WorldWideScience

Sample records for individualized therapy correlation

  1. Assessment of individual radiosensitivity in human lymphocytes of cancer patients and its correlation with adverse side effects to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.; Sardi, M.; Busto, E.; Roth, B.; Menendez, P.; Bonomi, M.; Mairal, L.

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Individual radiosensitivity is an inherent characteristic, associated with an increased reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. Biological endpoints such as clonogenic survival, chromosome aberration formation and repair capacity of radiation-induced damage have been applied to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. 5%-7% of cancer patients develop adverse side effects to radiation therapy in normal tissues within the treatment field, which are referred as 'clinical radiation reactions' and include acute effects, late effects and cancer induction. It has been hypothesized that the occurrence and severity of these reactions are mainly influenced by genetic susceptibility to radiation. Additionally, the nature of the genetic disorders associated with hypersensitivity to radiotherapy suggests that DNA repair mechanisms are involved. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell micro gel electrophoresis (comet) assays could be suitable approaches to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. The MN assay is an established cytogenetic technique to evaluate intrinsic cell radiosensitivity in tumor cells and lymphocytes; comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for measuring DNA damage and repair in individual cells. The aims of this study were: 1) To assess the in vitro radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from two groups of cancer patients (retrospectively and prospectively studied), using MN and comet assays, in comparison with the observed clinical response; and 2) To test the predictive potential of both techniques. Materials and methods: 38 cancer patients receiving radiation therapy were enrolled in this study. The tumor sites were: head and neck (n 25) and cervix (n = 13). Nineteen patients were evaluated about 6-18 month after radiotherapy (retrospective group) and 19 patients were evaluated prior, mid-way and on

  2. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  3. Assessment of individual radiosensitivity in human lymphocytes of cancer patients and its correlation with adverse side effects to radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giorgio, M; Busto, E; Mairal, L; Menendez, P; Roth, B; Sardi, M; Taja, M R; Vallerga, M B

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Individual radiosensitivity is an inherent characteristic, associated with an increased reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. Biological endpoints such as clonogenic survival, chromosome aberration formation and repair capacity of radiation-induced damage have been applied to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. 5%-7% of cancer patients develop adverse side effects to radiation therapy in normal tissues within the treatment field, which are referred as 'clinical radiation reactions' and include acute effects, late effects and cancer induction. It has been hypothesized that the occurrence and severity of these reactions are mainly influenced by genetic susceptibility to radiation. Additionally, the nature of the genetic disorders associated with hypersensitivity to radiotherapy suggests that DNA repair mechanisms are involved. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell micro...

  4. Correlates of weight-related quality of life among individuals with binge eating disorder before and after cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Crosby, Ross D; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Grilo, Carlos M; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) report poorer weight-related quality of life (WRQOL) compared to individuals with obesity alone. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), the best available treatment for BED, does not consistently produce weight loss or improvements in weight QOL. The purpose of the current study was to examine baseline and longitudinal associations between eating-related and psychosocial variables and dimensions of weight QOL. We examined associations between predictor variables, including body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, and psychosocial factors, in relation to three dimensions of WRQOL among 171 patients whom received CBT for BED. Participants completed interviews and self-report measures at baseline prior to CBT and at end of treatment. At baseline the following associations were significant: BMI, ED psychopathology, and self-esteem were associated with weight-related self-esteem; gender, BMI, and self-esteem were associated with weight-related public distress (i.e., stigma and worry in public because of one's weight); and age, BMI, and ED psychopathology were associated with weight-related physical function. At end of treatment, the following associations were significant: changes in ED psychopathology and coping predicted weight-related self-esteem; changes in coping and self-esteem predicted weight-related public distress; and changes in BMI and subjective binge eating predicted weight-related physical function. Overall, changes in a number of ED and associated symptoms were associated with improvements in WRQOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H; van de Ven, Anne L; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O; Smid, Christine A; Buchanan, Rachel M; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-08-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of 'losing sight of the forest for the trees'. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of "-omic" technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon "-omic" technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology "snapshot" of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to "self-correct" in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  7. Individual Music Therapy for Agitation in Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Stige, Brynjulf; Qvale, Liv Gunnhild

