso, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk indicators and exposure data for safety performance assessment in Europe, in terms of data availability, collection methodologies and use. More specifically, the concepts of exposure and risk are explored, as well as the

  13. Socioeconomic indicators of heat-related health risk supplemented with remotely sensed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel P; Wilson, Jeffrey S; Luber, George C

    2009-10-16

    Extreme heat events are the number one cause of weather-related fatalities in the United States. The current system of alert for extreme heat events does not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature derived from thermal remote sensing data. Comparison of logistic regression models indicates that supplementing known sociodemographic risk factors with remote sensing estimates of land surface temperature improves the delineation of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat events. Thermal remote sensing data can be utilized to improve understanding of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat. The refinement of current risk assessment systems could increase the likelihood of survival during extreme heat events and assist emergency personnel in the delivery of vital resources during such disasters.

  14. Risk factors for nutritional status determination and indications for preventive nutrition therapy in hospitalized gastroenterological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roganović Branka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Risk factors for the intrahospital nutritional status worsening (NSW have not been precisely defined in the literature. The objective was defining thoese factors among gastroenterological patients and defining the risk patients requiring a preventive nutritional therapy. Methods. In 650 gastroenterological patients, NSW was evaluated on the basis of reducing of the six parameters: body weight, body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF, midupper arm muscle circumference (MAMC, serum albumin level (ALB, and lymphocyte count (LYM. The influence on NSW was tested for 13 factors concerning characteristics of the patient, disease, and diagnostic procedures. Among the factors influencing significantly the NSW, primary and secondary risk factors were selected. After scoring of risk factors had been performed, the risk-score for NSW (RSNSW was defined. The critical value of RSNSW which required preventive nutritional therapy was also calculated. Results. The incidence of NSW was in the range 29.2%−57.9%. The presence of general complications and severe disease activity were considered as primary risk factors, whereas malignant disease, age above 71, hepato-billiary tract involvement, hospitalization longer than 14 days, and mobility worsening were considered as secondary risk factors. The best predictive value for the NSW was proved for the RSNSW ≥ 6. Because of that, preventive nutritional therapy should be indicated in patients presenting with both primary risk factors or in patients presenting with one primary factor combined with three secondary risk factors at least. Conclusion. There are 7 risk factors for NSW in gastroenterological patients, but they are not of the same importance - two primary and five secondary risk factors can be differentiated. Preventive nutritional therapy is indicated only in patients having both primary risk factors or in those presenting with one primary risk factor combined with three

  15. Dengue in Java, Indonesia: Relevance of Mosquito Indices as Risk Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, Siwi P M; Sunaryo, Sunaryo; Suprihatin, Suprihatin; McFarlane, Melanie; Rainey, Stephanie M; Dietrich, Isabelle; Schnettler, Esther; Biek, Roman; Kohl, Alain

    2016-03-01

    No vaccine is currently available for dengue virus (DENV), therefore control programmes usually focus on managing mosquito vector populations. Entomological surveys provide the most common means of characterising vector populations and predicting the risk of local dengue virus transmission. Despite Indonesia being a country strongly affected by DENV, only limited information is available on the local factors affecting DENV transmission and the suitability of available survey methods for assessing risk. We conducted entomological surveys in the Banyumas Regency (Central Java) where dengue cases occur on an annual basis. Four villages were sampled during the dry and rainy seasons: two villages where dengue was endemic, one where dengue cases occurred sporadically and one which was dengue-free. In addition to data for conventional larvae indices, we collected data on pupae indices, and collected adult mosquitoes for species identification in order to determine mosquito species composition and population density. Traditionally used larval indices (House indices, Container indices and Breteau indices) were found to be inadequate as indicators for DENV transmission risk. In contrast, species composition of adult mosquitoes revealed that competent vector species were dominant in dengue endemic and sporadic villages. Our data suggested that the utility of traditional larvae indices, which continue to be used in many dengue endemic countries, should be re-evaluated locally. The results highlight the need for validation of risk indicators and control strategies across DENV affected areas here and perhaps elsewhere in SE Asia.

  16. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  17. Indications for and utilization of angiotensin receptor II blockers in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsang, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide burden of cardiovascular disease is growing. In addition to lifestyle changes, pharmacologic agents that can modify cardiovascular disease processes have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Antihypertensive agents are widely used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events partly beyond that of blood pressure-lowering. In particular, the angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), which antagonize the vasoconstrictive and proinflammatory/pro-proliferative effects of angiotensin II, have been shown to be cardio vascularly protective and well tolerated. Although the eight currently available ARBs are all indicated for the treatment of hypertension, they have partly different pharmacology, and their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties differ. ARB trials for reduction of cardiovascular risk can be broadly categorized into those in patients with/without hypertension and additional risk factors, in patients with evidence of cardiovascular disease, and in patients with severe cardiovascular disease, such as heart failure. These differences have led to their indications in different populations. For hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, losartan was approved to have an indication for stroke prevention, while for most patients at high-risk for cardiovascular events, telmisartan is an appropriate therapy because it has a cardiovascular preventive indication. Other ARBs are indicated for narrowly defined high-risk patients, such as those with hypertension or heart failure. Although in one analysis a possible link between ARBs and increased risks of cancer has surfaced, several meta-analyses, using the most comprehensive data available, have found no link between any ARB, or the class as a whole, and cancer. Most recently, the US Food and Drug Administration completed a review of the potential risk of cancer and concluded that treatment with an ARB medication does not increase the risk of developing cancer. This review

  18. PREDICT-PD: An online approach to prospectively identify risk indicators of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Alastair J; R'Bibo, Lea; Peress, Luisa; Bestwick, Jonathan P; Adams-Carr, Kerala L; Mencacci, Niccolo E; Hawkes, Christopher H; Masters, Joseph M; Wood, Nicholas; Hardy, John; Giovannoni, Gavin; Lees, Andrew J; Schrag, Anette

    2017-02-01

    A number of early features can precede the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). To test an online, evidence-based algorithm to identify risk indicators of PD in the UK population. Participants aged 60 to 80 years without PD completed an online survey and keyboard-tapping task annually over 3 years, and underwent smell tests and genotyping for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations. Risk scores were calculated based on the results of a systematic review of risk factors and early features of PD, and individuals were grouped into higher (above 15th centile), medium, and lower risk groups (below 85th centile). Previously defined indicators of increased risk of PD ("intermediate markers"), including smell loss, rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder, and finger-tapping speed, and incident PD were used as outcomes. The correlation of risk scores with intermediate markers and movement of individuals between risk groups was assessed each year and prospectively. Exploratory Cox regression analyses with incident PD as the dependent variable were performed. A total of 1323 participants were recruited at baseline and >79% completed assessments each year. Annual risk scores were correlated with intermediate markers of PD each year and baseline scores were correlated with intermediate markers during follow-up (all P values risk score (hazard ratio = 4.39, P = .045). GBA variants or G2019S LRRK2 mutations were found in 47 participants, and the predictive power for incident PD was improved by the addition of genetic variants to risk scores. The online PREDICT-PD algorithm is a unique and simple method to identify indicators of PD risk. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Prevalence and risk indicators of smoking among on-reserve First Nations youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Thompson, Adam; Moraros, John; Tempier, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    To determine the current prevalence of smoking among First Nations youth living on reserve within the Saskatoon Tribal Council, and to determine the independent risk indicators associated with smoking among First Nations youth. Students in grades 5 to 8 attending school within the Saskatoon Tribal Council were asked to complete a youth health survey. Of 271 eligible students, 204 completed the consent protocol and the school survey, yielding a response rate of 75.3%; 26.5% of youth were defined as current smokers. Regression analysis indicated that older age, not having a happy home life, suicide ideation and having three or more friends who smoke cigarettes were independent risk indicators of smoking in First Nations youth. Smoking prevalence among on-reserve First Nations youth is quite high. The identification of four main risk indicators should assist with the design of youth smoking prevention and cessation programs.

  20. Indoor air pollution: a poverty-related cause of mortality among the children of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelin, Anders; Wall, Stig

    2007-11-01

    This article reviews the research on the relation between indoor air pollution exposure and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children in developing countries. ARI is a cause of death globally, causing approximately 19% of all deaths before the age of 5 years, according to a World Health Organization estimate. Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels, which is strongly poverty related, has long been regarded as an important risk factor for ARI morbidity and mortality. The empirical base for this view is comparatively narrow, with few empirical studies in relation to the magnitude of the global public health importance of the problem. Most existing reports consistently indicate that indoor air pollution is indeed a risk factor for ARI, but studies are generally small and use indirect indicators of pollution, such as use of biomass fuel or type of stove. Exposure assessment for indoor air pollution in developing countries is recognized as a major obstacle because of high cost and infrastructural limitations to chemical pollution sampling. Use of proxy indicators without measurement support may increase the risk of both misclassification of exposure and of confounding by other poverty-related factors. The issue of sufficient sample size further underlines the need for decisions to invest in this research field. Areas where further research is needed also include exploring qualitatively options for interventions that are culturally and economically acceptable to local communities.

  1. Net reclassification indices for evaluating risk prediction instruments: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kathleen F; Wang, Zheyu; Janes, Holly; McClelland, Robyn L; Psaty, Bruce M; Pepe, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Net reclassification indices have recently become popular statistics for measuring the prediction increment of new biomarkers. We review the various types of net reclassification indices and their correct interpretations. We evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of quantifying the prediction increment with these indices. For predefined risk categories, we relate net reclassification indices to existing measures of the prediction increment. We also consider statistical methodology for constructing confidence intervals for net reclassification indices and evaluate the merits of hypothesis testing based on such indices. We recommend that investigators using net reclassification indices should report them separately for events (cases) and nonevents (controls). When there are two risk categories, the components of net reclassification indices are the same as the changes in the true- and false-positive rates. We advocate the use of true- and false-positive rates and suggest it is more useful for investigators to retain the existing, descriptive terms. When there are three or more risk categories, we recommend against net reclassification indices because they do not adequately account for clinically important differences in shifts among risk categories. The category-free net reclassification index is a new descriptive device designed to avoid predefined risk categories. However, it experiences many of the same problems as other measures such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. In addition, the category-free index can mislead investigators by overstating the incremental value of a biomarker, even in independent validation data. When investigators want to test a null hypothesis of no prediction increment, the well-established tests for coefficients in the regression model are superior to the net reclassification index. If investigators want to use net reclassification indices, confidence intervals should be calculated using bootstrap methods

  2. Source identification and health risk assessment of metals in indoor dust in the vicinity of phosphorus mining, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Chen, Huaguo; Li, Baizhan

    2015-01-01

    An investigation was performed to identify the sources of arsenic (As) and heavy metals in house dust and to assess the associated human health risks in the vicinity of phosphorus (P) mining in Guizhou, China. The concentrations and spatial distributions of mercury (Hg), As, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and P in 23 house dust samples from the study area were determined. Greater concentrations of As and Pb were found compared with values in other investigations in various countries. Pollution sources were identified using multivariate statistical analysis. As, Pb, Mn, and Hg pollution was mainly attributed to mining activities, and Mn and Cd levels were largely associated with automobile emissions. The dominant wind direction and the distance of the residence from the mining region were found to play an important role in element distributions. A health risk assessment showed that As and Pb should be paid more attention, although the noncancer risks of the studied elements were within the safe range and the cancer risks of As and Cd are within the acceptable range under present conditions.

  3. Risk factors identified for owner-reported feline obesity at around one year of age: Dry diet and indoor lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Browne, William; Casey, Rachel; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Murray, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. Previous studies investigating risk factors for feline obesity have been cross-sectional, where reverse causality cannot be ruled out. This study is the first to use prospective data from a large scale longitudinal study of pet cats ('Bristol Cats') to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity at around one year of age. Data analysed were collected via three owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged 2-4 months, 6.5-7 months and 12.5-13 months) completed between May 2010 and August 2013. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age 12.5-13 months, using the 5-point system, were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 4-5) and not overweight (BCS 1-3) and used as the dependent variable. Cat breed, neuter status, outdoor access, type of diet, frequency of wet and dry food fed and frequency of treats fed were analysed as potential risk factors. Of the 966 cats for which data were available, 7.0% were reported by their owners to be overweight/obese at 12.5-13 months of age. Descriptive data on type of diet fed at different cat ages suggest that a dry diet is the most popular choice for UK domestic cats. Significant potential explanatory variables from univariable logistic regression models were included in multivariable logistic regression models built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering of data due to multi-cat households these were extended to two-level random intercept models. Models were compared using Wald test p- values. Clustering had no impact on the analysis. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified two risk factors that were independently associated with an increased risk of feline obesity developing at 12.5-13 months of age: restricted or no outdoor access and feeding dry food as the only or major (>50%) type of food in the diet at age 12

  4. PREDICT‐PD: An online approach to prospectively identify risk indicators of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Alastair J.; R'Bibo, Lea; Peress, Luisa; Bestwick, Jonathan P.; Adams‐Carr, Kerala L.; Mencacci, Niccolo E.; Hawkes, Christopher H.; Masters, Joseph M.; Wood, Nicholas; Hardy, John; Giovannoni, Gavin; Lees, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Background A number of early features can precede the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Objective To test an online, evidence‐based algorithm to identify risk indicators of PD in the UK population. Methods Participants aged 60 to 80 years without PD completed an online survey and keyboard‐tapping task annually over 3 years, and underwent smell tests and genotyping for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and leucine‐rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations. Risk scores were calculated based on the results of a systematic review of risk factors and early features of PD, and individuals were grouped into higher (above 15th centile), medium, and lower risk groups (below 85th centile). Previously defined indicators of increased risk of PD (“intermediate markers”), including smell loss, rapid eye movement–sleep behavior disorder, and finger‐tapping speed, and incident PD were used as outcomes. The correlation of risk scores with intermediate markers and movement of individuals between risk groups was assessed each year and prospectively. Exploratory Cox regression analyses with incident PD as the dependent variable were performed. Results A total of 1323 participants were recruited at baseline and >79% completed assessments each year. Annual risk scores were correlated with intermediate markers of PD each year and baseline scores were correlated with intermediate markers during follow‐up (all P values power for incident PD was improved by the addition of genetic variants to risk scores. Conclusions The online PREDICT‐PD algorithm is a unique and simple method to identify indicators of PD risk. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:28090684

  5. Typical halogenated persistent organic pollutants in indoor dust and the associations with childhood asthma in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Feng, Yan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Yin, Yong; Wang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated persistent organic pollutants (Hal-POPs) are significant contaminants in the indoor environment that are related to many human diseases. Ingestion of indoor dust is considered the major pathway of Hal-POP exposures, especially for children aged 3-6 years. Alongside a retrospective study on the associations between typical Hal-POP exposure and childhood asthma in Shanghai, indoor dust samples from asthmatic and non-asthmatic children's homes (n = 60, each) were collected. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured by GC-MS. BDE-209, PCB-8 and p,p'-DDE were the predominant components in each chemical category. The concentrations of most Hal-POPs were significantly higher in the asthmatic families. The associations between Hal-POP exposure and asthma occurrence were examined by calculating the odds ratios (ORs) using a logistic regression model. A positive association was found between p,p'-DDE in indoor dust and childhood asthma (OR = 1.825, 95%CI: 1.004, 3.317; p = 0.048). The average daily doses of Hal-POP intake were calculated using the method provided by the USEPA. Non-carcinogenic health risks were preliminarily assessed. Our study indicated that exposure to p,p'-DDE via indoor dust may contribute to childhood asthma occurrence. Non-carcinogenic health risks were not found with the intake of Hal-POPs via the ingestion of indoor dust.

  6. Risk and monitoring based indicators of receiving water status: alternative or complementary elements in IWRM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, J; Richter, S; Borchardt, D; Mohaupt, V

    2013-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) was enacted in the year 2000 with a stepwise approach. After legal implementation in the various member states large efforts were undertaken for the initial characterization of water bodies, risk assessment, to implement extensive monitoring schemes and to develop management plans at different aggregation levels by the year 2010. The initial characterization process and risk assessment had to be finalized by 2004 and delineated water bodies including a typological classification and identified the significant pressures and impacts in a screening procedure. In parallel, monitoring programmes and new biological indicator systems were developed in order to proof and refine the results of the risk assessment with an ecological indicator based assessment in a subsequent step which was finalized in 2009. Although the risk assessment for Germany was based on existing data that were originally collected for other purposes and came from a large variety of environmental or economical sectors, the results differ only slightly from the monitoring and indicator based information with respect to classifications of the 'ecological status' and 'chemical status'. From this result we conclude that a risk assessment based on a careful application and intelligent combination of existing data sources with proven quality allows the recognition of trends and the identification of priorities for action of measures already at an early stage of a management process. However, monitoring schemes and advanced sets of ecological indicators are essential in later management steps both for narrowing uncertainties remaining from the risk assessment and to allow for effect controls of implemented measures. Moreover, these monitoring indicators should differentiate the effects of multiple stressors more factor specific and with respect to ecosystem states and functions. In conclusion, we see risk and indicator based assessments as complementary elements

  7. Chemical Analysis, Distributed Modelling and Risk Indices. Three Fundamental Pillars in Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Benfenati

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Risk Assessment (RA of pollutants from contaminated sites and landfills is a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. The high number of contaminants and the lack of knowledge of their environmental properties and their ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics complicate the problem. Furthermore, this information about the chemicals has to be combined with the data relative to the territory and to the targets. We will describe the problems relative to each topic involved in the process, and we will propose an integrated methodology for coping with these problems, using state-of-the-art approaches in each part of the protocol. This methodology has been applied in several real cases.

  8. [Indoor environments, work and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbritti, G

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the activities of most of the working population are carried out in confined, non-industrial environments such as offices, hospitals, libraries, social and leisure centres and means of transport. Sub-optimal air quality in these confined spaces can lead to discomfort, ailments and even diseases. The impact and diffusion of these effects have led to the organisation and funding of large-scale epidemiological investigations in many countries and the nomination of working parties by governments, health agencies and international scientific societies. Over the past 20 years studies on indoor environments have identified sources of risk of various pollutants, established the levels of potentially dangerous concentrations and, for most of them, have provided effective measures. However, the effects of many biological agents and chemical mixtures still remain to be defined and effective guidelines are needed for high quality indoor air. Identifying and managing indoor risk factors presupposes a specific methodology: the specialist in occupational medicine can play a key role in risk assessment, in the early diagnosis of building-related illnesses and in the prevention of both short- and long-term effects.

  9. Changes in Cross-Correlations as an Indicator for Systemic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Podobnik, Boris; Feng, Ling; Li, Baowen

    2012-11-01

    The 2008-2012 global financial crisis began with the global recession in December 2007 and exacerbated in September 2008, during which the U.S. stock markets lost 20% of value from its October 11 2007 peak. Various studies reported that financial crisis are associated with increase in both cross-correlations among stocks and stock indices and the level of systemic risk. In this paper, we study 10 different Dow Jones economic sector indexes, and applying principle component analysis (PCA) we demonstrate that the rate of increase in principle components with short 12-month time windows can be effectively used as an indicator of systemic risk--the larger the change of PC1, the higher the increase of systemic risk. Clearly, the higher the level of systemic risk, the more likely a financial crisis would occur in the near future.

  10. Increased risks of malaria due to limited residual life of insecticide and outdoor biting versus protection by combined use of nets and indoor residual spraying on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley John

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, with year-round transmission. In 2004 an intensive malaria control strategy primarily based on indoor residual spraying (IRS was launched. The limited residual life of IRS poses particular challenges in a setting with year-round transmission, such as Bioko. Recent reports of outdoor biting by Anopheles gambiae are an additional cause for concern. In this study, the effect of the short residual life of bendiocarb insecticide and of children spending time outdoors at night, on malaria infection prevalence was examined. Methods Data from the 2011 annual malaria indicator survey and from standard WHO cone bioassays were used to examine the relationship between time since IRS, mosquito mortality and prevalence of infection in children. How often children spend time outside at night and the association of this behaviour with malaria infection were also examined. Results Prevalence of malaria infection in two to 14 year-olds in 2011 was 18.4%, 21.0% and 28.1% in communities with median time since IRS of three, four and five months respectively. After adjusting for confounders, each extra month since IRS corresponded to an odds ratio (OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.15–1.81 for infection prevalence in two to 14 year-olds. Mosquito mortality was 100%, 96%, 81% and 78%, at month 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively after spraying. Only 4.1% of children spent time outside the night before the survey between the hours of 22.00 and 06.00 and those who did were not at a higher risk of infection (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.50–1.54. Sleeping under a mosquito net provided additive protection (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.86. Conclusions The results demonstrate the epidemiological impact of reduced mosquito mortality with time since IRS. The study underscores that in settings of year-round transmission there is a compelling need for longer-lasting IRS insecticides, but that in the interim, high coverage of long

  11. Indoor bioaerosol dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaroff, William W

    2016-02-01

    Inhaling indoor air is the primary means by which humans are exposed to bioaerosols. Considering bacteria, fungi, and viruses, this study reviews the dynamic processes that govern indoor concentrations and fates of biological particulate material. Bioaerosol behavior is strongly coupled to particle size; this study emphasizes the range 0.1-10 μm in aerodynamic diameter. The principle of material balance allows concentrations to be determined from knowledge of important source and removal processes. Sources reviewed here include outdoor air introduced by air exchange plus indoor emission from occupants, occupant activities, and moldy materials. Important mechanisms that remove bioaerosols from indoor air include air exchange, deposition onto indoor surfaces, and active filtration. The review summarizes knowledge about size-dependent particle deposition in different regions of the respiratory tract, techniques for measuring indoor bioaerosols, and evidence for diseases caused by airborne exposure to bioaerosols. Future research challenges and opportunities are highlighted.

  12. Risk indicators for dental erosive wear among 18-yr-old subjects in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulic, Aida; Skudutyte-Rysstad, Rasa; Tveit, Anne B; Skaare, Anne B

    2012-12-01

    The aim was to investigate risk indicators associated with dental erosive wear among 18-yr-old subjects in Oslo, Norway. Of 3,206 adolescents invited to participate in a screening examination for erosive wear, 1,456 were examined (giving a response rate of 45%). As part of the examination all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Associations between the presence of erosive lesions and the possible risk indicators were assessed by logistic regression analyses, taking into account the hierarchical relationships between the independent variables. Of all 18-yr-old subjects examined, 38% had at least one tooth with erosive lesions. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between the presence of erosive wear and being male, brushing teeth once per day or less, episodes of vomiting, daily/weekly episodes of gastro-oesophageal reflux, consumption of fruit juice and sugary soft drinks several times per day, as well as consumption of sugary soft drinks daily to once per week. In conclusion, in addition to gender, dietary habits such as frequent consumption of fruit juice and sugary soft drinks, and the occurrence of reflux and vomiting, appear to be risk indicators for erosive wear. When counselling adolescents at risk, the gender-specific risk indicators should be taken into account.

  13. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  14. Indoor Climate Quality Assessment -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansaldi, Roberta; Asadi, Ehsan; Costa, José Joaquim

    This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies for measure...... for measurement and monitoring have allowed a significantly increased number of possible applications, especially in existing buildings. The Guidebook illustrates several cases with the instrumentation of the monitoring and assessment of indoor climate....

  15. Indoor multipath mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragünas, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    There are many applications that require continuous positioning in combined outdoor urban and indoor environments. GNSS has been used for a long time in outdoor environments, while indoor positioning is still a challenging task. One of the major degradations that GNSS receivers experience indoors...... is the presence of multipath. The current paper analyzes several available multipath mitigation techniques which would be suitable for indoor applications. A few deconvolution based techniques such as the Projection Onto Convex Sets and the Deconvolution Approach are selected for closer investigation...

  16. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC......) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only...

  17. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC......) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only...

  18. Megacity Indicator System for Disaster Risk Management in Istanbul (MegaIST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya Menteşe, Emin; Kılıç, Osman; Baş, Mahmut; Khazai, Bijan; Ergün Konukcu, Betul; Emre Basmacı, Ahmet

    2017-04-01

    Decision makers need tools to understand the priorities and to set up benchmarks and track progress in their disaster risk reduction activities, so that they can justify their decisions and investments. In this regard, Megacity Indicator System for Disaster Risk Management (MegaIST), is developed in order to be used in disaster risk management studies, for decision makers and managers to establish right strategies and proper risk reduction actions, enhance resource management and investment decisions, set priorities, monitor progress in DRM and validate decisions taken with the aim of helping disaster oriented urban redevelopment, inform investors about risk profile of the city and providing a basis for dissemination and sharing of risk components with related stakeholders; by Directorate of Earthquake and Ground Research of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM). MegaIST achieves these goals by analyzing the earthquake risk in three separate but complementary sub-categories consisting of "urban seismic risk, coping capacity and disaster risk management index" in an integrated way. MegaIST model fosters its analyses by presenting the outputs in a simple and user friendly format benefiting from GIS technology that ensures the adoptability of the model's use. Urban seismic risk analysis includes two components, namely; Physical Risk and Social Vulnerability Analysis. Physical risk analysis is based on the possible physical losses (such as building damage, casualties etc.) due to an earthquake while social vulnerability is considered as a factor that increases the results of the physical losses in correlation with the level of education, health, economic status and disaster awareness/preparedness of society. Coping capacity analysis is carried out with the aim of understanding the readiness of the Municipality to respond and recover from a disaster in Istanbul can be defined both in terms of the Municipality's operational capacities - the capacity of the

  19. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Stagge, James Howard; Tallaksen, Lena M.; De Stefano, Lucia; Vogt, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, meant as the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work tests the capability of commonly applied drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and combines information on past drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This hybrid approach bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact prediction in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro-region-specific sensitivities of drought indices, with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for a 12-month accumulation period as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictors, with information about land use and water resources being the best vulnerability-based predictors. The application of the hybrid approach revealed strong regional and sector-specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of the best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer accumulation periods, and a combination of information on land use and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information with drought risk prediction

  20. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, hazard indicators and vulnerability factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauhut, V.; Stahl, K.; Stagge, J. H.; Tallaksen, L. M.; De Stefano, L.; Vogt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work (1) tests the capability of commonly applied hazard indicators and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and (2) combines information on past drought impacts, drought hazard indicators, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This "hybrid approach" bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact forecast in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro region specific sensitivities of hazard indicators, with the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for a twelve month aggregation period (SPEI-12) as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictor, with information about landuse and water resources as best vulnerability-based predictors. (3) The application of the "hybrid approach" revealed strong regional (NUTS combo level) and sector specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer aggregation periods, and a combination of information on landuse and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information

  1. COPD and chronic bronchitis risk of indoor air pollution from solid fuel: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmi, Om P; Semple, Sean; Simkhada, Padam; Smith, W Cairns S; Ayres, Jon G

    2010-03-01

    Over half the world is exposed daily to the smoke from combustion of solid fuels. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main contributors to the global burden of disease and can be caused by biomass smoke exposure. However, studies of biomass exposure and COPD show a wide range of effect sizes. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the impact of biomass smoke on the development of COPD and define reasons for differences in the reported effect sizes. A systematic review was conducted of studies with sufficient statistical power to calculate the health risk of COPD from the use of solid fuel, which followed standardised criteria for the diagnosis of COPD and which dealt with confounding factors. The results were pooled by fuel type and country to produce summary estimates using a random effects model. Publication bias was also estimated. There were positive associations between the use of solid fuels and COPD (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.85 to 4.0) and chronic bronchitis (OR=2.32, 95% CI 1.92 to 2.80). Pooled estimates for different types of fuel show that exposure to wood smoke while performing domestic work presents a greater risk of development of COPD and chronic bronchitis than other fuels. Despite heterogeneity across the selected studies, exposure to solid fuel smoke is consistently associated with COPD and chronic bronchitis. Efforts should be made to reduce exposure to solid fuel by using either cleaner fuel or relatively cleaner technology while performing domestic work.

  2. Disaster Risk Management and Measurement Indicators for Cultural Heritage in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Y. N.; Cheng, C. F.; Cheng, H. M.

    2015-08-01

    Under the influence of global climate change, the risk preparedness has become a universal issue in different research fields. In the conservation of cultural heritage, disaster risk management is becoming one of the major research topics. Besides researches on the theory and mechanism of disaster risk management, the tools for the performance of site managers to protect cultural heritage is another important issue that needs development. UNESCO and ICOMOS have released some important documents on disaster risk management including its concept, identification, evaluation, mitigation, monitoring and resilience, etc. However, there is a big gap between concept and implementation in Taiwan. Presently there are 2000 monuments in Taiwan that hardly meet the modern code. First, based on international documents released, this research presents 13 disaster indicators on monuments and their environments. Next, 345 monuments in northern Taiwan are taken as examples to evaluate their risk situations with indicators designed in 2011. Some positive recommendations were given at the same time. As a result, a comparative evaluation was completed in 2012 and some key issues are found, such as too many electrical facilities, lack of efficient firefighting equipment, and a shortage of management mechanism, just to name a few. Through the improvement of the management, some major risk can be mitigated. In 2013~14, this research took 23 national monuments from the 345 monuments to evaluate their risk situations and compare the differences between national and local monuments. Results show that almost all management mechanisms in the national monuments have been established and are running well. However, problems like inappropriate electrical facilities and insufficient monitoring equipment remain. In addition, the performance of private monuments is not as good as public ones. Based on the collected information and evaluation, this research develops safety measures of heritage

  3. Risk indicators for referral during labor from community midwife to gynecologist : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, Ewoud; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W P M; van der Goes, Birgit Y; Overbeeke, Ilanit; Moons, Karel G M; Mol, Ben W J; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Kwee, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk indicators for referral during labor from community midwife to a gynecologist in a prospective cohort of women with a singleton term pregnancy, starting labor with a community midwife between 2000 and 2007, registered in the Dutch national perinatal registry. MAIN OUTCOME

  4. The indication for hysterectomy as a risk factor for subsequent pelvic organ prolapse repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, Jan; Ottesen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the indication for hysterectomy was itself a risk factor for subsequent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in Danish women who underwent hysterectomy from 1977 to 2009. METHODS: Data from 154,882 women who underwent hysterectomy...

  5. Risk indicators predictive for severe hypoglycemia during the first trimester of type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, IM; van der Schoot, B; ter Braak, EWMT; Janssen, N; de Valk, HW; Visser, GHA

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES- To investigate the frequency of severe hypoglycemia (SH) and hypoglycemic coma during the first trimester of type 1 diabetic pregnancy and in the 4 months before gestation and to identify risk indicators predicting first trimester SH in a nonselected nationwide cohort of pregnant women w

  6. FoodSteps : The effects of a worksite environmental intervention on cardiovascular risk indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbers, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation describes the results of the FoodSteps project. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effects of a relatively modest worksite environmental intervention on physical activity, food habits and biological cardiovascular risk indicators. The effects of FoodSteps study are eva

  7. The importance of microalbuminuria as a cardiovascular risk indicator : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, GFH; van Boven, AJ; Hillege, JL; de Jong, PE; Rouleau, JL; van Gilst, WH

    The present review describes the knowledge of microalbuminuria as a cardiovascular risk indicator. Microalbuminuria is usually defined as a urinary albumin excretion rate of 30 to 300 mg, in a 24 h urine collection, or as a urinary albumin excretion rate of 20 to 200 mg/min in a timed overnight

  8. The importance of microalbuminuria as a cardiovascular risk indicator : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, GFH; van Boven, AJ; Hillege, JL; de Jong, PE; Rouleau, JL; van Gilst, WH

    2002-01-01

    The present review describes the knowledge of microalbuminuria as a cardiovascular risk indicator. Microalbuminuria is usually defined as a urinary albumin excretion rate of 30 to 300 mg, in a 24 h urine collection, or as a urinary albumin excretion rate of 20 to 200 mg/min in a timed overnight urin

  9. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  10. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Contact Us Share Introduction to Indoor Air Quality Health Effects Primary Causes Identifying Problems Improving IAQ ...

  11. Multivariate market risk evaluation between Malaysian Islamic stock index and sectoral indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sew Lai Ng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Without an efficient financial risk management, it may cause massive consequences to a financial institution as well as individual. Therefore, developing a methodology which gives precise estimates to reduce the exposure of risk to a minimum is of great importance. This paper uses an asymmetric BEKK-GARCH model to examine the return and volatility linkages between the FTSE Bursa Malaysia Emas Shariah (FBMS index and the sectoral indices under a normal market. The findings suggest that the FBMS plays a leading role in the mean return spillover effect. There is a strong evidence of significant transmission of past shocks, volatilities and leverage effects are observed on the current conditional variance-covariance in all the pair-wise models. These empirical results are helpful in quantifying the cross-market risk evaluation, risk minimizing weight and cross-market hedge ratio for strategizing appropriate portfolio selection.

