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Sample records for indonesian toxoplasma gondii

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma...+gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=113 ...

  2. Toxoplasma gondii and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Erol; Türkoğlu, Şule Aydın; Orallar, Hayriye

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite can be seen in all the vital organ; in the acute phase, it can be found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, tears, saliva, urine, and in almost all body fluids. Transplasental infection can lead to fetal damage and miscarriage. Its last hosts are felines and intermediate hosts are all mammals, including humans. People infected by the ingestion of meat containing cysts in undercooked or raw, are thrown oocysts with cat felines By taking in water and food, from mother to fetus transplacental way, the infected organ transplantation, blood transfusion, laboratory accidents and kaprofaj transmitted by mechanical vectors of the invertebrates. Suppression of the immune system is being transformed to the shape and texture of the cysts with bradyzoite. The parasite settles in the cells of the tissue cysts and causes change in the cellular mechanisms, such as cytokinin task. Depending on changes and type of neurotransmitter (GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine) levels in CSF in ions (Ca, K, Cl, Mg), it is believed that there is a change in their concentration. In this review, literature about the relationship between T. gondii and epilepsy and epileptiform activity the importance of parasites, which settle in the brain, will be highlighted.

  3. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

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    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  4. Cathepsin proteases in Toxoplasma gondii

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    Dou, Zhicheng; Carruthers, Vern B.

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine proteases are important for the growth and survival of apicomplexan parasites that infect humans. The apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii expresses five members of the C1 family of cysteine proteases, including one cathepsin L-like (TgCPL), one cathepsin B-like (TgCPB), and three cathepsin C-like (TgCPC1, 2 and 3) proteases. Recent genetic, biochemical and structural studies reveal that cathepsins function in microneme and rhoptry protein maturation, host cell invasion, replication, and nutrient acquisition.. Here, we review the key features and roles of T. gondii cathepsins and discuss the therapeutic potential for specific inhibitor development. PMID:21660658

  5. Cathepsin proteases in Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Zhicheng; Carruthers, Vern B.

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine proteases are important for the growth and survival of apicomplexan parasites that infect humans. The apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii expresses five members of the C1 family of cysteine proteases, including one cathepsin L-like (TgCPL), one cathepsin B-like (TgCPB), and three cathepsin C-like (TgCPC1, 2 and 3) proteases. Recent genetic, biochemical and structural studies reveal that cathepsins function in microneme and rhoptry protein maturation, host cell invasion, replication, and n...

  6. Pituitary prolactin adenoma with Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晖; 李青; 程虹; 阎庆国; 黄高昇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report two recent cases of pituitary adenoma associated with Toxoplasma gondii (T.Gondii) infection.Methods: Histological changes were observed in H & E and PAS staining sections microscopically.Immunohistochemistry was performed to classify the pituitary tumors and to confirm the diagnosis of T.gondii.Results: The cases were 43- and 19-year-old females, in which the latter one was a recurring case, and radiology examination showed that tumors existed in sellar region.Microscopically, the tumors consisted of small homogenous polygonal or round cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry revealed they were prolactin-producing adenomas.Interestingly, we found toxoplasma infection in the tumor tissues, being confirmed by T.gondii sepicific antibody immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: The association of pituitary adenoma with toxoplasma raises the possibility that T.gondii may be involved in the development of certain cases of pituitary adenoma.

  7. The transcriptome of Toxoplasma gondii

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    Roos David S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii gives rise to toxoplasmosis, among the most prevalent parasitic diseases of animals and man. Transformation of the tachzyoite stage into the latent bradyzoite-cyst form underlies chronic disease and leads to a lifetime risk of recrudescence in individuals whose immune system becomes compromised. Given the importance of tissue cyst formation, there has been intensive focus on the development of methods to study bradyzoite differentiation, although the molecular basis for the developmental switch is still largely unknown. Results We have used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE to define the Toxoplasma gondii transcriptome of the intermediate-host life cycle that leads to the formation of the bradyzoite/tissue cyst. A broad view of gene expression is provided by >4-fold coverage from nine distinct libraries (~300,000 SAGE tags representing key developmental transitions in primary parasite populations and in laboratory strains representing the three canonical genotypes. SAGE tags, and their corresponding mRNAs, were analyzed with respect to abundance, uniqueness, and antisense/sense polarity and chromosome distribution and developmental specificity. Conclusion This study demonstrates that phenotypic transitions during parasite development were marked by unique stage-specific mRNAs that accounted for 18% of the total SAGE tags and varied from 1–5% of the tags in each developmental stage. We have also found that Toxoplasma mRNA pools have a unique parasite-specific composition with 1 in 5 transcripts encoding Apicomplexa-specific genes functioning in parasite invasion and transmission. Developmentally co-regulated genes were dispersed across all Toxoplasma chromosomes, as were tags representing each abundance class, and a variety of biochemical pathways indicating that trans-acting mechanisms likely control gene expression in this parasite. We observed distinct similarities in the specificity and

  8. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy

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    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.

  9. Purine metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, E.C.; Marr, J.J.; Berens, R.L.

    1989-06-25

    We have studied the incorporation and interconversion of purines into nucleotides by freshly isolated Toxoplasma gondii. They did not synthesize nucleotides from formate, glycine, or serine. The purine bases hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanine, and adenine were incorporated at 9.2, 6.2, 5.1, and 4.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. The purine nucleosides adenosine, inosine, guanosine, and xanthosine were incorporated at 110, 9.0, 2.7, and 0.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. Guanine, xanthine, and their respective nucleosides labeled only guanine nucleotides. Inosine, hypoxanthine, and adenine labeled both adenine and guanine nucleotide pools at nearly equal ratios. Adenosine kinase was greater than 10-fold more active than the next most active enzyme in vitro. This is consistent with the metabolic data in vivo. No other nucleoside kinase or phosphotransferase activities were found. Phosphorylase activities were detected for guanosine and inosine; no other cleavage activities were detected. Deaminases were found for adenine and guanine. Phosphoribosyltransferase activities were detected for all four purine nucleobases. Interconversion occurs only in the direction of adenine to guanine nucleotides.

  10. Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from...

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in China

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    He Shenyi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection of humans and animals, caused by the opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Infection in pregnant women may lead to abortion, stillbirth or other serious consequences in newborns. Infection in immunocompromised patients can be fatal if not treated. On average, one third of people are chronically infected worldwide. Although very limited information from China has been published in the English journals, T. gondii infection is actually a significant human health problem in China. In the present article, we reviewed the clinical features, transmission, prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans in China, and summarized genetic characterizations of reported T. gondii isolates. Educating the public about the risks associated with unhealthy food and life style habits, tracking serological examinations to special populations, and measures to strengthen food and occupational safety are discussed.

  12. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Nasiri, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is responsible for one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases in almost all warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide, and it is estimated that about one-third of the world human population is chronically infected with this parasite. Little is known about the circulation of T. gondii in snakes and this study for the first time aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by this parasite by PCR methods. The brain of 68 Snakes, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2015 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of this parasite. DNA was extracted and Nested-PCR method was carried out with two of pairs of primers to detect the 344 bp fragment of T. gondii GRA6 gene. Five positive nested-PCR products were directly sequenced in the forward and reverse directions by Sequetech Company (Mountain View, CA). T. gondii GRA6 gene were detected from 55 (80.88%) of 68 snakes brains. Sequencing of the GRA6 gene revealed 98-100% of similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study of molecular detection of T. gondii in snakes and our findings show a higher frequency of this organism among them.

  13. Current progress toward vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

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    Garcia JL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available João Luis Garcia,1 Elisabeth A Innes,2 Frank Katzer21Department of Preventative Veterinary Medicine, Center of Agricultural Science, State University of Londrina, Parana, Brazil; 2Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Edinburgh, ScotlandAbstract: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect many warm-blooded animal species and humans. Despite substantial knowledge of the biology, epidemiology, and host-pathogen interactions of T. gondii, there are still very few effective control strategies to prevent oocyst shedding in cats, tissue cysts in livestock for consumption, and infection and disease in humans. This article reviews current progress and targets for vaccination against T. gondii.Keywords: toxoplasmosis, vaccination, livestock animals, cats, immune response, organelles

  14. Characterization of aspartyl aminopeptidase from Toxoplasma gondii

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    Zheng, Jun; Cheng, Ziying; Jia, Honglin; Zheng, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Aminopeptidases have emerged as new promising drug targets for the development of novel anti-parasitic drugs. An aspartyl aminopeptidase-like gene has been identified in the Toxoplasma gondii genome (TgAAP), although its function remains unknown. In this study, we characterized TgAAP and performed functional analysis of the gene product. Firstly, we expressed a functional recombinant TgAAP (rTgAAP) protein in Escherichia coli, and found that it required metal ions for activity and showed a substrate preference for N-terminal acidic amino acids Glu and Asp. Then, we evaluated the function and drug target potential of TgAAP using the CRISPR/Cas9 knockout system. Western blotting demonstrated the deletion of TgAAP in the knockout strain. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that TgAAP was localized in the cytoplasm of the wild-type parasite, but was not expressed in the knockout strain. Phenotype analysis revealed that TgAAP knockout inhibited the attachment/invasion, replication, and substrate-specific activity in T. gondii. Finally, the activity of drug CID 23724194, previously described as targeting Plasmodium and malarial parasite AAP, was tested against rTgAAP and the parasite. Overall, TgAAP knockout affected the growth of T. gondii but did not completely abolish parasite replication and growth. Therefore, TgAAP may comprise a useful adjunct drug target of T. gondii. PMID:27678060

  15. Advances in understanding immunity to Toxoplasma gondii

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    Elia D Tait

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important cause of clinical disease in fetuses, infants and immunocompromised patients. Since the discovery of T. gondii 100 years ago, this pathogen and the host's immune response to toxoplasmosis have been studied intensely. This has led to the development of a working model of immunity to T. gondii, and has also resulted in fundamental new insights into the role of various cytokines in resistance to infection. By examining this organism, researchers have identified many of the requirements for resistance to intracellular pathogens and characterized numerous regulatory factors, including interleukin-10 (IL-10 and IL-27, which control inflammatory processes. In the next 100 years of T. gondii immunobiology, researchers will have the opportunity to answer some of the long-standing questions in the field using new techniques and reagents. These future studies will be vital in building a more comprehensive model of immunity to this pathogen and in advancing our understanding of immunoregulation, particularly in humans. Ultimately, the challenge will be to use this information to develop new vaccines and therapies to manage disease in affected patients.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii: sexual transmission in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Asgari, Qasem; Keshavarz Valian, Hossein; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; SHOJAEE, Saeedeh; Mehrabani, Davood

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in mice. RH strain tachyzoites were intraperitoneally inoculated into 10 Balb/C male mice and after 48 h, their semen were collected from epididymis and examined by giemsa staining and PCR. Twenty Balb/C female mice mated with four infected male mice four times and any mating time was 48 h whilst 20 female control mice mated with four uninfected male mice for 8 days. Female mate choice was assessed using a three-cha...

  17. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

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    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  18. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles (Talpa europaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, I.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock. Findings In total, 86 moles were caught from 25 different sites in the Netherlands. Five diffe

  19. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Motus, Kerli

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012–2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 w...

  20. IgA antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in human tears

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    Meek, B.; Klaren, V.N.A.; Haeringen, van N.J.; Kijlstra, A.; Peek, R.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate whether mucosal immune responses directed against the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii can be detected in tears of healthy humans. METHODS. Nonstimulated tears and blood were obtained from 62 healthy humans (mean age, 35 ± 10 [SD] years). Serum anti-T. gondii immunoglobu

  1. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana).

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    Dubey, J P; Pas, An

    2008-05-06

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) from the United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, skeletal muscle, brain and heart. Protozoal tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 10 of 12 V. cana assayed by the latex agglutination or the modified direct agglutination test.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran

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    Jafari Modrek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Blood transfusion is one of the many ways, through which Toxoplasma Gondii (T. gondii, a protozoan parasite, can be transmitted to humans. Objectives This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasma infection and related epidemiological features among healthy blood donors. Materials and Methods A total of 375 blood samples from donors were tested for specific T. gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM by ELISA method, in Blood Transfusion Organization, Zahedan, Iran. Positive samples for T. gondii IgG were further tested for T. gondii IgM. A positive IgG test with a negative or positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic or acute toxoplasmosis case, respectively. Results From the total 375 blood donors, 94 samples (25% were T. gondii IgG positive. No positive cases of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found. The difference between age and presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Other characteristics of blood donors, including male gender, ABO blood groups and having a history of blood transfusion showed no association with infection. Conclusions Our results highlighted that 25% of blood donors were infected by Toxoplasma, prior to the sampling and it can relapse, when facing a decreased immunity level.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii decreases the reproductive fitness in mice.

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    Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a common protozoan parasite that infects warm-blooded animals throughout the world, including mice and humans. During infection, both, the parasite and the host, utilize various mechanisms to maximize their own reproductive success. Mice and humans are both the intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii, which forms specialized vacuoles containing reproductive cysts in the formers' tissue. As half of the human population is infected, developing a disease called toxoplasmosis, along with an ever-growing number of couples suffering with idiopathic infertility, it is therefore surprising that there is a lack of research on how Toxoplasma gondii can alter reproductive parameters. In this study, a detailed histometric screening of the testicular function along with the levels of the pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH were analysed in infected mice. Data on relative testis and epididymis weight, and sperm count were also collected. Based on the results obtained, the level of LH in the urine of Toxoplasma gondii infected mice was lower compared to the control. In direct correlation with the hormone level, testicular function and sperm production was also significantly lower in Toxoplasma gondii positive group using sperm count and histometric analysis as a marker. Not only were the number of leptotene primary spermatocytes and spermatids lowered, but the number of Sertoli cells and the tubule diameter were elevated. In parallel, a pilot epigenetic study on global testicular methylation, and specific methylation of Crem, Creb1 and Hspa1genes essential for successfully ongoing spermatogenesis was performed. Global methylation was elevated in Toxoplasma infected mice, and differences in the DNA methylation of selected genes were detected between the Toxoplasma positive and control group. These findings demonstrate a direct relation between Toxoplasma gondii infection and the decrease of male reproductive fitness in mice, which may

  4. Virus-Like Nanoparticle Vaccine Confers Protection against Toxoplasma gondii

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    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Su Hwa; Kim, Ah Ra; Quan, Fu Shi

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane complex (IMC) of Toxoplasma gondii as a peripheral membrane system has unique and critical roles in parasite replication, motility and invasion. Disruption of IMC sub-compartment protein produces a severe defect in T. gondii endodyogeny, the form of internal cell budding. In this study, we generated T. gondii virus-like particle particles (VLPs) containing proteins derived from IMC, and investigated their efficacy as a vaccine in mice. VLP vaccination induced Toxoplasma gondii-specific total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody responses in the sera and IgA antibody responses in the feces. Upon challenge infection with a lethal dose of T. gondii (ME49), all vaccinated mice survived, whereas all naïve control mice died. Vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced cyst load and cyst size in the brain. VLP vaccination also induced IgA and IgG antibody responses in feces and intestines, and antibody-secreting plasma cells, mixed Th1/Th2 cytokines and CD4+/CD8+ T cells from spleen. Taken together, these results indicate that non-replicating VLPs containing inner membrane complex of T. gondii represent a promising strategy for the development of a safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of Toxoplasma gondii infection. PMID:27548677

  5. Toxoplasma gondii impairs memory in infected seniors.

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    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Almost 30% of humans present a Toxoplasma gondii positive antibody status and its prevalence increases with age. The central nervous system is the main target. However, little is known about the influence of asymptomatic i.e. latent Toxoplasmosis on cognitive functions in humans. To investigate neurocognitive dysfunctions in asymptomatic older adults with T. gondii positive antibody status a double-blinded neuropsychological study was conducted. The participants were classified from a population-based sample (N=131) of healthy participants with an age of 65 years and older into two groups with 42 individuals each: Toxoplasmosis positive (T-pos; IgG>50 IU/ml) and Toxoplasmosis negative (T-neg; IgG=0 IU/ml). The outcome measures were a computer-based working-memory test (2-back) and several standardized psychometric tests of memory and executive cognitive functions. T-pos seniors showed an impairment of different aspects of memory. The rate of correctly detected target symbols in a 2-back task was decreased by nearly 9% (P=0.020), corresponding to a performance reduction of about 35% in working memory relative to the T-neg group. Moreover, T-pos seniors had a lower performance in a verbal memory test, both regarding immediate recall (10% reduction; P=0.022), delayed recognition (6%; P=0.037) and recall from long-term memory assessed by the word fluency tests (12%; P=0.029). In contrast, executive functions were not affected. The effects remained mostly unchanged after controlling for medication. The impairment of memory functions in T-pos seniors was accompanied by a decreased self-reported quality of life. Because of the high prevalence of asymptomatic Toxoplasmosis and an increasing population of older adults this finding is of high relevance for public health.

  6. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis o...

  7. Toxoplasma gondii Ingests and Digests Host Cytosolic Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Zhicheng; McGovern, Olivia L.; Di Cristina, Manlio; Carruthers, Vern B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides within a nonfusogenic vacuole during intracellular replication. Although the limiting membrane of this vacuole provides a protective barrier to acidification and degradation by lysosomal hydrolases, it also physically segregates the parasite from the host cytosol. Accordingly, it has been suggested that T. gondii acquires material from the host via membrane channels or transporters. The ability of the parasite to internalize macromolec...

  8. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Measures, L.; Forbes, L. B.;

    2004-01-01

    changes were observed in all inoculated seals but not in control animals. A modified agglutination test revealed the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in sera collected from inoculated seals and mice inoculated as controls. No evidence of the parasite was found on an extensive histological examination......Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals (Halichoerus grypus) to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral...

  9. Antiretroviral activity of protease inhibitors against Toxoplasma gondii Terapia antiretroviral de inibidores da protease contra Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Lianet Monzote; Marta Rodríguez; Yenisey Alfonso; Raymundo Cox

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has caused a marked reduction in the occurrence and severity of parasitic infections, including the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). These changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity. This study was developed to examine the activity of six antiretroviral protease inhibitors (API) on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. The six API showed anti-Toxoplasma activity, with IC50 value between 1.4 and 6.6 µg/mL. F...

  10. Vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii: new developments and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Chen, Jia; Wang, Meng; Petersen, Eskild; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a major public health problem, infecting one-third of the world human beings, and leads to abortion in domestic animals. A vaccine strategy would be an ideal tool for improving disease control. Many efforts have been made to develop vaccines against T. gondii to reduce oocyst shedding in cats and tissue cyst formation in mammals over the last 20 years, but only a live-attenuated vaccine based on the S48 strain has been licensed for veterinary use. Here, the authors review the recent development of T. gondii vaccines in cats, food-producing animals and mice, and present its future perspectives. However, a single or only a few antigen candidates revealed by various experimental studies are limited by only eliciting partial protective immunity against T. gondii. Future studies of T. gondii vaccines should include as many CTL epitopes as the live attenuated vaccines.

  11. Cytologic diagnosis of toxoplasma gondii lymphadenitis: A case report

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    Hüseyin BALOĞLU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present cytologic features of fine needle aspiration (FNA of lymph node suggesting toxoplasmosis with demonstration of histiocytes containing tissue bradyzoites. A 3-year-old female presented with a mobile, tender, 3 cm diameter swelling in submandibular region. FNA smears showed features of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia with polymorphic cells including groups of histiyocytes. Many epitelioid histiocytes containing intracytoplasmic particules suggesting toxoplasma bradyzoites were also seen in a Papanicolaou -stained smear. Although serologic tests did not reveal a high titer of IgG and IgM-specific antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, the diagnosis of Toxoplasma lymphadenitis was confirmed by demonstrating the sequence specific for toxoplasma genom of the DNA in the material scraped from the stained slides with PCR technique. FNA cytology is a valuable diagnostic tool for toxoplasma lymphadenitis, which especially demonstrates epithelioid histiocytes containing tissue bradyzoites. Although serology may not be supportive, PCR study may confirm the diagnosis.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of birds and mammals. Cats are the only definitive host and thus the only source of infective oocysts, but other mammals and birds can develop tissue cysts. While feline infections are typically asymptomatic, infection during human pregnancy can cause severe disease i...

  13. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is intriguing and indicative of contamination of the ocean environment and coastal waters with oocysts. In previous serological surveys > 90% of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the coasts of Florida, South Carolina, and California had antib...

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in seabirds from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds. Abrolhos is an archipelago of five islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, 56 nautical kilometers from the south coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Part of this archipelago is a Na...

  15. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces behavioral alterations in its hosts including phenotypes increasing the likelihood of its transmission in rodents and reports of psychobehavioral alterations in humans. We have found that elevated levels of dopamine are associated with the encysted stage...

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were...

  17. Toxoplasma gondii in animal reservoirs and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic parasite that is best known as a cause of abortion and abnormalities in newborns if a woman is primary infected during pregnancy, although ocular toxoplasmosis from acquired infection may contribute substantially to the disease burden. Infectious parasites

  18. DNA circles with cruciforms from Isospora (Toxoplasma) gondii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, P.J.; Borst, P.; Overdulve, J.P.; Fase-Fowler, F.; Berg, Marlene van den

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated a closed circular duplex DNA fraction from the unicellular parasite Isospora (Toxoplasma) gondii and examined the purified DNA by electron microscopy. A major part of this circular DNA consists of 12-μm circles containing a cruciform with 0.5-μm tails. We also found 23-μm circles wi

  19. A novel Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzen M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects all types of cells in humans. A family of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, previously identified as important in the development of plants and protists, was recently shown to play a role in the infectivity of apicomplexans, and in motility and host cell invasion in particular. We report here the isolation of a new calcium-dependent protein kinase gene from the human toxoplasmosis parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The gene consists of 12 exons. The encoded protein, TgCDPK4, consists of the four characteristic domains of members of the CDPK family and is most similar to PfCDPK2 from Plasmodium falciparum. We measured TgCDPK4 activity, induced by calcium influx, using a kinase assay. A calcium chelator (EGTA inhibited this activity. These findings provide evidence of signal transduction involving members of the CDPK family in T. gondii.

  20. Human Toxoplasma gondii-specific secretory immunoglobulin A reduces T. gondii infection of enterocytes in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, D G; McLeod, R

    1992-01-01

    Whey from 17 women (four acutely infected with Toxoplasma gondii, eight chronically infected, and five uninfected) was studied. T. gondii-specific secretory IgA antibodies were demonstrated by ELISA in whey from acutely infected and one of eight chronically infected women. Such antibodies to tachyzoite proteins of 100 kD (eliminated by protease but not periodate or neuraminidase treatment) were demonstrated in whey from acutely infected subjects ...

  1. The effect of Toxoplasma cell fractions and mycobacterial immunostimulants against virulent Toxoplasma gondii in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masihi, K N; Brehmer, W; Werner, H

    1979-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were disrupted in a Ribi cell fractionator and separated into cell walls and protoplasm by differential centrifugation. These products were used alone or combined with a mycobacterial glycolipid (P3) and injected either as oil-in-water emulsions or incorporated in Freund's incomplete adjuvant. Mice were vaccinated by intravenous or intradermal routes and challenged intraperitoneally with a highly virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii. A local granuloma formation was induced after i.d. inoculation of Toxoplasma vaccines containing P3 as this glycolipid enabled an adherence of the antigens on the mineral oil droplets. The adjuvant effect of P3 on antibody formation was also observed. Most of the fractions showed a low, but statistically significant prolongation of survival time. Vaccination by the i.v. route with homologous or heterologous antigens, including Trypanosoma cruzi, were not significantly effective, with the exception of a high dose of Toxoplasma protoplasm associated with P3.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  3. Characterization of a New Gene wx2 in Toxoplasma gondii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang WU; Qiong ZHANG; Kui TAN; Ronghua XIE; Jiubo FAN; Hengping SHU; Shiping WANG

    2007-01-01

    Using hybridization techniques, we prepared the monoclonal antibody (Mab) 7C3-C3 against Toxoplasma gondii. The protection tests showed that the protein (Mab7C3-C3) inhibited the invasion and proliferation of T. gondii RH strain in HeLa cells. The passive transfer test indicated that the antibody significantly prolonged the survival time of the challenged mice. It was also shown that the antibody could be used for the detection of the circulating antigen of T. gondii. After immunoscreening the T. gondii tachyzoite cDNA library with Mab7C3-C3, a new gene wx2 of T. gondii was obtained. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the WX2 protein was located on the membrane of the parasite. Nucleotide sequence comparison showed 28% identity to the calcium channel α-1E unit and shared with the surface antigen related sequence in some conservative residues. However, no match was found in protein databases. Therefore, it was an unknown gene in T. gondii encoding a functional protein on the membrane of T. gondii. Because it has been shown to have a partial protective effect against T. gondii infection and is released as a circulating antigen, it could be a candidate molecule for vaccine or a novel target for new drugs.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii coinfection with diseases and parasites in wild rabbits in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3.3 %). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. T. gondii was associated...

  5. Genetic divergence of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with ocular toxoplasmosis, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Asis; Jordan, Catherine; Muccioli, Cristina; Vallochi, Adriana L; Rizzo, Luiz V; Belfort, Jr, Rubens; Vitor, Ricardo W A; Silveira, Claudio; Sibley, L David

    2006-01-01

    .... To identify the genotypes of parasite strains associated with ocular disease, we compared 25 clinical and animal isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazil to previously characterized clonal lineages...

  6. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda.

  7. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyu; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda. © H. Ma et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Bird Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Zia-Ali

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in a variety of domestic birds is thought as a good indicator of distribution of T.gondii ooccyts in the environment. To verify the potential role of domestic birds in circulating toxoplasmosis in Iran, the present study was conducted in Mazandaran Provinces, northern Iran. Latex agglutination test (LA antibodies were found in 25 of 58 free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus and ducks (Anas sp.. Also, viable T. gondii was isolated from 7 of 25 seropositive chickens and ducks by bioassay of their brains and hearts into mice. Most of the isolated strains were avirulant to mice. Genotyping of T.gondii isolates using Multiplex PCR for 5 microsatellite markers indicated that 7 isolates were type III. In this study type II and III isolates and mixed genotypes were not found. This study showed that domestic birds could have a potential role in transmitting toxoplasmosis to humans in Iran.

  9. Outbreak of caprine abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Bravim Caldeira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in goats on a farm in the Brazilian Midwest is reported. Gross lesions were not observed in seven aborted fetuses submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Mato Grosso, for necropsy investigation. The main histologic lesions were mononuclear cell pneumonia and necrotizing encephalitis in varying degrees of intensity. PCR for Brucella abortus and Neospora caninum and aerobic cultures were negative in all cases. Antibody titles against T. gondii varying from 1:1024 to 1:32.768 were detected in serum samples from four aborted goats. Nested-PCR assay for T. gondii were positive in brain samples of all cases submitted. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection should be considered in the diagnosis of abortion in goats in Midwest Brazil.

  10. Is Toxoplasma gondii a Trigger of Bipolar Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Del Grande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous intracellular parasite, has a strong tropism for the brain tissue, where it forms intracellular cysts within the neurons and glial cells, establishing a chronic infection. Although latent toxoplasmosis is generally assumed to be asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals, it is now clear that it can induce behavioral manipulations in mice and infected humans. Moreover, a strong relation has emerged in recent years between toxoplasmosis and psychiatric disorders. The link between T. gondii and schizophrenia has been the most widely documented; however, a significant association with bipolar disorder (BD and suicidal/aggressive behaviors has also been detected. T. gondii may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric disorders affecting neurotransmitters, especially dopamine, that are implicated in the emergence of psychosis and behavioral Toxoplasma-induced abnormalities, and inducing brain inflammation by the direct stimulation of inflammatory cytokines in the central nervous system. Besides this, there is increasing evidence for a prominent role of immune dysregulation in psychosis and BD. The aim of this review is to describe recent evidence suggesting a link between Toxoplasma gondii and BD, focusing on the interaction between immune responses and this infectious agent in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms.

  11. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is one of the diseases comprising the TORCH [ Toxoplasma gondii , Rubella virus , Cytomegalovirus , Herpes simplex virus] infections . It is known to cause perinatal death if the organism is acquired during pregnancy . Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can cause congenital infection which may result in mental retardation and blindness in the infant . The present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and it i s associated risk facto rs among the women with history of spontaneous abortion . MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 60 women with past or present history of spontaneous abortion and another 60 pregnant women without any bad obstetric history as control attending our hospital were in cluded in the study . All the serum samples were tested for the presence of specific Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies using the On Site Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test strip , a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay . RESULTS: Total seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the study was 12 . 5% . Total seropositivity in women with history of spontaneous abortion was 12 ( 20% and 3 ( 5% among control group . More number of seropositivity was observed among women between 26 to 30 years ( 60% . Risk factor of having cat a s pet animal had greater association of getting toxoplasmosis . CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly high in the study population than in control group . There should be routine screening for antenatal wo men with bad obstetric history .

  12. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Ethiopian feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Choudhary, S; Tilahun, G; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Zou, X; Su, C

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies indicate greater genetic variability among isolates of Toxoplasma gondii worldwide than previously thought. However, there is no information on genetic diversity of T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. In the present study, genotyping was performed on viable T. gondii isolates by bioassays in mice from tissues and feces of 27 cats from Ethiopia. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of 26 cats, feces alone of 1 cat, and feces and tissues of 6 cats; in total there were 33 isolates. Genotyping was performed on DNA from cell-cultured derived T. gondii tachyzoites and by using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Four genotypes were recognized, including ToxoDB #1 (Type II clonal, nine isolates), ToxoDB #2 (Type III, five isolates), Toxo DB #3 (Type II variant, ten isolates), and ToxoDB #20 (nine isolates). Of interest is the isolation of different genotypes from tissues and feces of two cats, suggesting re-infection or mixed strain T. gondii infection. These findings are of epidemiological significance with respect to shedding of oocysts by cats. This is the first report of genotyping of T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazilian Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jamille Rodrigues; Maciel, Bianca Mendes; de Santana Souza Santos, Luana Karla Nogueira; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; de Santana Rocha, Daniele; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Albuquerque, George Rêgo

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil are highly genetically diverse compared to strains from North America and Europe. Dogs are epidemiologically important because they act as sentinels for T. gondii infections in humans and are good indicators of environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to isolate and genetically characterize T. gondii strains from tissues of naturally infected Brazilian dogs. For this study, 21 blood samples were collected from dogs at the Zoonosis Control Centers of Ilhéus and Itabuna cities, Bahia, Brazil. The sera were examined for T. gondii antibodies using the indirect hemagglutination test. Brains and hearts of seropositive dogs were bioassayed in mice to isolate and characterize T. gondii parasites by PCR-RFLP using 10 genetic markers (SAG1, newSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c22-8, c29-2, GRA6, PK1, APICO, and L358). However, T. gondii was isolated from only 4 (57.1%) dogs, designated TgDgBr6, 13, 17, and 21. All strains were virulent, causing clinical changes (rough hair coat, lethargy, and abdominal distention) and the death of all mice within 8–20 days after inoculation. Genetic analysis of these 4 T. gondii isolates revealed 4 distinct genotypes with different clonal lineage combinations (types I, II, and III) and 2 atypical alleles. Using PCR-RFLP with several markers, this study contributes to evaluations of the genetic diversity of strains circulating in Brazil. PMID:28719948

  14. Antiretroviral activity of protease inhibitors against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has caused a marked reduction in the occurrence and severity of parasitic infections, including the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. These changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity. This study was developed to examine the activity of six antiretroviral protease inhibitors (API on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. The six API showed anti-Toxoplasma activity, with IC50 value between 1.4 and 6.6 µg/mL. Further studies at the molecular level should be performed to clarify if the use of API could be beneficial or not for AIDS patients with TE.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  16. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-05-28

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has been improved by the emergence of molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques have been useful for the genetic characterization of T. gondii. Serotyping methods based on polymorphic polypeptides have the potential to become the choice for typing T. gondii in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize conventional non-DNA-based diagnostic methods, and the DNA-based molecular techniques for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii. These techniques have provided foundations for further development of more effective and accurate detection of T. gondii infection. These advances will contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemiology, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals from New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqueplo C.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples (serum or meat juice collected from 205 animals in New Caledonia in April 2009 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA using the multi-species ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDVET, Montpellier. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 2% (1/49 of the pigs, in 3.3% (1/30 of the cattle, in 13.8% (4/29 of Rusa deers, in 16% (4/25 of the horses, in 32.8% (21/64 of the dogs, and in 50% (4/8 of cats. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and age or sex. No survey on the prevalence of T. gondii in animals has ever been conducted in New Caledonia and this is the first serological evidence of T. gondii in Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa. These results indicate an important circulation of T. gondii exists in the animal populations of New Caledonia. In view of humans being exposed, it is advisable to insist on sanitary education and on respect for good hygienic and food practice.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals from New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqueplo, C; Halos, L; Cabre, O; Davoust, B

    2011-11-01

    Samples (serum or meat juice) collected from 205 animals in New Caledonia in April 2009 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA using the multi-species ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDVET, Montpellier). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 2% (1/49) of the pigs, in 3.3% (1/30) of the cattle, in 13.8% (4/29) of Rusa deers, in 16% (4/25) of the horses, in 32.8% (21/64) of the dogs, and in 50% (4/8) of cats. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and age or sex. No survey on the prevalence of T. gondii in animals has ever been conducted in New Caledonia and this is the first serological evidence of T. gondii in Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa). These results indicate an important circulation of T. gondii exists in the animal populations of New Caledonia. In view of humans being exposed, it is advisable to insist on sanitary education and on respect for good hygienic and food practice.

  19. Global Analysis of Palmitoylated Proteins in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foe, Ian T; Child, Matthew A; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Krishnamurthy, Shruthi; van der Linden, Wouter A; Ward, Gary E; Martin, Brent R; Bogyo, Matthew

    2015-10-14

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as palmitoylation are critical for the lytic cycle of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. While palmitoylation is involved in invasion, motility, and cell morphology, the proteins that utilize this PTM remain largely unknown. Using a chemical proteomic approach, we report a comprehensive analysis of palmitoylated proteins in T. gondii, identifying a total of 282 proteins, including cytosolic, membrane-associated, and transmembrane proteins. From this large set of palmitoylated targets, we validate palmitoylation of proteins involved in motility (myosin light chain 1, myosin A), cell morphology (PhIL1), and host cell invasion (apical membrane antigen 1, AMA1). Further studies reveal that blocking AMA1 palmitoylation enhances the release of AMA1 and other invasion-related proteins from apical secretory organelles, suggesting a previously unrecognized role for AMA1. These findings suggest that palmitoylation is ubiquitous throughout the T. gondii proteome and reveal insights into the biology of this important human pathogen.

  20. GITR Activation Positively Regulates Immune Responses against Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Frederico R. C.; Mota, Caroline M.; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Silva, Murilo V.; Ferreira, Marcela D.; Fonseca, Denise M.; Silva, João S.; Mineo, José R.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasite responsible for causing clinical diseases especially in pregnant and immunosuppressed individuals. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR), which is also known as TNFRS18 and belongs to the TNF receptor superfamily, is found to be expressed in various cell types of the immune system and provides an important costimulatory signal for T cells and myeloid cells. However, the precise role of this receptor in the context of T. gondii infection remains elusive. Therefore, the current study investigated the role of GITR activation in the immunoregulation mechanisms induced during the experimental infection of mice with T. gondii. Our data show that T. gondii infection slightly upregulates GITR expression in Treg cells and B cells, but the most robust increment in expression was observed in macrophages and dendritic cells. Interestingly, mice infected and treated with an agonistic antibody anti-GITR (DTA-1) presented a robust increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production at preferential sites of parasite replication, which was associated with the decrease in latent brain parasitism of mice under treatment with DTA-1. Several in vivo and in vitro analysis were performed to identify the cellular mechanisms involved in GITR activation upon infection, however no clear alterations were detected in the phenotype/function of macrophages, Tregs and B cells under treatment with DTA-1. Therefore, GITR appears as a potential target for intervention during infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, even though further studies are still necessary to better characterize the immune response triggered by GITR activation during T. gondii infection. PMID:27027302

  1. Toxoplasma gondii in women with recent abortion from Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Beatriz Hernández-Cortazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the presence, parasite burden, percentage of avidity and risk factors to seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in women with recent abortion attended at the two main hospitals from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Methods: Seroprevalence and IgG avidity were estimated from 161 blood samples from aborting women and risk factors associated with serological status were determined. Only 130 from 161 samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR and a nested-PCR (nPCR to detect T. gondii-DNA. Results: Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma IgM and IgG was 3.72% (6/161 and 59.00% (95/161, respectively; 98.94% (94/95 of the women showed high-avidity index and only 1.05% (1/95 demonstrated low-avidity. For qPCR, 3.84% (5/130 of the samples were detected with T. gondii-DNA and all positive samples showed a low parasite load (< 1 parasite/mL. For nPCR, 6.92% (9/130 of positivity was found. Logistic regression analysis showed a positive association between IgG-seropositivity and potable-drinking-water intake in households (P < 0.020, odds ratio = 11.62, 95% confidence interval = 0.011–0.683. Conclusions: In this study, the detection of T. gondii-DNA in IgG-positive women suggests in some cases active parasitemia, even when they demonstrated high-avidity index. Reinfection cases could be presented due to the high circulation of the parasite in the study region. T. gondii could play an important role as cause of abortion and municipal potable-water could be an important risk factor of infection.

  2. Antiretroviral activity of protease inhibitors against Toxoplasma gondii Terapia antiretroviral de inibidores da protease contra Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has caused a marked reduction in the occurrence and severity of parasitic infections, including the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. These changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity. This study was developed to examine the activity of six antiretroviral protease inhibitors (API on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. The six API showed anti-Toxoplasma activity, with IC50 value between 1.4 and 6.6 µg/mL. Further studies at the molecular level should be performed to clarify if the use of API could be beneficial or not for AIDS patients with TE.La introducción de la terapia antirretroviral de alta efectividad ha causada una marcada reducción en la ocurrencia y curso clínico de las infecciones parasitarias, incluyendo la toxoplasmosis encefálica (TE. Estos cambios han sido atribuidos a la restauración celular. Este estudio fue desarrollado para examinar la actividad de seis inhibidores de proteasas antirretrovirales (IPA sobre taquizoitos de Toxoplasma gondii. Los seis IPA mostraron actividad anti-Toxoplasma, con valores de CI50 entre 1.4 y 6.6 µg/mL. Futuros estudios a nivel molecular deben ser realizados, los cuales podrán delucidar si el uso de IPA pudiera beneficiar o no a los pacientes que sufren de TE.

  3. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in naturally infected sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Rocha, D; de Sousa Moura, R L; Maciel, B M; Guimarães, L A; O'dwyer, H N S; Munhoz, A D; Albuquerque, G R

    2015-07-31

    The objective of this study was to verify whether Toxoplasma gondii is excreted in the milk of naturally infected sheep. In order to accomplish this, 275 lactating ewes were used; these were bred extensively in 17 estates distributed across nine cities. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was used to detect T. gondii DNA in milk samples, and the indirect immunofluorescence test was employed for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in the sera, with a cut-off value of 1:64. It was possible to verify the presence of the parasite DNA in 6.5% (18/275) of the studied animals. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in 41.5% of the animals studied (114/275). There was no correlation between parasite excretion in milk and the presence of IgG in 38.9% of the studied animals (7/18). The high seropositivity and the presence of parasite DNA in the milk led to the conclusion that T. gondii infection is present in the sheep population in southern and southwestern Bahia, and that there is a risk of the human population becoming infected due to the consumption of raw, in natura milk.

  4. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

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    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  5. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neosport caninum antibodies in Spanish ibex (Capra pryenaica hispanica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild felids are considered important in maintaining the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Although, T. gondii antibodies have been reported in several species of wild felids, little is known of the epidemiology and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild cats. The Iberian lynx (L...

  6. TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN DOGS FROM GRENADA, WEST INDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are structurally similar parasites with many common hosts. The prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum was determined in sera from dogs in Grenada, West Indies. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 52 (48.5%) o...

  7. Use of filter papers to determine seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among hunted ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, and it is found worldwide. To determine whether ungulates are reservoirs of T. gondii in an isolated and remote region of the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 5 species of ungulates by the...

  8. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  9. Isolation and genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii from striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is of interest because of mortality and mode of transmission. It has been suggested that marine mammals become infected with T. gondii oocysts washed from land to the sea. We report the isolation and genetic characterization of viable T. gondii from a st...

  10. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Mexico. Here, we investigated antibodies to T. gondii and associated risk factors in 101 dogs from an animal shelter in Veracruz State, Mexico. Canine sera were assayed for T. gondii IgG antibodies by using the modif...

  11. Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis domesticus) Reveals Predominance of Type II Infections in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cats are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii and play an essential role in the epidemiology of this parasite. The study aims at clarifying whether cats are able to develop specific antibodies against different clonal types of T. gondii and to determine by serotyping the T. gondii clona...

  12. A brief history and overview of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, E A

    2010-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was discovered by scientists working in North Africa and Brazil around 100 years ago. The parasite has since been found to be capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals including humans making it one of the most successful parasitic organisms worldwide. The pathogenic potential of T. gondii was recognized in the 1920s and 1930s, in congenitally infected children presenting with the classic triad of symptoms, namely hydrocephalus, retinochoroiditis and encephalitis. In addition, around the same time T. gondii parasites were found to be associated with severe intraocular inflammation. In the 1980s, T. gondii emerged as a major cause of death in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, illustrating the importance of the immune system in controlling T. gondii infection. T. gondii was reported as a major cause of abortion in sheep in New Zealand in the 1950s, which raised questions about potential new transmission routes for the parasite. The discovery of the cat as the definitive host in the 1960s was a very important finding as it helped to complete our understanding of the parasite's life cycle, and the oocyst stage of T. gondii shed in the faeces of infected cats was found to be an important source of infection for many intermediate hosts and helped to explain infection in herbivorous animals and people with a vegetarian diet. In addition, this stage of the parasite was very robust and could survive in the environment, depending on the climatic conditions, for up to 12-18 months. Knowledge of the parasite's life cycle, transmission routes, risk groups and host immune responses has helped in the development of strategies to control the disease, reduce transmission of the parasite and limit environmental contamination.

  13. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN DOGS AND CATS

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    Faiz Ahmad, Azhar Maqbool, Ashar Mahfooz and Sikandar Hayat

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey for Toxoplasma gondii in dogs (n=40 and cats (n= 10 was conducted by using a Latex agglutination test (LAT. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in canines was 50%. Out of total 9 dogs were found seropositive at 1:256, giving an evidence of presence of infection. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in canines was inversely related to the age i.e., 52% at 6 months and 33.33% at 4 years of age. Little variation in seropositivity was observed between males (57.89% and females (42.85% or between exotic (46.15% and local (57.14% breeds. However, tremendous variation in seropositivity was found between stray dogs (78.57% and pet dogs (34.61 % and between dogs having close contact with cats (50% and without contact {16.16%. Out of the tested bitches, 66.66% were seropositive, mostly at I: 16 indicating residual immunity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats was 60%, three at screening dilution of 1:256, suggesting recent exposure to Toxoplasma. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats was directly related to age. A significant difference in seropositivity was observed between stray cats (66.66% and indoor cats (57.14% and between females (70% and males (40%.The seropositive rate in local breeds of cats was high (66.66% as compared with exotic (50%. This test might give false positive results due to interfering factors (rheumatoid factor and IgG class antibodies. So it is not a "Gold standard" test for the concrete diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii Ingests and Digests Host Cytosolic Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Zhicheng; McGovern, Olivia L.; Di Cristina, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii resides within a nonfusogenic vacuole during intracellular replication. Although the limiting membrane of this vacuole provides a protective barrier to acidification and degradation by lysosomal hydrolases, it also physically segregates the parasite from the host cytosol. Accordingly, it has been suggested that T. gondii acquires material from the host via membrane channels or transporters. The ability of the parasite to internalize macromolecules via endocytosis during intracellular replication has not been tested. Here, we show that Toxoplasma ingests host cytosolic proteins and digests them using cathepsin L and other proteases within its endolysosomal system. Ingestion was reduced in mutant parasites lacking an intravacuolar network of tubular membranes, implicating this apparatus as a possible conduit for trafficking to the parasite. Genetic ablation of proteins involved in the pathway is associated with diminished parasite replication and virulence attenuation. We show that both virulent type I and avirulent type II strain parasites ingest and digest host-derived protein, indicating that the pathway is not restricted to highly virulent strains. The findings provide the first definitive evidence that T. gondii internalizes proteins from the host during intracellular residence and suggest that protein digestion within the endolysosomal system of the parasite contributes to toxoplasmosis. PMID:25028423

  15. Experimental Toxoplasma gondii oocyst infections in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangoura, B; Zöller, B; Koethe, M; Ludewig, M; Pott, S; Fehlhaber, K; Straubinger, R K; Daugschies, A

    2013-09-23

    Toxoplasma (T.) gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad range of intermediate hosts. Humans are often infected by ingestion of tissue cysts in raw or undercooked meat or meat products. Turkeys as food-producing animals can also serve as intermediate hosts. The aim of the present study was to investigate occurrence and predilection sites of T. gondii infection in turkeys after oral infection with oocysts. Experimental infections with different doses of T. gondii oocysts were performed in 36 turkeys to mimic natural infection. Systemic distribution of parasitic stages was investigated by screening 14 different tissues including the edible tissues heart, liver, thigh, breast and drumstick muscle. Parasite detection was based on a conventional nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Animals were sacrificed 6-12 weeks after infection. Results demonstrated parasite spreading over the whole organism after oral infection by oocysts. Most frequently affected tissues were brain (47.2% of all brains were positive for T. gondii) and thigh muscle (25.0% positive samples). Other muscles were regularly T. gondii-positive, all other sampled tissues were positive at least once. Thus, edible tissues are one of the predilection sites of T. gondii in turkeys which renders raw or undercooked turkey meat a potential risk for parasite transmission to humans. Data were compared to results from previous parenteral turkey infections with tachyzoites. With the exception of brain, liver and breast muscle affection, no significant differences were observed between both infection routes. Both infection models could be used for research purposes with certain advantages and disadvantages.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii aspartic protease 1 is not essential in tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonais, Valerie; Shea, Michael; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Aspartic proteases are important virulence factors for pathogens and are recognized as attractive drug targets. Seven aspartic proteases (ASPs) have been identified in Toxoplasma gondii genome. Bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses regroup them into five monophyletic groups. Among them, TgASP1, a coccidian specific aspartic protease related to the food vacuole plasmepsins, is associated with the secretory pathway in non-dividing cells and relocalizes in close proximity to the nascent inner membrane complex (IMC) of daughter cells during replication. Despite a potential role for TgASP1 in IMC formation, the generation of a conventional knockout of the TgASP1 gene revealed that this protease is not required for T. gondii tachyzoite survival or for proper IMC biogenesis.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii, “new” genotypes and virulence

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    Dardé M.L.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has been described as a parasite with a low genetic diversity and a clonal population structure. The three main clonal lineages designated as type I, II or III largely predominate in Europe and North America. But strains not related to these main lineages circulate, notably, in other continents. They possess a shuffled combination of alleles that typify the three clonal types and unique polymorphisms detected by multilocus analysis. The population structure of Toxoplasma in these continents is also characterized by a higher genetic diversity associated with a lower linkage desequilibrium suggesting a role for genetic exchange. Due to their genomic diversity, it is difficult to draw global conclusions about their virulence. However, most of them are virulent in mice at isolation. Several reports also suggest a higher pathogenicity in humans and an association with ocular toxoplasmosis or severe cases of acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients.

  18. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in Brazilian oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L A; Santos, L K N S S; Brito, P A; Maciel, B M; Da Silva, A V; Albuquerque, G R

    2015-05-04

    The aim of this study was to detect evidence of Toxoplasma gondii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) obtained from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 624 oysters were collected, and the gills and digestive glands were dissected. Each tissue sample was separated into pools containing tissues (of the same type) from three animals, leading to a total of 416 experimental samples for analysis (208 samples each from the gills and digestive glands). Molecular analysis using PCR-based detection of the T. gondii AF 146527 repetitive fragment yielded negative results for all samples. However, when nested-PCR was used for detection of the T. gondii SAG-1 gene, 17 samples were positive, with the gills being the tissue with maximal detection of the parasite. These positive results were confirmed by sample sequencing. It is therefore suggested that C. rhizophorae oysters are capable of filtering and retaining T. gondii oocysts in their tissue. This represents a risk to public health because they are traditionally ingested in natura.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, Sonia; Behnke, Jerzy; Sharma, Aarti; Abu-Madi, Marawan

    2017-01-18

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii as they can shed the environmentally resistant oocysts after acquiring infection. Human populations living in cities with high densities of feral cats are therefore likely to be at risk of infection. The current study is the first to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the feral cat population in Qatar. We investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 495 adult cats from urban and suburban districts in Qatar. Using results from the Modified Agglutination Test, we fitted statistical models with host sex, area and season as explanatory factors and seropositivity as the outcome. The analysis revealed an overall seroprevalence of 82%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the summer season (P = 0.006). No significant difference was detected (P > 0.05) between seroprevalence in female and male cats and in cats from urban and suburban districts of Qatar. Despite the seasonal difference, the observed seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests high environmental contamination throughout the year, with some female cats generating more intense responses compared to males. Both findings merit further investigations.

  20. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Lauren E.; Bosch, Jürgen, E-mail: jbosch@jhu.edu [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2014-08-29

    The structure of T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, a glycolytic enzyme and structural component of the invasion machinery, was determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-@@bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been described previously. Here, T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase has been crystallized in space group P22{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with the biologically relevant tetramer in the asymmetric unit, and the structure has been determined via molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.0 Å. An analysis of the quality of the model and of the differences between the four chains in the asymmetric unit and a comparison between the T. gondii and P. falciparum aldolase structures is presented.

  1. Serologic survey for Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, R L; Dubey, J P; Kwok, O C; Ver Hoef, J M

    1997-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 892 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alaska (USA) from 1973 to 1987. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the modified agglutination test. Two hundred twenty sera (25%) had titers > or = 25, the minimum threshold titer. Six hundred seventy-two sera (75%) had titers < 25. Antibody prevalence ranged from 9% (18 positive of 196 tested) in southern areas to 37% (162 of 433 tested) in northern areas. There was no readily apparent explanation for these discrepancies in location-specific prevalence.