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Agitation in nursing home residents with dementia leads to increase in psychotropic medication, decrease in quality of life, and to patient distress and caregiver burden. Music therapy has previously been found effective in treatment of agitation in dementia care but studies have been...... methodologically insufficient. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of individual music therapy on agitation in persons with moderate/severe dementia living in nursing homes, and to explore its effect on psychotropic medication and quality of life. Method: In a crossover trial, 42 participants...... with dementia were randomized to a sequence of six weeks of individual music therapy and six weeks of standard care. Outcome measures included agitation, quality of life and medication. Results: Agitation disruptiveness increased during standard care and decreased during music therapy. The difference at −6...

  8. Group Versus Individual Cognitive Therapy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, A. John; Watkins, John T.

    Group therapy and individual cognitive therapy were investigated with non-bipolar moderate-to-severely-depressed outpatients (N=44) assigned to group cognitive therapy, individual cognitive therapy only, or to individual cognitive therapy in combination with anti-depressant medication. Treatment efficacy was measured by self-report and a clinical…

  9. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Comparison of Group and Individual Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Carolyn S.; And Others

    The relative efficacy of both group and individual cognitive behavior therapeutic approaches in treating anxiety and depression are evaluated and then compared to an interpersonal group therapy approach. The two major hypotheses are that group cognitive behavior therapy is at least as effective as individual cognitive behavior therapy, and that…

  10. Diagnostic 131I whole-body scintigraphy 1 year after thyroablative therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: correlation of results to the individual risk profile and long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Frank; Friedrich, Ulla; Knesewitsch, Peter; Hahn, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    131 I whole-body scan (WBS) and serum thyroglobulin (TG) are important in detecting thyroid remnants or recurrent disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Usually, a diagnostic WBS is carried out 6 months after ablation to exclude residual disease. We retrospectively analysed results of a second routine diagnostic WBS and TG measurements at 1 year after thyroablation and correlated these to the risk profile of patients with long-term follow-up. A total of 197 patients were followed up after thyroidectomy and ablative 131 I therapy. Follow-up included clinical examination, radioiodine WBS and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine and TG measurements at 3-6 months and 1 year after ablation. WBS (+) patients received a therapeutic activity of 131 I. The risk profile of patients was defined according to clinical results before the 1-year control. Clinical results at 1 year after ablation were analysed in correlation to the patient risk profile and long-term follow-up data (mean 7.2 years). One year after thyroablation, 95.8% of low-risk patients had no residual disease when diagnostic WBS was carried out using 370 MBq 131 I; 4.2% of low-risk patients had residual disease at this time point. In the high-risk group of this cohort, 54.5% were disease-free 1 year after ablation, but 45.5% demonstrated residual disease. After the 1-year control, 94% of all applied radioiodine therapies were executed in the high-risk group, compared with 6% in the low-risk group (p < 0.01). A second routine WBS 1 year after thyroablation is not indicated in low-risk patients. Risk stratification according to the early clinical course effectively identified patients with higher likelihood of persistent or recurrent disease in the long-term follow-up. (orig.)

  11. Advances in Precision Medicine: Tailoring Individualized Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Watson, R William; Brown, James A L

    2017-10-25

    The traditional bench-to-bedside pipeline involves using model systems and patient samples to provide insights into pathways deregulated in cancer. This discovery reveals new biomarkers and therapeutic targets, ultimately stratifying patients and informing cohort-based treatment options. Precision medicine (molecular profiling of individual tumors combined with established clinical-pathological parameters) reveals, in real-time, individual patient's diagnostic and prognostic risk profile, informing tailored and tumor-specific treatment plans. Here we discuss advances in precision medicine presented at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, highlighting examples where personalized medicine approaches have led to precision discovery in individual tumors, informing customized treatment programs.