  12. Impact of Climate Change on Five Major Crop Fungal Diseases: Building Climatic Indicators of Infection Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, M.; Caubel, J.; Bourgeois, G.; Huard, F.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.

    2013-12-01

    The climate change will modify the severity and occurrence of fungal crop diseases, as the bioclimatic niches of pathogens will shift according to temperature and rainfall patterns evolution. Therefore it becomes necessary to integrate fungal disease pressure assessment into evaluation tools of crop suitability at the regional level. The aim of this study was to build two climatic indicators, the Average Infection Efficiency (AIE) and the Number of Infection Days (NID), quantifying the potential effect of climate on infection intensity and occurrence. A simple and continuous function was developed to calculate them, which is easy to parameterize from experimental measurements, usable on large spatial scales and adaptable to various pathogens. The evolution of those climatic indicators was then studied for five major fungal crop diseases in Northern France, the phoma of oilseed rape, the potato late blight, the downy mildew of grape, the leaf rust of wheat and the net blotch of barley. These indicators were applied on a multisite analysis in Northern France. They were calculated during the crop cycle when the host plant is able to be infected, over the period between 1970 and 2100 for the balanced scenario of climate change A1B. In late spring and summer, higher temperatures combined with lower humidity reduced the risk of infection of potato late blight and downy mildew of grape. In autumn and spring the balance between warmer temperatures and lower humidity determined the risk of infection on oilseed rape and cereals: increased risk in late autumn and early spring, and decreased risk in early autumn and mid-spring when low humidity becomes limiting. This statement highlighted the need for using between year scale for a relevant analysis of climate change impact on infection risk. The indicators we developed are thus useful for land management at regional scale and medium term, in particular for stakeholders who need decision support tools through which they could

  13. Using a relative health indicator (RHI) metric to estimate health risk reductions in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo, Katherine A; Seidel, Chad; Ghosh, Amlan; Roberson, J Alan

    2017-03-01

    When a new drinking water regulation is being developed, the USEPA conducts a health risk reduction and cost analysis to, in part, estimate quantifiable and non-quantifiable cost and benefits of the various regulatory alternatives. Numerous methodologies are available for cumulative risk assessment ranging from primarily qualitative to primarily quantitative. This research developed a summary metric of relative cumulative health impacts resulting from drinking water, the relative health indicator (RHI). An intermediate level of quantification and modeling was chosen, one which retains the concept of an aggregated metric of public health impact and hence allows for comparisons to be made across "cups of water," but avoids the need for development and use of complex models that are beyond the existing state of the science. Using the USEPA Six-Year Review data and available national occurrence surveys of drinking water contaminants, the metric is used to test risk reduction as it pertains to the implementation of the arsenic and uranium maximum contaminant levels and quantify "meaningful" risk reduction. Uranium represented the threshold risk reduction against which national non-compliance risk reduction was compared for arsenic, nitrate, and radium. Arsenic non-compliance is most significant and efforts focused on bringing those non-compliant utilities into compliance with the 10 μg/L maximum contaminant level would meet the threshold for meaningful risk reduction.

  14. Socioeconomic indicators of heat-related health risk supplemented with remotely sensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luber George C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme heat events are the number one cause of weather-related fatalities in the United States. The current system of alert for extreme heat events does not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature derived from thermal remote sensing data. Results Comparison of logistic regression models indicates that supplementing known sociodemographic risk factors with remote sensing estimates of land surface temperature improves the delineation of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat events. Conclusion Thermal remote sensing data can be utilized to improve understanding of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat. The refinement of current risk assessment systems could increase the likelihood of survival during extreme heat events and assist emergency personnel in the delivery of vital resources during such disasters.

  15. Assessing the combined risks of PAHs and metals in urban soils by urbanization indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Li, Xiaoma; Crittenden, John C

    2013-07-01

    We quantitatively describe the impacts of urbanization on the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) in urban soils as well as their health risks to residents. Residential building age, population density, road density, and distance from urban center were used as urbanization level indicators. Significant correlations were found between those urbanization indicators and the amounts of PAHs, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and As in residential soils. The exposure time of soils to urban air was the primary factor affecting soil pollution, followed by local road density and population density. Factor analysis suggested that 59.0% of the elevated pollutant concentrations were caused by citywide uniform deposition, and 15.3% were resulted from short-range deposition and/or non-combustion processes. The combined health risks posed by soil PAHs and HMs were aggravated with time and can be expressed as functions of residence age, road density, and other urbanization indicators.

  16. An indicators' based approach to Drought and Water Scarcity Risk Mapping in Pinios River Basin, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossida, Maggie; Mimikou, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the vulnerability and the associated risk to water scarcity and drought is a complex multi-factor problem. The underlying exposure to climatic stresses may be similar even in quite different conditions, yet the vulnerability and prevailing risk are a function of the socio-economic state, the current policy and institutional setting, the adaptive capacity of the affected area and population, and the response strategies adopted (Kossida et al., 2012). Although flood risk assessment has been elaborated under the EU Floods Directive, there is currently a lack of analytical frameworks for the definition and assessment of drought and water scarcity related risk at European level. This can partially be attributed to the inherent complexity of such phenomena which lie at the crossroads between physical and anthropogenic drivers and pressures, operating on many scales, and with a variety of impacts on many sectors. The quantification of the various components of drought and water scarcity risk is challenging since data present limitations, relevant indicators that can represent or proxy the various components are still not clearly defined, while their relevant weights need to be determined in view of the prevailing regional conditions. The current study in Pinios River Basin, an area highly impacted by drought and water scarcity, proposes a methodology for drought and water scarcity risk assessment using blended indicators. Using the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) as a base drought indicator, relevant sub-indicators reflecting the magnitude, severity, duration and recurrence of drought events from 1980-2011 have been produced. These sub-indicators have been assigned relevant scores and have been blended into a Drought Vulnerability Index (DVI) using different weights derived from an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The resulting map of DVI has been then blended with additional socio-economic indicators of surface and groundwater exploitation, water deficit

  17. Your Indoor Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the July 24, 2007 edition of "ExchangeEveryday", readers were asked to submit great indoor space elements from their early childhood programs. Readers sent photographs and brief descriptions of creative elements of their indoor environments. A sampling of ideas are shown on this article.

  18. A CFD study for evaluating the effects of natural ventilation on indoor comfort conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora-Pérez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings due to the increased awareness about environmental impact and energy cost. Natural ventilation is an environmentally friendly technique which has become more attractive way for reducing energy use while it also provides acceptable comfort conditions. The research shows a case study building in which the natural ventilation effect due to wind-driven forces on indoor comfort conditions is evaluated. Moreover, the architectural solutions selected during the building design phase to improve the natural ventilation behaviour are successfully validated in a full-scale building. The indoor comfort conditions are evaluated through contrasted performance indicators: draught risk (DR, predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD and predicted mean vote (PMV indexes. The results show that air movement due to natural ventilation allows increasing indoor air temperature maintaining the initial comfort conditions. Therefore, the mechanical air conditioning use can be postponed until the indoor air temperature is high and would, consequently, reduce the total building energy consumption. Thereby, a proper natural ventilation focus during the initial design stage could improve the building energy efficiency without compromising the indoor comfort conditions.

  19. [THE USE OF RISK INDICES IN PROCEDURES OF VERIFICATION OF BABY FOOD QUALITY CONFORMANCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buymova, S A; Bubnov, A G

    2016-01-01

    There is considered the possibility of the use of risk indices with regard to their use in certification and validation of conformity assessment and food conformance, including those recommended for children. There were investigated samples of oatmeals, potted meats, liver pate, fruit-vegetable puree. The calculation of risk values was based on original data of quantitative analysis that was performed with the use of thermogravimetric, photometric, titrimetric, and potentiometric methods, as well as methods of gas-liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the base of data of the chemical analysis of the ingredients of a set of food products, including assigned for baby nutrition, all the tested samples were shown to meet the requirements for the controlled regulatory standards on control indices of quality. The calculation of average daily doses of the intake of metal compounds (Cu, Zn, Fe, Na, Ca, Mg) consumed by adult and child's organisms through tested food showed that such doses are allowable since they do not exceed maximum daily dose and average daily requirements. However, some samples were referred to the category of high risk food, because the used method of individual's lifetime risk calculation takes into consideration all possible negative effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, embryogenic, etc) of the impact of pollutants on the human body. It is shown that in addition to the sanitary and hygienic criteria of food quality, the risks of such food consumption should be taken into consideration by the Technical Regulations and other normative documentations.

  20. Indoor Climate Quality Assessment -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansaldi, Roberta; Asadi, Ehsan; Costa, José Joaquim

    This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies for measure......This Guidebook gives building professionals useful support in the practical measurements and monitoring of the indoor climate in buildings. It is evident that energy consumption in a building is directly influenced by required and maintained indoor comfort level. Wireless technologies...... for measurement and monitoring have allowed a significantly increased number of possible applications, especially in existing buildings. The Guidebook illustrates several cases with the instrumentation of the monitoring and assessment of indoor climate....

  1. Obstetric risk indicators for labour dystocia in nulliparous women: A multi-centre cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottesen Bent

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In nulliparous women dystocia is the most common obstetric problem and its etiology is largely unknown. The frequency of augmentation and cesarean delivery related to dystocia is high although it is not clear if a slow progress justifies the interventions. Studies of risk factors for dystocia often do not provide diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to identify obstetric and clinical risk indicators of dystocia defined by strict and explicit criteria. Methods A multi-centre population based cohort study with prospectively collected data from 2810 nulliparous women in term spontaneous labour with a singleton infant in cephalic presentation. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires and clinical data-records. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate adjusted Odds Ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI are given. Results The following characteristics, present at admission to hospital, were associated with dystocia during labour (OR, 95% CI: dilatation of cervix Conclusion Vaginal examinations at admission provide useful information on risk indicators for dystocia. The strongest risk indicator was use of epidural analgesia and if part of that is causal, it is of concern.

  2. Indoor environment program - 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  3. Indoor environment program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  4. Body mass and risk of complications after hysterectomy on benign indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Merete; Daugbjerg, Signe; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Ottesen, Bent

    2011-06-01

    This study examines BMI in relation to risk of complications after hysterectomy on benign indications, and explores whether any associations vary by route of surgery. In this cohort study, we included data on health and lifestyle collected prospectively for all hysterectomy referrals for benign indications in Denmark from 2004 to 2009. Logistic regression was used to investigate relationship between BMI and complications reported at surgery or during the first 30 days after surgery. RESULTS; Of the 20 353 women with complete data, 6.0% had a BMI obese). The overall rate of complications was 17.6%, with bleeding being the most common specific complication (6.8%). After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, indication for surgery, uterus weight, use of prophylaxis, American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification, co-morbidity status and route of hysterectomy, obesity was associated with an increased risk of heavy bleeding during surgery [odds ratio (OR) = 3.64 (2.90-4.56)], all bleeding complications [OR = 1.27 (1.08-1.48)] and infection [OR = 1.47 (1.23-1.77)]. The risk of all bleeding complications [OR = 1.48 (1.28-1.82)] and re-operation [OR = 1.66 (1.26-2.17)] were also increased among women with a BMI hysterectomy (AH)]. The risk of infections was elevated among women with BMIlaparoscopic surgery [laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH)]. CONCLUSIONS; Obesity increases the risks of bleeding and infections after AH. A BMI below 20 seems to increase the risks of bleeding and infection after AH and LH, respectively.

  5. Association between nutritional indicators and risk of hospitalization among hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia SZUCK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To verify the ability of nutritional indicators to predict risk of hospitalization in hemodialysis patients. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted in two hemodialysis units in Southern Brazil. The following nutritional indicators were evaluated: subjective global assessment, malnutrition-inflammation score, nutritional risk screening 2002, percentage of body fat, mid-upper arm muscle circumference, hand grip strength, phase angle, and serum albumin. The association between nutritional indicators and risk of hospitalization over a period of two years was analyzed. Results One hundred thirty-eight patients (55.4±15.2 years, 61.6% men were evaluated. The cumulative incidence of hospitalization during the study was 48.0% (95%CI=37.9-58.0. Patients hospitalized during the study period had higher body mass index and lower serum albumin than those who were not hospitalized. Based on the other indicators, malnourished patients did not have a significant risk of hospitalization (p>0.05. Serum albumin was the only predictor of hospitalization. Patients with levels <3.8 g/dL had a density ratio for incidence of hospitalization 2.47 times greater than those with higher levels (p=0.003. Gender was a modifier of the effect (p interaction=0.042, with an effect in women of 7.31 (95%CI=2.34-22.9; p=0.001 and in men of 1.37 (95%CI=0.60-3.12; p=0.448. Conclusion Serum albumin was able to predict the risk of hospitalization over a period of two years in female patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  6. Process capability indices and risk analysis for circular position tolerance zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystek, Michael P.

    2010-08-01

    Position tolerance is used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing to specify tolerances for the location of holes. The tolerance zone for holes is usually cylindrical and the allowable position tolerance is the diameter of the tolerance zone. If holes are used in flat parts, as e. g. sheet metals, it is sufficient to use circular tolerance zones. In order to assure the quality and to reduce the risk to accept products which do not fulfil the design requirements, statistical process control is used in industry. In this paper it is shown, how process capability indices and the associated risk can be calculated for circular position tolerance zones.

  7. Obstetric risk indicators for labour dystocia in nulliparous women: a multi-centre cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, H.; Olsen, J.; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In nulliparous women dystocia is the most common obstetric problem and its etiology is largely unknown. The frequency of augmentation and cesarean delivery related to dystocia is high although it is not clear if a slow progress justifies the interventions. Studies of risk factors...... for dystocia often do not provide diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to identify obstetric and clinical risk indicators of dystocia defined by strict and explicit criteria. METHODS: A multi-centre population based cohort study with prospectively collected data from 2810......: The following characteristics, present at admission to hospital, were associated with dystocia during labour (OR, 95% CI): dilatation of cervix

  8. A comparison of the predictive power of anthropometric indices for hypertension and hypotension risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Ju Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is commonly accepted that body fat distribution is associated with hypertension, but the strongest anthropometric indicator of the risk of hypertension is still controversial. Furthermore, no studies on the association of hypotension with anthropometric indices have been reported. The objectives of the present study were to determine the best predictors of hypertension and hypotension among various anthropometric indices and to assess the use of combined indices as a method of improving the predictive power in adult Korean women and men. METHODS: For 12789 subjects 21-85 years of age, we assessed 41 anthropometric indices using statistical analyses and data mining techniques to determine their ability to discriminate between hypertension and normotension as well as between hypotension and normotension. We evaluated the predictive power of combined indices using two machine learning algorithms and two variable subset selection techniques. RESULTS: The best indicator for predicting hypertension was rib circumference in both women (p = <0.0001; OR = 1.813; AUC = 0.669 and men (p = <0.0001; OR = 1.601; AUC = 0.627; for hypotension, the strongest predictor was chest circumference in women (p = <0.0001; OR = 0.541; AUC = 0.657 and neck circumference in men (p = <0.0001; OR = 0.522; AUC = 0.672. In experiments using combined indices, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC for the prediction of hypertension risk in women and men were 0.721 and 0.652, respectively, according to the logistic regression with wrapper-based variable selection; for hypotension, the corresponding values were 0.675 in women and 0.737 in men, according to the naïve Bayes with wrapper-based variable selection. CONCLUSIONS: The best indicators of the risk of hypertension and the risk of hypotension may differ. The use of combined indices seems to slightly improve the predictive

  9. Development and application of indices using large volcanic databases for a global hazard and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Auker, Melanie; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Delgado Granados, Hugo; Loughlin, Sue; Ortiz Guerrero, Natalie; Sparks, Steve; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Taskforce, Indices

    2015-04-01

    The Global Volcano Model (GVM) and IAVCEI were commissioned by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction to produce a global assessment of volcanic hazard and risk for the Global Assessment Report 2015 (GAR15). This involved presenting both an introduction to volcanology and developing indices to assess hazard and risk on a global scale. To this end two open-access databases were of utmost importance: the Global Volcanism Program's Volcanoes of the World (http://www.volcano.si.edu) and the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions database (LaMEVE; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/vogripa/). Indices were developed to enable a relative global assessment cognisant of data uncertainty and availability to broadly identify how hazard and risk varies around the world, the extent of monitoring and strengths and limitations in knowledge. The accessibility of both physical (e.g. volcano, eruption) and social data is crucial to our understanding of past behaviour, forecasting probable future behaviour and the potential impacts on communities. Such data is regionally highly variable and the eruption record worsens back in time. The Volcanic Hazard Index (VHI) was designed to quantify hazard levels globally, based on the Holocene eruption record. Vulnerability to eruptions was measured using the Population Exposure Index, which weights the population within 100 km of volcanoes by area and historical fatalities. The combination of these indices provides an indicator of population risk at individual volcanoes. The VHI was also combined with the total populations living within 30 km of volcanoes in each country to develop an understanding of the global distribution of volcano threat, and to rank countries by this measure. About half of the historically active volcanoes have insufficient information to adequately calculate VHI and these are highlighted as requiring future research. A database currently in development, GLOVOREMID, collates monitoring data to understand

  10. Landmark-Based Indoor Positioning for Visually Impaired Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Zhang, Hong; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2014-10-01

    Position localization is essential for visually impaired individuals to live independently. Comparing with outdoor environment in which the global positioning system (GPS) can be utilized, indoor positioning is more difficult due to the absence of the GPS signal and complex or unfamiliar building structure. In this paper, a novel landmark-based assistive system is presented for indoor positioning. Our preliminary tests in several buildings indicate that this system can provide accurate indoor location information.

  11. The influence of work patterns on indicators of cardiometabolic risk in female hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Megan; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Janssen, Ian; Tranmer, Joan

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the associations between work patterns and indicators of cardiometabolic risk in female hospital employees. Aspects of work environments potentially influence the health of employees; however, we have a poor understanding of how different hospital work patterns contribute to cardiovascular risk in female employees. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 466 female employees from 2 hospitals in Ontario. Data were collected through self-report, physical examination, and use of hospital administrative work data. In the adjusted analyses, full-time work status, extended shift length, and working 35 or more paid overtime hours per year were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Different work patterns increase cardiometabolic risk in female employees, suggesting a need to better monitor the health of the workforce and implement healthy workplace policy.

  12. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG INDICATORS OF FITNESS, FATNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Strachan Buchan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In adults, fatness and low cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with a higher prevalence of chronic disease risk and mortality. The association between measures of physical fitness and fatness upon cardiovascular risk in youth, however, is less clear. The effects of adiposity and physical fitness upon cardiovascular disease risk factors in youth are receiving increasing attention but studies that have examined their independent associations are sparse. The purpose of this study thus was to investigate relationships among cardiovascular disease risk factors, four indicators of physical fitness and three indicators of fatness in a healthy adolescent cohort. Forty-eight boys and ten girls, 16.4±0.7 years, volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Measurements included Blood Pressure (BP, three indicators of fatness and fat distribution Body Mass Index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, four measures of physical fitness (aerobic fitness, muscular fitness, sprinting speed, agility, weekly food intake and Physical Activity (PA levels. Metabolic CVD risk factors included Total Cholesterol (TC, insulin, High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL, Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL, high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (CRP, glucose, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, adiponectin, triglyceride and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and adiponectin (r = 0.443 and between muscular power and glucose (r = 0.430 were significant and moderate. Significant inverse correlations were also noted between adiponectin, sprint (r = -0.456 and agility (r = -0.399 performance. Adiponectin was also significantly and inversely correlated with waist circumference (r = - 0.514 and BMI (r = -0.434. From the regression models, a significant percentage of the variance in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, agility and sprint performance (about 74, 53, 46 and 59% was explained by traditional covariates. The

  13. Laboratory risk indicators for acute necrotizing fasciitis in the emergency setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shayan Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare bacterial skin condition which forms a major diagnostic challenge and is associated with poor prognosis unless promptly treated. Initial clinical presentation is often misleading with characteristic features developing only late in the course of the disease. In this review, we discuss the applicability and usefulness of laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis score in facilitating rapid diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis in emergency department by differentiating it from other skin infections like cellulitis and abscesses. A high index of suspicion resulting from the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis score can facilitate early diagnosis enabling prompt antibiotic administration and timely referral to surgery for wound debridement, ultimately reducing both the morbidity and mortality.

  14. Further evidence for periodontal disease as a risk indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Mervyn; Africa, Charlene W J

    2017-06-01

    Although there is increasing evidence to suggest an association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the issue remains controversial. This study tested the hypothesis that periodontal disease is a risk indicator for preterm delivery of low-birthweight infants. The study sample comprised 443 pregnant women with a mean (± standard deviation) age of 24.13 (±5.30) years. At first visit, maternal oral health status was assessed by the measurement of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss, and periodontal status was graded as absent, mild, moderate or severe. An association was sought between pregnancy outcomes and maternal periodontal status. While controlling for other factors, significant associations were found between pregnancy outcomes and maternal periodontal index scores. This study provides further evidence that periodontal disease is a risk indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  15. Laboratory risk indicators for acute necrotizing fasciitis in the emergency setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Shayan Ali; Fatimah Lateef

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare bacterial skin condition which forms a major diagnostic challenge and is associated with poor prognosis unless promptly treated. Initial clinical presentation is often misleading with characteristic features developing only late in the course of the disease. In this review, we discuss the applicability and usefulness of laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis score in facilitating rapid diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis in emergency department by differentiating it from other skin in-fections like cellulitis and abscesses. A high index of suspicion resulting from the lab-oratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis score can facilitate early diagnosis enabling prompt antibiotic administration and timely referral to surgery for wound debridement, ultimately reducing both the morbidity and mortality.

  16. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective multicenter study with 5235 consecutive pregnant women, diagnostic testing with a 2-hour 75-g oral glucose...... was comparable with universal screening by fasting glucose or a 1-hour 50-g glucose challenge test. Both screening and diagnostic testing could be avoided in two thirds of all pregnant women....

  17. International Energy Security Indicators and Turkey’s Energy Security Risk Score

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Energy security has been a priority for many countries. What makes energy security that important is; its bilateral relationship with economic, political, social, environmental sustainability and military issues. As an inevitable consequence of globalization cooperation in the field has been a must and it is required international energy security indicators to make energy security risk evaluations in order to establish adequate policies. The aim of the study is to review energy security withi...

  18. Indications and Risk Factors for Complications of Lower Third Molar Surgery in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Osunde, OD; Saheeb, BD; Bassey, GO

    2014-01-01

    Background: The surgical extraction of impacted third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, and it is often associated with complications such as sensory nerve damage, dry socket, pain, swelling, trismus, infection and hemorrhage. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the surgical indications and risk factors for complications of third molar surgery at a Nigerian teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients referred to the Oral Surgery Clinic of our instit...

  19. Space subdivision for indoor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Liu, L.; Sithole, G.; Zhao, J.; Mortari, F.

    2014-01-01

    This report makes an overview of 2D, 2,5D and 3D approaches for indoor space subdivision for the purpose of indoor navigation. The report starts with a conceptual framework for indoor space utilisation. We introduce and elaborate on the concepts of indoor space (navigable and non-navigable), agent,

  20. Space subdivision for indoor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Liu, L.; Sithole, G.; Zhao, J.; Mortari, F.

    2014-01-01

    This report makes an overview of 2D, 2,5D and 3D approaches for indoor space subdivision for the purpose of indoor navigation. The report starts with a conceptual framework for indoor space utilisation. We introduce and elaborate on the concepts of indoor space (navigable and non-navigable), agent,

  1. Partial dentures as an independent indicator of root caries risk in a group of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, J G; Walls, A W; Murray, J J

    1997-01-01

    To estimate the independent association between the wearing of removable partial dentures (RPD) and the presence of root caries in a population of older adults. Multivariate logistic regression modeling of root caries prevalence using different measures of root caries as dependent variables. The model included measures of disease history as indicators of historical risk. Data collected in the field from three areas of England. Random sample of adults aged 60 years and over, drawn from lists of patients registered with general medical practitioners. Field measurements of a range of oral health variables including oral disease, disease history, oral status and various social and demographic measures. The presence of root caries, unsound and sound root restorations. Of the five different models of root caries prevalence which were used, RPDs featured as an independent risk indicator for root surface caries in the three which were related to the presence of untreated disease. The odds ratios for the contribution made by RPDs were all over 1.6, and when considered alone was in excess of 2 in one model. These models were generally well fitting. RPDs did not feature as a risk indicator in the two models which related only to the presence of root surface restorations. In this study, where RPDs were present, the odds of untreated disease being present increased substantially.

  2. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dorte M; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Westergaard, Jes G; Ovesen, Per; Damm, Peter

    2003-11-01

    This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators. In a prospective multicenter study with 5235 consecutive pregnant women, diagnostic testing with a 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was routinely performed in women with risk indicators and offered to women without risk indicators as part of the study. Forty-four percent of the women underwent testing, 43% declined participation, 6% did not speak Danish, and 7% could not be contacted. By extrapolation of the results from tested women to the whole group in question, a 2.4% prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of the model was 80.6 (73.7-87.6) and 64.8 (63.5-66.1), respectively (95% CIs). Under ideal conditions, sensitivity of the model was comparable with universal screening by fasting glucose or a 1-hour 50-g glucose challenge test. Both screening and diagnostic testing could be avoided in two thirds of all pregnant women.

  3. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices.

  4. Indoor air quality investigations at five classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S C; Chang, M

    1999-06-01

    Five classrooms, air-conditioned or naturally ventilated, at five different schools were chosen for comparison of indoor and outdoor air quality. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with diameter less than 10 microns (PM10), formaldehyde (HCHO), and total bacteria counts were monitored at indoor and outdoor locations simultaneously. Respirable particulate matter was found to be the worst among parameters measured in this study. The indoor and outdoor average PM10 concentrations exceeded the Hong Kong standards, and the maximum indoor PM10 level was even at 472 micrograms/m3. Air cleaners could be used in classrooms to reduce the high PM10 concentration. Indoor CO2 concentrations often exceeded 1,000 microliters/l indicating inadequate ventilation. Lowering the occupancy and increasing breaks between classes could alleviate the high CO2 concentrations. Though the maximum indoor CO2 level reached 5,900 microliters/l during class at one of the sites, CO2 concentrations were still at levels that pose no health threats.

  5. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  6. Indoor environment in bedrooms in 79 Greenlandic households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Clausen, Geo;

    2014-01-01

    ventilation results in low air change and thus elevated concentrations of indoor pollutants. In cold Arctic regions where people spend most of their time during long winters indoors is the effect of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) on occupants' health and comfort considerable. A cross sectional study in 79...... concentrations above 1000 ppm and difference in absolute humidity between indoor and outdoor air above 2.5 g/kg as indicators of insufficient ventilation were found in 73% of the bedrooms. The situation was significantly worse dwellings build after 1990. Although the average winter additional moisture was higher...

  7. Effects by inhalation of abundant fragrances in indoor air - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, Peder; Nielsen, Gunnar D

    2017-04-01

    Odorous compounds (odors) like fragrances may cause adverse health effects. To assess their importance by inhalation, we have reviewed how the four major abundant and common airborne fragrances (α-pinene (APN), limonene (LIM), linalool (LIL), and eugenol (EUG)) impact the perceived indoor air quality as odor annoyance, sensory irritation and sensitization in the airways. Breathing and cardiovascular effects, and work performance, and the impact in the airways of ozone-initiated gas- and particle phase reactions products have also been assessed. Measured maximum indoor concentrations for APN, LIM and LIL are close to or above their odor thresholds, but far below their thresholds for sensory irritation in the eyes and upper airways; no information could be traced for EUG. Likewise, reported risk values for long-term effects are far above reported indoor concentrations. Human exposure studies with mixtures of APN and LIM and supported by animal inhalation models do not support sensitization of the airways at indoor levels by inhalation that include other selected fragrances. Human exposure studies, in general, indicate that reported lung function effects are likely due to the perception rather than toxic effects of the fragrances. In general, effects on the breathing rate and mood by exposure to the fragrances are inconclusive. The fragrances may increase the high-frequency heart rate variability, but aerosol exposure during cleaning activities may result in a reduction. Distractive effects influencing the work performance by fragrance/odor exposure are consistently reported, but their persistence over time is unknown. Mice inhalation studies indicate that LIM or its reaction mixture may possess anti-inflammatory properties. There is insufficient information that ozone-initiated reactions with APN or LIM at typical indoor levels cause airway effects in humans. Limited experimental information is available on long-term effects of ozone-initiated reaction products of

  8. Corruption, development and governance indicators predict invasive species risk from trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Evan C; Barbieri, Rafael F; Lester, Philip J

    2016-06-15

    Invasive species have an enormous global impact, with international trade being the leading pathway for their introduction. Current multinational trade deals under negotiation will dramatically change trading partnerships and pathways. These changes have considerable potential to influence biological invasions and global biodiversity. Using a database of 47 328 interceptions spanning 10 years, we demonstrate how development and governance socio-economic indicators of trading partners can predict exotic species interceptions. For import pathways associated with vegetable material, a significantly higher risk of exotic species interceptions was associated with countries that are poorly regulated, have more forest cover and have surprisingly low corruption. Corruption and indicators such as political stability or adherence to rule of law were important in vehicle or timber import pathways. These results will be of considerable value to policy makers, primarily by shifting quarantine procedures to focus on countries of high risk based on their socio-economic status. Further, using New Zealand as an example, we demonstrate how a ninefold reduction in incursions could be achieved if socio-economic indicators were used to select trade partners. International trade deals that ignore governance and development indicators may facilitate introductions and biodiversity loss. Development and governance within countries clearly have biodiversity implications beyond borders. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Long-term cancer risk after hysterectomy on benign indications: Population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel; Yin, Li; Falconer, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    Hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for adverse health effects. However, little is known about the association between hysterectomy and subsequent cancer occurrence later in life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hysterectomy on the incidence of cancer. In this population-based cohort study, we used data on 111,595 hysterectomized and 537,9843 nonhysterectomized women from nationwide Swedish Health Care registers including the Inpatient Register, the Cancer Register and the Cause of Death Register between 1973 and 2009. Hysterectomy with or without concomitant bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy (BSO) performed on benign indications was considered as exposure and incidence of primary cancers was used as outcome measure. Rare primary cancers (cancer was observed for women with previous hysterectomy and for those with hysterectomy and concurrent BSO (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.96, respectively). Compared to nonhysterectomized women, significant risks were observed for thyroid cancer (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.45-2.14). For both hysterectomy and hysterectomy with BSO, an association with brain cancer was observed (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.32-1.65 and HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.15-1.83, respectively). Hysterectomy, with or without BSO, was not associated with breast, lung or gastrointestinal cancer. We conclude that hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for thyroid and brain cancer later in life. Further research efforts are needed to identify patient groups at risk of malignancy following hysterectomy.

  10. Ecogeochemical mapping of urban soils as a tool for indication of risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghetalyan, Armen; Asmaryan, Shushanik

    2010-05-01

    Today, most global and local environmental issues are connected with the disturbance of natural equilibrium of chemical elements, which is manifested by two contrary but synchronous and interconnected geochemical processes: dispersion and concentration of chemical elements. The ecological consequence of those intensively running processes is pollution of environmental compartments. High intensity and multi-component character of pollution is common to urban ecosystems. In this respect emphasized should be mining centers representing biogeochemical provinces where the whole range of geochemical processes connected with socio-economic activities of the man reaches its maximum and high natural background of chemical elements is coupled with their man-made load. Ecogeochemical mapping of soils of mining regions and cities is one of major tools while assessing ecological state of the territory and indicating risk factors. When systemizing indices of geochemical pollution, the produced case specific maps coupled with ecogeochemical mapping techniques are territorial generalization of levels of pollution and levels of its danger. This allows indicating its spatial differentiation and finally ranging the city's territory by features of the defined level of ecological risk. Moreover, ecogeochemical mapping of soils allows indicating dominating pollutants, peculiarities of their distribution and major risk factors as well and thus revealing risk groups in the population. An alternative method of ecogeochemical mapping of urban soils which allows to notably reduce the process of pollution level assessment and identification of risk factor is that of remote sensing. Collation between spatially conjugated data of soil analyses and multi-zonal satellite images allows developing spectral characteristics (signatures) of pollution of the territory with heavy metals (HM) and development of appropriate assessment criteria which may be reflected as diverse case specific maps. This

  11. Dental caries risk indicators in early childhood and their association with caries polarization in adolescence: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zemaitiene, Migle; Grigalauskiene, Ruta; Andruskeviciene, Vilija; Matulaitiene, Zivile Kristina; Zubiene, Jurate; Narbutaite, Julija; Slabsinskiene, Egle

    Based on the hypothesis that biological and social risks accumulate during life, it is important to identify possible dental caries risk indicators from the life course of early childhood and assess...