  2. A novel multifunctional oligonucleotide microarray for Toxoplasma gondii

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    Chen Feng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are invaluable tools for genome interrogation, SNP detection, and expression analysis, among other applications. Such broad capabilities would be of value to many pathogen research communities, although the development and use of genome-scale microarrays is often a costly undertaking. Therefore, effective methods for reducing unnecessary probes while maintaining or expanding functionality would be relevant to many investigators. Results Taking advantage of available genome sequences and annotation for Toxoplasma gondii (a pathogenic parasite responsible for illness in immunocompromised individuals and Plasmodium falciparum (a related parasite responsible for severe human malaria, we designed a single oligonucleotide microarray capable of supporting a wide range of applications at relatively low cost, including genome-wide expression profiling for Toxoplasma, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genotyping of both T. gondii and P. falciparum. Expression profiling of the three clonotypic lineages dominating T. gondii populations in North America and Europe provides a first comprehensive view of the parasite transcriptome, revealing that ~49% of all annotated genes are expressed in parasite tachyzoites (the acutely lytic stage responsible for pathogenesis and 26% of genes are differentially expressed among strains. A novel design utilizing few probes provided high confidence genotyping, used here to resolve recombination points in the clonal progeny of sexual crosses. Recent sequencing of additional T. gondii isolates identifies >620 K new SNPs, including ~11 K that intersect with expression profiling probes, yielding additional markers for genotyping studies, and further validating the utility of a combined expression profiling/genotyping array design. Additional applications facilitating SNP and transcript discovery, alternative statistical methods for quantifying gene expression, etc. are also pursued at

  3. Toxoplasma gondii gamma irradiation using Co-60; Irradiacao do Toxoplasma gondii com gama do {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia Animal; Maliska, Carmelindo [Hospital Central do Exercito, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear; Norberg, Antonio Neres [Instituto de Biologia do Exercito (IBEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    The use of nuclear power through radiation for the destruction of microorganisms which cause food deterioration, infections and toxicosis, is specifically for peaceful purposes. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa responsible for illnesses in humans and animals. One of the most common ways of transmission is through raw or poorly cooked meat. There is little information on the resistance of T. gondii to radiation. The objective of this research is to determine the Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD) of gamma radiation for those microorganisms. Suspensions of T. gondii containing approximately one million taquizoites/ml were irradiated with doses between up 0,01 up to 0,15 kGy (Kilogray) and inoculated to mice. The surviving T. gondii were re-irradiated with 0,01 up to 0,16 kGy. The irradiated protozoa were totally destroyed with a 0,15 kGy dose (MLD). Taquizoites issued from live protozoa of 0,14 kGy also were completely destroyed with dose of 0,15 kGy. No increase in resistance was observed regarding the non irradiated protozoa. (author)

  4. Human Toxoplasma gondii-specific secretory immunoglobulin A reduces T. gondii infection of enterocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, D G; McLeod, R

    1992-12-01

    Whey from 17 women (four acutely infected with Toxoplasma gondii, eight chronically infected, and five uninfected) was studied. T. gondii-specific secretory IgA antibodies were demonstrated by ELISA in whey from acutely infected and one of eight chronically infected women. Such antibodies to tachyzoite proteins of 100 kD (eliminated by protease but not periodate or neuraminidase treatment) were demonstrated in whey from acutely infected subjects when Western blots were probed with their whey and antibodies to human secretory IgA or IgA or secretory piece. Secretory IgA from four of eight chronically infected women recognized the 46- and 69-kD epitopes. Other whey samples were negative. Incubation of T. gondii tachyzoites with whey or purified secretory IgA from acutely infected (but not seronegative) women caused 50-75% reduction in infection of enterocytes in vitro. Whey reactive with the 46-kD epitope from three of six chronically infected women caused less (> or = 40%) inhibition. Whey and purified secretory IgA from two of three acutely infected women agglutinated tachyzoites. Whey did not result in complement-dependent lysis of T. gondii. These results indicate that it may be possible to produce human secretory IgA to T. gondii capable of reducing initial infection of enterocytes, as such IgA is present during natural infection. They also demonstrate candidate epitopes for such protection.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii coinfection with diseases and parasites in wild rabbits in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sam; Dubey, J P; Smith, Judith E; Boag, Brian

    2015-09-01

    In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3·3%). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. Toxoplasma gondii was associated with female sex (P myxomatosis caused by the virus Myxomatosis cuniculi, the intensity of roundworm eggs, the year or season, rabbit age or distance from farm buildings. Coinfections could have been affected by gestational down regulation of type 1 T helper cells. A sudden influx or release of T. gondii oocysts might have occurred. This is the first report of T. gondii in any wild herbivore in Scotland and also the first report of lapine T. gondii as a coinfection with E. stiedae, M. cuniculi and helminths.

  6. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in Alaska wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieve, Erica; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Kania, Stephen A; Widner, Amanda; Patton, Sharon

    2010-04-01

    Free-ranging caribou and moose populations in some regions of Alaska undergo periodic declines in numbers. Caribou and moose are managed by the state as valuable resources for not only sustenance and subsistence, but also for cultural heritage. Incidence and prevalence of diseases that may impact herd health and recruitment from year to year are relevant to management decisions aimed to protect the long-term viability of these herds. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two apicomplexan parasites that can cause neurologic disease and abortions in their intermediate hosts and less frequently cause disease in their definitive hosts. The definitive hosts of N. caninum and T. gondii are canids and felids, respectively, and prevalence in the environment is in part dependent on maintenance of the life cycle through the definitive hosts. Serum samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus, n=453), wolf (Canis lupus, n=324), moose (Alces alces, n=201), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus, n=55), coyote (Canis latrans, n=12), and fox (Vulpes vulpes, n=9) collected in Alaska were assayed for N. caninum- and T. gondii-reactive antibodies with an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Seroprevalence of N. caninum was greater in caribou (11.5%) than in wolves (9.0%), moose (0.5%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii was greater in wolves (17.8%) than in caribou (0.4%), moose (0%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii were 16.7% and 0.0% in coyotes and 0.0% and 12.5% in fox, but small sample sizes prevented further analysis. Antibodies to N. caninum in young caribou compared to adult caribou suggest that vertical transmission may be an important component of new infections in Alaskan caribou. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive individuals across Alaska may reflect differences in frequency of definitive hosts and alteration of predation patterns among regions.

  7. Biological Assay of Toxoplasma gondii Egyptian Mutton Isolates

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    N.A. Hassanain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutton signifies one of the most prevalent sources for human toxoplasmosis. However, sheep serological assays don't categorize the virulent strains initiating antibodies, so the biological bioassay of Egyptian mutton isolates with reference to their pathogenicity in both mice and kittens were done in this study for indicating to how extent their zoonotic bio-hazard. A total number of 280 of each sheep blood and tissue samples were collected during slaughtering at Cairo abattoir, Egypt. Sera assayed using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT and immunosorbant assay (ELISA and their corresponding mutton samples were microscopically examined after pepsin digestion for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection. The sero-positive percent of the naturally infected sheep was 50.4 and 61.4 by LAT and ELISA, respectively, 47.9% of samples were confirmedly positive in both LAT and ELISA results. The microscopical examination revealed that only 28 out of 134 (20.9% of the confirmed sero-positive animals by both tests were found harboring T. gondii tissue cysts in their mutton samples, while high percentage of confirmed sero-positve animals (79.1% (106 out of 134 were biologically tissue cysts free mutton. Biological typing of the 28 T. gondii sheep isolates with reference to mice and kittens' bioassay indicated that 10.7, 50, 21.4 and 17.9% were type I, II, III and avirulent strains, respectively. The high T. gondii infection rate resulted in this study concludes that the feeding of under cooked mutton is a bad health habit as a source for human toxoplasmosis moreover; the T. gondii virulent strains obtained by mutton bioassay indicated that not all sero-positive sheep are connecting zoonotic bio-hazard through their mutton strains.

  8. The Toxoplasma gondii Rhoptry Kinome Is Essential for Chronic Infection

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    Barbara A. Fox

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes an acute infection that leads to chronic infection of the host. To facilitate the acute phase of the infection, T. gondii manipulates the host response by secreting rhoptry organelle proteins (ROPs into host cells during its invasion. A few key ROP proteins with signatures of kinases or pseudokinases (ROPKs act as virulence factors that enhance parasite survival against host gamma interferon-stimulated innate immunity. However, the roles of these and other ROPK proteins in establishing chronic infection have not been tested. Here, we deleted 26 ROPK gene loci encoding 31 unique ROPK proteins of type II T. gondii and show that numerous ROPK proteins influence the development of chronic infection. Cyst burdens were increased in the Δrop16 knockout strain or moderately reduced in 11 ROPK knockout strains. In contrast, deletion of ROP5, ROP17, ROP18, ROP35, or ROP38/29/19 (ROP38, ROP29, and ROP19 severely reduced cyst burdens. Δrop5 and Δrop18 knockout strains were less resistant to host immunity-related GTPases (IRGs and exhibited >100-fold-reduced virulence. ROP18 kinase activity and association with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane were necessary for resistance to host IRGs. The Δrop17 strain exhibited a >12-fold defect in virulence; however, virulence was not affected in the Δrop35 or Δrop38/29/19 strain. Resistance to host IRGs was not affected in the Δrop17, Δrop35, or Δrop38/29/19 strain. Collectively, these findings provide the first definitive evidence that the type II T. gondii ROPK proteome functions as virulence factors and facilitates additional mechanisms of host manipulation that are essential for chronic infection and transmission of T. gondii.

  9. Pyrimidinergic Receptor Activation Controls Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Macrophages.

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    Aline Cristina Abreu Moreira-Souza

    Full Text Available Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent worldwide and may have serious clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects almost any cell type in mammalian hosts, including immune cells. The immune cells express purinergic P2 receptors in their membrane--subdivided into P2Y and P2X subfamilies--whose activation is important for infection control. Here, we examined the effect of treatment with UTP and UDP in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with T. gondii tachyzoites. Treatment with these nucleotides reduced parasitic load by 90%, but did not increase the levels of the inflammatory mediators NO and ROS, nor did it modulate host cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, UTP and UDP treatments induced early egress of tachyzoites from infected macrophages, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, as shown by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and videomicroscopy. In subsequent infections, prematurely egressed parasites had reduced infectivity, and could neither replicate nor inhibit the fusion of lysosomes to the parasitophorous vacuole. The use of selective agonists and antagonists of the receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2Y4 and P2Y6 showed that premature parasite egress may be mediated by the activation of these receptor subtypes. Our results suggest that the activity of P2Y host cell receptors controls T. gondii infection in macrophages, highlighting the importance of pyrimidinergic signaling for innate immune system response against infection. Finally the P2Y receptors should be considered as new target for the development of drugs against T. gondii infection.

  10. Cloning of cDNA Encoding GRA1 Protein of Tachyzoite Toxoplasma Gondii Local Isolate

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    Erma Sulistyaningsih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene encoding GRA1 protein is potent DNA-vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. The aim of the researchwas to clone the gene encoding GRA1 protein of tachyzoite Toxoplasma gondii local isolate by DNA recombinanttechnology. Tachyzoite was grown in Balb/c mice in vivo. Messenger RNA was isolated from total RNA and itwas used to synthesis cDNA. Complementary DNA encoding GRA1 protein of tachyzoite Toxoplasma gondii localisolate was amplified and cloned in a prokaryote cloning vector. The recombinant GRA1-encoding gene was thendigesting using EcoRI restriction endonuclease and sequencing. The result showed that the recombinant GRA1-encoding gene consisted of DNA sequences encoding all signal peptide and mature peptide of GRA1 protein.Alignment of recombinant GRA1 sequence to gene encoding GRA1 protein of Toxoplasma gondii RH isolate showed100% homologous.Keywords: GRA1 protein, Toxoplasma gondii, tachyzoite, cloning, cDNA

  11. Literature Reference for Toxoplasma gondii (Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2004. 70(7): 4035–4039)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of water samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate and liquid samples. The method uses real-time PCR assay for detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA using gene-specific primers and probe.

  12. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  13. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  14. The Effect of Toxoplasma gondii on Animal Behavior: Playing Cat and Mouse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webster, Joanne P

    2007-01-01

    A convincing body of evidence now exists to indicate that the ubiquitous protozoan Toxoplasma gondii can cause permanent behavioral changes in its host, even as a consequence of adult-acquired latent infection...

  15. Keratoconjunctivitis associated with Toxoplasma gondii in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, Robert L; Schmidt, Karl A; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2009-01-01

    A 12-year-old Pug presented with a 3-mm corneal mass OD. The dog was currently being treated for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and pigmentary keratitis OU. A superficial keratectomy followed by cryotherapy was performed OD. A histopathologic diagnosis of epithelial dysplasia and suppurative keratitis was made and the lesion resolved. Two months later, a yellow/tan conjunctival mass, diffuse chemosis and conjunctival thickening was discovered OD. Necrotizing conjunctivitis with protozoal parasites was diagnosed with histopathology. Complete blood count and a serum biochemistry panel were normal. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii titers were negative. The conjunctivitis resolved after a 6-week course of oral clindamycin. Two months later, the patient presented with a similar conjunctival mass OS. Toxoplasma gondii was confirmed as the etiologic agent with immunohistochemical staining. Repeat T. gondii titers were negative. Oral clindamycin was re-instituted. The corneal biopsy was re-reviewed and protozoal organisms were discovered. Three months later, a recurrence was suspected and oral ponazuril was initiated for 28 days. There has been no evidence of recurrence since this treatment. Ocular toxoplasmosis is rare in the dog but reports have included episcleritis, scleritis, retinitis, anterior uveitis, ciliary epithelium hyperplasia, optic neuritis and polymyositis. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of toxoplasmosis causing only corneal and conjunctival disease in the dog. We hypothesize that these localized lesions may be associated with topical immunomodulating therapy for KCS. Toxoplasmosis should be considered as a differential for canine conjunctivitis and corneal disease and has the potential to manifest in one or both eyes.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii in animals used for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M Tenter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne toxoplasmosis in humans may result from exposure to different stages of Toxoplasma gondii, in particular from the ingestion of tissue cysts or tachyzoites contained in meat, primary offal (viscera or meat-derived products of many different animals, or the ingestion of sporulated oocysts that are contained in the environment and may contaminate food and water. Although the potential for transmission of the parasite to humans via food has been known for several decades, it is not known which routes are most important from a public health point of view. It is likely that transmission of the parasite to humans is influenced not only by the potential contamination of various food sources, but also by the individual behaviour of consumers in different ethnic groups and geographical regions. Most current methods for detection of T. gondii in meat-producing animals, in products of animal origin, or in the environment are insufficient because they do not allow quantification of infectious stages. Hence, most studies report only qualitative data from which it is difficult to assess the true risk of infection in individual cases. There is a need for quantitative data so that efficient strategies to reduce food-borne transmission of T. gondii to humans can be developed.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii: further studies on the subpellicular network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Lemgruber

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The association of the pellicle with cytoskeletal elements in Toxoplasma gondii allows this parasite to maintain its mechanical integrity and makes possible its gliding motility and cell invasion. The inner membrane complex (IMC resembles the flattened membrane sacs observed in free-living protozoa and these sacs have been found to associate with cytoskeletal proteins such as articulins. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to characterise the presence and distribution of plateins, a sub-family of articulins, in T. gondii tachyzoites. A dispersed labelling of the whole protozoan body was observed. Electron microscopy of detergent-extracted cells revealed the presence of a network of 10 nm filaments distributed throughout the parasite. These filaments were labelled with anti-platein antibodies. Screening the sequenced T. gondii genome, we obtained the sequence of an IMC predicted protein with 25% identity and 42% similarity to the platein isoform alpha 1 present in Euplotes aediculatus, but with 42% identity and 55% similarity to that found in Euglena gracilis, suggesting strong resemblance to articulins.

  18. The Ultrastructural Effects of Sulfachloropyrazine on Toxoplasma Gondii Tachyzoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YB Zeng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other mammals. This study was aimed to understand the mechanism of action of veterinary medicine-sulfachlo­ropyrazine (SPZ, 99.97% against Toxoplasma gondii.Methods: T. gondii tachyzoites were soaked in PBS (as a control or SPZ (250 mg/mL for 2 h at 37 °C. After being processed, any ultrastructural changes of the tachyzoites that had occurred were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM.Results: The tachyzoites from control groups with a uniform size had a smooth surface and intact cell or nuclear membranes. In addition, an oval-shaped nucleus, conoids and micronemes were also observed. By contrast, many parasites from the SPZ-treated groups were detrimentally affected by the treatment. Some appeared to be of the vacuolization in their cytoplasm, with the substantial reduc­tion in the number of dense granules and the blur of some organelles.Conclusion: The morphology and ultrastructure of tachyzoites can be affected significantly by SPZ, which might kill the parasite by inhibiting its energy metabolism, inducing apoptosis and damaging its structure. The study provides an experimental basis for further study on the mechanism of SPZ against T. gondii.

  19. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Prandovszky

    Full Text Available The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii manipulates its host's behavior. In infected rodents, the behavioral changes increase the likelihood that the parasite will be transmitted back to its definitive cat host, an essential step in completion of the parasite's life cycle. The mechanism(s responsible for behavioral changes in the host is unknown but two lines of published evidence suggest that the parasite alters neurotransmitter signal transduction: the disruption of the parasite-induced behavioral changes with medications used to treat psychiatric disease (specifically dopamine antagonists and identification of a tyrosine hydroxylase encoded in the parasite genome. In this study, infection of mammalian dopaminergic cells with T. gondii enhanced the levels of K+-induced release of dopamine several-fold, with a direct correlation between the number of infected cells and the quantity of dopamine released. Immunostaining brain sections of infected mice with dopamine antibody showed intense staining of encysted parasites. Based on these analyses, T. gondii orchestrates a significant increase in dopamine metabolism in neural cells. Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, was also found in intracellular tissue cysts in brain tissue with antibodies specific for the parasite-encoded tyrosine hydroxylase. These observations provide a mechanism for parasite-induced behavioral changes. The observed effects on dopamine metabolism could also be relevant in interpreting reports of psychobehavioral changes in toxoplasmosis-infected humans.

  20. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  1. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy: seroepidemiological studies in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelhofer, R; Prossinger, H

    2010-02-01

    Seropositivity among pregnant woman in Austria has decreased from 48% to 50% at the end of the 1970s to 35% in recent years. Despite this decrease, knowledge of possible sources and risk factors for Toxoplasma infection remains important. We reviewed seroepidemiological studies that were undertaken to assess the roles of undercooked meat and oocysts in cat faeces as potential sources of infection in pregnant women. Improved management and hygiene in pig herds raised in confinement have resulted in less contact of pigs with cats and a decrease of infected pigs within one decade from 14% in 1982 to 0.9% in 1992. In Austrian wild boar populations, however, seroprevalences remained essentially unchanged during the same decade (18% in 1983 and 19% in 1990-1993). Austrian sheep and goats are usually kept on small farms where cats abound and are predominantly seropositive (66% in sheep and 69% in goats). The seroprevalence in cats has decreased from approximately 81% in 1987 to 59% in 1996; presumably because of cats' increased consumption of processed food. Despite the decrease of infection in pregnant women via the cat-to-pig pathway, it may be offset by a recent concomitant increase in mutton consumption. Free-ranging chickens are a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens are ground feeders. Antibodies to T. gondii, as evaluated by the modified agglutination test, were found in 36% of chickens from 12 Austrian 'biofarms'. Because Austrians rarely consume raw pork, the fraction of human T. gondii infections associated with pig meat consumption is likely small. As meat consumption and lifestyle patterns change in Austria, the risk of human infection with T. gondii via different pathways needs re-evaluation and targeted educational efforts to control transmission.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in north-eastern Atlantic Harbor seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were determined in serum samples from 47 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and 56 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina vitulina) from the Atlantic coasts of United Kingdom and France. Antibodies to T. gondii assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) ...

  3. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  4. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gon...

  5. Transplacental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in minipigs infected with strains of different virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Jensen, Lene Bai;

    2001-01-01

    Infections with the Zoonotic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can result in severe fetal infections. To investigate the use of pigs as animal models for congenital toxoplasmosis, tachyzoites of 5 T. gondii strains, with low to intermediate virulence in mice, were intravenously...... animal models fur studies of transplacental transmission and pathogenesis of congenital toxoplasmosis....

  6. Changing climate-changing pathogens: Toxoplasma gondii in North-Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Kijlstra, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we describe the effects of global climate change for one specific pathogen: the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is postulated that an increase of T. gondii prevalence in humans can occur in some regions of North-Western Europe as a result of changing environmental conditions. Such a c

  7. A quantitative microbial risk assessment for meatborne Toxoplasma gondii infection in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.; Prickaerts, S.; Frankena, K.; Evers, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne pathogen, and the cause of a high disease burden due to congenital toxoplasmosis in The Netherlands. The aim of this study was to quantify the relative contribution of sheep, beef and pork products to human T. gondii infections by Quantitative Microbial Ri

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Dietz, H. H.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five mink sera randomly selected from 17 Danish mink farms were evaluated for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the latex agglutination test. Six (3%) sera contained T. gondii antibodies in titres of 1:64 or more. The estimated 3% prevalence means that 300 000...

  9. Murine gamma interferon fails to inhibit Toxoplasma gondii growth in murine fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, J D; Gonias, S L; Pfefferkorn, E R

    1990-01-01

    Although treatment of human macrophages or fibroblasts with human gamma interferon results in the inhibition of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii, murine gamma interferon stimulated only murine macrophages, not murine fibroblasts, to inhibit T. gondii. This species difference may be important in understanding the control of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. PMID:2106497

  10. High seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in Elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Central Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite of mammals that impacts animal health and behavior. Although this parasite has been documented in several cervid species, including red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Europe, little is known about T. gondii impacts on the closely related North American ...

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infections in red-tailed hawks inoculated orally with tissue cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P; Blagburn, B L

    1991-04-01

    The response to inoculation of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts was examined in 3 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). One hawk (hawk 1) was inoculated orally with 3.000 tissue cysts of the GT-1 isolate of T. gondii and 2 hawks (hawks 2 and 3) each were inoculated orally with 12,000 tissue cysts of a mixture of 8 isolates of T. gondii. None of the hawks developed clinical signs of toxoplasmosis. Serum antibodies were measured with the modified direct agglutination test using formalin-fixed tachyzoites. Hawk 1 had a titer of 1:40 prior to inoculation and did not have an increase in titer during the study. Hawks 2 and 3 had titers of 1:5 and 1:10, respectively, prior to inoculation, and both had increased titers (titers greater than or equal to 1:60) by 1 wk postinoculation and remained T. gondii antibody positive throughout the 10 wk of the study. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the heart and breast muscle of hawk 1. The biologic behavior of this T. gondii isolate was different from the 1 inoculated, and it probably represents a prior natural infection. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the brain, heart, breast muscle, and a mixture of gizzard and proventriculus from hawk 2 and from breast muscle of hawk 3. Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from the eye, lung, liver, kidney, or spleen of any red-tailed hawk.

  12. Effects of ozone and UV radiation treatments on the infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical toxoplasmosis in humans has been epidemiologically-linked to the consumption of drinking water contaminated by Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. We evaluated killing of T. gondii oocysts after ultraviolet (UV) or ozone treatments by bioassay in mice and/or cell culture. A 4-log inactivation of the...

  13. Specific serum antibody responses following a Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis co-infection in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokken, G.; Eerden, van E.; Opsteegh, M.; Augustijn, M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Franssen, F.; Görlich, K.; Buschtöns, S.; Tenter, A.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.; Bergwerff, A.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of parasite specific antibody development in Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii co-infections in pigs and to compare these with antibody dynamics in T. spiralis and T. gondii single infections. In this experiment, fiftyfour pigs were divided

  14. Determining UV Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts by Using Cell Culture and a Mouse Bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of UV exposure on Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has not been completely defined for use in water disinfection. This study evaluated UV irradiated oocysts by three assays: a SCID mouse bioassay, an in vitro T. gondii oocyst plaque assay (TOP-assay), and a quantitative reve...

  15. Genetic characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates from stray dogs from Giza, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stray dogs are considered as sentinels in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are carnivores and eat variety of foods, including garbage. In the present study, tissues and sera of 51 stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from Giza, Egypt were examined for T. gondii infection. Sera were examin...

  16. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a v...

  17. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent used for human consumption in certain areas of South America. In the present study, viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated for the first time from this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 64 capybaras from 6 counties of São...

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sh...

  19. Predator Cat Odors Activate Sexual Arousal Pathways in Brains of Toxoplasma gondii Infected Rats

    OpenAIRE

    House, Patrick K.; Ajai Vyas; Robert Sapolsky

    2011-01-01

    Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not infl...

  20. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sport horses from Qazvin, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajialilo, Elham; Ziaali, Naser; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Saraei, Mehrzad; Hajialilo, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sport horses of Qazvin was examined using modified agglutination test (MAT). On 52 horse sera totally examined for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies, 37 horses (71.2%) were seropositive by MAT. Results of the present study showed a high rate of Toxoplasma infection in horses in Qazvin area. More comprehensive study on equine toxoplasmosis is recommended.

  1. Quantitative studies of the mutagenesis of Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferkorn, E.R.; Pfefferkorn, L.C.

    1979-06-01

    The induction of mutants resistant to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUDR) was used to measure the efficiency of various physical and chemical mutagens on extracellular and intracellular Toxoplasma gondii. The frequency of resistant mutant was measured by plaque assay in human fibroblast cultures in the presence and absence of FUDR. When considered as a function of lethality, the most efficient mutagenesis was obtained with nitrosoguanidine treatment of extracellular parasites and with ethylmethane sulfonate treatment of actively growing intracellular parasites. Each of these treatments increased the frequency of FUDR-resistant mutants from less than one to more than 200 per million parasites. Ultraviolet irradiation, X-rays, and the alkylating mustard ICR-191 also induced FUDR-resistant mutants in a dose-dependent fashion.

  2. The Crystal Structure of Toxoplasma gondii Pyruvate Kinase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakszt, R.; Wernimont, A; Allali-Hassani, A; Mok, M; Hills, T; Hui, R; Pizarro, J

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population. We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain in the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers. We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two {alpha}-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.

  3. Genetic diversity among sea otter isolates of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, N.; Cole, R.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Majumdar, D.; Dubey, J.P.; Su, C.

    2008-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been reported to become infected with Toxoplasma gondii and at times succumb to clinical disease. Here, we determined genotypes of 39 T. gondii isolates from 37 sea otters in two geographically distant locations (25 from California and 12 from Washington). Six genotypes were identified using 10 PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico, and by DNA sequencing of loci SAG1 and GRA6 in 13 isolates. Of these 39 isolates, 13 (33%) were clonal Type II which can be further divided into two groups at the locus Apico. Two of the 39 isolates had Type II alleles at all loci except a Type I allele at locus L358. One isolate had Type II alleles at all loci except the Type I alleles at loci L358 and Apico. One isolate had Type III alleles at all loci except Type II alleles at SAG2 and Apico. Two sea otter isolates had a mixed infection. Twenty-one (54%) isolates had an unique allele at SAG1 locus. Further genotyping or DNA sequence analysis for 18 of these 21 isolates at loci SAG1 and GRA6 revealed that there were two different genotypes, including the previously identified Type X (four isolates) and a new genotype named Type A (14 isolates). The results from this study suggest that the sea otter isolates are genetically diverse.

  4. Calcium uptake and proton transport by acidocalcisomes of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rohloff

    Full Text Available Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium stores found in diverse organisms, being conserved from bacteria to humans. They possess an acidic matrix that contains several cations bound to phosphates, which are mainly present in the form of short and long polyphosphate chains. Their matrix is acidified through the action of proton pumps such as a vacuolar proton ATPase and a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase. Calcium uptake occurs through a Ca(2+/H(+ countertransporting ATPase located in the membrane of the organelle. Acidocalcisomes have been identified in a variety of microorganisms, including Apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium and Eimeria species, and in Toxoplasma gondii. We report the purification and characterization of an acidocalcisome fraction from T. gondii tachyzoites after subcellular fractionation and further discontinuous iodixanol gradient purification. Proton and calcium transport activities in the fraction were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and spectrophotometric methods using acridine orange and arsenazo III, respectively. This work will facilitate the understanding of the function of acidocalcisomes in Apicomplexan parasites, as we can now isolate highly purified fractions that could be used for proteomic analysis to find proteins that may clarify the biogenesis of these organelles.

  5. Quinolone-based drugs against Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anquetin, Guillaume; Greiner, Jacques; Vierling, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Owing to the rapid emergence of multi-resistant strains of Plasmodium spp. (the causative agents of malaria) and the limitations of drugs used against Toxoplasma gondii (an important opportunistic pathogen associated with AIDS and congenital birth defects), the discovery of new therapeutical targets and the development of new drugs are needed. The presence of the prokaryotic-like organelle in apicomplexan parasites (i.e. plastids), which comprise these major human pathogens, may represent a unique target for antibiotics against these protozoa. Quinolones which are known to be highly potent against bacteria were also found to specifically disrupt these parasites. They inhibit DNA replication by interacting with two essential bacterial type II topoisomerases, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. There are some clues that quinolones act on plastids with a similar mechanism of action. After a brief presentation of plasmodium and toxoplasma dedicated to their life cycle, the chemotherapies presently used in clinics to fight against these protozoa and the potential new targets and drugs, we will focus our attention on their plastid which is one of these promising new targets. Then, we will present the various drugs and generations of quinolones, the leading molecules, and their inhibitory effects against these parasites together with their pharmacological properties that have been established from in vitro and in vivo studies. We will also discuss their possible mode of action.

  6. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Djokić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS. Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012, almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001 and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027. Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004. The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.

  7. The first detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in environmental fruits and vegetables samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, A; Pietkiewicz, H; Szostakowska, B; Myjak, P

    2012-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in humans and animals all over the world. The aim of the study was to estimate the occurrence of T. gondii oocysts in fruits and vegetables and determine the genotype of the parasites. A total number of 216 fruits and vegetables samples were taken from shops and home gardens located in the area of northern Poland. Oocysts were recovered with the flocculation method. Then, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the B1 gene was used for specific T. gondii detection and quantification. Toxoplasma DNA was found in 21 samples. Genotyping at the SAG2 locus showed SAG2 type I and SAG2 type II. This is the first investigation describing T. gondii DNA identification in a large number of fruits and vegetables samples with rapid molecular detection methods. The results showed that fruits and vegetables contaminated with T. gondii may play a role in the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Poland.

  8. DETECTION OF INFECTION WITH Toxoplasma gondii IN MANATEES (Trichechus inunguis OF THE PERUVIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICK MATHEWS DELGADO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis is an aquatic mammal that inhabits freshwater environments and is endemic to the Amazon Basin. The presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated in 19 manatees in one rescue unit in the northern region of Peru. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 12 (63.2 % of 19 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25, and no association between sex and age of the animals and the presence of T. gondii antibodies was observed (p < 0.05. The results suggest a contamination by T. gondii oocysts in the aquatic environment where these animals live.

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in South Korean wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Wooseog; Yoon, Hachung; Kim, Yong Kwan; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Kim, Do-Soon; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite and a commonly encountered pathogen in humans and animals. The wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus) is considered a good indicator when monitoring environmental contamination by T. gondii. We surveyed the prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in wild boars from South Korea. Blood samples were collected from 426 wild boars captured in eight provinces of South Korea during the hunting seasons in 2008-12. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in samples from 152 of boars, indicating an overall antibody prevalence of 36% (95% confidence interval=31-40%).

  10. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women from the State of Tocantins, Northern Brazil

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    Élvio Machado da Rocha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors in pregnant women in Tocantins, Northern Brazil were assessed. METHODS: Serological analysis was performed in 338 serum samples and an oral questionnaire was utilized to identify potential risk factors. RESULTS: Anti-IgG antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 71% (240/338 of the pregnant women. Prior contact with cats and meat handling were found to be associated with T. gondii infection. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable percentage (29% of women living in the Tocantins area remain susceptible to infection by the T. gondii protozoon, representing a serious public health risk.

  11. THE ROLE OF HORMONES ON Toxoplasma gondii INFECTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

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    María De La Luz Galván-Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the causal agent of toxoplasmosis in which one third of the world’s population has been infected. In pregnant women, it may cause abortion and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, simultaneously progesterone and 17β-estradiol also increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones can aggravate or reduce parasite reproduction. The aim of this study was reviewing the relationship between hormones and infection caused by T. gondii in several experimental animal models and humans, focused mainly on: a congenital transmission, b parasite reproduction, c strain virulence, d levels of hormone in host induced by T. gondii infection and e participation of hormone receptors in Toxoplasma gondii infection.Are the hormones specific modulators of T. gondii infection?A systematic review methodology was used to consult several databases (Pub Med, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Sprinker, Wiley and Google Scholar dated from September, 2013 to March, 2014. Results: 30 studies were included; eight studies in humans and 22 in animals and cell cultures. In the human studies, the most studied hormones were testosterone, progesterone, prolactin and 17-ß estradiol. Type I (RH and BK and Type II (Prugniaud, SC, ME49,T45, P78 and T38 were the most frequent experimental strains. Conclusions: Thirty-five years have passed since the first studies regarding Toxoplasma gondii infection and its relationship with hormones. This systematic review suggests that hormones modulate Toxoplasma gondii infection in different animal models. However, given that data were not comparable, further studies are required to determine the mechanism of hormone action in the Toxoplasma gondii infectious process.

  12. Risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in hunting, pet and watchdogs from Southern Spain and Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogs can act as reservoirs of Toxoplasma gondii infections for humans and other hosts. Here we determined seroprevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection in dogs from Andalusia (Southern Spain) and Ceuta (Northern Africa). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 235 out of 769 dogs (30.6%; C...

  13. High prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cats from Egypt: isolation of viable Toxoplasma Gondii, tissue distribution, and isolate designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, 158 feral cats from Giza, Egypt were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 97.4% with modified ...

  14. Sieroepidemiologia delle infezioni da Toxoplasma gondii, virus della Rosolia e Citomegalovirus in una coorte di gravide

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    Marco Moretti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Citomegalovirus are responsible for maternal-fetal infections that can cause severe consequences in fetus. The surveillance of these infections in pregnancy is made by specific antibodies detection and when necessary by demostrating the presence of the infectious agent in body fluids. We have evaluated the seroprevalence of antibodies in a cohort of 1100 pregnant women against Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella virus and Citomegalovirus. Our data show a low seroprevalence against Toxoplasma gondii, a suboptimal immunitary coverage against Rubella virus and a significative increase of incidence in Citomegalovirus infection. The study suggests the need of a multiprofessional and multidisciplinary approach for the right management of these maternal-fetal infections and underlines the pivot role played by Clinical Pathologists.

  15. Discovery of Potent and Selective Leads against Toxoplasma gondii Dihydrofolate Reductase via Structure-Based Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Matthew E; Zhou, Jian; Gao, Yueqiang; Yan, Yunqing; Porter, Gene; Agnihotri, Gautam; Li, Yingjie; Lu, Henry; Chen, Zhongguo; Thomas, Stephen B

    2016-12-08

    Current treatment of toxoplasmosis targets the parasite's folate metabolism through inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The most widely used DHFR antagonist, pyrimethamine, was introduced over 60 years ago and is associated with toxicity that can be largely attributed to a similar affinity for parasite and human DHFR. Computational analysis of biochemical differences between Toxoplasma gondii and human DHFR enabled the design of inhibitors with both improved potency and selectivity. The approach described herein yielded TRC-19, a promising lead with an IC50 of 9 nM and 89-fold selectivity in favor of Toxoplasma gondii DHFR, as well as crystallographic data to substantiate in silico methodology. Overall, 50% of synthesized in silico designs met hit threshold criteria of IC50 2-fold selectivity favoring Toxoplasma gondii, further demonstrating the efficiency of our structure-based drug design approach.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan province, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nian; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Dong; Li, Chaoying; Zhang, Zhenchao; Yao, Zhijun; Li, Tingting; Xie, Qing; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Haizhu

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are highly susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In the present study, 779 serum samples from sheep were collected from Henan province, central China from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to T. gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep was 12.71% (99/779). The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the geographical origin, age, presence of cats, and the rearing system. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Henan province, central China, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii with risk factors. PMID:27882868

  17. Seroprevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs, dogs and cats from Guizhou province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Nian; Nie, XinWen; Peng, Qun-Yi; Mu, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Meng-Yuan; Min, Shao-ju

    2015-04-10

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular protozoan that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, domesticated and wild animals. Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in different regions of China have shown a limited genetic diversity with the dominance of the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #9 named as "Chinese 1". However, there is not much published information regarding its prevalence in domestic animals from Guizhou province, a subtropical region in Southwest China. The objectives of this study were to determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T .gondii in pigs, dogs and cats in Guizhou province, Southwest China. The anti-T. gondii IgG were detected in 70.0%(49/70) pigs, 20.56%(22/107) dogs and 63.16(12/19) cats. The anti-T. gondii IgM were found in 0.93%(1/107) dogs, 21.53%(4/19) cats, but not in pigs. In addition, the toxoplasma circulating antigen (CAG) were detected in 16.9%18/70)pigs, 13.1% (14/107) dogs and 10.5%(2/19) cats. The T. gondii DNA were detected in 31.5%(22/70) pigs, 3.7%(4/107) dogs and 52.63%(10/19) cats. Five T. gondii isolates were obtained(3 from pigs and 2 from cats). The genotype of these five isolates belonged to the predominant genotype "Chinese 1". The high prevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs,cats and dogs indicated that the T. gondii infection is common in Guizhou province. Additionally, the T. gondii genotype "Chinese 1" was dominant in Southwest China.

  18. Influence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Symptoms and Signs of Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Calzada-Torres, Edwin Adiel; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Pérez-Álamos, Alma Rosa; Vaquera-Enriquez, Raquel; Díaz-Herrera, Arturo; Segura-Moreno, Raúl; de Lourdes Guerrero-Carbajal, María; Rentería-López, María Guadalupe; García, Isabel Beristain; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Some symptoms of menopause have also been described in patients with toxoplasmosis. Whether Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection has any influence on clinical manifestations of menopause is yet unknown. We sought to determine whether T. gondii exposure is associated with symptoms and signs of menopause. We performed a cross-sectional study of women attending a public health center in Durango City, Mexico. Participants were examined for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. A questionnaire including 47 symptoms and signs potentially associated with menopause was applied. Association of seroprevalence for T. gondii with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Bivariate analysis showed that bouts of rapid heartbeat, breast pain, electric shock sensation, dizziness, digestive problems, low back pain, and migraine were associated with seropositivity to either IgG anti-T. gondii alone or both IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii. Breast pain was the only variable that was found to be associated with IgG seropositivity to T. gondii by multivariate analysis: (OR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.35–5.90; P = 0.005). Our results suggest that T. gondii exposure may influence on the clinical manifestations of menopause. Results deserve further research. PMID:27141314

  19. Toxoplasma Gondii Infection and Depression: A Case–Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Torres-Prieto, Yazmin Elizabeth; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Pérez-Álamos, Alma Rosa; Ortiz-Jurado, María Nalleli; Molotla-de-León, Gabriel; Beristain-García, Isabel; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection and depression in a sample of psychiatric patients and control subjects without depression. We performed an age- and gender-matched case–control study of 89 patients suffering from depression attended in a public psychiatric hospital in Durango City, Mexico and 356 control subjects without depression from the general population of the same city. Participants were tested for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 11 (12.4%) of the 89 cases and in 22 (6.2%) of the 356 controls (OR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.00–4.59; P = 0.04). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in four (19%) of 21 anti-T. gondii IgG seropositive controls but not in 11 anti-T. gondii IgG seropositive cases (P = 0.27). Patients aged 30 years old and younger had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than controls of the same age group (P = 0.001). Results of the present study suggest a potential association between T. gondii infection and depression. Furthers studies to confirm our results and to determine the epidemiology of T. gondii in young depressed patients should be conducted. PMID:27429790

  20. Toxoplasma gondii: a rapid method for the isolation of pure tachyzoites: preliminary characterization of its genome

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    Juan Carlos Garberi

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple technique for the purification of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites was developed. Highly purified parasites were obtained from the peritoneal exudates of infected mice by means of two consecutive discontinous sucrose gradients run at low speed (10,000xg, 30 min. Parasites obtained by this method conserved its biological activity. Hybridizations tudies with DNA from healthy mice and from purified tachyzoites preparations demonstrated that Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites DNA could be obtained with better than 90 per cents purity. Preliminary studies with DNA endonucleases showed the presence in the tachyzoites genome of highly repetitives sequences.

  1. The Effect of Fluphenazine and Thioridazine on Toxoplasma gondii In Vivo

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    Mehrzad SARAEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the most common parasite causing latent cerebral infections in human. It has been shown that some anti-psychotic drugs are able to inhibit the proliferation of the parasite in in vitro study. There is very limited data regarding the inhibitory effect of anti-psychotics on Toxoplasma in in vivo. In this study, we evaluated anti-Toxoplasma activity of fluphenazine and thioridazine drugs on T. gondii in mice.Methods: Mice were divided into six groups: Control, sesame as vehicle, thioridazine 10 mg/kg, thioridazine 20 mg/kg, fluphenazine 0.06 mg/kg and fluphenazine 0.6 mg/kg. They were inoculated intraperitoneally with brain suspension containing tissue cysts of T. gondii Tehran strain. Two months after inoculation, the number of cysts in crushed smears of mice brain were counted microscopically and considered as an indicator of anti-Toxoplasma activity. This work has conducted in Qazvin, central Iran, 2014.Results: Our study showed that fluphenazine and thioridazine could not significantly inhibit the brain cystogenesis of T. gondii in mice. However, the number of brain cysts was less at higher dose compared to lower doses for both drugs. Conclusion: Further studies need to clear the mechanism of different structure of anti-psychotic drugs on activity of Toxoplasma.

  2. Cancer in the parasitic protozoans Trypanosoma brucei and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Zhao-Rong; Lai, De-Hua; Wen, Yan-Zi; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Shen, Ji-Long; Yang, Ting-Bo; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Qu, Liang-Hu; Hide, Geoff; Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    Cancer is a general name for more than 100 malignant diseases. It is postulated that all cancers start from a single abnormal cell that grows out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious consequences and deaths. Great progress has been made in cancer research that has significantly improved our knowledge and understanding of the nature and mechanisms of the disease, but the origins of cancer are far from being well understood due to the limitations of suitable model systems and to the complexities of the disease. In view of the fact that cancers are found in various species of vertebrates and other metazoa, here, we suggest that cancer also occurs in parasitic protozoans such as Trypanosoma brucei, a blood parasite, and Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular pathogen. Without treatment, these protozoan cancers may cause severe disease and death in mammals, including humans. The simpler genomes of these single-cell organisms, in combination with their complex life cycles and fascinating life cycle differentiation processes, may help us to better understand the origins of cancers and, in particular, leukemias.

  3. Experimental Models of Ocular Infection with Toxoplasma Gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukaczewska, Agata; Tedesco, Roberto; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a vision-threatening disease and the major cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. In spite of the continuing global burden of ocular toxoplasmosis, many critical aspects of disease including the therapeutic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis are still under debate. To assist in addressing many aspects of the disease, numerous experimental models of ocular toxoplasmosis have been established. In this article, we present an overview on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of ocular toxoplasmosis available to date. Experimental studies on ocular toxoplasmosis have recently focused on mice. However, the majority of murine models established so far are based on intraperitoneal and intraocular infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We therefore also present results obtained in an in vivo model using peroral infection of C57BL/6 and NMRI mice that reflects the natural route of infection and mimics the disease course in humans. While advances have been made in ex vivo model systems or larger animals to investigate specific aspects of ocular toxoplasmosis, laboratory mice continue to be the experimental model of choice for the investigation of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:26716018

  4. Functional modifications of macrophage activity after sublethal irradiation. [Toxoplasma gondii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The modifications of macrophage activity following sublethal irradiation, both in vivo and in vitro, were studied using spreading and C3b-receptor-mediated ingestion assays. Nonelicited peritoneal washout cells were examined for changes in activity and selected population characteristics. The cells from irradiated mice were from a resident peritoneal population and not immigrating cells. The macrophage population showed enhanced activity early with a refractory period (24-48) when the macrophages were unresponsive to stimulation by irradiated lymphocytes. The enhanced activity was inversely dose dependent on macrophage. The lymphocytes showed a regulatory function(s) on the time post irradiation at which they were examined. Early lymphocytes exhibited the ability to enhance the activity of normal macrophages while lymphocytes removed 24 hours post irradiation could suppress the activity of already activated macrophages. The effect(s) of the various lymphocyte populations were reproduced with cell-free supernatants which was indicative of the production of lymphokines. Separation on nylon wool columns indicated that the activity resided primarily in the T-cell population of lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation indicated that stimulation of the lymphocytes is macrophage dependent. Additional work indicated that sublethally irradiated macrophages did not inhibit replication of the coccidian protozoon Toxoplasma gondii although they did show increased phagocytosis. Examination of the serum from whole body irradiated mice showed the presence of a postirradiation substance which enhanced the phagocytosis of normal macrophages. It was not present in the serum of normal mice and was not endotoxin.

  5. A unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Elizabeth A Gaskell

    Full Text Available The genome of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces L-DOPA. The encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. Thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to L-DOPA. The catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but contains a unique N-terminal extension with a signal sequence motif. One of the genes, TgAaaH1, is constitutively expressed while the other gene, TgAaaH2, is induced during formation of the bradyzoites of the cyst stages of the life cycle. This is the first description of an aromatic amino acid hydroxylase in an apicomplexan parasite. Extensive searching of apicomplexan genome sequences revealed an ortholog in Neospora caninum but not in Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, or Plasmodium. Possible role(s of these bi-functional enzymes during host infection are discussed.

  6. In vivo activities of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase inhibitors against Leishmania donovani and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Vanessa; Khan, Anis A; Martin, Michael B; Slifer, Teri R; Araujo, Fausto G; Moreno, Silvia N J; Docampo, Roberto; Croft, Simon L; Oldfield, Eric

    2002-03-01

    The in vivo activities of three bisphosphonates were determined against Leishmania donovani and Toxoplasma gondii. Alendronate was essentially inactive against both parasites. Pamidronate was active against L. donovani by intravenous administration. Risedronate had a 50% effective dosage of five 2.6-mg/kg of body weight intraperitoneal doses against L. donovani-infected mice but was less effective against T. gondii-infected mice.

  7. Screening and identification of novel B cell epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Delin; Yin, Hong; Wang, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of protein epitopes is useful for diagnostic purposes and for the development of peptide vaccines. In this study, the epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 were identified using synthetic peptide techniques with the aid of bioinformatics. Findings Eleven peptides derived from T. gondii SAG1 were assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Four (PS4, PS6, PS10 and PS11), out of the eleven peptides tested were recognized by all sera. T...

  8. Preliminary characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Zimbabwe, with stage-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cell-culture-derived clones of eight Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Zimbabwe were characterised in IFAT with a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Each clone had been established from a single murine brain cyst. The antibodies were bradyzoite-specific (4.3), tachyzoite-specific (4.25, 5.1...... in the IFAT in a similar way to the Danish reference strain of T. gondii, SSI-119....

  9. Methods to produce and safely work with large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and bradyzoite cysts

    OpenAIRE

    H. Fritz; Barr, B.; Packham, A.; Melli, A.; Conrad, P A

    2011-01-01

    Two major obstacles to conducting studies with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are the difficulty in reliably producing large numbers of this life stage and safety concerns because the oocyst is the most environmentally resistant stage of this zoonotic organism. Oocyst production requires oral infection of the definitive feline host with adequate numbers of T. gondii organisms to obtain unsporulated oocysts that are shed in the feces for 3-10 days after infection. Since the most successful and comm...

  10. First isolation and genetic characterization of a Toxoplasma gondii strain from a symptomatic human case of congenital toxoplasmosis in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Carmen Anca; Colosi, Horaţiu Alexandru; Blaga, Ligia; Györke, Adriana; Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Colosi, Ioana Alina; Ajzenberg, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Very limited data exists on the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii from Eastern Europe. We present the first Romanian case of symptomatic congenital toxoplasmosis in which the T. gondii strain was isolated after inoculation in mice of a cerebrospinal fluid sample from a living neonate. The T. gondii strain was genotyped with 15 microsatellite markers distributed on 10 of the 14 chromosomes of T. gondii. The strain had a type II genotype. PMID:23537840

  11. First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Wei; Huang Si-Yang; Zhou Dong-Hui; Xu Min-Jun; Wu Song-Ming; Yan Chao; Zhao Quan; Song Hui-Qun; Zhu Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii infection is a global concern, affecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals and humans worldwide, including poultry. Domestic and companion birds are considered to play an important role in the transmission of T. gondii to humans and other animals. However, little information on T. gondii infection in domestic birds in Lanzhou, northwest China was available. Therefore, this study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in do...

  12. Possible role of Toxoplasma gondii in brain cancer through modulation of host microRNAs

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    Thirugnanam Sivasakthivel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and other warm-blooded animals and establishes a chronic infection in the central nervous system after invasion. Studies showing a positive correlation between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and incidences of brain cancer have led to the notion that Toxoplasma infections increase the risk of brain cancer. However, molecular events involved in Toxoplasma induced brain cancers are not well understood. Presentation of the hypothesis Toxoplasma gains control of host cell functions including proliferation and apoptosis by channelizing parasite proteins into the cell cytoplasm and some of the proteins are targeted to the host nucleus. Recent studies have shown that Toxoplasma is capable of manipulating host micro RNAs (miRNAs, which play a central role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesize that Toxoplasma promotes brain carcinogenesis by altering the host miRNAome using parasitic proteins and/or miRNAs. Testing the hypothesis The miRNA expression profiles of brain cancer specimens obtained from patients infected with Toxoplasma could be analyzed and compared with that of normal tissues as well as brain cancer tissues from Toxoplasma uninfected individuals to identify dysregulated miRNAs in Toxoplasma-driven brain cancer cells. Identified miRNAs will be further confirmed by studying cancer related miRNA profiles of the different types of brain cells before and after Toxoplasma infection using cell lines and experimental animals. Expected outcome The miRNAs specifically associated with brain cancers that are caused by Toxoplasma infection will be identified. Implications of the hypothesis Toxoplasma infection may promote initiation and progression of cancer by modifying the miRNAome in brain cells. If this hypothesis is true, the outcome of this research would lead to the development of novel biomarkers and

  13. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management in systems in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrola) from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large.......51 % was found in the same group of fattening pigs using an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the single serum dilution of 1:400. The serosurvey shows the importance of modern intensive husbandry systems in reducing the prevalences of T gondii infection in domestic pigs....