  12. Taring advantages of drama therapy in individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Filipková, Žaneta

    2012-01-01

    The first part of the bachelor's thesis deals with the mental retardation, determination, classification and etiology. It is emphasising importance of the education of the child with light mental disability, which is possible to be used in form of the therapeutic-formative intervention. The second part of the bachelor's thesis deals with the area of drama therapy that describes the therapeutic-formative approach. It refers to possibilities of application of the drama therapeutic techniques an...

  13. Individual skin care during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Budach, W.; Doerr, W.

    1998-01-01

    Background: In many clinical settings, the irradiated patient feels additional discomfort by the inhibition of washing the treatment portals and interruption of his adapted skin care habits. Material and methods: An analysis of the scientific recommendations as well as an analysis of the skin dose to the irradiated portals has been performed. An individual scheme for skin care under radiation has been developed. Results: A substantial decrease of the skin dose is achieved in many modern radiation techniques. The consequent reduction of severe skin reactions allowed the use of water and mild soaps as has been approved within many radiotherapy departments. This has lead to an individualized concept for skin care under radiation treatment including the allowance of gentle washing. The skin marks may be saved by using highly tolerable adhesive plasters or small tattoo points, if they are not superfluous by using masks or single referee points instead of marks for the field borders. Conclusions: The individualized concept for skin care during radiation may offer improved life quality to the patient and may decrease the acute reactions of the skin at least in some cases. (orig.) [de

  14. Enzyme replacement therapy in Fabry disease, towards individualized treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fabry disease is a very heterogeneous disorder for which expensive enzyme replacement therapy is available since more than 15 years. Because of the variety of symptoms and disease course, individual choices need to be made to improve the appropriate use of therapy. Supported by ZONWM, we have been

  15. The Integrative Psychotherapy Alliance: Family, Couple and Individual Therapy Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, William M.; Catherall, Donald R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an integrative definition of the therapeutic alliance that conceptualizes individual, couple and family therapy as occurring within the same systemic framework. The implications of this concept for therapy reserach are examined. Three new systematically oriented scales to measure the alliance are presented along with some preliminary data…

  16. Individual skin care during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J.S. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie (Radioonkologie), Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel (Germany); Budach, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Eberhard-Carls-Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: In many clinical settings, the irradiated patient feels additional discomfort by the inhibition of washing the treatment portals and interruption of his adapted skin care habits. Material and methods: An analysis of the scientific recommendations as well as an analysis of the skin dose to the irradiated portals has been performed. An individual scheme for skin care under radiation has been developed. Results: A substantial decrease of the skin dose is achieved in many modern radiation techniques. The consequent reduction of severe skin reactions allowed the use of water and mild soaps as has been approved within many radiotherapy departments. This has lead to an individualized concept for skin care under radiation treatment including the allowance of gentle washing. The skin marks may be saved by using highly tolerable adhesive plasters or small tattoo points, if they are not superfluous by using masks or single referee points instead of marks for the field borders. Conclusions: The individualized concept for skin care during radiation may offer improved life quality to the patient and may decrease the acute reactions of the skin at least in some cases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: In vielen klinischen Situationen erfaehrt der bestrahlte Patient zusaetzliche Belastungen durch das frueher ausgesprochene Waschverbot der Bestrahlungsfelder wie auch durch die Unterbrechung seiner langjaehrigen Hygienegewohnheiten. Material und Methoden: Es wurde eine Analyse der wissenschaftlichen Empfehlungen wie auch der heutzutage bei modernen Bestrahlungstechniken auftretenden Hautdosis durchgefuehrt. Ein individuelles Schema zur Pflege der bestrahlten Haut wurde entwickelt. Ergebnisse: Durch eine Verringerung der Hautdosis und damit der Inzidenz schwerer Hautreaktionen bei modernen Bestrahlungstechniken wird mittlerweile in vielen Abteilungen das `Waschverbot` fuer bestrahlte Haut gelockert. Dies hat zu einem individualisierten Hautpflegekonzept unter der Bestrahlung

  17. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Healthy and Unhealthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Georgina S. A.; Hickling, Siobhan; Christian, Hayley E.; Bull, Fiona; Timperio, Anna F.; Boruff, Bryan; Shrestha, Damber; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy (and unhealthy) dietary intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual, social, and environmental factors on composite measures of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake in adults.…

  18. Individual correlates of sleep among childbearing women in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women of childbearing age (WOCBA) may be at high risk for short or poor sleep. Yet few studies have focused on this population. The study objective was to identify individual correlates of sleep duration and quality among WOCBA. The sample consisted of 9,749 WOCBA aged 18–44 years from the Canadian ...