  12. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, S.; Dima-Cozma, L.C.; Ghiciuc, C.M.; Pasquali, V.; Saponaro, A.; Patacchioli, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV) stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious) side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published between 2010 and 2015, in which salivary cortisol and α-amylase were measured as stress biomarkers to examine their associations with CV/CMR (cardiometabolic risk) clinical and subclinical indicators. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases was performed, and 54 key articles related to the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as subclinical indicators of stress and CV/CMR factors, including studies that emphasized methodological biases that could influence the accuracy of study outcomes, were ultimately identified. Overall, the biological impact of stress measured by salivary cortisol and α-amylase was associated with CV/CMR factors. Results supported the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as potential diagnostic tools for detecting stress-induced cardiac diseases and especially to describe the mechanisms by which stress potentially contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CV diseases. PMID:28177057

  13. Is qPCR a Reliable Indicator of Cyanotoxin Risk in Freshwater?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz F. Pacheco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The wide distribution of cyanobacteria in aquatic environments leads to the risk of water contamination by cyanotoxins, which generate environmental and public health issues. Measurements of cell densities or pigment contents allow both the early detection of cellular growth and bloom monitoring, but these methods are not sufficiently accurate to predict actual cyanobacterial risk. To quantify cyanotoxins, analytical methods are considered the gold standards, but they are laborious, expensive, time-consuming and available in a limited number of laboratories. In cyanobacterial species with toxic potential, cyanotoxin production is restricted to some strains, and blooms can contain varying proportions of both toxic and non-toxic cells, which are morphologically indistinguishable. The sequencing of cyanobacterial genomes led to the description of gene clusters responsible for cyanotoxin production, which paved the way for the use of these genes as targets for PCR and then quantitative PCR (qPCR. Thus, the quantification of cyanotoxin genes appeared as a new method for estimating the potential toxicity of blooms. This raises a question concerning whether qPCR-based methods would be a reliable indicator of toxin concentration in the environment. Here, we review studies that report the parallel detection of microcystin genes and microcystin concentrations in natural populations and also a smaller number of studies dedicated to cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin. We discuss the possible issues associated with the contradictory findings reported to date, present methodological limitations and consider the use of qPCR as an indicator of cyanotoxin risk.

  14. Towards Mobile Information Systems for Indoor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of Internet of things (IOT and indoor positioning technologies such as Wi-Fi and RFID, indoor mobile information systems have become a new research hotspot. Based on the unique features of indoor space and urgent needs on indoor mobile applications, in this paper we analyze some key issues in indoor mobile information systems, including positioning technologies in indoor environments, representation models for indoor spaces, query processing techniques for indoor moving objects, and index structures for indoor mobile applications. Then, we present an indoor mobile information management system named IndoorDB. Finally, we give some future research topics about indoor mobile information systems.

  15. Indoor environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, SA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Health (IEH) is a comprehensive term that includes the effects of quantity of air, light and noise in a space and the physical, physiological and psychological aspects from colours, aesthetics, services, outdoor climate...

  16. Indoor climate seminar. Sisaeilmastoseminaari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaenen, O. (ed.) (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning)

    1990-01-01

    The national energy research programme LVIS-2000: Future Building Services is concerned with the control of energy use and indoor climate in buildings of the future. The projects were presented at a one day seminar arranged by the Laboratory of Heating and Ventilation of the Technical Research Centre in Finland which is coordinating the programme. The topics presented at the seminar were: The effect of indoor air on health in office buildings, The effect of air temperature on performance of office work, Emissions from building and interior materials, Experiences of odour panels in indoor climate research, Mould spores and bacteries in the indoor air of rural houses, Ventilation systems in future buildings, Demonstration project of ventilation systems in a block of flats.

  17. Indoor climate seminar; Sisaeilmastoseminaari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaenen, O. [ed.] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

    1990-12-31

    The national energy research programme LVIS-2000: Future Building Services is concerned with the control of energy use and indoor climate in buildings of the future. The projects were presented at a one day seminar arranged by the Laboratory of Heating and Ventilation of the Technical Research Centre in Finland which is coordinating the programme. The topics presented at the seminar were: The effect of indoor air on health in office buildings, The effect of air temperature on performance of office work, Emissions from building and interior materials, Experiences of odour panels in indoor climate research, Mould spores and bacteries in the indoor air of rural houses, Ventilation systems in future buildings, Demonstration project of ventilation systems in a block of flats.

  18. Indoor environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Health (IEH) is a comprehensive term that includes the effects of quantity of air, light and noise in a space and the physical, physiological and psychological aspects from colours, aesthetics, services, outdoor climate...

  19. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  1. Risk factors indicating recurrent myocardial infarction after recovery from acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daiji; Shiraki, Teruo; Oka, Takefumi; Kajiyama, Akio; Takamura, Toshiyuki

    2002-10-01

    Little is known of the risk factors of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) among Japanese patients who have survived their first MI. The risk factors for the second MI were studied in 808 of 1,042 consecutive patients who recovered from an acute MI in Iwakuni National Hospital. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only 3 of 21 variables measured were closely related with the recurrence of MI during a follow-up period of 3.2 +/- 4.3 years: (1) transient atrial fibrillation (relative risk (RR) 3.16), (2) previous cerebrovascular accident (RR 3.05), and (3) dyslipidemia (RR 2.19). Of the parameters of dyslipidemia, a low ratio of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) alone indicated subsequent MI. None of age, gender, location of the infarction, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary congestion (Killip's class > or = 2), peak serum creatine kinase activity, serum total-cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels, nor smoking habit on admission was a statistically significant predictor for the second MI. The result suggests that more intensive treatment is needed for patients with the 3 risk factors.

  2. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  3. Image Based Indoor Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Noreikis, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years researchers proposed numerous indoor localisation and navigation systems. However, solutions that use WiFi or Radio Frequency Identification require infrastructure to be deployed in the navigation area and infrastructureless techniques, e.g. the ones based on mobile cell ID or dead reckoning suffer from large accuracy errors. In this Thesis, we present a novel approach of infrastructure-less indoor navigation system based on computer vision Structure from Motion techniques...

  4. Predictive value of clinical risk indicators in child development: final results of a study based on psychoanalytic theory

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Machado Kupfer; Alfredo Nestor Jerusalinsky; Leda Mariza Fischer Bernardino; Daniele Wanderley; Paulina Schmidtbauer Barbosa Rocha; Silvia Eugenia Molina; Léa Martins Sales; Regina Stellin; M. Eugênia Pesaro; Rogerio Lerner

    2010-01-01

    We present the final results of a study using the IRDI (Clinical Risk Indicators in Child Development). Based on a psychoanalytic approach, 31 risk signs for child development were constructed and applied to 726 children between the ages of 0 and 18 months. One sub-sample was evaluated at the age of three. The results showed a predictive capacity of IRDIs to indicate developmental problems; 15 indicators for the IRDI were also highlighted that predict psychic risk for the constitution of the ...

  5. Realized volatility and absolute return volatility: a comparison indicating market risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Qiao, Zhi; Takaishi, Tetsuya; Stanley, H Eugene; Li, Baowen

    2014-01-01

    Measuring volatility in financial markets is a primary challenge in the theory and practice of risk management and is essential when developing investment strategies. Although the vast literature on the topic describes many different models, two nonparametric measurements have emerged and received wide use over the past decade: realized volatility and absolute return volatility. The former is strongly favored in the financial sector and the latter by econophysicists. We examine the memory and clustering features of these two methods and find that both enable strong predictions. We compare the two in detail and find that although realized volatility has a better short-term effect that allows predictions of near-future market behavior, absolute return volatility is easier to calculate and, as a risk indicator, has approximately the same sensitivity as realized volatility. Our detailed empirical analysis yields valuable guidelines for both researchers and market participants because it provides a significantly clearer comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the two methods.

  6. Risk indicators associated with subclinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2004-08-01

    Smallholder dairy farmers in Tanzania appear to be unaware of the subclinical mastitis situation in their cows. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and September 2002 on smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region. The study objectives were to establish the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and related risk indicators, and to assess their contribution to the occurrence of subclinical mastitis. Three field procedures based on the principles of herd health and production management were followed: clinical, farm and data inspection. The California mastitis test (CMT) was carried out on quarter milk samples to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. A total of 182 lactating cows from 62 herds were investigated. Clinical inspection indicated that 3.8% of the lactating cows had clinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis was detected in 90.3% of lactating cows screened. Farm inspection revealed that water scarcity, barn size, residual suckling, single udder-towel and dairy labourers as the most substantial (p mastitis, possibly owing to sample size and the presence of confounders, the epidemiological need to address such risk indicators cannot be overemphasized.

  7. Application of ecological risk indicators for the assessment of Greek surficial sediments contaminated by toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John Ν; Vasilaki, Georgia; Smaragdaki, Eleftheria; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-05-01

    Τhe present research investigates the partitioning of six selected toxic metals (Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, and As) in eight sediment samples; half of them were collected from Elefsis Gulf, and the other half were taken from Koumoundourou Lake, Athens, Greece. Each one of them was treated by applying Tessier's five-step sequential extraction procedure. Regarding gulf sediments, the results indicated that Cu exhibits a strong affinity to the organic matter with percentages ranging from 65 to 78 %. Considerable amount of Zn (32-40 %) is bound to the Fe-Mn fraction and the non-residual fraction, while Cr and Ni are bound to the organic fraction, an observation that suits all toxic metals examined. Regarding lake sediments, Pb is the predominant metal bound to Fe-Mn (48-51 %). It is also noteworthy that the percentage of Zn bound to carbonated fraction (5-15 %), indicating biological availability. In conclusion, the application of several ecological risk indicators demonstrated that Elefsis Gulf sediments correspond to a moderate pollution level, with Pb and Ni being less bioavailable than in the lake's samples, in contrast to Zn which is more bioavailable. Finally, Koumoundourou Lakes' basin is characterized of "low risk."

  8. Risk indicators of gingivitis in 5-year-old Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Pereira, Stela Márcia; Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira de Silva; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Zanin, Luciane; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Hebling, Eduardo; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To identify the risk indicators of gingivitis among socioeconomic, clinical and gender variables in 5-year-old children attending preschools in Piracicaba, Brazil, in 2005. The sample consisted of 728 subjects attending 22 public (n = 428) and 18 private (n = 300) preschools. A previously calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination in an outdoor setting, under natural light, using a dental mirror, Community Periodontal Index probe and air-drying. Gingival status was measured using the gingival alteration index for 5-year-olds according to the national survey carried out in 2002 in Brazil (Health Ministry of Brazil, 2004). Socioeconomic variables (monthly family income, number of people living in the household, parents' educational level, home ownership and car ownership) were collected by means of a parental semi-structured questionnaire. The prevalence of gingivitis was 16.6%. Monthly family income (p car ownership (p = 0.0854), gender (p = 0.0087), initial lesion (p indicators of gingivitis. The prevalence of gingivitis in 5-year-old preschool children in Piracicaba was 16.6%. Also, family income of up to 4 minimum wages, male gender, the presence of initial caries lesion and crowding were risk indicators of gingivitis.

  9. Indoor Temperatures in Patient Waiting Rooms in Eight Rural Primary Health Care Centers in Northern South Africa and the Related Potential Risks to Human Health and Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased temperatures affect human health and vulnerable groups including infants, children, the elderly and people with pre-existing diseases. In the southern African region climate models predict increases in ambient temperature twice that of the global average temperature increase. Poor ventilation and lack of air conditioning in primary health care clinics, where duration of waiting time may be as long as several hours, pose a possible threat to patients seeking primary health care. Drawing on information measured by temperature loggers installed in eight clinics in Giyani, Limpopo Province of South Africa, we were able to determine indoor temperatures of waiting rooms in eight rural primary health care facilities. Mean monthly temperature measurements inside the clinics were warmer during the summer months of December, January and February, and cooler during the autumn months of March, April and May. The highest mean monthly temperature of 31.4 ± 2.7 °C was recorded in one clinic during February 2016. Maximum daily indoor clinic temperatures exceeded 38 °C in some clinics. Indoor temperatures were compared to ambient (outdoor temperatures and the mean difference between the two showed clinic waiting room temperatures were higher by 2–4 °C on average. Apparent temperature (AT incorporating relative humidity readings made in the clinics showed ‘realfeel’ temperatures were >4 °C higher than measured indoor temperature, suggesting a feeling of ‘stuffiness’ and discomfort may have been experienced in the waiting room areas. During typical clinic operational hours of 8h00 to 16h00, mean ATs fell into temperature ranges associated with heat–health impact warning categories of ‘caution’ and ‘extreme caution’.

  10. Indoor Temperatures in Patient Waiting Rooms in Eight Rural Primary Health Care Centers in Northern South Africa and the Related Potential Risks to Human Health and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Street, Renée A.; Cele, Nokulunga; Kunene, Zamantimande; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Albers, Patricia N.; Mathee, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Increased temperatures affect human health and vulnerable groups including infants, children, the elderly and people with pre-existing diseases. In the southern African region climate models predict increases in ambient temperature twice that of the global average temperature increase. Poor ventilation and lack of air conditioning in primary health care clinics, where duration of waiting time may be as long as several hours, pose a possible threat to patients seeking primary health care. Drawing on information measured by temperature loggers installed in eight clinics in Giyani, Limpopo Province of South Africa, we were able to determine indoor temperatures of waiting rooms in eight rural primary health care facilities. Mean monthly temperature measurements inside the clinics were warmer during the summer months of December, January and February, and cooler during the autumn months of March, April and May. The highest mean monthly temperature of 31.4 ± 2.7 °C was recorded in one clinic during February 2016. Maximum daily indoor clinic temperatures exceeded 38 °C in some clinics. Indoor temperatures were compared to ambient (outdoor) temperatures and the mean difference between the two showed clinic waiting room temperatures were higher by 2–4 °C on average. Apparent temperature (AT) incorporating relative humidity readings made in the clinics showed ‘realfeel’ temperatures were >4 °C higher than measured indoor temperature, suggesting a feeling of ‘stuffiness’ and discomfort may have been experienced in the waiting room areas. During typical clinic operational hours of 8h00 to 16h00, mean ATs fell into temperature ranges associated with heat–health impact warning categories of ‘caution’ and ‘extreme caution’. PMID:28067816

  11. Proportion and risk indicators of nonadherence to antihypertensive therapy: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark Lemstra, M Wasem Alsabbagh Academic Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Purpose: The World Health Organization (WHO concluded that poor adherence to treatment is the most important cause of uncontrolled high blood pressure, with approximately 75% of patients not achieving optimum blood pressure control. The WHO estimates that between 20% and 80% of patients receiving treatment for hypertension are adherent. As such, the first objective of our study was to quantify the proportion of nonadherence to antihypertensive therapy in real-world observational study settings. The second objective was to provide estimates of independent risk indicators associated with nonadherence to antihypertensive therapy. Materials and methods: We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of all studies published between database inception and December 31, 2011 that reviewed adherence, and risk indicators associated with nonadherence, to antihypertensive medications. Results: In the end, 26 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria and passed our methodological quality evaluation. Of the 26 studies, 48.5% (95% confidence interval 47.7%–49.2% of patients were adherent to antihypertensive medications at 1 year of follow-up. The associations between 114 variables and nonadherence to antihypertensive medications were reviewed. After meta-analysis, nine variables were associated with nonadherence to antihypertensive medications: diuretics in comparison to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, ACE inhibitors in comparison to ARBs, CCBs in comparison to ARBs, those with depression or using antidepressants, not having diabetes, lower income status, and minority cultural status. Conclusion: This study clarifies the extent of adherence along with determining nine independent risk indicators associated with

  12. P-Wave Indices and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinli; Tse, Gary; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Letsas, Konstantinos P; Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq; Kamel, Hooman; Li, Guangping; Lip, Gregory Y H; Liu, Tong

    2017-08-01

    Atrial cardiomyopathy is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area are electrocardiographic parameters that have been used to assess left atrial abnormalities related to developing atrial fibrillation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine their values for predicting ischemic stroke risk. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched until December 2016 for studies that evaluated the association between P-wave indices and stroke risk. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the overall effect estimates. Ten studies examining P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area were included. P-wave terminal force in lead V1 was found to be an independent predictor of stroke as both a continuous variable (odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD change, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.25; PP=0.01). P-wave duration was a significant predictor of incident ischemic stroke when analyzed as a categorical variable (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.37-2.52; PP=0.15). Maximum P-wave area also predicted the risk of incident ischemic stroke (OR per 1 SD change, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17). P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area are useful electrocardiographic markers that can be used to stratify the risk of incident ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene.

  14. Body mass and risk of complications after hysterectomy on benign indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Daugbjerg, Signe; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard;

    2011-01-01

    between 25 and 30 kg/m(2) (classified as overweight) and 17.5% with a BMI = 30 kg/m(2) (categorized as obese). The overall rate of complications was 17.6%, with bleeding being the most common specific complication (6.8%). After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, indication for surgery, uterus...... referrals for benign indications in Denmark from 2004 to 2009. Logistic regression was used to investigate relationship between BMI and complications reported at surgery or during the first 30 days after surgery. RESULTS; Of the 20 353 women with complete data, 6.0% had a BMI ... weight, use of prophylaxis, American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification, co-morbidity status and route of hysterectomy, obesity was associated with an increased risk of heavy bleeding during surgery [odds ratio (OR) = 3.64 (2.90-4.56)], all bleeding complications [OR = 1.27 (1...

  15. Core state preconception health indicators - pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system and behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cheryl L; Zapata, Lauren B; Farr, Sherry L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Morrow, Brian; Ahluwalia, Indu; D'Angelo, Denise V; Barradas, Danielle; Cox, Shanna; Goodman, David; Williams, Letitia; Grigorescu, Violanda; Barfield, Wanda D

    2014-04-25

    Promoting preconception health can potentially improve women's health and pregnancy outcomes. Evidence-based interventions exist to reduce many maternal behaviors and chronic conditions that are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate folic acid intake, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The 2006 national recommendations to improve preconception health included monitoring improvements in preconception health by maximizing public health surveillance (CDC. Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care-United States: a report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-6]). 2009 for 38 indicators; 2008 for one indicator. DESCRIPTION OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS: The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected self-reported maternal behaviors, conditions, and experiences that occur shortly before, during, and after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing state-based telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the United States that collects state-level data on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and preventive health services. This surveillance summary includes PRAMS data from 29 reporting areas (n = 40,388 respondents) and BRFSS data from 51 reporting areas (n = 62,875 respondents) for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (aged 18-44 years). To establish a comprehensive, nationally recognized set of indicators to be used for monitoring, evaluation, and response, a volunteer group of policy and program leaders and epidemiologists identified 45 core state preconception health indicators, of which 41 rely on PRAMS or BRFSS as data sources. This report includes 39 of the 41 core state preconception health indicators for which

  16. Indoor environment quality in the university dormitory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXiangsheng; YANGJia; AOLu; ZHENGZhiyong

    2003-01-01

    The indoor environment quality(IEQ) in the dormitory of 9 universities has been investigated by the questionnaire for three times. The results indicate that the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the dormitory is very poor and it is far beyond the acceptable standard of the IAQ. The discontentment rate of the IEQ in the dorm is rather high, and the factors affecting the IEQ concentrates on the air pollution, awful smell, thermal comfort, narrow individual space, etc. Also the spot tests were done in a university in Chongqing, and the results indicate that the 6 indexes, such as indoor temperature, humidity, the density of CO2, SO2 and dust,the total bacterium, etc, are far beyond the correlative standard.

  17. Health risk assessment based on anthropometric indicators in men in New Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Veroslava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little data on the association of metabolic syndrome and health status in Serbian men, so our intention was to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in men with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in New Belgrade, Serbia; to determine which of the anthropometric parameters (body mass index - BMI and waist circumference - WC is best for the evaluation of health risks in primary care, especially the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Research Methods and Procedures: The study involved 132 healthy men ages 44.73 ± 9.37 years. Anthropometric values were measured in all the patients. Blood pressure, blood biochemistry (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose and analysis of their medical records were also done. Analysis of consistency has been used in testing hypothesis. Results: The sample consisted of 132 patients with mean age 44.73 ± 9.37 years. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 44.7%. Analysis of consistence showed differences in the combined predictive ability of anthropometric indicators and other factors of MetS. Conclusions: BMI and WC are the simple measures of adiposity most strongly associated with metabolic abnormalities. Our findings suggest that WC can not be used as a complementary measurement to identify health risks in any group of men.

  18. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS IN MEN IN NEW BELGRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovic Veroslava

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little data on the association of metabolic syndrome and health status in Serbian men, so our intention was to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in men with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in New Belgrade, Serbia; to determine which of the anthropometric parameters (body mass index—BMI and waist circumference—WC is best for the evaluation of health risks in primary care, especially the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Research Methods and Procedures: The study involved 132 healthy men ages 44.73 ± 9.37 years. Anthropometric values were measured in all the patients. Blood pressure, blood biochemistry (high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose and analysis of their medical records were also done. Analysis of consistency has been used in testing hypothesis. Results: The sample consisted of 132 patients with mean age 44.73 ± 9.37 years. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 44.7%. Analysis of consistence showed differences in the combined predictive ability of anthropometric indicators and other factors of MetS. Conclusions: BMI andWCare the simple measures of adiposity most strongly associated with metabolic abnormalities. Our findings suggest that WC can not be used as a complementary measurement to identify health risks in any group of men

  19. Health Risk Assessment of Dietary Cadmium Intake: Do Current Guidelines Indicate How Much is Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Vesey, David A.; Gobe, Glenda C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium (Cd), a food-chain contaminant, is a significant health hazard. The kidney is one of the primary sites of injury after chronic Cd exposure. Kidney-based risk assessment establishes the urinary Cd threshold at 5.24 μg/g creatinine, and tolerable dietary intake of Cd at 62 μg/day per 70-kg person. However, cohort studies show that dietary Cd intake below a threshold limit and that tolerable levels may increase the risk of death from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Objective: We evaluated if the current tolerable dietary Cd intake guideline and urinary Cd threshold limit provide sufficient health protection. Discussion: Staple foods constitute 40–60% of total dietary Cd intake by average consumers. Diets high in shellfish, crustaceans, mollusks, spinach, and offal add to dietary Cd sources. Modeling studies predict the current tolerable dietary intake corresponding to urinary Cd of 0.70–1.85 μg/g creatinine in men and 0.95–3.07 μg/g creatinine in women. Urinary Cd levels of protection from this pervasive toxic metal. Citation: Satarug S, Vesey DA, Gobe GC. 2017. Health risk assessment of dietary cadmium intake: do current guidelines indicate how much is safe? Environ Health Perspect 125:284–288; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP108 PMID:28248635

  20. Comparison of Finnish and Russian indoor climate requirements in residential buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Yulia

    2011-01-01

    People spend more than 80 % of their time indoor. So the indoor climate plays a very important role for human comfort and human health. The main factor indicating good indoor climate in residential premises is a big percentage of satisfied occupants. For the people to feel satisfied in the premises there are special requirements for indoor climate. The main factors that affect occupants are thermal conditions (air temperature, air velocities and air humidity), air quality, lighting and noise....

  1. Validation of risk indicators for the constitution of the reader/scribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezian, Janaina de Albuquerque; Freire, Regina Maria

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate risk factors for the constitution of the reader/scribe. This is an exploratory study in which a retrospective questionnaire about the child before entering elementary school, based on preliminary indicators for the constitution of the subject reader/scribe, was applied to a population of 293 parents of elementary school students from a public school in São Paulo. The findings were crossed with the diagnostic survey of writing of students from the 1st to the 5th grade and with the evaluation of text production of students from the 3rd to the 5th grade. Data was statistically analyzed. The questionnaire showed acceptable reliability and the analysis of convergent validity presented positive correlation considered valid, statistically significant with the diagnostic survey of writing, that is, the higher the score the better the performance in the survey questionnaire. There was statistically positive correlation between the questionnaire and the performance of the students on text production in cases where parents had complaints regarding the reading and writing of their children. Exploratory factor analysis validated the proposed construct. The questionnaire is easy to apply and inexpensive, and the results showed acceptance by the respondents -- fundamental characteristics of instruments that serve public health and education. The research allowed validating 8 of 15 risk indicators initially proposed for the constitution of the reader/scribe. This validation confers quality to the construct and opens possibilities for its use in health promotion, prevention and rehabilitation in reading, writing and therapy.

  2. Energy-Related Indicators and Breast Cancer Risk among White and Black Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sanderson

    Full Text Available Energy-related indicators, including physical activity, energy intake, body mass index (BMI and adult weight change, have been linked to breast cancer risk. Very few studies of these associations have been conducted among black women, therefore we used the Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS to determine whether similar effects were seen in black and white women. The NBHS is a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among women age 25 to 75 years conducted between 2001 and 2010 in and around the Nashville Metropolitan area. Telephone interviews and self-administered food frequency questionnaires were completed with 2,614 incident breast cancer cases ascertained through hospitals and the statewide cancer registry, and 2,306 controls selected using random digit dialing. Among premenopausal white and black women, there was little effect of adult exercise or other energy-related indicators on breast cancer risk, regardless of tumor estrogen receptor (ER status. The beneficial effect of adult exercise on postmenopausal breast cancer appeared to be comparable between white and black women (highest tertile relative to none - white odds ratio [OR] 0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-1.0, p for trend=0.05; black OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1, p for trend=0.07; however, among black women the reduction was limited to those with ER-positive disease. White and black women should be encouraged to engage in more physical activity to reduce their risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  3. Biological stress indicators as risk markers for increased alcohol use following traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Sebastian; Muehlhan, Markus; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Stalder, Tobias; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann

    2017-01-20

    Alcohol misuse is a common sequela of traumatic event experiences causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Although biological stress indicators have been identified as useful risk markers for the development of trauma-related disorders, no such biological indicators exist for the risk of increased alcohol use after trauma exposure. This is the first study to prospectively investigate the predictive value of long-term cortisol levels and acute stress reactivity for the risk of increased alcohol use following traumatic events. Male soldiers were examined before and 12 months following deployment using a standardized diagnostic interview. We analyzed the moderating role of baseline hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs, n = 153) as well as baseline salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase stress reactivity in response to a laboratory stressor (n = 145) in the association between new-onset traumatic events (according to the DSM-IV A1 criterion) and subsequent daily alcohol use. No main effects of pre-traumatic HCC or salivary stress markers on subsequent change in alcohol use were observed. However, we found that with decreasing HCC, the number of new-onset traumatic events was more strongly associated with subsequent alcohol use independent from changes in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. No such relation was seen for the acute stress reactivity data. Taken together, this study provides first evidence suggesting that individual differences in long-term cortisol regulation are involved in the association between traumatic experiences and subsequent alcohol use. HCC may thus serve as a potential target in the early identification of individuals vulnerable for increased alcohol use following traumatic events. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. The development of a vulnerabilities indicator library for coastal flood risk management at a European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Damon; Viavattene, Christophe; Priest, Sally; Micou, Paula; Parker, Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Recent and historic low-frequency, high-impact events (Xynthia, Ligurian Flash Floods, the 1953 North Sea storm surge etc) have demonstrated the flood risks faced by exposed coastal areas in Europe. The hazard probability is likely to increase due to a changing climate with more frequent and violent instances of surge-driven floods, wind damage, erosion, overtopping and rain-driven flash flooding. The number and value of receptors in the coastal area also increases due to continued economic development and population growth. As part of the FP7 EU RISCKIT (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts toolkit) project, a coastal vulnerability indicator library has been produced incorporating ecosystems, built environment, human population, critical infrastructure and the overall characteristics of the coastal system. The library will include data at European, national and local levels and will be gathered, in large part, through a multitude of interviews with various members of the coastal community at 11 case study sites across Europe. The presentation will give a brief outline of the challenges in developing vulnerability indicators - particularly for countries where specific data is limited or lacking - and how the library will be organised to facilitate the use of the data. Finally, the presentation will describe how the vulnerability library will feed into a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF). The CRAF will evaluate coastal risk at regional scale and identify "hot spots" to assist coastal practitioners to choose the best prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures for their coast. The work described in this abstract was supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme through the grant to the budget of RISC-KIT, contract no. 603458, and by contributions by the partner institutes.

  5. Pterygia are indicators of an increased risk of developing cutaneous melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, Julie M; Threlfall, Tim; Clark, Antony; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Mackey, David A

    2017-08-26

    To investigate whether pterygium is an indicator of an increased risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM). A matched-cohort study, using linked health administrative data sets to identify all hospital-treated pterygium in Western Australia (WA) between 1979 and 2014. We identified pterygium cases from hospital diagnosis and/or procedure International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD-9) and 10th revision (ICD-10) codes and matched cases by age, sex and residential postcode to WA Electoral Roll controls with no known history of pterygium. Both cohorts were linked to the WA Cancer Registry and the WA Deaths Registry. 23 625 people had pterygium treatment (64% male) in WA hospitals. The median age for pterygium diagnosis and/or treatment was 49 years (range 14-96). There were significantly more CM cases in the pterygium cohort compared with the control cohort (1083 vs 874; p<0.001). In a logistic regression analysis, there was a 24% increase in the odds of developing a CM in the pterygium cohort, compared with controls, after controlling for other predictors (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4). The incident rate ratio (IRR) of a malignant CM diagnosis was 20% greater in people who had treatment for a pterygium compared with controls (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4). The presence of a pterygium indicates a significantly increased risk of developing a CM. Eye care providers who see patients with developing pterygia should advise these patients of this increased risk and recommend regular skin surveillance. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Indoor air quality in Latino homes in Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Luis E.; Champion, Wyatt M.; Li, Ning; Montoya, Lupita D.

    2014-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of airborne pollutants can be several times higher than those found outdoors, often due to poor ventilation, overcrowding, and the contribution of indoor sources within a home. Americans spend most of their time indoors where exposure to poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can result in diminished respiratory and cardiovascular health. This study measured the indoor air quality in 30 homes of a low-income Latino community in Boulder, Colorado during the summer of 2012. Participants were administered a survey, which included questions on their health conditions and indoor air pollution sources like cigarette smoke, heating fuel, and building materials. Twenty-four hour samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from the indoor air were collected in each home; ambient PM2.5 samples were collected each day as well. Concurrent air samples were collected onto 47 mm Teflo and Tissuquartz filter at each location. Teflo filters were analyzed gravimetrically to measure PM2.5 and their extracts were used to determine levels of proteins and endotoxins in the fine fraction. The Tissuquartz filters were analyzed for elemental and organic carbon content (EC/OC). Results indicated that the indoor air contained higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the ambient air, and that the levels of OC were much higher than EC in both indoor and outdoor samples. This community showed no smoking in their homes and kept furry pets indoors at very low rates; therefore, cooking is likely the primary source of indoor PM. For responders with significant exposure to PM, it appeared to be primarily from occupational environments or childhood exposure abroad. Our findings indicate that for immigrant communities such as this, it is important to consider not only their housing conditions but also the relevant prior exposures when conducting health assessments.

  7. Fingerprint Indoor Position System Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Gómez Martin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research and a development of a fingerprint-indoor-positioning system using the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. The WSN implementation is based on two different protocol stacks: BitCloud and OpenMAC, a certified ZigBee Compliant Platform (ZCP and an IEEE 802.15.4 embedded software implementation respectively, both from Atmel, and the system uses two different fingerprint algorithms, Simple and Centroid. A comparative analysis of both algorithms using both protocol stacks implementations have been performed to ascertain the best WSN protocol stack and the best algorithm for positioning purposes.

  8. An Evidence-Based Review Literature About Risk Indicators and Management of Unknown-Origin Xerostomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Agha-hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This evidence-based article reviews risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia. Xerostomia and hyposalivation refer to different aspects of dry mouth. Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth, whilst hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of reduced salivary flow rate. About 30% of the elderly (65 years and older experience xerostomia and hyposalivation. Structural and functional factors, or both may lead to salivary gland dysfunction.Study Selection: The EBM literature search was conducted by using the medical literature database MEDLINE via PubMed and OvidMedline search engines. Results were limited to English language articles (1965 to present including clinical trials (CT, randomized controlled trials (RCT, systematic reviews and review articles. Case control or cohort studies were included for the etiology.Results: Neuropathic etiology such as localized oral alteration of thermal sensations, saliva composition change (for example higher levels of K, Cl, Ca, IgA, amylase, calcium, PTH and cortisol, lower levels of estrogen and progesterone, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as lichen planus, are risk indicators for unknown-origin xerostomia. The management is palliative and preventative. Management of symptoms includes drug administration (systemic secretogogues, saliva substitutes and bile secretion-stimulator, night guard, diet and habit modifications. Other managements may be indicated to treat adverse effects.Conclusion: Neuropathic etiology, saliva composition change, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as oral lichen planus can be suggestive causes for unknown-origin xerostomia. However, longitudinal studies will be important to elucidate the causes of unknown-origin xerostomia.