  15. Toxoplasma gondii: uptake and survival of oocysts in free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Dellacasa-Lindberg, Isabel; Dubey, J P; Barragan, Antonio

    2009-02-01

    Waterborne transmission of the oocyst stage of Toxoplasma gondii can cause outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans and infection of marine mammals. In water-related environments and soil, free-living amoebae are considered potential carriers of various pathogens, but knowledge on interactions with parasitic protozoa remains elusive. In the present study, we assessed whether the free-living Acanthamoeba castellanii, due to its phagocytic activity, can interact with T. gondii oocysts. We report that amoebae can internalize T. gondii oocysts by active uptake. Intracellular oocysts in amoebae rarely underwent phagocytic lysis, retained viability and established infection in mice. Interaction of T. gondii with amoebae did not reduce the infectivity and pathogenicity of oocysts even after prolonged co-cultivation. Our results show that uptake of oocysts by A. castellanii does not restrain the transmission of T. gondii in a murine infection model.

  16. Inorganic nanoparticles kill Toxoplasma gondii via changes in redox status and mitochondrial membrane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oluyomi Stephen; Murata, Yuho; Sugi, Tatsuki; Kato, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-Toxoplasma gondii potential of gold, silver, and platinum nanoparticles (NPs). Inorganic NPs (0.01–1,000 µg/mL) were screened for antiparasitic activity. The NPs caused >90% inhibition of T. gondii growth with EC50 values of ≤7, ≤1, and ≤100 µg/mL for gold, silver, and platinum NPs, respectively. The NPs showed no host cell cytotoxicity at the effective anti-T. gondii concentrations; the estimated selectivity index revealed a ≥20-fold activity toward the parasite versus the host cell. The anti-T. gondii activity of the NPs, which may be linked to redox signaling, affected the parasite mitochondrial membrane potential and parasite invasion, replication, recovery, and infectivity potential. Our results demonstrated the antiparasitic potential of NPs. The findings support the further exploration of NPs as a possible source of alternative and effective anti-T. gondii agents.

  17. Effect of irradiation on the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in tissues of mice and pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, J.P.; Brake, R.J.; Murrell, K.D.; Fayer, R.

    1986-03-01

    Muscles from tongue, heart, and limbs of 14 pigs inoculated orally with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were irradiated with 10, 20, 25, and 30 krad of gamma (cesium-137 and cobalt-60) irradiation. Viability of T gondii cysts was assayed by feeding porcine muscles to T gondii-free cats and/or by inoculation of sediment from acid-pepsin digested porcine muscle into mice. Cats fed 500-g samples of muscles irradiated with up to 20 krad shed T gondii oocysts. Cats fed muscles irradiated with 25 or 30 krad did not shed oocysts. Mice were inoculated with 8 isolates of T gondii, and tissue cysts in their brains irradiated with up to 40 krad were infective to mice; however, there was a 10,000-fold reduction in the viability of organisms in tissue cysts irradiated with 40 krad, compared with that in nonirradiated cysts. At 50 krad of gamma irradiation, there were no detectable infective organisms in infected mouse brains.

  18. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody in domestic horses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masatani, Tatsunori; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Takasu, Masaki; Matsuu, Aya; Amaya, Tomohiko

    2016-04-01

    The present study is the first report that investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic horses in various prefectures of Japan and analyzed risk factors for seropositivity. We performed a latex agglutination test for riding/racing horses from 11 prefectures in Japan (783 samples) and 4 groups of Japanese native horses (254 samples). The total seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody in horses examined in this study was 4.24% (44/1037). As for riding/racing horses, we did not find a statistically different T. gondii seroprevalence between sampling prefectures. In contrast, seroprevalence of T. gondii in older horses (>21 years) was significantly higher than that in younger horses (Japan. These findings suggest that domesticated horses in Japan can be horizontally infected with T. gondii by ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts.

  19. DMPD: Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. Denkers EY, Butcher BA, Del Rio L, Kim L. I...in kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma...appaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. Authors Denkers EY, Butcher BA, De

  20. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Torres-Castorena, A; Liesenfeld, O; García-López, C R; Estrada-Martínez, S; Sifuentes-Alvarez, A; Marsal-Hernández, J F; Esquivel-Cruz, R; Sandoval-Herrera, F; Castañeda, J A; Dubey, J P

    2009-04-01

    The epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico is largely unknown. The seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in 439 pregnant women from 9 communities in rural Durango State, Mexico was investigated. Using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays, sera were tested for T. gondii IgG, IgM, and avidity antibodies. Prevalences of T. gondii IgG antibodies in the communities varied from 0% to 20%. Overall, 36 (8.2%) of the 439 women had IgG T. gondii antibodies. Ten (2.3%) women had also T. gondii IgM antibodies; IgG avidity was high in all IgM-positive women, suggesting chronic infection. None of the women, however, had delivered a known T. gondii-infected child. The seroprevalence was significantly higher (P women from low socio-economic conditions (14%) than in those with higher socio-economic status (6.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with soil floors at home (adjusted OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.12-7.49). This is the first epidemiological study of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Sows in Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of T. gondii has been reported in many animals in China, little is known of T. gondii infection in sows. Antibodies to T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT. Overall, 31.3% (373/1191 of the examined sows were seropositive for T. gondii. Among 11 representative regions of Hunan province, the seroprevalence ranged from 14.8% to 45.1%. In addition, the T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in summer (37.4% and autumn (34.9% than in spring (24.6% and winter (23.9%. Regarding different antibody titers, the seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% (titer ≥ 1 : 1024 to 17.4% (titer = 1 : 64. The findings of the present investigation revealed the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and animals in this province. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis of pigs in this province. This is the first report of the comprehensive survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in sows in Hunan Province, subtropical China.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic animals of Mohmand agency, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mudassir Shah; Muhammad Zahid; Aftab Alam Sthanadar; Pir Asmat; Ayesha Kausar; Abdul Hamid Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among domestic animals of Mohmand Agency, Pakistan.Methods:Indirect haemagglutination test was used to detect Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies in the sera.Results:Out of 384 domestic animals, 124 (32.29%) were seropositive for antibodies of T. gondii. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 56 out of 104 examined goats (53.84%). The seropositivity in male and female goats were 20 (38.46%) and 36 (69.23%) respectively. The seropositivity of T. gondii in sheep was 36% (n=100) while the prevalence in female sheep was higher (41.66%) as compared to male sheep (30.76%). A total of 8 out of 48 male cows were detected seropositive (16.66%) and 8 out of 32 female cows were detected seropositive (25%). Lowest prevalence was detected in buffaloes which was 16% (n=100). Out of 52 male buffaloes 4 were detected seropositive for T. gondii antibodies (7.69%) while in female buffaloes was 25% (n=48). The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was higher in goats and lower in buffaloes.Conclusions:The findings of the present study indicate that T. gondii infection is high in domestic animals in Mohmand agency, Pakistan, which has implications for public health in this region. Essential control strategies and suitable measures should be carried out rationally in this region, in order to lower the risk of exposure to T. gondii.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that repeat ovine...

  4. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii using the SnSAG2 ELISA, the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti-S. neurona antibodies were f...

  5. Kennel dogs as sentinels of Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Majorca Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel dogs can serve as sentinels and/or reservoirs of diseases of veterinary and zoonotic interest because they have often roamed free and lived outdoors, being exposed to pathogens. We tested for evidence of infection with three protozoans, Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora cani...

  6. Macrophages facilitate the excystation and differentiation of Toxoplasma gondii sporozoites into tachyzoites following oocyst internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of humans and domestic animals, which is transmitted via oocysts in cat faeces or tissue cysts in contaminated meat. The oocyst and sporocyst walls are multilayered polymeric structures that protect the infective sporozoites from deleterious physical and chemic...

  7. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women from the North of Portugal in their childbearing years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors were investigated in 401 women of childbearing age from the North of Portugal. Among the 98 (24.4%) seropositive women, 92 (93.9%) were detected as positive only for imunoglobulin (Ig) G, two women (2.0%) were positive only fo...

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  10. Detection of zoonotic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in wild boars from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety regulations require the control of presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence ...

  11. TOXOPLASMA GONDII : UPTAKE AND SURVIVAL OF OOCYSTS IN FREE-LIVING AMOEBAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterborne transmission of the oocyst stage of Toxoplasma gondii can cause outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans and infection of marine mammals. In water-related environments and soil, free-living amoebae are considered potential carriers of various pathogens, but knowledge on interactions ...

  12. Toxoplasma gondii in horse meat intended for human consumption in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, an economically important zoonotic protozoan, was investigated in horses slaughtered for export and human consumption in the North of Romania. This study has aimed to assess the potential impact of Romanian horses’ toxoplasmosis on the public health. Pairs of sam...

  13. Adjuvanted multi-epitope vaccines protect HLA-A*1101 transgenic mice against Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    We created and tested multi-epitope DNA or protein vaccines with TLR4 ligand emulsion adjuvant (gluco glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE)) for their ability to protect against Toxoplasma gondii in HLA transgenic mice. Our constructs each included five of our best down selecte...

  14. Geographical patterns of Toxoplasma gondii genetic diversity revealed by multilocus PCR-RFLP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, an extensive collection of Toxoplasma gondii samples have been typed by the multilocus PCR-RFLP method using a standardized set of 10 genetic markers. Here we summarize the data reported until the end of 2012. A total of 1457 samples were typed into 189 genotypes. Overall, only a fe...

  15. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii, molecular characterization, and seroprevalence in elk (Cervus canadensis) in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. Thousands of wild cervids are hunted or killed in traffic accidents yearly bu...

  16. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domiciled cats from rio branco Municipality, Acre State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Figueiredo de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 89 cats to assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and the possible risk factors associated with feline Toxoplasma gondii infection. An epidemiological questionnaire was developed and implemented for owners of domestic cats domiciled in Rio Branco, Acre. The results were statistically evaluated with the odds ratio and chi-square tests, considering the significance level of 5%. Of 89 animals’ samples, 22 had antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Among the 22 reactive animals, 15 (68.19% were female, 15 (68.19% were less than one year old and 20 (90% were cross breed. Concerning risk factors, there was no difference (p > 0.05 between the variables evaluated by the chi-square test. Moreover, 16 (72% cats were fed a mixed diet, 20 (90% of the cats had hunting habits, 18 (81% had contact with animals of another species, 11 (50% had access to the street, and 22 (95% lived in homes that had areas of grass or dirt. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats was 22.7%, and there were no significant risk factors for feline toxoplasmosis in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre.

  17. Direct detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in meat samples using magnetic capture and PCR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.; Langelaar, M.; Sprong, H.; den Hartog, L.; De Craeye, S.; Bokken, G.C.A.M.; Ajzenberg, D.; Kijlstra, A.; van der Giessen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Different transmission routes, including the ingestion of undercooked meat, can result in Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans. The development of effective prevention strategies is hampered by a lack of quantitative information on the contamination level of different types of meat. Therefore, we d

  18. Direct detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in meat samples using magnetic capture and PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.; Langelaar, M.; Sprong, H.; Hartog, L.; Craeye, de S.; Bokken, G.; Ajzenberg, D.; Kijlstra, A.; Giessen, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    Different transmission routes, including the ingestion of undercooked meat, can result in Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans. The development of effective prevention strategies is hampered by a lack of quantitative information on the contamination level of different types of meat. Therefore, we d

  19. Host mitochondrial association evolved in the human parasite Toxoplasma gondii via neofunctionalization of a gene duplicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite of humans and other warm-blooded animals, the ability to associate with host mitochondria (HMA) is driven by a locally expanded gene family that encodes multiple mitochondrial association factor 1 (MAF1) proteins. The importance of copy number in the e...

  20. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD AND EAST GREENLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 419 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea (collected 1990 - 2000) and 108 polar bears from East Greenland (collected 1999 - 2004) were assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibody prevalences were ...

  1. Serological Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in five species of bats in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect almost all warm-blooded animals and humans with a worldwide distribution. Bats are reservoirs for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, such as henipaviruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) c...

  2. BEHAVIORAL AND MEMORY CHANGES IN Mus musculus COINFECTED BY Toxocara canis AND Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Motta Corrêa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several researchers have stated that parasites can alter the behavior of their hosts, in order to increase the transmission rate, principally when prey-predator relationships are a reliable way of infection transmission. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of changes in anxiety and short-term memory patterns in experimentally infected Mus musculus by Toxocara canis and/or Toxoplasma gondii. Forty male Mus musculus (Balb/c eight-week-old were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. One group was infected with 300 eggs of Toxocara canis; a second group was submitted to infection with 10 cysts of Toxoplasma gondii; a third group was concomitantly infected with both parasites with the same inoculums and the last group was maintained without infection. The anxiety levels were evaluated using an elevated plus maze and an actometer; the short-term memory was determined by a two-way active avoidance equipment. The determination of anxiety levels were conducted 40 and 70 days after infection and the short-term memory was evaluated 140 days after infection. Mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii showed impaired learning and short-term memory, but no significant differences were found in mice infected by Toxocara canis or concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii when compared to non infected mice.

  3. A study of virulence parameters for Toxoplasma gondii infections in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Lind, Peter

    1998-01-01

    With the aim of establishing assessments of the virulence of Toxoplasma gondii isolates for mice, we investigated weight loss, serum levels of haptoglobin, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as alternative parameters to mouse mortality. Groups of BALB/c mice were inoculated...

  4. An experimental Toxoplasma gondii dose response challenge model to study therapeutic or vaccine efficacy in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.; Takumi, K.; Teunis, P.F.M.; Wisselink, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Prev

  5. Activity of pentamidine and pentamidine analogs against Toxoplasma gondii in cell cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L; Hall, J. E.; Tidwell, R R

    1991-01-01

    The capabilities of pentamidine and nine pentamidine analogs to inhibit the development of Toxoplasma gondii were examined in vitro. Treatment of infected cultures with pentamidine and five of its analogs caused a significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in the numbers of tachyzoites produced. Analogs of pentamidine may be useful agents in the treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  6. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Luanda, Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. are zoonotic agents of importance to public health, with domestic cats as potential reservoirs for both protozoal infections. The present study aimed at assessing for the first time the seroprevalence of these zoonotic parasites in a domestic feline population l...

  7. High prevalance of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca state, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondi...

  8. Expression and purification of soluble fusion protein of Toxoplasma gondii GRA6 in E. coli.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱翔

    2006-01-01

    Objective To high express and purify toxoplasma gondii antigen GRA6 in E. coli which can be used to develop the genetic engineering diagnostic reagents. Methods The recombinant plasmid of pGEX-GRA6 was transformed to a bacterium BL21-Codon Plus (DE3)-RP and the recombinant product was expressed under the inducement of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactosidase(IPTG).

  9. Epigenomic modifications predict active promoters and gene structure in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gissot

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of gene regulation are poorly understood in Apicomplexa, a phylum that encompasses deadly human pathogens like Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Initial studies suggest that epigenetic phenomena, including histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, have a profound effect upon gene expression and expression of virulence traits. Using the model organism Toxoplasma gondii, we characterized the epigenetic organization and transcription patterns of a contiguous 1% of the T. gondii genome using custom oligonucleotide microarrays. We show that methylation and acetylation of histones H3 and H4 are landmarks of active promoters in T. gondii that allow us to deduce the position and directionality of gene promoters with >95% accuracy. These histone methylation and acetylation "activation" marks are strongly associated with gene expression. We also demonstrate that the pattern of histone H3 arginine methylation distinguishes certain promoters, illustrating the complexity of the histone modification machinery in Toxoplasma. By integrating epigenetic data, gene prediction analysis, and gene expression data from the tachyzoite stage, we illustrate feasibility of creating an epigenomic map of T. gondii tachyzoite gene expression. Further, we illustrate the utility of the epigenomic map to empirically and biologically annotate the genome and show that this approach enables identification of previously unknown genes. Thus, our epigenomics approach provides novel insights into regulation of gene expression in the Apicomplexa. In addition, with its compact genome, genetic tractability, and discrete life cycle stages, T. gondii provides an important new model to study the evolutionarily conserved components of the histone code.

  10. Lack of evidence for superantigen activity of Toxoplasma gondii towards human T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Vallochi

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite whose life cycle may include man as an intermediate host. More than 500 million people are infected with this parasite worldwide. It has been previously reported that T. gondii contains a superantigen activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the putative superantigen activity of T. gondii would manifest towards human T cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from individuals with no previous contact with the parasite were evaluated for proliferation as well as specific Vß expansion after exposure to Toxoplasma antigens. Likewise, PBMC from individuals with the congenital infection were evaluated for putative Vß family deletions in their T cell repertoire. We also evaluated, over a period of one year, the PBMC proliferation pattern in response to Toxoplasma antigens in patients with recently acquired infection. Some degree of proliferation in response to T. gondii was observed in the PBMC from individuals never exposed to the parasite, accompanied by specific Vß expansion, suggesting a superantigen effect. However, we found no specific deletion of Vß (or Valpha families in the blood of congenitally infected individuals. Furthermore, PBMC from recently infected individuals followed up over a period of one year did not present a reduction of the Vß families that were originally expanded in response to the parasite antigens. Taken together, our data suggest that T. gondii does not have a strong superantigen activity on human T cells.

  11. Detection of fibronectin and laminin in Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts: immunocytochemical assays = Detecção de fibronectina e laminina em cistos teciduais de Toxoplasma gondii: ensaios imunocitoquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães, Erick Vaz

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: The presence of both laminin and fibronectin in secretory organelles and in the apical region of bradyzoites suggests that exocytosis of these glycoproteins can contribute to their interaction with host cells, besides composing the cyst matrix of Toxoplasma gondii

  12. Association Between Toxoplasma gondii Exposure and Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Salcedo-Jaquez, Misael; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Beristain-Garcia, Isabel; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Alvarado-Soto, Ediyair

    2016-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes infections all around the world. Infections with T. gondii are systemic and the parasite can persist in the heart muscle. Very little is known about the impact of T. gondii on patients with heart disease. We determined the association between T. gondii exposure and patients suffering from heart diseases attending in a public hospital in Durango, Mexico; the association of T. gondii exposure with socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of these patients was also investigated. Methods Through a case-control study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in 400 patients with heart diseases and 400 age- and gender-matched controls using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, we analyzed the association of patient characteristics as determined by a standardized questionnaire with T. gondii exposure by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Fifty-five (13.8%) of 400 patients and 32 (8.0%) of 400 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (odds ratio (OR) = 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15 - 2.90; P = 0.01). High anti-T. gondii IgG levels (> 150 IU/mL) were found in 28 (50.9%) of the 55 positive cases and in 14 (43.8%) of the 32 positive controls (P = 0.51). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (23.6%) of the 55 anti-T. gondii IgG positive patients and in 19 (59.4%) of 32 anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.54; P = 0.0008). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.40 - 6.13; P = 0.004), and with consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.01 - 4.12; P = 0.04). Conclusions Results obtained in this study indicate that T. gondii infection is associated with heart disease, and suggest that heart disease might be related with a chronic infection. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure with alcohol

  13. Frecuencia de anticuerpos anti Toxoplasma gondii en gestantes de Cúcuta, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Denny; Lozano, Claudia; Castillo, Zaida; Cedeño, Jessenia; Galvis, Viannis; Rios, Jessica; Tórres, Madalhene

    2016-01-01

    La toxoplasmosis es una infección ocasionada por Toxoplasma gondii, peligrosa durante la gestación. La presencia de anticuerpos IgG específicos implica contacto previo individuo-parásito, mientras que la detección de IgM anti-T. gondii, es considerada marcador de infección aguda, fase en la que se incrementa además el título IgG. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia y título de anticuerpos contra Toxoplasma gondii en gestantes. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal, se determinó el título de ...

  14. [The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among prisoners in the Kayseri closed prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ozan; Yazar, Süleyman; Cetinkaya, Ulfet; Temel, Hanife Ozcan; Balci, Elçin; Pehlivan, Ismail; Sahin, Izzet

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and can be found in humans, domestic animals and wild animals almost everywhere around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the 628 prisoners in the Kayseri Closed Prison. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were investigated in the serum specimens with the IFA method. Two hundred and thirty six (37.58%) prisoners were anti-T. gondii IgG seropositive and 11 (1.75%) were both IgG and IgM seropositive. There was no IgM seropositivity in IgG negative serum specimens.

  15. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic, zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution. There are large variations in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in different regions of the world. Although toxoplasmosis became a notifiable communicable disease in Taiwan in 2007, little is known about its epidemiology among the general population. This cross-sectional study aimed to survey the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and its risk factors among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. Through collaborating with the Taiwan Blood Services Foundation, a total of 1,783 healthy blood donors from all six-branch blood service centers participated in this study. The blood samples were tested for the presence of T. gondii antibodies and DNA using enzyme immunoassays and real-time PCR, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information on risk factors for T. gondii infection. Of the 1,783 participants, 166 (9.3% tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, while 5 (0.28% tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. The five IgM positive donors had high avidity antibodies suggestive of past infection. No active parasitemia was detected by real-time PCR assays. Multivariate logistic regression showed that undercooked pork meat consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-6.5, raw mussels consumption (adjusted OR = 5.3; 95% CI: 1.5-19.1, having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2, a lower education level (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, and donation place in eastern Taiwan (adjusted OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-3.9 were independent risk factors for Toxoplasma seropositivity. These findings provide information on the seroprevalence and epidemiology of T. gondii infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan.

  16. Drinking water source and human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: A cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii imparts a considerable burden to public health. Human toxoplasmosis can be life-threatening in immunocompromised individuals, has been associated with psychiatric disorders, and can cause severe congenital pathologies, spontaneous abortion, or stillbirth. Enviro...

  17. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Eells

    Full Text Available Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%, genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/- mice and wild-type (+/+ mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice.

  18. Evidence of the three main clonal Toxoplasma gondii lineages from wild mammalian carnivores in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrells, A; Bartley, P M; Zimmer, I A; Roy, S; Kitchener, A C; Meredith, A; Wright, S E; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

    2013-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic pathogen defined by three main clonal lineages (types I, II, III), of which type II is most common in Europe. Very few data exist on the prevalence and genotypes of T. gondii in the UK. Wildlife can act as sentinel species for T. gondii genotypes present in the environment, which may subsequently be transmitted to livestock and humans. DNA was extracted from tissue samples of wild British carnivores, including 99 ferrets, 83 red foxes, 70 polecats, 65 mink, 64 badgers and 9 stoats. Parasite DNA was detected using a nested ITS1 PCR specific for T. gondii, PCR positive samples were subsequently genotyped using five PCR-RFLP markers. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected within all these mammal species and prevalence varied from 6·0 to 44·4% depending on the host. PCR-RFLP genotyping identified type II as the predominant lineage, but type III and type I alleles were also identified. No atypical or mixed genotypes were identified within these animals. This study demonstrates the presence of alleles for all three clonal lineages with potential for transmission to cats and livestock. This is the first DNA-based study of T. gondii prevalence and genotypes across a broad range of wild British carnivores.

  19. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faezeh Hamidi; Jalal Etemadi; Nader Ghabouli Mehrabani; Mahmoud Mahami Oskouei; Roza Motavalli; Mohammad RezaArdalan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in a group of peritoneal dialysis patients with hemodialysis patients and a general local population as a control group in Tabriz, Northwest Iran. Methods: A total of 176 individuals were participated in the present study. Among them, 42 were peritoneal dialysis patients, 84 were hemodialysis patients and 50 were healthy volunteers. Anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M serologic study was administered on the collected serums and then the obtained data were analyzed using statistical methods. Results: In the present research, 70.2% of hemodialysis patients, 66.6% of peritoneal dialysis patients and 68% of control group had positive results for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G antibody. All individuals of the groups had negative serologic results for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M antibody. There was no significant difference between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis patients and peritoneal dialysis patients and general population (P> 0.05). Conclusions: The findings showed that either peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis doesn’t increase the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity in our region (Northwest Iran). It could be explained by the fact that the present research is carried out in a high seroprevalent area scale in which the majority of normal population had previous exposure to this parasitical infection.

  20. ROP18 is a key factor responsible for virulence difference between Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Jing; Nan, Huizhu; Liu, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and Neospora caninum (N. caninum) are both obligate intracellular protozoan parasites and share many common morphological and biological features. Despite these similarities the two parasites differ dramatically in virulence in mice, but the factors involved in virulence differences between the two parasites remain unknown. A secreted serine-threonine kinase called rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18) was identified to play a crucial role on virulence differences among different T. gondii clonal lineages. Intriguingly, we found that ROP18 in Nc1 strain of N. caninum (NcROP18) is a pseudogene due to several interrupting stop codons in the sequence in our previous studies. We assume that the difference of ROP18 leads to virulence difference between T. gondii and N. caninum. We constructed a transgenic N. caninum Nc1 stain by transfecting the TgROP18 from the T. gondii RH strain. Phenotype and virulence assays showed that the expression of TgROP18 in N. caninum did not affect the motility and cell invasion, but resulted in a significant increase in intracellular parasite proliferation and virulence in mice. Immunity-Related GTPase (IRG) phosphorylation assay showed that the transgenic parasite Nc1-TgROP18 was able to phosphorylate IRGs as T. gondii did. The present study indicated that the ROP18 plays a crucial role in virulence of the closely related parasites T. gondii and N. caninum and it is indeed a key factor responsible for the virulence difference between T. gondii and N. caninum.

  1. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in stray dogs in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Cai, Ya-Nan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Jiang, Jing; Xu, Ying-Tian; Yang, Gui-Lian; Zhao, Quan

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan of almost all species of mammals and birds. However, no information is available about seroprevalence of the pathogen in stray dogs in seven cities from Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Liaoning province, China. Using the indirect hemagglutination antibody (IHA) test with a cutoff titer of 1:64, 129 (14.05 %) out of 918 stray dogs were surveyed to be T. gondii seropositive. Analysis of the risk factor showed that there was no statistical difference of seroprevalence of T. gondii between males (13.46 %) and females (14.54 %) (P > 0.05). The seropositive rates of T. gondii infection in stray dogs among the seven cities in northern China were significant statistically different (P = 0.005). Moreover, seroprevalence of T. gondii in dogs were varied from 11.01 % (95 % CI 6.94-15.09) to 16.86 % (95 % CI 12.27-21.46) among different age groups, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.03). More importantly, T. gondii seropositive in stray dogs has a declining tendence from 2011 to 2015 (P = 0.004). The results of the present study showed that stray dogs in Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Liaoning province, China are exposed to T. gondii, for the first time, and could also provide a foundation data for prevent and control T. gondii infection in dogs, other animals and humans.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City,Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Xin; Liu; Shuai; Wang; Li-Qun; Wang; Jun; Xing; Wen-Jue; Gao; Guo-Fang; Liu; Bin; Zhao; Hai-Bin; Zhang; Li-Hua; Gao

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii(T.gondii) infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City,Jiangsu Province.Eastern China,and to evaluate the main associated risk factors relating to exposure to 71 gondii in this region.Methods:Sera from 160 clogs and 116 cats from Zhenjiang City were tested for anti-T.gondii antibodies using EUSA.The seropositivity by area of activity,sex and age was analyzed.Results:Overall.21 dogs(13.l%) and 24 cats(20.7%) had antibodies to T.gondii.The infection rate in stray dogs(38.7%) and cats(28.6%! was significantly higher(P<0.05) than in household dogs(6.9%) and cats(18.2%).The seroprevalence in male clogs(14.8%) and cats(21.05%) were slighlly higher than their female counterparts(11.4%in dogs and 20.0%in cats),but were not significantly differenent(P>0.05).A high proportion of dogs at 3 to 6 years of age were positive to T.gondii(20.0%)while cats with relatively high seropositivity rates were at 0 to 1 year of age(33.3%).Conclusions:The prevalence of T.gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City was high,which is probably the main source of T.gondii infection in this area.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Xin Liu; Shuai Wang; Li-Qun Wang; Jun Xing; Wen-Jue Gao; Guo-Fang Liu; Bin Zhao; Hai-Bin Zhang; Li-Hua Gao

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu Province, Eastern China, and to evaluate the main associated risk factors relating to exposure to T. gondii in this region. Methods:Sera from 160 dogs and 116 cats from Zhenjiang City were tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies using ELISA. The seropositivity by area of activity, sex and age was analyzed. Results: Overall, 21 dogs (13.1%) and 24 cats (20.7%) had antibodies to T. gondii. The infection rate in stray dogs (38.7%) and cats (28.6%) was significantly higher (P0.05). A high proportion of dogs at 3 to 6 years of age were positive to T. gondii (20.0%) while cats with relatively high seropositivity rates were at 0 to 1 year of age (33.3%). Conclusions:The prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs and cats in Zhenjiang City was high, which is probably the main source of T. gondii infection in this area.

  5. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in stray and owned dogs of Grenada, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra N. Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This serological survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in two populations of dogs (stray and owned dogs in Grenada. Dogs get infected with oocysts voided from cats, definitive hosts of T. gondii. In dogs, T. gondii causes subclinical to clinical disease. Earlier studies conducted in Grenada on a small population of owned dogs showed evidence of exposure to T. gondii. Materials and Methods: Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 625 dogs (368 stray and 257 owned dogs from around all six parishes in Grenada, West Indies, using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 123 (33.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 28.58-38.22% of stray dogs and in 64 (25%; 95% CI: 19.71-30.29% of the owned dogs. Seropositivity was higher in stray dogs than in pet dogs (p=0.026. Whereas, there was no sex predisposition to seropositivity in owned dogs (p=1.0, female stray dogs showed a higher prevalence than male stray dogs (p=0.04. Conclusion: These results support previous findings that T. gondii is prevalent in Grenada. In this study, overall seropositivity for T. gondii in dogs in Grenada is lower than noted in 2008, but is still higher in stray dogs than in owned dogs.

  6. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P > 0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  7. Effect van plaagdierbestrijding op Toxoplasma gondii infecties bij enkele probleembedrijven in de welzijnsvriendelijke varkenshouderij = Effect of rodent control on Toxoplasma gondii infections in animal friendly pig farms with a rodent problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Meerburg, B.G.; Jongert, E.; Craeye, de S.

    2007-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is een onderschatte voedsel gerelateerde zoönose waarvan de ziektelast voor de mens waarschijnlijk gelijk is aan salmonellose. Modernisering van de varkenshouderij heeft geleid tot een verdwijning van Toxoplasma infecties, maar een heropleving is recent geconstateerd in de welzijns

  8. Evaluation of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies in Hemodialysis Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Sari, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedpour, Seyyed Hosein; Afshar, Parvaneh; Barzegarnejad, Ayoub; Kalhori, Shamsi; Agah, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii has worldwide distribution and is one of the most prevalent infectious agents in humans. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the hemodialysis unit of Fatemeh Zahra hospital at the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in Sari, Iran. Methods Seventy-three patients with CKD and 145 healthy volunteers were assessed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii (IgG, IgM, and IgA) antibodies using a conventional ELISA technique. Results The anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody was detected in 80.8% of the cases in the patient group, while 31.5% of the cases in the CKD patient group and 31.8% in the control group were found to be positive for the anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgA antibody. All the patients in the CKD group were negative for the anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibody, although 2.76% of the healthy volunteers were found to be positive. The present study suggests that there was no significant difference between the hemodialysis patient group and the healthy volunteers. Conclusions The epidemiological data collected in this study could serve as a reference for future studies and may be useful in developing preventive and educational strategies, and consequently reducing healthcare expenditure. PMID:27896240

  9. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Castro, M; Noh-Pech, H; Puerto-Hernández, R; Reyes-Hernández, B; Panti-May, A; Hernández-Betancourt, S; Yeh-Gorocica, A; González-Herrera, L; Zavala-Castro, J; Puerto, F I

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13) in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico.

  10. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in sera samples of mice experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii DNA in blood can help to diagnose the disease in its acute phase; however, it must be considered that hemoglobin, present in blood, can inhibit polymerase activity, making impracticable the detection of DNA in samples. Mice were experimentally infected via oral route with ME49 and BTU2 strains cysts and RH strain tachyzoites; polymerase chain reaction was used to detect T. gondii DNA in mice sera 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours post infection (PI. Toxoplama gondii DNA was detected in only one animal infected with BTU2 strain, genotype III (isolated from a dog with neurological signs 18 hours PI. The agent's DNA was not detected in any sample of the other experimental groups. New studies must be carried out to verify the technique sensitivity in researches on this agent's genetic material using sera samples of acute-phase toxoplasmosis patients, especially in cases of immunosuppression.

  11. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana from Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Torres-Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13 in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico.

  12. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii infection and liver disease: a case-control study in a Northern Mexican population

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    Liesenfeld Oliver

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii may cause liver disease. However, the impact of the infection in patients suffering from liver disease is unknown. Therefore, through a case-control study design, 75 adult liver disease patients attending a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico, and 150 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and IgG titers did not differ significantly in patients (10/75; 13.3% and controls (16/150; 10.7%. Two (2.7% patients and 5 (3.3% controls had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies (P = 0.57. Seropositivity to Toxoplasma did not show any association with the diagnosis of liver disease. In contrast, seropositivity to Toxoplasma in patients was associated with consumption of venison and quail meat. Toxoplasma seropositivity was more frequent in patients with reflex impairment (27.8% than in patients without this impairment (8.8% (P = 0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma seropositivity in patients was associated with consumption of sheep meat (OR = 8.69; 95% CI: 1.02-73.71; P = 0.04 and rabbit meat (OR = 4.61; 95% CI: 1.06-19.98; P = 0.04. Conclusions Seropositivity to Toxoplasma was comparable among liver disease patients and controls. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate the association of Toxoplasma with liver disease. Consumption of venison, and rabbit, sheep, and quail meats may warrant further investigation.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among veterinary staff in Ontario, Canada (2002: Implications for teratogenic risk

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    Soldin Offie

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii infection is embryotoxic in humans. It is mainly transmitted through raw/undercooked meat and ingestion of oocysts in cat feces. There remains controversy about the actual risk of cats transmitting the disease to humans. Our primary objective was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibody among veterinary staff, to ascertain whether they have an increased risk through occupational exposure. Our secondary objective was to examine their practices regarding cats, toxoplasma infection, and pregnancy. Methods Veterinary staff attending the 2002 Annual Ontario Veterinary Medical Association Conference were invited to discuss their toxoplasma seroprevalence. Interested attendees completed a questionnaire and a physician drew blood samples to determine T. gondii titres using the ELISA IgG test. Results We collected 161 completed questionnaires, and 141 blood samples. There were 20 (14.2%, CI95%:8.4–19.9% reactive titres among the veterinarian staff (80% females aged 30–45. All were regularly exposed to cats, washed their hands when in contact and few wore gloves routinely. Conclusions These findings of low positive rates may be used to reassure veterinary staff that their exposure to cats does not appear to increase their risk of contracting toxoplasma infection and that pregnant women are not at an increased risk by owning a cat.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felids are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection because they are the only hosts that can excrete environmentally-resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii and Neospora caninum were determined in serum samples from 59 feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) captured in baited tra...

  16. SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM AND TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN BLACK TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS COLUMBIANUS) AND MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS HEMIONUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deer are considered important intermediate hosts for the coccidian parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were determined in sera of 42 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and 43 black tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) from the Wash...

  17. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) in Durango, Mexico slaughtered for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Nothing is known about Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in donkeys in Mexico. Meat from donkey is consumed by humans in Mexico and also exported to other countries. We sought to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) for slaughter in Dur...

  18. Detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the blood and milk of naturally infected donkeys (Equus asinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide zoonotic protozoan. Consumption of raw milk from infected animals is considered a risk factor for acquiring toxoplasmosis in humans. Recently, donkey milk has been indicated for therapeutic and nutritional purposes and T. gondii infection is common in donkeys. The pu...

  19. Comparative sequence analysis of Toxoplasma gondii reveals local genomic admixture drives concerted expansion and diversification of secreted pathogenesis determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent parasites worldwide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its broad distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. To un...

  20. Comparative genomic sequence variation of Toxoplasma gondii reveals local admixture drives concerted expansion and diversification of secreted pathogenesis determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most abundant parasites world-wide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. We undertook...

  1. Diagnosis of pulmonary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in immunocompromised HIV-positive patients by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Edvinsson, B; Lundgren, B

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the use of PCR for improving the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised hosts. Three hundred thirty-two bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were analyzed by real-time PCR targeting a 529 bp element of T. gondii...

  2. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  3. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  4. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model for Toxoplasma gondii: an initial description of infection in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a very wide range of mammals and birds, and about one-third of humans are infected with this protozoan parasite. Chronic T. gondii infection has historically been believed to be asymptomatic; however there is now evidence that suggest an association of seropositivity with s...

  5. Latitudinal variability in the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in non-migrant and Arctic migratory geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandstrom, Cecilia A. M.; Buma, Anita G. J.; Hoye, Bethany J.; Prop, Jouke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Voslamber, Berend; Madsen, Jesper; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular coccidian parasite found worldwide and is known to infect virtually all warm-blooded animals. It requires a cat (family Felidae) to complete its full life cycle. Despite the absence of wild felids on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, T. gondii has been found i

  6. Latitudinal variability in the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in non-migrant and Arctic migratory geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandstrom, Cecilia A. M.; Buma, Anita G. J.; Hoye, Bethany J.; Prop, Jouke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Voslamber, Berend; Madsen, Jesper; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular coccidian parasite found worldwide and is known to infect virtually all warm-blooded animals. It requires a cat (family Felidae) to complete its full life cycle. Despite the absence of wild felids on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, T. gondii has been found

  7. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic forest, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small mammals and rodents play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 4...

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among HIV/AIDS Patients in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guoqiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Hui; Gao, Yaying

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, occurs throughout the world. Human T. gondii infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the population; however, the infection is life-threatening and causes substantial neurologic damage in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-infected persons. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in subjects infected with HIV/AIDS in eastern China. Our findings showed 9.7% prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS patients, which was higher than in intravenous drug users (2.2%) and healthy controls (4.7%), while no significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody among all participants (P>0.05). Among all HIV/AIDS patients, 15 men (7.7%) and 10 women (15.9%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibody; however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody between males and females. The frequency of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody was 8.0%, 13.2%, 5.5%, and 0% in patients with normal immune function (CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count ≥500 cells/ml), immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥200 and AIDS patients, respectively (cell count HIV/AIDS patients in eastern China, and a preventive therapy for toxoplasmosis may be given to HIV/AIDS patients based on CD4(+) T lymphocyte count.

  9. Diagnosis of pulmonary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in immunocompromised HIV-positive patients by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E.; Edvinsson, B.; Lundgren, Bettina;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the use of PCR for improving the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised hosts. Three hundred thirty-two bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were analyzed by real-time PCR targeting a 529 bp element of T. gondii...... be performed in all immunosuppressed HIV-positive patients with symptoms of a systemic infection of unknown etiology. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis does not exclude concomitant infection with T. gondii....

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. Santos; ALBUQUERQUE, G. R.; da Silva, V. M. F.; Martin, A R; Marvulo,M.F.V.; S.L.P. Souza; Ragozo, A. M. A. [UNESP; Nascimento, C. C.; Gennari,S.M.; Dubey, J. P.; Silva, J. C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefe, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT >= 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with ...

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Rico-Almochantaf, Yazmin del Rosario; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Vaquera-Enriquez, Raquel; Diaz-Herrera, Arturo; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. The influence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection on clinical features in women with this disorder has not been studied. Therefore, we determined the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs in women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 151 women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in sera of the participants using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIAs). In addition, T. gondii DNA was detected in whole blood of IgG seropositive participants using polymerase chain reaction. We obtained the clinical data of women with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of T. gondii infection with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6.6%) of the 151 women studied. Of the 10 IgG seropositive women, four (40.0%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, and one (10.0%) for T. gondii DNA. Mean number (25.8 ± 7.58) of premenstrual clinical characteristics in seropositive women was similar to that (29.22 ± 9.13) found in seronegative women (P = 0.25). Logistic regression showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with difficulty concentrating (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.91; P = 0.03), and positively associated with out of control feeling or overwhelmed (OR: 9.00; 95% CI: 1.32 - 62.00; P = 0.02). Conclusions Results of this first study on the association of T. gondii infection and clinical characteristics of premenstrual dysphoric disorder suggest that this infection might be linked to some symptoms of this disorder. We report for the first time the association of T. gondii infection and out of control feeling or overwhelmed. Results warrant for further research on the role of T. gondii in premenstrual dysphoric

  12. Non-association between anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and ABO blood group system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACF Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infects humans through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, which elicits humoral immune response with specific antibodies. The expression of the ABO blood group glycoconjugates also occurs in this same system and may influence the human susceptibility of infection by T. gondii. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ABO blood group phenotypes and the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies. Data - including age, results of serology tests for T. gondii infection and ABO blood group phenotypes - were assembled from the medical records of 1,006 pregnant women attended in the Base Hospital of the Medical School of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, between 2001 and 2004. The chi-square test was used to compare the results with the level of significance set at 5%. Of the studied cases, 64.1% (645/1006 and 35.9% (391/1006 presented respectively positive and negative serology tests for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The mean age of those who tested positive was higher than those with negative serology tests (p = 0.0004. The frequencies of ABO blood group phenotypes were similar in those with and without anti-T. gondii antibodies (p = 0.35. In conclusion, the ABO blood group system is not associated with the presence or absence of anti-T. gondii antibodies.

  13. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  14. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in household and feral cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Eon; Choi, Ran; Kang, Seung-Won; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in household cats in Korea. One hundred household cats and 50 feral cats from nine of the largest cities in Korea were enrolled in this study. The tests performed in this survey was an in-house rapid screen IgG and IgM combo test, faecal PCR test for T. gondii oocysts, and an ELISA immunoassay for IgG antibodies. There were no household cats positive for T. gondii infection detected using the in-house IgG and IgM rapid screen combo test, although 6/50 and 0/50 feral cats were positive in IgG and IgM tests, respectively. This initial finding was confirmed by subsequent ELISA test for IgG antibody and PCR for T. gondii in faeces. Despite the higher prevalence rate of the disease in feral cats in Korea, we did not find any household cats that were either infected or exposed previously to T. gondii in our study population. Our study indicates that there is minimal risk of T. gondii transmission from household cats to human in Korea.

  15. Latent Toxoplasma gondii infection leads to deficits in goal-directed behavior in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Christian; Getzmann, Stephan; Gajewski, Patrick D; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Goal-directed behavior is well-known to show declines in elderly individuals, possibly because of alterations in dopaminergic neural transmission. The dopaminergic system is modulated by a number of other different factors. One of these factors, which has attracted a considerable amount of interest in neurobiology, but has only rarely been examined with respect to its possible modulatory role for cognitive functions in elderly individuals, is latent Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection. Latent T. gondii infection may be of relevance to goal-directed behavior as it alters dopaminergic neural transmission. We examine goal-directed behavior in T. gondii IgG positive and negative elderly subjects in auditory distraction paradigm. We apply event-related potentials to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by latent T. gondii infection on a neurophysiological level. We show that latent T. gondii infection compromises the management of auditory distraction in elderly by specifically delaying processes of attentional allocation and disengagement. The results show that latent T. gondii infection is neglected but an important neurobiological modulator of cognitive functions in elderly individuals.

  16. Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Felix, T A; Kwok, O C H

    2010-10-01

    Ground-feeding birds are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as indicators of soil contamination by oocysts, and birds of prey are indicators of T. gondii prevalence in rodents and other small mammals. Cats excrete environmentally resistant oocysts after consuming tissues of T. gondii -infected birds. In the present study, sera and tissues from 382 wild birds from Colorado were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 38 birds with the use of the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1∶25 titer). Tissues (brains, hearts) of 84 birds were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 1 barn owl (Tyto alba), 1 of 5 American kestrels (Falco sparverius), 1 of 7 ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis), 1 of 4 rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), 2 of 13 Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni), and 1 of 25 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk.

  17. Detection and determination of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Gebeyehu, Eyerusalem Bizuneh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Seo, Min-Goo; Byun, Jae-Won; Oem, Jae Ku; Kim, Ha-Young; Kwak, Dongmi

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic protozoan pathogen that causes serious illness in immunocompromised humans and infection in animals worldwide. The current study was conducted for detection of T. gondii infection and determination of the seroprevalence of the pathogen in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). Analysis of a total of 610 sera samples collected from 60 herds between 2009 and 2011 were performed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Among the animals tested, 5.1% (31/610) showed seropositivity for anti-T. gondii antibodies, and 38.3% (23/60) of the herds were seropositive. The prevalence rates between young (0.05). Likewise, the prevalence rates observed during cold season (October-March) and warm season (April-September) were 2.9% and 5.5%, respectively, without statistical significance. Seroprevalence rates observed in the northern, central, and southern regions were 7.9%, 3.8%, and 4.2%, respectively. In conclusion, we report for the first time on the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). The results of this study also indicate that there is a nationwide distribution of T. gondii infection among goats. Therefore, the implementation of integrated control strategies as well as measures for prevention and control of T. gondii infection within goats is recommended.

  18. Soil contamination of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in pig farms in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fen; Zhang, Qingli; Yu, Qian; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong

    2012-06-08

    Toxoplasmosis in pigs is a large threat to pig industry as well as pork consumers. Most pigs become infected by ingestion of oocysts from contaminated environment (soil, water and feed) or infected animal tissues postnatally. In the present study, field studies were conducted to evaluate the relationship between soil contamination status of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and T. gondii infection in pigs in 12 pig farms with different density of cats in central China. The presence of T. gondii oocysts in soil were determined by PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). T. gondii DNA was found in 11 farms with different cat density excepting one farm exposed to low cat density. Twenty (21.1%) and 36 (37.9%) of 95 soil samples were T. gondii positive by PCR and LAMP, respectively (0.01Soil contamination was found with significant difference in statistics between farms with high and low cat density by PCR (0.01soil contamination by T. gondii oocysts in Hubei Province. The soil contamination status of pig farms was significantly influenced by cat density and may be an indicator of T. gondii infection in pigs.

  19. Challenging loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for molecular detection ofToxoplasma gondii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirzad Fallahi; Zahra Arab Mazar; Mehrdad Ghasemian; Ali Haghighi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare analytical sensitivity and specificity of a newly described DNA amplification technique, LAMP and nested PCR assay targeting the RE and B1 genes for the detection ofToxoplasma gondii (T. gondii)DNA.Methods: The analytical sensitivity of LAMP and nested-PCR was obtained against10-fold serial dilutions ofT. gondii DNA ranging from 1 ng to 0.01 fg. DNA samples of other parasites and human chromosomal DNA were used to determine the specificity of molecular assays.Results:After testing LAMP and nested-PCR in duplicate, the detection limit of RE-LAMP, B1-LAMP, RE-nested PCR and B1-nested PCR assays was one fg, 100 fg, 1 pg and 10 pg ofT. gondii DNA respectively. All the LAMP assays and nested PCRs were 100% specific. The RE-LAMP assay revealed the most sensitivity for the detection ofT. gondii DNA.Conclusions:The obtained results demonstrate that the LAMP technique has a greater sensitivity for detection ofT. gondii. Furthermore, these findings indicate that primers based on the RE are more suitable than those based on the B1 gene. However, the B1-LAMP assay has potential as a diagnostic tool for detection ofT. gondii.

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; González-Salazar, A M; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Ontiveros-Vázquez, F; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-04-01

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 519 chickens in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of chickens were sampled. Group A chickens (n  =  51) were raised in backyards in 7 municipalities in 3 geographical regions in Durango State. Group B chickens were raised in farms in the Mexican States of Sinaloa (n  =  289) and Nayarit (n  =  179) but slaughtered in 2 abattoirs in Durango City. Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 36 (6.9%) of 519 chickens, with MAT titers of 1∶25 in 22, 1∶50 in 8, 1∶100 in 2, 1∶200 in 3, and 1∶400 in 1. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in Group A chickens than in Group B chickens. In Group A chickens, a 25.5% seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found. Seropositive chickens were found in all 7 municipalities sampled. In Group B chickens, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 4.9%. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

  1. Seroprevalence, Isolation, Genotyping, and Pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii Strains from Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YuRong; Feng, YongJie; Yao, QiuXia; Wang, YingHua; Lu, YaoYao; Liang, HongDe; Zhu, XingQuan; Zhang, LongXian

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important cause of reproductive failure in small ruminants that also poses a risk to consumers who consume undercooked meat. However, little is known about sheep toxoplasmosis in China for the world. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep from China, to isolate T. gondii via bioassay in mice and to evaluate the virulence of the isolated T. gondii based on vero cell invasion and mice. A total of 840 samples (304 unfrozen hearts and 536 sera) from sheep in China were collected from 2014 to 2016. Heart samples (n = 36) of T. gondii seropositive sheep (MAT, ≥25) were bioassayed in mice individually. DNA derived from cell cultured tachyzoites of the isolated T. gondii was characterized by PCR-RFLP of 10 loci (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). The virulence of the T. gondii was evaluated based on the mortality and encystation in mice, as well as their growth characteristics in cell culture. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 174 of 840 (20.71%, 304 hearts juice and 536 sera) sheep by the modified agglutination test (cut-off 1:25). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the hearts of two of 36 seropositive sheep hearts. Both genotypes of the sheep heart isolates were ToxoDB#9. The virulence of the two ToxoDB#9 isolations varied significantly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of ToxoDB#9 strain of T. gondii from sheep in China. PMID:28217119

  2. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María Del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. A cross-sectional survey. Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; pAguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese from experimentally infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Cassinelli, A B; Ying, Y; Kwok, O C H; Tuo, W; Chiesa, O A; Jones, J L

    2014-10-01

    The consumption of unpasteurized goat cheese and goat's milk has been suggested as a risk factor for toxoplasmosis in humans. In the present study, detection and survival of Toxoplasma gondii in milk and cheese was studied by bioassay in mice (milk) and in cats (cheese). Eight goats were inoculated orally with 300 to 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii strain TgGoatUS26. Milk samples were collected daily up to 30 days postinoculation and bioassayed in mice and cats. For mouse bioassay, 50 ml of milk samples were centrifuged, and the sediment was inoculated subcutaneously into mice. Mice were tested for T. gondii infection by seroconversion and by the demonstration of parasites. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in milk from all eight goats. The T. gondii excretion in milk was intermittent. For cat bioassay, 400 ml (100 ml or more from each goat) of milk from four goats from 6 to 27 days postinoculation were pooled daily, and cheese was made using rennin. Ten grams of cheese was fed daily to four cats, and cat feces were examined for oocyst shedding. One cat fed cheese shed oocysts 7 to 11 days after consuming cheese. Attempts were made to detect T. gondii DNA in milk of four goats; T. gondii was detected by PCR more consistently, but there was no correlation between detection of viable T. gondii by bioassay in mice and T. gondii DNA by PCR. Results indicate that T. gondii can be excreted in goat's milk and can survive in fresh cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment. To prevent transmission to humans or animals, milk should not be consumed raw. Raw fresh goat cheese made by cold-enzyme treatment of unpasteurized milk also should not be consumed.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Qatar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boughattas, Sonia; Behnke, Jerzy; Sharma, Aarti; Abu-Madi, Marawan

    ...]. Cats were introduced to Qatar in the 1960s to control the high rodent population in the country, but subsequently they in turn reproduced rapidly [4]. The current density of cats in Qatar may pose a risk for humans, as cats are natural hosts for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens, including T. gondii. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii a...