  19. Selected forms of therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dudzinska Ewa; Szymona Kinga; Pacian Anna; Kulik Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition of multiple origins. It is characterised by a range of behaviour patterns, in addition to disturbed social and emotional functioning. Of note, early therapy is conducive to better treatment results. A few recently discussed therapies have a particularly positive impact on children with ASD. Corbett et al. [2] proposed Sense Theatre. This involves instilling appropriate behaviours and communication patterns into the afflicted individual through act...

  20. Individual, family, and peer correlates of adolescent gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R; Rohling, Martin L

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the individual, family, and peer factors that correlate with adolescent gambling. High school students from three states ( N = 1,846) completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing the behavior of themselves, their parents, and their peers. Participants also reported on their gambling behavior via the SOGS-RA, which was used to create five adolescent gambling groups (i.e., Non-Gamblers, Non-Problem Gamblers, At-Risk Gamblers, Problem Gamblers, and Probable Pathological Gamblers). In a discriminant function analysis using demographic, individual, family, and peer factors as potential discriminators, two functions emerged that accounted for 94% of the variance between groups. The first function was linear, with the Probable Pathological Gamblers reporting the highest level of peer and parent gambling, susceptibility to peer pressure, conduct problems, binge drinking, suicide attempts, drug use, and being male. The second function highlighted three unique qualities of individuals in the two outlying groups: Probable Pathological Gamblers and Non-Gamblers. These findings suggest that demographic, individual, family, and peer variables are all important correlates of probable pathological gambling in adolescents. Results also support the utility of a five-group classification scheme based on the SOGS-RA. The clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    Persons suffering from dementia progressively loose language skills, cognitive skills, memory function, perception, etc. Still they seem to respond to music and to interact in the music therapy setting. As part of a Ph.D.-research I have worked with 6 persons suffering from middle to last stages...... of dementia in individual music therapy. I have focused on the use of familiar songs in order to create a safe and secure setting and enhance communication and reminiscence. In the presentation I give examples of how the persons respond to the music, how the individual music therapy sessions are build up......, criteria for choosing the songs, and how a person emotionally can profit from the structured musical form....

  2. Malaria in immuno-suppressed individuals on antiretroviral therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria in immuno-suppressed individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in north-central Nigeria. C.R. Pam, B.T. Abubakar, G.O. Inwang, G.A. Amuga. Abstract. The immune deficiency caused by HIV infection reduces the immune response to malaria parasitaemia and therefore leads to an increased frequency of clinical ...

  3. Circulating DNA as Potential Biomarker for Cancer Individualized Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer individualized therapy often requires for gene mutation analysis of tumor tissue. However, tumor tissue is not always available in clinical practice, particularly from patients with refractory and recurrence disease. Even if patients have sufficient tumor tissue for detection, as development of cancer, the gene status and drug sensitivity of tumor tissues could also change. Hence, screening mutations from primary tumor tissues becomes useless, it’s necessary to find a surrogate tumor tissue for individualized gene screening. Circulating DNA is digested rapidly from blood, which could provide real-time information of the released fragment and make the real-time detection possible. Therefore, it’s expected that circulating DNA could be a potential tumor biomarker for cancer individualized therapy. This review focuses on the biology and clinical utility of circulating DNA mainly on gene mutation detection. Besides, its current status and possible direction in this research area is summarized and discussed objectively.