  9. Statin prescribing according to gender, age and indication: what about the benefit-risk balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Stovring, Henrik; Holme Hansen, Ebba; Howse, Kenneth; Pétursson, Hálfdán

    2016-04-01

    The increasing dispensing of statins has raised concern about the appropriateness of prescribing to various population groups. We aimed to (1) investigate incident and prevalent statin prescribing according to indication, gender and age and (2) relate prescribing patterns to evidence on beneficial and adverse effects. A cohort of Danish inhabitants (n = 4 424 818) was followed in nationwide registries for dispensed statin prescriptions and hospital discharge information. We calculated incidence rates (2005-2009), prevalence trends (2000-2010) and absolute numbers of statin users according to register proxies for indication, gender and age. In 2010, the prevalence became highest for ages 75-84 and was higher in men than women (37% and 33%, respectively). Indication-specific incidences and prevalences peaked at ages around 65-70, but in myocardial infarction, the prevalence was about 80% at ages 45-80. Particularly, incidences tended to be lower in women until ages of about 60 where after gender differences were negligible. In asymptomatic individuals (hypercholesterolaemia, presumably only indication) aged 50+, dispensing was highest in women. The fraction of statin dispensing for primary prevention decreased with age: higher for incident than prevalent prescribing. Independent of age, this fraction was highest among women, e.g. 60% versus 45% at ages 55-64. The fraction for potential atherosclerotic condition (PAC, e.g. heart failure) increased with age. Prevalence of statin utilization was highest for ages 75-84, although indication-specific measures were relatively low. Despite inconclusive evidence for a favourable risk-benefit balance, statin prescribing was high among people aged 80+, asymptomatic women and PAC patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Predicting residential indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter, and elemental carbon using questionnaire and geographic information system based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Lisa K.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Previous studies have identified associations between traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. Most have used measurements from a few central ambient monitors and/or some measure of traffic as indicators of exposure, disregarding spatial variability and factors influencing personal exposure-ambient concentration relationships. This study seeks to utilize publicly available data (i.e., central site monitors, geographic information system, and property assessment data) and questionnaire responses to predict residential indoor concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants for lower socioeconomic status (SES) urban households. As part of a prospective birth cohort study in urban Boston, we collected indoor and outdoor 3-4 day samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) in 43 low SES residences across multiple seasons from 2003 to 2005. Elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were determined via reflectance analysis. Multiple traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and traffic counts collected outside sampling homes. Home characteristics and occupant behaviors were collected via a standardized questionnaire. Additional housing information was collected through property tax records, and ambient concentrations were collected from a centrally located ambient monitor. The contributions of ambient concentrations, local traffic and indoor sources to indoor concentrations were quantified with regression analyses. PM 2.5 was influenced less by local traffic but had significant indoor sources, while EC was associated with traffic and NO 2 with both traffic and indoor sources. Comparing models based on covariate selection using p-values or a Bayesian approach yielded similar results, with traffic density within a 50 m buffer of a home and distance from a truck route as important contributors to indoor levels of NO 2 and EC, respectively. The Bayesian approach also highlighted the uncertanity in the

  11. [Waist-to-height ratio is an indicator of metabolic risk in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Leal, Jaime; Abundis-Castro, Leticia; Hernández-Escareño, Juan; Flores-Rubio, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal fat, particularly visceral, is associated with a high risk of metabolic complications. The waist-height ratio (WHtR) is used to assess abdominal fat in individuals of all ages. To determine the ability of the waist-to-height ratio to detect metabolic risk in mexican schoolchildren. A study was conducted on children between 6 and 12 years. Obesity was diagnosed as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile, and an ICE ≥0.5 was considered abdominal obesity. Blood levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative value, area under curve, the positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of the WHtR and BMI were calculated in order to identify metabolic alterations. WHtR and BMI were compared to determine which had the best diagnostic efficiency. Of the 223 children included in the study, 51 had hypertriglyceridaemia, 27 with hypercholesterolaemia, and 9 with hyperglycaemia. On comparing the diagnostic efficiency of WHtR with that of BMI, there was a sensitivity of 100% vs. 56% for hyperglycaemia, 93 vs. 70% for cholesterol, and 76 vs. 59% for hypertriglyceridaemia. The specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and area under curve were also higher for WHtR. The WHtR is a more efficient indicator than BMI in identifying metabolic risk in mexican school-age. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatially Interpolated Disease Prevalence Estimation Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity and Ecological Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Congdon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care areas.

  13. Smoking and drinking as risk indicators for tooth loss in middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Avlund, Kirsten; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate tobacco and alcohol consumption as risk indicators for missing teeth in late middle-aged Danes. METHOD: In all, 1,517 Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) participants received a clinical oral examination that included number of teeth. Information on smoking...... currently or previously smoked >15 tobacco units/day, and persons who had smoked for 27+ years had elevated mean scores of missing teeth and associated odds ratios (OR) compared with never smokers. Relative to nondrinkers, alcohol consumption was associated with reduced odds of missing 6+ teeth. DISCUSSION......: Our findings suggest that smoking is positively associated, while alcoholic beverage consumption is inversely related to tooth loss in middle-aged Danes....

  14. Influence of host-related risk indicators on dental caries in permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the individual and grouped influence of host-related factors on dental caries experience in permanent dentition of 7-9 year-old children. One hundred and twenty one children were recruited applying a stratified cluster sampling without replacement. Clinical examinations, Colorimetric Test and non-stimulated and stimulated saliva collection were performed; the samples obtained were later incubated using Snyder culture medium. Simple and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the individual and grouped influence of the host-related factors and establish a modelfor predicting dental caries in permanent dentition. 78.5% of the evaluated children presented dental caries in permanent dentition. Binary logistic regression analyses revealMd that only dental caries in deciduous dentition and stimulated salivary flow were significantly associated to dental caries in permanent dentition. The final multivariate model showed that the adjusted OR was 1.76 for an increase of 1 tooth in dmft and 2.29 for a decrease of 1 ml in stimulated salivary flow. Dental caries in deciduous dentition is a risk indicator for dental caries in permanent dentition, and stimulated salivary flow is a protective factor Variables like enamel resistance to acid dissolution and buffer capacity are not related to dental caries in permanent dentition, making them inappropriate for risk studies.

  15. Factors Associated with Choking During Meals; a Risk Indicator for Repetitive Fevers in The Elderly Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishiyama

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choking during meals is a common symptom in the elderly, however the factors associated with it have not been fully clarified. In this study, we examined the factors associated with choking during meals. Methods: The oral health status and practices that promote oral health conditions was surveyed in 1305 community dwelling elderly using a self-administered questionnaire. Eight items including satisfaction with their oral condition, denture fit, chewing ability, tooth brushing frequency, dental visits, exercises to train muscles for chewing and swallowing, choking during meals, and repetitive fever were selected for analysis. Results: 25.1% of the subjects experienced choking during meals, which was significantly associated with repetitive fever occurrence. Differences in satisfaction levels with their oral condition, denture fit, chewing ability, and tooth brushing frequency were observed between groups with and without choking. Age, satisfaction level, and chewing ability were significantly associated with choking during meals. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that choking during meals is a risk indicator for repetitive fever in the elderly living in community settings. Poor chewing ability and dissatisfaction with their oral condition were risk factors associated with choking. These results suggest that training the elderly to eat efficiently and safely and improving oral conditions is necessary for those who suffer from choking during meals to prevent repetitive fever.

  16. Risk indicators for severe impaired oral health among indigenous Australian young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts-Thomson Kaye F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health impairment comprises three conceptual domains; pain, appearance and function. This study sought to: (1 estimate the prevalence of severe oral health impairment as assessed by a summary oral health impairment measure, including aspects of dental pain, dissatisfaction with dental appearance and difficulty eating, among a birth cohort of Indigenous Australian young adults (n = 442, age range 16-20 years; (2 compare prevalence according to demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and oral health outcome risk indicators; and (3 ascertain the independent contribution of those risk indicators to severe oral health impairment in this population. Methods Data were from the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC study, a prospective longitudinal investigation of Aboriginal individuals born 1987-1990 at an Australian regional hospital. Data for this analysis pertained to Wave-3 of the study only. Severe oral health impairment was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance and food avoidance in the last 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic, socio-economic, behavioural, dental service utilisation and clinical oral disease indicators on severe oral health impairment. Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR. Results The percent of participants with severe oral health impairment was 16.3 (95% CI 12.9-19.7. In the multivariate model, severe oral health impairment was associated with untreated dental decay (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.6. In addition to that clinical indicator, greater odds of severe oral health impairment were associated with being female (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, being aged 19-20 years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.6, soft drink consumption every day or a few days a week (OR 2.6, 95% 1.2-5.6 and non-ownership of a toothbrush (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Conclusions Severe oral health impairment was prevalent among this population. The findings

  17. Combustion-generated indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, C.D.; Budnitz, R.J.; Traynor, G.W.

    1976-12-01

    It is obvious from this study that elevated levels of gaseous air pollutants (CO, NO, NO/sub 2/, and SO/sub 2/) and particulate sulfur and nitrogen compounds are present in indoor environments with gas cooking and heating appliances. High levels of CO and NO/sub 2/ approach or exceed promulgated and proposed ambient air quality standards. Such findings certainly indicate a potential impact of combustion-generated indoor air pollution on human health; and if borne out by further work, they may ultimately have a large impact on the future design of epidemiological studies, on energy conservation strategies for buildings, and on the need for more stringent control of air pollution from indoor combustion sources.

  18. Entomological assessment of yellow fever-epidemic risk indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwu, Ekenma Julia; Igbinosa, Igho Benjamin; Isaac, Clement

    2016-09-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas. In the past, there have been pockets of YF outbreaks in Nigeria that resulted in preventable deaths. Surveillance efforts towards avoiding another outbreak have been put in place with the aim of early detection and control. However, risk indices relating to the density of immature YF-mosquito vectors are given little consideration even though it is the first step in curbing a possible outbreak. Immature collections from 1538 houses in Ega, Oju, Otukpoicho and Otukpo in Benue State were carried out in 2010 and 2011. Risk indices such as house index (HI), container index (CI) and Breteau index (BI) were estimated. Molecular detection of YF was carried out on randomly selected Aedes larvae and pupae. Overall, 431,381 mosquitoes were collected in and around house premises. Thirteen species were identified: Ae. aegypti (Linneaus), Ae. africanus (Theobald), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), Ae. cumminsii (Theobald), Ae. luteocephalus (Newstead), Ae. simpsoni s.l. (Theobald), Ae. vittatus (Bigot), Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. nili (Theobald), Cx. nebulosus Theobald, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Lutzia tigripes (Grandpre and Charmoy) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald. The HI, CI and BI for Ae. aegypti were high in all the study locations, but low for Ae. lueteocephalus except in Ega. With 50 immature Aedes mosquitoes screened across locations, only Ae. aegypti from Ega were positive for YF. This study places Ega on a high alert of an impending YF outbreak. Thus, urgent steps to clear this area of potential mosquito sites are highly recommended.

  19. Associations between healthy eating patterns and indicators of metabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Marcio AH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since human diets contain many components that may work synergistically to prevent or promote disease, assessing diet quality may be informative. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between quality diet, by using Healthy Eating Index (HEI, and metabolic risk indicators in postmenopausal women. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 173 Brazilian women, aged 45-75 years, seeking healthcare at a public outpatient center. Food consumption assessed by 24 h-recall food inquiry was used to calculate HEI scores: >80 implied diet good, 80-51 diet "needed improvement", and 2, waist-circumference (WC, body fat (%BF and lean mass (%LM. Data on total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, and triglycerides (TG were also collected. Fisher's Exact test, and logistic regression method (to determine odds ratio, OR were used in the statistical analysis. Results Overweight and obesity were observed in 75.7% of the participants. Excessive %BF (> 35% was observed in 56.1%, while %LM was reduced ( 35%, predominantly saturated and monounsaturated fat. On average, plasma TC, LDLC, and TG levels were higher than recommended in 57.2%, 79.2% and 45.1% of the women, respectively, while HDLC was low in 50.8%. There was association between HEI scores and the %BF that it was higher among women with HEI score Conclusion Among the Brazilian postmenopausal women attending a public outpatient clinic, diet was considered to need improvement or to be of poor quality, attributed to high saturated fat ingestion, which probably caused a negative impact on metabolic risk indicators, namely body composition.

  20. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome following scoliosis surgery: Its risk indicators and treatment strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Zhang Zhu; Yong Qiu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk indicators, pattern of clinical presentation and treatment strategy of superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) after scoliosis surgery.METHODS: From July 1997 to October 2003, 640 patients with adolescent scoliosis who had undergone surgical treatment were evaluated prospectively, and among them seven patients suffered from SMAS after operation. Each patient was assigned a percentile for weight and a percentile for height. Values of the 5th、 10th、 25th、 50th、 75th、 and 95thpercentiles were selected to divide the observations. The sagittal Cobb angle was used to quantify thoracic or thoracolumbar kyphosis. All the seven patients presented with nausea and intermittent vomiting about 5 d after operation.An upper gastrointestinal barium contrast study showed a straight-line cutoff at the third portion of the duodenum representing extrinsic compression by the superior mesenteric artery (SMA).RESULTS: The value of height in the seven patients with SMAS was above the mean of sex- and age-matchednormal population, and the height percentile ranged from 5% to 50%. On the contrary, the value of weight was below the mean of normal population with the weight percentile ranging from 5% to 25%. Among the seven patients, four had a thoracic hyperkyphosis ranging from 55° to 88°(average 72°), two had a thoracolumbar kyphosis of 25° and 32° respectively. The seven patients were treated with fasting, antiemetic medication, and intravenous fluids infusion. Reduction or suspense of traction was adopted in three patients with SMAS during halo-femoral traction after anterior release of scoliosis. All the patients recovered completely with no sequelae. No one required operative intervention with a laparotomy.CONCLUSION: Height percentile<50% , weight percentile <25%, sagittal kyphosis, heavy and quick halo-femoral traction after spinal anterior release are the potential risk indicators for SMAS in patients undergoing correction surgery

  1. Investigation on Indoor Air Pollution and Childhood Allergies in Households in Six Chinese Cities by Subjective Survey and Field Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhua; Li, Nianping; Lv, Yang; Liu, Jing; Xie, Jingchao; Zhang, Huibo

    2017-08-29

    Greater attention is currently being paid to the relationship between indoor environment and childhood allergies, however, the lack of reliable data and the disparity among different areas hinders reliable assessment of the relationship. This study focuses on the effect of indoor pollution on Chinese schoolchildren and the relationship between specific household and health problems suffered. The epidemiological questionnaire survey and the field measurement of the indoor thermal environment and primary air pollutants including CO₂, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), chemical pollutants and fungi were performed in six Chinese cities. A total of 912 questionnaires were eligible for statistical analyses and sixty houses with schoolchildren aged 9-12 were selected for field investigation. Compared with Chinese national standards, inappropriate indoor relative humidity (70%), CO₂ concentration exceeding 1000 ppm and high PM2.5 levels were found in some monitored houses. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most frequently detected semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in house dust. Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were detected in both indoor air and house dust. This study indicates that a thermal environment with CO₂ exceeding 1000 ppm, DEHP and DBP exceeding 1000 μg/g, and high level of PM2.5, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium increases the risk of children's allergies.

  2. Investigation on Indoor Air Pollution and Childhood Allergies in Households in Six Chinese Cities by Subjective Survey and Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Greater attention is currently being paid to the relationship between indoor environment and childhood allergies, however, the lack of reliable data and the disparity among different areas hinders reliable assessment of the relationship. This study focuses on the effect of indoor pollution on Chinese schoolchildren and the relationship between specific household and health problems suffered. The epidemiological questionnaire survey and the field measurement of the indoor thermal environment and primary air pollutants including CO2, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, chemical pollutants and fungi were performed in six Chinese cities. A total of 912 questionnaires were eligible for statistical analyses and sixty houses with schoolchildren aged 9–12 were selected for field investigation. Compared with Chinese national standards, inappropriate indoor relative humidity (<30% or >70%, CO2 concentration exceeding 1000 ppm and high PM2.5 levels were found in some monitored houses. Di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP were the most frequently detected semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs in house dust. Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were detected in both indoor air and house dust. This study indicates that a thermal environment with CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm, DEHP and DBP exceeding 1000 μg/g, and high level of PM2.5, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium increases the risk of children’s allergies.

  3. Gender, airborne chemical monitoring, and physical work environment are related to indoor air symptoms among nonindustrial workers in the Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aizat Ismail Syazwan,1 Juahir Hafizan,2 Mohd Rafee Baharudin,1 Ahmad Zaid Fattah Azman,1 Zulkapri Izwyn,3 Ismail Zulfadhli,4 Katis Syahidatussyakirah11Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 2Department of Environmental Science/Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Department of Biosciences and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; 4Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, MalaysiaObjectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of airborne chemicals and the physical work environment risk element on the indoor air symptoms of nonindustrial workers.Design: A cross-sectional study consisting of 200 office workers. A random selection of 200 buildings was analyzed for exposure and indoor air symptoms based on a pilot study in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.Methods: A set of modified published questionnaires by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH, Malaysia and a previous study (MM040NA questionnaire pertaining to indoor air symptoms was used in the evaluation process of the indoor air symptoms. Statistical analyses involving logistic regression and linear regression were used to determine the relationship between exposure and indoor air symptoms for use in the development of an indoor risk matrix.Results: The results indicate that some indoor air pollutants (carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compound, and dust are related to indoor air symptoms of men and women. Temperature and relative humidity showed a positive association with complaints related to the perceived indoor environmental condition (drafts and inconsistency of temperature. Men predominantly reported general symptoms when stratification of gender involved exposure to formaldehyde. Women reported high levels of complaints related to mucosal and general symptoms from exposure to the dust

  4. Cooperative and Heterogeneous Indoor Localization - Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benoît, Denis; Raulefs, Ronald; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2013-01-01

    strength indicator (RSSI) and round trip delay (RTD) estimation capabilities. More particularly we emulate a multistandard terminal, moving in a typical indoor environment, while communicating with fixed OFDM-based femto-base stations (Femto-BSs) and with other mobiles or fixed anchor nodes (through peer...

  5. Indoor wayfinding and navigation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Due to the widespread use of navigation systems for wayfinding and navigation in the outdoors, researchers have devoted their efforts in recent years to designing navigation systems that can be used indoors. This book is a comprehensive guide to designing and building indoor wayfinding and navigation systems. It covers all types of feasible sensors (for example, Wi-Fi, A-GPS), discussing the level of accuracy, the types of map data needed, the data sources, and the techniques for providing routes and directions within structures.

  6. Indoor acoustic gain design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres

    2002-11-01

    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  7. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchettini, Gabriele; Calliera, Maura; Marchis, Alexandru; Glass, Richard; Ellis, Clare Butler; Machera, Kyriaki; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Spanoghe, Pieter; Capri, Ettore

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment, promoting integrated pest management and stimulating effective non-chemical alternatives. The core idea of the SUD is that it is necessary to monitor the use of PPPs through the implementation of an appropriate set of risk indicators to monitor progress and trends in risk reduction within the Member States. To contribute to this direction, following a comprehensive analysis of the risk (including procedures of risk assessment and risk management) and involving stakeholders in the decision process, specific toolboxes of practical indirect risk indicators of exposure of Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents were developed and are now available to be used by Member States (MSs) based on their specific context.

  8. Peri-implantitis in a specialist clinic of periodontology. Clinical features and risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcuac, Olivier; Jansson, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Implant therapy has become a widely recognized treatment alternative for replacing missing teeth. Several long term follow-up studies have shown that the survival rate is high. However, complications may appear and risk indcators associated with early and late failures have been identified. The purpose of the present retrospective clinical study was to describe some clinical features of patients with clinical signs of peri-implantitis and to identify risk indicators of peri-implantitis in a population at a specialist clinic of Periodontology. In total,the material consisted of 377 implants in 111 patients with the diagnosis peri-implantitis. The mean age at the examination was found to be 56.3 years (range 22-83) for females and 64.1 years (range 27-85) for males. The mean number of remaining teeth was found to be 10.5 (S.D. 8.89) and the mean number of implants was 5.85 (S.D. 3.42). For a majority of the subjects, more than 50% of the remaining teeth had a marginal bone loss of more than 1/3 of the root length. Forty-sex percent of the patients visited regularly dental hygienists for supportive treatment. The percentage of implants with peri-implantitis was significantly increased for smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.04). In the group of non-smokers, 64% of the implants had the diagnosis peri-implantitis, while the corresponding relative frequency for smokers was 78%. A majority of the individuals had a Plaque index and Bleeding on probing index >50%. The median of the follow-up time after implant placement was 7.4 years and the observation period was not significantly correlated to the degree of bone loss around the implants. Among the subjects with a mean bone loss >6 mm at implants with peri-implantitis, more than 70% had a mean marginal bone loss > 1/3 of the root length of the remaining teeth. A positive and significant correlation was found between the degree of marginal bone loss in remaining teeth and the degree of bone loss around implants with peri

  9. Impact of indoor residual spray with synthetic pyrethroid in Gandhinagar district, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattani Mamta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indoor residual spray (IRS, with appropriate insecticide, is an effective weapon for the control of malaria. Two rounds of indoor residual spray, with synthetic pyrethroid, are given in highly malaria endemic areas. It aims to prevent transmission of malaria by adult vector mosquitoes. Aims : To assess the impact of indoor residual spray in the highly malaria-endemic villages of Kalol taluka in Gandhinagar district. Design : High risk population for malaria, based on last three-year malaria situation. Setting: Malaria endemic rural areas in Gandhinagar district where indoor residual spray was undertaken with synthetic pyrethroid in 2006 and 2007. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural areas; Outcome - coverage, acceptance. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Prior to the introduction of synthetic pyrethroid, in 2005, the annual parasitic incidence of the sprayed villages was 33.4. It came down to 8.8 in 2006. Continuation of this strategy in the same villages further brought down the annual parasitic incidence to 1.5 in 2007. A similar trend of steady decline was observed in actual numbers of cases and other malariometric indices as well. Conclusion: IRS, it still has a major role in the control of malaria if implemented with proper supervision, better coverage and community participation.

  10. A Study on Public Opinion Poll and Policy on Indoor Air Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S.; Lee, H.S.; Kong, S.Y.; Ku, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    recognize the imminent health risks that indoor air pollution causes. One reason for this disparity is the lack of education or public awareness on indoor air pollution as an environmental and public health problem. However, it was found that there was great public interest in the issue once the residents were made aware of the health problems resulting from indoor air pollution. Among the respondents, 60% of library workers, 70% of office workers, 80% of teachers, 80% of bus terminal workers, and 90% of underground workers were worried about the effects of indoor air pollution. The study and the survey results conclude that the government should prepare national strategies to manage indoor air quality. It is recommended that such strategies aim to strengthen existing outdoor air pollution abatement programs, create a national indoor air pollution managing system, prepare policy measures aiming at the reduction of health risks, simultaneously implement regulations and recommendations for improving indoor air quality, and initiate action from the associated industries. The study strongly recommends the establishment of a government indoor air quality committee involving all government agencies related with indoor air pollution control. The committee should facilitate communication and action between the various agencies in order to effectively manage indoor air pollution. Specifically, the government indoor air quality committee will need to prepare policies for managing indoor air quality, to prepare regulation standards and recommendation guidelines, to cooperate each other and ultimately to reduce public health risks. Each governmental agency should also independently sustain their responsibility to control indoor air quality. According to the recommendations of this study, the Korean government would need to establish the necessary policies for controlling indoor air quality, and the government would need to recognize the importance of the health problems caused by

  11. Challenges of using HIV as a primary risk indicator: Need for integrated blood donor risk management model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapako, T.; Parirewa, J.J.; Emmanuel, J.C.; Mvere, D.A.; Massundah, E.; Mavunganidze, G.; Marowa, L.M.; Postma, M.J.; Van Hulst, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of risk modelling in blood safety is increasing getting momentum. NBSZ initiated blood donor risk profiling based on donation frequency (r-coding) since 1994 and in 2006 a generic risk classification model was developed (include age and donation venue) which was mainly based on H

  12. Beyond the model democracy: observational constraints indicate risk of drying in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiogama, Hideo; Emori, Seita; Hanasaki, Naota; Abe, Manabu; Masutomi, Yuji; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Nozawa, Toru

    2013-04-01

    Climate warming due to human activities will be accompanied by hydrological cycle changes. Economies, societies and ecosystems in South America (SA) are vulnerable to such water resource changes. Hence, water resource impact assessments for SA, and corresponding adaptation and mitigation policies, have attracted increased attention. However, substantial uncertainties remain in the current water resource assessments that are based on multiple coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation models. This uncertainty varies from significant wetting to catastrophic drying. By applying a statistical method, we characterised the uncertainty and identified global-scale metrics for measuring the reliability of water resource assessments in SA. Here we show that, whereas the ensemble mean assessment suggested wetting across most of SA, the observational constraints indicate a higher probability of drying in the Amazon basin. Naive over-reliance on the consensus of models can lead to inappropriate decision making. Reference: Shiogama, H. et al. Observational constraints indicate risk of drying in the Amazon basin. Nature Communications 2:253 doi: 10.1038/ncomms1252 (2011).

  13. Process quality indicators for chronic kidney disease risk management: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Kirsten P J; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Bilo, Henk J G; Bouma, Margriet; Navis, Gerjan J; Denig, Petra

    2016-10-01

    Quality indicators (QIs) can be used for measuring the quality of actions of healthcare providers. This systematic review gives an overview of such QIs measuring processes of care for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and identifies the QIs that have content, face, operational and/or predictive validity. PubMed and Embase were searched using a strategy combining the terms "quality of care," "quality indicators" and "chronic kidney disease". Papers were included if they focused on developing, testing or applying QIs for assessing the quality of care in adult patients with CKD not on renal replacement therapy. Two hundred and seventy-three QIs from thirty-one papers were extracted, including QIs on adequate monitoring of kidney function and vascular risk factors, on indicated treatment, drug safety, adherence and referral to a specialist. The QIs that were considered content, face and operational valid focused on monitoring of glomerular filtration rate, albumin-creatinine ratio, lipid levels and blood pressure, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, nitrofurantoin and biphosphonates in patients with CKD, and QIs on monitoring haemoglobin and treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor-II-blockers in patients with CKD and comorbidities. No QIs were tested for predictive validity. In addition, only two QIs focused on diet and no other QIs focused on lifestyle management. Based on this review, sufficiently validated QIs can be selected for measuring the quality of CKD care. This review provides insight in QIs that need further validation, and in areas of care where QIs are still lacking. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S. Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent “perceived social mobility.” Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories. PMID:25932460

  15. Perceptions of social mobility: development of a new psychosocial indicator associated with adolescent risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C H; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent "perceived social mobility." Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.

  16. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent perceived social mobility. Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1 projected future social status and (2 current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥ 4 hours of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.

  17. Understanding the Indoor Environment: How To Assess and Improve Indoor Environmental Quality of People?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Oostra, M.A.R.; Meertins, D.

    2013-01-01

    For the establishment of basic requirements and needs a different view on indoor environment quality (IEQ) is required. An integrated approach towards risk assessment of IEQ, in which the focus is on real exposure situations rather than only on single components, will form the basis for creating hea

  18. Understanding the Indoor Environment: How To Assess and Improve Indoor Environmental Quality of People?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Oostra, M.A.R.; Meertins, D.

    2013-01-01

    For the establishment of basic requirements and needs a different view on indoor environment quality (IEQ) is required. An integrated approach towards risk assessment of IEQ, in which the focus is on real exposure situations rather than only on single components, will form the basis for creating

  19. Evaluating GPS Data in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOTTE, H.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With the latest generation of ultra-sensitive GPS-receivers, satellite signals can often be picked up even indoors, resulting in (inaccurate indoor GPS-localization. A covered position will therefore no longer be characterized by the absence of satellite signals, creating the need for another way of categorizing this data as potentially inaccurate. This paper describes the use of GPS-based localization in an indoor environment. Only high level, generally available, GPS-data (NMEA-0183 GNSS-subset are taken into account. Applications of ubiquitous location awareness, where the use of several RTLS (Real Time Location System combinations is feasible, may benefit from this information to discriminate between GPS and other available localization data. A quality indicating parameter is readily available in GPS-data; the DOP (Dilution Of Precision data field, which indicates the accuracy of the GPS localization based on the current satellite geometry. However since in indoor environments the roof and possible overlying floors often cause more signal attenuation compared to (outer walls or windows, the probability of a better reception of 'low' orbiting satellite signals increases, giving rise to an unjustified good horizontal DOP value. Standard NMEA-0183 GPS strings are therefore analyzed in search of other indicators for malicious GPS-data.

  20. Are current phosphorus risk indicators useful to predict the quality of surface waters in southern manitoba, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvano, Esther; Flaten, Don N; Rousseau, Alain N; Quilbe, Renaud

    2009-01-01

    Many phosphorus (P) risk indicators have been developed to assess the risk of P loss from agricultural land to surface water. Most of these indicators are designed for land and climates where rainfall-induced erosion of particulate P from sloping landscapes is the main process of P transport. No indicators have been validated in the Canadian Prairies, where P losses are driven by snowmelt-driven runoff over nearly level landscapes and frozen soils. The objective of this project was to evaluate the relationship between water quality data for P from 14 watersheds and three existing P risk indicators for their potential use in the southern Manitoba prairie region of Canada. None of the indicators, including Birr and Mulla's P Index, a preliminary P risk indicator for Manitoba, and a preliminary version of Canada's National Indicator of Risk of Water Contamination by Phosphorus, was significantly correlated with mean concentrations of total P in water or P export per hectare. Although erosion risk was a significant factor influencing the value of these indexes, erosion risk was not correlated with either measure of P loss in these watersheds. Several other watershed characteristics, including average soil test P concentrations, livestock density, proportion of land in annual crops, and the land's inherent capability for agricultural production, were strongly correlated with P concentrations in water (r = 0.80***, r = 0.63**, 0.76***, and -0.70**, respectively). Therefore, these types of P risk indicators require modifications to estimate the risk of P loss under the soil, landscape, and climatic conditions of southern Manitoba.

  1. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  2. Indoor Tanning (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Indoor ... in the sun is bad for you — sun worshippers have prematurely aging skin, wrinkles, and maybe even skin cancer to look forward to. But what about tanning ...

  3. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  4. Modeling indoor air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepper, D. W; Carrington, David B

    2009-01-01

    ... and ventilation from the more popular textbooks and monographs. We wish to especially acknowledge Dr. Xiuling Wang, who diligently converted many of our old FORTRAN codes into MATLAB files, and also developed the COMSOL example files. Also we thank Ms. Kathryn Nelson who developed the website for the book and indoor air quality computer codes. We are grateful to ...