  6. High frequency detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in human neonatal tissue from Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Sameena Z H; Abushahama, Muftah S; Gerwash, Omar; Hughes, Jacqueline M; Wright, Elizabeth A; Elmahaishi, Mohamed S; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Thomasson, Denise; Hide, Geoff

    2016-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that causes significant disease in humans. Toxoplasmosis is normally asymptomatic, unless associated with congenital transmission, or in immunocompromised people. Congenital transmission generally occurs at low frequencies. In this study, we use PCR to investigate possible congenital transmission of T. gondii during pregnancy in a cohort of mothers from Libya. Two hundred and seventy two pregnant women (producing 276 neonates) were recruited to obtain umbilical cord tissue from their neonates at birth; DNA was extracted from that tissue and tested for T. gondii DNA using two specific PCR protocols based on the sag 1 and sag 3 genes. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the umbilical cord DNA from 27 of the 276 neonates giving a prevalence of 9.9% (95% CI 6.8-13.9%). Compared with more commonly reported rates of congenital transmission of 0.1% of live births, this is high. There was no association of infection with unsuccessful pregnancy. This study shows a high frequency presence of T. gondii DNA associated with neonatal tissue at birth in this cohort of 276 neonates from Libya. Although PCR cannot detect living parasites, there is the possibility that this indicates a higher than usual frequency of congenital transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A field trial of the effectiveness of a feline Toxoplasma gondii vaccine in reducing T. gondii exposure for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-Pinilla, N E; Dubey, J P; Choromanski, L; Weigel, R M

    1999-10-01

    A 3-yr field trial was conducted on 8 commercial swine farms in Illinois to determine the effectiveness of a feline Toxoplasma gondii vaccine in reducing the exposure of swine to T. gondii. A vaccine consisting of live bradyzoites of the mutant T-263 strain, capable of preventing oocyst shedding by cats, was used in this study. Each farm was visited 3 times in 1994, 3 times in 1995, and once in 1996. Cats were trapped and inoculated with the T-263 oral vaccine during 1994 and 1995. On each visit, the following samples were collected: blood from pigs, cats, and mice for detection of serum antibodies to T. gondii, feces from cats to detect oocysts, and heart and brain tissues from rodents to determine the presence of T. gondii tissue cysts. The modified agglutination test (MAT), with a positive titer set at the 1:25 dilution, was used to determine serum antibodies. At first capture, 72.6% (61/84) of juvenile cats and 32.6% (31/95) of adult cats had no detectable antibodies (seronegative), indicating no prior exposure to T. gondii when they received their first vaccine. Of these first-time seronegative cats, 58.1% (18/31) of adult and 45.9% (28/61) of juvenile cats were recaptured and received a second dose of vaccine. Changes in the prevalence of T. gondii infection were evaluated from the prevaccination (1992, 1993) to the postvaccination (1996) period. Eleven cats (5%) were detected shedding oocysts between 1994 and 1996, of which 10 (90.1%) shed during 1994. The last detection of oocyst shedding by cats was during the first farm visit in 1995. There was a significant decrease in T. gondii seroprevalence for finishing pigs (P or = 1:25) in mice among all farms decreased from 4% in 1992-1993 to 0% in 1996. The mean prevalence of T. gondii tissue cyst isolation for mice on all farms decreased from 1.1% in 1994, to 0.8% in 1995, and to 0.5% in 1996. The results of this study suggest that the reduced exposure of pigs to T. gondii was due to the administration of the T

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in females alpacas of SAIS Pachacutec, Central Sierra of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    De La Cruz C., Hernán; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez V., Amanda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Casas A., Eva; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Li E., Olga; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in alpacas at the production unit of Cuyo, part of SAIS Pachacutec in the Central Sierra of Peru. Blood samples were collected in 258 female alpacas in January 2003. Sera were tested against T. gondii antibodies by the Indirect Immunoflorescence test (IFI). The results showed that 8.5 ± 3.4% (22/258) of animals had antibodies against the parasite. This frequency is lower than in other alpac...

  9. Non-lethal infection parameters in mice separate sheep Type II Toxoplasma gondii isolates by virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Jensen, L; Rask, M.R.;

    2002-01-01

    The zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect all warm-blooded animals, but virulence of isolates has previously been characterised mainly by the ability to kill mice after experimental infections. In the present study, 15 Type II strains of T. gondii, isolated from five adult sheep....... six sheep abortions, two pigs. one cat and one fox were examined for their virulence to young mice by less dramatic parameters. Clinical disease of inoculated mice, directly evidenced by reduced weight gain, was correlated to increase in serum level of haptoglobin and level of specific antibodies...

  10. Suppressed cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions by murine splenic lymphocytes infected in vitro with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, S M; Kook, J; Jeon, Y H; Choi, J H; Han, E T; Shin, E H; Chai, J Y

    2005-04-01

    Mechanisms of host immunosuppression after infection with Toxoplasma gondii are unclear. This study was performed to observe cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions by murine splenic lymphocytes infected in vitro with live, nonreplicating (irradiated) RH tachyzoites on stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For lymphocyte cultivation, 3 groups were prepared: coculture with live nonirradiated tachyzoites separated by a transwell (group T), live irradiated tachyzoites without a transwell (group R), and no tachyzoites (group C). Compared with group T, groups R and C, on stimulation with Con A, revealed significantly (P lymphocytes with T. gondii tachyzoites could impair their capacity to produce cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the rodent capybara (Hidrochoeris hidrochoeris) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañon-Franco, W A; Yai, L E O; Joppert, A M; Souza, C E; D'Auria, S R N; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2003-08-01

    Capybaras (Hidrochoeris hidrochoeris) are 1 of the largest rodents used for meat in South and Central America. Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 149 feral H. hidrochoeris from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was evaluated using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the modified agglutination test (MAT). Using IFAT, antibodies (>1:16) were found in 104 (69.8%) and with the MAT, antibodies (>1:25) were found in 63 (42.3%) capybaras. This is the first report of prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in this host.

  12. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs slaughtered in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunden, A.; Lind, Peter; Engvall, E.O.

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Swedish pigs was investigated by analysis of 807 meat juice samples collected in 1999 from 10 abattoirs in different parts of the country. When analysed using ELISA, 42 (5.2%) of the samples were found to be positive. The seroprevalence was 3.......3% in fattening pigs (n = 695) and 17.3% (n = 110) in adult swine. Alternative interpretations of the results, considering estimates of the true prevalence based on the sensitivity and specificity of the test method, are discussed. It is concluded that the risk of contracting T. gondii infection as a result...

  13. Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further...

  14. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs slaughtered in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunden, A.; Lind, Peter; Engvall, E.O.;

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Swedish pigs was investigated by analysis of 807 meat juice samples collected in 1999 from 10 abattoirs in different parts of the country. When analysed using ELISA, 42 (5.2%) of the samples were found to be positive. The seroprevalence was 3.......3% in fattening pigs (n = 695) and 17.3% (n = 110) in adult swine. Alternative interpretations of the results, considering estimates of the true prevalence based on the sensitivity and specificity of the test method, are discussed. It is concluded that the risk of contracting T. gondii infection as a result...

  15. Toxoplasma gondii cathepsin proteases are undeveloped prominent vaccine antigens against toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guanghui; Zhou, Aihua; Lv, Gang; Meng, Min; Sun, Min; Bai, Yang; Han, Yali; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Huaiyu; Cong, Hua; Zhao, Qunli; Zhu, Xing-Quan; He, Shenyi

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite, infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals including humans. T. gondii expresses five members of the C1 family of cysteine proteases, including cathepsin B-like (TgCPB) and cathepsin L-like (TgCPL) proteins. TgCPB is involved in ROP protein maturation and parasite invasion, whereas TgCPL contributes to proteolytic maturation of proTgM2AP and proTgMIC3. TgCPL is also associated with the residual body in the parasi...

  16. Toxoplasma gondii exposure and Parkinson's disease: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Méndez-Hernández, Edna Madai; Salas-Pacheco, José Manuel; Ruano-Calderón, Luis Ángel; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Castellanos-Juárez, Francisco Xavier; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and Parkinson's disease and to investigate whether T. gondii seropositivity is associated with the general characteristics of patients with Parkinson's disease. Design Case–control study. Setting Cases and controls were enrolled in Durango City, Mexico. Participants 65 patients with Parkinson's disease and 195 age- and gender-matched control subjects without Parkinson's disease. Primary and secondary outcome measures Serum samples of participants were analysed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassays. Prevalence of T. gondii DNA was determined in seropositive subjects using PCR. The association between clinical data and infection was examined by bivariate analysis. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 6/65 cases (9.2%) and in 21/195 controls (10.8%) (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.32 to 2.18; p=0.81). The frequency of high (>150 IU/mL) antibody levels was similar among cases and controls (p=0.34). None of the anti-T. gondii IgG positive cases and four of the anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (p=0.54). The prevalence of T. gondii DNA was comparable in seropositive cases and controls (16.7% and 25%, respectively; p=1.0). Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was associated with a young age onset of disease (p=0.03), high Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores (p=0.04) and depression (p=0.02). Seropositivity to T. gondii infection was lower in patients treated with pramipexole than in patients without this treatment (p=0.01). However, none of the associations remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions The results do not support an association between T. gondii infection and Parkinson's disease. However, T. gondii infection might have an influence on certain symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Further research to elucidate the role of T. gondii exposure on Parkinson's disease

  17. Mouse-virulent Toxoplasma gondii isolated from feral cats on Mona Island, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; López-Torres, H Y; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Ajzenberg, D; Kwok, O C H; Hill, R; Dardé, M L; Su, C

    2007-12-01

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from cats from Mona, a remote island off the coast of Puerto Rico, were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test and found in 16 of 19 (84.2%) of cats, with titers of 1:10 in 2, 1:80 in 1, 1:160 in 4, 1:320 in 3, and 1:1,280 or higher in 6. Tissues of 19 of the 20 cats were bioassayed in mice for T. gondii infection. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from tissues of 12 cats: from the hearts of 9, skeletal muscle of 10, and brain of 1 cat. All infected mice from 10 of 12 isolates died of acute toxoplasmosis during primary infection. Genotyping of these 12 T. gondii isolates (designated (TgCatPr 1-12) by 10 multilocus PCR-RFLP markers, i.e., SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast marker Apico, and the 6 multilocus microsatellite markers TUB2, W35, TgM-A, B18, B17, and M33, revealed 7 genotypes; 5 isolates had Type I alleles at all loci except at 1 microsatellite locus, and the remainder were atypical. The latter isolates of T. gondii were different biologically and phenotypically from the feline isolates from the rest of the Americas. One isolate (TgCatPr 12) was a mixed infection with 2 genotypes.

  18. Prevalence and genotyping ofToxoplasma gondii among Saudi pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Jawahir; Elamin, Maha Hussein; Alhabib, Samia

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan that can infect all mammals, who serve as intermediate host. It causes congenital, neurological, eyes complications and mild or asymptomatic infections in humans. Purpose of this study: To investigate not only the prevalence of T. gondii, but also to find out its genotyping using multiple sequential molecular methods to predict exactly the precise genotyping of T. gondii among Saudi pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage methods. Initial stage involved enrolment of 250 Saudi pregnant women from multi-centre healthcare and community based settings in the capital of Saudi Arabia Riyadh. The second stage was embracement of the laboratory investigation that included Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), DNA extraction, PCR, nested-PCR assay, and genotyping of the seropositive cases. Results: 203 women agreed to take part in our study with a response rate of 81.2% (203/250). Using ELISA, we found that the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 32.5% and 6.4%, respectively. We found that 29 samples (80.6%) were of genotype II; however 7 samples (19.4%) were of genotype III. Conclusion: Defining the population structure of T. gondii from Saudi Arabia has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity, pathogenesis, and in planning preventive strategies. Relationship between such variation in structure and disease manifestation in pregnant women is still difficult to assess due to the role of host immune status and genetic background on the control of infection, and of other parasitic features such as the infecting dose or parasite stage. Our finding of the genotyping of T. gondii might facilitate and inform future studies on comparative genomics and identification of genes that control important biological phenotypes including pathogenesis and transmission among Saudi women.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii infection in interstate truck drivers: a case-control seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-02-05

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be acquired via the ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts, or via ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts. Professional long distance truck driving may have epidemiological importance for food-borne infections since drivers eat out of home and in places where hygiene and cooking practices are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether interstate truck drivers in Durango, Mexico have an increased risk of infection with T. gondii as indicated by seropositivity; and to determine the socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics associated with T. gondii seropositivity in interstate truck drivers. Through a case-control study design, 192 truck drivers and 192 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender and age were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the truck drivers were obtained. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 23 (12.0%) of 192 truck drivers and in 13 (6.8%) of 192 controls (OR = 21.0; 95% CI: 1.23-358.38; P = 0.002). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 7 (3.6%) cases and in 7 (3.6%) controls (P = 1.00). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was higher in drivers with reflex impairment than in those without this impairment (4/13, 30.8% vs 19/179, 10.6%, respectively; P = 0.05), and in drivers with hearing impairment than in those without this impairment (3/7, 42.9% vs 20/185, 10.8%, respectively; P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of work and behavioral characteristics of truck drives showed positive associations of T. gondii exposure with trips to the south of Mexico (OR = 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.44; P = 0.04) and consumption of horse meat (OR = 5.18; 95% CI: 1.62-16.55; P = 0.005). Results suggest that interstate truck drivers may have an increased risk for T

  20. Aborto espontâneo e toxoplasmose ocular em um casal infectado com Toxoplasma gondii = Spontaneous abortion and ocular toxoplasmosis in a couple infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Carla Zangari de

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Relatar os casos de um casal, em que a esposa apresentou toxoplasmose na gestação e o esposo, após 15 anos, foi diagnosticado com toxoplasmose ocular. Relato dos casos: Gestante, grávida de gêmeos, residente de um estado na região Sul do Brasil. No primeiro mês de gestação apresentou sorologia não reagente para IgG e IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii. Na sétima semana de gestação houve soroconversão (IgM e IgG anti-T. gondii reagentes e aborto natural. O esposo, após 15 anos desde o episódio da esposa, queixou-se de visão embaçada/irritada. O exame de fundoscopia revelou lesões típicas de coriorretinite recidivante por toxoplasmose no olho direito. Os exames sorológicos foram IgG anti-T. gondii reagente e IgM anti-T. gondii não reagente. Conclusões: Este relato, de um casal com desfechos clínicos importantes de toxoplasmose, em diferentes formas, enfatiza a relevância do problema da toxoplasmose, que nas suas diversas manifestações, pode trazer graves consequências para a vida de uma família

  1. Seroprevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii en pacientes con afecciones Oncohematológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailín Cobos Valdes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la reactividad de 23 muestras de suero de pacientes con hemopatías malignas provenientes de la sala de hematología del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico de Holguín, mediante la técnica de Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta, reportándose un 65,2% de seroprevalencia. La Toxoplasmosis es una enfermedad causada por el agente etiológico Toxoplasma gondii, parásito intracelular obligado ampliamente distribuido en todo el mundo y capaz de infectar un gran número de huéspedes, incluida la especie humana. Numerosas han sido las investigaciones sobre la presencia de anticuerpos anti- Toxoplasma gondii en individuos inmunodeficientes, donde los pacientes con enfermedades oncohematológicas son un grupo representativo dentro de esta población.

  2. Tissue tropism and parasite burden ofToxoplasma gondii RH strain in experimentally infected mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef Dadimoghaddam; Ahmad Daryani; Mehdi Sharif; Ehsan Ahmadpour; Zahra Hossienikhah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate parasite distribution and tissue tropism ofToxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in experimentally infected mice using real timeQPCR.Methods:In this survey16Balb/c mice were inoculated with1×104 alive tachyzoites ofToxoplasma gondiiRH strain.After1,2,3 days post infection and the last day(before death), different tissues of mice including blood, brain, eye, liver, spleen, kidney, heart and muscle were harvested.Following tissuesDNA extraction, the parasite burden was quantified using real timeQPCR targeting theB1 gene(451 bp).Results:It showed thatToxoplasmaafter intraperitoneal injection was able to movement to various tissues in 24 hours.Parasite burden was high in all tissues but the most number of parasites were observed in kidney, heart and liver, respectively.Conclusions:These data provide significant baseline information aboutToxoplasmapathogenesis, vaccine monitoring and drug efficiency.

  3. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in inmates: A case control study in Durango City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Tinoco, J.; Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F.; Ramos-Nevárez, A.; Cerrillo-Soto, S. M.; Sáenz-Soto, L.; Liesenfeld, O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The seroprevalence of infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the association with risk factors has not been determined in inmates. Through a case-control study, 166 inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango City, Mexico and 166 age- and gender-matched non-incarcerated subjects were examined for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was higher in inmates (35, 21.1%) than in controls (14, 8.4%) (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.43–5.94; P = 0.001). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were detected in two (1.2%) inmates and in seven (4.2%) controls (P = 0.17). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, incarceration, and behavioral characteristics of inmates revealed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.29–11.79; P = 0.01). In addition, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher (P = 0.03) in inmates that had suffered from injuries (17/56: 30.4%) than those without such history (18/110: 16.4%). Conclusions The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in inmates in Durango City is higher than the seroprevalences found in the general population in the same city, indicating that inmates may represent a new risk group for T. gondii infection. Further research on T. gondii infection in inmates is needed. PMID:24678408

  4. Epidemiological aspects of Toxoplasma gondii infection in riverside communities in the Southern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Neto Vitaliano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. Information on the prevalence of T. gondii infection is scarce in some regions of Brazil, including riverside communities along the Amazon River basin. M METHODS: The prevalence of T. gondii in 231 people, aged 1-85 years, who were living in four riverside communities along the Purus River, Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies against T. gondii were assayed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The hearts and brains of 50 chickens, which were raised free-range in the communities, were pooled according to the community of origin and bioassayed in mice. The isolates were genotyped using polymorphisms at 12 nuclear markers (SAG1, 5' and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 56.7% (131/231. IgG antibodies were presented by 117 (89.3% and IgM by 14 (10.7% of the 131 positive individuals. No association between age group and gender with prevalence was observed (chi-square test, p > 0.05; however, the comparison between localities showed that the seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly lower among the individuals living in the Boca do Ituxi (p < 0.05 community. Five isolates of T. gondii were obtained in the mouse bioassay, and genotyping revealed two complete genotypes that had not been described previously and three mixed isolates. CONCLUSIONS: These results support previous findings that T. gondii population genetics are highly diverse in Brazil and that T. gondii infection is active in these riverside communities.

  5. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in waste pickers and waste workers in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Liesenfeld, O; Márquez-Conde, J A; Cisneros-Camacho, A; Estrada-Martínez, S; Martínez-García, S A; González-Herrera, A; García-Corral, N

    2008-08-01

    Municipal waste is a potential source of infection for Toxoplasma gondii as it may contain contaminated meat with parasite tissue cysts and cat excrement with parasite oocysts. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated characteristics in two populations exposed to municipal solid waste in Durango, Mexico. Ninety waste pickers and 83 waste workers of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection. They were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics from each participant were obtained. Nineteen (21.1%) of the 90 waste pickers and seven (8.4%) of the 83 waste workers were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. The difference in prevalence among the groups was statistically significant (P =0.03). Waste pickers aged 31-50 years showed a significantly higher prevalence (40.9%) than waste workers of the same age group (2.9%, P food found in the garbage [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 4.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-11.8] and with lack of education (adjusted OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1.1-8.8). From this study, we conclude: (i) waste pickers may represent a risk group for T. gondii infection; (ii) lack of education might be a contributing factor for T. gondii infection; (iii) the higher the exposure to garbage, the higher the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection; (iv) Eating food products from the garbage may represent an important route for T. gondii infection.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in goats from north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pablo; Cabanelas, Eva; Díaz-Cao, José Manuel; Viña, Miguel; Béjar, Juan Pablo; Pérez-Creo, Ana; Prieto, Alberto; López, Ceferino Manuel; Panadero, Rosario; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-12-23

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are protozoans involved in reproductive failure especially in ruminant livestock. The objective was to estimate the seroprevalence of both parasites in goats from north-western Spain and to study the influence of some factors on seropositivity. Blood samples from 638 goats were collected in 50 farms. Presence of T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination and competitiveELISA techniques, respectively. The risk factor analysis was performed using a mixed-effects logistic regression. Individual (48%) and herd-level (74%) T. gondii seroprevalence values were high; the within-herd prevalence was 53%. In contrast, 6% of animals tested positive to N. caninum and 38% of the herds had at least one positive animal, with a true within-herd prevalence of 10%. Mixed infections were limited; 91% of N. caninum seropositive goats were also positive to T. gondii. The risk factor analysis showed that T. gondii seroprevalence is influenced by the presence of sheep in the farm (OR=4.9) and the seropositivity to N. caninum (OR=16.5); goats from the Central-coastal area, more humid and warm, had a 15.7-fold probability of being seropositive to T. gondii than those from the Mountainous area. Cross-breed goats (OR=4.5) and the seropositivity to T. gondii (OR= 9.5) were factors associated with N. caninum seropositivity. The high T. gondii seroprevalence in goats constitute a noticeable zoonotic risk. The consideration of the risk factors identified in designing T. gondii and N. caninum control programs in goat herds should allow the implementation of more efficient measures, avoiding the appearance of outbreaks of reproductive disorders by both protozoans in goats.

  8. A Genetic Screen to Isolate Toxoplasma gondii Host-cell Egress Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Bradley I.; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2012-01-01

    The widespread, obligate intracellular, protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes opportunistic disease in immuno-compromised patients and causes birth defects upon congenital infection. The lytic replication cycle is characterized by three stages: 1. active invasion of a nucleated host cell; 2. replication inside the host cell; 3. active egress from the host cell. The mechanism of egress is increasingly being appreciated as a unique, highly regulated process, which is still poorly understo...

  9. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    SOLORIO, Monica Romero; Gennari, Solange Maria; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Dubey,Jitender Prakash; HARTLEY, Alfonso Christopher Zúñiga; Ferreira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In the Peruvian Amazon, the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) is a desirable game species and is important for the local rural economy. Blood samples from 101 white-lipped peccaries from Peru were collected from 3 different conservation areas located in the municipalities of Manu and Tambopata, southeastern region of the Peruvian Amazon. Antibodies were assayed using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut of value of 25). Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were found in 89.1% (90 of 101) ...

  10. Toxoplasma gondii: demonstration of intrinsic peroxidase activity during lacto-peroxidase mediated radioiodination of tachyzoites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallois, Y.; Tricaud, A.; Foussard, F.; Hodbert, J.; Girault, A.; Mauras, G.; Dubremetz, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii have been radioiodinated under various conditions with or without lactoperoxidase, with glucose oxidase being used to generate hydrogen peroxide. Erythrocytes were iodinated simultaneously as a control. In our conditions, tachyzoites were more intensely labelled in the absence of lactoperoxidase. This result can be explained by the existence of an intrinsic peroxidase activity which interfere with the exogenously added enzyme during surface radioiodination.

  11. Early Infections of Toxoplasma gondii and the Later Development of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2007-01-01

    Early exposure to several infectious agents has been associated with the later development of schizophrenia. Two recent studies assessed in utero or early postnatal exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. In one study of 63 individuals, who developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders, maternal sera obtaine...... are at present speculative but include possible direct effects of maternal IgG on the developing central nervous system (CNS) of the offspring. Additional studies are underway...

  12. Characterization of a Toxoplasma gondii calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Kentaro; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Takano, Ryo; Gong, Haiyan; Ishiwa, Akiko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa and a major pathogen of animals and immunocompromised humans, in whom it causes encephalitis. Understanding the mechanism of tachyzoite invasion is important for the discovery of new drug targets and may serve as a model for the study of other apicomplexan parasites. We previously showed that Plasmodium falciparum expresses a homolog of human calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) that is ...

  13. Development of a PCR test for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections

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    Alessia Moiana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Toxoplasmosis is a paucisymptomatic and self-limiting disease in the normoergic patient, but it becomes potentially dangerous in immunocompromised patients (transplanted or HIV-infected patients and during pregnancy, because if transmitted from mother to fetus can cause serious malformations to the future child and consequences to the newborn. Recent studies evidenced that a proper early administrated treatment can reduce the seriousness of symptoms in newborns and immunosuppressed patients. Because the serological diagnosis in these categories of patients is often insufficient, the search of DNA of Toxoplasma gondii by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR is progressively used. Although PCR is a specific and sensitive technique, today a fully standardization is still lacking. The aim of this study was the development of a new test based on PCR for the detection of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite in different biological samples. Methods. In this study we proved the performances of a new PCR system, with ready-to-use reagents, where the highly repetitive RE region of T. gondii (GenBank accession number AF146527 is the target gene. As reference, we used the control panel of the European Molecular Biology QCMD 2008 Toxoplasma gondii (TGDNA08 EQA Program. EQA panel for the identification of T. gondii consists of eight samples containing different concentrations of the parasite and two negative samples (seven amniotic fluid and three plasma samples. Results. All negative samples were confirmed, as strong positive too. Only one sample with low concentration (5 parasites/ml provided positive results in 50% of the ten repetitions of the intra-assay test, defining the threshold of sensitivity of the test. Conclusions.This study, although preliminary, demonstrates the specificity and sensitivity of the new test on different biological samples.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Improves Learning and Memory Impairment Induced by Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAHMOUDVAND, Hossein; SHEIBANI, Vahid; KESHAVARZ, Hossein; SHOJAEE, Saeedeh; ESMAEELPOUR, Khadijeh; ZIAALI, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: Here, we established the mouse models of chronic toxoplasmosis by T. gondii Tehran strain to provide a good understanding about defining the possible association between T. gondii exposure and learning and memory impairments. Moreover, as secondary objective of the present study, we hypothesized whether administration of an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor could reduce learning and memory impairments induced by T. gondii infection. Methods: Twenty-four male BALB/c mice were used to establishment of latent toxoplasmosis. The animal model of Toxoplasma infection was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20–25 tissue cysts from Tehran strain of T. gondii. Donepezil (2 mg/kg) an AChE inhibitor to treat Alzheimer disease was injected intraperitoneally once a day for two weeks starting from post-infection day 90. Morris water maze (MWM) task was used to assay spatial learning and short term spatial memory in all groups. One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc test was used to assess differences between experimental groups. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Toxoplasma infection impaired spatial leaning and short term spatial memory of the infected BALB/c mice, whereas donepezil, an AChE inhibitor, improved impairments induced by Toxoplasma infection. Conclusion: T. gondii infection through increasing AChE reduces the level of Acetylcholine (Ach) and consequently affects learning and memory activity in infected hosts, whereas, donepezil as an AChE inhibitor improves these impairments by restoring ACh levels at synapses of neurons in brain. PMID:28096851

  15. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Improves Learning and Memory Impairment Induced by Toxoplasma gondii Infection

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    Hossein MAHMOUDVAND

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Here, we established the mouse models of chronic toxoplasmosis by T. gondii Tehran strain to provide a good understanding about defining the possible association between T. gondii exposure and learning and memory impairments. Moreover, as secondary objective of the present study, we hypothesized whether administration of an acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitor could reduce learning and memory impairments induced by T. gondii infection.Methods: Twenty-four male BALB/c mice were used to establishment of latent toxoplasmosis. The animal model of Toxoplasma infection was established by the intraperitoneal inoculation of 20-25 tissue cysts from Tehran strain of T. gondii. Donepezil (2 mg/kg an AChE inhibitor to treat Alzheimer disease was injected intraperitoneally once a day for two weeks starting from post-infection day 90. Morris water maze (MWM task was used to assay spatial learning and short term spatial memory in all groups. One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc test was used to assess differences between experimental groups.  P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Toxoplasma infection impaired spatial leaning and short term spatial memory of the infected BALB/c mice, whereas donepezil, an AChE inhibitor, improved impairments induced by Toxoplasma infection.Conclusion: T. gondii infection through increasing AChE reduces the level of Acetylcholine (Ach and consequently affects learning and memory activity in infected hosts, whereas, donepezil as an AChE inhibitor improves these impairments by restoring ACh levels at synapses of neurons in brain.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infection among chronic hepatitis C patients:A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hala A El-Nahas; Nora L El-Tantawy; Raghda E Farag; Argaya MA Alsalem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the detection rate of anti-Toxoplasma gondii(T. gondii)IgG and IgM in chronicHCV patients attending theDepartment ofTropicalMedicineMansoura University hospital inEgypt.Methods:This study included120 adult chronicHCV patients,81 decompensate cirrhosis(late-stage) and39 chronicHCV non cirrhotic patients(early-stage) and 40 healthy blood donors as controls.Serum samples were examined for anti-ToxoplasmaIgM and anti-ToxoplasmaIgG antibodies byELISA.Real-timeRT-polymerase chain reaction assay was done for quantitation of hepatitisC virus.Results:Anti-T. gondiiIgG antibodies were detected in75(92.6%) of81 late-stage cirrhotic patients,30(76.9%) of the39 chronicHCV non cirrhotic patients(early-stage) and in6(15%) of40 controls with statistically significant difference(P<0.001). Anti-T. gondiiIgM antibodies were found in11(13.6%) in late stage patients,5(12.8%) in early stage and in3(7.5%) of controls with no statistical significant difference(P=0.610).There was no correlation between stage of fibrosis andIgM orIgG antibodies positivity in our studied groups (P=0.526).HighIgG levels significantly correlated with high viral load(P=0.026).Conclusions:Our findings suggest that the serious opportunisticT. gondii infection represent a potential significant risk for chronicHCV patients.So, toxoplasmosis should be considered in their investigations and follow-up.

  17. Rabbit antibodies against Toxoplasma Hsp20 are able to reduce parasite invasion and gliding motility in Toxoplasma gondii and parasite invasion in Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceres, Veronica M; Alonso, Andrés M; Alomar, M Lis; Corvi, María M

    2012-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii Hsp20 is a pellicle-associated functional chaperone whose biological role is still unknown. Hsp20 is present in different apicomplexan parasites, showing a high degree of conservation across the phylum, with Neospora caninum Hsp20 presenting an 82% identity to that of T. gondii. Hence rabbit anti-T. gondii Hsp20 serum was able to recognize the N. caninum counterpart. Interestingly, both N. caninum and T. gondii Hsp20 localized to the inner membrane complex and to the plasma membrane. Incubation of T. gondii and N. caninum tachyzoites with an anti-TgHsp20 serum reduced parasite invasion at rates of 57.23% and 54.7%, respectively. This anti-serum also reduced T. gondii gliding 48.7%. Together, all this data support a role for Hsp20 in parasite invasion and gliding motility.

  18. Computational Prediction of MicroRNAs from Toxoplasma gondii Potentially Regulating the Hosts’ Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muserref Duygu Sacar; Caner Bagc; Jens Allmer

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were discovered two decades ago, yet there is still a great need for further studies elucidating their genesis and targeting in different phyla. Since experimental discovery and validation of miRNAs is difficult, computational predictions are indispensable and today most computational approaches employ machine learning. Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite residing within the cells of its hosts like human, uses miRNAs for its post-transcriptional gene reg-ulation. It may also regulate its hosts’ gene expression, which has been shown in brain cancer. Since previous studies have shown that overexpressed miRNAs within the host are causal for disease onset, we hypothesized that T. gondii could export miRNAs into its host cell. We computationally predicted all hairpins from the genome of T. gondii and used mouse and human models to filter possible candidates. These were then further compared to known miRNAs in human and rodents and their expression was examined for T. gondii grown in mouse and human hosts, respectively. We found that among the millions of potential hairpins in T. gondii, only a few thousand pass filtering using a human or mouse model and that even fewer of those are expressed. Since they are expressed and differentially expressed in rodents and human, we suggest that there is a chance that T. gondii may export miRNAs into its hosts for direct regulation.

  19. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seropositivity in buffaloes in Paraiba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Willian de Lima Brasil

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. This survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. To detect anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT was used. Among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5% were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024, and 26 (19.1% for anti-N. caninum with titers from 200 to 1,600. Animals seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum were found in 10 of the 14 herds (71.4%. Semi-intensive management systems (odds ratio = 2.99 and presence of pigs (odds ratio = 4.33 were identified as risk factors for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. It can be suggested that T. gondii and N. caninum are widespread in buffaloes in Paraíba, and that additional surveys are needed in order to ascertain the importance of these agents for this species and for pigs, and the influence of the farming type on occurrences of seropositive animals.

  20. Inhibition of growth of Toxoplasma gondii in cultured fibroblasts by human recombinant gamma interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, E R; Guyre, P M

    1984-01-01

    The growth of Toxoplasma gondii in cultured human fibroblasts was inhibited by recombinant human gamma interferon at concentrations of 8 to 16 U/ml. The interferon was titrated by observing a total inhibition of parasite plaque formation 7 days after infection. Inhibition of the growth of T. gondii in the early days after infection was measured by marked reductions in the incorporation of radioactive uracil, a precursor that can only be used by the parasites. This assay showed that when cells were pretreated with gamma interferon for 1 day and then infected, inhibition of T. gondii growth could be readily detected 1 or 2 days after infection. When the pretreatment was omitted and parasites and gamma interferon were added at the same time, no inhibition of parasite growth could be detected 1 day later, although it was apparent after 2 days. Cultures from which the gamma interferon had been removed by washing after a 1-day treatment showed inhibition of T. gondii growth. Gamma interferon had no effect on the viability of extracellular parasites, but it did inhibit the synthesis of host cell RNA and protein by ca. 50% 3 days after treatment. This degree of inhibition is unlikely, of itself, to compromise the growth of T. gondii. Recombinant alpha and beta interferons had no effect on the growth of T. gondii. Images PMID:6425215

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China

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    Yang Na

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, investigations of Toxoplasma gondii infection in poultry (chickens, ducks, and geese have been reported worldwide, including China. However, little is known about the prevalence of T. gondii infection in poultry in northeastern China. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China. Methods In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in 502 adult chickens, 268 adult ducks, and 128 adult geese was surveyed using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results The seroprevalences of T. gondii were 5.8%, 7.8%, and 4.7% in chickens, ducks, and geese, respectively. Prevalence was higher in free-range groups (11.2%, 12.3%, and 8.9% than caged groups (4.7%, 7.5%, and 6.0%, and there was a statistically significant difference only between free-range chickens and caged chickens, but no significant difference was found between free-range ducks, geese and caged ducks, geese. Conclusions The present study shows the prescence of T. gondii infection in slaughtered chickens, ducks, and geese in Shenyang, northeastern China, which suggests that consumption of poultry meat in Shenyang may pose a potential threat to human health and should be given attention.

  2. GABAergic signaling is linked to a hypermigratory phenotype in dendritic cells infected by Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M Fuks

    Full Text Available During acute infection in human and animal hosts, the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of cell types, including leukocytes. Poised to respond to invading pathogens, dendritic cells (DC may also be exploited by T. gondii for spread in the infected host. Here, we report that human and mouse myeloid DC possess functional γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors and the machinery for GABA biosynthesis and secretion. Shortly after T. gondii infection (genotypes I, II and III, DC responded with enhanced GABA secretion in vitro. We demonstrate that GABA activates GABA(A receptor-mediated currents in T. gondii-infected DC, which exhibit a hypermigratory phenotype. Inhibition of GABA synthesis, transportation or GABA(A receptor blockade in T. gondii-infected DC resulted in impaired transmigration capacity, motility and chemotactic response to CCL19 in vitro. Moreover, exogenous GABA or supernatant from infected DC restored the migration of infected DC in vitro. In a mouse model of toxoplasmosis, adoptive transfer of infected DC pre-treated with GABAergic inhibitors reduced parasite dissemination and parasite loads in target organs, e.g. the central nervous system. Altogether, we provide evidence that GABAergic signaling modulates the migratory properties of DC and that T. gondii likely makes use of this pathway for dissemination. The findings unveil that GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, has activation functions in the immune system that may be hijacked by intracellular pathogens.

  3. Computational prediction of microRNAs from Toxoplasma gondii potentially regulating the hosts' gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saçar, Müşerref Duygu; Bağcı, Caner; Allmer, Jens

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were discovered two decades ago, yet there is still a great need for further studies elucidating their genesis and targeting in different phyla. Since experimental discovery and validation of miRNAs is difficult, computational predictions are indispensable and today most computational approaches employ machine learning. Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite residing within the cells of its hosts like human, uses miRNAs for its post-transcriptional gene regulation. It may also regulate its hosts' gene expression, which has been shown in brain cancer. Since previous studies have shown that overexpressed miRNAs within the host are causal for disease onset, we hypothesized that T. gondii could export miRNAs into its host cell. We computationally predicted all hairpins from the genome of T. gondii and used mouse and human models to filter possible candidates. These were then further compared to known miRNAs in human and rodents and their expression was examined for T. gondii grown in mouse and human hosts, respectively. We found that among the millions of potential hairpins in T. gondii, only a few thousand pass filtering using a human or mouse model and that even fewer of those are expressed. Since they are expressed and differentially expressed in rodents and human, we suggest that there is a chance that T. gondii may export miRNAs into its hosts for direct regulation.

  4. Biological role of surface Toxoplasma gondii antigen in development of vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Yi Liu; Dian-Bo Zhang; Qing-Kuan Wei; Jin Li; Gui-Ping Li; Jin-Zhi Yu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the biological role of the surface antigen of Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii) in development of vaccine.METHODS: The surface antigen of Tgondii (SAG1)was expressed in vitro. The immune response of the host to the antigen was investigated by detection of specific antibody reaction to SAG1 and production of cytokines. Mice were immunized with recombinant SAG1and challenged with lethal strain of T gondii RH. The monoclonal antibody to r-SAG1 was prepared and used to study the effects of SAG1 on T gondii tachyzoites under electromicroscope.RESULTS:The mice immunized with recombinant SAG1 delayed death for 60 h compared to the control group.The recombinant SAG1 induced specific high titer of IgG and IgM antibodies as well as IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4cytokines in mice. In contrast, IL-12, IL-6 and TNF-αwere undetectable. When T gondii tachyzoites were treated with the monoclonal antibody to r-SAG1, the parasites were gathered together, destroyed, deformed,swollen, and holes and gaps formed on the surface.CONCLUSION: SAG1 may be an excellent vaccine candidate against T gondii. The immune protection induced by SAG1 against Tgondii may be regulated by both hormone- and cell-mediated immune response.

  5. Land use and soil contamination with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Huan; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-10-15

    Because soil contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts is increasingly recognized as a major source of infection for humans, in this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts in urban area of northeastern Mainland China. From April 2014 to May 2015, more than 9000 soil samples were collected. Detection of T. gondii oocysts was performed applying real-time quantitative PCR. Sensitivity was improved by analyzing four replicates for each sampling point. T. gondii was detected in 30.3% of all samples. Subsequently, a maximum entropy model was used to evaluate the effect of land use and intrinsic soil properties on the risk of contamination with oocysts. Jackknife analysis revealed that the likelihood for positive results is significantly enhanced in soil originating from foci of human habitation, wood land and grass land. Furthermore, soil temperature and humidity significantly influence the probability of contamination with T. gondii oocysts. Our findings indicate that land use may affect distribution of T. gondii oocysts in urban areas.

  6. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Brancal, Hugo; Dubey, Jitender P; Cardoso, Luís; Vilhena, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also at assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a veterinary clinic in the city of Luanda were investigated. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii with a modified agglutination test (MAT) commercial kit, at serial dilutions of 1∶20 to 1∶160. In accordance with the established cutoff value (MAT ≧20), 16 dogs [15·5%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9·2-24·0%] had antibodies to T. gondii: 10 had a titer of 20, two had a titer of 40, and four had a titer of 80. Age (≧12 months) was found to be a risk factor for infection [odds ratio (OR) = 9·23; 95% CI: 1·16-73·27). For each 1-year increase in age, the risk of a dog being found seropositive significantly increased by an OR of 1·18 (95% CI: 1·02-1·36). The present study, which represents the first serological survey of T. gondii in any animal species from Angola, reveals a 15·5% seroprevalence of infection in pet dogs in Luanda. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiology of zoonotic T. gondii infection in Luanda and also in Angola.

  7. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Sánchez-Okrucky, R; Dubey, J P

    2012-03-23

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT, 1:25 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 55 (87.3%) of 63 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), 3 of 3 Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gillii), 2 of 4 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), but not in 3 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), and 2 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Seropositive marine mammals were found in all 4 (100%) facilities sampled. All marine mammals were healthy and there has not been any case of clinical toxoplasmosis in the facilities sampled for at least the last 15 years. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in marine mammals of the same species did not vary significantly with respect to sex and age. This is the first report on the detection of antibodies to T. gondii in marine mammals in Mexico.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

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    Xu Jun-Yan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen causing significant human and animal health problems. Infection in dairy goats not only results in significant reproductive losses, but also represents an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk. In the present study we report for the first time seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Guanzhong and Saanen dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China. Results Sera from 751 dairy goats from 9 farms in 6 counties were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 106 (14.1% serum samples, with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms and seroprevalences in Guanzhong (16.3%, 75/461 and Saanen (10.7%, 31/290 dairy goats were not statistically significantly different. All the factors (sex, age and location reported in the present study affected prevalence of infection, and seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting postnatal acquisition of T. gondii infection. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and this has implications for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this province.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen causing significant human and animal health problems. Infection in dairy goats not only results in significant reproductive losses, but also represents an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk. In the present study we report for the first time seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Guanzhong and Saanen dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China. Results Sera from 751 dairy goats from 9 farms in 6 counties were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 106 (14.1%) serum samples, with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms and seroprevalences in Guanzhong (16.3%, 75/461) and Saanen (10.7%, 31/290) dairy goats were not statistically significantly different. All the factors (sex, age and location) reported in the present study affected prevalence of infection, and seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting postnatal acquisition of T. gondii infection. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and this has implications for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this province. PMID:21457538

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sheep had positive MAT titers: 1:25 in 35, 1:50 in 18, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 1, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 10, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200, or higher, in 20. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection varied with management, breed of sheep, and location. It was significantly higher in sheep raised under semi-intensive (grazed on cultivated pasture and hay) conditions than in those raised under semi-extensive conditions (grazed on communal natural grass land). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in mixed-breed sheep than in pure breeds. Sheep raised in temperate climate in municipalities at 1,560-1,600 m above sea level (Central Valley region) had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than those raised in semiarid and warm-humid climates in municipalities at 1,020-1,080 m of altitude (Cañada region) (29.8% vs. 7.1%, respectively). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

  11. Antibody Detection, Isolation, Genotyping, and Virulence of Toxoplasma gondii in Captive Felids from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rong Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The felids are the only definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii, which could excrete oocysts into the environment and provide an infection source for toxoplasmosis in various warm-blooded animal species, particularly the captive felids that live close to human communities. The infection rate of the captive felids is a perfect standard in detecting the presence of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment. In this study, sera or tissue samples from zoo (1 young tiger, 2 adult tigers, 6 young lions, farm (10 masked palm civets, and pet hospital (28 cats from Henan Province (China were collected. The sera (n = 47 were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies against T. gondii by using modified agglutination test (MAT, whereas the hearts tissue (n = 40 were bioassayed in mice to isolate T. gondii strains. The genotype was distinguished by using PCR-RFLP of 10 loci (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, GRA6, BTUB, L358, c22-8, PK1, c29-2, and Apico. The detection rate for the T. gondii antibody in captive felids was 21.3% (10/47. One viable T. gondii strain (TgCatCHn4 was obtained from a cat heart tissue, and its genotype was ToxoDB#9. The oocysts of ToxoDB#9 were collected from a T. gondii-free cat. The virulence of TgCatCHn4 was low and no cysts were detected in the brain of mice at 60 days post-inoculation. The finding of the present study suggested a widespread exposure of T. gondii for felids in Henan Province of central China, particularly those from the zoological gardens and homes. ToxoDB#9 was the predominant strain in China. Preventive measures against T. gondii oocyst contamination of various components of the environment should thus be implemented, including providing pre-frozen meat, well-cooked cat food, cleaned fruits and vegetables, monitoring birds and rodents, inactive T. gondii oocysts in felids feces, and proper hygiene.

  12. Inflammasome sensor NLRP1 controls rat macrophage susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Kimberly M Cirelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded species. Rats vary in their susceptibility to this parasite. The Toxo1 locus conferring Toxoplasma resistance in rats was previously mapped to a region of chromosome 10 containing Nlrp1. This gene encodes an inflammasome sensor controlling macrophage sensitivity to anthrax lethal toxin (LT induced rapid cell death (pyroptosis. We show here that rat strain differences in Toxoplasma infected macrophage sensitivity to pyroptosis, IL-1β/IL-18 processing, and inhibition of parasite proliferation are perfectly correlated with NLRP1 sequence, while inversely correlated with sensitivity to anthrax LT-induced cell death. Using recombinant inbred rats, SNP analyses and whole transcriptome gene expression studies, we narrowed the candidate genes for control of Toxoplasma-mediated rat macrophage pyroptosis to four genes, one of which was Nlrp1. Knockdown of Nlrp1 in pyroptosis-sensitive macrophages resulted in higher parasite replication and protection from cell death. Reciprocally, overexpression of the NLRP1 variant from Toxoplasma-sensitive macrophages in pyroptosis-resistant cells led to sensitization of these resistant macrophages. Our findings reveal Toxoplasma as a novel activator of the NLRP1 inflammasome in rat macrophages.

  13. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

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    Patrick K House

    Full Text Available Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

  14. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in captive neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M R; Adania, C H; Teixeira, R H F; Silva, K F; Jusi, M M G; Machado, S T Z; de Bortolli, C P; Falcade, M; Sousa, L; Alegretti, S M; Felippe, P A N; Machado, R Z

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to detect antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild captive carnivores maintained in Brazilian zoos. Blood samples were collected from 142 Brazilian wild felids and 19 exotic felids in zoos, and 3 European wolves (Canis lupus) and 94 Brazilian wild canids maintained in captivity in Brazilian zoos of São Paulo, Mato Grosso states and Federal District. One hundred and two (63.4%) and 70 (50.3%) of the 161 wild felids tested were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum by indirect immunofluorescent assay test (IFAT), respectively. Among sampled wild canids, 49 (50.5%) and 40 (41.2%) animals were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum antigens by IFAT, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of antibodies to N. caninum in Brazilian wild captive felids and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus (Lund)).

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging and feral cats on Amami Oshima Island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Keiko; Masatani, Tatsunori

    2017-10-01

    On Amami Oshima Island, free-ranging and feral cats are harmful to wildlife populations. In this study, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in these cats was examined using a newly developed Gaussia luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. Of 1,363 cats, 123 cats (9.0%) was positive for T. gondii. The prevalence was significantly different in different areas; among cats in the rural area, where many wild animals live, including endangered species, T. gondii infection was more prevalent than in the urban area of the island. This finding indicates a possible risk to wildlife of infection from free-ranging and feral cats. Therefore, management of cats is important for wildlife conservation.

  16. Atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain from a free-living jaguar (Panthera onca) in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demar, M; Ajzenberg, D; Serrurier, B; Dardé, M L; Carme, B

    2008-02-01

    Like domestic cats, wild felids are involved in the complete infective cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they can host in their gastrointestinal tract sexually mature parasites and shed infective oocysts in their feces. We report, to our knowledge, the first isolation and molecular characterization of a T. gondii strain from the heart tissue of a free-living jaguar (Panthera onca) in French Guiana. Sequencing at six polymorphic markers indicated that the jaguar isolate had an atypical genotype, including an allele at TgM-A previously found only in isolates from South America, and an allele at GRA6, which was previously reported only in Californian sea otter isolates. These findings are consistent with the recent description of atypical T. gondii strains involved in severe toxoplasmoses in immunocompetent patients in French Guiana that seemed to be linked to a neotropical forest-based cycle involving wild cats and their prey.

  17. Effects of ozone and ultraviolet radiation treatments on the infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumètre, Aurélien; Le Bras, Caroline; Baffet, Maxime; Meneceur, Pascale; Dubey, J P; Derouin, Francis; Duguet, Jean-Pierre; Joyeux, Michel; Moulin, Laurent

    2008-05-31

    Clinical toxoplasmosis in humans has been epidemiologically linked to the consumption of drinking water contaminated by Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. We evaluated killing of T. gondii oocysts after ultraviolet (UV) or ozone treatments by bioassay in mice and/or cell culture. A 4-log inactivation of the oocyst/sporozoite infectivity was obtained for UV fluences >20 mJ cm(-2). In contrast, oocysts were not inactivated by ozone with an exposure (Ct) up to 9.4 mg min l (-1) in water at 20 degrees C. In conclusion, UV treatment can be an effective disinfection method to inactivate T. gondii oocysts in drinking water, but ozone did not show promise in this research.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  19. Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus in Botucatu region, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Zetun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of natural ecosystems has caused several problems to humans and other animals; herein we investigate the close relationship among vampire bats, humans and domestic animals. Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. infections are two worldwide zoonoses that provoke serious damage to animals. To determine the prevalence of bats seropositive for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in the Botucatu region, 204 serum samples of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus were tested for T. gondii antibodies by modified agglutination test (MAT-t and for Leptospira spp. by microscopic agglutination test (MAT-l. No animal was tested positive for T. gondii while leptospiral positivity was 7.8% for Pyrogenes, Shermani and Javanica serovars, with titers varying from 100 to 1,600. Thus, it was verified that D. rotundus does not play a relevant role in toxoplasmosis epidemiology. However, these bats can be important in the maintenance of Leptospira spp. in the environment.