  4. Individualized Low-Amplitude Seizure Therapy: Minimizing Current for Electroconvulsive Therapy and Magnetic Seizure Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V; Krystal, Andrew D; Rosa, Moacyr A; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at conventional current amplitudes (800–900 mA) is highly effective but carries the risk of cognitive side effects. Lowering and individualizing the current amplitude may reduce side effects by virtue of a less intense and more focal electric field exposure in the brain, but this aspect of ECT dosing is largely unexplored. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) induces a weaker and more focal electric field than ECT; however, the pulse amplitude is not individualized and the minimum amplitude required to induce a seizure is unknown. We titrated the amplitude of long stimulus trains (500 pulses) as a means of determining the minimum current amplitude required to induce a seizure with ECT (bilateral, right unilateral, bifrontal, and frontomedial electrode placements) and MST (round coil on vertex) in nonhuman primates. Furthermore, we investigated a novel method of predicting this amplitude-titrated seizure threshold (ST) by a non-convulsive measurement of motor threshold (MT) using single pulses delivered through the ECT electrodes or MST coil. Average STs were substantially lower than conventional pulse amplitudes (112–174 mA for ECT and 37.4% of maximum device amplitude for MST). ST was more variable in ECT than in MST. MT explained 63% of the ST variance and is hence the strongest known predictor of ST. These results indicate that seizures can be induced with less intense electric fields than conventional ECT that may be safer; efficacy and side effects should be evaluated in clinical studies. MT measurement could be a faster and safer alternative to empirical ST titration for ECT and MST. PMID:25920013

  5. Genotype–phenotype correlations in individuals with pathogenic RERE variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Valerie K.; Fregeau, Brieana; Ge, Xiaoyan; Giordano, Jessica; Wapner, Ronald J.; Balci, Tugce B.; Carter, Melissa T.; Bernat, John A.; Moccia, Amanda N.; Srivastava, Anshika; Martin, Donna M.; Bielas, Stephanie L.; Pappas, John; Svoboda, Melissa D.; Rio, Marlène; Boddaert, Nathalie; Cantagrel, Vincent; Lewis, Andrea M.; Scaglia, Fernando; Kohler, Jennefer N.; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Dries, Annika M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; DeFilippo, Colette; Thorson, Willa; Yang, Yaping; Sherr, Elliott H.; Bi, Weimin; Scott, Daryl A.

    2018-01-01

    Heterozygous variants in the arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats gene (RERE) have been shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH). Here, we report nine individuals with NEDBEH who carry partial deletions or deleterious sequence variants in RERE. These variants were found to be de novo in all cases in which parental samples were available. An analysis of data from individuals with NEDBEH suggests that point mutations affecting the Atrophin-1 domain of RERE are associated with an increased risk of structural eye defects, congenital heart defects, renal anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss when compared with loss-of-function variants that are likely to lead to haploinsufficiency. A high percentage of RERE pathogenic variants affect a histidine-rich region in the Atrophin-1 domain. We have also identified a recurrent two-amino-acid duplication in this region that is associated with the development of a CHARGE syndrome-like phenotype. We conclude that mutations affecting RERE result in a spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Genotype–phenotype correlations exist and can be used to guide medical decision making. Consideration should also be given to screening for RERE variants in individuals who fulfill diagnostic criteria for CHARGE syndrome but do not carry pathogenic variants in CHD7. PMID:29330883

  6. Neural correlates of individual differences in manual imitation fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braadbaart, Lieke; Waiter, Gordon D.; Williams, Justin H. G.

    2012-01-01

    Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants' kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesized that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator) would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals' imitative abilities as characterized by objective kinematic measures. PMID:23087625

  7. Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E; Reese, Hannah E; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L; Dougherty, Darin D; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-12-30

    Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann's area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence among urban Ethiopian clients. ... clients' self-reported adherence to HAART medication, a descriptive, comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among adults receiving HAART medication at the Zewditu Memorial Hospital ART clinic in Addis Ababa.