  5. Ultraviolet exposure from indoor tanning devices as a potential source of health risks: Basic knowledge of the proper use of these devices for practical users, physicians and solarium staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Malinowska-Borowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the adverse health effects of exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation in solarium, especially the risk of carcinogenesis, there is a need to adopt legal regulations by relevant Polish authorities. They should set out the principles for indoor tanning studios operation, supervision and service of the technical parameters of tanning devices and training programs to provide the staff with professional knowledge and other aspects of safety in these facilities. The mechanism of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation on the human body, scale of overexposure, resulting from excessive sunbathing are described. Methods for estimating UV exposure and possible actions aimed at reducing the overexposure and preventing from cancer development caused by UV are also presented in this paper. Med Pr 2017;68(5:653–665

  6. [Ultraviolet exposure from indoor tanning devices as a potential source of health risks: Basic knowledge of the proper use of these devices for practical users, physicians and solarium staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska-Borowska, Jolanta; Janosik, Elżbieta

    2017-07-26

    Bearing in mind the adverse health effects of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in solarium, especially the risk of carcinogenesis, there is a need to adopt legal regulations by relevant Polish authorities. They should set out the principles for indoor tanning studios operation, supervision and service of the technical parameters of tanning devices and training programs to provide the staff with professional knowledge and other aspects of safety in these facilities. The mechanism of the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation on the human body, scale of overexposure, resulting from excessive sunbathing are described. Methods for estimating UV exposure and possible actions aimed at reducing the overexposure and preventing from cancer development caused by UV are also presented in this paper. Med Pr 2017;68(5):653-665. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Methylmercury Bioaccumulation in Rice and Wetland Biota: employing integrated indices of processes that drive methylmercury risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.; Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands often are associated with elevated methylmercury (MeHg) production and food web bioaccumulation, making them potentially important sources of Hg to surrounding waters and to wetland-dependent fish and wildlife. However, the cycling of MeHg through wetlands can vary markedly with wetland type. Agricultural wetlands such as rice fields can exhibit particularly pronounced MeHg concentrations and bioaccumulation because their biogeochemical, hydrological, and ecological characteristics facilitate the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg) to MeHg. Rice fields are characterized by a series of seasonal extreme wetting and drying cycles, sulfate-containing fertilizers, and high levels of labile organic carbon, all of which are key processes in the Hg cycle. Rice fields comprise approximately 20% of freshwater habitats and 11% of cultivated land area globally, providing critical wildlife habitat while offering substantial economic, human health, and ecosystem benefits. Thus, there is strong impetus to better understand the drivers of Hg cycling in rice fields and to develop useful management approaches for minimizing Hg risk associated with rice agriculture without compromising rice production. We examined the role of rice wetlands on MeHg bioaccumulation through foodwebs by employing biosentinel caged fish as integrators of MeHg cycling processes. With experimental field studies in California's Central Valley, we placed biosentinel fishes into nine rice wetlands that were subjected to three different harvest strategies, and into nine managed wetlands that encompassed three different hydrological regimes. We simultaneously measured a suite of biogeochemical processes in surface water, sediment, and pore water in order to link the response in fish Hg bioaccumulation with within-field processes that regulate MeHg cycling. Our preliminary results indicate that fish Hg concentrations were 1.6 times higher in rice wetlands than in managed wetlands. Additionally, fish Hg

  8. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lifetime history of indoor tanning in young people: a retrospective assessment of initiation, persistence, and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lostritto Karen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite educational and public health campaigns to convey the risks of indoor tanning, many individuals around the world continue to engage in this behavior. Few descriptive studies of indoor tanning have collected information pertaining to the lifetime history of indoor tanning, thereby limiting our ability to understand indoor tanning patterns and potentially target interventions for individuals who not only initiate, but continue to persistently engage in indoor tanning. Methods In-person interviews elicited detailed retrospective information on lifetime history of indoor tanning among white individuals (n = 401 under age 40 seen by a dermatologist for a minor benign skin condition. These individuals were controls in a case-control study of early-onset basal cell carcinoma. Outcomes of interest included ever indoor tanning in both males and females, as well as persistent indoor tanning in females - defined as females over age 31 who tanned indoors at least once in the last three or all four of four specified age periods (ages 11-15, 16-20, 21-30 and 31 or older. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of ever and persistent indoor tanning in females. Results Approximately three-quarters (73.3% of females and 38.3% of males ever tanned indoors, with a median age of initiation of 17.0 and 21.5, respectively. Among indoor tanners, 39.3% of females and 21.7% of males reported being burned while indoor tanning. Female ever indoor tanners were younger, had darker color eyes, and sunbathed more frequently than females who never tanned indoors. Using unique lifetime exposure data, 24.7% of female indoor tanners 31 and older persistently tanned indoors starting as teenagers. Female persistent indoor tanners drank significantly more alcohol, were less educated, had skin that tanned with prolonged sun exposure, and sunbathed outdoors more frequently than non-persistent tanners

  10. Mathematical models for predicting indoor air quality from smoking activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, W R

    1999-01-01

    Much progress has been made over four decades in developing, testing, and evaluating the performance of mathematical models for predicting pollutant concentrations from smoking in indoor settings. Although largely overlooked by the regulatory community, these models provide regulators and risk assessors with practical tools for quantitatively estimating the exposure level that people receive indoors for a given level of smoking activity. This article reviews the development of the mass balanc...

  11. Outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure to VOCs in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Fredrickson, Ann L; Stock, Thomas H; Morandi, Maria T; Sexton, Ken

    2004-10-01

    We measured volatile organic compound (VOC) exposures in multiple locations for a diverse population of children who attended two inner-city schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Fifteen common VOCs were measured at four locations: outdoors (O), indoors at school (S), indoors at home (H), and in personal samples (P). Concentrations of most VOCs followed the general pattern O approximately equal to S long-term health risks from children's exposure to these compounds.

  12. Indications and Risk Factors for Complications of Lower Third Molar Surgery in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunde, OD; Saheeb, BD; Bassey, GO

    2014-01-01

    Background: The surgical extraction of impacted third molars is a common oral surgical procedure, and it is often associated with complications such as sensory nerve damage, dry socket, pain, swelling, trismus, infection and hemorrhage. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the surgical indications and risk factors for complications of third molar surgery at a Nigerian teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients referred to the Oral Surgery Clinic of our institution for surgical extraction of their impacted mandibular third molars from January 2008 to December 2010 were retrospectively examined. Information on patients’ demography, types of impaction, operative parameters and complications were obtained and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 13), Chicago, IL, USA. A P pericoronitis (154/330 [46.7%]) was the most common indication for extraction. The complications were delayed healing (19/330 [5.8%]), alveolar, osteitis (9/330 [2.7%]) and injury to alveolar nerve (2/330 [0.6%]). Cigarette smoking (P < 0.001), Oral contraceptives use (P = 0.01), age of the patient (P = 0.03) and the surgeon's experience (P = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with the development of alveolar osteitis; nerves injuries were significantly associated with the raising of a lingual flap (P < 0.001) and the technique of surgery (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The age of the patient, cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive use at the time of surgery are some of the factors affecting outcome in third molar surgery. PMID:25506490

  13. Antioxidants deficiency: a sensitive indicator of cardiometabolic risk in chronic renal failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja S.K. Rai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antioxidant depletion occurring in chronic renal failure patients is an important cause of associated morbidity & mortality, which in turn imposes a great socioeconomic burden of health care. Early diagnosis & targeted management of this preventable deficiency may have a positive impact on the management of co morbidities associated with chronic renal failure. Aims & Objectives: To evaluate the status of antioxidants as an early indicator of cardiometabolic risk in chronic renal failure patients. Settings & Design: This was a randomised case Control study including 10 controls of either sex with normal renal function between age group 20-60 years and 15 patients of chronic renal failure on dialysis between the age group of 16 - 60 years. Methods: 12 hour fasting venous blood samples were collected from all the participants and were assayed for various antioxidants. Statistical analysis: Results were analyzed by unpaired t test, p value was determined & Correlation coefficient was calculated amongst various parameters. Results: In the present study, significantly low levels of vitamin C ( Cases: 0.367 ± 0.13 mg/dl controls: 1.324 ± 0.61 mg/dl; p < 0.01 & vitamin E (cases: 0.235 ± 0.102 mg/dl, controls (0.854 ± 0.28 mg/dl; p < 0.01 were observed in chronic renal failure patients as compared to controls. Conclusion: Diminished levels of Vitamin C & E in our study may be an indicator of increased oxidative stress which can be a responsible factor for increased incidence of cardiovascular complications. Supplementing these patients with recommended dosage of these vitamins may provide an essential tool to reduce the burden of suffering. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 87-92

  14. Subsidence Serves as an Indicator of Groundwater Arsenic Risk in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Knight, R. J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater arsenic concentrations dominantly result from anaerobic conditions. Within aquifers, clays are typically the major hosts of solid-phase arsenic, and clay layers often have restricted oxygen supply, resulting in anaerobic conditions and the concomitant relase of arsenic to groundwater. But it is not until water is drawn from the clay layers, through over-pumping of aquifers, that arsenic enters the water supply. Due to the mechanical properties of clays, the volume of groundwater withdrawn is effectively approximated by their vertical deformation, the sum of which is expressed at the surface as subsidence. As a result, subsidence can serve as an indicator, or "early warning system", of the presence of arsenic in the pumped groundwater. In the San Joaquin Valley of California, there has been significant subsidence due to groundwater extraction from clays for nearly a century. Historical subsidence in this area has been measured with leveling surveys, GPS and extensometers, and has been reproduced in groundwater models. More recent subsidence can be measured directly using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). We use recent (post-2007) arsenic level data from the southern portion of the San Joaquin Valley to train a random forest model. Predictors in the model include historical (pre-2002) estimates of subsidence, more recent (2007-2011) InSAR estimates of subsidence, and other predictors representing additional mechanisms that could affect arsenic levels in groundwater, such as groundwater flow, redox potential and position in the basin. We find that recent subsidence is a strong predictor of arsenic levels; historical subsidence could have some impact but is less significant. These results indicate that avoiding over-pumping of the aquifer may improve water quality over a time period on the order of 10 years. Incorporating subsidence into arsenic prediction maps can improve our ability to identify and manage areas that have a higher risk of

  15. Childhood asthma and early life exposure to indoor allergens, endotoxin and beta(1,3)-glucans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertelsen, R.J.; Carlsen, K.C.L.; Granum, B.; Doekes, G.; Haland, G.; Mowinckel, P.; Lovik, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Divergent results have been reported regarding early life exposure to indoor environmental agents and the risk of asthma and allergic sensitization later in life. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether early exposure to indoor allergens, beta(1,3)-glucans and endotoxin modifies the risk of allergi

  16. The Value of Family History as a Risk Indicator for Venous Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Irene D.; Meer, van der Felilx J.M.; Eikenboom, Jeroen C.J.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Doggen, Carine J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background A positive family history of venous thrombosis may reflect the presence of genetic risk factors. Once a risk factor has been identified, it is not known whether family history is of additional value in predicting an individual's risk. We studied the contribution of family history to the

  17. The Value of Family History as a Risk Indicator for Venous Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Irene D.; van der Meer, Felilx J.M.; Eikenboom, Jeroen C.J.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background A positive family history of venous thrombosis may reflect the presence of genetic risk factors. Once a risk factor has been identified, it is not known whether family history is of additional value in predicting an individual's risk. We studied the contribution of family history to the

  18. Prevalence of and risk indicators for chronic periodontitis in males from Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Medina-Solís, Carlo E; Maupomé, Gerardo; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana A; Casanova-Rosado, Juan F; Marquez-Corona, María de L

    2007-01-01

    Determining the prevalence, severity and extension of chronic periodontitis and identifying risk indicators amongst policemen in Campeche, Mexico, using an electron probe. A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 161 men was conducted. A case of periodontitis was defined as a participant having clinical attachment loss in at least one (3) 4 mm site. Every periodontal site in the mouth was measured by a standardized periodontist using a Florida Probe System. STATA 8.2 was used for bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis, using logistic binary regression. RESULTS Mean age was 38.36+/-10.99 years. 23,622 periodontal sites were available for examination. Mean (SD) teeth and sites examined per person were 24.45+/-4.63 and 146.72+/-27.80, respectively. Periodontitis prevalence was 62.7%. Periodontitis severity was 2.9 mm and extent was 53.7%. Adjusted for alcohol intake, factors associated with periodontitis prevalence were being older ((3)35 years; OR=2.08; CI95%=1.05-4.10), smoking (current/former; OR=2.22; CI95%=1.06-4.77) and gingivitis (presence; OR=3.35; CI95%=1.34-8.42). Many study participants had poor periodontal conditions, with substantial overall prevalence of periodontitis. Older age, tobacco use and the presence of gingivitis were factors associated with periodontitis prevalence.

  19. Male Factors and socioeconomic indicators correlate with the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    the personal identification numbers and information stored in several population registers. Change of partner reduced the recurrence risk of spontaneous abortion substantially (OR = 0.59; 95 CI 0.52-0.67), but also changes in social status or job reduced the recurrence risk significantly. Changing...... the municipality of residence to a low risk area (based upon the geographical distribution of spontaneous abortions) reduced the risk of spontaneous abortion in both cohorts. A paternal effect on the recurrence risk of spontaneous abortion cannot be ruled out but environmental factors also play a role....

  20. Indoor Air Quality: part II--what it does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike-Paris, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Newton, MA. A recent report indicated air quality samples taken from several rooms in the town's North High School had elevated CO2 levels of 2,000 parts per million (ppm) (Viser, 2004). State standards set 800 ppm as the optimum reading. Although not an immediate health issue, high CO2 levels are indicative of poor air circulation--clean air comes in but stale air is not vented out. Safety issues arise in the school setting when chemicals or toxic substances are in use and cannot be vented, therefore posing the health risk (Viser, 2004). Poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in schools can result in decreased academic performance and days lost due to illness in the school age population (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2003). As the school nurse at North High School, what would you do?

  1. Child exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants in schools in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, I; Viana, M; Moreno, T; Pandolfi, M; Amato, F; Reche, C; Bouso, L; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M; Alastuey, A; Sunyer, J; Querol, X

    2014-08-01

    Proximity to road traffic involves higher health risks because of atmospheric pollutants. In addition to outdoor air, indoor air quality contributes to overall exposure. In the framework of the BREATHE study, indoor and outdoor air pollution was assessed in 39 schools in Barcelona. The study quantifies indoor and outdoor air quality during school hours of the BREATHE schools. High levels of fine particles (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), equivalent black carbon (EBC), ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentration and road traffic related trace metals were detected in school playgrounds and indoor environments. PM2.5 almost doubled (factor of 1.7) the usual urban background (UB) levels reported for Barcelona owing to high school-sourced PM2.5 contributions: [1] an indoor-generated source characterised mainly by organic carbon (OC) from organic textile fibres, cooking and other organic emissions, and by calcium and strontium (chalk dust) and; [2] mineral elements from sand-filled playgrounds, detected both indoors and outdoors. The levels of mineral elements are unusually high in PM2.5 because of the breakdown of mineral particles during playground activities. Moreover, anthropogenic PM components (such as OC and arsenic) are dry/wet deposited in this mineral matter. Therefore, PM2.5 cannot be considered a good tracer of traffic emissions in schools despite being influenced by them. On the other hand, outdoor NO2, EBC, UFP, and antimony appear to be good indicators of traffic emissions. The concentrations of NO2 are 1.2 times higher at schools than UB, suggesting the proximity of some schools to road traffic. Indoor levels of these traffic-sourced pollutants are very similar to those detected outdoors, indicating easy penetration of atmospheric pollutants. Spatial variation shows higher levels of EBC, NO2, UFP and, partially, PM2.5 in schools in the centre than in the outskirts of Barcelona, highlighting the influence of traffic emissions. Mean child exposure to

  2. Frequency and Risk Indicators of Tooth Decay among Pregnant Women in France: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. METHODS: A secondary cross-sectional analysis of d...

  3. Monitoring Indoor Air Quality for Enhanced Occupational Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarma, Rui; Marques, Gonçalo; Ferreira, Bárbara Roque

    2017-02-01

    Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort. The majority of the monitoring systems presently available is very expensive and only allow to collect random samples. This work describes the system (iAQ), a low-cost indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network system, developed using Arduino, XBee modules and micro sensors, for storage and availability of monitoring data on a web portal in real time. Five micro sensors of environmental parameters (air temperature, humidity, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and luminosity) were used. Other sensors can be added for monitoring specific pollutants. The results reveal that the system can provide an effective indoor air quality assessment to prevent exposure risk. In fact, the indoor air quality may be extremely different compared to what is expected for a quality living environment. Systems like this would have benefit as public health interventions to reduce the burden of symptoms and diseases related to "sick buildings".

  4. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

  5. Health Risk Assessment of Benzene and Formaldehyde in Indoor Air at Entertainment Venues in Xi'an City%西安市娱乐场所室内空气中苯与甲醛的健康风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 卢新卫

    2012-01-01

    在对西安市网吧、KTV、咖啡厅、酒吧4类娱乐场所空气中苯、甲醛浓度监测的基础上,评价其致癌风险。检测结果表明,除咖啡厅空气中苯浓度均值未超过GB/T18883—2002《室内空气质量标准》限值(0.11mg/ms)外,甲醛和其他娱乐场所空气中苯与甲醛的浓度均超过国家规定限值。健康风险表明,西安市娱乐场所男性从业人员面临的苯与甲醛的致癌风险均值分别为6.21×10-5、10.59×10-5,女性则分别为5.46×10-5.9.32×10-5,均超过美国环保局制定的可接受风险值,存在较大致癌风险。%Based on benzene and formaldehyde monitoring performed at representative entertainment venues in Xran City such as Internet cafes, karaoke TV bars, coffee houses and taprooms, their health risk assessment was conducted. The benzene and formaldehyde concentrations in indoor air at entertainment venues in Xran City were all found higher than their relevant limit values specified in the Chinese indoor air quality standard except for mean contents of benzene at coffee houses. It was indicated that the mean carcinogenic risks of benzene and formaldehyde for male employees were at 6.21 ×10-5 and 10.59× 0-2 whilst that for female employees were at 5.46× 10-S and 9.32 × 10-5, respectively, all exceeding the acceptable risk levels set by U. S. EPA. It implied that there have been rather higher carcinogenic risks of benzene and formaldehyde to human health at entertainment venues in Xi'an City.

  6. Indoor Subspacing to Implement Indoorgml for Indoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.

  7. INDOOR SUBSPACING TO IMPLEMENT INDOORGML FOR INDOOR NAVIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.

  8. THE COMPARATIVE RISK AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF HUNGARIAN AND ROMANIAN EXCHANGE INDICES

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnaczi Tibor; Kulcsar Edina

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the most dominant characteristics of the financial environment are instability, variability, riskiness and uncertainty. It is difficult to find a field where the decision making process is risk-free. This statement is especially true in case of financial investments according to which risk taking is rewarded. But it is also true that the financial market participants cannot be completely avoided risks, but there are many options for managing and minimizing them. One of the most well...

  9. A study of risk factors of postpartum hemorrhage and indications for caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana G

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of anemia among women at term was found to be 43%. The different medical high risk factors were human immunodeficiency virus positive (asymptomatic diagnosed during pregnancy, Hepatitis B antigen positive, cardiovascular risk, hypothyroidism, epilepsy observed in the groups. Other high risk factors included asthma, Crohns disease, and systemic sclerosis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2017-2021

  10. Socioeconomic indicators of heat-related health risk supplemented with remotely sensed data

    OpenAIRE

    Luber George C; Wilson Jeffrey S; Johnson Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Extreme heat events are the number one cause of weather-related fatalities in the United States. The current system of alert for extreme heat events does not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature derived from thermal remote ...

  11. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  12. Risk indicators for water supply systems for a drought Decision Support System in central Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giuseppe; Garrote, Luis; Caporali, Enrica

    2010-05-01

    Identifying the occurrence, the extent and the magnitude of a drought can be delicate, requiring detection of depletions of supplies and increases in demand. Drought indices, particularly the meteorological ones, can describe the onset and the persistency of droughts, especially in natural systems. However they have to be used cautiously when applied to water supply systems. They show little correlation with water shortage situations, since water storage, as well as demand fluctuation, play an important role in water resources management. For that reason a more dynamic indicator relating supply and demand is required in order to identify situations when there is risk of water shortages. In water supply systems there is great variability on the natural water resources and also on the demands. These quantities can only be defined probabilistically. This great variability is faced defining some threshold values, expressed in probabilistic terms, that measure the hydrologic state of the system. They can identify specific actions in an operational context in different levels of severity, like the normal, pre-alert, alert and emergency scenarios. They can simplify the decision-making required during stressful periods and can help mitigate the impacts of drought by clearly defining the conditions requiring actions. The threshold values are defined considering the probability to satisfy a given fraction of the demand in a certain time horizon, and are calibrated through discussion with water managers. A simplified model of the water resources system is built to evaluate the threshold values and the management rules. The threshold values are validated with a long term simulation that takes into account the characteristics of the evaluated system. The levels and volumes in the different reservoirs are simulated using 20-30 years time series. The critical situations are assessed month by month in order to evaluate optimal management rules during the year and avoid conditions

  13. Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score for early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis in Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Vignesh; Ooi, Geraldine; Weidlich, Stephanie; Carson, Phillip

    2017-03-15

    Soft tissue infections are a major health burden in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is associated with mortality rates from 8 to 40%. Early recognition and aggressive surgical debridement are the cornerstones of successful treatment. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score, developed by Wong et al., uses six routine biochemical variables to aid early diagnosis. We aim to assess the diagnostic efficacy of the LRINEC score in our population. A retrospective review of patients with NF between 2005 and 2013 was conducted. A time matched cohort of abscesses/cellulitis was selected. Admission bloods were used to calculate the LRINEC score. An intraoperative finding of NF was used as the gold standard definition for comparison. The diagnostic accuracy of the LRINEC score was assessed. Ninety-eight patients with NF and 205 control patients were identified. The area under the receiver operator curve for the LRINEC score in detecting NF was 0.925 (0.890-0.959, P < 0.001). The sensitivity of the LRINEC ≥5 for NF was 76.3%, with a specificity of 93.1%. The positive and negative predictive values were 95.5 and 88.1%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 11 and 0.25. The LRINEC score is a useful, robust, non-invasive and easily calculated scoring system that can be used as an adjunct to early diagnosis of NF. However, a high degree of clinical suspicion remains the most important factor in early diagnosis of NF. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. An exposure-based, ecology-driven framework for selection of indicator species for insecticide risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the current “tiered” paradigm for evaluating risks of insecticidal products, one of the first decisions that must be made is the selection of indicator species to be used in toxicity assays. However, as yet, no formal system has been developed to determine whether proposed indicator species are r...

  15. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirk R.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  16. Measuring the Combined Risk to Young Children's Cognitive Development: An Alternative to Cumulative Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James E.; Sammons, Pam; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Taggart, Brenda; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Smees, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In studies of child development, the combined effect of multiple risks acting in unison has been represented in a variety of ways. This investigation builds upon this preceding work and presents a new procedure for capturing the combined effect of multiple risks. A representative sample of 2,899 British children had their cognitive development…

  17. Are Tattooing and Body Piercing Indicators of Risk-Taking Behaviours among High School Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschesnes, Marthe; Fines, Phillipe; Demers, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To date, studies pertaining to possible links between body modification and risk-taking behaviours have been conducted mainly among targeted groups. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of a number of risk-taking behaviours on the probability of being pierced or tattooed among a general adolescent population. Methods:…

  18. Indoor airborne infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne infection from person to person is an indoor phenomenon. The infectious organisms are atomized by coughing, sneezing, singing, and even talking. The smallest droplets evaporate to droplet nuclei and disperse rapidly and randomly throughout the air of enclosed spaces. Droplet nuclei have negligible settling velocity and travel wherever the air goes. Outdoors, dilution is so rapid that the chance of inhaling an infectious droplet nucleus is minimal. Measles and other childhood contagions, the common respiratory virus infections, pulmonary tuberculosis, and Legionnaires' Disease are typically airborne indoors. In analyzing a measles outbreak, the probability that a susceptible person would breathe a randomly distributed quantum of airborne infection during one generation of an outbreak was expressed mathematically. Estimates of the rate of production of infectious droplet nuclei ranged between 93 and 8 per min, and the concentration in the air produced by the index case was about 1 quantum per 5 m/sup 3/ of air. Infectious aiborne particles are thus few and far between. Control of indoor airborne infection can be approached through immunization, therapeutic medication, and air disinfection with ultraviolet radiation.

  19. Risk indicators of coronal and root caries in Greek middle aged adults and senior citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamai-Homata Eleni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay of multiple determinants which may change overtime. Therefore, periodic surveys of caries experience and redetermination of the risk indicators of the disease are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of coronal and root caries in Greeks aged 35-44 and 65-74-year-old in relation to socio-demographic parameters. Furthermore, trends in coronal caries experience of the 35-44-year-olds were investigated. Methods A sample of 1188 35-44-year-old and 1093 65-74-year-old individuals was selected in 2005 according to WHO guidelines for national pathfinder surveys. Caries was assessed in dentate subjects using the DMFT, DMFS, RDFS and RCI indices. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the effect of socio-demographic parameters. Results The mean DMFT and DMFS scores of the adults were 14.06 and 45.78 respectively, while those of the senior citizens were 20.63 and 89.82. Among the 35-44-year-ods, men and those having a higher educational attainment had significantly lower DMFS values (women OR = 1.679, CI: 1.243-2.267 and >12 years of education OR = 0.321, CI: 0.193-0.535 respectively, while educational level was the only predictor of DMFS in senior citizens (OR = 0.279, CI: 0.079-0.992. The mean DMFT score of the 35-44-year-olds has not improved since 1985, but there was a remarkable reduction in the number of DT related to a simultaneous increase in the number of FT. The mean RDFS rose from 0.39 in adults to 2.66 in senior citizens. The mean RDFS score of the middle aged adults was significantly correlated with education (OR = 0.346, CI: 0.180-0.664. The RCI was almost four times greater in seniors (9.73 than in adults (2.53. There were significant differences in caries experience between the surveyed regions. MS and RDS were the major components of the

  20. Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01

    The tracking of the locations of moving objects in large indoor spaces is important, as it enables a range of applications related to, e.g., security and indoor navigation and guidance. This paper presents a graph model based approach to indoor tracking that offers a uniform data management...... infrastructure for different symbolic positioning technologies, e.g., Bluetooth and RFID. More specifically, the paper proposes a model of indoor space that comprises a base graph and mappings that represent the topology of indoor space at different levels. The resulting model can be used for one or several...... indoor positioning technologies. Focusing on RFID-based positioning, an RFID specific reader deployment graph model is built from the base graph model. This model is then used in several algorithms for constructing and refining trajectories from raw RFID readings. Empirical studies with implementations...

  1. USING THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVENESS INDICATORS FOR SOCIAL MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO REDUCE HEALTH-RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantamay, Nottakrit

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.

  2. Potential demographic and baselines variables for risk stratification of high-risk post-myocardial infarction patients in the era of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator - a prognostic indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, Martin

    2008-01-01

    , sex, previous MI or angina, hypertension, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, NYHA functional class and non-Q wave infarct on electrocardiogram. Distinct survival curves were obtained for 3 risk groups based on the median and inter-quartile range for the prognostic index. In the high-risk......BACKGROUND: Risk stratification after myocardial infarction (MI) remains expensive and disappointing. We designed a prognostic indicator using demographic information to select patients at risk of dying after MI. METHOD AND RESULTS: We combined individual patient data from the placebo arms of EMIAT......, CAMIAT, TRACE and DIAMOND-MI with LVEF 10 ventricular premature beats/hour or a run of ventricular tachycardia). Risk factors for mortality beginning at day 45 post-MI up to 2 years were examined using Cox regression analysis. Risk scores were derived from the equation of a Cox regression model...

  3. Assessment of indoor levels of volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide in schools in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadi, Layla

    2017-08-22

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is a matter of concern because children are most vulnerable and sensitive to pollutant exposure. Conservation of energy at the expense of ventilation in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems adversely affects IAQ. Extensive use of new materials in building, fitting, and refurbishing emit various pollutants such that the indoor environment creates its own discomfort and health risks. Various schools in Kuwait were selected to assess their IAQ. Comprehensive measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of 72 organic compounds consisting of aliphatic (C3-C6), aromatic (C6-C9), halogenated (C1-C6), and oxygenated (C2-C9) functional groups in indoor air were made for the first time in schools in Kuwait. The concentrations of indoor air pollutants revealed hot spots (science preparation rooms, science laboratories, arts and crafts classes/paint rooms, and woodworking shops/decoration rooms where local sources contributed to the buildup of pollutants in each school. The most abundant VOC pollutant was chlorodifluoromethane - R22 (ClF2CH), which leaked from air conditioning (AC) systems due to improper operation and maintenance. The other copious VOCs were alcohols and acetone at different locations due to improper handling of the chemicals and their excessive uses as solvents. Indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) levels were measured, and these levels reflected the performance of HVAC systems; a specific rate or lack of ventilation affected the IAQ. Recommendations are proposed to mitigate the buildup of indoor air pollutants at school sites. Implication Indoor Air Quality in elementary schools has been subject of extreme importance due to susceptibility and sensibility of children to air pollutants. The schools were selected based on their surrounding environment especially downwind direction from the highly industrialized zone in Kuwait. Extensive sampling from different sites in four schools for

  4. A Pilot Study to Understand the Variation in Indoor Air Quality in Different Economic Zones of Delhi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhinav; Ghosh, Chirashree

    Today, one of the most grave environmental health problems being faced by the urban population is the poor air quality one breathes in. To testify the above statement, the recent survey report, World health statistics (WHO, 2012) reflects the fact that childhood mortality ratio from acute respiratory infection is one of the top leading causes of death in developing countries like India. Urban areas have a complex social stratification which ultimately results in forming different urban economic zones. This research attempts to understand the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by taking into consideration different lifestyle of occupants inhabiting these economic zones. The Study tries to evaluate the outdoor and indoor air quality by understanding the variation of selected pollutants (SPM, SOx, NOx) for the duration of four months - from October, 2012-January, 2013. For this, three economic zones (EZ) of Delhi University’s North Campus, were selected - Urban Slum (EZ I), Clerical (EZ II) and Faculty residence (EZ III). The statistical study indicates that Urban Slum (EZ I) was the most polluted site reporting maximum concentration of outdoor pollutants, whereas no significant difference in pollution load was observed in EZ II and EZ III. Further, the indoor air quality was evaluated by quantifying the indoor and outdoor pollution concentration ratios that shows EZ III have most inferior indoor air quality, followed by EZ I and EZ II. Moreover, it was also observed that ratio (phenomenon of infiltration) was dominant at the EZ II but was low for the EZ I and EZ III. With the evidence of high Indoor air pollution, the risk of pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections also increases, calling for an urgent requisite for making reforms to improve IAQ. Key words: Urban Area, Slum, IAQ, SOx, NOx, SPM

  5. Indoor propagation and assessment of blast waves from weapons using the alternative image theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Jung, S.; Song, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Blast waves generated from the muzzles of various weapons might have significant effects on the human body, and these effects are recognized as being more severe when weapons are fired indoors. The risk can be assessed by various criteria, such as waveform, exposed energy, and model-based types. This study introduces a prediction model of blast wave propagation for estimating waveform parameters related to damage risk assessment. To simulate indoor multiple reflections in a simple way, the model is based on the alternative image theory and discrete wavefront method. The alternative theory is a kind of modified image theory, but it uses the image space concept from a receiver's perspective, so that it shows improved efficiency for indoor problems. Further, the discrete wavefront method interprets wave propagation as the forward movement of a finite number of wavefronts. Even though the predicted results show slight differences from the measured data, the locations of significant shock waves indicate a high degree of correlation between them. Since the disagreement results not from the proposed techniques but from the assumptions used, it is concluded that the model is appropriate for analysis of blast wave propagation in interior spaces.