  20. Contamination of poultry meat with Toxoplasma gondii: Risk factor in occurrence of toxoplasmatic reaction in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic anthropozoonosis caused by the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii whose real host is the cat and the transitory hosts are mammals, birds and reptiles. Human infections occur most often through meat of infected animals which is insufficiently processed thermally, so that the World Health Organization (WHO, on these grounds, adopted a Book of Regulations on meat control for the presence of T. gondii. During the period from 2000-2001, using digestive and modified digestive method (according to Pavlovic and Ivanovic, 235 broiler samples were examined, and T. gondii was established in 32.34 % samples (75/256. The results were confirmed with a biological examination. These data indicate the importance of poultry meat control in preventing toxoplasmatic infection in humans.

  1. Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii parasitophorous vacuoles by the mouse p47-resistance GTPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Martens

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The p47 GTPases are essential for interferon-gamma-induced cell-autonomous immunity against the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, in mice, but the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood. We show that the p47 GTPases, including IIGP1, accumulate at vacuoles containing T. gondii. The accumulation is GTP-dependent and requires live parasites. Vacuolar IIGP1 accumulations undergo a maturation-like process accompanied by vesiculation of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. This culminates in disruption of the parasitophorous vacuole and finally of the parasite itself. Over-expression of IIGP1 leads to accelerated vacuolar disruption whereas a dominant negative form of IIGP1 interferes with interferon-gamma-mediated killing of intracellular parasites. Targeted deletion of the IIGP1 gene results in partial loss of the IFN-gamma-mediated T. gondii growth restriction in mouse astrocytes.

  2. SEROPREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH Toxoplasma gondii INFECTION AMONG RURAL COMMUNITIES IN NORTHERN IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSTAMI, Ali; SEYYEDTABAEI, Seyyed Javad; AGHAMOLAIE, Somayeh; BEHNIAFAR, Hamed; LASJERDI, Zohreh; ABDOLRASOULI, Alireza; MEHRAVAR, Saeed; ALVARADO-ESQUIVEL, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis is the fourth most common cause of hospitalization and the second cause of death due to food-borne infections. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence, disease awareness and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis among rural communities in Northern Iran. Data were obtained from serological testing and from participant's questionnaires and were analyzed using a logistic regression. Of the 630 participants, 465 (73.8%), and 12 (1.9%) had IgG and both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, T. gondii seropositivity was associated with the following factors: age, occupation, consumption of undercooked meat, and of unwashed raw vegetables or fruits (p < 0.001). Our study showed a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in the general population of Northern Iran. A health program is needed to increase the public awareness of toxoplasmosis, and its associated risk factors. PMID:27680175

  3. Congenital toxoplasmosis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and identification of the Toxoplasma gondii types involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Gómez-Gordo, Luis; Saugar, José María; Frontera, Eva; Pérez-Martín, Juan Enrique; Reina, David; Serrano, Francisco Javier; Fuentes, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis has been little described in wild animals. We report a case of vertical transmission in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Necropsy and histopathologic examination of a pregnant female and her three fetuses revealed all to have lesions compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Nested polymerase chain reaction B1 gene detected Toxoplasma gondii in maternal (heart and diaphragm) and fetal (central nervous system, retina, optic nerve, heart, lung, tongue, and diaphragm) samples. The mother had a mixed infection of T. gondii types I and III. One fetus with type III infection developed no malformations, but the others-one with type I infection and one infected by types I and III-showed bilateral ocular agenesis, prognathism, and agenesis of the nasal cartilage. These results suggest the pathogenicity of the various T. gondii types may differ in wild boars.

  4. Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii Parasitophorous Vacuoles by the Mouse p47-Resistance GTPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The p47 GTPases are essential for interferon-gamma-induced cell-autonomous immunity against the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, in mice, but the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood. We show that the p47 GTPases, including IIGP1, accumulate at vacuoles containing T. gondii. The accumulation is GTP-dependent and requires live parasites. Vacuolar IIGP1 accumulations undergo a maturation-like process accompanied by vesiculation of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. This culminates in disruption of the parasitophorous vacuole and finally of the parasite itself. Over-expression of IIGP1 leads to accelerated vacuolar disruption whereas a dominant negative form of IIGP1 interferes with interferon-gamma-mediated killing of intracellular parasites. Targeted deletion of the IIGP1 gene results in partial loss of the IFN-gamma-mediated T. gondii growth restriction in mouse astrocytes.

  5. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR and Mouse Bioassay in Rodents of Ahvaz District, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is obligate coccidian zoonotic parasite. Felidae family is definitive and wide ranges of warm-blooded vertebrates are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Rodents are measured as an important source of T. gondii infection for the definitive host. Thus, this study aimed to investigate Toxoplasm infection in rodents of Ahvaz district, southwest of Iran. A total of 100 rodents (73 Rattus norvegicus, 21 Rattus rattus, and 6 Mus musculus were collected and studied by GRA6PCR and mouse bioassay. The finding indicated that 6 out of 100 (6% and 2 out of 100 (2% samples were positive by PCR and mouse bioassay, respectively. The results show notable chronic infection in the rodent and potential transmission of the infection among animal and men in the region. Accordingly, this study recommended investigating of the T. gondii infection in definitive and other intermediate hosts in other points of Khuzestan province, Southwest, Iran.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii strain 119 identify recently isolated Danish strains as one group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.; Petersen, E.; Henriksen, S.A.;

    1998-01-01

    Four mAb raised against the Danish Toxoplasma gondii strain 119, were selected by screening hybridoma supernatants by indirect immunofluorescence against tachyzoites of the RH strain in order to obtain strain restricted markers. Strain restriction extended beyond discrimination of the 119 and RH...... strains, as demonstrated on a further six T. gondii reference strains [BK and GT1 (group A), NTE and 561 (group B), and NED and C56 (group C)]. The bradyzoite-specific mAb, 4.3, reacted to the GT1, NTE and 561 strains, but not to the BK, NED or C56 strains. The tachyzoite-specific mAb, 4.25, reacted....... gondii strain collection representative for a small geographic area (Denmark) was established within a short time span from a variety of animal species. Using the mAb as typing reagents to this Danish strain collection, all 36 animal and two human strains were identified as having the same reaction...

  7. Toxoplasma gondii from liquid nitrogen for continuous cell culture: methods to maximise efficient retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, S; Evans, R; Chatterton, J M W; Ashburn, D; Joss, A W L; Ho-Yen, D O

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to increase the efficiency of continuous growth of Toxoplasma gondii in HeLa cells from tachyzoite stocks frozen in liquid nitrogen. Freezing and retrieval of tachyzoites for continuous cell culture requires more stringent protocols than those published for animal culture. The freezing and retrieval conditions are optimised so that a quality harvest (> or = 1 x 10(6) tachyzoites/mL, > or = 90% viability) can be produced using T. gondii recovered from liquid nitrogen as fast and reliably as possible. Retrieval success rate increased from 36% to 100%. An improved freezing procedure using chilled reagents and freshly harvested parasites, and adoption of an effective recovery protocol with retrieval of 3 x 10(7) tachyzoites into 75 cm2 flasks, change of maintenance media after six hours and subsequent blind passage all contributed to this success. The result is faster and more dependable production of T. gondii for diagnostic and experimental use.

  8. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. infection in cats from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardia, Daniel Fontana Ferreira; Camossi, Lucilene Granuzzio; Neto, Luiz da Silveira; Langoni, Helio; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2013-11-08

    A total of 386 feline blood samples from Brazil were collected and analyzed by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. antibodies. Specific antitoxoplasma IgG were found in 63 of 386 (16.3%) cats and immunoglobulin G against Leishmania spp. was detected in two serum samples. The overall prevalence was significantly higher in adult cats than in juvenile cats for T. gondii infection. There were no significant differences between positivity and gender or breed. The frequency of T. gondii antibodies found in domestic cats of Brazil suggests active transmission within an urban environment. This study proved the occurrence of two important protozoan zoonosis in felines from Brazilian endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Frequency of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in stray dogs of Oaxaca, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Peláez, C; Díaz-Figueroa, I D; Jiménez-Seres, M I; Sánchez-Hernández, G; Correa, D

    2012-08-01

    We studied the frequency of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in stray dogs in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico through the evaluation of 154 sera by indirect ELISA. A frequency of 61.7% was found; it was higher in males (45 of 65, 69.2%) than in females (49 of 89, 55.0%), although this difference was not statistically significant. An increase in frequency was observed with age, the lowest being among animals younger than 1 yr (4 of 20, 20.0%) and the highest in dogs older than 7 yr (21 of 25, 84.0%). This is the first study in dogs of this region of Mexico and revealed high T. gondii transmission and evidence of early exposure in animals that are in close contact with contaminated water or raw meat, or both. Further studies are needed in order to understand the role of T. gondii infection in public health.

  10. Fatal Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii Infection in a Captive Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, V; van de Velde, N; Højer Kristensen, J; van Elk, C; Peters, M; Kilwinski, J; Schares, G; Siebert, U; Wohlsein, P

    2015-11-01

    A 7-year-old female harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), born and held in captivity, suffered from reduced consciousness, imprecise and circling swimming movements and long phases of immobility over a period of 3 weeks. The animal died during treatment in a Danish open sea facility. Pathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous to necrotizing meningoencephalomyelitis, ganglioneuritis, plexus chorioiditis, myocarditis, hepatitis and adrenalitis with few intralesional protozoal tachyzoites and bradyzoites within cysts. Immunohistochemistry was positive for Toxoplasma gondii antigen within the lesions. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of T. gondii-specific genome fragments was confirmed. A multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using nine unlinked marker regions (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) resulted in the identification of T. gondii type II (variant Apico Type I), which is the T. gondii genotype dominating in Germany. This is the first description of disseminated fatal toxoplasmosis in a captive harbour porpoise that lived in an open sea basin. Surface water contaminated with toxoplasma oocysts is regarded as the most likely source of infection.

  11. UNC93B1 mediates host resistance to infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane B Melo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available UNC93B1 associates with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 3, TLR7 and TLR9, mediating their translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the endolysosome, hence allowing proper activation by nucleic acid ligands. We found that the triple deficient '3d' mice, which lack functional UNC93B1, are hyper-susceptible to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We established that while mounting a normal systemic pro-inflammatory response, i.e. producing abundant MCP-1, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ, the 3d mice were unable to control parasite replication. Nevertheless, infection of reciprocal bone marrow chimeras between wild-type and 3d mice with T. gondii demonstrated a primary role of hemopoietic cell lineages in the enhanced susceptibility of UNC93B1 mutant mice. The protective role mediated by UNC93B1 to T. gondii infection was associated with impaired IL-12 responses and delayed IFNγ by spleen cells. Notably, in macrophages infected with T. gondii, UNC93B1 accumulates on the parasitophorous vacuole. Furthermore, upon in vitro infection the rate of tachyzoite replication was enhanced in non-activated macrophages carrying mutant UNC93B1 as compared to wild type gene. Strikingly, the role of UNC93B1 on intracellular parasite growth appears to be independent of TLR function. Altogether, our results reveal a critical role for UNC93B1 on induction of IL-12/IFNγ production as well as autonomous control of Toxoplasma replication by macrophages.

  12. A study on the status of inflammatory systems in camels naturally infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azma, Fatemeh; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sanati, Ahmad Reza

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a unique intracellular parasite with a worldwide distribution. This parasite infects a variety of cells in a wide range of animal species such as dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). In order to evaluate the pattern of possible changes in the blood level of some inflammatory mediators and antioxidant enzymes in camels infected with T. gondii, blood samples were taken from a total of 493 dromedary camels and serum concentrations of inflammatory mediators, acute phase proteins and antioxidant enzymes were measured. According to serological data, no seropositivity was found for anti-T. gondii IgM in serum samples; however, 49 camels (9.93 %) showed positive titrations for anti-Toxoplasma IgG. The analyses of data in seropositive animals showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in the serum level of IL-1β and adenosine deaminase activity; however, IFN-γ and TNF-α demonstrated no significant changes in serum samples of the infected camels. In addition, while major acute phase proteins (haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA)) were markedly elevated in infected camels, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPX) was remarkably decreased in the blood samples of infected animals. Thus, during the chronic infection in camels, T. gondii can promote significant rises in concentrations of some cytokines (such as IL-1β), acute phase proteins and adenosine deaminase.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies in Dairy Cows in Kerman Province, South East Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sanati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan that causes the most common parasitic infection in humans. Since the disease is of economic importance with regard to animal productions, it is necessary to investigate the prevalence of T. gondii infection in meat producing animals especially cattle which constitutes the main source of meat for local consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in dairy cows of Kerman region (southeastern Iran using Modified Agglutination Test (MAT. The sera of 300 dairy cows have been investigated for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. The results indicated two hundred and fourteen samples (71.3% were seropositive and 86 samples (28.7% were seronegative. Out of the 300 cattle (39 male, 261 female screened, 87% of male and 13% of female cattle were contaminated with toxoplasmosis. Since cows are one of the most important meat sources in Iran, there is a high risk of contamination through meat from this host due to their susceptibility to infection. Further studies are required for more data on the prevalence of T. gondii in other meat producing animals to apply effective control strategies against toxoplasmosis.

  14. Rapid Detection of Toxoplasma Gondii Antigen in Experimentally Infected Mice by Dot- ELISA

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    M Mohebali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide endemic disease. In congenitally infected infants and AIDS patients, toxoplasmosis causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. In these cases antibody detection is difficult; so detection of parasite or its components could be useful tool for early detection and following treatment of the infection.Methods: Sixty-three BALB/c mice were injected intra-peritoneal with 5×103 tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain, nine mice were sacrificed daily for 7 days. Fourteen mice were in­jected with phosphate buffer saline as control group. Dot-ELISA was performed for detection of T.gondii antigen in mice sera and capture - ELISA was done as golden standard assay too.Results : Toxoplasma gondii antigen was detected from day 2 in mice sera ; 22% of mice sera on day 2, 33% on day 3,77% on day 4 and 100% on day 5 till their death on day 7 had shown antigene­mia by dot - ELISA, no positive result was detected in control mice by dot- ELISA.Conclusion: Dot-ELISA is a sensitive method for diagnosis of T. gondii infection in the animal model; also, this technique is more rapid and easy to perform method in comparison with cap­ture-ELISA.

  15. Confocal microscope is able to detect calcium metabolic in neuronal infection by toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensusiati, A. D.; Priya, T. K. S.; Dachlan, Y. P.

    2017-05-01

    Calcium metabolism plays a very important role in neurons infected by Toxoplasma. Detection of change of calcium metabolism of neuron infected by Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma requires the calculation both quantitative and qualitative method. Confocal microscope has the ability to capture the wave of the fluorescent emission of the fluorescent dyes used in the measurement of cell calcium. The purpose of this study was to prove the difference in calcium changes between infected and uninfected neurons using confocal microscopy. Neuronal culture of human-skin-derived neural stem cell were divided into 6 groups, consisting 3 uninfected groups and 3 infected groups. Among the 3 groups were 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The neuron Toxoplasma gondii ratio was 1:5. Observation of intracellular calcium of neuron and tachyzoite, evidence of necrosis, apoptosis and the expression of Hsp 70 of neuron were examined by confocal microscope. The normality of the data was analysed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, differentiation test was checked by t2 Test, and ANOVAs, for correlation test was done by Pearson Correlation Test. The calcium intensity of cytosolic neuron and T. gondii was significantly different from control groups (p<0.05). There was also significant correlation between calcium intensity with the evidence of necrosis and Hsp70 expression at 2 hours after infection. Apoptosis and necrosis were simultaneously shown with calcium contribution in this study. Confocal microscopy can be used to measure calcium changes in infected and uninfected neurons both in quantitatively and qualitatively.

  16. Serological Study of Toxoplasma gondii Infection Using IFA Method in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a wide distributed opportunistic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. This was a cross-sectional study of T. gondii antibody titer, which was conducted from June 2003 to August 2004 on renal transplant recipients in Iran. A total of 551 serum samples were obtained from randomly selected population referred from different areas all over the country to Shafa Central Clinic in Tehran. Patient’s information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. Two samples of finger-prick blood were collected from each person and antibody titer against Toxoplasma was assessed by Indirect Fluorescence Antibody (IFA technique on serum samples. Totally 39 cases (7.1% of samples were positive for antibody by the titer of 1: 20 and higher. On investigation of risk factors, no significant difference was found between consumption of under-cooked meat, close contact with animals, and the source of drinking water and seropositivity rate of toxoplasmosis. The relatively low seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection shows the successful approaches to awareness of transplant recipients about the potential risks of acquisition of infectious diseases due to regular administration of suppressive drugs. However, the regular surveillance through serological screening of Toxoplasma antibody in kidney transplant recipients is advisable.

  17. Detection of Natural Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Chicken in Thika Region of Kenya Using Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The detection of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens is a good indicator of possible risk to human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of T. gondii in free-range chicken using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Brain samples from 105 free-range chickens from three administrative areas in Thika region, Kenya, were collected, DNA-extracted, and analyzed using PCR to detect presence of T. gondii. The overall prevalence of T. gondii in all the three areas was 79.0% ...

  18. Effect of aflatoxin on malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and stress index in Toxoplasma gondii infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. M. Al-Taee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for the determination of the combined effect of aflatoxin and Toxoplasma gondii on malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and stress index in sixty young inbred Swiss female albino mice BALB/C, which were randomly divided into six equal groups; Group 1(untreated control animals were maintained without any treatment; group 2 were injected intraperitonealy with T. gondii tissue cysts; groups 3 and 4 were fed diets contaminated with 0.5 and 1 ppm aflatoxin respectively; group 5 and 6 were fed 0.5 and 1 ppm aflatoxin and injected with T. gondii tissue cysts. All animals were maintained for 40 days. One ml, containing 100 Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts was obtained from brain tissue of naturally infected local breed rabbit was injected intraperitonealy. Aflatoxins (AFs were prepared through inoculation of rice with Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 and were incorporated into the diet to provide the described level of 0.5 and 1 ppm. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken to determine Heterophils/lymphopcytes ratio (H/L, while brain was taken to determine glutathione and malondialdehyde concentration. Results showed that mice injected with T. gondii tissue cysts alone and those groups fed aflatoxin at both rates of 0.5 and 1 ppm were exhibited a significant (P<0.05 increase in H/L ratio, and malondialdehyde, while there is a significant (P<0.05 reduction on the level of glutathione. The results revealed that aflatoxin could exacerbate T. gondii infection and induce stress through suppression of glutathione and elevation of malondialdehyde concentration and H/L ratio.

  19. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Mercado-Suarez, Miguel Francisco; Rodríguez-Briones, Alfredo; Fallad-Torres, Laura; Ayala-Ayala, Julio Octavio; Nevarez-Piedra, Luis Jorge; Duran-Morales, Ehecatl; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Martínez-García, Sergio Arturo

    2007-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA). Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4%) of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9%) of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01). The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02). Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8%) than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5%) (p = 0.04). Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased with educational

  20. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

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    Estrada-Martínez Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4% of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9% of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01. The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02. Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8% than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5% (p = 0.04. Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased

  1. Novel triazine JPC-2067-B inhibits Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo.

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    Ernest J Mui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY: Toxoplasma gondii causes substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs for healthcare in the developed and developing world. Current medicines are not well tolerated and cause hypersensitivity reactions. The dihydrotriazine JPC-2067-B (4, 6-diamino-1, 2-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-1-(3'(2-chloro-, 4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxypropyloxy-1, 3, 5-triazine, which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, is highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and apicomplexans related to T. gondii. JPC-2067-B is the primary metabolite of the orally active biguanide JPC-2056 1-(3'-(2-chloro-4-trifluoromethoxyphenyloxypropyl oxy- 5-isopropylbiguanide, which is being advanced to clinical trials for malaria. Efficacy of the prodrug JPC-2056 and the active metabolite JPC-2067-B against T. gondii and T. gondii DHFR as well as toxicity toward mammalian cells were tested. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we found that JPC-2067-B is highly effective against T. gondii. We demonstrate that JPC-2067-B inhibits T. gondii growth in culture (IC50 20 nM, inhibits the purified enzyme (IC50 6.5 nM, is more efficacious than pyrimethamine, and is cidal in vitro. JPC-2067-B administered parenterally and the orally administered pro-drug (JPC-2056 are also effective against T. gondii tachyzoites in vivo. A molecular model of T. gondii DHFR-TS complexed with JPC-2067-B was developed. We found that the three main parasite clonal types and isolates from South and Central America, the United States, Canada, China, and Sri Lanka have the same amino acid sequences preserving key binding sites for the triazine. SIGNIFICANCE: JPC-2056/JPC-2067-B have potential to be more effective and possibly less toxic treatments for toxoplasmosis than currently available medicines.

  2. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

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    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in

  3. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds in Durango, Mexico.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Rajendran, C; Ferreira, L R; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Rodríguez-Peña, S; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2011-10-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds in Mexico. In the present study, serum samples and tissues from 653 birds from Durango State, Mexico, were evaluated for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, titer 1∶25 or higher) were found in 17 (2.6%) of the 653 birds, including 1 of 2 curve-billed thrashers (Toxostoma curvirostre), 2 (1 Anas platyrhynchos, 1 Anas diazi) of 4 ducks, 1 of 2 eagles (Aquila sp.), 5 (27.8%) of 18 great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), 7 (1.3%) of 521 rock pigeons (Columba livia), and 1 (14.3%) of 7 quail (Coturnix coturnix). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in birds captured in a park outside the city zoo (11.6%, 8/69) was significantly higher than that found in birds from other regions (1.5%, 9/584, OR  =  8.38; 95% CI: 2.82-24.77; P  =  0.0001). Brains and hearts of 23 birds (17 seropositive, 6 seronegative) were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 7 seropositive pigeons. The DNA obtained from the T. gondii isolate from the pigeon was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP typing using 11 markers (B1, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) and revealed an atypical genotype. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in great-tailed grackles, the Mexican duck, and curved-billed thrashers and the first survey of wild birds in Mexico.

  4. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

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    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  5. Novel triazine JPC-2067-B inhibits Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo.

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    Mui, Ernest J; Schiehser, Guy A; Milhous, Wilbur K; Hsu, Honghue; Roberts, Craig W; Kirisits, Michael; Muench, Stephen; Rice, David; Dubey, J P; Fowble, Joseph W; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Queener, Sherry F; Liu, Susan R; Jacobus, David P; McLeod, Rima

    2008-03-05

    Toxoplasma gondii causes substantial morbidity, mortality, and costs for healthcare in the developed and developing world. Current medicines are not well tolerated and cause hypersensitivity reactions. The dihydrotriazine JPC-2067-B (4, 6-diamino-1, 2-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-1-(3'(2-chloro-, 4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)propyloxy)-1, 3, 5-triazine), which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), is highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and apicomplexans related to T. gondii. JPC-2067-B is the primary metabolite of the orally active biguanide JPC-2056 1-(3'-(2-chloro-4-trifluoromethoxyphenyloxy)propyl oxy)- 5-isopropylbiguanide, which is being advanced to clinical trials for malaria. Efficacy of the prodrug JPC-2056 and the active metabolite JPC-2067-B against T. gondii and T. gondii DHFR as well as toxicity toward mammalian cells were tested. Herein, we found that JPC-2067-B is highly effective against T. gondii. We demonstrate that JPC-2067-B inhibits T. gondii growth in culture (IC50 20 nM), inhibits the purified enzyme (IC50 6.5 nM), is more efficacious than pyrimethamine, and is cidal in vitro. JPC-2067-B administered parenterally and the orally administered pro-drug (JPC-2056) are also effective against T. gondii tachyzoites in vivo. A molecular model of T. gondii DHFR-TS complexed with JPC-2067-B was developed. We found that the three main parasite clonal types and isolates from South and Central America, the United States, Canada, China, and Sri Lanka have the same amino acid sequences preserving key binding sites for the triazine. JPC-2056/JPC-2067-B have potential to be more effective and possibly less toxic treatments for toxoplasmosis than currently available medicines.

  6. ROP18 is a key factor responsible for virulence difference between Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

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    Tao Lei

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii and Neospora caninum (N. caninum are both obligate intracellular protozoan parasites and share many common morphological and biological features. Despite these similarities the two parasites differ dramatically in virulence in mice, but the factors involved in virulence differences between the two parasites remain unknown. A secreted serine-threonine kinase called rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18 was identified to play a crucial role on virulence differences among different T. gondii clonal lineages. Intriguingly, we found that ROP18 in Nc1 strain of N. caninum (NcROP18 is a pseudogene due to several interrupting stop codons in the sequence in our previous studies. We assume that the difference of ROP18 leads to virulence difference between T. gondii and N. caninum. We constructed a transgenic N. caninum Nc1 stain by transfecting the TgROP18 from the T. gondii RH strain. Phenotype and virulence assays showed that the expression of TgROP18 in N. caninum did not affect the motility and cell invasion, but resulted in a significant increase in intracellular parasite proliferation and virulence in mice. Immunity-Related GTPase (IRG phosphorylation assay showed that the transgenic parasite Nc1-TgROP18 was able to phosphorylate IRGs as T. gondii did. The present study indicated that the ROP18 plays a crucial role in virulence of the closely related parasites T. gondii and N. caninum and it is indeed a key factor responsible for the virulence difference between T. gondii and N. caninum.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii: Pig seroprevalence, associated risk factors and viability in fresh pork meat.

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    Herrero, Laura; Gracia, María Jesús; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Lázaro, Regina; Herrera, Marta; Herrera, Antonio; Bayarri, Susana

    2016-07-15

    This study was conducted on 161 fattening pig farms located in Aragón (Northeast Spain). Serum samples from 1200 pigs were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Antibodies to T. gondii (≥1:20) were detected in 301 pigs (24.52%). The seroprevalence observed in the present study indicates a widespread exposure to T. gondii, as seropositive pigs were found in 96.67% of the farms studied although low pig titers were determined. Risk factors associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were presence of cats in or around the farms, presence of dogs around the facilities, low number of animals in the farms, poor hygiene and bad maintenance of the farms. Finally, it was observed that where rodent baits were used, Toxoplasma prevalence was lower. Risk management measures including control of cats and rodents on the farms, among others, could help to reduce the observed prevalence levels. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in 73.7% and isolated from 42.1% of seropositive pigs and a significant relation between the titers of pigs and the presence and viability of T. gondii in the tissues was found. The detection of T. gondii is not possible by currently practiced meat inspection. Nevertheless, the increased probability of detecting viable forms of T. gondii in tissues of pigs with titers ≥1: 80 could be used as the cutoff for discriminating higher risk animals, and could be used as an effective control tool for the industry of cured meat products. In practical terms, we propose that this value could be used as a critical limit in the HACCP system.

  8. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibody Levels in Blood Supply of Shiraz Blood Transfusion Institute, Iran.

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    Minoo Shaddel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products.A total of 250 blood products (112 fresh frozen plasma and 138 packed cells in the Blood Transfusion Institute, Shiraz, Iran were tested for specific T. gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM by ELISA method in 2013. Positive IgG anti-T. gondii samples were further tested for IgM anti-T. gondii antibody. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis, respectively. The relationship of jobs, blood types, sex, marital status and residency of participants with chronic toxoplasmosis prevalence were statistically analyzed by χ(2.Of 250 samples, 58 (23.2% and one were positive for IgG anti-T. T. gondii (chronic and IgM anti-T. T. gondii (acute antibodies levels, respectively. Twenty nine (25.9% of fresh frozen plasma (FFP samples were positive for IgG anti-T. gondiiiand 1(0.89% of them was positive for IgM anti-T. gondiii antibody. Thirty (21.74% of packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibody. The prevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in workers, farmers, house wives, unemployed and free jobs (P=0.007, people with low education levels (P=0.035 and B type of blood ABO system (P=0.0001. However, there were no significant differences regarding to age, sex, marital status, residency and type of blood products.There were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T. gondii antibodies may be considered.

  9. The role of hormones on Toxoplasma gondii infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Ramírez, María de la Luz; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, Adrián Fernando; Verduzco-Grijalva, Fabiola; Jiménez, Judith Marcela Dueñas

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causal agent of toxoplasmosis in which one third of the world's population has been infected. In pregnant women, it may cause abortion and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, simultaneously progesterone and 17β-estradiol also increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones can aggravate or reduce parasite reproduction. The aim of this study was reviewing the relationship between hormones and infection caused by T. gondii in several experimental animal models and humans, focused mainly on: (a) congenital transmission, (b) parasite reproduction, (c) strain virulence, (d) levels of hormone in host induced by T. gondii infection, and (e) participation of hormone receptors in T. gondii infection. Are the hormones specific modulators of T. gondii infection? A systematic review methodology was used to consult several databases (Pub Med, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Sprinker, Wiley, and Google Scholar) dated from September, 2013 to March, 2014. Thirty studies were included; eight studies in humans and 22 in animals and cell cultures. In the human studies, the most studied hormones were testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, and 17β-estradiol. Type I (RH and BK) and Type II (Prugniaud, SC, ME49, T45, P78, and T38) were the most frequent experimental strains. Thirty-five years have passed since the first studies regarding T. gondii infection and its relationship with hormones. This systematic review suggests that hormones modulate T. gondii infection in different animal models. However, given that data were not comparable, further studies are required to determine the mechanism of hormone action in the T. gondii infectious process.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet dogs in Kunming, Southwest China

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    Duan Gang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, with a worldwide distribution. However, little is known of T. gondii seroprevalence in pet dogs in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, southwest China. The objective of this investigation was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs in this area. Methods A total of 611 serum samples were collected from 7 pet hospitals in Kunming, and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by the indirect haemagglutination (IHA using a commercially-marked kit. Results 132 (21.6% pet dogs were positive for T. gondii antibodies, and the seroprevalence ranged from 17.3% to 34.7% among different sampling regions, the difference was statistically significant (P T. gondii seroprevalence in female and male dogs were 20.8% and 22.4%, respectively, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The seroprevalence ranged from 17.5% to 23.6% among different age groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, and there were no interactions in statistics (P > 0.05 between gender and age of pet dogs in the region. Conclusions The findings of the present survey indicate high T. gondii seroprevalance in pet dogs in Kunming, southwest China, posing significant public health concern. It is necessary to enhance integrated strategies and measures to prevent and control T. gondii infection in pet dogs in this area.

  11. Genetic Engineering Vaccine of Toxoplasma Gondii%刚地弓形虫基因工程疫苗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐安健; 谷俊朝

    2009-01-01

    The Toxoplasma gondii vaccine is the best way to prevent Toxoplasma gondii infection. The improvement of the biological techology promots the study of Toxoplasma gondii vaccine. The newest study progresses of Toxoplasma gondii genetic engineering vaccine, which is summarized on the basis of the current study results, is respected to provide new aspects of the Toxoplasma gondii vaccine study for the researches.%弓形虫疫苗是预防弓形虫感染的最有效手段之一.随着生物学研究技术的不断进步,弓形虫疫苗的研究也不断深入完善.介绍了近些年发展起来的基因工程疫苗的最新研究进展,以期望在对现有研究成果总结的基础上,为今后的科研提供新的视角和方向.

  12. Aspectos ultraestruturais do processo de divisão do Toxoplasma gondii

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    Wanderley de Souza

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é feita uma revisão sobre alguns aspectos biológicos do Toxoplasma gondii, principalmente sobre a ultraestrutura da forma interfásica e as modificações ultraestruturais que ocorrem no parasito durante o seu processo de divisão. Considera-se inicialmente o processo de divisão binária admitindo-se, porém, a possibilidade de que as imagens interpretadas como senão de divisão binária representem estágios da divisão por endodiogenia. Quanto à endodiogenia descrevem-se as alterações que ocorrem na "parasito mãe" durante o processo de formação dos dois "parasitos filhos". Este processo é semelhante no Toxoplasma gondii, Besnoitia jellisoni, Sarcocystis tenella e Frenkelia. Discute-se a possibilidade da formação de mais de dois "parasitos filhos" por um processo de endopoligenia, bem como o processo de esquizogonia. Os resultados mais recentes mostram que não existe esquizogonia nas formas vsgetativas do Toxoplasma gondii, senão que as imagens interpretadas como tal, ao microscópio ótico, são o resultado de endodiogenias sucessivas em que os endozoitas formados permanecem ligados entre si pela região posterior. A esquizogonia é, no entanto, encontrada nas formas que se desenvolvem no interior de células epiteliais do intestino do gato, que é o hospedeiro definitivo do Toxoplasma gondii. Discute-se o conceito de esquizogonia, comparando-o em três protozoários: Eimeria bovis, E. callospermophili e Plasmodium juxtanucleare, que apresentam diferenças entre si quanto ao processo de iniciação da individualização dos "parasitos filhos". Refere-se à recente hipótese que considera a endodiogenia como o processo fundamental de divisão dos esporozoárlos, ocorrendo na fase final da esquizogonia. Finalmente é acentuado o papel que a microscopia eletrônica aliada às modernas técnicas de citoquímica e imunocitoquimica poderá desempenhar no sentido de um melhor conhecimento da biologia do Toxoplasma

  13. HLA-DQBl*0402 alleles polymorphisms detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM

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    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Hartono, Adnan, Zainal Arifin

    2017-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 gene polymorphisms may associated with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients. The HLA-DQB1*0402 in HIV-1-positive patients could be considered risk factors for developing neurological opportunistic infections, mainly Toxoplasma encephalitis. However, the HLA-DQB1*0402 gene polymorphisms status in the Javanese HIV patients is unknown. This study evaluated the prevalence of HLA-DQB*0402 alleles polymorphisms in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status. Since 2009 our research group performing a molecular epidemiology of blood borne viruses in Central Java Indonesia, by collecting the epidemiological and clinical data from the high risk communities. All blood samples were screened for blood borne pathogens by serological and molecular assays including for HIV and Toxoplasma gondii. The genomic DNA was isolated from the whole blood samples. Genetic polymorphisms of HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected with polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSPs) technique. The genotypes were defined according to generated fragment patterns in the agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR products. All of the samples were tested at least in duplicate. HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected in 20.8% (16/77) patients and not detected in all HIV positive samples with negative anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status (n= 200). The HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles polymorphisms were detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM. The polymorphisms found may have association with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients.

  14. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the reproductive system of male goats Detecção de Toxoplasma gondii no sistema reprodutor de caprinos machos

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    Luís Fernando Santana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Male goats of mating age serologically negative for Toxoplasma gondii were divided into three groups: GI - controls (placebo (n = 2; GII - infected with 1 × 10(6 tachyzoites (RH strains (n = 2; and GIII - infected with 2 × 10(5 oocysts (P strains (n = 2. Clinical, hematology, parasite and serology tests and studies of parasites in the semen through bioassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and in reproductive organs (bioassay were performed to assess toxoplasma infection. Serological titers peaked at 4096 in two animal groups infected with the protozoan. The bioassays allowed an early detection of protozoa in semen samples of tachyzoite-inoculated animals. T. gondii DNA was identified through PCR in the semen in five (Days 5, 7, 28, 49, and 70 and two (both at day 56 different days post-inoculation in GII and GIII animals, respectively. It was also possible to detect T. gondii DNA in reproductive organs (prostate pool, testicles, seminal vesicle and epididymis of goats inoculated with either tachyzoites or oocysts. The present study suggests the possibility of venereal transmission of T. gondii among goats and it should be further assessed.Caprinos machos, em idade reprodutiva, sorologicamente negativos para Toxoplasma gondii foram distribuídos em três grupos de animais: GI (n = 2 controle (placebo, GII (n = 2 - infectado com 1 × 10(6 taquizoítos (cepa RH e GIII (n = 2 infectado com 2 × 10(5 oocistos (cepa P. Exames clínicos, hematológicos, parasitêmicos, sorológicos, pesquisa no sêmen e em tecidos do sistema reprodutor, por meio da bioprova, e da Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR, foram conduzidas para avaliar a infecção toxoplásmica. Os títulos sorológicos alcançaram valores máximos de 4096 nos dois grupos de animais infectados. Pela técnica da bioprova, foi possível revelar precocemente a presença do coccídio nas amostras seminais dos animais inoculados com taquizoítos. Pela PCR, foi possível identificar, no

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Iranian general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Shokri, Azar; Rahimi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sharif, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites with widespread distribution globally. It is the causative agent of Toxoplasma infection, which is prevalent in human and other warm-blooded vertebrates. While T. gondii infection in healthy people is usually asymptomatic, it can lead to serious pathological effects in congenital cases and immunodeficient patients. We sought to identify the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in the Iranian general population to develop a comprehensive description of the disease condition in Iran for future use. Electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus) and Persian language databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], Iran Medex, and Iran Doc) were searched. Furthermore, graduate student dissertations and proceedings of national parasitology congresses were searched manually. Our search resulted in a total of 35 reports published from 1978 to 2012.These include 22 published articles, 1 unpublished study, 8 proceedings from the Iranian conference of parasitology, and 4 graduate student dissertations, resulting in 52,294 individuals and 23,385 IgG seropositive cases. The random errors method was used for this meta-analysis. The result shows that the overall seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmos is among the general population in Iran was 39.3% (95% CI=33.0%-45.7%). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence rate between male and female patients. A significant linear trend of increasing overall prevalence by age was noted (Preview of T. gondii infection seroprevalence in Iran, which shows a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection (more than one third). We highly recommend further study for the purposes of aiding patient management and developing more efficient diagnostic tests and effective prevention approaches.

  16. Comparison of Eight Cell-Free Media for Maintenance of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoites

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    Hamed KALANI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is considered as one of the most common infectious diseases caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Tachyzoite is the main form of Toxoplasma and continuously is maintained in cell culture or injected into the mice peritoneal cavity. This study was designed to evaluate the survival rate of RH strain of T. gondii tachyzoites in different cell free, nutrient and biological media at different temperatures.Methods: This experimental study was performed at the Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, in 2010. One ml of each solution including hypotonic saline (0.3%, normal saline (0.85%, RPMI-1640 (RPMI, RPMI with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, RPMI with 20% FBS, ovine hydatid cyst fluid, pasteurized milk of cow, and phosphate buffered saline (PBS along with 4×104 T. gondii tachyzoites were added to plate wells and incubated in 4 °C, 22 °C, 37 °C, and 37 °C under 5% CO2. The survival rate and viability as­sessment of parasites were performed daily and the results were analyzed using Univariate tests.Result: Tachyzoites survival rate in PBS (4 °C and normal saline (4 °C were con­siderably high, compared to other solutions in different conditions (P<0.001. The best temperature for Toxoplasma maintenance was 4 °C (P<0.001.Conclusion: This study introduces two available and economical solutions, PBS (4 °C and normal saline (4 °C media, for maintenance of Toxoplasma tachyzoites as appropriate choice media for a noticeable period of time (11 days in vitro.

  17. Evaluating Recombinant Antigen ROP1 Efficacy in Diagnosis of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection

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    F Keshavarzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite with a relatively broad host range infecting both mammals and birds. Toxoplasma proteins are strong antigens that can begin strong immune reactions, among which Rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1 can be named discharging from rhoptry cell-organ. ROP1 is regarded as a competitor for recombinant vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to evaluate the cloning and expression of ROP1 Toxoplasma gondii in a cloning vector as well as to create this recombinant antigen in order to be applied for later uses. Methods:Genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii was removed and reproduced by PCR, then the PCR product was cloned into the EcoR1 and BamH1 sites of cloning vector, pUET1, and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 plysS strain. Moreover, pcROP1 was sub-cloned into the HindIII and EcoRI sites of the pcDNA3 in order to produce recombining eukaryotic declaration vector. The cloned ROP1 was verified by PCR, limitation enzymes (HindIII and BglΙ digestion and nucleotide sequencing. Then, this recombinant antigen was covered applying IgM and ELISAIgG. Results:The study results demonstrated that a fragment of 757 bp was separated. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the ROP1 cloned in pUET1vector revealed high homology (96% with RH strain Gene Bank Accession (No. M71274. Conclusion:The recombinant ROP1 antigen in an IgM Rec-ELISA test can be replaced with the tachyzoite antigen in IgG and IgM serologic tests.

  18. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pet parrots in China.

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    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Tian, Wei-Peng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Xu, Ying-Tian; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, has become a serious public health problem worldwide. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including parrots. However, little is known of T. gondii infection in parrots in China. Antibodies against T. gondii in 311 parrots including 202 Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 26 Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), 22 Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), and 61 Alexandrine Parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) in the cities of Beijing and Weifang in north China were tested using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-six (8.36%) out of 311 serum samples were positive for T. gondii at the cutoff of 1:5. Among the four species, a higher seroprevalence of T. gondii was found in Cockatiels (13.64%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-27.98), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.61). Seropositivity rates against T. gondii in male parrots (10.43%, 95% CI 5.74-15.12) were not statistically different from that in female parrots (6.08%, 95% CI 2.23-9.93, p=0.17). The seropositivity of T. gondii in parrots from Weifang and Beijing was 11.11% (95% CI 6.13-16.09) and 5.70% (95% CI 2.08-9.31), respectively. The seroprevalence varied in parrots of different age groups, ranging from 5.71% (95% CI 1.27-10.15) to 13.00% (95% CI 6.41-19.69), however, the difference among age groups was not statistically significant (p=0.12). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in parrots in summer (11.63%, 95% CI 6.84-16.42) was significantly higher than in spring (4.32%, 95% CI 0.94-7.70, p=0.02). The results of the present survey indicated that parrots in China are exposed to T. gondii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in parrots in China.

  19. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in psychiatric inpatients in a northern Mexican city

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    Estrada-Martínez Sergio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with psychiatric disorders were found to show a high seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of psychiatric patients in Durango City, Mexico. Seroprevalence in patients was compared with that obtained in a control population. Methods One hundred and thirty seven inpatients of a public psychiatric hospital and 180 controls were examined for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii by enzyme-linked immunoassay (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA. The control population consisted of blood donors of a public blood bank and elderly persons attending a senior center in the same city. Age in controls (42 years +/- 20.2 was comparable with that of the psychiatric patients (43.7 years +/-13.8 (p = 0.42. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the patients were also obtained. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies indicating latent infection with T. gondii was found in 25 (18.2% of 137 psychiatric inpatients and 16 (8.9% of 180 controls (p = 0.02. Ten (26.3% of 38 schizophrenic patients had latent infection and this prevalence was also significantly higher than that observed in controls (p = 0.005. Prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was comparable among patients and controls (4.4% vs 2.2%, respectively, p = 0.22. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection in inpatients was positively associated with sexual promiscuity (adjusted OR = 15.8; 95% CI: 3.8–64.8, unwashed raw fruit consumption (adjusted OR = 5.19; 95% CI: 2.3–11.3, and a history of surgery (adjusted OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 2.6–16, and negatively associated with lamb meat consumption (adjusted OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10–0

  20. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goat abortions from Argentina.

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    Unzaga, J M; Moré, G; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Dellarupe, A; De Felice, L; Gos, M L; Venturini, M C

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum abortions in goats from Argentina by serological, macroscopical and microscopical examination and bioassay, and to characterize the obtained isolates by molecular techniques. For this purpose, 25 caprine fetal fluids, 18 caprine fetal brains and 10 caprine placentas from 8 dairy/meat goat farms from Argentina were analyzed. Gestational age of the aborted fetuses was determined in 18 cases. Protozoal infections were detected by at least one of the applied diagnostic techniques in 44% (11/25) of examined fetuses; specifically, 24% (6/25) were positive to T. gondii, 8% (2/25) were positive to N. caninum and 12% (3/25) were positive to both parasites. In this study IFAT titers were similarly distributed in younger and older fetuses. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of one placenta revealed chalky nodules in the fetal cotyledons and normal intercotyledonary areas, as well as necrosis and calcification of mesenchymal cells in villi. Tachyzoites were observed in peritoneal wash from 2 mice inoculated with brain and a pool of brain and placenta of two fetuses. Cell culture growth of tachyzoites was achieved from one inoculated mouse, and confirmed as T. gondii by PCR. The T. gondii isolate was identified as atypical or non-canonical by nested-PCR-RFLP. This is the first study that investigated the involvement of N. caninum and T. gondii in cases of goat abortion in Argentina.

  1. Evaluation of kynurenine pathway metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii-infected mice: Implications for schizophrenia

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    Notarangelo, F. M.; Wilson, E. H.; Horning, K. J.; Thomas, M. A. R.; Harris, T. H.; Fang, Q.; Hunter, C. A.; Schwarcz, R.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite, is a major cause of opportunistic infectious disease affecting the brain and has been linked to an increased incidence of schizophrenia. In murine hosts, infection with T. gondii stimulates tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway (KP), which contains several neuroactive metabolites, including 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), quinolinic acid (QUIN) and kynurenic acid (KYNA). As these endogenous compounds may provide a mechanistic connection between T. gondii and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we measured KP metabolites in both brain and periphery of T. gondii-treated C57BL/6 mice 8 and 28 days post-infection. Infected mice showed early decreases in the levels of tryptophan in brain and serum, but not in the liver. These reductions were associated with elevated levels of kynurenine, KYNA, 3-HK and QUIN in the brain. In quantitative terms, the most significant increases in these KP metabolites were observed in the brain at 28 days post-infection. Notably, the anti-parasitic drugs pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, a standard treatment of toxoplasmosis, significantly reduced 3-HK and KYNA levels in the brain of infected mice when applied between 28 and 56 days post-infection. In summary, T. gondii infection, probably by activating microglia and astrocytes, enhances the production of KP metabolites in the brain. However, during the first two months after infection, the KP changes in these mice do not reliably duplicate abnormalities seen in the brain of individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:24345671

  2. Partial protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in mice elicited by recombinant Toxoplasma gondii malate dehydrogenase.

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    Liu, Zhuanzhuan; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Yanping; Yin, Litian; Liu, Yisheng; Wang, Yanjuan; Zheng, Kuiyang; Cao, Jianping

    2016-02-10

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and wildlife, sometimes causing serious clinical presentations. Currently, no viable vaccine or effective drug strategies exist to prevent and control toxoplasmosis. T. gondii malate dehydrogenase (TgMDH) is a crucial enzyme in cellular redox reactions and has been shown to be an immunogenic compound that could be a potential vaccine candidate. Here, we investigate the protective efficacy of recombinant TgMDH (rTgMDH) against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. All mice were vaccinated via the nasal route. We determined the optimal vaccination dose by monitoring systemic and mucosal immune responses. The results showed that mice vaccinated with 30 μg of rTgMDH produced the highest antibody titers in serum, a strong lymphoproliferative response, marked increases in their levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ, and significantly greater levels of specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in mucosal washes. In addition, the vaccinated mice were orally challenged with tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii RH strain 2 weeks after the final vaccination. Compared to the control group, we found that vaccination with rTgMDH increased the survival rate of infected mice by 47% and also significantly reduced the tachyzoite loads in their liver (by 58%) and brain (by 41%). Therefore, the rTgMDH protein triggers a strong systemic and mucosal immune response and provides partial protection against T. gondii infection.

  3. Cloning, expression and immunoreactivity of recombinant Toxoplasma gondii GRA5 protein

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    Arab-Mazar, Zahra; Fallahi, Shirzad; Koochaki, Ameneh; Mirahmadi, Hadi; Tabaei, Seyyed Javad Seyyed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite which causes severe diseases in the fetus of pregnant women and immunocopmromised patients. Serological tests based on recombinant protein are one of the main diagnosis methods for the detection of specific antibodies in serum samples. Dense granule antigenic proteins derived from T. gondii (TgGRAs) are potential antigens for the development of diagnostic tools. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from T. gondii (RH-strain) tachyzoites and PCR reaction was done using corresponding primers for GRA5 antigen. The PCR product was purified and ligated into pTG19-t vector and then subcloned into XhoI and BamHI digested pGEX6p-1 expression vector. Recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli (BL21 DE3) and induced by 1mM IPTG and analyzed by 15% SDS-PAGE. Expressed protein was confirmed by western blot analysis. Results: There was no difference among the sequences of T. gondii GRA5 gene from different isolates. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-6p-1/GRA5 induced by IPTG was expressed in E. coli. It was a GST fusion protein and could react with human positive sera analyzed by western blot. Conclusion: The GRA5 gene of T. gondii isolates is highly conservative. This antigen as a recombinant protein was successfully expressed in E. coli, which showed high immunoreactivity. PMID:28149494

  4. Atypical Toxoplasma gondii genotype in feral cats from the Fernando de Noronha Island, northeastern Brazil.

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    Melo, R P B; Almeida, J C; Lima, D C V; Pedrosa, C M; Magalhães, F J R; Alcântara, A M; Barros, L D; Vieira, R F C; Garcia, J L; Mota, R A

    2016-07-15

    Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Brazil have a different phenotypic and genotypic pattern, with predominance of virulent isolates and recombinant genotypes, compared to the North Hemisphere. Considering that a new T. gondii genotype, non-pathogenic to mice, was previously identified from free-range chickens from the Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil, this study aimed to identify genotypes of this parasite in tissue samples of feral cats (Felis catus) from this Brazilian Island. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 18/31 (58%) feral cats. Two non-virulent T. gondii isolates were obtained by mouse bioassay. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP using 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, L358 and Apico) and an atypical strain of T. gondii (ToxoDB #146) was identified. This is the first report of this genotype in feral cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dairy goats from Romania.

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    Iovu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Gavrea, Raluca; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-05-25

    Little information is available about the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goats in Romania and even in Europe. During 2007-2010, 735 serum samples were collected from dairy goats located in 4 historical regions (Crişana, Maramureş, Transylvania and Muntenia) of Romania. Sera were analyzed for T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies (IgG type) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two commercial kits (Chekit Toxotest Antibody ELISA and Chekit Neospora caninum Antibody ELISA; Idexx-Bommeli, Switzerland). Three hundred and eighty-eight out of 735 (52.8%) goats presented T. gondii antibodies and 12 out of 512 (2.3%) goats had N. caninum antibodies. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests that infection with this parasite is common in dairy goats in Romania, and less common the infection with N. caninum. This is the first time that infection with N. caninum in goats has been reported in Romania and the first extended study on seroepidemiology of T. gondii.