  9. Predicting Retrograde Autobiographical Memory Changes Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Relationships between Individual, Treatment, and Early Clinical Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Donel M; Gálvez, Verònica; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-06-19

    Loss of personal memories experienced prior to receiving electroconvulsive therapy is common and distressing and in some patients can persist for many months following treatment. Improved understanding of the relationships between individual patient factors, electroconvulsive therapy treatment factors, and clinical indicators measured early in the electroconvulsive therapy course may help clinicians minimize these side effects through better management of the electroconvulsive therapy treatment approach. In this study we examined the associations between the above factors for predicting retrograde autobiographical memory changes following electroconvulsive therapy. Seventy-four depressed participants with major depressive disorder were administered electroconvulsive therapy 3 times per week using either a right unilateral or bitemporal electrode placement and brief or ultrabrief pulse width. Verbal fluency and retrograde autobiographical memory (assessed using the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form) were tested at baseline and after the last electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Time to reorientation was measured immediately following the third and sixth electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Results confirmed the utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects. With increased number of electroconvulsive therapy treatments, older age was associated with increased time to reorientation. Consistency of verbal fluency performance was moderately correlated with change in Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form scores following right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment techniques associated with lesser cognitive side effects should be particularly considered for

  10. 42 CFR 440.110 - Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and..., occupational therapy, and services for individuals with speech, hearing, and language disorders. (a) Physical...) Where applicable, licensed by the State. (b) Occupational therapy. (1) Occupational therapy means...

  11. Preference conditioning in healthy individuals: correlates with hazardous drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Lockwood, Kathleen P; Magrys, Sylvia A; Olmstead, Mary C

    2010-06-01

    Conditioned reward is a classic measure of drug-induced brain changes in animal models of addiction. The process can be examined in humans using the Conditioned Pattern Preference (CPP) task, in which participants associate nonverbal cues with reward but demonstrate low awareness of this conditioning. Previously, we reported that alcohol intoxication does not affect CPP acquisition in humans, but our data indicated that prior drug use may impact conditioning scores. To test this possibility, the current study examined the relationship between self-reported alcohol use and preference conditioning in the CPP task. Working memory was assessed during conditioning by asking participants to count the cues that appeared at each location on a computer screen. Participants (69 female and 23 male undergraduate students) completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) as measures of hazardous drinking. Self-reported hazardous drinking was significantly correlated with preference conditioning in that individuals who scored higher on these scales exhibited an increased preference for the reward-paired cues. In contrast, hazardous drinking did not affect working memory errors on the CPP task. These findings support evidence that repeated drug use sensitizes neural pathways mediating conditioned reward and point to a neurocognitive disposition linking substance misuse and responses to reward-paired stimuli. The relationship between hazardous drinking and conditioned reward is independent of changes in cognitive function, such as working memory.

  12. Group therapy compared with individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.

    1994-01-01

    Results of group therapy (GT) for extreme dental anxiety were compared with individual treatment (IT). Scales used measured dental anxiety, beliefs or trust in dentists, and fear of the next dentist after specialist treatment which showed reduced dental anxiety and improved dental beliefs compared...... with a static control group of 45 patients. The 30 GT patients showed no significant difference in dropouts during training compared with the 68 IT patients, but for patients who completed treatment, GT (n = 24) had greater dental anxiety reduction than IT subjects (n = 60). GT patients required fewer therapist...... hours per patients than did either of the two IT methods, but time saved in GT did not reach significance over clinical rehearsal IT. Results at 1- yr follow-up after specialist treatment indicated that dropouts were significantly greater in group therapy. Rehearsal IT performed best for sustained...

  13. Individualized therapies in colorectal cancer: KRAS as a marker for response to EGFR-targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kuiyuan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Individualized therapies that are tailored to a patient's genetic composition will be of tremendous value for treatment of cancer. Recently, Kirsten ras (KRAS status has emerged as a predictor of response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR targeted therapies. In this article, we will discuss targeted therapies for colorectal cancers (CRC based on EGFR signaling pathway and review published data about the potential usefulness of KRAS as a biological marker for response to these therapies. Results from relevant studies published since 2005 and unpublished results presented at national meetings were retrieved and summarized. These studies reflected response (or lack of response to EGFR-targeted therapies in patients with metastatic CRC as a function of KRAS status. It has become clear that patients with colorectal cancer whose tumor has an activating mutation in KRAS do not respond to monoclonal antibody therapies targeting EGFR. It should now become a standard practice that any patients being considered for EGFR targeted therapies have their tumors tested for KRAS status and only those with wild-type KRAS being offered such therapies.