  6. Body Composition Indices and Single and Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents: Providing Clinical-Based Cut-Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Gottrand, Frederic; Roccaldo, Romana; Marcos, Ascensión; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Dallongeville, Jean; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Denes; Bueno, Gloria; de Henauw, Stefaan; Widhalm, Kurt; Wells, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study in adolescents were 1) to examine how various body composition-screening tests relate to single and clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, 2) to examine how lean mass and body fatness (independently of each other) relate to clustered CVD risk factors, and 3) to calculate specific thresholds for body composition indices associated with an unhealthier clustered CVD risk. We measured 1089 European adolescents (46.7% boys, 12.5-17.49years) in 2006-2007. CVD risk factors included: systolic blood pressure, maximum oxygen uptake, homeostasis model assessment, C-reactive protein (n=748), total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Body composition indices included: height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, the sum of four skinfolds, central/peripheral skinfolds, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Most body composition indices are associated with single CVD risk factors. The sum of four skinfolds, WHtR, BMI, WC and lean mass are strong and positively associated with clustered CVD risk. Interestingly, lean mass is positively associated with clustered CVD risk independently of body fatness in girls. Moderate and highly accurate thresholds for the sum of four skinfolds, WHtR, BMI, WC and lean mass are associated with an unhealthier clustered CVD risk (all AUC>0.773). In conclusion, our results support an association between most of the assessed body composition indices and single and clustered CVD risk factors. In addition, lean mass (independent of body fatness) is positively associated with clustered CVD risk in girls, which is a novel finding that helps to understand why an index such as BMI is a good index of CVD risk but a bad index of adiposity. Moderate to highly accurate thresholds for body composition indices associated with a healthier clustered CVD risk were found. Further studies with a longitudinal design are needed to confirm these findings

  7. Elaboración de índices de riesgo educativo Making indicators of education risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledy Foliaco Rebolledo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se construyeron IRE para sintetizar diez variables, que son: logros académicos (LA, inteligencias múltiples (IM, autoestimas (AUTO, currículum del hogar (CdH, estatus socioeconómico (ESE, salud (S, asistencia a clases (AC, disciplina (D, participación en programas de atención social (PPA, escuelas efectivas (EE. La población consideró niños de 5º. básico, estudiantes tanto de escuelas mixtas públicas y privadas, como de urbanas y rurales, procedentes de los municipios de Funza y Madrid, departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia, en el año 2005. Las muestras al azar, por estratos, seleccionaron 35 escuelas, con 2.240 alumnos. Los datos incluyeron: notas educativas y tests; escalas MIDAS-Kids, de Shearer; inventario de Coopersmith; cuestionario currículo del hogar, de Pizarro; estratos económicos de acuerdo con la categoría del SISBEN; porcentajes de inasistencia a clases; indicadores de comportamiento en clases; participación en programas de atención social; cuestionario de escuelas efectivas de Witte, Walsh y Pizarro.IREs (pointers of education risks, for its letters in Spanish were built based on 10 variables, which are: academical achievements (LA; multiple intelligences (IM, self-esteem (AUTO, home curriculum (CdH, social and economical status (ESE, health (S, classes attending (AC, discipline (D, participation in social care programs (PPA, effective schools (EE. Population chosen are kids from Elementary 5th grade: public and private, urban and rural school Students, coming from Funza and Madrid, two towns located in Cundinamarca, Colombia, near Bogota (the capital; this study was made in 2005. Models were taken at random from 35 schools, with 2.240 students. Data required educational notes and tests, scales MIDAS-Kids of Shearer, Coopersmith inventory; home curriculum questionnaire of Pizarro; economical levels according to the category of SISBEN, non class attending percentages, behavior in class indicators, participation in

  8. WHO indoor air quality guidelines on household fuel combustion: Strategy implications of new evidence on interventions and exposure-risk functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Nigel; Pope, Dan; Rehfuess, Eva; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Dora, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Background: 2.8 billion people use solid fuels as their primary cooking fuel; the resulting high levels of household air pollution (HAP) were estimated to cause more than 4 million premature deaths in 2012. The people most affected are among the world's poorest, and past experience has shown that securing adoption and sustained use of effective, low-emission stove technologies and fuels in such populations is not easy. Among the questions raised by these challenges are (i) to what levels does HAP exposure need to be reduced in order to ensure that substantial health benefits are achieved, and (ii) what intervention technologies and fuels can achieve the required levels of HAP in practice? New WHO air quality guidelines are being developed to address these issues. Aims: To address the above questions drawing on evidence from new evidence reviews conducted for the WHO guidelines. Methods: Discussion of key findings from reviews covering (i) systematic reviews of health risks from HAP exposure, (ii) newly developed exposure-response functions which combine combustion pollution risk evidence from ambient air pollution, second-hand smoke, HAP and active smoking, and (iii) a systematic review of the impacts of solid fuel and clean fuel interventions on kitchen levels of, and personal exposure to, PM2.5 and carbon monoxide (CO). Findings: Evidence on health risks from HAP suggest that controlling this exposure could reduce the risk of multiple child and adult health outcomes by 20-50%. The new integrated exposure-response functions (IERs) indicate that in order to secure these benefits, HAP levels require to be reduced to the WHO IT-1 annual average level (35 μg/m3 PM2.5), or below. The second review found that, in practice, solid fuel 'improved stoves' led to large percentage and absolute reductions, but post-intervention kitchen levels were still very high, at several hundreds of μg/m3 of PM2.5, although most solid fuel stove types met the WHO 24-hr average guideline

  9. Clinical trial registration was not an indicator for low risk of bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Cynthia M; Showell, Marian G; Showell, Emily A E; Beetham, Penny; Baak, Nora; Mourad, Selma; Jordan, Vanessa M B

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of registered trials and to evaluate the risk of bias between registered and unregistered clinical trials. The Cochrane Gynecology and Fertility Group's specialized register was searched on November 5, 2015, for randomized controlled trials published from 2010 to 2014. Studies were selected if they had randomized women or men for fertility treatments, were published in full text and written in English. Two reviewers then independently assessed trial registration status for each trial, by searching the publication, trial registries, and by contacting the original authors. Of 693 eligible randomized controlled trials, only 44% were found to be registered. Unregistered clinical trials had smaller sample sizes than registered trials (P risk of bias using five of the Cochrane Risk of Bias "domains." Registered and unregistered trials differed in their risk of bias for random sequence generation (P = 0.001), allocation concealment (P = 0.003), and selective reporting (P  0.05) domains. Only 54 (43.2%) of the 125 registered trials were registered prospectively. This study has the following limitations. Only English language trials were included in this review. We were unable to obtain protocols for the unregistered trials and therefore were unable to assess the risk of bias in the selective reporting domain. All available trials should be included in systematic reviews and assessed for risk of bias as there are both registered trials with high risk of bias and unregistered trials with low risk of bias and by excluding unregistered trials more than half of the available evidence will be lost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Malnutrition in Joint Arthroplasty: Prospective Study Indicates Risk of Unplanned ICU Admission

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition has been linked to poor outcomes after elective joint arthroplasty, but the risk of unplanned postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission in malnourished arthroplasty patients is unknown. Methods: 1098 patients were followed as part of a prospective risk stratification program at a tertiary, high-volume arthroplasty center. Chronic malnutrition was defined as preoperative albumin Results: The overall incidence of malnutrition was 16.9% (primary and revision arth...

  11. [Temporal characteristics of ecological risk assessment indicators in coal-mining city with the application of LVQ method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Tao, Jing-Xian; Liu, Yan-xu

    2015-03-01

    Because the ability of selected indicators in assessing ecological risk at different temporal scales is not the same, it is necessary to clear the definite comparability of such indicators at temporal scale to explore a new method for dynamic assessing the ecological risk. In this case, five mining cities in Liaoning Province were selected as the study area, with the application of learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network, the significance of the indicators for the ecological risk assessment was quantitatively analyzed to clarify their characteristics at temporal scale. The expression with two-dimension (long-term and short-term) of temporal scale was put forward as a new method to assess the ecological risk for mining cities. The results showed that the amount of industrial SO2 removed per output value, the amount of industrial dust removed per output value, coverage rate of urban green space, precipitation, coordination degree among subsystems, percentage of mining practitioners, and current year investment on pollution abatement projects were effective at long-term temporal scale, while the other indicators acted at short-term temporal scale. With the combination of long-term and short-term temporal scales, the dynamic assessment of ecological risk for mining cities could be expressed on two-dimension of temporal scale. It was found that Fuxin City got the highest ecological risk in current status, with the risk increasing most in Fushun City at the short-term temporal scale as well as in Chaoyang City at the long-term temporal scale. The method adopted in this study might act as a significant guidance in dynamic controlling and integrative management of ecological risk for mining cities.

  12. Indoor air quality in Virginia waterpipe cafes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Caroline Oates; Vansickel, Andrea Rae; Blank, Melissa D; Jentink, Kade; Travers, Mark J; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    A revised indoor air quality law has been implemented in Virginia to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke exposure. This legislation contains exemptions that include allowances for smoking in a room that is structurally separated and separately ventilated. The objective of the current study was to examine the impact of this law on air quality in waterpipe cafés, as well as to compare the air quality in these cafés to restaurants that allow cigarette smoking and those where no smoking is permitted. Indoor air quality in 28 venues (17 waterpipe cafés, five cigarette smoking-permitted restaurants and six smoke-free restaurants (five with valid data)) in Virginia was assessed during 4 March to 27 May 2011. Real-time measurements of particulate matter (PM) with 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5) were obtained and occupant behaviour/venue characteristics were assessed. The highest mean PM2.5 concentration was observed for waterpipe café smoking rooms (374 μg/m(3), n=17) followed by waterpipe café non-smoking rooms (123 μg/m(3), n=11), cigarette smoking-permitted restaurant smoking rooms (119 μg/m(3), n=5), cigarette smoking-permitted restaurant non-smoking rooms (26 μg/m(3), n=5) and smoke-free restaurants (9 μg/m(3), n=5). Smoking density was positively correlated with PM2.5 across smoking rooms and the smoke-free restaurants. In addition, PM2.5 was positively correlated between smoking and non-smoking rooms of venues. The PM2.5 concentrations observed among the waterpipe cafés sampled here indicated air quality in the waterpipe café smoking rooms was worse than restaurant rooms in which cigarette smoking was permitted, and state-required non-smoking rooms in waterpipe cafés may expose patrons and employees to PM2.5 concentrations above national and international air quality standards. Reducing the health risks of secondhand smoke may require smoke-free establishments in which tobacco smoking sources such as water

  13. Comparison of the Combined Obesity Indices to Predict Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yuchun; Yu, Jianxing; Tao, Yuhui; Pang, Hui; Yu, Yang; Yu, Yaqin; Jin, Lina

    2016-08-09

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it may be flawed that most studies only use one obesity index to predict these risk factors. Therefore, our study aims to compare the various combined obesity indices systematically, and to find the optimal combined obesity indices to predict CVD risk factors and MetS. A total of 16,766 participants aged 18-79 years old were recruited in Jilin Province in 2012. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) curves and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the predictive capacity of the combined obesity indices for CVD risk factors and MetS. The adjusted area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) with two combined obesity indices had been improved up to 19.45%, compared with one single obesity index. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were the optimal combinations, where the AUROC (95% confidence interval (CI)) for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and MetS in males were 0.730 (0.718, 0.740), 0.694 (0.682, 0.706), 0.725 (0.709, 0.742) and 0.820 (0.810, 0.830), and in females were 0.790 (0.780, 0.799), 0.727 (0.717, 0.738), 0.746 (0.731, 0.761) and 0.828 (0.820, 0.837), respectively. The more abnormal obesity indices that one has the higher the risk for CVD risk factors and MetS, especially in males. In addition, the combined obesity indices have better predictions than one obesity index, where BMI and WC are the optimal combinations.

  14. Indoor air quality: The hidden side of the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bluyssen, P.M.; Clausen, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The physical environment can be defined and understood in manv different ways, both from its nature, e.g., thermal, accoustic, etc., or its dimension, e.g., global, local, urban, indoors. The indoor environment is much more than the space or the light effects; it is the result of a complex concurren

  15. Dentin caries risk indicators in 1-year-olds. A two year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, Ann Ingemansson; Bågesund, Mats

    2016-11-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) risk factors are suspected to vary between regions with different caries prevalence. Identify ECC risk factors for 1-year-olds predicting dentin caries at 3 years of age in a region with low caries prevalence. Caries risk was assessed by dental hygienist or dental assistant in 779 one-year-olds. The oral mutans streptococci (MS) score was performed from a tooth surface or (in pre-dentate children) from oral mucosa. A parental questionnaire with questions regarding family factors (siblings with or without caries), general health, food habits (night meals, breastfeeding, other beverage than water), oral hygiene habits and emerged teeth were answered by parents of the 1-year-olds. Dentin caries was assessed when the children were 3-year-olds. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for identification of caries-associated factors. An increased caries risk was assessed in 4.4% of the 1-year-olds. Dentin caries was found in 2.6% of the 3-year-olds. Caries risk at 1 year was associated with caries at 3 years (OR = 6.5, p = .002). Multiple regression analysis found the variables Beverages other than water (OR = 7.1, p year-olds in a region with low caries experience.

  16. Malnutrition in Joint Arthroplasty: Prospective Study Indicates Risk of Unplanned ICU Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kamath

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition has been linked to poor outcomes after elective joint arthroplasty, but the risk of unplanned postoperative intensive care unit (ICU admission in malnourished arthroplasty patients is unknown. Methods: 1098 patients were followed as part of a prospective risk stratification program at a tertiary, high-volume arthroplasty center. Chronic malnutrition was defined as preoperative albumin Results: The overall incidence of malnutrition was 16.9% (primary and revision arthroplasty patients. Average BMI was highest for patients in albumin category 3.0-3.5 (BMI 35.7. Preoperative albumin postoperative ICU admission. Conclusion: Patients with poor nutritional status must be counseled on the risks of adverse medical complications.

  17. Early renal abnormalities as an indicator of cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazzi, Francesca; Bonino, Barbara; Ratto, Elena; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Pontremoli, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Accurate assessment of cardiovascular (CV) risk is a prerequisite for devising effective therapeutic strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as it allows to refine prognosis and treatment targets as well as the cost-benefit ratio for specific pharmacological interventions. The presence of subclinical vascular organ damage plays a well known role in determining overall risk and a wider use of low cost, easy to perform diagnostic tools to stratify CV risk is very much needed. Besides their well known prognostic value for progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD), subclinical renal abnormalities such as microalbuminuria and/or a slight reduction in estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), have been shown to be powerful, independent predictors of CV diseases in patients with T2DM. Through the combined evaluation of these two biomarkers of chronic kidney disease (CKD), clinicians can usefully and reliably get a perspective on global and CV outcome of their diabetic patients.

  18. Low-trauma fractures indicate increased risk of hip fracture in frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Sheng; Cameron, Ian D; Simpson, Judy M; Seibel, Markus J; March, Lyn M; Cumming, Robert G; Lord, Stephen R; Sambrook, Philip N

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the risk of subsequent fractures after low-trauma fracture in frail older people. A total of 1412 elderly residents (mean age 86.2 years, SD 7.0 years, female 77%) were recruited from aged care facilities in Australia. Residents were assessed and then followed for any fracture for 2 years and hip fractures for at least 5 years. Residents with and without a newly acquired fracture in the first 2 years were compared for risk of subsequent hip fracture. Residents with a nonhip fracture in the first 2 years had an increased risk of subsequent hip fracture for about 2.5 years, whereas those with a hip fracture had a similar risk over the whole period compared with those with no fracture. During these 2.5 years, 60, 28, and 6 subsequent hip fractures occurred in the nonfracture group (n = 953), the nonhip fracture group (n = 194), and the hip fracture group (n = 101), respectively, resulting in the probability of subsequent hip fracture of 8.0%, 19.9%, and 10.4%, respectively. Compared with the nonfracture group, the hazard ratio (HR) was 2.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73-4.59; p < .001] for the nonhip fracture group and 1.48 (95% CI 0.63-3.49, p = .37) for the hip fracture group after adjusting for age, sex, residence type, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation, fracture history, weight, lower leg length, immobility, cognitive function, and medications. Frail institutionalized older people with newly acquired fractures are at increased risk of subsequent hip fracture for the next few years. Accordingly, despite their advanced age, they are a high-priority target group to investigate interventions that might reduce the risk of hip fracture.

  19. Indoor Air Purification by Potted Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment and can affect human health negatively. Potted plants are a potential green technology solution for removal of VOCs. This PhD project aimed at reviewing current literature on VOC removal by potted plants, developing a dynam...... community structure was, however, not the same for two consecutive experiments indicating that several bacteria can degrade VOCs...

  20. ROLE OF DOPPLER IN PRED ICTION OF PERINATAL OUTCOME: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DOPPLER INDICES IN LOW RISK AND HIGH RISK PREGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: to evaluate Doppler abnormalities in low risk and high risk pregnancies and to determine their relation to the outcome of pregnancy . METHODS: A total of 60 no. of pregnant women without any known risk factors are included in the low risk group and 60 no. of pregnant women with pre - eclampsia or gestational hypertension or intra uterine growth restriction, are included in the high risk group. Doppler evaluation done at term and the outcome is noted in terms of mode of delivery and perinatal complications in both the groups. RESULTS: Forty percent of high risk pregnant women and 1.6 percent of low risk pregnant women are found to be associated with abnormal Doppler results. Abnormal UA - PI , in association with high risk pregnancy is significantly associated wit h abnormal mode of delivery (P - 0.0005 and perinatal complications (P - 0.0009. Abnormal MCA - PI and abnormal MCA - PI/UA - PI ratio of <1.1 are associated with perinatal complications with highest significance (P - <0.0001. High risk pregnancy with normal Doppl er results, also had perinatal complications with slightly lower significance (0.0011. CONCLUSION: There is definite association of Doppler abnormalities with high risk pregnancy. Low risk pregnancy is almost never associated with Doppler abnormalities an d it is not necessary to perform Doppler to all women. Of all the Doppler indices, the ratio of MCA - PI/ UA - PI appears to be the best predictor of poor outcome. Normal Doppler results in association with high risk pregnancy cannot ensure uncomplicated outco me.

  1. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, E.A.; Heraclides, A.; Witte, D.R.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Toft, U.; Lau, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim A high intake of dairy has been linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The relationship between dairy intake and glucose metabolism is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups and

  2. Second-trimester cervical length as risk indicator for Cesarean delivery in women with twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mheen, L; Schuit, E; Liem, S M S; Lim, A C; Bekedam, D J; Goossens, S M T A; Franssen, M T M; Porath, M M; Oudijk, M A; Bloemenkamp, K W M; Duvekot, J J; Woiski, M D; de Graaf, I; Sikkema, J M; Scheepers, H C J; van Eijk, J; de Groot, C J M; van Pampus, M G; Mol, B W J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether second-trimester cervical length (CL) in women with a twin pregnancy is associated with the risk of emergency Cesarean section. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of two randomized trials conducted in 57 hospitals in The Netherlands. We assessed the univariable as

  3. Second-trimester cervical length as risk indicator for Cesarean delivery in women with twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Mheen, L.; Schuit, E.; Liem, S. M. S.; Lim, A. C.; Bekedam, D. J.; Goossens, S. M. T. A.; Franssen, M. T. M.; Porath, M. M.; Oudijk, M. A.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Woiski, M. D.; De Graaf, I.; Sikkema, J. M.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Van Eijk, J.; De Groot, C. J. M.; Van Pampus, M. G.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether second-trimester cervical length (CL) in women with a twin pregnancy is associated with the risk of emergency Cesarean section. Methods This was a secondary analysis of two randomized trials conducted in 57 hospitals in The Netherlands. We assessed the univariable asso

  4. Androgenic alopecia is not useful as an indicator of men at high risk of prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Oort, I.M. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Androgens are assumed to play a central role in the pathophysiology of both prostate cancer (PC) and androgenic alopecia (AA). A correlation between the two phenotypes may be relevant for identification of men at high risk of PC. We evaluated the association between AA at different ages

  5. Second-trimester cervical length as risk indicator for Cesarean delivery in women with twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mheen, L. van de; Schuit, E.; Liem, S.M.; Lim, A.C.; Bekedam, D.J.; Goossens, S.M.; Franssen, M.T.; Porath, M.M.; Oudijk, M.A.; Bloemenkamp, K.W.; Duvekot, J.J.; Woiski, M.D.; Graaf, I. de; Sikkema, J.M.; Scheepers, H.C.; Eijk, J. van; Groot, C.J. de; Pampus, M.G. van; Mol, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether second-trimester cervical length (CL) in women with a twin pregnancy is associated with the risk of emergency Cesarean section. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of two randomized trials conducted in 57 hospitals in The Netherlands. We assessed the univariable

  6. Second-trimester cervical length as risk indicator for Cesarean delivery in women with twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Mheen, L.; Schuit, E.; Liem, S. M. S.; Lim, A. C.; Bekedam, D. J.; Goossens, S. M. T. A.; Franssen, M. T. M.; Porath, M. M.; Oudijk, M. A.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Woiski, M. D.; De Graaf, I.; Sikkema, J. M.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Van Eijk, J.; De Groot, C. J. M.; Van Pampus, M. G.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether second-trimester cervical length (CL) in women with a twin pregnancy is associated with the risk of emergency Cesarean section. Methods This was a secondary analysis of two randomized trials conducted in 57 hospitals in The Netherlands. We assessed the univariable

  7. Second-trimester cervical length as risk indicator for Cesarean delivery in women with twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mheen, L; Schuit, E; Liem, S M S; Lim, A C; Bekedam, D J; Goossens, S M T A; Franssen, M T M; Porath, M M; Oudijk, M A; Bloemenkamp, K W M; Duvekot, J J; Woiski, M D; de Graaf, I; Sikkema, J M; Scheepers, H C J; van Eijk, J; de Groot, C J M; van Pampus, M G; Mol, B W J

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether second-trimester cervical length (CL) in women with a twin pregnancy is associated with the risk of emergency Cesarean section. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of two randomized trials conducted in 57 hospitals in The Netherlands. We assessed the univariable

  8. Androgenic alopecia is not useful as an indicator of men at high risk of prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Oort, I.M. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Androgens are assumed to play a central role in the pathophysiology of both prostate cancer (PC) and androgenic alopecia (AA). A correlation between the two phenotypes may be relevant for identification of men at high risk of PC. We evaluated the association between AA at different ages

  9. Residential Indoor Temperature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, Mike [Arrow Electronics, Centennial, CO (United States); Brown, David [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Norton, Paul [Norton Energy Research and Development, Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, Chris [Ingersoll-Rand Corp., Dublin (Ireland)

    2017-04-07

    In this study, we are adding to the body of knowledge around answering the question: What are good assumptions for HVAC set points in U.S. homes? We collected and analyzed indoor temperature data from US homes using funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) program, due to the program's reliance on accurate energy simulation of homes. Simulations are used to set Building America goals, predict the impact of new building techniques and technologies, inform research objectives, evaluate home performance, optimize efficiency packages to meet savings goals, customize savings approaches to specific climate zones, and myriad other uses.

  10. Geochemical indicators for use in the computation of critical loads and dynamic risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Posch, M.; Sverdrup, H.U.; Larssen, T.; Wit, H.A.; Bobbink, R.; Hettelingh, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of geochemical indicators for nitrogen (N), acidity, and metals in soil and water (soil solution, ground water and surface water) in view of their impacts on different endpoints (tree growth/health, human health, soil biodiversity etc.). Relevant indicators for N ar

  11. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor dust from varying categories of rooms in Changchun city, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zucheng; Wang, Shengzhong; Nie, Jiaqin; Wang, Yuanhong; Liu, Yuyan

    2017-02-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were isolated from indoor dust from various categories of rooms in Changchun city, northeast China, including dormitory, office, kitchen, and living rooms. PAH concentrations ranged from 33.9 to 196.4 μg g(-1) and 21.8 to 329.6 μg g(-1) during summer and winter, respectively, indicating that total PAH concentrations in indoor dust are much higher than those in other media from the urban environment, including soils and sediments. The percentage of five- to six-ring PAHs was high, indicating that PAHs found in indoor dust mainly originate from pyrolysis rather than a petrogenic source. Rooms were divided into three groups using cluster analysis on the basis of 16 PAH compositions, namely smoke-free homes, homes exposed to smoke and offices. Results showed that the source of PAHs in smoke-free residential homes is primarily the burning of fossil fuels. In addition to the burning of fossil fuels, biomass combustion and cooking contributed to PAHs in houses exposed to smoke (including kitchens). Motor vehicles are an additional source of PAHs in offices because of greater interactions with the outdoor environment. The results of health risk assessment showed that the cancer risk levels by dermal contact and ingestion are 10(4)- to 10(5)-fold higher than that by inhalation, suggesting that ingestion and dermal contact of carcinogenic PAHs in dust are more important exposure routes than inhalation of PAHs from air. Although the results showed high potential of PAH concentrations in indoor dust in Changchun for human health risk, caution should be taken to evaluate the risk of PAHs calculated by USEPA standard models with default parameters because habitation styles are different in various categories of rooms.

  12. How indoor environment affects performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David Peter; Wargocki, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    As experienced researchers in the effects of thermal comfort and indoor air quality on performance, we are often asked to give our best estimate of how, and to what extent, performance is affected by different aspects of indoor climate. This article provides a brief summary of our personal opinions...

  13. Workplace Safety: Indoor Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Indoor Environmental Quality Dampness and Mold in Buildings What is mold? ... Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Indoor ...

  14. Indoor Positioning System using Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Sahil Puri

    2015-01-01

    This Paper on Bluetooth Indoor Positioning System is the intersection of Bluetooth Technology and Indoor Positioning Systems. Almost every smartphone today is Bluetooth enabled, making the use of the technology more flexible. We aim at using the RSSI value of Bluetooth signals to track the location of a device.

  15. Indoor Positioning System using Bluetooth

    OpenAIRE

    Sahil Puri

    2015-01-01

    This Paper on Bluetooth Indoor Positioning System is the intersection of Bluetooth Technology and Indoor Positioning Systems. Almost every smartphone today is Bluetooth enabled, making the use of the technology more flexible. We aim at using the RSSI value of Bluetooth signals to track the location of a device.

  16. A comparative evaluation of dietary indicators used in food consumption assessments of at-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald; Chotard, Sophie; Oliveira, Leila; Mock, Nancy; Libombo, Marcella

    2008-06-01

    Easy-to-collect dietary indicators have been used increasingly for planning and evaluation of food security interventions. Various indicators have been employed, but rarely has a full set of indicators been compared using a common framework. This paper evaluates the performance of five dietary indicators for the assessment of household energy consumption using a common framework and recent data from Mozambique. Data were analyzed from a 2004 household survey, Current Vulnerability Analysis in Seven Provinces of Mozambique. Households (n = 4,358) were sampled from 42 rural districts using a two-stage design, and a quantitative 24-hour dietary recall was employed. Household energy intake ratios were calculated as the food energy consumed by household members divided by the sum of the members' recommended intakes. Five proxy indicators of household consumption in the previous day were developed: the number of meals, the number of food groups, the number of food items, a score based on a simple weighting of food groups consumed, and a predicted energy intake ratio based on weighting of food groups consumed with previously estimated regression coefficients. The performance of these indicators was assessed using correlations with energy intake, receiver operator characteristic analysis, efficiency of predictions, and prevalence estimate comparisons. Although the predicted energy intake ratio performed best on all these performance criteria, and the simple food-group-weighted score performed second best, differences among the indicators on many of the criteria were relatively small. New assessment systems could take full advantage of easy-to-collect information by using one of these best-scoring indicators, although established systems could continue to use some of the other indicators explored here, such as the food item count, without much loss in accuracy.

  17. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  18. Xerotolerant Cladosporium sphaerospermum Are Predominant on Indoor Surfaces Compared to Other Cladosporium Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Frank J J; Meijer, Martin; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Wösten, Han A B; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor fungi are a major cause of cosmetic and structural damage of buildings worldwide and prolonged exposure of these fungi poses a health risk. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium species are the most predominant fungi in indoor environments. Cladosporium species predominate under ambient c

  19. Effects of chlorpyrifos, carbendazim and linuron on the ecology of a small indoor aquatic microcosm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daam, M.A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2007-01-01

    To validate the use of small indoor microcosms for the risk assessment of pesticides, the fate and effects of chlorpyrifos, carbendazim, and linuron were studied in 8.5¿liter indoor freshwater microcosms. Functional and structural responses to selected concentrations were evaluated and compared with

  20. Integrating Terrain and Vegetation Indices for Identifying Potential Soil Erosion Risk Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arabinda Sharma

    2010-01-01

    The present paper offers an innovative method to monitor the change in soil erosion potential by integrating terrain and vegetation indices derived from remote sensing data. Three terrain indices namely, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI) and slope length factor (LS), were derived from the digital elevation model. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI) was derived for the year 1988 and 2004 using remote sensing images. K-mean clustering was performed on staked indices to categorize the study area into four soil erosion potential classes. The validation of derived erosion potential map using USLE model showed a good agreement. Results indicated that there was a significant change in the erosion potential of the watershed and a gradual shifting of lower erosion potential class to next higher erosion potential class over the study period.

  1. Spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the entomological indicators in Sumare, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Laurindo Barbosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a major public health problem worldwide, caused by any of four virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4; Flaviviridae: Flavivirus, transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito. Reducing the levels of infestation by A. aegypti is one of the few current strategies to control dengue fever. Entomological indicators are used by dengue national control program to measure the infestation of A. aegypti, but little is known about predictive power of these indicators to measure dengue risk. In this spatial case-control study, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the risk of dengue and the influence of entomological indicators of A. aegypti in its egg, larva-pupa and adult stages occurring in a mid-size city in the state of São Paulo. The dengue cases were those confirmed by the city's epidemiological surveillance system and the controls were obtained through random selection of points within the perimeter of the inhabited area. The values of the entomological indicators were extrapolated for the entire study area through the geostatistical ordinary kriging technique. For each case and control, the respective indicator values were obtained, according with its geographical coordinates and analyzed by using a generalized additive model. Dengue incidence demonstrated a seasonal behavior, as well as the entomological indicators of all mosquito's evolutionary stages. The infestation did not present a significant variation in intensity and was not a limiting or determining factor of the occurrence of cases in the municipality. The risk maps of the disease from crude and adjusted generalized additive models did not present differences, suggesting that areas with the highest values of entomological indicators were not associated with the incidence of dengue. The inclusion of other variables in the generalized additive models may reveal the modulatory effect for the risk of the disease, which is not found in this study.

  2. Androgenetic alopecia as an indicator of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Ragip; Orscelik, Ozcan; Kartal, Demet; Dogan, Ali; Ertas, Sule Ketenci; Aydogdu, Ebru Guler; Ascioglu, Ozcan; Borlu, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated a probable association between androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) by researching limited and dispersed parameters. We aimed to evaluate both traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors in male patients with early-onset AGA. This case-control study included 68 participants: 51 male patients with early-onset AGA and 17 healthy male controls. Patients with AGA were classified into three groups according to the Hamilton-Norwood scale and the presence of vertex hair loss. Traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors were examined in all study subjects. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 25 patients with AGA and in two control subjects (p baldness and controls (p < 0.05). The pulse-wave velocity values were also found to be significantly higher in patients (p < 0.001). A limitation of this study was the small study population. In conclusion, vertex pattern AGA appears to be a marker for early atherosclerosis. This finding supports the hypothesis that early-onset AGA alone could be an independent risk factor for CVD and metabolic syndrome.

  3. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  4. Health risk assessment of migrant workers' exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: Indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yalin; Hu, Jinxing; Lin, Wei; Wang, Ning; Li, Cheng; Luo, Peng; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Wang, Wenbo; Su, Xiaomei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yindong; Huang, Ronglang; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-02-01

    Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure.

  5. Gender Differences in the Presentation of Observable Risk Indicators of Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfabbro, Paul; Thomas, Anna; Armstrong, Andrew

    2017-05-11

    In many countries where gambling is legalised, there has been a strong public policy focus on the need for strategies to reduce gambling related harm. These have often included policies requiring staff in gambling venues to identify and/or assist people who might be experiencing gambling-related harm. To facilitate this process, researchers have developed visible behavioural indicators that might be used to profile potentially problematic gambling. Few of these studies have, however, examined whether such indicators or 'warning signs' might differ between men and women. In this study, we describe the results of an analysis of data drawn from 1185 fortnightly gamblers that included 338 problem gamblers as classified by the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Indicators of problem gambling were similar between males and females with a few key exceptions. Indicators reflecting emotional distress were more commonly reported by females with gambling problems, whereas problem gambling males were more likely to display aggressive behaviour towards gambling devices and others in the venue. Amongst males, signs of emotional distress as well as attempts to conceal their presence in venues from others most strongly differentiated between problem and non-problem gamblers. Amongst females, signs of anger, a decline in grooming and those attempts to access credit were the most distinguishing indicators. These findings have implications for the refinement of identification policies and practices.

  6. Ecological risk assessment of the Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries (northern Persian Gulf) using sediment quality indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Hamid; Gharibreza, Mohammadreza; Negarestan, Hossein; Mortazavi, Mohammad Sedigh; Lak, Razieh

    2017-06-01

    The Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries are located in Nayband Bay in the northern Persian Gulf, which faces long-term contamination and ecological risks. The research objectives of this study were designed to assess the ecological risks for human health and aquatic life and to evaluate impacts on environmental changes. Accordingly, an index analysis approach (using the contamination factor Cf, contamination degree Cd, potential ecological risk factor for individual metals Er, and potential ecological risk index for the basin, RI) in conjunction with the enrichment factor (Ef) and sediment quality levels (comprised of the threshold effect level, TEL, the probable effect level, PEL, and the effects range medium, ERM) were employed. In total, 147 sediment samples were tested to determine the content of organic matter and sulfur, as well as the concentrations of terrestrial and rare earth elements (REEs) and toxic metals, namely As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Hg, using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Gulf War oil spills in addition to oil and gas industries of the Pars South Especial Economic Zone (PSEEZ) were identified as the primary source of pollution in the study area. Gulf War contamination in the study area is highlighted by increased levels of Cd and RI at key horizons at 29 cm, 35 cm and 49 cm depth in the sedimentary columns of the Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries and Gavbandi River, respectively. Adverse effects of PSEEZ were revealed by increasing concentrations of toxic metals, P and S in the top 25-30 cm of the sedimentary columns. As a result, superficial sediments have been severely polluted by As, Ni, Cd, Cu and Cr, while the entire sedimentary column of the Assaluyeh estuary has been polluted by Hg. Based on the locations of the key horizons, the sedimentation rates of the previous decade at the Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries and the Gavbandi River were calculated to be 1.26 cm, 1.52 cm, and 2.13 cm, respectively. The

  7. Indoor emissions as a primary source of airborne allergenic fungal particles in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Hospodsky, Denina; Dannemiller, Karen C; Nazaroff, William W; Peccia, Jordan

    2015-04-21

    This study quantifies the influence of ventilation and indoor emissions on concentrations and particle sizes of airborne indoor allergenic fungal taxa and further examines geographical variability, each of which may affect personal exposures to allergenic fungi. Quantitative PCR and multiplexed DNA sequencing were employed to count and identify allergenic fungal aerosol particles indoors and outdoors in seven school classrooms in four different countries. Quantitative diversity analysis was combined with building characterization and mass balance modeling to apportion source contributions of indoor allergenic airborne fungal particles. Mass balance calculations indicate that 70% of indoor fungal aerosol particles and 80% of airborne allergenic fungal taxa were associated with indoor emissions; on average, 81% of allergenic fungi from indoor sources originated from occupant-generated emissions. Principal coordinate analysis revealed geographical variations in fungal communities among sites in China, Europe, and North America (p < 0.05, analysis of similarity), demonstrating that geography may also affect personal exposures to allergenic fungi. Indoor emissions including those released with occupancy contribute more substantially to allergenic fungal exposures in classrooms sampled than do outdoor contributions from ventilation. The results suggest that design and maintenance of buildings to control indoor emissions may enable reduced indoor inhalation exposures to fungal allergens.