  6. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

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    Álvaro Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii Myocarditis after Adult Heart Transplantation: Successful Prophylaxis with Pyrimethamine

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    Tania Mara V. Strabelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii primary infection/reactivation after solid organ transplantation is a serious complication, due to the high mortality rate following disseminated disease. We performed a retrospective study of all cases of T. gondii infections in 436 adult patients who had received an orthotopic cardiac transplant at our Institution from May 1968 to January 2011. Six patients (1.3% developed T. gondii infection/reactivation in the post-operative period. All infections/reactivations occurred before 1996, when no standardized toxoplasmosis prophylactic regimen or co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was used. Starting with the 112th heart transplant, oral pyrimethamine 75 mg/day was used for seronegative transplant recipients whose donors were seropositive or unknown. Two patients (33.3% presented with disseminated toxoplasmosis infection, and all patients (100% had myocarditis. Five patients (83.3% were seronegative before transplant and one patient did not have pre-transplant serology available. Median time for infection onset was 131 days following transplantation. Three patients (50% died due to toxoplasmosis infection. After 1996, we did not observe any additional cases of T. gondii infection/reactivation. In conclusion, toxoplasmosis in heart allographs was more frequent among seronegative heart recipients, and oral pyrimethamine was highly effective for the prevention of T. gondii infection in this population.

  8. Cloning and Clone Analysis of GRA1 Gene from Local Isolate Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoite

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    Didik T Subekti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The GRA1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii encoding protein called GRA1 protein. GRA1 protein known to be immunogenic and essentialy involved in modification of parasitophorus vacoule which has role in immune evasion and virulency of organism. The local isolate of T. gondii is successfuly isolated and known as highly pathogenic isolate similarly as its RH strain. Unfortunately, the homology sequence of GRA1 gene between those isolate still unknown. The purpose of the research are to clone the GRA1 gene and to analyze the homology from pathogenic T. gondii isolate and RH strain. Tachyzoite of T. gondii was grown in mice peritoneum by intraperitoneal injection. Then, total mRNA was isolated and purified. cDNA was synthesized from mRNA and then amplified using F1 dan R1 primers to get clone of GRA1 from local isolate. Homology analysis was perform using several bioinformatic softwares. The result showed that cDNA of GRA1 from local isolate has 84% homologs with RH strain of T.gondii. However, when subsequently editing performed to parts of suspected non coding sequence of cDNA GRA1 to get CDS of GRA1, the homology was increase to 100% compare to CDS of GRA1 of RH strain.

  9. Genetic diversity among capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazil.

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    Yai, Lucia E O; Ragozo, Alessandra M A; Soares, Rodrigo M; Pena, Hilda F J; Su, C; Gennari, Solange M

    2009-06-10

    Recent studies indicate that Toxoplasma gondii isolates of many domestic hosts from Brazil are genetically and biologically different from T. gondii isolates from USA and Europe. However, little is known about genetics of T. gondii isolates from wild mammals in Brazil. In this study, genotypes of 36 T. gondii isolates from capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from six counties in São Paulo state, Brazil, were determined. Sixteen genotypes were identified using 11 genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3. No classical clonal Type I and Type II isolates were found, confirming other findings that these lineages are rare in Brazil. Eight of these 36 isolates were grouped into the common clonal lineages in Brazil, previously designed as Types BrI, BrII and BrIII. Seven of the 16 genotypes were reported for the first time in this study. Three of the 36 isolates showed mixed infections. Analysis of mortality rates in infected mice indicated that Type BrI is highly virulent, Type BrII is intermediately virulent and Type BrIII is non-virulent, which is in agreement with previous report. The allele types at the CS3 locus are strongly linked to mouse-virulence of the parasite. These genotyping results support previous findings that the T. gondii population is highly diverse in Brazil.

  10. Genome-wide expression patterns of calcium-dependent protein kinases in Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Wang, Jin-Lei; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-06-04

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are found in plants and some Apicomplexan parasites but not in animals or fungi. CDPKs have been shown to play important roles in various calcium-signaling pathways such as host cell invasion, egress and protein secretion in Toxoplasma gondii. The objectives of the present study were to examine the T. gondii CDPK genes expression patterns during different development stages and stress responses. We carried out a comprehensive expression analysis of CDPK genes based on previously published microarray datasets, and we also used real time quantitative RT-PCR to study ten T. gondii CDPK genes expression patterns under acid, alkali, high temperature and low temperature conditions. Microarrays analysis indicated that some TgCDPK genes exhibited different expression levels in IFN-γ stimuli conditions or at different developmental stages, suggesting that CDPK genes may play different roles in these processes. Expression profiles under low temperature, high temperature, acid and alkaline indicated that most CDPK may be involved in regulating high temperature, acid and alkaline signaling pathways. We present a genome-wide expression analysis of CDPK genes in T. gondii for the first time, and the mRNA levels change with abiotic and biotic stresses, suggesting their functional roles in these processes. These results will provide a solid basis for future functional studies of the CDPK gene family in T. gondii.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Immunocompromised Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Wang, Ze-Dong; Liu, Huan-Huan; Ma, Zhan-Xi; Ma, Hong-Yu; Li, Zhong-Yu; Yang, Zhi-Bin; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Xu, Bin; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has been suggested as an important opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We conducted a global meta-analysis to assess the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of T. gondii infection in immunocompromised individuals. Electronic databases were reviewed for T. gondii infection in HIV/AIDS patients, cancer patients, and transplant recipients, and meta-analyses were conducted to calculate overall estimated prevalence and ORs using random or fixed-effects models. Totally, 72 eligible studies were included. The estimated pooled prevalence of T. gondii infection in immunocompromised patients and the control was 35.9 and 24.7% (p HIV/AIDS patients and the control (p 0.05), whose estimated pooled ORs were 1.92 (95% CI, 1.44–2.55), 2.89 (95% CI, 2.36–3.55), and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16–1.95), respectively. This study is the first to demonstrate that the immunocompromised patients are associated with higher odds of T. gondii infection, and appropriate prevention and control measures are highly recommended for these susceptible populations.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii peptide ligands open the gate of the HLA class I binding groove.

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    McMurtrey, Curtis; Trolle, Thomas; Sansom, Tiffany; Remesh, Soumya G; Kaever, Thomas; Bardet, Wilfried; Jackson, Kenneth; McLeod, Rima; Sette, Alessandro; Nielsen, Morten; Zajonc, Dirk M; Blader, Ira J; Peters, Bjoern; Hildebrand, William

    2016-01-29

    HLA class I presentation of pathogen-derived peptide ligands is essential for CD8+ T-cell recognition of Toxoplasma gondii infected cells. Currently, little data exist pertaining to peptides that are presented after T. gondii infection. Herein we purify HLA-A*02:01 complexes from T. gondii infected cells and characterize the peptide ligands using LCMS. We identify 195 T. gondii encoded ligands originating from both secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. Surprisingly, T. gondii ligands are significantly longer than uninfected host ligands, and these longer pathogen-derived peptides maintain a canonical N-terminal binding core yet exhibit a C-terminal extension of 1-30 amino acids. Structural analysis demonstrates that binding of extended peptides opens the HLA class I F' pocket, allowing the C-terminal extension to protrude through one end of the binding groove. In summary, we demonstrate that unrealized structural flexibility makes MHC class I receptive to parasite-derived ligands that exhibit unique C-terminal peptide extensions.

  13. Fatal toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed domestic cat from Brazil caused by Toxoplasma gondii clonal type I

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    Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the study was to report on a fatal case of feline toxoplasmosis with coinfection with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV. A domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus presented intense dyspnea and died three days later. In the necropsy, the lungs were firm, without collapse and with many white areas; moderate lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly were also observed. The histopathological examination showed severe necrotic interstitial bronchopneumonia and mild necrotic hepatitis, associated with intralesional cysts and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii that were positive by anti-T. gondii immunohistochemical (IHC evaluation. The bone marrow showed chronic myeloid leukemia and the neoplastic cells were positive by anti-FeLV IHC evaluation. DNA extracted from lungs was positive for T. gondii by PCR targeting REP-529. T. gondii was characterized by PCR-RFLP and by the microsatellites technique. ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #10, i.e. the archetypal type I, was identified. Microsatellite analysis showed that the strain was a variant of type I with two atypical alleles. This was the first time that a T. gondii clonal type I genotype was correlated with a case of acute toxoplasmosis in a host in Brazil.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

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    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  15. Long-term humoral antibody responses by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with oocysts of four strains of Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Andrews, C.D.; Thulliez, P.;

    1997-01-01

    Antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 16 pigs orally inoculated with 1000 or 10000 oocysts of one of the four strains (GT-1, ME-49, TS-2, TC-2) of T. gondii. Pigs were euthanized on postinoculation days 103-875 and their tissues were bioassayed for T. gondii. Antibody titers wer...

  16. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Sundar, N.; Pineda, N.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 98 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Nicragua was determined. Antibodies to T. gondi...

  17. High yield expression and single-step purification of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1, GRA1, and GRA7 antigens in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiszczynska-Sawicka, E.; Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.; Dabrowski, Slawomir;

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a simple, highly efficient and reproducible method for obtaining large quantities of highly pure recombinant Toxoplasma gondii antigens, which can be used for diagnostic application. The obtained T gondii SAG1, GRA1, and GRA7 antigens (as fusion proteins), expressed...... in the serodiagnosis of T gondii infection. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved....

  18. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in patients with vision and hearing impairments, cancer, HIV, or undergoing hemodialysis in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection may cause a variety of symptoms involving virtually all organs. Little is known of the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in different patient groups in Mexico. We sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated epidemiological characteristics in...

  19. Optimization of the cryopreservation of biological resources, Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzabi, Alexandre; Escotte-Binet, Sandie; Le Naour, Richard; Ortis, Naïma; Audonnet, Sandra; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    The conservation of Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from humans and animals is essential for conducting studies on Toxoplasma. Conservation is the main function of the French Biological Toxoplasma Resource Centre (BRC Toxoplasma, France, http://www.toxocrb.com/). In this study, we have determined the suitability of a standard cryopreservation methodology for different Toxoplasma strains using the viability of tachyzoites assayed by flow cytometry with dual fluorescent labelling (calcein acetoxymethyl ester and propidium iodide) of tachyzoites. This method provides a comparative quantitative assessment of viability after thawing. The results helped to define and refine quality criteria before tachyzoite cryopreservation and optimization of the cryopreservation parameters. The optimized cryopreservation method uses a volume of 1.0 mL containing 8 × 10(6) tachyzoites, in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) containing 10% foetal calf serum (FCS). The cryoprotectant additive is 10% v/v Me2SO without incubation. A cooling rate of ∼1 °C/min to -80 °C followed, after 48 h, by storage in liquid nitrogen. Thawing was performed using a 37 °C water bath that produced a warming rate of ∼100 °C/min, and samples were then diluted 1:5 in IMDM with 5% FCS, and centrifuged and resuspended for viability assessment.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Animal-Friendly Pig Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Eissen, O.A.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Munniksma, K.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.; Kortbeek, T.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE. Consumption of undercooked pork meat products has been considered a major risk factor for contracting toxoplasmosis in humans. Indoor farming and improved hygiene have drastically reduced Toxoplasma infections in pigs over the past decades. Whether introduction of animal-friendly production

  1. Involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase signalling pathway in host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii

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    Robert-Gangneux F.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about signalling in Toxoplasma gondii, but it is likely that protein kinases might play a key role in the parasite proliferation, differentiation and probably invasion. We previously characterized Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP kinases in T. gondii lysates. In this study, cultured cells were tested for their susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii infection after tachyzoite pretreatment with drugs interfering with AMP kinase activation pathways. Protein kinases inhibitors, i.e. genistein, R031-8220 and PD098059, reduced tachyzoite infectivity by 38 ± 4.5 %, 85.5 ± 9 % and 56 ± 10 %, respectively. Conversely, protein kinases activators, i.e. bombesin and PMA, markedly increased infectivity (by 202 ± 37 % and 258 ± 14 %, respectively. These results suggest that signalling pathways involving PKC and AAAP kinases play a role in host cell invasion by Toxoplasma.

  2. MIC3, a novel cross-protective antigen expressed in Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daoyu; Liu, Jing; Hao, Pan; Wang, Jing; Lei, Tao; Shan, Dan; Liu, Qun

    2015-10-01

    Microneme protein 3 (MIC3) is an important adhesion molecule expressed by Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum that plays a crucial role in invasion. In our study, we found that recombinant TgMIC3 (rTgMIC3) was recognized by both T. gondii-reactive sera and hyper-immune serum against N. caninum. Polyclonal antibodies against TgMIC3 reacted with N. caninum by western blot and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). These results indicate that MIC3 is a novel cross-reactive antigen expressed in N. caninum and T. gondii. To evaluate the immune-protective effect of TgMIC3, we created the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1-TgMIC3, transfected this vector into HEK293T cells by lipofection, and evaluated TgMIC3 expression in HEK293T cells using western blot and IFA. Then, groups of BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant TgMIC3 protein, pcDNA3.1-TgMIC3, or two-vaccine immunization. The mice were challenged with T. gondii RH or N. caninum Nc-1 tachyzoites 14 days after the final immunization. The survival time of T. gondii-infected mice was recorded, and the parasite burden in the brain of N. caninum-infected mice 30 days post-infection was measured using real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that mice immunized with TgMIC3-based vaccines elicited high antibody titers. After parasitic challenge, mice immunized with pcDNA-TgMIC3 exhibited prolonged survival when infected with T. gondii tachyzoites and a lower parasitic burden in the brains of mice challenged with N. caninum tachyzoites. These results demonstrate that TgMIC3 is a cross-protective antigen expressed in T. gondii and N. caninum and could elicit some protection against toxoplasmosis and neosporosis.

  3. A novel PAN/apple domain-containing protein from Toxoplasma gondii: characterization and receptor identification.

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    Haiyan Gong

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that invades nucleated cells, causing toxoplasmosis in humans and animals worldwide. The extremely wide range of hosts susceptible to T. gondii is thought to be the result of interactions between T. gondii ligands and receptors on its target cells. In this study, a host cell-binding protein from T. gondii was characterized, and one of its receptors was identified. P104 (GenBank Access. No. CAJ20677 is 991 amino acids in length, containing a putative 26 amino acid signal peptide and 10 PAN/apple domains, and shows low homology to other identified PAN/apple domain-containing molecules. A 104-kDa host cell-binding protein was detected in the T. gondii lysate. Immunofluorescence assays detected P104 at the apical end of extracellular T. gondii. An Fc-fusion protein of the P104 N-terminus, which contains two PAN/apple domains, showed strong affinity for the mammalian and insect cells evaluated. This binding was not related to protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions, but to a protein-glycosaminoglycan (GAG interaction. Chondroitin sulfate (CS, a kind of GAG, was shown to be involved in adhesion of the Fc-P104 N-terminus fusion protein to host cells. These results suggest that P104, expressed at the apical end of the extracellular parasite, may function as a ligand in the attachment of T. gondii to CS or other receptors on the host cell, facilitating invasion by the parasite.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in household and stray cats in Lanzhou, northwest China

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    Wu Song-Ming

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite infecting humans and almost all warm-blooded animals. As the only definitive host, cats play a crucial role in the transmission of T. gondii infection by shedding parasite oocysts in their feces. However, little information on T. gondii infection in cats was available in Lanzhou, northwest China. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in household and stray cats in Lanzhou, northwest China. Results A total of 221 (179 households and 42 strays blood samples were collected from clinically healthy cats admitted to several pet hospitals located in Lanzhou City, between November 2010 and July 2011 for the serological detection of T. gondii infection. The majority (207 of these cats represented Chinese Lihua cats. 47 of 221 (21.3% examined cats were seropositive for T. gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (MAT at the cut-off of 1:25. The seroprevalence in household and stray cats was assessed to be 15.6% and 45.2%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05. The seroprevalence ranged from 15.1% to 25.8% among different age groups, but the differences were not statistically significant (P >0.05. Studies showed that there was no relationship between seroprevalence and the gender (P >0.05. Conclusions The present survey indicated the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, which poses a threat to animal and human health. Therefore, measures should be taken to control and prevent toxoplasmosis of cats in this area.

  5. A Systematic Meta-Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Food Animals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Mishra, Abhinav; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that T. gondii is one of three pathogens (along with Salmonella and Listeria), that together account for >70% of all deaths due to foodborne illness in the United States. Food animals are reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. Based on limited population-based data, the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization estimated that approximately 22% of human T. gondii infections are meatborne. The objective of the current study was to conduct a systematic meta-analysis to provide a precise estimation of T. gondii infection prevalence in food animals produced in the United States. Four databases were searched to collect eligible studies. Prevalence was estimated in six animal categories (confinement-raised market pigs, confinement-raised sows, non-confinement-raised pigs, lamb, goats, and non-confinement-raised chickens) by a quality-effects model. A wide variation in prevalence was observed in each animal category. Animals raised outdoors or that have outdoor access had a higher prevalence as compared with animals raised indoors. T. gondii prevalence in non-confinement-raised pigs ranked the highest (31.0%) followed by goats (30.7%), non-confinement-raised chickens (24.1%), lambs (22.0%), confinement-raised sows (16.7%), and confinement-raised market pigs (5.6%). These results indicate that T. gondii-infected animals are a food safety concern. The computed prevalence can be used as an important input in quantitative microbial risk assessment models to further predict public health burden.

  6. Lack of association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and occupational exposure to animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Saldaña-Simental, Diana Elizabeth; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Márquez-Conde, José Ángel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Martínez-Ramírez, Lucio; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The association of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and occupational exposure to animals has been scantly determined. We performed a case-control study with 200 subjects from Durango Province, Mexico, occupationally exposed to animals and 200 age- and gender-matched subjects without this occupation. Sera from all participants were analyzed for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The association of seroprevalence with sociodemographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics in cases was determined. Cases and controls had similar frequencies of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (12/200: 6.0% and 11/200: 5.5%, respectively) (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 0.12–73.64; P = 1.0). The frequency of sera with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was comparable among cases and controls (P = 0.61). Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies was similar in cases (4, 2.0%) than in controls (4, 2.0%) (P = 1.0). Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity was associated with eating while working (OR = 7.14; 95% CI: 1.91–26.72; P = 0.003) and consumption of duck meat (OR = 5.43; 95% CI: 1.43–20.54; P = 0.01). No association between seropositivity to T. gondii and occupational exposure to animals was found. However, risk factors for infection found should be taken into account to reduce the exposure to T. gondii. PMID:25544890

  7. Toxoplasma gondii in Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) antibodies and DNA detected by IFAT and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truppel, Jessé Henrique; Reifur, Larissa; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Lange, Rogério Ribas; de Castro Vilani, Ricardo Guilherme D'Otaviano; Gennari, Solange Maria; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2010-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered nowadays as one of the most important foodborne diseases in the world. One of the emerging risks in acquiring infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the increasing popularity of wild animals and game meat. Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is the world's largest extant rodent and is used for human consumption in many areas of South America, and in case it carries T. gondii cysts, it may act as a source of infection. In the present study, we detected infection with T. gondii in capybaras from the south of Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the serum of capybaras using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT > or = 1:16). Blood, liver, heart, lymph nodes, and spleen tissues were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for B1 gene and ITS1 region. The results showed that 61.5% (16/26) capybaras were seropositive to T. gondii. Titers of specific antibodies to T. gondii ranged from 1:16 to 1:512. Among the feral rodents studied, 7.7% (2/26) were PCR positive for B1 gene assay and 11.5% (3/26) were positive for ITS1 PCR assay; for both test, the prevalence was 15.4%. Liver, heart, and blood tissues were those which tested positive for the apicomplexan. Our findings show a high percentage of infection with T. gondii in asymptomatic capybaras. Based on those data, we hypothesize that the consumption of raw or undercooked capybara meat could be a source of infection for humans.

  8. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-08

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed.

  9. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Crivelli-Diaz, Margarita; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Lopez-de-Buen, Lorena; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT; cut off 1:25); 182 (45.3%) of the 402 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 28, 1:50 in 22, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 30, 1:400 in 35, 1:800 in 23, 1:1,600 in 11, and 1:3,200 or higher in 15. Seropositive pigs were found in 137 (53.3%) of 257 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in pigs was associated with tropical-humid climate (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.47-12.62; P = 0.007) of the raising municipalities, feeding with leftovers (OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.01-7.91; P = 0.04), storing pig food in the owner's home (OR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.09-5.22; P = 0.02), and free ranging (OR = 3.48; 95% CI 1.49-8.15; P = 0.003). Results indicate that backyard pigs in Veracruz have the highest seroprevalence of T. gondii infection obtained by MAT in pigs studied in Mexico so far. The correlates of T. gondii infection found in the present study may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection in pigs. Results also remark the risk of T. gondii infection in humans by ingestion of raw or undercook pork in Mexico.

  10. An experimental Toxoplasma gondii dose response challenge model to study therapeutic or vaccine efficacy in cats.

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    Jan B W J Cornelissen

    Full Text Available High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Previous studies have indicated that bradyzoites are highly infectious for cats. To infect cats, tissue cysts were isolated from the brains of mice infected with oocysts of T. gondii M4 strain, and bradyzoites were released by pepsin digestion. Free bradyzoites were counted and graded doses (1000, 100, 50, 10, and 250 intact tissue cysts were inoculated orally into three cats each. Oocysts shed by these five groups of cats were collected from faeces by flotation techniques, counted microscopically and estimated by real time PCR. Additionally, the number of T. gondii in heart, tongue and brains were estimated, and serology for anti T. gondii antibodies was performed. A Beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the infectivity of single bradyzoites and linear regression was used to determine the relation between inoculated dose and numbers of oocyst shed. We found that real time PCR was more sensitive than microscopic detection of oocysts, and oocysts were detected by PCR in faeces of cats fed 10 bradyzoites but by microscopic examination. Real time PCR may only detect fragments of T. gondii DNA without the presence of oocysts in low doses. Prevalence of tissue cysts of T. gondii in tongue, heart and brains, and anti T. gondii antibody concentrations were all found to depend on the inoculated bradyzoite dose. The combination of the experimental challenge model and the dose response analysis provides a suitable reference for quantifying the potential reduction in human health risk due to a treatment of domestic cats by vaccination or by therapeutic drug application.

  11. An Experimental Toxoplasma gondii Dose Response Challenge Model to Study Therapeutic or Vaccine Efficacy in Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Jan B. W. J.; van der Giessen, Joke W. B.; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Teunis, Peter F. M.; Wisselink, Henk J.

    2014-01-01

    High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Previous studies have indicated that bradyzoites are highly infectious for cats. To infect cats, tissue cysts were isolated from the brains of mice infected with oocysts of T. gondii M4 strain, and bradyzoites were released by pepsin digestion. Free bradyzoites were counted and graded doses (1000, 100, 50, 10), and 250 intact tissue cysts were inoculated orally into three cats each. Oocysts shed by these five groups of cats were collected from faeces by flotation techniques, counted microscopically and estimated by real time PCR. Additionally, the number of T. gondii in heart, tongue and brains were estimated, and serology for anti T. gondii antibodies was performed. A Beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the infectivity of single bradyzoites and linear regression was used to determine the relation between inoculated dose and numbers of oocyst shed. We found that real time PCR was more sensitive than microscopic detection of oocysts, and oocysts were detected by PCR in faeces of cats fed 10 bradyzoites but by microscopic examination. Real time PCR may only detect fragments of T. gondii DNA without the presence of oocysts in low doses. Prevalence of tissue cysts of T. gondii in tongue, heart and brains, and anti T. gondii antibody concentrations were all found to depend on the inoculated bradyzoite dose. The combination of the experimental challenge model and the dose response analysis provides a suitable reference for quantifying the potential reduction in human health risk due to a treatment of domestic cats by vaccination or by therapeutic drug application. PMID:25184619

  12. Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected Bos taurus and Bos indicus semen and tissues Toxoplasma gondii em semen e tecidos de Bos taurus and Bos indicus experimentalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Scarpelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen young steers were inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii and randomly distributed into three groups of six animals each: GI, 2.5x10(5 "P" strain oocysts, GII, 5.0x10(6 "RH" strain tachyzoites, and GIII (Control. Clinical, serological and parasitemia exams were realized. Parasite investigation by bioassay and PCR was realized on semen and fragments of skeletal musculature, lymph nodes, brain, retina, spleen, liver, lung, testicle, epididymis and seminal vesicle. Blood and semen samples were collected on days -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and weekly thereafter, up to postinfection day (PID 84. The inoculated steers (GI and GII presented hyperthermia from PID 3 to 16. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected through the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT on PID 5 (1:16 in both inoculated groups (oocysts and tachyzoites, reaching peaks of 1:4096 on PID 7. Parasitemia outbursts occurred in all infected bovines, principally from PID 7 to 28, independent of the strain and inoculate used. Bioassays revealed the presence of parasites in semen samples of animals infected with oocysts (GI and tachyzoites (GII on several experimental days between PID 7 and 84. Tissue parasitism by T. gondii was diagnosed by bioassay and the PCR technique in several organ and tissue fragments. These findings suggest the possibility of sexual transmission of T. gondii in the bovine species.Dezoito bovinos foram inoculados com Toxoplasma gondii e distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de seis bovinos cada: GI (2,5x10(5 oocistos da cepa "P", GII (5,0x10(6 taquizoítos da cepa "RH" e GIII (controle. Exames clínicos, sorológicos e parasitêmicos foram realizados. Pesquisas do parasito, por meio da bioprova e pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR, foram realizadas no sêmen e em fragmentos de musculatura esquelética, linfonodos, cérebro, retina, baço, fígado, pulmão, testículo, epidídimo e vesícula seminal. Amostras de sangue e sêmen foram

  13. From cells to signaling cascades: manipulation of innate immunity by Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkers, Eric Y

    2003-12-05

    The intracellular opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is a potent stimulus for cell-mediated immunity, and IL-12-dependent IFN-gamma induction is vital in resistance to the parasite. Dendritic cells, neutrophils and macrophages are important sources of IL-12 during infection. T. gondii possesses two mechanisms for triggering IL-12. One is dependent upon the common adaptor protein MyD88, and is likely to involve Toll-like receptors. The other is a more unusual pathway that involves triggering through CCR5 by a parasite cyclophilin molecule. Countering these potent pro-inflammatory activities, T. gondii has several mechanisms to down-regulate immunity. Intracellular infection causes a blockade in the NFkappaB macrophage signaling pathway, correlating with reduced capacity for IL-12 and TNF-alpha production. The parasite also prevents STAT1 activity, resulting in decreased levels of IFN-gamma-stimulated MHC surface antigen expression. Furthermore, infection also induces resistance to apoptosis through inhibition of caspase activity. Extracellular pathways of suppression involve soluble mediators such as IL-10 and lipoxins that have potent IL-12 down-regulatory effects. The balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signaling which T. gondii engages is likely dictated by requirements for a stable host-parasite interaction. First, there is a need for Toxoplasma to induce an immune response robust enough to allow host survival and establish long-term chronic infection. Second, the parasite must avoid immune-elimination and induction of pro-inflammatory pathology that can cause lethality if unchecked. The widespread distribution of T. gondii and the normally innocuous nature of infection indicate the skill with which the parasite achieves the two seemingly contrary goals.

  14. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers living in poverty in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Campillo-Ruiz, Federico; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2013-04-20

    Migrant agricultural workers are a group of people living in poverty with poor housing, sanitary conditions and hygiene practices. Little is known about the epidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers. We investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 173 migrant workers hired for seasonal agricultural work in Durango State in northern Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 173 migrant workers (mean age 34.82 ± 14.01 years), 50 (28.9%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 36 (20.8%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was not influenced by gender, age, birth place, or educational level. In contrast, seroprevalence was significantly higher in workers residing in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Migrant workers suffering from memory impairment, dizziness, or syncope had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than those without such clinical features. Logistic regression analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.06-5.35; P = 0.03) and low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.43-10.42; P = 0.007), and negatively associated with national trips (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003) and consumption of raw milk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02). Other behavioral characteristics including consumption of meat or untreated water were not associated with T. gondii infection. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in internal migrant agricultural workers living in poverty. Results deserve further investigation of causal relations between clinical symptoms and infection, and may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii infection specifically increases the levels of key host microRNAs.

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    Gusti M Zeiner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect and replicate in virtually any nucleated cell in many species of warm-blooded animals; thus, it has evolved the ability to exploit well-conserved biological processes common to its diverse hosts. Here we have investigated whether Toxoplasma modulates the levels of host microRNAs (miRNAs during infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarray profiling and a combination of conventional molecular approaches we report that Toxoplasma specifically modulates the expression of important host microRNAs during infection. We show that both the primary transcripts for miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 and the pivotal miRNAs that are derived from miR-17 approximately 92 display increased abundance in Toxoplasma-infected primary human cells; a Toxoplasma-dependent up-regulation of the miR-17 approximately 92 promoter is at least partly responsible for this increase. The abundance of mature miR-17 family members, which are derived from these two miRNA clusters, remains unchanged in host cells infected with the closely related apicomplexan Neospora caninum; thus, the Toxoplasma-induced increase in their abundance is a highly directed process rather than a general host response to infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altered levels of miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 are known to play crucial roles in mammalian cell regulation and have been implicated in numerous hyperproliferative diseases although the mechanisms driving their altered expression are unknown. Hence, in addition to the implications of these findings on the host-pathogen interaction, Toxoplasma may represent a powerful probe for understanding the normal mechanisms that regulate the levels of key host miRNAs.

  16. MicroRNA-132 dysregulation in Toxoplasma gondii infection has implications for dopamine signaling pathway

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    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Talbot, C. Conover; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis and toxoplasmic encephalitis can be associated with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, which host cell processes are regulated and how Toxoplasma gondii affects these changes remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA sequences critical to neurodevelopment and adult neuronal processes by coordinating the activity of multiple genes within biological networks. We examined the expression of over 1000 miRNAs in human neuroepithelioma cells in response to infection with Toxoplasma. MiR-132, a cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB)-regulated miRNA, was the only miRNA that was substantially upregulated by all three prototype Toxoplasma strains. The increased expression of miR-132 was also documented in mice following infection with Toxoplasma. To identify cellular pathways regulated by miR-132, we performed target prediction followed by pathway enrichment analysis in the transcriptome of Toxoplasma-infected mice. This led us to identify 20 genes and dopamine receptor signaling was their strongest associated pathway. We then examined myriad aspects of the dopamine pathway in the striatum of Toxoplasma infected mice 5 days after infection. Here we report decreased expression of D1-like dopamine receptors (DRD1, DRD5), metabolizing enzyme (MAOA) and intracellular proteins associated with the transduction of dopamine-mediated signaling (DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr34 and Ser97). Increased concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were documented by HPLC analysis; however, the metabolism of dopamine was decreased and serotonin metabolism was unchanged. Our data show that miR-132 is upregulated following infection with Toxoplasma and is associated with changes in dopamine receptor signaling. Our findings provide a possible mechanism for how the parasite contributes to the neuropathology of infection. PMID:24657774

  17. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in donkeys (Equus asinus) from the U.S.A. and isolation of T. gondii from cats on donkey farms

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    Donkeys (Equus asinus) are used as companion animals, in leisure activities as working animals, for onotherapy, and their meat and milk is used for human consumption in certain countries. Here we report first serological survey for Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in the U.S.A. Serum samples were collec...

  18. Aspectos ultraestruturais do processo de divisão do Toxoplasma gondii

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    Wanderley de Souza

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é feita uma revisão sobre alguns aspectos biológicos do Toxoplasma gondii, principalmente sobre a ultraestrutura da forma interfásica e as modificações ultraestruturais que ocorrem no parasito durante o seu processo de divisão. Considera-se inicialmente o processo de divisão binária admitindo-se, porém, a possibilidade de que as imagens interpretadas como senão de divisão binária representem estágios da divisão por endodiogenia. Quanto à endodiogenia descrevem-se as alterações que ocorrem na "parasito mãe" durante o processo de formação dos dois "parasitos filhos". Este processo é semelhante no Toxoplasma gondii, Besnoitia jellisoni, Sarcocystis tenella e Frenkelia. Discute-se a possibilidade da formação de mais de dois "parasitos filhos" por um processo de endopoligenia, bem como o processo de esquizogonia. Os resultados mais recentes mostram que não existe esquizogonia nas formas vsgetativas do Toxoplasma gondii, senão que as imagens interpretadas como tal, ao microscópio ótico, são o resultado de endodiogenias sucessivas em que os endozoitas formados permanecem ligados entre si pela região posterior. A esquizogonia é, no entanto, encontrada nas formas que se desenvolvem no interior de células epiteliais do intestino do gato, que é o hospedeiro definitivo do Toxoplasma gondii. Discute-se o conceito de esquizogonia, comparando-o em três protozoários: Eimeria bovis, E. callospermophili e Plasmodium juxtanucleare, que apresentam diferenças entre si quanto ao processo de iniciação da individualização dos "parasitos filhos". Refere-se à recente hipótese que considera a endodiogenia como o processo fundamental de divisão dos esporozoárlos, ocorrendo na fase final da esquizogonia. Finalmente é acentuado o papel que a microscopia eletrônica aliada às modernas técnicas de citoquímica e imunocitoquimica poderá desempenhar no sentido de um melhor conhecimento da biologia do Toxoplasma

  19. An atypical Toxoplasma gondii genotype in a rural Brazilian dog co-infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis

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    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis are two worldwide zoonoses caused by the protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp., respectively. This report describes the clinical and laboratorial findings of a co-infection with both parasites in a 4-year-old female dog suspected of ehrlichiosis that presented anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, tachyzoite-like structures to the lung imprints, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR results positive for T. gondii (kidney, lung, and liver and Leishmania spp. Co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania braziliensis was confirmed by sequencing; restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR confirmed an atypical T. gondii genotype circulating in dogs that has been reported to cause human congenital toxoplasmosis.

  20. Dolphin Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii coinfection in a Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus

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    Mazzariol Sandro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii have emerged as important pathogens for several cetaceans populations over the last 20 years, they have never been identified together in a Mysticete. In particular, morbilliviral infection has been never described in the Mediterranean fin whale population. Case presentation On January 2011 an adult male of fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus stranded along the Tyrrhenian coastline of Italy. During necropsy, tissue samples from heart, skeletal muscle, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney were collected and subsequently analyzed for Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii by microscopic and molecular methods. Following the detailed necropsy carried out on this whale, molecular analysis revealed, for the first time, the simultaneous presence of a Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV and T. gondii infection coexisting with each other, along with high organochlorine pollutant concentrations, with special reference to DDT. Conclusion This report, besides confirming the possibility for Mysticetes to be infected with DMV, highlights the risk of toxoplasmosis in sea water for mammals, already immunodepressed by concurrent factors as infections and environmental contaminants.

  1. SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS FORSTER, 1781).

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    Gennari, Solange M; Niemeyer, Cláudia; Catão-Dias, José L; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor C L; Dias, Ricardo A; Ribeiro, Jéssica D; Lassalvia, Cristiane; Maracini, Pryscilla; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Mayorga, Luis F S P; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-03-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) breed on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the southernmost parts of South America and migrate northward as far as Peru and Brazil. Serum samples (n = 100) from Magellanic penguins from three zoos and two rehabilitation centers (RCs) in Brazil were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by means of the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off ≥ 20). The penguins were categorized as young (≤4 yr old) or adults (≥4 yr old) and sexed (male, female, or not identified), and data were analyzed using the chi-square test (P ≤ 0.05). Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 28% of penguins: 25.8% males, 27.8% females, 30.3% unknown sex, 25.4% young, and 31.1% adults. Statistical analyses did not find any difference (P > 0.05) with respect to age, sex, or source of birds. This is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in S. magellanicus.

  2. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Myocastor coypus in a protected Italian wetland

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    Nardoni Simona

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent for a major zoonosis with cosmopolitan distribution. Water has been implicated in outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in recent years. Coypus (Myocastor coypus, commonly nutria, are large semi-aquatic invasive rodents, naturalized throughout European countries, including most wetlands of Central Italy. The habitat of these animals is both terrestrial and aquatic, making them a species highly exposed to the parasite. Findings The occurrence of the infection was evaluated using a modified agglutination test (MAT in 74 adult coypus from a naturalized population living in a wetland of Central Italy. Nested PCR (n-PCR assay was carried out on some of them. Positive T. gondii MAT results were found in 44 animals (59·4%, 30 males (68·2% and 14 females (31·8%. Antibody titers were ranging from 20 to 40960, while 12 out of 23 (52·2%, examined animals, 8 males (66·7% and 4 females (33·3%, resulted positive to n-PCR. All n-PCR positive animals were seropositive, showing antibody titers ranging from 640 to 40960. Conclusions Our results indicate that examined animals are heavily parasitized with Toxoplasma. This suggests that coypus could be a reservoir of this parasite, because they can be eaten both by scavenger animals and by humans, and that these animals would play a role in maintaining the cycle of T. gondii.

  3. Interferon-Gamma Release Assay: An Effective Tool to Detect Early Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Mice.

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    Qing Yin

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection before the formation of tissue cysts is vital for treatment, as drugs available for toxoplasmosis cannot kill bradyzoites contained in the cysts. However, current methods, such as antibody-based ELISA, are ineffective for detection of early infection. Here, we developed an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, measuring the IFN-γ released by T lymphocytes stimulated by Toxoplasma antigen peptides in vitro, for the detection of T. gondii infection in mice. Splenocytes isolated from infected mice were stimulated by peptides derived from dense granule proteins GRA4 and GRA6 and rhoptry protein ROP7, and released IFN-γ was measured by ELISA. Results showed that both acute and chronic infection could be detected by IGRA. More importantly, IGRA detected infection as early as the third day post infection; while serum IgM and IgG were detected 9 days and 13 days post infection, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that an IGRA-positive and ELISA-negative sample revealed an early infection, indicating the combination of IGRA and ELISA can be employed for the early diagnosis of T. gondii infection in human beings, cats and livestock.

  4. Effects of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Level of Serum Testosterone in Males with Chronic Toxoplasmosis.

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    Zahra Eslamirad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects human and animals. Toxoplasma parasites are isolated from different parts of animals even from semen but there are little information about the effect of toxoplasmosis on fertility in animals and humans. In present study, the effect of chronic toxoplasmosis on serum levels of testosterone in men was studied.In this case-control study, 1026 men referred to Arak Post Marriage Center were selected. Three ml of blood samples were collected and sera separated by centrifugation at room temperature. These sera were analyzed for detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody. Next 365 positive sera were selected as cases and also the same number of negative sera (365 as controls. Finally the level of testosterone was analyzed for the cases and controls samples.Serological tests on the sera of 1,026 men in Arak City showed that 365 of them had anti-Toxoplasma antibody. Comparison of testosterone concentration in case and control groups showed that testosterone concentration in case group was less than control group and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05.The chronic toxoplasmosis could affect reproductive parameters in men.

  5. Effect of methanol extracts of nony fruit on mice infected by RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii

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    Didik T Subekti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraperitoneal infection of Type I Toxoplasma gondii on mice causes high mortality at a short time due to parasitic burden, immunosuppression, cell and tissue damage. The mice survival is increased after treated with drugs that reduce or destroy tachyzoite and modulate or recovered the immune system. Nony fruit (Morinda citrifolia is popular as immunomudulator and has antoxoplasma properties. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of nony fruit and Fansidar® (pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine to reduce tachyzoite and improve survival as well as immunomudulator on mice following toxoplasma infection. Mice was divided into six groups (10 mice respectively consist of infected-non treated groups, infected + Fansidar®, infected + ethanol extract of nony on several doses (100, 50, 25% and non infected-non treated groups. All mice on each groups were infected intraperitoneally by 5 x 106 and 2,5 x 103 RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite/mice respectively. The results have shown that Fansidar® was successfully to reduced tachyzoite and improved mice survival but the ethanol extract of nony fruit was failed.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals.

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    Dubey, J P; Zarnke, R; Thomas, N J; Wong, S K; Van Bonn, W; Briggs, M; Davis, J W; Ewing, R; Mense, M; Kwok, O C H; Romand, S; Thulliez, P

    2003-10-30

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT > or =1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) [corrected] 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  7. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

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    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  8. Influence of Toxoplasma gondii on in vitro proliferation and apoptosis of hepatoma carcinoma H7402 cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wang; Ming Gao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the influence of tachyzoite of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) RH strain on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatoma carcinoma (HCC) H7402 cell. Methods: The HCC H7402 cell in logarithmic phase and tachyzoite of T. gondii RH strain in different concentrations (1×107/mL, 2×107/mL, 4×107/mL, 8×107/mL and 16×107/mL) were co-cultured. CCK-8 was utilized to determine the inhibition rate of T. gondii tachyzoite on H7402 cell growth. Flow cytometry was used to detect the change of cell cycle. RT-PCR method was used to detect the expression of cyclinB1 and cdc2--two genes related to cell cycle. Western blot method was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Caspase-3 and Bcl-2. Results: The tachyzoite of T. gondii RH strain can inhibit the proliferation of HCC H7402 cells. The inhibition rate of tumor cell growth increased with the increase of concentration of T. gondii tachyzoite. With the increase of concentration of T. gondii tachyzoite, the proportion of G0/G1 phase of H7402 cell increased, the proportion of S phase decreased, and PI value decreased accordingly. The expression of cyclinB1 and cdc2 genes decreased with the increase of the concentration of T. gondii tachyzoite. With the increase of the concentration of tachyzoite of T. gondii RH strain, the expression quantity of Caspase-3 in H7402 cell increased, but the expression quantity of Bcl-2 protein decreased. Conclusions: T. gondii can inhibit the in vitro proliferation of HCC H7402 cell, and induce its apoptosis. This effect shows a trend of concentration-dependent increase. Moreover, it is related to the down-regulation of cyclinB1 and cdc2 (cell cycle-related genes), the increase of apoptosis-related protein Caspase-3, and the decrease of Bcl-2 expression.

  9. The first isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from horses in Serbia.

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    Klun, Ivana; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Villena, Isabelle; Mercier, Aurélien; Bobić, Branko; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Opsteegh, Marieke; Aubert, Dominique; Blaga, Radu; van der Giessen, Joke; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2017-04-04

    Consumption of undercooked or insufficiently cured meat is a major risk factor for human infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Although horsemeat is typically consumed rare or undercooked, information on the risk of T. gondii from infected horse meat to humans is scarce. Here, we present the results of a study to determine the presence of T. gondii infection in slaughter horses in Serbia, and to attempt to isolate viable parasites. The study included horses from all regions of Serbia slaughtered at two abattoirs between June 2013 and June 2015. Blood sera were tested for the presence of specific IgG T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT), and samples of trypsin-digested heart tissue were bioassayed in mice. Cyst-positive mouse brain homogenates were subjected to DNA extraction and T. gondii strains were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers (MS). A total of 105 slaughter horses were sampled. At the 1:6 cut-off 48.6% of the examined horses were seropositive, with the highest titre being 1:400. Viable parasites were isolated from two grade type mares; both parasite isolates (RS-Eq39 and RS-Eq40) were T. gondii type III, and both displayed an increased lethality for mice with successive passages. These are the first cases of isolation of T. gondii from horses in Serbia. When compared with a worldwide collection of 61 type III and type III-like strains, isolate RS-Eq39 showed a combination of MS lengths similar to a strain isolated from a duck in Iran, and isolate RS-Eq40 was identical in all markers to three strains isolated from a goat from Gabon, a sheep from France and a pig from Portugal. Interestingly, the source horses were one seronegative and one weakly seropositive. The isolation of viable T. gondii parasites from slaughter horses points to horsemeat as a potential source of human infection, but the fact that viable parasites were isolated from horses with only a serological trace of T. gondii infection presents further evidence that

  10. The Rhoptry Pseudokinase ROP54 Modulates Toxoplasma gondii Virulence and Host GBP2 Loading

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    Kim, Elliot W.; Nadipuram, Santhosh M.; Tetlow, Ashley L.; Barshop, William D.; Liu, Philip T.; Wohlschlegel, James A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii uses unique secretory organelles called rhoptries to inject an array of effector proteins into the host cytoplasm that hijack host cell functions. We have discovered a novel rhoptry pseudokinase effector, ROP54, which is injected into the host cell upon invasion and traffics to the cytoplasmic face of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). Disruption of ROP54 in a type II strain of T. gondii does not affect growth in vitro but results in a 100-fold decrease in virulence in vivo, suggesting that ROP54 modulates some aspect of the host immune response. We show that parasites lacking ROP54 are more susceptible to macrophage-dependent clearance, further suggesting that ROP54 is involved in evasion of innate immunity. To determine how ROP54 modulates parasite virulence, we examined the loading of two known innate immune effectors, immunity-related GTPase b6 (IRGb6) and guanylate binding protein 2 (GBP2), in wild-type and ∆rop54II mutant parasites. While no difference in IRGb6 loading was seen, we observed a substantial increase in GBP2 loading on the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) of ROP54-disrupted parasites. These results demonstrate that ROP54 is a novel rhoptry effector protein that promotes Toxoplasma infections by modulating GBP2 loading onto parasite-containing vacuoles. IMPORTANCE The interactions between intracellular microbes and their host cells can lead to the discovery of novel drug targets. During Toxoplasma infections, host cells express an array of immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) that load onto the parasite-containing vacuole to clear the parasite. To counter this mechanism, the parasite secretes effector proteins that traffic to the vacuole to disarm the immunity-related loading proteins and evade the immune response. While the interplay between host IRGs and Toxoplasma effector proteins is well understood, little is known about how Toxoplasma neutralizes the GBP response. We describe

  11. Toxoplasma Gondii in animali da reddito e rischio per l'uomo tramite il consumo di carne

    OpenAIRE

    Condoleo, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii è un protozoo del phylum Apicomplexa, parassita di numerose specie animali e dell’uomo. Gli ospiti definitivi di T. gondii sono felidi domestici e selvatici, incluso il gatto domestico, i quali sono gli unici in grado di diffondere oocisti con le feci. Gli ospiti intermedi del protozoo comprendono numerose specie di mammiferi ed uccelli, incluso ovini, caprini, bovini, bufali, equini ed uomo. La toxoplasmosi è riconosciuta come una importante causa di infertilità negli ovini...

  12. The Phosphoproteomes of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii reveal unusual adaptations within and beyond the parasites’ boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Treeck, Moritz; Sanders, John L.; Elias, Joshua E.; John C Boothroyd

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii are obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites that rapidly invade and extensively modify host cells. Protein phosphorylation is one mechanism by which these parasites can control such processes. Here we present a phosphoproteome analysis of peptides enriched from schizont stage P. falciparum and T. gondii tachyzoites that are either “intracellular” or purified away from host material. Using liquid chromatography and tandem mass-spectrometry we i...

  13. DETECTION OF INFECTION WITH Toxoplasma gondii IN MANATEES (Trichechus inunguis OF THE PERUVIAN AMAZON Detección de infección por Toxoplasma gondii en manatíes (Trichechus inunguis de la Amazonía peruana

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    PATRICK MATHEWS DELGADO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis is an aquatic mammal that inhabits freshwater environments and is endemic to the Amazon Basin. The presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated in 19 manatees in one rescue unit in the northern region of Peru. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 12 (63.2 % of 19 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25, and no association between sex and age of the animals and the presence of T. gondii antibodies was observed (p El manatí amazónico (Trichechus inunguis es un mamífero acuático que habita en ambientes de agua dulce y es endémico de la cuenca del Amazonas. La presencia de Toxoplasma gondii se investigó en 19 manatíes, en una unidad de rescate en la región norte del Perú. Los anticuerpos contra T. gondii fueron detectados en 12 (63,2 %, de 19 animales mediante el uso de la prueba de aglutinación modificada (título, 1:25. No fue observada asociación entre el sexo y edad de los animales con la presencia de anticuerpos de T. gondii (p < 0,05. Los resultados sugieren la contaminación por ooquistes de T. gondii en el medio acuático donde viven estos animales.

  14. Tissue tropism of Toxoplasma gondii in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) after parenteral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, B; Koethe, M; Ludewig, M; Pott, S; Daugschies, A; Straubinger, R K; Fehlhaber, K; Bangoura, B

    2013-05-01

    Turkeys are known to be natural hosts for the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The objective of the present study was to gain further knowledge of possible predilection sites of T. gondii infection in this species after parenteral application of tachyzoites. A total of 38 turkeys were infected with different doses of T. gondii tachyzoites. Birds were killed either 6 to 8 or 10 to 12 weeks after the experimental infection. Fourteen different tissues per bird were investigated by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the parasites' DNA. T. gondii DNA was found in any type of tissue analysed; in 86.1 % of all infected birds, at least one sample was tested positive. Over all intravenously infected birds, 15.4 % of all analysed samples contained T. gondii DNA. Most frequently affected tissues were liver (43.3 % positive samples), breast muscle (26.7 % positive samples) and heart (20.0 % positive samples), while the brain was less frequently positive (6.7 %). The number of positive tissues varied from zero to seven tissues per animal with at least one T. gondii-positive edible tissue sample in 80 % of all intravenously infected birds. Still, the results did not indicate defined target tissues or a cyst distribution pattern. Nonetheless, edible organs were most frequently parasitised. The number of positive findings did not differ between the early and the late examination time points. Therefore, a persistence of the tissue stages until the end of the study (12 weeks after infection) is concluded.