  8. BIOMETRIC INDICES OF CONSTITUTIONAL RISKS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA IN MALE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Е.A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the current study examines features and correlations of particular psychodynamic, dermatoglyphic characteristics and body constitution of men with paranoid schizophrenia. Study groups: 25 men having the "paranoid schizophrenia" (F20.0, 27 men having no mental diseases. Methods: psychodiagnostic tests (Hand test, the Big Five Inventory (BFI, anthropometry; dactyloscopy. Results: there were statistically significant differences in such personality factors as: extroversion and openness among two groups. Significantly smaller sizes of the chest and thigh circumferences were found in men with paranoid schizophrenia. The schizophrenic group exhibited higher frequency of "ulnar loop" and "double loop" finger pattern occurrence. Our study found a number of somato-psychic, dermato-psychic and dermato-somatic correlations, as well as correlations between personality factors and age. Conclusion: the examination of personality features correlated with markers of dermatoglyphic and body constitution helped to identify the predictors of risks for developing paranoid schizophrenia. This makes it possible the identification of at-risk groups with their monitoring and focusing on preventive programs

  9. The predictivity of mandibular third molar position as a risk indicator for pericoronitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamalik, Kemal; Bozkaya, Süleyman

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the mandibular third molar at highest risk for acute pericoronitis using clinical and radiographic analysis. A total of 102 volunteers, including 40 (39%) male and 62 (60%) female patients presenting with acute pericoronitis, participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 23.4 years (range 17-30 years). The variables tested included the percentage of soft tissue coverage, availability of impinging maxillary dentition, and the angulation and eruption level of the mandibular third molar. While vertical impaction was the most frequent angulation (51%), horizontal impaction was quite rare (3%). Mesioangular impaction (25%) was slightly higher than distoangular impaction (21%). Difference between type of angulation was statistically significant for all groups (p pericoronitis was associated with the third molars that erupted at the same level of the adjacent tooth occlusal plane. The difference among the three levels of eruption was significant (p pericoronitis (41%). Evidence of impinging maxillary dentition did not have a statistically significant impact on presence of pericoronitis (p = 0.075). Mandibular third molars at or near to the same level of the occlusal plane of the arch and exhibiting vertical inclination were considered at highest risk for developing pericoronitis. Such third molars can be given high priority for prophylactic care due to the possibility of severe consequences of acute pericoronitis.

  10. GST null genotype and antioxidants: Risk indicators for oral pre-cancer and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathi Renuka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was undertaken to detect the gene polymorphism of detoxification enzymes and estimate the antioxidant enzyme status in patients with oral cancer, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. Materials and Methods : The GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphism was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction; the antioxidant enzyme was estimated using biochemical methods. Statistical analyses were performed using student t-test and odds-ratio to estimate relative risk (RR. Results : The RR at 95% confidence interval (CI for GSTM1 and GSTT1 was statistically significant for all groups. The mean values of glutathione were significantly raised in all groups. The mean values of ceruloplasmin and malonaldehyde was statistically significant among cancer and OSF patients but was insignificant in smokers and cases with leukoplakia. Conclusion : Several genes perform the same function which implies the need to test for several genetic polymorphisms to identify individuals at high risk. The level of antioxidant enzymes correlate with the degree of oxidative damage. The need for further studies is emphasised.

  11. Leg Power As an Indicator of Risk of Injury or Illness in Police Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Pope, Rodney; Peterson, Samantha; Hinton, Benjamin; Stierli, Michael

    2016-02-19

    Tactical trainees, like those entering the police force, are required to undergo vigorous training as part of their occupational preparation. This training has the potential to cause injuries. In addition, the physical training, communal living and pressures of tactical training are known to induce immune suppression and have the potential to increase the risk of illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between leg power, as measured by a vertical jump (VJ), and rates of reported injuries and illnesses during police recruit training. Retrospective data from recruits (n = 1021) undergoing basic police recruit training at an Australian Police Force College was collected. Recruits completed a VJ assessment at the commencement of their second state of training. Formally reported illness and injuries were collected 12 weeks later, following completion of training. Correlations between VJ height and rates of reported illness and injury were low (r = -0.16 and -0.09, respectively) but significant (p Police recruits with lower VJ height are at a significantly greater risk of suffering an injury or illness during police basic recruit training.

  12. Assessment of Knowledge of Critical Cardiovascular Risk Indicators among College Students: Does Stage of Education Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Sarpong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The health risk of college students in the United States (US is on the rise, with a significant increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the US, costing approximately $475.3 billion yearly. The goals of this “Know Your Numbers” study were to: (1 estimate the awareness of college students of their critical health numbers (CHN; and (2 compare a college of pharmacy entry class (IP1 with second semester non-commuter freshman college students (FCS in knowing their numbers. A cross-sectional 15-item pre-test survey was conducted among a convenience sample of IP1 and FCS. All statistical tests were performed at α = 0.05. Awareness of their: cholesterol (7%, blood pressure (BP (35%, glucose (8%, and body mass index (BMI (42% were low. The IP1, compared to FCS, were more knowledgeable of: (1 their BP (46% vs. 28%, p = 0.01; (2 BP normal range (74% vs. 63%, p = 0.02; and (3 BMI normal range (39% vs. 23%, p = 0.04. The IP1s maintained a healthier diet than the FCS (64% vs. 36%, p < 0.0001. Awareness of knowing CHN was very low. Knowledge of one’s CHN was significantly associated with knowledge of normal reference values for BP, glucose, and BMI.

  13. Direct Conjugation of Emerging Contaminants in Arabidopsis: Indication for an Overlooked Risk in Plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuguo; Zhang, Jianbo; Borchardt, Dan; Schlenk, Daniel; Gan, Jay

    2017-06-06

    Agricultural use of treated wastewater, biosolids, and animal wastes introduces a multitude of contaminants of emerging concerns (CECs) into the soil-plant system. The potential for food crops to accumulate CECs depends largely on their metabolism in plants, which at present is poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the metabolism of naproxen and ibuprofen, two of the most-used human drugs from the Profen family, in Arabidopsis thaliana cells and the Arabidopsis plant. The complementary use of high-resolution mass spectrometry and (14)C labeling allowed the characterization of both free and conjugated metabolites, as well as nonextractable residues. Naproxen and ibuprofen, in their parent form, were conjugated quickly and directly with glutamic acid and glutamine, and further with peptides, in A. thaliana cells. For example, after 120 h, the metabolites of naproxen accounted for >90% of the extractable chemical mass, while the intact parent itself was negligible. The structures of glutamate and glutamine conjugates were confirmed using synthesized standards and further verified in whole plants. Amino acid conjugates may easily deconjugate, releasing the parent molecule. This finding highlights the possibility that the bioactivity of such CECs may be effectively preserved through direct conjugation, a previously overlooked risk. Many other CECs are also carboxylic acids, such as the profens. Therefore, direct conjugation may be a common route for plant metabolism of these CECs, making it imperative to consider conjugates when assessing their risks.

  14. Process quality indicators for chronic kidney disease risk management : a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Kirsten P J; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Bilo, Henk J G; Bouma, Margriet; Navis, Gerjan J; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quality indicators (QIs) can be used for measuring the quality of actions of healthcare providers. This systematic review gives an overview of such QIs measuring processes of care for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and identifies the QIs that have content, face, operational

  15. Process quality indicators for chronic kidney disease risk management : a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Kirsten P. J.; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Bouma, Margriet; Navis, Gerjan J.; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectivesQuality indicators (QIs) can be used for measuring the quality of actions of healthcare providers. This systematic review gives an overview of such QIs measuring processes of care for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and identifies the QIs that have content, face, operational a

  16. Five-year risk of HIV diagnosis subsequent to 147 hospital-based indicator diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Legarth, Rebecca; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad

    2016-01-01

    diseases, such as most urologic, nephrologic, rheumatologic, and endocrine disorders were generally associated with a low FYRHD. CONCLUSION: Our study identified a large number of indicator diseases associated with a FYRHD >0.1%. These data can be used as a tool for planning targeted HIV screening programs....

  17. Fatness and muscularity as risk indicators of child mortality in rural Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van den Broeck; R. Eeckels; A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of anthropometrical indicators of fatness and muscularity with mortality in children in a rural African community. BACKGROUND: A prospective cohort study was carried out in the rural health zone of Bwamanda, Northern Congo using a

  18. Bullying at School--An Indicator of Adolescents at Risk for Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rimpela, Matti; Rantanen, Paivi; Rimpela, Arja

    2000-01-01

    Surveys Finnish adolescents about bullying and victimization in relations to psychosomatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, eating disorders and substance use. Anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms were most frequent among bully-victims and equally common among bullies and victims. Argues that bullying should be seen as an indicator of…

  19. Frequency and risk indicators of tooth decay among pregnant women in France: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Kaminski, Monique; Lelong, Nathalie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Sixou, Michel; Nabet, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women's medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d. = 2.8). Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR = 1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45]), lower educational level (aOR = 1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23]) and dental plaque (aOR = 1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]). The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations.

  20. Multi-level Indoor Path Planning Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Zlatanova, S.; Du, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zeng, L.

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation is increasingly widespread in complex indoor environments, and indoor path planning is the most important part of indoor navigation. Path planning generally refers to finding the most suitable path connecting two locations, while avoiding collision with obstacles. However, it is a

  1. Chemical and morphological characteristics of indoor and outdoor particulate matter in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    Chemical characterization of suspended particulate matter (SPM) measured inside a naturally ventilated school building (indoor) and at an adjacent roadway (outdoor) in Chennai city was performed during monsoon, winter and summer seasons. The daily average indoor SPM concentrations in monsoon, winter and summer seasons were 158.18, 170.08 and 149.63 μg m-3, respectively. Indoor and outdoor samples were analyzed for 11 inorganic ions using ion chromatography and 28 elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results indicated the dominance of SO (10.89 μg m-3) followed by NH (5.62 μg m-3), NO (5.35 μg m-3), Na+ (4.35 μg m-3) Ca2+ (4.08 μg m-3) and Cl- (3.47 μg m-3) ions in the indoor SPM. In the outdoor SPM, SO, NO and NH ions concentration were slightly higher while Ca2+, K+ and Mg2+ ions concentrations were higher in indoors. Among the elements, crustal element (Al, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and Na) concentrations were much higher (92.7% of the total elemental concentration) in indoor environment than those of toxic elements (Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) emitted from vehicles. Analysis of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) components in indoor and outdoor PM indicated the predominance of OC. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios for EC = 0.70 and OC = 0.82, indicating no significant indoor emission sources of OC and EC. To characterize the morphology, indoor and outdoor filters were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Soot and Al-Si rich particles were mostly found in indoor and outdoor SPM. The presence of toxic elements and soot particles in the indoor PM confirms the contributions of vehicular emissions from the adjacent motorway.

  2. Does network topology influence systemic risk contribution? A perspective from the industry indices in Chinese stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiming; Zhang, Ji; Tang, Nengyu

    2017-01-01

    This study considers the effect of an industry's network topology on its systemic risk contribution to the stock market using data from the CSI 300 two-tier industry indices from the Chinese stock market. We first measure industry's conditional-value-at-risk (CoVaR) and the systemic risk contribution (ΔCoVaR) using the fitted time-varying t-copula function. The network of the stock industry is established based on dynamic conditional correlations with the minimum spanning tree. Then, we investigate the connection characteristics and topology of the network. Finally, we utilize seemingly unrelated regression estimation (SUR) of panel data to analyze the relationship between network topology of the stock industry and the industry's systemic risk contribution. The results show that the systemic risk contribution of small-scale industries such as real estate, food and beverage, software services, and durable goods and clothing, is higher than that of large-scale industries, such as banking, insurance and energy. Industries with large betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and clustering coefficient and small node occupancy layer are associated with greater systemic risk contribution. In addition, further analysis using a threshold model confirms that the results are robust.

  3. Physical evaluation system to determine medical risk and indicated dental therapy modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, F M; Malamed, S F

    1979-08-01

    The physical evaluation system allows the practitioner to rapidly classify each patient according to medical risk and thus to provide dental treatment comfortably and safely. The evaluation system serves as a guide to the level of dental therapy, deisions of management, and modification of treatment for the medically compromised patient. Extensive use of the ADA physical status classification system in dentistry would allow meaningful studies of morbidity and mortality that are related to various management protocols and could conceivably have an impact on insurance schedules associated with psychosedation modalities and general anethesia on an out patient basis. A physical evaluation system cannot substitute for knowledge and good judgment. Recommended categories of physical status and modification of treatment should not be considered as absolutes, but as guides. Wheras the guidelines may appear to be inflexible, they should not be considered as such. Deviation from recommendations is often justified and is expected.

  4. Perceived academic performance as an indicator of risk of attempted suicide in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Angela S; Bergen, Helen A; Martin, Graham; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated perceived academic performance and self-reported suicidal behavior in adolescents (n = 2,596), mean age 13 years, from 27 South Australian high schools. Groups perceiving their academic performance as failing, below average, average and above average were significantly different on measures of self-esteem, locus of control, depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, plans, threats, deliberate self-injury, and suicide attempts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that failing academic performance (compared to above average) is associated with a five-fold increased likelihood of a suicide attempt, controlling for self-esteem, locus of control and depressive symptoms. Teachers should note that a student presenting with low self-esteem, depressed mood and perceptions of failure may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and need referral for clinical assessment.

  5. Insulin resistance, insulin response, and obesity as indicators of metabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrannini, Ele; Balkau, Beverley; Coppack, Simon W

    2007-01-01

    models and factor analysis. RESULTS: BMI was positively related to all CVRFs. Waist circumference was related to higher blood pressure and serum triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, IR to reduced glucose tolerance, higher free fatty acids, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein......CONTEXT: Insulin resistance (IR) and obesity, especially abdominal obesity, are regarded as central pathophysiological features of a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), but their relative roles remain undefined. Moreover, the differential impact of IR viz. insulin response has not been...... nondiabetic subjects [718 women and 590 men, age 30-60 yr, body mass index (BMI) 17-44 kg.m(-2)]. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured IR (by a standardized euglycemic insulin clamp), waist girth, insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, and major CVRF, and analyzed their associations by multivariate...

  6. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Winding, Trine Nøhr

    2013-01-01

    market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. RESULTS: A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females) received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market...... participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational...... expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 16.1% (parents' divorce) for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 4...

  7. Scale Specific and Scale Independent Measures of Heart Rate Variability as Risk Indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkenazy, Yu; Levitan, J; Havlin, S; Saermark, K; Moelgaard, H; Thomsen, P E B; Möller, M; Hintze, U; Huikuri, H

    1999-01-01

    We study the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) using scale specific variance and scaling exponents as measures of healthy and cardiac impaired individuals. Our results show that the variance and the scaling exponent are highly uncorrelated. We find that the variance measure at certain scales are well suited to separate healthy subjects from heart patients. However, for cumulative survival probability the scaling exponents outperform the variance measure. Our risk study is based on a database containing recordings from 428 MI individuals (after myocardial infarct) and on database containing 105 healthy subjects and 11 heart patients. The results have been obtained by applying three recently developed methods (DFA - Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, WAV - Multiresolution Wavelet Analysis, and DTS - Detrended Time Series analysis) which are found to be highly correlated.

  8. On the advantage of screening kindergarten children for atherogenesis-related risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupke, I R

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of our practical experience we can recommend screening of young children outside the clinic. Our methodology has proven to be appropriate for this purpose. Among young children, three groups are easily accessible: Newborns - since delivery occurs mostly in a clinic; infants up to one year - since these children are provided with basic medical care, and kindergarten children. According to our experience, kindergartens are favorable places for screening children because many children are together in one place. Children of this age can be easily motivated to cooperate during the examination, and since they stay in the kindergartens for a considerable period of the day, they only can be guided by nurses who can provide positive motivation for educational programs. As an additional advantage, the cooperation between nurses and parents, as well as positive influence on the parents, by the nurses might be taken into account. In this context, nurses must be regarded as key persons for strategies when considering life-style changes. Identifying children at risk at this early age could shorten the pathogenetic period and increase the chance for regression of the atherosclerotic disease process. Furthermore, children of this age are willing to learn and to change their habits. There is also a possibility that children may implant in their families experiences and information obtained in the kindergartens. Such parents might be more open to advice from kindergarten personnel, and thus also profit for themselves. An additional and valuable advantage of screening kindergarten children is the possibility of detecting first-degree relatives at risk before clinical manifestation of the disease, thereby having a good chance for successful intervention.

  9. Analysis of neurodegenerative disease indications using risk adjusted net present value

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Terry Zhen Hui

    2007-01-01

    Pharmaceutical drug development is a costly and risky venture characterized by low clinical success rates. The neurodegenerative disease market segment has the highest drug development costs and the lowest clinical success rate of any therapeutic disease area. Small biotechnology companies that specialize in the neurodegenerative disease market must carefully select the appropriate disease indications to pursue. This study examines the neurodegenerative disease market and analyzes the attract...

  10. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarnicki, Guenter J.K. [Department of Ecotoxicology, Center of Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 10, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: guenter.komarnicki@meduniwien.ac.at

    2005-07-15

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM{sub 10}, and PM{sub 2.5} were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM{sub 2.5}, both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals.

  11. Indoor Positioning Using GPS Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Godsk, Torben

    2010-01-01

    It has been considered a fact that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. We analyze results of a measurement campaign to improve on the understanding of indoor GPS reception characteristics. The results show that using state-of-the-art receivers GPS...... low signal-to-noise ratios, multipath phenomena or bad satellite constellation geometry. We have also measured the indoor performance of embedded GPS receivers in mobile phones which provided lower availability and accuracy than state-of-the-art ones. Finally, we consider how the GPS performance...

  12. Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01

    infrastructure for different symbolic positioning technologies, e.g., Bluetooth and RFID. More specifically, the paper proposes a model of indoor space that comprises a base graph and mappings that represent the topology of indoor space at different levels. The resulting model can be used for one or several...... indoor positioning technologies. Focusing on RFID-based positioning, an RFID specific reader deployment graph model is built from the base graph model. This model is then used in several algorithms for constructing and refining trajectories from raw RFID readings. Empirical studies with implementations...

  13. Sustainable indoor lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Mercatelli, Luca; Farini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Encompassing a thorough survey of the lighting techniques applied to internal illumination characterized by high efficiency, optimized color and architectural integration, a consolidated summary of the latest scientific, technical and architectural research is presented in order to give the reader an overview of the different themes with their interactions and mutual effects.   This book describes light principles, methodologies and realisations for indoor illumination at low consumption. Power efficiency, color characteristics and architectural aspects are analyzed in terms of their  practical application, with the interactions between scientific, technological and architectural features considered in order to supply a complete overview, which can be read both at technical level and at user level. Introducing photometric and radiometric quantities and laws, the book first discusses tests and measurements assessing lighting and color characteristics before examining in detail artificial light sources with p...

  14. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  15. Ventilation scheme, room location and meteorological factors influence indoor birch pollen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Matiu, Michael; Michaelis, Rico; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Allergenic pollen, often in co-occurrence with air pollutants from traffic and industries aggravating its pollen allergenicity, constitutes a major health risk for the urban population during the pollen season. Airborne pollen concentrations are traditionally monitored with fixed pollen traps mounted >10 m above ground on flat roof tops. However, the personal exposure of allergic people mostly depends on their main residences and the local emission patterns. Consequently, the assessment of indoor pollen is essential for human health since people stay most of the day inside buildings. In our study, hourly indoor birch pollen concentrations were measured on eight days in April 2015 with portable pollen traps in five rooms of a university building at Freising, Germany. A traditional pollen trap on the roof of the building provided the background birch pollen concentration which was compared to the respective outdoor values right in front of the rooms. The office and lab rooms were characterised by different aspects and window ventilation schemes. Meteorological data were equally measured at a nearby climate station and directly in front of the windows. The observed flowering phenology of 56 birch trees in the nearer surrounding partly explained daily peaks in airborne pollen concentrations. As expected, outdoor pollen concentrations were larger than indoor concentrations: Mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio was highest (0.75) in a south oriented room with fully opened window and additional mechanical ventilation, followed by two rooms with fully opened windows orientated to the west and north (0.35, 0.12) and lowest in east oriented neighbouring rooms with tilted window (0.19) and with windows only opened for short ventilation (0.07). The latter two rooms even had a birch tree directly flowering in front of the façade. Hourly I/O ratios depended on meteorology and increased with outside temperature and wind speed oriented perpendicular to the window opening. As also

  16. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  17. Microbiota of the indoor environment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley C; Bik, Holly M; Meadow, James F

    2015-10-13

    As modern humans, we spend the majority of our time in indoor environments. Consequently, environmental exposure to microorganisms has important implications for human health, and a better understanding of the ecological drivers and processes that impact indoor microbial assemblages will be key for expanding our knowledge of the built environment. In the present investigation, we combined recent studies examining the microbiota of the built environment in order to identify unifying community patterns and the relative importance of indoor environmental factors. Ultimately, the present meta-analysis focused on studies of bacteria and archaea due to the limited number of high-throughput fungal studies from the indoor environment. We combined 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene datasets from 16 surveys of indoor environments conducted worldwide, additionally including 7 other studies representing putative environmental sources of microbial taxa (outdoor air, soil, and the human body). Combined analysis of subsets of studies that shared specific experimental protocols or indoor habitats revealed community patterns indicative of consistent source environments and environmental filtering. Additionally, we were able to identify several consistent sources for indoor microorganisms, particularly outdoor air and skin, mirroring what has been shown in individual studies. Technical variation across studies had a strong effect on comparisons of microbial community assemblages, with differences in experimental protocols limiting our ability to extensively explore the importance of, for example, sampling locality, building function and use, or environmental substrate in structuring indoor microbial communities. We present a snapshot of an important scientific field in its early stages, where studies have tended to focus on heavy sampling in a few geographic areas. From the practical perspective, this endeavor reinforces the importance of negative "kit" controls in microbiome studies

  18. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications...... of the European Communities It is now well established that indoor air pollution contributes significantly to the global burden of disease of the population. Therefore, the knowledge of this contribution is essential in view of risk assessment and management. The ECA STRATEX report collates the respective...... information and describes the strategies to determine population exposure to indoor air pollutants. Its major goal is to emphasise the importance of the contribution of indoor air to total air exposure. Taking this contribution into account is a prerequisite for sound risk assessment of air pollution...

  19. Indicators to assess the quality of programs to prevent occupational risk for tuberculosis: are they feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Talita Raquel Dos; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Nichiata, Lúcia Yasuko Izumi; Takahashi, Renata Ferreira; Ciosak, Suely Itsuko; Gryschek, Anna Luiza de Fátima Pinho Lins

    2016-06-07

    to analyze the feasibility of quality indicators for evaluation of hospital programs for preventing occupational tuberculosis. a descriptive cross-sectional study. We tested indicators for evaluating occupational tuberculosis prevention programs in six hospitals. The criterion to define feasibility was the time spent to calculate the indicators. time spent to evaluate the indicators ranged from 2h 52min to 15h11min 24sec. The indicator for structure evaluation required less time; the longest time was spent on process indicators, including the observation of healthcare workers' practices in relation to the use of N95 masks. There was an hindrance to test one of the indicators for tuberculosis outcomes in five situations, due to the lack of use of tuberculin skin test in these facilities. The time requires to calculate indicators in regarding to the outcomes for occupational tuberculosis largely depends upon the level of organizational administrative structure for gathering data. indicators to evaluate the structure for occupational tuberculosis prevention are highly feasible. Nevertheless, the feasibility of indicators for process and outcome is limited due to relevant variations in administrative issues at healthcare facilities. analisar a viabilidade de indicadores de qualidade para avaliação de programas hospitalares de prevenção de tuberculose ocupacional. estudo descritivo transversal. Testaram-se indicadores de avaliação de programas de prevenção de tuberculose ocupacional em seis hospitais. O critério para definir a viabilidade foi o tempo necessário para aplicar os indicadores. o tempo necessário para avaliar os indicadores variou de 02'52'' até 15h11'24''. O indicador para a avaliação da estrutura demandou menor tempo; o maior tempo foi utilizado com os indicadores de processo, incluindo a observação das práticas dos trabalhadores de saúde em relação ao uso de máscaras N95. Um dos indicadores de resultados de tuberculose deixou de ser

  20. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    into ecological functional groups and selecting those that deliver the identified environmental values. (3) All of the species or ecosystem processes related to the selected functional groups are identified and (4) multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is used to rank the indicator endpoint entities, which may......-driven, ecologically-based decision-making and provides formal methods for completing a screening level-ERA that can focus ERA on the most significant concerns. The process requires substantial human input but the human capital is available in most countries and regions of the world.......The environmental risks associated with genetically-engineered (GE) organisms have been controversial, and so have the models for the assessment of these risks. We propose an ecologically-based environmental risk assessment (ERA) model that follows the 1998 USEPA guidelines, focusing on potential...

  1. A risk modelling approach for setting microbiological limits using enterococci as indicator for growth potential of Salmonella in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Nauta, Maarten; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological limits are widely used in food processing as an aid to reduce the exposure to hazardous microorganisms for the consumers. However, in pork, the prevalence and concentrations of Salmonella are generally low and microbiological limits are not considered an efficient tool to support...... hygiene interventions. The objective of the present study was to develop an approach which could make it possible to define potential risk-based microbiological limits for an indicator, enterococci, in order to evaluate the risk from potential growth of Salmonella. A positive correlation between...... products that has enterococci concentrations above 5. log. CFU/g. This illustrates that our approach can be used to evaluate the potential effect of different microbiological limits and therefore, the perspective of this novel approach is that it can be used for definition of a risk-based microbiological...

  2. Spontaneous and indicated preterm delivery risk is increased among overweight and obese women without prepregnancy chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S S; Mendola, P; Zhu, Y; Hwang, B S; Grantz, K L

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the independent impact of prepregnancy obesity on preterm delivery among women without chronic diseases by gestational age, preterm category and parity. A retrospective cohort study. Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL) in the USA (2002-08). Singleton deliveries at ≥23 weeks of gestation in the CSL (43 200 nulliparas and 63 129 multiparas) with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥18.5 kg/m(2) and without chronic diseases. Association of prepregnancy BMI and the risk of preterm delivery was examined using Poisson regression with normal weight as reference. Preterm deliveries were categorised by gestational age (extremely, very, moderate to late) and category (spontaneous, indicated, no recorded indication). Relative risk of spontaneous preterm delivery was increased for extremely preterm among obese nulliparas (1.26, 95% CI: 0.94-1.70 for overweight; 1.88, 95% CI: 1.30-2.71 for obese class I; 1.99, 95% CI: 1.32-3.01 for obese class II/III) and decreased for moderate to late preterm delivery among overweight and obese multiparas (0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.97 for overweight; 0.87, 95% CI: 0.78-0.97 for obese class I; 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90 for obese class II/III). Indicated preterm delivery risk was increased with prepregnancy BMI in a dose-response manner for extremely preterm and moderate to late preterm among nulliparas, as it was for moderate to late preterm delivery among multiparas. Prepregnancy BMI was associated with increased risk of preterm delivery even in the absence of chronic diseases, but the association was heterogeneous by preterm categories, gestational age and parity. Obese nulliparas without chronic disease had higher risk for spontaneous delivery <28 weeks of gestation. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Improvement of Internal Audit Planning Method through Application of Risk Card by the Indices of Value-Based Management System of Joint-Stock Company

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Article deals with issues of improving methods of planning and carrying out internal audit in conditions of risk-oriented approach to audit according to the indices of value-based management system - VBM (Value Based Management) using the risk card (risk matrix). A risk card (risk matrix) method has been disclosed taking into account risk level of each of the key factors influencing joint-stock company value rates. Recommendations have been given and abstract of working document has been ...

  4. Risk adjustment methods for Home Care Quality Indicators (HCQIs based on the minimum data set for home care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirdes John P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increasing interest in enhancing accountability in health care. As such, several methods have been developed to compare the quality of home care services. These comparisons can be problematic if client populations vary across providers and no adjustment is made to account for these differences. The current paper explores the effects of risk adjustment for a set of home care quality indicators (HCQIs based on the Minimum Data Set for Home Care (MDS-HC. Methods A total of 22 home care providers in Ontario and the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority (WRHA in Manitoba, Canada, gathered data on their clients using the MDS-HC. These assessment data were used to generate HCQIs for each agency and for the two regions. Three types of risk adjustment methods were contrasted: a client covariates only; b client covariates plus an "Agency Intake Profile" (AIP to adjust for ascertainment and selection bias by the agency; and c client covariates plus the intake Case Mix Index (CMI. Results The mean age and gender distribution in the two populations was very similar. Across the 19 risk-adjusted HCQIs, Ontario CCACs had a significantly higher AIP adjustment value for eight HCQIs, indicating a greater propensity to trigger on these quality issues on admission. On average, Ontario had unadjusted rates that were 0.3% higher than the WRHA. Following risk adjustment with the AIP covariate, Ontario rates were, on average, 1.5% lower than the WRHA. In the WRHA, individual agencies were likely to experience a decline in their standing, whereby they were more likely to be ranked among the worst performers following risk adjustment. The opposite was true for sites in Ontario. Conclusions Risk adjustment is essential when comparing quality of care across providers when home care agencies provide services to populations with different characteristics. While such adjustment had a relatively small effect for the two regions, it did

  5. Low Phosphorylated AKT Expression in Laryngeal Cancer: Indications for a Higher Metastatic Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, Monique M.; Span, Paul N.; Stegeman, Hanneke [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Grénman, Reidar [Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head-and-Neck-Surgery and Medical Biochemistry, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bussink, Johan, E-mail: j.bussink@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To validate the association of phosphorylated (p)AKT with lymph node metastasis in an independent, homogeneous cohort of patients with larynx cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with laryngeal cancer were included. Epidermal growth factor receptor, pAKT, vimentin, E-cadherin, hypoxia, and blood vessels were visualized in biopsy material using immunohistochemistry. Positive tumor areas and spatial relationships between markers were assessed by automated image analysis. In 6 laryngeal cancer cell lines, E-cadherin and vimentin messenger RNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and by immunohistochemistry before and after treatment with the pAKT inhibitor MK-2206. Results: A significant correlation was found between low pAKT in the primary tumor and positive lymph node status (P=.0005). Tumors with lymph node metastases had an approximately 10-fold lower median pAKT value compared with tumors without lymph node metastases, albeit with large intertumor variations, validating our previous results. After inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer cells with MK-2206, up-regulation of vimentin and a downregulation of E-cadherin occurred, consistent with epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Conclusion: Low pAKT expression in larynx tumors is associated with lymph node metastases. Further, inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition, predisposing for an increased metastatic risk.

  6. Metabolic syndrome as a risk indicator for periodontal disease and tooth loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musskopf, Marta L; Daudt, Luciana D; Weidlich, Patrícia; Gerchman, Fernando; Gross, Jorge L; Oppermann, Rui V

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of metabolic syndrome (MS) with periodontitis (PE) and tooth loss (TL). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 363 individuals who underwent full-mouth periodontal examination, and the association between MS and PE was evaluated considering three outcomes: severe periodontitis, mean probing depth ≥2.4 mm, and mean clinical attachment loss ≥2.0 mm. The prevalence ratio (PR) between MS and PE was calculated using a model adjusted for gender, age, smoking, years of education, and socioeconomic status. The adjusted model showed a PR for severe periodontitis of 1.17 (95 % CI 0.83-1.65). There was no significant association between MS and PE defined as mean probing depth ≥2.4 mm. MS was significantly associated with PE defined as mean attachment loss ≥2 mm in individuals aged 41-60 years (PR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.05-2.06). In addition, MS was associated with TL (>6 teeth) (PR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.02-1.49) for all ages, both in crude and adjusted analyses. We concluded that there is a weak association of MS with both attachment loss and TL. Patients with MS seem to have a higher risk of attachment loss and tooth loss and should be screened for periodontal disease.

  7. Gingival immunologic defense index: a new indicator for evaluating dental plaque infection risk in allergic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Pradopo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a possible relationship between dental plaque and children allergic diseases. According to literatures, gingivitis suffered mostly by allergic children than control. Case reports also revealed that dental plaque control therapy was able to reduce, even eliminate rhinosinusitis and asthmatic symptoms without additional medications. However, the exact method for confirming the gingivitis-related allergy is still uncertain. Allergic diseases have multifactorial etiologies and dental plaque had been proposed as a new trigger of allergic symptoms. Nevertheless, since not every child with gingivitis suffered from allergy or vice versa, this uncertain phenomenon may lead to patients or other clinician disbelief. The objective of the present study was to propose a new method, which involving the Gingival immunologic defense index (GIDI to evaluate the susceptibility to allergic diseases. GIDI is an index that had been developed earlier for evaluating gingival immunologic defense with respect to immunoglobulin A (IgA levels. This index based on the simple count of the inflamed gingival surfaces of a child plus the measurement of salivary IgA content. It provides clinicians with important information about the immunologic defense potential of each subject. Interestingly, most allergic children also had inherited IgA deficiency, thus this concept is likely. Based on literatures, GIDI could be a potential index for evaluating the risk of allergic diseases through gingival health assessment. However, prior investigation to the value of Indonesian GIDI index which related to allergy should be conducted.

  8. Ricci curvature: An economic indicator for market fragility and systemic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Romeil S.; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Tannenbaum, Allen R.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the systemic risk and fragility of financial systems is of vital importance in analyzing market efficiency, deciding on portfolio allocation, and containing financial contagions. At a high level, financial systems may be represented as weighted graphs that characterize the complex web of interacting agents and information flow (for example, debt, stock returns, and shareholder ownership). Such a representation often turns out to provide keen insights. We show that fragility is a system-level characteristic of “business-as-usual” market behavior and that financial crashes are invariably preceded by system-level changes in robustness. This was done by leveraging previous work, which suggests that Ricci curvature, a key geometric feature of a given network, is negatively correlated to increases in network fragility. To illustrate this insight, we examine daily returns from a set of stocks comprising the Standard and Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) over a 15-year span to highlight the fact that corresponding changes in Ricci curvature constitute a financial “crash hallmark.” This work lays the foundation of understanding how to design (banking) systems and policy regulations in a manner that can combat financial instabilities exposed during the 2007–2008 crisis. PMID:27386522

  9. Dairy product intake in relation to glucose regulation indices and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struijk, E A; Heraclides, A; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: A high intake of dairy has been linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The relationship between dairy intake and glucose metabolism is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups...... and T2D and measures of glucose metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 5953 Danish men and women aged 30-60 years without baseline diabetes or cardiovascular diseases were included in this prospective analysis. The dairy intake at baseline was categorised into low-fat dairy, full-fat dairy, milk...... and milk products, cheese and fermented dairy. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), HbA(1c), insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B) were considered at 5-year follow-up. In the maximally-adjusted model (demographics, lifestyle factors, dietary factors and waist...

  10. Linking Syndemic Stress and Behavioral Indicators of Main Partner HIV Transmission Risk in Gay Male Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Tuck, Andrew N; Millar, Brett M; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether syndemic stress in partnered gay men might undermine communication processes essential to the utilization of negotiated safety and other harm reduction strategies that rely on partners' HIV status disclosure. Participants included 100 gay male couples (N = 200 individuals) living in the U.S., who responded to an online survey. Participants completed measures of five syndemic factors (depression, poly-drug use, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and sexual compulsivity). They also reported on whether condoms were used during first intercourse together and the timing of first condomless anal intercourse (CAI) relative to HIV disclosure in their relationship. Results of binary logistic regression analyses supported the hypothesis that the sum of partners' syndemic stress was negatively associated with condom use at first intercourse and with HIV disclosure prior to first CAI. Syndemic stress may contribute to HIV transmission risk between main partners in part because it accelerates the progression to CAI and interferes with communication processes central to harm reduction strategies utilized by gay men in relationships. Implications for prevention strategies and couples interventions, such as couples HIV counseling and testing, that facilitate communication skill-building, are discussed.

  11. Ricci curvature: An economic indicator for market fragility and systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Romeil S; Georgiou, Tryphon T; Tannenbaum, Allen R

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the systemic risk and fragility of financial systems is of vital importance in analyzing market efficiency, deciding on portfolio allocation, and containing financial contagions. At a high level, financial systems may be represented as weighted graphs that characterize the complex web of interacting agents and information flow (for example, debt, stock returns, and shareholder ownership). Such a representation often turns out to provide keen insights. We show that fragility is a system-level characteristic of "business-as-usual" market behavior and that financial crashes are invariably preceded by system-level changes in robustness. This was done by leveraging previous work, which suggests that Ricci curvature, a key geometric feature of a given network, is negatively correlated to increases in network fragility. To illustrate this insight, we examine daily returns from a set of stocks comprising the Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P 500) over a 15-year span to highlight the fact that corresponding changes in Ricci curvature constitute a financial "crash hallmark." This work lays the foundation of understanding how to design (banking) systems and policy regulations in a manner that can combat financial instabilities exposed during the 2007-2008 crisis.

  12. Missing paternal demographics: A novel indicator for identifying high risk population of adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Shi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of every 6 United Status birth certificates contains no information on fathers. There might be important differences in the pregnancy outcomes between mothers with versus those without partner information. The object of this study was to assess whether and to what extent outcomes in pregnant women who did not have partner information differ from those who had. Methods We carried out a population-based retrospective cohort study based on the registry data in the United States for the period of 1995–1997, which was a matched multiple birth file (only twins were included in the current analysis. We divided the study subjects into three groups according to the availability of partner information: available, partly missing, and totally missing. We compared the distribution of maternal characteristics, maternal morbidity, labor and delivery complications, obstetric interventions, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, fetal death, neonatal death, post-neonatal death, and neonatal morbidity among three study groups. Results There were 304466 twins included in our study. Mothers whose partner's information was partly missing and (especially totally missing tended to be younger, of black race, unmarried, with less education, smoking cigarette during pregnancy, and with inadequate prenatal care. The rates of preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, Apgar score Conclusions Mothers whose partner's information was partly and (especially totally missing are at higher risk of adverse pregnant outcomes, and clinicians and public health workers should be alerted to this important social factor.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods from China: levels, dietary intake, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaowei; Wen, Sheng; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Yongning

    2013-07-03

    A national survey of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in various foodstuffs from the Chinese total diet study (TDS) performed in 2007 was conducted for the first time. Meats and aquatic foods had the highest average sum PBDEs (192.5 and 190.6 pg g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively). For indicator PCBs, the highest average concentration was found in aquatic foods (628.7 pg g⁻¹ fresh weight). On the basis of measured PBDE and indicator PCB levels, the dietary intake estimate was subsequently calculated for the nonoccupationally exposed population in China. For adults, average estimated dietary intakes of PBDEs and indicator PCBs were 0.76 and 2.34 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, respectively. Health risk assessment of PBDEs using a MOE approach recommended by EFSA suggested unlikely health concern with respect to current dietary intake of PBDEs in China.

  14. Vegetation cyclic shift in eutrophic lagoon. Assessment of dystrophic risk indices based on standing crop evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Mauro; Renzi, Monia; Nesti, Ugo; Gennaro, Paola; Persia, Emma; Porrello, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    Orbetello lagoon (Tuscany, Italy) is a meso-eutrophic, shallow-water ecosystem which has undergone cyclic shifts in macrophyte dominance since 1970. Field data on the total standing crops of Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyceae (from 1983 to 2011) and Angiospermae (seagrass; from 1998 to 2007), produced each year by the ecosystem, was acquired. A general lagoon environment quality score (decay level DL, categories 0-4) was attributed (a posteriori) for each annual dataset examined. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to relate total macrophyte standing crops of 29 years of monitoring to the general quality score. Two indices were proposed (Abundance of Macroalgae Index, AMI, and Abundance of Seagrass Index, ASI, the latter in two versions, ASI-1 and ASI-2) and tested against DL. The results showed that biomass data did not accurately describe general environmental quality of the lagoon ecosystem, whereas the indices gave a better fit. AMI showed the best performance, demonstrating that macroalga data was much more informative than seagrass data. Values of AMI over 4.0 were significantly associated with critical general quality scores (DL > 2).

  15. Environmental indicators for epidemiological studies on populations at risk after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheorghe, R.; Tulbure, R.; Barbu, R.; Dumitrescu, A. [Institute of Public Health Bucharest (Romania); Toro, L. [Institute of Public Health Timisoara, (Romania); Gheorghe, D.; Ciupagea, F. [Public Health Inspectorate of Bucharest (Romania); Galeriu, D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Bucharest (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    The dose is the basic information asked by the physician in the context of a dose effect analysis. Several studies ( in countries of former Soviet Union) on population health revealed an increase in the incidence of some diseases specific to radioactivity ( childhood thyroid cancer)ich could be explained by the actual dose estimates. The present paper will focus on the assessment of the effect of 131 iodine contamination in Romania. In conclusion, deposition densities could be proportionally associated with the dose in dry deposition may be considered an adequate environmental indicator. The deposition-dose relationship in an area with a variable rainfall can only be inferred through a radioecological transfer model; such model should be able to translate the particularities of the deposition-dose relationship, and to take into account the dependence of foliar interception and retention on rainfall intensities. Even with these issues of deposition-dose relationship, the assessment of preliminary dose values from deposition patterns is financially quite effortless. Moreover, preliminary doses assessed from regional deposition patterns are very useful for detecting the possible health effects. Thus, the density of deposition should be a good environmental indicator. At the same time, we believe that in the monitoring programmes of the environmental factors much more attention should be given to the wet fraction of the deposition. (N.C.)

  16. Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Potential risk scenarios and associated health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Barbara; Stockhofe, Norbert; Wal, Jean-Michel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Lallès, Jean-Paul; van Dijk, Jeroen; Kok, Esther; De Giacomo, Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Onori, Roberta; Brera, Carlo; Bikker, Paul; van der Meulen, Jan; Gijs, Kleter

    2017-08-30

    Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case studies (CSs) of potential health effects on livestock were framed and the current knowledge of a possible effect of GM feed was reviewed. Concerning allergenicity (CS-1), there are no case-reports of allergic reactions or immunotoxic effects resulting from GM feed consumption as compared with non-GM feed. The likelihood of horizontal gene transfer (HGT; CS-2) of GMO-related DNA to different species is not different from that for other DNA and is unlikely to raise health concerns. Concerning mycotoxins (CS-3), insect-resistant GM maize may reduce fumonisins contamination as a health benefit, yet other Fusarium toxins and aflatoxins show inconclusive results. For nutritionally altered crops (CS-4), the genetic modifications applied lead to compositional changes which require special considerations of their nutritional impacts. No health indicators were thus identified except for possible beneficial impacts of reduced mycotoxins and nutritional enhancement. More generally, veterinary health data should ideally be linked with animal exposure information so as to be able to establish cause-effect relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Estuarine ecological risk based on hepatic histopathological indices from laboratory and in situ tested fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro M; Caeiro, Sandra; Lobo, Jorge; Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana M; Caetano, Miguel; Vale, Carlos; DelValls, T Ángel; Costa, Maria H

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile Senegalese soles were exposed through 28-day laboratory and field (in situ) bioassays to sediments from three sites of the Sado estuary (W Portugal): a reference and two contaminated by metallic and organic contaminants. Fish were surveyed for ten hepatic histopathological alterations divided by four distinct reaction patterns and integrated through the estimation of individual histopathological condition indices. Fish exposed to contaminated sediments sustained more damage, with especial respect to regressive changes like necrosis. However, differences were observed between laboratory- and field-exposed animals, with the latest, for instance, exhibiting more pronounced fatty degeneration and hepatocellular eosinophilic alteration. Also, some lesions in fish exposed to the reference sediment indicate that in both assays unaccounted variables produced experimental background noise, such as hyaline degeneration in laboratory-exposed fish. Still, the field assays yielded results that were found to better reflect the overall levels of contaminants and physico-chemical characteristics of the tested sediments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Indicated school-based intervention to improve depressive symptoms among at risk Chilean adolescents: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gaete, Jorge; Martinez, Vania; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Rojas, Graciela; Montgomery, Alan A.; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is a disabling condition affecting people of all ages, but generally starting during adolescence. Schools seem to be an excellent setting where preventive interventions may be delivered. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of an indicated school-based intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among at-risk adolescents from low-income families. Methods A two-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 11 secondary schools in vulnerable socioeconomi...

  19. Indicators of the risk mechanics for Class-I and Class-II amalgam and composite resin restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Eduardo; Arroyo, Erik Dreyer; Pardo, Claudia Letelier; OLIVEIRA JUNIOR,Osmir Batista de; Cortés, Gustavo Moncada [UNESP; Casielles,Javier Martín

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine indicators of prognosis for mechanical risks of amalgam and composite resin restorations in permanent teeth. METHODS: Thirty-nine adult patients with direct clinical, photographic, radiographic and model examinations. A total of 256 restorations were classified as "not satisfactory," with Bravo or Charlie values according to the modified Ryge /USPHS criteria. The total "n" was divided into Bravo and Charlie groups according to the value obtained in the "marginal adaptation" ...

  20. Measuring low-frequency noise indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    that is exceeded in 10% of the volume of a room (L10) is proposed as a rational and objective target for a measurement method. In Sweden and Denmark rules exist for measuring low-frequency noise indoors. The performance of these procedures was investigated in three rooms. The results from the Swedish method were...... close to the L10 target, but, due to a doubtful use of C-weighting in the scanning, it may give too low results in case of complex sounds. The Danish method was found to have a high risk of giving results substantially below the target, unless complainants can precisely appoint measurement positions...

  1. Evaluation of effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from indoor and outdoor gamma dose rate of university of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, ... In addition, the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) calculated for indoor exposure ranges ...

  2. Adsorption of Phthalates on Impervious Indoor Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaoxing; Eichler, Clara M A; Leng, Weinan; Cox, Steven S; Marr, Linsey C; Little, John C

    2017-02-13

    Sorption of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) onto interior surfaces, often referred to as the "sink effect", and their subsequent re-emission significantly affect the fate and transport of indoor SVOCs and the resulting human exposure. Unfortunately, experimental challenges and the large number of SVOC/surface combinations have impeded progress in understanding sorption of SVOCs on indoor surfaces. An experimental approach based on a diffusion model was thus developed to determine the surface/air partition coefficient K of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on typical impervious surfaces including aluminum, steel, glass, and acrylic. The results indicate that surface roughness plays an important role in the adsorption process. Although larger data sets are needed, the ability to predict K could be greatly improved by establishing the nature of the relationship between surface roughness and K for clean indoor surfaces. Furthermore, different surfaces exhibit nearly identical K values after being exposed to kitchen grime with values that are close to those reported for the octanol/air partition coefficient. This strongly supports the idea that interactions between gas-phase DEHP and soiled surfaces have been reduced to interactions with an organic film. Collectively, the results provide an improved understanding of equilibrium partitioning of SVOCs on impervious surfaces.

  3. Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H.; Twardella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Heitmann, D.; Schierl, R.; Liebl, B.; Rüden, H.

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association between particle mass (PM) concentration in outside air and the occurrence of health related problems and/or diseases. However, much less is known about indoor PM concentrations and associated health risks. In particular, data are needed on air quality in schools, since children are assumed to be more vulnerable to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. On this background, we evaluated indoor air quality in 64 schools in the city of Munich and a neighbouring district outside the city boundary. In winter 2004-2005 in 92 classrooms, and in summer 2005 in 75 classrooms, data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and various dust particle fractions (PM 10, PM 2.5) were collected; for the latter both gravimetrical and continuous measurements by laser aerosol spectrometer (LAS) were implemented. In the summer period, the particle number concentration (PNC), was determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Additionally, data on room and building characteristics were collected by use of a standardized form. Only data collected during teaching hours were considered in analysis. For continuously measured parameters the daily median was used to describe the exposure level in a classroom. The median indoor CO 2 concentration in a classroom was 1603 ppm in winter and 405 ppm in summer. With LAS in winter, median PM concentrations of 19.8 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 91.5 μg m -3 (PM 10) were observed, in summer PM concentrations were significantly reduced (median PM 2.5=12.7 μg m -3, median PM 10=64.9 μg m -3). PM 2.5 concentrations determined by the gravimetric method were in general higher (median in winter: 36.7 μg m -3, median in summer: 20.2 μg m -3) but correlated strongly with the LAS-measured results. In explorative analysis, we identified a significant increase of LAS-measured PM 2.5 by 1.7 μg m -3 per increase

  4. Microalbuminuria indicates long-term vascular risk in patients after acute stroke undergoing in-patient rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Dirk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients in neurologic in-patient rehabilitation are at risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Microalbuminuria (MAU is frequent and an important risk predictor but has not been validated in in-patient rehabilitation. We therefore aimed to examine MAU as an indicator of risk and predictor of vascular events in a prospective study. Methods The INSIGHT (INvestigation of patients with ischemic Stroke In neuroloGic reHabiliTation registry is the first to provide large scale data on 1,167 patients with acute stroke (χ2 or Mann–Whitney-U Test. Relative risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using log-binominal models. To evaluate the association between MAU and new vascular events as well as mortality, we calculated hazard ratios (HR using Cox proportional hazard regression. Results A substantial proportion of patients was MAU positive at baseline (33.1%. Upon univariate analysis these patients were about 4 years older (69 vs. 65 years; p 2; p = 0.03 and increased waist circumference (79.5 vs. 50.4% for women [p  Conclusions INSIGHT demonstrated a significant association between MAU and polyvascular disease and further supports previous findings that MAU predicts cardio-/cerebrovascular events in patients recovering from ischemic stroke. This biomarker may also be used in patients during neurologic in-patient rehabilitation, opening a window of opportunity for early intervention in this patient group at increased risk for recurrent events.

  5. Studies on prevalence, risk indicators and control options for tick infestation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nady M. Asmaa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was conducted at Benisuef district to determine the current situation and associated determinants of tick infestations in ruminants and to assess the efficacy of three different types of insecticides against tick infestation under field conditions. Total of (1082 animals of different species (540 cattle, 230 buffaloes, 108 of each sheep & goats and 96 camels were selected randomly and examined carefully for tick infestation. About (30.1% of total observed animals were found tick infested with highest rate in cattle (60.5% followed by goats (25.9%, buffaloes (17.8%, sheep (14.8% while no tick infestation recorded in camels. The most prevalent tick's species affecting ruminants was Boophilus annulatus (26.5% followed by Hyalomma anatolicum (6.1% then Rhipicephalus turanicus (3.4%. Regarding the associated risk factors, tick infestation was found statistically significant (P 3 years (78.8% followed by at age, ≤2 months (57.8% and during summer months were found highly significant (P < 0.01 in cattle ( 76.5% followed by goats and sheep (33.3% & 22.9% resp., comparing with results in winter. The preferred sites of ticks' attachment to infested animals were udders and external genitalia (70.7% of each then Neck & chest (63.0% of each, inner thighs (61.1%, perineum (41.7%, ears (14.6%, around eyes (11.7%. The obtained results revealed that poor husbandry practices of small holder farmers be a determinant making the animals more prone to tick infestation in this district. Improving the hygienic conditions associated with treatment of infested cattle with Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg b.wt, S/C and spraying of Deltamethrin (1% for surrounding environment twice every 14 days are recommended for control of tick infestation under field condition.

  6. Indicators of HIV-risk resilience among men who have sex with men: a content analysis of online profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Hidalgo, Anna P; Bazzi, Angela R; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-06-02

    Background: HIV-risk resilience, or positive adaptation in the face of risk, is increasingly being recognised as an important characteristic among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, resilience in the context of online partner seeking remains underexplored among MSM. Methods: Using content analysis methodology, this study operationalised indicators of HIV-risk resilience in the profiles of 933 MSM using a sexual networking website. HIV-risk resilience included endorsing foreplay only (non-penetrative sex) or a versatile sexual position; being "out" (e.g. disclosed sexual orientation), having a profile photo, seeking friendship, seeking a relationship, serosorting, not endorsing alcohol or drug use, safer sexual adventurism (e.g. role playing, bondage), and safer sex. Results: The majority of men were between 18 and 35 years old (76.0%) and 73.3% were racial/ethnic minorities. The mean number of resilience components endorsed was 5.2 (s.d. = 1.5; range 0-9). Nearly half (48.0%) reported being "out" and 68.7% had a profile photo. The majority of men were seeking relationships (66.5%) and/or friendships (69.7%), were sexually versatile (53.3%), and preferred safer sex only (76.3%). The majority did not endorse drug use (82.0%) and 25.4% did not endorse alcohol use. Nearly one-quarter (21.4%) endorsed sexual adventurism and 2.5% were serosorting by partner's HIV negative status. Conclusion: HIV-risk resilience may be common among MSM using sexual networking websites and may manifest in safer sex intentions. Rather than exclusively focusing on sexual risk reduction, health promotion efforts targeting MSM online should acknowledge, measure, and leverage existent HIV-risk resilience strategies in this group.

  7. Indicators for Tracking European Vulnerabilities to the Risks of Infectious Disease Transmission due to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Suk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of infectious diseases may change their geographic range, seasonality and incidence due to climate change, but there is limited research exploring health vulnerabilities to climate change. In order to address this gap, pan-European vulnerability indices were developed for 2035 and 2055, based upon the definition vulnerability = impact/adaptive capacity. Future impacts were projected based upon changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, whilst adaptive capacity was developed from the results of a previous pan-European study. The results were plotted via ArcGISTM to EU regional (NUTS2 levels for 2035 and 2055 and ranked according to quintiles. The models demonstrate regional variations with respect to projected climate-related infectious disease challenges that they will face, and with respect to projected vulnerabilities after accounting for regional adaptive capacities. Regions with higher adaptive capacities, such as in Scandinavia and central Europe, will likely be better able to offset any climate change impacts and are thus generally less vulnerable than areas with lower adaptive capacities. The indices developed here provide public health planners with information to guide prioritisation of activities aimed at strengthening regional preparedness for the health impacts of climate change. There are, however, many limitations and uncertainties when modeling health vulnerabilities. To further advance the field, the importance of variables such as coping capacity and governance should be better accounted for, and there is the need to systematically collect and analyse the interlinkages between the numerous and ever-expanding environmental, socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiologic datasets so as to promote the public health capacity to detect, forecast, and prepare for the health threats due to climate change.

  8. Indoor waypoint navigation via magnetic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Condon, John P; Sheikh, Suneel I; Hedin, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    A wide assortment of technologies have been proposed to construct indoor navigation services for the blind and vision impaired. Proximity-based systems and multilateration systems have been successfully demonstrated and employed. Despite the technical success of these technologies, broad adoption has been limited due to their significant infrastructure and maintenance costs. An alternative approach utilizing the indoor magnetic signatures inherent to steel-frame buildings solves the infrastructure cost problem; in effect the existing building is the location system infrastructure. Although magnetic indoor navigation does not require the installation of dedicated hardware, the dedication of resources to produce precise survey maps of magnetic anomalies represents a further barrier to adoption. In the present work an alternative leader-follower form of waypoint-navigation system has been developed that works without surveyed magnetic maps of a site. Instead the wayfarer's magnetometer readings are compared to a pre-recorded magnetic "leader" trace containing magnetic data collected along a route and annotated with waypoint information. The goal of the navigation system is to correlate the follower's magnetometer data with the leader's to trigger audio cues at precise points along the route, thus providing location-based guidance to the user. The system should also provide early indications of off-route conditions. As part of the research effort a smartphone based application was created to record and annotate leader traces with audio and numeric data at waypoints of interest, and algorithms were developed to determine (1) when the follower reaches a waypoint and (2) when the follower goes off-route. A navigation system utilizing this technology would enable a low-cost indoor navigation system capable of replaying audio annotations at precise locations along pre-recorded routes.

  9. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  10. A risk modelling approach for setting microbiological limits using enterococci as indicator for growth potential of Salmonella in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Nauta, Maarten; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2017-01-02

    Microbiological limits are widely used in food processing as an aid to reduce the exposure to hazardous microorganisms for the consumers. However, in pork, the prevalence and concentrations of Salmonella are generally low and microbiological limits are not considered an efficient tool to support hygiene interventions. The objective of the present study was to develop an approach which could make it possible to define potential risk-based microbiological limits for an indicator, enterococci, in order to evaluate the risk from potential growth of Salmonella. A positive correlation between the concentration of enterococci and the prevalence and concentration of Salmonella was shown for 6640 pork samples taken at Danish cutting plants and retail butchers. The samples were collected in five different studies in 2001, 2002, 2010, 2011 and 2013. The observations that both Salmonella and enterococci are carried in the intestinal tract, contaminate pork by the same mechanisms and share similar growth characteristics (lag phase and maximum specific growth rate) at temperatures around 5-10°C, suggest a potential of enterococci to be used as an indicator of potential growth of Salmonella in pork. Elevated temperatures during processing will lead to growth of both enterococci and, if present, also Salmonella. By combining the correlation between enterococci and Salmonella with risk modelling, it is possible to predict the risk of salmonellosis based on the level of enterococci. The risk model used for this purpose includes the dose-response relationship for Salmonella and a reduction factor to account for preparation of the fresh pork. By use of the risk model, it was estimated that the majority of salmonellosis cases, caused by the consumption of pork in Denmark, is caused by the small fraction of pork products that has enterococci concentrations above 5logCFU/g. This illustrates that our approach can be used to evaluate the potential effect of different microbiological

  11. INDOOR LOCALIZATION SOLUTION FOR GPS

    OpenAIRE

    Shreyanka B. Chougule; Dr.Sayed Abdulhayan

    2017-01-01

    GPS technology is used for positioning application and it is highly reliable and accurate when used outdoor. Due to multipath propagation, signal attenuation and blockage its performance is limited in indoor and dense urban environment. As a solution, technologies like Apple’s iBeacon, Radio-frequency identification (RFID), Ultrasonic and Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) access points are used to improve performance in Indoor environment. We are having a look at all these technologies which are mean...

  12. Acne: risk indicator for increased body mass index and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Plewig, Gerd

    2013-11-01

    Acne appears to represent a visible indicator disease of over-activated mTORC1 signalling, an unfavour-able metabolic deviation on the road to serious common Western diseases of civilisation associated with increased body mass index and insulin resistance. Exaggerated mTORC1 signalling by Western diet explains the association of acne with increased body mass index, insulin resistance, and early onset of menarche. Both, a high glycaemic load and increased consumption of milk and milk products, staples of Western diet, aggravate mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signalling. This review of the literature summarises present evidence for an association between acne, increased body mass index, insulin resistance and Western diet. By dietary intervention with a Palaeolithic-type diet, the dermatologist has the chance to attenuate patients' increased mTORC1 signalling by reducing glycaemic load and milk consumption, which may not only improve acne but may delay the march to more serious mTORC1-driven diseases of civilisation.

  13. Empirical Analysis and Characterization of Indoor GPS Signal Fading and Multipath Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Godsk, Torben

    2009-01-01

    contrary to the common believe, that the weakness of the received signals alone is by far the largest obstacle for any GNSS positioning in an indoor environment, the availability was surprisingly good for most of our measurement locations. Our results indicate, that when making use of such state...... of our campaign´s results, we extract indicators for GPS indoor positioning accuracy and also reinvestigate indicators presented by Teuber et.al.[1] for indoor GPS signal strength and reception quality.......Moving GNSS towards indoor positioning is an important challenge. Increases in receiver sensitivity, the forthcoming increase in number of GNSS satellites and signal design improvements all contribute to addressing this challenge. Another remaining issue for GNSS-based indoor positioning...

  14. Short communication: Noninvasive indicators to identify lactating dairy cows with a greater risk of subacute rumen acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate if milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and milk fat content could be used as the noninvasive indicator to identify cows with greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Our hypothesis was that cows with lower MUN and milk fat content would have greater risk of SARA, whereas cows with higher MUN and milk fat content would have lower risk of SARA. In the screening study, 35 late-lactating Holstein cows (DIM=250±71.1; BW=601±45.4kg) were fed a high-grain diet containing 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix ad libitum for 21 d. Concentration of MUN ranged from 5.7 to 13.9Mg/dL among the 35 cows, and the average milk fat content was 3.5%. Then, 5 cows with highest MUN concentrations with milk fat higher than 3.5% were selected as animals that presumably have low risk of SARA, and 5 cows with lowest MUN concentrations with milk fat less than 3.5% were selected as animals that presumably have high risk of SARA. These 10 animals were ruminally cannulated during the subsequent dry period. As 1 low-risk cow was culled due to fatty liver, 9 animals (DIM=122±33.2; BW=615±49.1kg) were used in the subsequent study in the following lactation. All cows were fed a high-grain diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix ad libitum for 21 d. Ruminal pH was measured every 30 s for 72 h. Minimum (5.75 vs. 5.30) and mean ruminal pH (6.35 vs. 6.04) was higher for low- compared with high-risk animals. In addition, duration of rumen pH below 5.8 was shorter in low-risk animals (52.5 vs. 395min/d). These results suggested that MUN and milk fat content in late-lactating cows fed a high-grain diet may be used to identify cows that have higher or lower risk of SARA. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequency and risk indicators of tooth decay among pregnant women in France: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noel Vergnes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. METHODS: A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women's medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. RESULTS: 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d. = 2.8. Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR = 1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45], lower educational level (aOR = 1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23] and dental plaque (aOR = 1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]. The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. DISCUSSION: The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations.

  16. Validation of self-reported maternal and infant health indicators in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Patricia; Bombard, Jennifer; Mulready-Ward, Candace; Gauthier, John; Sackoff, Judith; Brozicevic, Peggy; Gambatese, Melissa; Nyland-Funke, Michael; England, Lucinda; Harrison, Leslie; Taylor, Allan

    2014-12-01

    To assess the validity of self-reported maternal and infant health indicators reported by mothers an average of 4 months after delivery. Three validity measures-sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV)-were calculated for pregnancy history, pregnancy complications, health care utilization, and infant health indicators self-reported on the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) questionnaire by a representative sample of mothers delivering live births in New York City (NYC) (n = 603) and Vermont (n = 664) in 2009. Data abstracted from hospital records served as gold standards. All data were weighted to be representative of women delivering live births in NYC or Vermont during the study period. Most PRAMS indicators had >90 % specificity. Indicators with >90 % sensitivity and PPV for both sites included prior live birth, any diabetes, and Medicaid insurance at delivery, and for Vermont only, infant admission to the NICU and breastfeeding in the hospital. Indicators with poor sensitivity and PPV (urinary tract infection or kidney infection, and for NYC only, preterm labor, prior low-birth-weight birth, and prior preterm birth. For Vermont only, receipt of an HIV test during pregnancy had poor sensitivity and PPV. Mothers accurately reported information on prior live births and Medicaid insurance at delivery; however, mothers' recall of certain pregnancy complications and pregnancy history was poor. These findings could be used to prioritize data collection of indicators with high validity.

  17. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Freudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one’s own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  18. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  19. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  20. Quantification and human health risk assessment of by-products of photo catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene, xylene and toluene in indoor air of analytical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhada, Indramani; Sharma, Mukesh; Nagar, Pavan Kumar

    2016-10-05

    The by-products of TiO2-based photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of ethylbenze, p,m-xylene, o-xylene and toluene (EXT) in vapour phase and those adsorbed on the catalyst surface (solid phase) were identified and quantified on GC/GC-MS. A factor was developed in terms of μg of by-product produced per mg of EXT removed per sq-meter surface area of catalyst for estimating the mass of by-products produced. The by-products quantified were: acetone, hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, crotonaldehyde, toulene, 1,4-benzoquinone, benzaldehyde, phenol, benzylalcohol, cresol, hydroquinone and benzoic acid. The by-products accounted for 2.3-4.2% of the total mass of EXT treated. For treating concentrations of 220μg/m(3) (ethylbenzene), 260μg/m(3) (p,m-xylene), 260μg/m(3) (o-xylene) and 320μg/m(3) (toluene), at a flow rate of 7L/min for 12h in a laboratory of volume 195m(3), the estimated cancer risks of by-products to the occupants were 1.51×10(-6), 1.06×10(-6), 4.69×10(-7), and 1.58×10(-9) respectively. The overall hazard index (HI) of the by-products for EXT was of the order 10(-4); which is much less than desired level of 1.0. The estimated risks were within the acceptable level. This study has also suggested the photocatalytic degradation pathways for EX which are through formation of toluene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.