  15. toxoMine: an integrated omics data warehouse for Toxoplasma gondii systems biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, David B; Croken, Matthew McKnight; Shieh, Kevin R; Sullivan, Julie; Micklem, Gos; Kim, Kami; Golden, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular parasite that must monitor for changes in the host environment and respond accordingly; however, it is still not fully known which genetic or epigenetic factors are involved in regulating virulence traits of T. gondii. There are on-going efforts to elucidate the mechanisms regulating the stage transition process via the application of high-throughput epigenomics, genomics and proteomics techniques. Given the range of experimental conditions and the typical yield from such high-throughput techniques, a new challenge arises: how to effectively collect, organize and disseminate the generated data for subsequent data analysis. Here, we describe toxoMine, which provides a powerful interface to support sophisticated integrative exploration of high-throughput experimental data and metadata, providing researchers with a more tractable means toward understanding how genetic and/or epigenetic factors play a coordinated role in determining pathogenicity of T. gondii. As a data warehouse, toxoMine allows integration of high-throughput data sets with public T. gondii data. toxoMine is also able to execute complex queries involving multiple data sets with straightforward user interaction. Furthermore, toxoMine allows users to define their own parameters during the search process that gives users near-limitless search and query capabilities. The interoperability feature also allows users to query and examine data available in other InterMine systems, which would effectively augment the search scope beyond what is available to toxoMine. toxoMine complements the major community database ToxoDB by providing a data warehouse that enables more extensive integrative studies for T. gondii. Given all these factors, we believe it will become an indispensable resource to the greater infectious disease research community. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Transport and Retention of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts in Loamy Sand and Sandy Loam Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, E. N.; Korte, C.; L'Ollivier, C.; Dubey, J. P.; Aurélien, D.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most prevalent parasites affecting warm-blooded animals and humans. It has a complex life cycle that involves a wide variety of intermediate hosts with felids as a definitive host. Humans may contract it through consumption of infected, undercooked meat or by water or food sources contaminated with the oocyst form of the parasite. Infection of pregnant women can cause stillbirth, neurological effects or blindness. Because of the prevalence of cats, including on farms where oocyst-contaminated cat feces, animal feed, soil and water have been found, T. gondii is spread almost throughout the entire globe. It has been implicated or suspected in waterborne infections since the 1990s. This study aims to characterize the transport and retention of T. gondii oocysts in field soils. The four soils used were collected from fallow and cultivated fields in Illinois and Utah, USA. They are classified as loamy sands and sandy loams. Soil columns were subjected to continuous artificial rainfall until they reached steady state at which point pulses that included 2.5 million T. gondii oocysts (Me49 strain) and KBr as a tracer were added. After the pulse infiltrated, continuous rainfall was resumed. Rain applied all columns was a 1 mM KCl solution. Leachate samples were collected, analyzed using qPCR for T. gondii and bromide ions and breakthrough curves were produced. Soil was sliced into 1 to 2 cm sections, for which water content and T. gondii concentration were measured to access degree of saturation and oocyst retention.

  17. Anti-gluten immune response following Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

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    Emily G Severance

    Full Text Available Gluten sensitivity may affect disease pathogenesis in a subset of individuals who have schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or autism. Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is a known risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, presumably through a direct pathological effect of the parasite on brain and behavior. A co-association of antibodies to wheat gluten and to T. gondii in individuals with schizophrenia was recently uncovered, suggesting a coordinated gastrointestinal means by which T. gondii and dietary gluten might generate an immune response. Here, we evaluated the connection between these infectious- and food-based antigens in mouse models. BALB/c mice receiving a standard wheat-based rodent chow were infected with T. gondii via intraperitoneal, peroral and prenatal exposure methods. Significant increases in the levels of anti-gluten IgG were documented in all infected mice and in offspring from chronically infected dams compared to uninfected controls (repetitive measures ANOVAs, two-tailed t-tests, all p≤0.00001. Activation of the complement system accompanied this immune response (p≤0.002-0.00001. Perorally-infected females showed higher levels of anti-gluten IgG than males (p≤0.009 indicating that T. gondii-generated gastrointestinal infection led to a significant anti-gluten immune response in a sex-dependent manner. These findings support a gastrointestinal basis by which two risk factors for schizophrenia, T. gondii infection and sensitivity to dietary gluten, might be connected to produce the immune activation that is becoming an increasingly recognized pathology of psychiatric disorders.

  18. Anti-Gluten Immune Response following Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Emily G.; Kannan, Geetha; Gressitt, Kristin L.; Xiao, Jianchun; Alaedini, Armin; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Gluten sensitivity may affect disease pathogenesis in a subset of individuals who have schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or autism. Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is a known risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, presumably through a direct pathological effect of the parasite on brain and behavior. A co-association of antibodies to wheat gluten and to T. gondii in individuals with schizophrenia was recently uncovered, suggesting a coordinated gastrointestinal means by which T. gondii and dietary gluten might generate an immune response. Here, we evaluated the connection between these infectious- and food-based antigens in mouse models. BALB/c mice receiving a standard wheat-based rodent chow were infected with T. gondii via intraperitoneal, peroral and prenatal exposure methods. Significant increases in the levels of anti-gluten IgG were documented in all infected mice and in offspring from chronically infected dams compared to uninfected controls (repetitive measures ANOVAs, two-tailed t-tests, all p≤0.00001). Activation of the complement system accompanied this immune response (p≤0.002–0.00001). Perorally-infected females showed higher levels of anti-gluten IgG than males (p≤0.009) indicating that T. gondii-generated gastrointestinal infection led to a significant anti-gluten immune response in a sex-dependent manner. These findings support a gastrointestinal basis by which two risk factors for schizophrenia, T. gondii infection and sensitivity to dietary gluten, might be connected to produce the immune activation that is becoming an increasingly recognized pathology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:23209841

  19. Age-related Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch wild boar inconsistent with lifelong persistence of antibodies.

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    Marieke Opsteegh

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673 or the "Veluwe" (n = 241. A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685 and accompanying sensitivity (90.6% and specificity (93.6%. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%. The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I and seronegatives as either susceptible (S or resistant (R. A model with a recovery rate (SIS was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI. This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii.

  20. The Histone Code of Toxoplasma gondii Comprises Conserved and Unique Posttranslational Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Sheila C.; Che, Fa-Yun; Silmon de Monerri, Natalie C.; Xiao, Hui; Nieves, Edward; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Angel, Sergio O.; Sullivan, William J.; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epigenetic gene regulation has emerged as a major mechanism for gene regulation in all eukaryotes. Histones are small, basic proteins that constitute the major protein component of chromatin, and posttranslational modifications (PTM) of histones are essential for epigenetic gene regulation. The different combinations of histone PTM form the histone code for an organism, marking functional units of chromatin that recruit macromolecular complexes that govern chromatin structure and regulate gene expression. To characterize the repertoire of Toxoplasma gondii histone PTM, we enriched histones using standard acid extraction protocols and analyzed them with several complementary middle-down and bottom-up proteomic approaches with the high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer using collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation. We identified 249 peptides with unique combinations of PTM that comprise the T. gondii histone code. T. gondii histones share a high degree of sequence conservation with human histones, and many modifications are conserved between these species. In addition, T. gondii histones have unique modifications not previously identified in other species. Finally, T. gondii histones are modified by succinylation, propionylation, and formylation, recently described histone PTM that have not previously been identified in parasitic protozoa. The characterization of the T. gondii histone code will facilitate in-depth analysis of how epigenetic regulation affects gene expression in pathogenic apicomplexan parasites and identify a new model system for elucidating the biological functions of novel histone PTM. PMID:24327343

  1. Determinants of GBP recruitment to Toxoplasma gondii vacuoles and the parasitic factors that control it.

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    Sebastian Virreira Winter

    Full Text Available IFN-γ is a major cytokine that mediates resistance against the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs are strongly induced by IFN-γ. We studied the behavior of murine GBP1 (mGBP1 upon infection with T. gondii in vitro and confirmed that IFN-γ-dependent re-localization of mGBP1 to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV correlates with the virulence type of the parasite. We identified three parasitic factors, ROP16, ROP18, and GRA15 that determine strain-specific accumulation of mGBP1 on the PV. These highly polymorphic proteins are held responsible for a large part of the strain-specific differences in virulence. Therefore, our data suggest that virulence of T. gondii in animals may rely in part on recognition by GBPs. However, phagosomes or vacuoles containing Trypanosoma cruzi did not recruit mGBP1. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed mGBP2, mGBP4, and mGBP5 as binding partners of mGBP1. Indeed, mGBP2 and mGBP5 co-localize with mGBP1 in T. gondii-infected cells. T. gondii thus elicits a cell-autonomous immune response in mice with GBPs involved. Three parasitic virulence factors and unknown IFN-γ-dependent host factors regulate this complex process. Depending on the virulence of the strains involved, numerous GBPs are brought to the PV as part of a large, multimeric structure to combat T. gondii.

  2. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in bovines in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Neurisvan Ramos Guerra

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii that affects homeothermic animals, including humans. Felines are considered the definitive host of this parasite, while other animals act as intermediate hosts. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in bovines in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Serum samples (n = 427 from animals in 13 municipalities of the coastal forest/plantation region of the state were analyzed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The overall results revealed a prevalence rate of 16.63% (27/427. High percentages of positivity were found among animals aged 25 to 36 months (28.57%; 30/42 and in males (22.22%; 2/9. The present findings suggest that bovine toxoplasmosis is endemic in the area under study.

  3. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.N.; Kaur, T.; Koenen, K.; DeStefano, S.; Zajac, A.M.; Lindsay, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystls neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 against each parasite antigen by modified agglutination tests to determine whether antibodies to either parasite were present in the blood. Six of 62 samples (10%) were positive for T. gondii, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 4 having titers of 1:50. Four of 62 samples (6%) were positive for S. neurona, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 2 having titers of 1:50. ?? American Society of Pathologists 2005.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Makino, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Asano, Makoto; Inoue, Satoshi; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Nogami, Sadao; Maruyama, Soichi

    2011-10-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were found in 92 (9.9%) of 929 feral raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Japan with the use of the latex agglutination test (LAT, 1∶64 or higher). Seropositivity varied by geographic location, season, and weight of raccoons trapped. Seroprevalences in the northern, central, and western areas of Japan were found to be 7.9% (39/492), 16.5% (47/285), and 3.9% (6/152), respectively. The seroprevalence by season varied from 8.5% (13/153) in spring to 18.9% (14/74) in winter, which was significantly higher than those in other seasons (P raccoons ( r(s)  =  0.9), suggesting that the animals acquired the infection postnatally. The results suggest that the raccoon may serve as a useful indicator for the distribution of T. gondii in peridomestic environments in Japan.

  5. Primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells as a potential model for Toxoplasma gondii enteric cycle studies

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    Marcos de Assis Moura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary culture of intestinal epithelial cells from domestic cats is an efficient cellular model to study the enteric cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in a definitive host. The parasite-host cell ratio can be pointed out as a decisive factor that determines the intracellular fate of bradyzoites forms. The development of the syncytial-like forms of T. gondii was observed using the 1:20 bradyzoite-host cell ratio, resulting in similar forms described in in vivo systems. This alternative study potentially opens up the field for investigation into the molecular aspects of this interaction. This can contribute to the development of new strategies for intervention of a main route by which toxoplasmosis spreads.

  6. Disruption of Lipid Rafts Interferes with the Interaction of Toxoplasma gondii with Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Karla Dias; Cruz, Thayana Araújo; Veras de Moraes, Gabriela; Paredes-Santos, Tatiana Christina; Attias, Marcia; de Souza, Wanderley

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can penetrate any warm-blooded animal cell. Conserved molecular assemblies of host cell plasma membranes should be involved in the parasite-host cell recognition. Lipid rafts are well-conserved membrane microdomains that contain high concentrations of cholesterol, sphingolipids, glycosylphosphatidylinositol, GPI-anchored proteins, and dually acylated proteins such as members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. Disturbing lipid rafts of mouse peritoneal macrophages and epithelial cells of the lineage LLC-MK2 with methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) and filipin, which interfere with cholesterol or lidocaine, significantly inhibited internalization of T. gondii in both cell types, although adhesion remained unaffected in macrophages and decreased only in LLC-MK2 cells. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed these observations. Results are discussed in terms of the original role of macrophages as professional phagocytes versus the LLC-MK2 cell lineage originated from kidney epithelial cells. PMID:24734239

  7. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in a free-ranging giant anteater

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    Thais Oliveira Morgado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoan, which establishes acute and chronic infections in birds and mammals, including humans. This note reports, for the first time, the detection and sequencing of DNA from T. gondii in the peripheral blood of a young free range giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla. For the diagnosis, the following methods were used: polymerase chain reaction (PCR and positive serology (1:800 by means of the modified agglutination test (MAT. Since this species may be consumed by humans and predated by wild felids, its importance is emphasized as a probable source of zoonotic infection, in addition to its possible participation in the infection enzootic cycle. Although, parasitemia has been confirmed in this specimen, it presented no clinical sign of infection.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengifo-Herrera, Claudia; Pile, Edwin; García, Anabel; Pérez, Alexander; Pérez, Dimas; Nguyen, Felicia K.; de la Guardia, Valli; Mcleod, Rima; Caballero, Zuleima

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water) were associated with seropositivity. PMID:28287391

  9. Detection and immunolocalization of human erythrocyte spectrin immunoanalogues in Toxoplasma gondii (Protozoan, Parasite).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, M; Rodier, M H; el Moudni, B E; Babin, P; Fernandez, B; Jacquemin, J L

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrated here the presence of proteins antigenically related to human erythroid spectrin in the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. A high molecular weight doublet (M(r) 245-240,000), present in equimolar ratio, and low molecular weight poly-peptides (M(r) 75,000) were reacted with monoclonal and polyclonal anti-human erythroid spectrin antibodies on electroblotted nitro-cellulose sheets. Indirect immunofluorescence assay clearly showed that these proteins were localized in the anterior pole of the organism. Immunogold staining further revealed specific labeling of conoid, rhoptries, micronemes, and dense granules of the apical complex. The presence of the M(r) 245-240,000 doublet and the M(r) 75,000 spectrin-like proteins in the anterior pole of T. gondii may probably be consistent with a structural stabilizer function in its organelles which are suspected to be involved in the process of host cell invasion.

  10. Involvement of Toxoplasma gondii in reproductive disorders in Swiss pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Handke, Martin; Sydler, Titus; Borel, Nicole; Grimm, Felix; Sidler, Xaver; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-04-01

    To determine the role of Toxoplasma gondii in reproductive failure, 108 of 113 sows that had aborted or delivered stillborn or weak piglets from 58 Swiss farms were serologically tested for specific antibodies against T. gondii tachyzoite antigens by ELISA. Additionally, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from 123 foetuses or stillborn piglets derived from 25 seropositive and 27 seronegative sows were analyzed by real-time PCR for T. gondii DNA. Tissues from animals showing a positive reaction in real-time PCR were subsequently tested by immunohistochemistry for the presence of T. gondii antigens. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 24.1% (26 out of 108) of sows with reproductive failure, and 37.3% (22 of 58) of the 58 tested farms had seropositive sows. No significant differences in the prevalences were observed in relation to the housing system (exclusive indoor housing, indoor housing with outdoor yard and exclusive outdoor housing) neither at the individual nor at the farm levels. By real time-PCR, T. gondii DNA was detected in three placentas from one seropositive sow (abortion at 71 gestation days [gd]), and in brain tissues from one foetus (abortion at 76 gd), one stillborn (116 gd) and one mummy (112 gd) delivered by three further seropositive sows, but in no sample derived from seronegative dams. By immunohistochemical staining, the presence of T. gondii could be confirmed only in placenta samples. In one of the cases, a co-infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) was detected. These results suggest vertical transmission of T. gondii and/or placental infection in at least 3.5% (4 of 113) of sows with reproductive disorders. Therefore, T. gondii should be more frequently included in the routine differential diagnosis of reproductive failure in sows. In addition, a proper disposal of placentas and abortion material beyond the reach of cats could help to interrupt the further dissemination of this parasite at the farm level. Copyright

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in goats from north-western Spain

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    Pablo Díaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective.[/b] [i]Toxoplasma gondii [/i]and [i]Neospora caninum[/i] are protozoans involved in reproductive failure especially in ruminant livestock. The objective was to estimate the seroprevalence of both parasites in goats from north-western Spain and to study the influence of some factors on seropositivity. [b]Materials and method.[/b] Blood samples from 638 goats were collected in 50 farms. Presence of [i]T. gondii[/i] and [i]N. caninum[/i] antibodies were detected by direct agglutination and competitiveELISA techniques, respectively. The risk factor analysis was performed using a mixed-effects logistic regression. [b]Results. [/b]Individual (48% and herd-level (74% [i]T. gondii [/i]seroprevalence values were high; the within-herd prevalence was 53%. In contrast, 6% of animals tested positive to [i]N. caninum [/i]and 38% of the herds had at least one positive animal, with a true within-herd prevalence of 10%. Mixed infections were limited; 91% of [i]N. caninum[/i] seropositive goats were also positive to [i]T. gondii.[/i] The risk factor analysis showed that [i]T. gondii [/i]seroprevalence is influenced by the presence of sheep in the farm (OR=4.9 and the seropositivity to [i]N. caninum[/i] (OR=16.5; goats from the Central-coastal area, more humid and warm, had a 15.7-fold probability of being seropositive to [i]T. gondii[/i] than those from the Mountainous area. Cross-breed goats (OR=4.5 and the seropositivity to [i]T. gondii [/i](OR= 9.5 were factors associated with [i]N. caninum[/i] seropositivity. [b]Conclusions. [/b]The high [i]T. gondii [/i]seroprevalence in goats constitute a noticeable zoonotic risk. The consideration of the risk factors identified in designing [i]T. gondii[/i] and [i]N. caninum[/i] control programs in goat herds should allow the implementation of more efficient measures, avoiding the appearance of outbreaks of reproductive disorders by both protozoans in goats.

  12. Comparative Genomics of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Adam James; Vermont, Sarah J.; Cotton, James A.;

    2012-01-01

    Coccidian parasites have a major impact on human and animal health world-wide and are among the most successful and widespread parasitic protozoa. They include Neospora caninum which is a leading cause of abortion in cattle and one of its nearest relatives, Toxoplasma gondii. Despite its close...... phylogenetic relationship to Toxoplasma, Neospora has a far more restricted host range, does not infect humans and its epidemiology depends predominantly on efficient vertical transmission. The divergent biology of these two closely related species provides a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms of host...... specificity, pathogenesis and zoonotic potential not only in these, but other Coccidia. We have sequenced the genome of Neospora and the transcriptomes of both species to show that despite diverging some 28 million years ago, both genome and gene expression remain remarkably conserved. Evolution has focused...

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in unmarried women in Qazvin, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H Jahani; Saraei, M

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among 400 women referred to Qazvin community health centre laboratory for pre-marriage examinations. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect IgG anti-toxoplasma. Titres > or = 1: 20 were considered positive. The overall seropositivity was 34%. Mean age was significantly higher in seropositive women (P < 0.05). Seropositivity was highest among unemployed women (38.3%) and lowest among students (22.6%), and was significantly higher in women with less than high-school education (P < 0.05). With two-thirds of these unmarried women seronegative, they represent a high-risk group in pregnancy. Such women need to be educated to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis.

  14. A large-scale proteogenomics study of apicomplexan pathogens-Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Ritesh; Xia, Dong; Sanderson, Sanya; Shanmugasundram, Achchuthan; Vermont, Sarah; Bernal, Axel; Daniel-Naguib, Gianluca; Ghali, Fawaz; Brunk, Brian P; Roos, David S; Wastling, Jonathan M; Jones, Andrew R

    2015-08-01

    Proteomics data can supplement genome annotation efforts, for example being used to confirm gene models or correct gene annotation errors. Here, we present a large-scale proteogenomics study of two important apicomplexan pathogens: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. We queried proteomics data against a panel of official and alternate gene models generated directly from RNASeq data, using several newly generated and some previously published MS datasets for this meta-analysis. We identified a total of 201 996 and 39 953 peptide-spectrum matches for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively, at a 1% peptide FDR threshold. This equated to the identification of 30 494 distinct peptide sequences and 2921 proteins (matches to official gene models) for T. gondii, and 8911 peptides/1273 proteins for N. caninum following stringent protein-level thresholding. We have also identified 289 and 140 loci for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively, which mapped to RNA-Seq-derived gene models used in our analysis and apparently absent from the official annotation (release 10 from EuPathDB) of these species. We present several examples in our study where the RNA-Seq evidence can help in correction of the current gene model and can help in discovery of potential new genes. The findings of this study have been integrated into the EuPathDB. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD000297and PXD000298.

  15. Detecção de Toxoplasma gondii no sêmen de ovinos naturalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica P.B.X Moraes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a eliminação de Toxoplasma gondii no sêmen de carneiros naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 65 reprodutores submetidos inicialmente à pesquisa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii por meio da técnica de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI. Os carneiros sorologicamente positivos foram submetidos à colheita de sêmen para detecção do DNA de T. gondii. Na sorologia observaram-se 6/65 (9,2% carneiros positivos, enquanto no PCR nested de sêmen 4/6 (66,6% carneiros foram positivos. Conclui-se que a detecção, por meio da técnica da PCR nested, da forma proliferativa de T. gondii no sêmen de carneiros naturalmente infectados, reforça a necessidade de se pesquisar sobre a possibilidade da transmissão horizontal do parasito via sêmen na espécie ovina.

  16. Association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with schizophrenia and its relationship with suicide attempts in these patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Farashbandi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between schizophrenia and Toxoplasma gondii, and to assess the association of infection with suicide attempts and age of onset of schizophrenia in these patients. Case-control study Fars Province, southern Iran. Cases were individuals with psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Controls were healthy blood donors, frequency-matched with patients according to age and sex. For the detection of IgG antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Data about demographic information in all subjects and duration of illness and history of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia were collected using a brief questionnaire and hospital records. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Among 99 cases, 42 individuals (42%) were positive for T. gondii antibody, vs. 41 (27%) among 152 controls (OR = 2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.4, P = 0.012). We compared the suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia based on their T. gondii serologic status. There was a lower rate of suicide attempts in seropositive male patients than seronegative ones (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.97, P = 0.04). Age of onset of schizophrenia did not differ between T. gondii-infected and non-infected patients. These findings may have implications for schizophrenia and suicide prevention programmes. However, clearly further studies are required to confirm them. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Seroprevalence of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies Among Pregnant Woman in South Khuzestan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar; Jomehzadeh, Nabi; Jafar Sameri, Maryam; Noorshahi, Nooshin

    2014-05-01

    Acute toxoplasmosis may lead to congenital toxoplasmosis with fetal complications outcome during pregnancy. Anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence is unclear in pregnant women of south of Khuzestan province, since limited data about T. gondii seroepidemiology has been published in pregnant women of this area (Abadan, Shadegan, Khoramshar). The aim of this study was to clarify the status of T. gondii seroprevalence in pregnant women of south of Khuzestan province. In this cross-sectional study, 501 full-term pregnant women were included. This study was carried out in Taleghani teaching hospital for six 6 months from May to October 2011. Informed consents signed by the patients were obtained. Blood IgG and IgM were measured using ELISA technique. The data was analyzed by SPSS 13 (Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square test was used for comparison. The participants' age range was 15 to 45 years (average: 27.4 ± 13). Of the 501 pregnant women, 70.65 % (n = 354) were seronegative for T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. There were statistical relationships between IgG seroprevalence and age, as well as IgG seroprevalence and cat holding. There was high percentage of seronegative (70.65 %) IgG and IgM antibodies in full-term pregnant women. They were susceptible to acute toxoplasmosis; thus, prenatal screening was recommend in our province after cost-beneficial analyses.

  18. Infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii in northern traditional (country) foods prepared with meat from experimentally infected seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lorry B; Measures, Lena; Gajadhar, Alvin

    2009-08-01

    Serological and clinical evidence of human toxoplasmosis in the Canadian Arctic indicates a food safety risk associated with the consumption of wild game meat. Such meat often is eaten raw or partially cooked in locally prepared traditional (country) foods, but no data have been collected to describe survival of Toxoplasma gondii forms in these foods. The muscle of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) experimentally infected with T. gondii oocysts was used to prepare three country foods: igunaq, a fermented product; nikku, a dried product; and sausage, a salted and spiced product. Igunaq and nikku were stored at 4 degrees C and bioassayed in cats at 49, 95, and 140 days postpreparation (DPP) and 41, 84, and 132 DPP, respectively. Raw and cooked sausages were stored at -20 degrees C and bioassayed at 50, 92, and 141 DPP. The source seal meat was infective for cats, but none of the foods prepared with this meat were infective for cats. Some cooked sausages did not reach internal temperatures considered lethal for T. gondii. Data from studies in domestic animals suggested that the negative results in this experiment were due to temperature and duration of storage. Because of the possibility that T. gondii of arctic origin might be more freeze tolerant than the swine-origin isolate used in this experiment, additional studies are necessary to clarify the risks of toxoplasmosis associated with consumption of arctic country foods.

  19. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS) IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Fernanda L N; Ribeiro, Vanessa O; Soares, Herbert S; Luna, Fábia O; Sousa, Glaucia P; Freire, Augusto C B; Gennari, Solange M; Alves, Leucio C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Dubey, Jitender P; Silva, Jean C R

    2016-06-01

    Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil, and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported among marine mammals. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in West Indian manatees living in captivity in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 55 West Indian manatees from three different captive groups were tested for T. gondii antibodies by means of the modified agglutination test using a cutoff of 1:25. The samples were screened at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500, and positive samples were end-titrated using twofold serial dilutions; antibodies were found in six Antillean manatees (10.9%) with titers of 1:50 in three, 1:500 in one, 1:3,200 in one, and 1:51,200 in one manatee. This study is the first report of T. gondii antibodies in captive Antillean manatees in Brazil.

  20. Composite genome map and recombination parameters derived from three archetypal lineages of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asis; Taylor, Sonya; Su, Chunlei; Mackey, Aaron J.; Boyle, Jon; Cole, Robert; Glover, Darius; Tang, Keliang; Paulsen, Ian T.; Berriman, Matt; Boothroyd, John C.; Pfefferkorn, Elmer R.; Dubey, J. P.; Ajioka, James W.; Roos, David S.; Wootton, John C.; Sibley, L. David

    2005-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa, which contains numerous animal and human pathogens. T.gondii is amenable to cellular, biochemical, molecular and genetic studies, making it a model for the biology of this important group of parasites. To facilitate forward genetic analysis, we have developed a high-resolution genetic linkage map for T.gondii. The genetic map was used to assemble the scaffolds from a 10X shotgun whole genome sequence, thus defining 14 chromosomes with markers spaced at ∼300 kb intervals across the genome. Fourteen chromosomes were identified comprising a total genetic size of ∼592 cM and an average map unit of ∼104 kb/cM. Analysis of the genetic parameters in T.gondii revealed a high frequency of closely adjacent, apparent double crossover events that may represent gene conversions. In addition, we detected large regions of genetic homogeneity among the archetypal clonal lineages, reflecting the relatively few genetic outbreeding events that have occurred since their recent origin. Despite these unusual features, linkage analysis proved to be effective in mapping the loci determining several drug resistances. The resulting genome map provides a framework for analysis of complex traits such as virulence and transmission, and for comparative population genetic studies. PMID:15911631

  1. Composite genome map and recombination parameters derived from three archetypal lineages of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asis; Taylor, Sonya; Su, Chunlei; Mackey, Aaron J; Boyle, Jon; Cole, Robert; Glover, Darius; Tang, Keliang; Paulsen, Ian T; Berriman, Matt; Boothroyd, John C; Pfefferkorn, Elmer R; Dubey, J P; Ajioka, James W; Roos, David S; Wootton, John C; Sibley, L David

    2005-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a highly successful protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa, which contains numerous animal and human pathogens. T.gondii is amenable to cellular, biochemical, molecular and genetic studies, making it a model for the biology of this important group of parasites. To facilitate forward genetic analysis, we have developed a high-resolution genetic linkage map for T.gondii. The genetic map was used to assemble the scaffolds from a 10X shotgun whole genome sequence, thus defining 14 chromosomes with markers spaced at approximately 300 kb intervals across the genome. Fourteen chromosomes were identified comprising a total genetic size of approximately 592 cM and an average map unit of approximately 104 kb/cM. Analysis of the genetic parameters in T.gondii revealed a high frequency of closely adjacent, apparent double crossover events that may represent gene conversions. In addition, we detected large regions of genetic homogeneity among the archetypal clonal lineages, reflecting the relatively few genetic outbreeding events that have occurred since their recent origin. Despite these unusual features, linkage analysis proved to be effective in mapping the loci determining several drug resistances. The resulting genome map provides a framework for analysis of complex traits such as virulence and transmission, and for comparative population genetic studies.

  2. Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in a Brazilian liver transplant waiting

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    R. A. M. B. Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplantation. Disseminated toxoplasmosis after liver transplantation is a rare but fatal event. Serologic screening of the donor and the recipient is essential to prophylactic management, early diagnosis and therapeutic strategies to minimize the consequences of these infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of CMV and Toxoplasma gondii (TG in a Brazilian liver transplant waiting list (LTWL. Serological data were collected from 44 candidates on the LTWL between May 2003 and November 2004. Serological investigation of antibodies IgM and IgG against CMV (anti-CMV and TG (anti-T. gondii was performed using fluorometry commercial kits. IgG anti-CMV was positive in 37 patients (94.9% out of 39 available results. There were not IgM anti-CMV positive results. Out of 36 analyzed patients, 22 (61.1% presented positive IgG anti-T. gondii and none had positive IgM anti-T. gondii. The high CMV seroprevalence among our LTWL reinforces the need for appropriate protocols to avoid related complications, like reactivation and superinfection by CMV. Environmental and drug prophylactic strategies against primary infection and reactivation, as well as early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis complications, are essential for the good outcome of transplant patients.

  3. Meningoencephalitis and Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. coinfection in a dolphin in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattarola, Carla; Giorda, Federica; Iulini, Barbara; Pintore, Maria Domenica; Pautasso, Alessandra; Zoppi, Simona; Goria, Maria; Romano, Angelo; Peletto, Simone; Varello, Katia; Garibaldi, Fulvio; Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Marsili, Letizia; Bozzetta, Elena; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dondo, Alessandro; Mignone, Walter; Casalone, Cristina

    2016-02-25

    Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. can infect a wide range of species, including humans. In cetaceans, meningoencephalitis has been associated with T. gondii and Brucella spp. infection, whereas to our knowledge, L. monocytogenes infection has not previously been reported. Meningoencephalitis and L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. were identified by means of both direct and indirect laboratory techniques in an adult female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba found stranded in January 2015 on the Ligurian Sea coast, northwestern Italy. The animal was emaciated, and histopathology disclosed severe meningoencephalitis. The nature of the inflammatory response and intra-lesional protozoa were consistent with a mixed infection by L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. We believe this is an unprecedented case of infection by 3 zoonotic pathogens and also the first bacteriologically confirmed case report of neurolisteriosis in cetaceans. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and neurobrucellosis may have led to the animal's disorientation and stranding, with L. monocytogenes having likely exacerbated the coinfection leading to the demise of this dolphin.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens in an area with human toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Lais; Moré, Gastón; Rudzinski, Marcelo; Gos, María L; Campero, Lucía M; Meyer, Alejandro; Bernstein, Mariana; Unzaga, Juan M; Venturini, María C

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to detect, isolate and genetically characterize Toxoplasma gondii from tissues obtained from free range chickens which were breed in farms from patients with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis in Misiones, Argentina. Thirty three samples of head (refrigerated = 18 and frozen = 15) from free range chickens were processed. Refrigerated (n = 18) chicken central nervous systems (CNS) were bioassay in mice. DNA was obtained from all samples (n = 33) and PCR was performed using TOX5-TOX8 T. gondii specific primers. Positive PCR samples were characterized by nested-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism using the markers SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, SAG3, PK1, L358, C22-8, C29-2 and Apico. T. gondii DNA was amplified in 30.3% (10/33) of CNS samples. Isolates were obtained in 27.7% (5/18) of inoculated CNS samples (TgCk11-9Arg, TgCk13-5Arg, TgCk14-5Arg, TgCk14-6Arg and TgCk14-7Arg). Seven samples showed a restriction pattern to all markers and were identified as atypical with several alleles type III. Genotyping of T. gondii from samples of patients with retinochoroiditis in the same area could improve the understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in the region.

  5. SUBKLONING DAN ISOLASI GEN PENYANDI MIKRONEMA 3 (MIC-3 Toxoplasma gondii ISOLAT LOKAL

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    Diana Indrasanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Microneme protein (MIC is one of proteins that belongs to excretory-secretory antigens (ESAs of Toxoplasma gondii. Microneme 3 protein (MIC-3 is the protein that plays an important role in the invasion proccess during cell infection as a mediator attachment parasite to the host cell. The aim of this research is to clone mic3 (gene encoding for MIC-3 of T. gondii from local isolate using recombinant DNA technology by cloning mic3 in an expression vector. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA from T. gondii tachyzoites was amplified by PuRe Taq RTG-PCR Beads using mic3 specific primers. Amplified DNA was double digested using EcoRV and HindIII restriction endonucleases and then purified using EZ-10 spin coloumn purification kit. The mic3 DNA was ligated into pET-32a(+ expression vector and transformated into Escherichia coli BL21. The results showed that recombinant mic3 gene 4.2 kDa has been successfully performed by cloning gene encoding for MIC-3 protein of T. gondii local isolate into pET-32a(+ and transformed to E. coli BL21.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) from southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqueplo, Cedric; Blaga, Radu; Jean-Lou, Marie; Vallee, Isabelle; Davoust, Bernard

    2017-01-25

    Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligate intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. Since meat of wild boar, Sus scrofa (Linnaeus), has been demonstrated to be a potential source of human infection, a careful evaluation of the prevalence of infection with T. gondii in hunted animals is needed to protect public health. In the Var area in southeastern France, we performed a spatio-temporal survey in order to investigate the prevalence of IgG antibodies in wild boars shot by hunters in the Canjuers military camp during two subsequent hunting seasons. Of 841 wild boars screened, antibodies (IgG) to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, cut-off 1 : 6) were found in 141 (16.8%) muscle extract samples. A significant association (p < 0.001) was found between positivity and age, but not gender, and hunting districts. The results obtained indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars carries an important risk of infection with T. gondii. Wild boars may be considered as a bioindicator of parasite circulation in this ecosystem.

  7. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar

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    Saw Bawm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162 of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4% samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06, farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94, and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83. This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country.

  8. N-terminal palmitoylation is required for Toxoplasma gondii HSP20 inner membrane complex localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Napoli, M G; de Miguel, N; Lebrun, M; Moreno, S N J; Angel, S O; Corvi, M M

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite and the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. Protein palmitoylation is known to play roles in signal transduction and in enhancing the hydrophobicity of proteins thus contributing to their membrane association. Global inhibition of protein palmitoylation has been shown to affect T. gondii physiology and invasion of the host cell. However, the proteins affected by this modification have been understudied. This paper shows that the small heat shock protein 20 from T. gondii (TgHSP20) is synthesized as a mature protein in the cytosol and is palmitoylated in three cysteine residues. However, its localization at the inner membrane complex (IMC) is dependent only on N-terminal palmitoylation. Absence or incomplete N-terminal palmitoylation causes TgHSP20 to partially accumulate in a membranous structure. Interestingly, TgHSP20 palmitoylation is not responsible for its interaction with the daughter cells IMCs. Together, our data describe the importance of palmitoylation in protein targeting to the IMC in T. gondii.

  9. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the milk of naturally infected goats in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M J G; Kim, P C P; Moraes, É P B X; Sá, S G; Albuquerque, P P F; Silva, J G; Alves, B H L S; Mota, R A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii in milk samples from naturally infected goats in the state of Pernambuco, (Brazil). In total, 248 blood serum samples were collected and processed from lactating goats and then submitted to a search for antibodies to T. gondii through the indirect immunofluorescence reaction. Samples with a score of 64 or more were considered positive. In total, 248 milk samples were collected and processed from the same group of goats in order to study the DNA of T. gondii using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In the serum samples, 56/248 (22.58%) of the animals were positive, whereas the DNA of the parasite was detected in 15/248 (6.05%) of the milk samples. Five of these 15 samples were animals who were also positive in the serology. This study reports the first occurrence of the elimination of T. gondii from the milk of naturally infected goats in the north-east of Brazil. It is suggested that the consumption of in natura goat milk may constitute a potential risk to the health of milk consumers in this region. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii manipulates mate choice in rats by enhancing attractiveness of males.

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    Shantala Arundathi Hari Dass

    Full Text Available Females in various species typically avoid males infected with parasites, while parasite-free males advertise their status through conspicuous phenotypic traits. This process selects for heritable resistance and reduces direct exposure of the female to parasites. Coevolving parasites are likely to attempt to circumvent this obstacle. In this paper, we demonstrate a case of parasitic manipulation of host mate choice. We report that Toxoplasma gondii, a sexually transmitted infection of brown rats, enhances sexual attractiveness of infected males. Thus under some evolutionary niches, parasites can indeed manipulate host sexual signaling to their own advantage.

  11. First isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from a human placenta in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Lais; Carral, Liliana A; Bernstein, Mariana; Gos, María L; Olejnik, Patricia; Unzaga, Juan M; Kaufer, Federico J; Freuler, Cristina B; Durlach, Ricardo A; Venturini, María C

    2014-04-01

    Blood sample and placenta were taken from a 37-week pregnant woman; serologic results indicated acute toxoplasmosis. Placenta was inoculated into mice. Seropositive mice were sacrificed and tissue cysts from brain were inoculated into new mice. Specific DNA was detected by PCR, and the isolate was characterized as Type II by nPCR-RFLP for nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c29-2, c22-8, L358, PK1 and Apico markers. This is the first isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from humans in Argentina. © 2013.

  12. Evidence for glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchoring of Toxoplasma gondii major surface antigens

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    Tomavo, S.; Schwarz, R.T.; Dubremetz, J.F. (Institut National de la Recheche Medicale, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France))

    1989-10-01

    The four major surface antigens of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (P43, P35, P30, and P22) were made water soluble by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). These antigens were biosynthetically labeled with {sup 3}H-fatty acids, ({sup 3}H)ethanolamine, and ({sup 3}H)carbohydrates. Treatment of {sup 3}H-fatty-acid-labeled parasite lysates with PI-PLC removed the radioactive label from these antigens. A cross-reacting determinant was exposed on these antigens after PI-PLC treatment.

  13. Occurrence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered swine in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

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    Hannah Lia Ettiene Peruch Lemos dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in swine slaughtered in Iporã, Northwest Paraná state. Blood samples were obtained from 500 finishing swine. All animals were raised under intensive farming; the blood samples were analyzed using the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Animals with titers of ?64 were considered positive for T. gondii infection. Of the tested samples, 63 (12.6% were positive by IFAT; 58 (92.06% of these showed titers of 64 (4.7%, with titers 256 and two (3.1% titers of 1024. These pigs might be considered a source of T. gondii infection for humans

  14. A new set of primers for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid using polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloux, H; Weiss, J; Simon, J; Muet, F; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1996-04-15

    A new PCR system including a pair of primers, a probe and an internal control were designed from the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii. The system described allowed the detection of less than 10 tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii. Among 21 amniotic fluid samples, this system diagnosed the cases of congenital toxoplasmosis which were simultaneously diagnosed using mice inoculation, in vitro culture, and serology from both amniotic fluid and fetal blood. These results show that these new primers allow for a highly sensitive detection of T. gondii DNA.

  15. Age-specificity of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in sheep, goats and cattle on subsistence farms in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Moizur; Azad, Md Thoufic Anam; Nahar, Lovely; Rouf, Shah Md Abdur; Ohya, Kenji; Chiou, Shih-Pin; Baba, Minami; Kitoh, Katsuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects humans and domestic animals. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was investigated using serum samples collected from 83 sheep, 146 goats and 37 cattle from a dozen subsistence farms in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight out of 83 sheep (69.9%), 89 out of 146 goats (61.0%) and 10 out of 37 cattle (27.0%) were seropositive for the parasite. Seroprevalence in young goats (goats (>1 year old). In contrast, seroprevalence for young and adult sheep was similar. These results indicate that acquired infection with T. gondii occurs in this region of Bangladesh, at least among goats.

  16. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in People Applying for Medical Certificates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Pulido-Montoya, Rosa Angélica; Acosta-Rojas, Guadalupe; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Pérez-Álamos, Alma Rosa; Vaquera-Enriquez, Raquel; Díaz-Herrera, Arturo; Segura-Moreno, Raúl; Guerrero-Carbajal, María de Lourdes; Liesenfeld, Oliver; García, Isabel Beristain; Rentería-López, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Medical certificates are documents that state the health status of a person. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in applicants of medical certificates and to investigate seroprevalence association with characteristics of these individuals. We examined 404 applicants in a public health center in Durango City, Mexico for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 404 subjects (mean age of 35.94 ± 13.01) studied, 29 (7.2%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 9 (31.0%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. IgG and IgM seropositivities were associated with vision impairment (P = 0.04) and a history of surgery (P = 0.03), respectively. Prevalence of high (>150 IU/ml) IgG antibody levels was associated with hearing impairment (P = 0.03), and histories of lymphadenopathy (P = 0.04) and miscarriages (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (odds ratio [OR] = 4.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–17. 29; P = 0.02) and soil contact (OR = 4.27; 95% CI: 1.71–10.67; P = 0.002) and negatively associated with consumption of sheep meat (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.02–0.65; P = 0.01). These results could be used for the design of optimal preventive measures against toxoplasmosis and its sequelae. PMID:27429791

  17. Viability and infectivity analysis of Toxoplasma gondii under axenic conditions = Análise da viabilidade e infectividade de taquizoítas de Toxoplasma gondii em condições axênicas

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    Ferreira-da-Silva, Marialice Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    Conclusões: nossos dados abrem novas perspectivas para o estudo de diferentes aspectos da biologia do Toxoplasma gondii, incluindo mecanismos de nutrição, ensaios experimentais de drogas in vitro, ou estudos da biologia celular e molecular diretamente sobre o parasito

  18. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in carthorses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Mariane Angélica; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Barros Filho, Ivan Roque de; Deconto, Ivan; Dornbusch, Peterson Triches; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the agent for toxoplasmosis, has worldwide distribution. Horses normally play a secondary role in its life cycle, but movement around urban areas, feeding on grass and the increasing use of carthorses for gathering recyclable material in some urban areas of Brazil may increase their exposure to T. gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies in carthorses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, PR. IgG antibodies against T. gondii were detected using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (titers ≥ 64). Seventeen (17.0%) of the 100 horses sampled were seropositive. There were no statistical differences in relation to sex (p = 0.28) or age (p = 0.15). Our findings suggest that carthorses are exposed to T. gondii infections and that no associations with age or sex exist.

  19. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection diagnosed by PCR in farmed red foxes, arctic foxes and raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin Tadeusz; Galbas, Mariola; Szwed, Katarzyna; Przysiecki, Piotr; Dullin, Piotr; Nowicki, Sławomir

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection in three canid species: red fox Vulpes vulpes, arctic fox Vulpes lagopus and raccoon dog Nyctereutesprocyonoides kept at the same farm. Anal swabs were taken from 24 adult and 10 juvenile red foxes, 12 adult arctic foxes, three adult and seven juvenile raccoon dogs. Additionally, muscle samples were taken from 10 juvenile red foxes. PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA. T. gondii infection was not detected in any of the arctic foxes; 60% ofraccoon dogs were infected; the prevalence of the parasite in material from red fox swabs was intermediate between the prevalence observed in arctic foxes and raccoon dogs. It is possible that susceptibility and immune response to the parasite differ between the three investigated canid species. T. gondii DNA was detected in muscle tissue of five young foxes. The results of this study suggest that T. gondii infection is not rare in farmed canids.

  20. Spontaneous stage differentiation of mouse-virulent Toxoplasma gondii RH parasites in skeletal muscle cells: an ultrastructural evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialice da Fonseca Ferreira-da-Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the predilection for Toxoplasma gondii to form cysts in the nervous system and skeletal and heart muscles has been described for more than fifty years, skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs have not been explored as a host cell type to study the Toxoplasma-host cell interaction and investigate the intracellular development of the parasite. Morphological aspects of the initial events in the Toxoplasma-SkMC interaction were analysed and suggest that there are different processes of protozoan adhesion and invasion and of the subsequent fate of the parasite inside the parasitophorous vacuole (PV. Using scanning electron microscopy,Toxoplasma tachyzoites from the mouse-virulent RH strain were found to be attached to SkMCs by the anterior or posterior region of the body, with or without expansion of the SkMC membrane. This suggests that different types of parasite internalization occurred. Asynchronous multiplication and differentiation of T. gondii were observed. Importantly, intracellular parasites were seen to display high amounts of amylopectin granules in their cytoplasm, indicating that tachyzoites of the RH strain were able to differentiate spontaneously into bradyzoites in SkMCs. This stage conversion occurred in approximately 3% of the PVs. This is particularly intriguing as tachyzoites of virulent Toxoplasma strains are not thought to be prone to cyst formation. We discuss whether biological differences in host cells are crucial to Toxoplasma stage conversion and suggest that important questions concerning the host cell type and its relevance in Toxoplasma differentiation are still unanswered.

  1. Management of Toxoplasma gondii screening in pregnancy: light and shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Paschale

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of screening for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy through comparing the data obtained from Italian and foreign women. 3074 women, 2465 Italians (80.2% and 609 foreigners (19.8% had undergone screening for serological detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in the years 2005-2007. 85.0% of the Italian women and 84.1% of the foreign women had the first blood test in the first trimester of pregnancy (difference not statistically significant.Among anti-Toxoplasma negative women average of blood tests during pregnancy was 3.69 for the Italians and 3.42 for the foreigners (p <0.01. 32.2% of Italian and 28.3% of foreign women were subjected to five or more blood tests (difference not statistically significant. Considering the trimester of pregnancy, the percentage of Italian and foreign women tested at least once in every trimester was respectively 58.0% and 45.2% (p <0.01. In conclusion, our data show that on the one hand the screening is active in controlling women within the first trimester of pregnancy, while on the other it appears weak in fully implementing the follow up, as indicated by the legislation currently in force. In addition, foreign women undergo fewer tests covering all trimesters compare to Italian women. This problem should be taken into account in terms of health policy.

  2. Cloning and Sequencing cDNA Encoding for Rhoptry-2 Toxoplasma Gondii Tachyzoite Local Isolate

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    Wayan T. Artama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhoptry protein belongs to an excretory and secretory antigens (ESAs that play an important role during activepenetration of parasite into the cell target. This protein an able Toxoplasma gondii to actively penetrate targetedcell, meanwhile ESAs protein stimulates intracellular vacuole modification. It is, therefore, after the parasitesuccessfully enter the cell target then Granule (GRA proteins are responsible for the formation of parasitophorusvacuole, which is protect the fusion with other intracellular compartments such as lysosomal vacuole. Consequently,this parasite is being able to survive and multiply at the cell target. The current study was aimed to clone andsequens cDNA encoding for ROP-2 of local isolated T. gondii tachizoite through DNA recombinant technique.Total ribonucleic acid (RNA was isolated from tachyzoites of local isolated T. gondii that were grown up in Balb/c mice. Messenger RNA was isolated from total RNA using PolyAtract mRNA Isolation System. Messenger RNA wasused as a template for synthesis cDNA using Riboclone cDNA Synthesis System AMV-RT. EcoRI adaptor fromRiboclone EcoRI Adaptor Ligation System was added to Complementary DNA and than ligated to pUC19. Recombinantplasmid was transformed into E. coli (XL1-Blue. The transformed E. coli XL-1 Blue were plated on LB agarcontaining X-Gal, IPTG and ampicillin. Recombinant clones (white colony were picked up and grown up in theLB medium at 37oC overnight. Expression of recombinant protein was analysed by immunoblotting in order toidentify cDNA recombinant wich is express ESA of T. gondii local isolate. Recombinant plasmid were isolatedusing alkalilysis method and were elektroforated in 1% agarose gel. The isolated DNA recombinant plasmid wascut using Eco RI and then sequenced through Big Dye Terminator Mix AB1 377A Sequencer using M13 Forward andM13 Reverse primers. The conclusion of this results showed that the recombinant clone was coding for excretoryand secretory

  3. Cloning and Sequencing cDNA Encoding for Rhoptry-2 Toxoplasma Gondii Tachyzoite Local Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murwantoko M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhoptry protein belongs to an excretory and secretory antigens (ESAs that play an important role during active penetration of parasite into the cell target. This protein an able Toxoplasma gondii to actively penetrate targeted cell, meanwhile ESAs protein stimulates intracellular vacuole modification. It is, therefore, after the parasite successfully enter the cell target then Granule (GRA proteins are responsible for the formation of parasitophorus vacuole, which is protect the fusion with other intracellular compartments such as lysosomal vacuole. Consequently, this parasite is being able to survive and multiply at the cell target. The current study was aimed to clone and sequens cDNA encoding for ROP-2 of local isolated T. gondii tachizoite through DNA recombinant technique. Total ribonucleic acid (RNA was isolated from tachyzoites of local isolated T. gondii that were grown up in Balb/c mice. Messenger RNA was isolated from total RNA using PolyAtract mRNA Isolation System. Messenger RNA was used as a template for synthesis cDNA using Riboclone cDNA Synthesis System AMV-RT. EcoRI adaptor from Riboclone EcoRI Adaptor Ligation System was added to Complementary DNA and than ligated to pUC19. Recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli (XL1-Blue. The transformed E. coli XL-1 Blue were plated on LB agar containing X-Gal, IPTG and ampicillin. Recombinant clones (white colony were picked up and grown up in the LB medium at 37oC overnight. Expression of recombinant protein was analysed by immunoblotting in order to identify cDNA recombinant wich is express ESA of T. gondii local isolate. Recombinant plasmid were isolated using alkalilysis method and were elektroforated in 1% agarose gel. The isolated DNA recombinant plasmid was cut using Eco RI and then sequenced through Big Dye Terminator Mix AB1 377A Sequencer using M13 Forward and M13 Reverse primers. The conclusion of this results showed that the recombinant clone was coding for excretory

  4. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  5. Stillbirth history and Toxoplasma gondii infection in women attending public health centers in a northern Mexican City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C.; Pacheco-Vega, S. J.; Salcedo-Jaquez, M.; Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F.; Hernández-Tinoco, J.; Rábago-Sánchez, E.; Centeno-Tinoco, M. M.; Flores-Garcia, I. D.; Ramos-Nevarez, A.; Cerrillo-Soto, S. M.; Guido-Arreola, C. A.; Beristain-García, I.; Liesenfeld, O.; Berumen-Segovia, L. O.; Saenz-Soto, L.; Sifuentes-Álvarez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Through a cross-sectional study design, 150 women attending public health centers with a history of stillbirths were examined for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in Durango City, Mexico. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the women with stillbirth history. Of the 150 women (mean age: 32.09 ± 9.16 years) studied, 14 (9.3%) had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and six (42.9%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with high frequency (4–7 days a week) of eating meat (OR = 5.52; 95% CI: 1.48–20.59; P = 0.01), history of lymphadenopathy (OR = 4.52; 95% CI: 1.14–17.82; P = 0.03), and history of surgery (OR = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.04–72.15; P = 0.04). This is the first study on the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in women with a history of stillbirths in Mexico. The association of T. gondii exposure with a history of surgery warrants for further research. Risk factors for T. gondii infection found in the present survey may help to design optimal educational programs to avoid T. gondii infection. PMID:26185685

  6. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in the Common raven (Corvus corax) in the Northeast of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, multiple cases of aggressive behaviour of Common ravens (Corvus corax) have been reported by farmers in Catalonia (NE Spain), including attacking of newborn animals and consumption of dead foetuses. In the present study, seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum was d...

  7. Characterization of IgG monoclonal antibody targeted to both tissue cyst and sporocyst walls of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects approximately one third of the human population and animals habiting terrestrial and aquatic environments. Its environmentally resistant oocysts are excreted by felids, and the stage encysted in tissues (tissue cysts), are important in the horizontal transmission of T. gon...

  8. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Lowland Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) maintained ex-situ in Brazil and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, by the presence of antibodies to the parasite, was documented in 47 Brazilian tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) maintained ex-situ in 10 Brazilian and in one Paraguayan Institution. One animal had samples collected on two occasions (November 2010 and October 2011), and 19 (4...

  9. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii-specific T cells recovered from vitreous fluid of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Feron (Eric); V.N. Klaren; E.A. Wierenga (Eddy); A. Kijlstra Prof. Dr; G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: The mechanisms involved in reactivations of latent ocular Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) infections in immunocompetent patients are poorly understood. In view of the possible role of T cells in the immunopathogenesis of the disease, ocular infiltrating T cells obtained

  10. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue of feral rodents and insectivores caught on farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Craeye, de S.; Dierick, K.; Kijlstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of both Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in 250 brain tissue samples from 9 species of feral rodents and insectivores caught on 10 organic farms in the Netherlands in 2004. Collected samples were conserved in 4% paraformaldehyde solution and analysed by real-time P

  11. Clinical observations, pathology, bioassay in mice and serological response at slaughter in pigs experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Lind, Peter; Haugegaard, J.;

    1997-01-01

    Experimental infections of a total of 47 pigs with tachyzoites of the Toxoplasma gondii RH-strain, tissue cysts of the SSI-119 and R92 strains as well as oocysts of the SSI-119 strain were performed to determine the sensitivity of an indirect IgG-ELISA, using tachyzoite lysate of the RH-strain as...

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  13. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in birds from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avians are considered important intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as source of infection for Felidae, which shed environmentally resistant oocysts after ingesting infected tissues. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In the present study, ant...

  14. Progress on surface antigens of Toxoplasma gondii%弓形虫表面抗原研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付婷霞; 仲维霞

    2009-01-01

    刚地弓形虫是一种广泛分布于人和哺乳动物组织细胞内的机会性致病原虫,可引起严重的人兽共患病.弓形虫抗原的研究对开发诊断制剂、疫苗以及从分子水平探讨弓形虫与宿主之间的相互关系具有重要意义,该文对近年来有关弓形虫抗原的研究进展作一综述.%Toxoplasma gondii is all obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of hosts,in-cluding humans and domesticated animals throughout the wodd.The investigation of the antigens of Toxoplasma gondii is of great significance in developing diagnostic reagents,vaccines and studying on the relationship be-tween Toxoplasma gondii and its hosts.This review focused on the recent progress on the antigens of Toxoplas-ma gondii.

  15. Isolation and genetic characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii from tissues and feces of cats from the central region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they are the only definitive hosts that excrete environmentally resistant Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Little is known of feline toxoplasmosis in China and most of the literature is in Chinese. Here we summarized all published reports on ...

  16. Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia: Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2007-01-01

    of infection and other schizophrenia-like disorders or affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports an association between Toxoplasma gondii and early-onset schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to establish if the association is causal and if it generalizes to cases with onset after age 18...

  17. Study to compare veterinarians’ exposure to Toxoplasma gondii to that of veterinary staff and the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis has been epidemiologically linked with the serious mental illness that is schizophrenia. Toxoplasmosis has also been associated with the risk of suicide. The suicide rate in the veterinary population has reached a level of concern. To assess the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii exposure...

  18. Seropositivity and Risk Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Wild Birds from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M.; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n = 610), Strigiformes (n = 260), Ciconiiformes (n = 156), Gruiformes (n = 21), and other orders (n = 32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1∶25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC95%:23.5–28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) “vulnerable” Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN “near threatened” red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits from different farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Jeklová, Edita; Kudláčková, Hana; Faldyna, Martin; Kovařčík, Kamil; Jánová, Eva; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-08-29

    The breeding of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for human consumption has a long tradition mainly in European and Asian countries. Infections that can affect the production of meat or even be transmitted from animals to humans are important to monitor, especially for public health reasons as well as for their impact on animals health. This study aimed to collect sera from rabbits bred in different conditions and test the presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi antibodies. Whether infections were active or latent was assessed by determining the occurrence of IgM or IgM together with IgG antibodies which indicated active infection whereas latent infection was characterized by finding IgG antibodies only. An ELISA test was performed with 1883 sera samples collected throughout the Czech and Slovak Republics. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in 902 samples from 6 commercial farms (CF) was very low with only 4 rabbits (0.4%) being positive. In total 99 (10.1%) individuals out of 981 samples from 29 household farms (HF) were positive for T. gondii antibodies. Only 2 (50%) of the T. gondii positive CF rabbits had active infections while the rest were latently infected. The serological results showed that 35 (35.4%) rabbits from the T. gondii positive HF group suffered from active infection. Out of CF samples 185 (20.5%) were positive for E. cuniculi. Antibodies of E. cuniculi were detected in 497 (50.7%) HF rabbits. Active E. cuniculi infections were determined in 85.9% of CF and 56.3% of HF rabbits; respectively. Interestingly, the E. cuniculi positive rabbits were significantly more often positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies in comparison to E. cuniculi negative individuals. Prevalence of T. gondii in CF rabbits was negligible. According to our results meat of HF rabbits still poses a risk of T. gondii infection. Nevertheless, the risk is on its lowest level in 20 years which is apparently caused due to changes in feeding practices. The

  20. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP: Early detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Qing-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease that occurs in both animals and humans. Traditional molecular assays are often difficult to perform, especially for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections. Here, we established a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting the 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-LAMP to detect T. gondii DNA in blood samples of experimental mice infected with tachyzoites of the RH strain. Findings The assay was performed with Bst DNA polymerase at 65°C for 1 h. The detection limit of the 529 bp-LAMP assay was as low as 0.6 fg of T. gondii DNA. The sensitivity of this assay was 100 and 1000 fold higher than that of the LAMP targeting B1 gene (B1-LAMP and nested PCR targeting 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-nested PCR, respectively. The specificity of the 529 bp-LAMP assay was determined using the DNA samples of Trypanosoma evansi, Plasmodium falciparum, Paragonimus westermani, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of any parasites was found. The assay was able to detect T. gondii DNA in all mouse blood samples at one day post infection (dpi. Conclusions We report the following findings: (i The detection limit of the 529 bp-LAMP assay is 0.6 fg of T. gondii DNA; (ii The assay does not involve any cross-reactivity with the DNA of other parasites; (iii This is the first report on the application of the LAMP assay for early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in blood samples from experimentally infected mice. Due to its simplicity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness for common use, we suggest that this assay should be used as an early diagnostic tool for health control of toxoplasmosis.

  1. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella species and haemoplasma infection in cats in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobetti, Remo; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Vector-borne agents and Toxoplasma gondii are common in cats, with many being zoonotic. The current study investigated the prevalence of selected infectious agents in cats from Johannesburg, South Africa, for which no published data exists. Whole blood and sera were obtained from 102 cats with a variety of disease conditions. Total DNA was extracted from the blood and assayed using PCR techniques for Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus M haemominutum, Candidatus M turicensis, Bartonella species, Ehrlichia species and Anaplasma species. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect IgG and IgM serum antibodies to T gondii and IgG serum antibodies to Bartonella species. Associations between test results, patient characteristics and haematological values were also evaluated. Overall, 56 cats (55%) were positive in one or more of the assays. Haemoplasma DNA was amplified from 26 cats [M haemofelis: four cats (3.9%); Candidatus M haemominutum from 22 cats (21.6%)] and Bartonella species DNA was amplified from eight cats [Bartonella henselae: five cats (4.9%); Bartonella clarridgeieae: three cats (2.9%)]; DNA of Ehrlichia species or Anaplasma species were not amplified. Of the cats, 24 (23.5%) were seropositive for Bartonella IgG and 18 (17.6%) were positive for T gondii IgM (12 cats), IgG (eight cats), or both (two cats). The study concluded that Bartonella species haemoplasmas and T gondii are common in client-owned cats in the region and the diagnosis of feline vector-borne agents and T gondii is difficult without the use of specific diagnostic tests, as there are minimal patient characteristics or haematological changes that indicate infection.

  2. Polyparasitism is associated with increased disease severity in Toxoplasma gondii-infected marine sentinel species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Gibson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1995, one of the largest outbreaks of human toxoplasmosis occurred in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Genetic typing identified a novel Toxoplasma gondii strain linked to the outbreak, in which a wide spectrum of human disease was observed. For this globally-distributed, water-borne zoonosis, strain type is one variable influencing disease, but the inability of strain type to consistently explain variations in disease severity suggests that parasite genotype alone does not determine the outcome of infection. We investigated polyparasitism (infection with multiple parasite species as a modulator of disease severity by examining the association of concomitant infection of T. gondii and the related parasite Sarcocystis neurona with protozoal disease in wild marine mammals from the Pacific Northwest. These hosts ostensibly serve as sentinels for the detection of terrestrial parasites implicated in water-borne epidemics of humans and wildlife in this endemic region. Marine mammals (151 stranded and 10 healthy individuals sampled over 6 years were assessed for protozoal infection using multi-locus PCR-DNA sequencing directly from host tissues. Genetic analyses uncovered a high prevalence and diversity of protozoa, with 147/161 (91% of our sampled population infected. From 2004 to 2009, the relative frequency of S. neurona infections increased dramatically, surpassing that of T. gondii. The majority of T. gondii infections were by genotypes bearing Type I lineage alleles, though strain genotype was not associated with disease severity. Significantly, polyparasitism with S. neurona and T. gondii was common (42% and was associated with higher mortality and more severe protozoal encephalitis. Our finding of widespread polyparasitism among marine mammals indicates pervasive contamination of waterways by zoonotic agents. Furthermore, the significant association of concomitant infection with mortality and protozoal encephalitis identifies

  3. Polyparasitism Is Associated with Increased Disease Severity in Toxoplasma gondii-Infected Marine Sentinel Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amanda K.; Raverty, Stephen; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Huggins, Jessica; Magargal, Spencer L.; Grigg, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1995, one of the largest outbreaks of human toxoplasmosis occurred in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Genetic typing identified a novel Toxoplasma gondii strain linked to the outbreak, in which a wide spectrum of human disease was observed. For this globally-distributed, water-borne zoonosis, strain type is one variable influencing disease, but the inability of strain type to consistently explain variations in disease severity suggests that parasite genotype alone does not determine the outcome of infection. We investigated polyparasitism (infection with multiple parasite species) as a modulator of disease severity by examining the association of concomitant infection of T. gondii and the related parasite Sarcocystis neurona with protozoal disease in wild marine mammals from the Pacific Northwest. These hosts ostensibly serve as sentinels for the detection of terrestrial parasites implicated in water-borne epidemics of humans and wildlife in this endemic region. Marine mammals (151 stranded and 10 healthy individuals) sampled over 6 years were assessed for protozoal infection using multi-locus PCR-DNA sequencing directly from host tissues. Genetic analyses uncovered a high prevalence and diversity of protozoa, with 147/161 (91%) of our sampled population infected. From 2004 to 2009, the relative frequency of S. neurona infections increased dramatically, surpassing that of T. gondii. The majority of T. gondii infections were by genotypes bearing Type I lineage alleles, though strain genotype was not associated with disease severity. Significantly, polyparasitism with S. neurona and T. gondii was common (42%) and was associated with higher mortality and more severe protozoal encephalitis. Our finding of widespread polyparasitism among marine mammals indicates pervasive contamination of waterways by zoonotic agents. Furthermore, the significant association of concomitant infection with mortality and protozoal encephalitis identifies polyparasitism as

  4. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  5. Polyparasitism is associated with increased disease severity in Toxoplasma gondii-infected marine sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amanda K; Raverty, Stephen; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Huggins, Jessica; Magargal, Spencer L; Grigg, Michael E

    2011-05-01

    In 1995, one of the largest outbreaks of human toxoplasmosis occurred in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Genetic typing identified a novel Toxoplasma gondii strain linked to the outbreak, in which a wide spectrum of human disease was observed. For this globally-distributed, water-borne zoonosis, strain type is one variable influencing disease, but the inability of strain type to consistently explain variations in disease severity suggests that parasite genotype alone does not determine the outcome of infection. We investigated polyparasitism (infection with multiple parasite species) as a modulator of disease severity by examining the association of concomitant infection of T. gondii and the related parasite Sarcocystis neurona with protozoal disease in wild marine mammals from the Pacific Northwest. These hosts ostensibly serve as sentinels for the detection of terrestrial parasites implicated in water-borne epidemics of humans and wildlife in this endemic region. Marine mammals (151 stranded and 10 healthy individuals) sampled over 6 years were assessed for protozoal infection using multi-locus PCR-DNA sequencing directly from host tissues. Genetic analyses uncovered a high prevalence and diversity of protozoa, with 147/161 (91%) of our sampled population infected. From 2004 to 2009, the relative frequency of S. neurona infections increased dramatically, surpassing that of T. gondii. The majority of T. gondii infections were by genotypes bearing Type I lineage alleles, though strain genotype was not associated with disease severity. Significantly, polyparasitism with S. neurona and T. gondii was common (42%) and was associated with higher mortality and more severe protozoal encephalitis. Our finding of widespread polyparasitism among marine mammals indicates pervasive contamination of waterways by zoonotic agents. Furthermore, the significant association of concomitant infection with mortality and protozoal encephalitis identifies polyparasitism as

  6. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

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    Martins-Duarte, Erica S.; Dubar, Faustine; Lawton, Philippe; França da Silva, Cristiane; C. Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré; de Souza, Wanderley; Biot, Christophe; Vommaro, Rossiane C.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite’s DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13–25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment). Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h) post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition - with the appearance of ‘tethered’ parasites – malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results show

  7. Type II Toxoplasma gondii induction of CD40 on infected macrophages enhances interleukin-12 responses.

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    Morgado, Pedro; Sudarshana, Dattanand M; Gov, Lanny; Harker, Katherine S; Lam, Tonika; Casali, Paolo; Boyle, Jon P; Lodoen, Melissa B

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can cause severe neurological disease in infected humans. CD40 is a receptor on macrophages that plays a critical role in controlling T. gondii infection. We examined the regulation of CD40 on the surface of T. gondii-infected bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMdMs). T. gondii induced CD40 expression both at the transcript level and on the cell surface, and interestingly, the effect was parasite strain specific: CD40 levels were dramatically increased in type II T. gondii-infected BMdMs compared to type I- or type III-infected cells. Type II induction of CD40 was specific to cells harboring intracellular parasites and detectable as early as 6 h postinfection (hpi) at the transcript level. CD40 protein expression peaked at 18 hpi. Using forward genetics with progeny from a type II × type III cross, we found that CD40 induction mapped to a region of chromosome X that included the gene encoding the dense granule protein 15 (GRA15). Using type I parasites stably expressing the type II allele of GRA15 (GRA15II), we found that type I GRA15II parasites induced the expression of CD40 on infected cells in an NF-κB-dependent manner. In addition, stable expression of hemagglutinin-tagged GRA15II in THP-1 cells resulted in CD40 upregulation in the absence of infection. Since CD40 signaling contributes to interleukin-12 (IL-12) production, we examined IL-12 from infected macrophages and found that CD40L engagement of CD40 amplified the IL-12 response in type II-infected cells. These data indicate that GRA15II induction of CD40 promotes parasite immunity through the production of IL-12. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J

    2013-03-31

    There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans.

  9. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) - reservoir host of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Derdáková, Markéta; Čobádiová, Andrea; Hisira, Vladimír

    2016-03-01

    In Central Europe the wild boar population is permanently growing and consequently Cf foodborne infections. In this study serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild boars was evaluated. Moreover, same samples were screened for the presence and genetic variability of tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Blood samples collected from 113 wild boars from Southern Slovakia were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by indirect and to N. caninum by competitive ELISA. The presence of parasitic DNA in blood samples was determined by standard or real time PCR techniques. Antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum were detected in 45 (39.8%) and 38 (33.6%) animals, respectively. Females were more frequently infected for both pathogens than males. The high seropositivity against both coccidia indicates a permanent occurrence of these pathogens in the studied locality. T. gondii DNA was confirmed in five seropositive boars (4.4%) and N. caninum in 23 blood samples (20.4%). Three out of 23 N. caninum PCR positive animals did not show seropositivity. Three out of 113 blood samples of wild boars were positive for A. phagocytophilum (2.7%). The obtained A. phagocytophilum sequences were 100% identical with GenBankTM isolates from Slovak dog (KC985242); German horse (JF893938) or wild boar (EF143810) and red deer (EF143808) from Poland. Coinfections of T. gondii with N. caninum and N. caninum with A. phagocytophilum were detected in single cases. Results suggest a potential zoonotic risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to humans and the spread of neosporosis to farm animals.

  10. Antibody Prevalence and Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Raptors in the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David; Kwok, Oliver C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, Jitender P; Bellah, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ). Antibodies were not detected in 5 Barn Owls ( Tyto alba ), 3 American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 1 Mississippi Kite ( Ictinia mississippiensis ), and 1 Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 1 antibody-positive Barred Owl and identified as a strain having type II alleles at all 10 loci tested, except one (ToxoDB polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype 3). Type II strain is the most common strain in the US. Results of this study indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii in some raptor species and the first reported genotyping from a Barred Owl.

  11. Schizogony and gametogony of oocyst-deficient T-263 strain of Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Dubey, J P

    2017-05-27

    Oocysts are important stage for the spread of Toxoplasma gondii because they are environmentally resistant. Among all hosts of T. gondii, only felids can excrete oocysts. Cats that have excreted T. gondii oocysts after primary infection develop immunity to re-excretion of oocysts, and this immunity appears to be long-lasting. It would be desirable to have a non-infectious vaccine for the prevention of T. gondii infection in cats and to understand mechanism of immunity to excretion of oocysts. An initial step will be to indentify stage/stages of the parasite for induction of immunity. A chemically-induced mutant of T. gondii, T-263, is immunogenic but lacks the capacity to form oocysts in cats. Cats fed live bradyzoites of T-263 do not excrete oocysts after challenge with oocyst producing strains. However, it is not known at what stage of the parasite development the oocyst formation is halted. Here, four cats were fed live tissue cysts of the T-263 strain and examined for enteroepithelial stages and oocyst production. Two cats were administered methyl prednisolone aceatate (20mg/kg) once intramuscularly and these cats were euthanized 5 and 7days post inoculation. No oocysts but immature and mature schizonts (types D and E), male, and female gamonts were detected in two cats euthanized. The remaining two cats did not excrete oocysts examined 3-14days post inoculation, but both seroconverted and developed antibody titers of 1:400 tested by the modification agglutination test, indicating exposure to the inocula. The results demonstrate that the T-263 strain is defective in oocyst formation and the observations should help future studies in identification of genes/factors responsible for oocyst formation in the intestine of cats. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. MIF participates in Toxoplasma gondii-induced pathology following oral infection.

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    Marta G Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is essential for controlling parasite burden and survival in a model of systemic Toxoplasma gondii infection. Peroral T. gondii infection induces small intestine necrosis and death in susceptible hosts, and in many aspects resembles inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Considering the critical role of MIF in the pathogenesis of IBD, we hypothesized that MIF participates in the inflammatory response induced by oral infection with T. gondii. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mif deficient (Mif(-/- and wild-type mice in the C57Bl/6 background were orally infected with T. gondii strain ME49. Mif(-/- mice had reduced lethality, ileal inflammation and tissue damage despite of an increased intestinal parasite load compared to wt mice. Lack of MIF caused a reduction of TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-23 and an increased expression of IL-22 in ileal mucosa. Moreover, suppressed pro-inflammatory responses at the ileal mucosa observed in Mif(-/- mice was not due to upregulation of IL-4, IL-10 or TGF-β. MIF also affected the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 but not MMP-2 in the intestine of infected mice. Signs of systemic inflammation including the increased concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in the plasma and liver damage were less pronounced in Mif(-/- mice compared to wild-type mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, our data suggested that in susceptible hosts MIF controls T. gondii infection with the cost of increasing local and systemic inflammation, tissue damage and death.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii infection: seroprevalence and associated risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Lagos City, Southern Nigeria

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    Vincent Pam Gyang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection has been described as the most widespread zoonotic infection of humans and other animals. Information concerning T. gondii infection among schoolchildren is unavailable in Lagos City, Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection among primary schoolchildren (PSC from a community located in the center of Lagos, southern Nigeria, from November 2013 to March 2014. A total of 382 PSC were screened for the presence of sera anti-T. gondii antibodies using a latex agglutination test (TOXO Test-MT, Tokyo, Japan. A cutoff titer of ≥ 1:32 was considered positive, while titers ≥ 1:1,024 indicated high responders. Questionnaires were also used to obtain data on possible risk factors from parents/guardians. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 24% (91/382, and 83.5% (76/91 of seropositive PSC were classified as high responders. Among the risk factors tested, including contact with cats and soil, consumption of raw meat and vegetables, and drinking unboiled water, none showed statistical significance after multivariate adjustment. No associations were observed among age, gender, body mass index (BMI, and parents' occupation/educational level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings in this study show evidence of active infection, and hence, there is need for urgent preventive measures in this city. Further investigation is required to clarify the transmission routes. Policy makers also need to initiate prevention and control programs to protect pregnant women and immunocompromised patients in particular because they are more severely affected by T. gondii infection.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii in Romanian household cats: evaluation of serological tests, epidemiology and risk factors.

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    Györke, Adriana; Opsteegh, Marieke; Mircean, Viorica; Iovu, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2011-12-15

    Felines are the key species in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection, as they are the definitive host of the parasite and are the only species that can shed resistant oocysts in the environment. Different assays are in use for the detection of antibodies against T. gondii in cats. However, assay validation studies are limited. For that reason it was our aim to first evaluate 6 serological tests (one commercial and 2 in-house ELISAs, ImmunoComb, IFAT and MAT) for antibodies (IgG) against T. gondii in cats by Bayesian modeling. Factors associated with seropositivity were evaluated by bivariable and multivariable methods. The test evaluation indicated the commercial ELISA had the highest Youden Index. The estimated sensitivity ranged between 95.7% and 97.1% and the specificity between 97.3% and 97.6%. Using this commercial ELISA 111 out of 236 cats (47%) were positive for T. gondii antibodies. Two peaks in the percentage of strong positive samples (S/P≥200) were observed, around 10-months-old and 8-years-old. In bivariable analysis the seroprevalence was significantly higher in adult cats, cats with mixed diet, with outdoor access, in cats from a rural area and in cats from centre and north-western Romania. Adult age (adults: OR 6.98; 95% CI: 2.02-24.14 and geriatrics (cats older than 10-years): OR 12.01; 95% CI: 1.60-90.15) and outdoor access (OR 6.38; 95% CI: 2.32-17.53) remained significant risk factors in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Our results suggest that T. gondii infection is common in household cats in Romania, and especially in those with outdoor access. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MIF Participates in Toxoplasma gondii-Induced Pathology Following Oral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Kalil; Feijó, Daniel F.; Assunção-Miranda, Iranaia; Souza, Heitor S. P.; Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is essential for controlling parasite burden and survival in a model of systemic Toxoplasma gondii infection. Peroral T. gondii infection induces small intestine necrosis and death in susceptible hosts, and in many aspects resembles inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Considering the critical role of MIF in the pathogenesis of IBD, we hypothesized that MIF participates in the inflammatory response induced by oral infection with T. gondii. Methodology/Principal Findings Mif deficient (Mif−/−) and wild-type mice in the C57Bl/6 background were orally infected with T. gondii strain ME49. Mif−/− mice had reduced lethality, ileal inflammation and tissue damage despite of an increased intestinal parasite load compared to wt mice. Lack of MIF caused a reduction of TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-23 and an increased expression of IL-22 in ileal mucosa. Moreover, suppressed pro-inflammatory responses at the ileal mucosa observed in Mif−/− mice was not due to upregulation of IL-4, IL-10 or TGF-β. MIF also affected the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) but not MMP-2 in the intestine of infected mice. Signs of systemic inflammation including the increased concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in the plasma and liver damage were less pronounced in Mif−/− mice compared to wild-type mice. Conclusion/Significance In conclusion, our data suggested that in susceptible hosts MIF controls T. gondii infection with the cost of increasing local and systemic inflammation, tissue damage and death. PMID:21977228

  16. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-12-01

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.

  17. Serum antibodies to viral pathogens and Toxoplasma gondii in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flø, R W; Nilsen, A; Voltersvik, P; Haukenes, G

    1993-12-01

    Sera from 38 HIV-infected individuals were examined longitudinally for antibodies to viruses that may increase morbidity in HIV infection, as well as commensal viruses and Toxoplasma gondii. HTLV infection was seen in Norway for the first time as four patients had antibodies to HTLV-II and one had antibodies to HTLV-I. Antibodies to hepatitis B virus (HBV) were found in 47.2%, while 21.6% of the patients had antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV). There was no evidence of acquisition of HBV or HVC during the mean observation period of 2 years. A titre increase in CMV antibody with time was observed for 7 out of 21 patients and a decrease for 2 patients. For Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, rubella and measles viruses, human polyomavirus BK as well as for Toxoplasma gondii, antibody prevalences and titres were within the range seen in normal populations. Also, no longitudinal changes were observed in titres of these antibodies, indicating that humoral immunity remained intact during the study period. The high prevalences of HTLV-I/II, HBV and HCV antibodies in HIV-infected patients reflect common modes of virus transmission, and the fluctuations in CMV antibody titre are indicative of reactivations. Such coinfections may influence disease progression.

  18. Tunisian Toxoplasma gondii strains genotyping by the use of AK69 marker

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    Aoun Karim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical manifestation due to infection by Toxoplasma gondii is closely linked to the infecting strain of the parasite. Several genetic markers are available to determinate its genotype but few of them are able to discriminate between the three predominant lineages, namely types I, II and III. The number of markers decreases when atypical, recombinant/mixed genotypes need to be identified. Findings In our study, the contribution of sequence polymorphisms in the AK69 gene as typing markers for T. gondii was investigated for the first time in an epidemiological study. The coding region of the marker was amplified, sequenced and aligned for different Toxoplasma strains. The identified nucleotide polymorphism at 12 positions was able to highly discriminate between the different congenital toxoplasmosis Tunisian strains. Moreover the high detection sensitivity level of the marker enabled unambiguous identification of mixed/recombinant genotypes directly. Conclusion It can be, thus, very useful for direct typing in areas where such genotypes are frequently encountered, mainly in the African continent.

  19. Mast cells in the eyes of Calomys callosus(Rodentia: Cricetidae) infected by Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Gil, Cristiane D; Mineo, José R; Smith, Ricardo L; Oliani, Sonia M

    2002-06-01

    The mast cell is a powerful effector cell for the innate immune system, acting through the secretion of several distinct mediators. Few studies have demonstrated the relationship between mast cells and toxoplasmosis. In this study, mast cells were investigated in two experimental Toxoplasma infections using Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) as the host. Animals were inoculated either intraperitoneally or via the conjunctiva with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain) and sacrificed after 5 days or 24 h, respectively. Enucleated eyes were processed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. Neither experimental infection altered the localization of mast cells compared to control eyes, but they did lead to an accumulation in some tissues as well as to their activation. There was a significant increase in the number of mast cells within 5 days and 24 h after infection. The ocular lesions were characterized by the presence of tachyzoites, inflammatory cells and vasodilatation in the iris and retina. In conclusion, mast cells were mobilized in these experimental infections, suggesting that they play an important role in the host inflammatory response after infection with T. gondii.

  20. Histological Changes of the Ovary in Pregnant Mice Vaginally Exposed to Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Eslamirad, Zahra; Bayat, Parvin-Dokht; Babaei, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is one cause of abortion. Infection can disrupt ovarian cycles and because toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease may have a similar effect on the ovaries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathological changes in the ovaries due to toxoplasmosis. Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii were harvested from peritoneal fluid of mice, experimentally infected. Two females and one male mouse were housed per cage for mating in the overnight. The pregnant mice were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group were infected by parasite but the control group received the normal saline. The experimental and control mice were euthanized. Ovaries and uterine horns of animals were removed and prepared for light microscopy. Ovaries of infected pregnant mice presented gross morphological differences compared to the control groups. In ovaries of experimental groups, changes of corpus luteum were observed. The comparison of experimental and control groups revealed that the number of primary follicles, secondary follicle, atretic primary follicles and atretic secondary follicles had significant differences (P≤0.001). Toxoplasma gondii alters ovarian follicular growth and development in mice. In addition, it alters number of different phases of follicles and corpus luteum in ovaries of mice.

  1. Molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii formin 3, an actin nucleator dispensable for tachyzoite growth and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wassim; Klages, Natacha; Carlier, Marie-France; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2012-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, a group of obligate intracellular parasites that rely on gliding motility to enter host cells. Drugs interfering with the actin cytoskeleton block parasite motility, host cell invasion, and egress from infected cells. Myosin A, profilin, formin 1, formin 2, and actin-depolymerizing factor have all been implicated in parasite motility, yet little is known regarding the importance of actin polymerization and other myosins for the remaining steps of the parasite lytic cycle. Here we establish that T. gondii formin 3 (TgFRM3), a newly described formin homology 2 domain (FH2)-containing protein, binds to Toxoplasma actin and nucleates rabbit actin assembly in vitro. TgFRM3 expressed as a transgene exhibits a patchy localization at several distinct structures within the parasite. Disruption of the TgFRM3 gene by double homologous recombination in a ku80-ko strain reveals no vital function for tachyzoite propagation in vitro, which is consistent with its weak level of expression in this life stage. Conditional stabilization of truncated forms of TgFRM3 suggests that different regions of the molecule contribute to distinct localizations. Moreover, expression of TgFRM3 lacking the C-terminal domain severely affects parasite growth and replication. This work provides a first insight into how this specialized formin, restricted to the group of coccidia, completes its actin-nucleating activity.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758 Living in San Carlos (Chile

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    Ignacio Eduardo Troncoso Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Chile; therefore, this article aims to determine seroprevalence in cats in the district of San Carlos, by ELISA Immuno- Comb® serological technique, and, at the same time, to examine association with variables of sex, age, diet, and habitat. To the effect, 60 cats over 2 months old were randomly sampled. Sera were analyzed using the ELISA ImmunoComb® Biogal Toxo & Chlamydia test kit, which detects specific immunoglobulin G-type antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 100%. The study evidenced that 29 individuals were positive (48.3% seroprevalence; when broken down by gender this corresponded to 9 males and 20 females (39.1% and 54%, respectively. By age, seropositivity was higher in the “Adult” group (76.7%, followed by groups “Over 7 years” (50% and “Young” (25%. With respect to diet, higher seropositivity was obtained in animals fed on mixed diet, as opposed to commercial diet (60% vs. 47.2%. By variable habitat, 16 indoor and 13 outdoor cats were positive (45.7% and 52%, showing statistically significant difference only for the variable age (p < 0.05. Finally, through relating age with seropositivity, a negative correlation was evidenced (r = –0.3, indicating that older individuals had lower seroprevalence. The results show the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats.

  3. Determination of Antibodies (IgG, IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in Patients with Cancer

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    M Pedram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was determination of antibodies (IgG, IgM against Toxoplasma in malignant patients in order to refer the patients on time to the physician for treatment.Methods: This study was carried out on 252 malignant patients and 252 healthy normal subjects (as control obtained from Shafa Hospital and Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Iran-Zamin, in Ahwaz city. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. Serum samples of patients were examined for IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA technique using Trinity kits. Results: The results of this study revealed the presence of Toxoplasma antibodies in 114 (45.2% cases of patients who were positive for Toxoplasma IgG antibodies, and 26 (10.3% cases were confirmed to be positive for Toxoplasma IgM antibodies and also 17 (6.7% of cases had both IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. In control group 92 (36.5% cases and 15 (6% cases revealed seropositive for IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. There were no significant differences between sex, close contact with cat, living region, chemotherapy, and seropositivity rate of toxoplasmosis in patients. Comparing the age groups, the highest seropositive rate showed in the age of 51 years or higher, and their rates had tendency to increase with age in both groups. No seropositivity significant relationship was found between patients and control group.Conclusion: According to the prevalence of positive cases in these patients, it is necessary to examine the patients for toxoplasmosis before, during and after chemotherapy.

  4. Myenteric neuronal plasticity induced by Toxoplasma gondii (genotype III on the duodenum of rats

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    Rodrigo M. Papazian-Cabanas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute and chronic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on duodenal myenteric neurons were analyzed. Eighteen rats were assigned into four groups: Acute Control Group (ACG, n=4; Acute Experimental Group (AEG, n=4; Chronic Control Group (CCG, n=5; and Chronic Experimental Group (CEG, n=5. Rats from the AEG and CEG were inoculated orally with 105 genotype III (BTU-II strain tachyzoites of T. gondii isolated from a dog with neurological signs. Acute groups were killed after 24 hours after the inoculation and the chronic groups after 30 days. Whole-mount from the duodenum were stained with Giemsa. The population density of myenteric neurons, as well the body cell, nuclear and cytoplasmic area were analyzed. Both acute and chronic toxoplasmic infection did not provoke neuronal loss. On the other hand, plastic alterations were observed: decreasing of the nuclear and cytoplasmic area during the acute phase and neuronal hypertrophy during the chronic phase.Foram analisados os efeitos da infecção aguda e crônica provocada pelo Toxoplasma gondii sobre os neurônios mientéricos do duodeno. Dezoito ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: Grupo Controle Agudo (GCA, n= 4, Grupo Experimental Agudo (GEA, n=4, Grupo Controle Crônico (GCC, n=5 e Grupo Experimental Crônico (GEC, n=5. Os animais do GEA e GEC receberam por via oral 10 5 taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii da cepa BTUII (genótipo III isolada de um cão com sintomatologia neurológica. Os grupos agudos foram submetidos à eutanásia após 24 horas e os crônicos após 30 dias da inoculação. Preparados totais do duodeno foram corados com Giemsa. A densidade populacional dos neurônios mientéricos, bem como a área do corpo celular, núcleo e citoplasma foram analisados. Ambas, as infecções toxoplásmicas aguda e crônica não provocaram a perda neuronal. Por outro lado, alterações plásticas foram observadas: diminuição da área nuclear e citoplasmática durante a fase

  5. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozonn cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from Southern Louisian

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    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoan’s of veterinary importance (Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums (Didelphis...

  6. Cats and Toxoplasma gondii: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran

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    Mohammad T. Rahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic intracellular coccidian of the phylum Apicomplexa infecting warm-blooded animals and human beings. This protozoan causes a significant public health problem in humans and imposes considerable economic losses and damages to husbandry industries. The final host, cats, accounts for all of these significant burdens. Hence the present study was designed to analyse and review the overall prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats in Iran for the first time. In the present study data collection (published and unpublished papers, abstracts of proceedings of national parasitology congresses and dissertations was systematically undertaken on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Ebsco, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex and Scientific Information Database. A total of 21 studies from 1975 to 2013 reporting prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in cats from different areas in Iran met the eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of toxoplasmosis using the random-effect model amongst cats was estimated at 33.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.05–46.41. The prevalence rate of cat toxoplasmosis in various regions of Iran ranged from 1.2% to 89.2%. Firstly, this study establishes a crude prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats. Secondly, it discusses the role of significant risk factors including sex, age and being either household or stray cats, in the epidemiology of the disease. Furthermore, the current study determines gaps and drawbacks in the prior studies that are useful to keep in mind to assist in designing more accurate investigations in future.

  7. Cats and Toxoplasma gondii: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran.

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    Rahimi, Mohammad T; Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Shokri, Azar; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Teshnizi, Saeed H; Mizani, Azade; Sharif, Mahdi

    2015-04-30

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic intracellular coccidian of the phylum Apicomplexa infecting warm-blooded animals and human beings. This protozoan causes a significant public health problem in humans and imposes considerable economic losses and damages to husbandry industries. The final host, cats, accounts for all of these significant burdens. Hence the present study was designed to analyse and review the overall prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats in Iran for the first time. In the present study data collection (published and unpublished papers, abstracts of proceedings of national parasitology congresses and dissertations) was systematically undertaken on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Ebsco, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex and Scientific Information Database. A total of 21 studies from 1975 to 2013 reporting prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in cats from different areas in Iran met the eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of toxoplasmosis using the random-effect model amongst cats was estimated at 33.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.05-46.41). The prevalence rate of cat toxoplasmosis in various regions of Iran ranged from 1.2% to 89.2%. Firstly, this study establishes a crude prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats. Secondly, it discusses the role of significant risk factors including sex, age and being either household or stray cats, in the epidemiology of the disease. Furthermore, the current study determines gaps and drawbacks in the prior studies that are useful to keep in mind to assist in designing more accurate investigations in future.

  8. Cloning and Sequencing of Truncated Toxoplasma gondii Subtilisin-Like 1 Antigen

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    Ahmad Rouhizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which has significant medical and veterinary impact on all around the world. Tracking of specific antigens or antibodies for toxoplasmosis is the main choice in its diagnosis. Recombinant proteins will improve sensitivity and specificity and reduce problems of standardization and reproducibility of diagnostic kits. Toxoplasma gondii Subtilisin-like protein (TgSUB1 is a novel example of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol GPI (-anchored protein which can be considered as a potential marker for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Objectives The aims of this study were to find out major antigenic parts of this whole protein and to develop a recombinant prokaryotic plasmid. Methods In this experimental study, using bioinformatics softwares Parker Hydrophilicity prediction and Bepipred linear Epitope prediction to select best highly antigenic region of this protein, a 744 bp fragment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR on cDNA obtained from T. gondii RNA. The PCR product was cloned in PCR2.1 vector and subcloned into expression pET28a vector. The PCR2.1-SUB1 and PET28a-SUB1constructs were analyzed by PCR, restriction analysis and sequencing. Results A highly antigenic region in the hydrophilic part of the protein including amino acid residues 549 to 795 was successfully cloned and the sequences were confirmed. All nucleotide sequences in the PCR product have 100% homology with the published reference sequence. Conclusions Pairing bioinformatics tools and cloning of the candidate molecules in vaccine development studies and diagnostic approaches will have powerful impact on promotion of research in infectious diseases. This strategy is considered as available and inexpensive technology even in less developed countries where the infectious diseases like toxoplasmosis is prevalent.

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection with direct and indirect diagnostic techniques

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    Salvatore Pignanelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection, common parasitic zoonoses, is an important cause of spontaneous abortion, mental retardation, encephalitis, ocular disease and death worldwide. Today the major diagnostic techniques for the toxoplasmosis are serological assays, but its have many limitations. Aim : The goal in this study is to improve the diagnostic accuracy of T. gondii infection, using direct (Real Time PCR and indirect (IgM, IgA, IgG and IgG avidity diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: In the period between 2007 and 2008, 96 non consecutive different clinical samples (38 blood, 40 amniotic fluids, 8 cerebrospinal fluids, 10 vitreous humors and 96 sera have been studied simultaneously through molecular biology and serological techniques. Results: Direct and indirect diagnostic techniques used in this study for laboratory diagnosis of T. gondii infection were always concordant. Conclusions : The high correlation between direct and indirect diagnostic techniques exhibit that serologic techniques are accurate diagnostic assays as screening test in laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  10. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy cattle, state of Rio de Janeiro

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    G.R. Albuquerque

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic zoonoses throughout the world. Infection in man and animals varies in different geographical areas influenced by many environmental conditions. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle in Brazil ranges from 1.03 to 71%. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 58 out of 453 farms in the South Fluminense Paraiba Valley, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Over 3-year-old cattle (n=589 from dairy herds were selected for blood collection and detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IFA with initial titration of 1:16; titers > 64 were considered positive. Univariate analysis of risk factors showed that cats in contact with cattle, cats in contact with drinking water, and number of cats were associated with T. gondii seroprevalence. Logistic regression revealed a two-fold increased risk for infection of cattle (p=0.0138 through larger number of cats (>3 compared with low numbers of cats (1-2 on the farm. In contrast, the presence of chickens was considered a protective factor (p=0.025.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii in fattening pigs farm from Yucatan, Mexico.

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    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Acosta Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Segura-Correa, J C; Alvarez-Fleites, M; Jiménez-Coello, M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors associated with the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in pig-fattening farms from Yucatan, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a two-stage sampling. There were 429 pigs sampled from 39 farms randomly selected. Blood samples were collected to obtain DNA and serum. The presence of IgM and IgG antibodies was determined by indirect ELISA. Prevalence was estimated by diagnostic test. Potential risk factors to be included in a marginal logistic regression were tested by chi-square or Fisher. The prevalence of IgM and IgG was 92.5% (397/429) (CI 89.9-95.1%) and 95.8% (411/429) (CI 93.7-97.8%), respectively. Regarding PCR, a prevalence of 50.8% (218/429) (CI 45.9-55.6%) was found. The logistic regression showed an association with herd size and type of feeder (P 400 pigs. The manual feeder was a significant protective factor associated with the seropositive against T. gondii. Results indicate a high circulation of T. gondii in pig-fattening farms from Yucatan, finding an increased risk of infection for those farms with less than 400 animals and automatic feeders.

  12. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in Egyptian feral cats reveals new genotypes.

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    Al-Kappany, Y M; Rajendran, C; Abu-Elwafa, S A; Hilali, M; Su, C; Dubey, J P

    2010-12-01

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, 115 viable T. gondii isolates from tissues of cats from Egypt were genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) and DNA from tachyzoites. Seven genotypes were recognized including the clonal Type II, Type III (2 genotypes), and 4 atypical genotypes. Ninety percent (103 of 115) of isolates were clonal, i.e., Type II (n  =  61) and Type III (n  =  42) strains. Of the 61 Type II strains, all had the Type II alleles at all loci, except for 2 strains that had allele I at Apico. Eight isolates were divided into 4 atypical genotypes. One of these genotypes (with 4 isolates) was previously reported in dogs from Sri Lanka and in sand cats from the United Arab Emirates. Four isolates had mixed infections. These results revealed a strong clonal population structure with the dominance of clonal Type II and III lineages of T. gondii in feral cats from Egypt.

  13. Nuclear glycolytic enzyme enolase of Toxoplasma gondii functions as a transcriptional regulator.

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    Thomas Mouveaux

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites including Toxoplasma gondii have complex life cycles within different hosts and their infectivity relies on their capacity to regulate gene expression. However, little is known about the nuclear factors that regulate gene expression in these pathogens. Here, we report that T. gondii enolase TgENO2 is targeted to the nucleus of actively replicating parasites, where it specifically binds to nuclear chromatin in vivo. Using a ChIP-Seq technique, we provide evidence for TgENO2 enrichment at the 5' untranslated gene regions containing the putative promoters of 241 nuclear genes. Ectopic expression of HA-tagged TgENO1 or TgENO2 led to changes in transcript levels of numerous gene targets. Targeted disruption of TgENO1 gene results in a decrease in brain cyst burden of chronically infected mice and in changes in transcript levels of several nuclear genes. Complementation of this knockout mutant with ectopic TgENO1-HA fully restored normal transcript levels. Our findings reveal that enolase functions extend beyond glycolytic activity and include a direct role in coordinating gene regulation in T. gondii.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii presence in women with spontaneous abortion in Yucatan, Mexico.

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    Vado-Solís, Ignacio A; Suárez-Solís, Víctor; Jiménez-Delgadillo, Bertha; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E; Segura-Correa, José C

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and DNA of women with spontaneous abortions in 2 hospitals located in Yucatan, Mexico. Between June 2008 and May 2009, blood samples were taken from 100 women with spontaneous abortion attending the Ticul City Communitarian Hospital and the Merida Mother-Kid Hospital. The sera were tested for anti- T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Blood samples (5 ml with anticlotting agent) were also used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, to detect T. gondii DNA. Forty-two of the 100 samples were negative. Of the positive samples (n = 58), 32 were positive to IgG, 2 to IgM, 5 to IgG and IgM, 6 to IgG and PCR, 1 to IgM and PCR, and 12 to IgG, IgM, and PCR. Accordingly, 55% of the women were seropositive to at least IgG, 20% to at least IgM, and 19% via PCR. Differences between hospitals were significant (P women patients at the Merida Mother-Kid Hospital, than those at the Ticul Communitarian Hospital. More studies are needed to evaluate the impact of this disease and to establish strategies to follow in order to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis in the populations at risk.

  15. Global Metabolomic Profiling of Mice Brains following Experimental Infection with the Cyst-Forming Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Chun-Xue Zhou

    Full Text Available The interplay between the Apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and its host has been largely studied. However, molecular changes at the metabolic level in the host central nervous system and pathogenesis-associated metabolites during brain infection are largely unexplored. We used a global metabolomics strategy to identify differentially regulated metabolites and affected metabolic pathways in BALB/c mice during infection with T. gondii Pru strain at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (DPI. The non-targeted Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS metabolomics analysis detected approximately 2,755 retention time-exact mass pairs, of which more than 60 had significantly differential profiles at different stages of infection. These include amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and vitamins. The biological significance of these metabolites is discussed. Principal Component Analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis showed the metabolites' profile to change over time with the most significant changes occurring at 14 DPI. Correlated metabolic pathway imbalances were observed in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, energetic metabolism and fatty acid oxidation. Eight metabolites correlated with the physical recovery from infection-caused illness were identified. These findings indicate that global metabolomics adopted in this study is a sensitive approach for detecting metabolic alterations in T. gondii-infected mice and generated a comparative metabolic profile of brain tissue distinguishing infected from non-infected host.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dogs from the state of Tocantins: serology and associated factors

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    Juliana Macedo Raimundo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated occurrences of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies by means of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT, along with risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis and neosporosis, in 204 dogs from urban and rural areas of the municipality of Araguaína, state of Tocantins, Brazil. One hundred and thirty samples (63.7% were positive for T. gondii using ELISA: 57.1% and 70.7% in the urban and rural areas, respectively. The seropositivity frequency for T. gondii observed through IFAT was 57.4%, distributed between rural and urban areas as 62.6% and 52.4%, respectively. The factors associated with canine toxoplasmosis were age and breed (p<0.05. In relation to N. caninum, 88 samples (43.1% were positive, according to ELISA, distributed as 42.9% in urban areas and 43.3% in rural areas. Anti - N. caninum antibodies were detected through IFAT in 62 dogs (30.4%, distributed as 31.3% and 29.5% between rural and urban areas, respectively. Age and breed were associated with neosporosis occurrence (p<0.05 by IFAT. This study provides the first detection of IgG antibodies for canine toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in the state of Tocantins and highlights the importance of dogs in the epidemiological chain of these diseases.

  18. Epitope analysis and protection by a ROP19 DNA vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii

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    Zhou Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used bioinformatics approaches to identify B-cell and T-cell epitopes on the ROP19 protein of Toxoplasma gondii. Then, we constructed plasmids with ROP19 (pEGFP-C1-ROP19 and injected them into BALB/c mice to test the immunoprotection induced by this vaccine candidate. The results showed that immunization with pEGFP-C1-ROP19 induced effective cellular and humoral immune responses in mice; specifically, high serum levels of T. gondii-specific IgG and increased interferon-gamma production by splenocytes. Furthermore, the mice vaccinated with pROP19 had significantly fewer brain cysts (583 ± 160 than the mice injected with phosphate-buffered saline (1350 ± 243 or with the control plasmid, pEGFP-C1 (1300 ± 167. Compared with PBS-treated mice, those immunized with pROP19 had only 43% of the number of brain cysts. These results suggest that the DNA vaccine encoding ROP19 induced a significant immune response and provided protection against a challenge with T. gondii strain PRU cysts.

  19. Pathogenicity and phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance of Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from livestock in northeastern Brazil.

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    Oliveira, Claudio Bs; Meurer, Ywlliane Sr; Andrade, Joelma Ma; Costa, Maria Esm; Andrade, Milena Mc; Silva, Letícia A; Lanza, Daniel Cf; Vítor, Ricardo Wa; Andrade-Neto, Valter F

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative protozoan agent of toxoplasmosis, which is a common infection that is widely distributed worldwide. Studies revealed stronger clonal strains in North America and Europe and genetic diversity in South American strains. Our study aimed to differentiate the pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance of three T. gondii isolates obtained from livestock intended for human consumption. The cytopathic effects of the T. gondii isolates were evaluated. The pathogenicity was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using a CS3 marker and in a rodent model in vivo. Phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance was measured using a kinetic curve of drug activity in Swiss mice. IgM and IgG were measured by ELISA, and the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene sequence was analysed. The cytopathic effects and the PCR-RFLP profiles from chickens indicated a different infection source. The Ck3 isolate displayed more cytopathic effects in vitro than the Ck2 and ME49 strains. Additionally, the Ck2 isolate induced a differential humoral immune response compared to ME49. The Ck3 and Pg1 isolates, but not the Ck2 isolate, showed sulfadiazine resistance in the sensitivity assay. We did not find any DHPS gene polymorphisms in the mouse samples. These atypical pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance profiles were not previously reported and served as a warning to local health authorities.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii: 1908-2008, homage to Nicolle, Manceaux and Splendore

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    David J P Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of Toxoplasma gondii independently by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908 and Splendore (1908 was to open a "Pandora's Box" that has led research on this parasite into a number of scientific disciplines. In the 100 years since its discovery, the mystery surrounding T. gondii and its inter-relationship with humans has continued to provide a stimulating source of material in many areas of research, resulting in the publication of almost 20,000 papers and a number of books. This flood of diverse information shows no sign of abating, with an average of 10 papers per week appearing in PubMed. Herein, it is impossible to do more than provide a very superficial comment on what has become a massive body of scientific information. T. gondii has many unique features and seems to be the "exception to almost every rule" thus acting as a focus for research in disciplines from epidemiology to immunology to human behaviour to cell biology to human disease. In this review a number of the historical advances will be mentioned and combined with a description of the basic biology of the parasite.