  14. Group therapy compared with individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.

    1994-01-01

    Results of group therapy (GT) for extreme dental anxiety were compared with individual treatment (IT). Scales used measured dental anxiety, beliefs or trust in dentists, and fear of the next dentist after specialist treatment which showed reduced dental anxiety and improved dental beliefs compared...... with a static control group of 45 patients. The 30 GT patients showed no significant difference in dropouts during training compared with the 68 IT patients, but for patients who completed treatment, GT (n = 24) had greater dental anxiety reduction than IT subjects (n = 60). GT patients required fewer therapist...

  15. [Metabonomics-a useful tool for individualized cancer therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yanlan; Wang, Juan; Liu, Zi

    2013-11-01

    Metabonomics has developed rapidly in post-genome era, and becomes a hot topic of omics. The core idea of metabonomics is to determine the metabolites of relatively low-weight molecular in organisms or cells, by a series of analytical methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, color spectrum and mass spectrogram, then to transform the data of metabolic pattern into useful information, by chemometric tools and pattern recognition software, and to reveal the essence of life activities of the body. With advantages of high-throughput, high-sensitivity and high-accuracy, metabolomics shows great potential and value in cancer individualized treatment. This paper introduces the concept,contents and methods of metabonomics and reviews its application in cancer individualized therapy.

  16. ERCC1 protein as a guide for individualized therapy of late-stage advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Han, Baohui; Shen, Jie; Gu, Aiqin; Qi, Dajiang; Huang, Jinsu; Shi, Chunlei; Xiong, Liwen; Zhao, Yizhuo; Jiang, Liyan; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Yurong

    2011-09-01

    Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) protein has been associated with cisplatin resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between ERCC1 protein levels and the therapeutic effect of individualized therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 190 advanced NSCLC patients were included in this study. Patients were randomized into either the individualized therapy group or the standard therapy group at a ratio of 2:1. Patients in the standard therapy group were treated with either gemcitabine plus cisplatin or vinorelbine plus cisplatin. The expression of ERCC1 protein in lung cancer tissues of patients from the individualized therapy group was detected with immunohistochemistry. Patients with low ERCC1 levels received either gemcitabine plus cisplatin or vinorelbine plus cisplatin, and patients with high levels received gemcitabine plus vinorelbine. The main outcome assessments were response rate (RR), overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP). Follow-up data were recorded until September 30, 2010. RR, 1-year survival rate and TTP were not statistically significant. The median survival time was 10.10 months in the standard therapy group (95% CI 8.48-11.92) and 13.59 months in the individualized therapy group (95% CI 11.86-14.74). The difference in median survival time was significantly different between these groups (P=0.036). The median survival time was longer in the individualized group compared to the standard therapy group. ERCC1 protein expression in advanced NSCLC patients, however, was not significantly correlated with RR, OS and TTP in the individualized therapy group. Therefore, this study suggests that ERCC1 protein levels should be assessed in combination with additional biomarkers to determine an optimal index for individualized therapy in advanced NSCLC patients.

  17. Patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy and its individual psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Trachuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the treatment of chronic, especially asymptomatic pathology one of the main problem is the adherence to therapy. Patients with arterial hypertension need long-term, often lifelong medication, and how strictly they adhere to prescriptions often determines the course of the disease and the medical measures effectiveness. According to statistics, more than half of patients with hypertension are characterized by low compliance, which leads to complications of this disease. The objective of the research is to identify and analize the individual psychological factors that determine patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Methods and materials. This study was conducted during 2011-2013 at the cardiology departments of the Kyiv Alexander Hospital, polyclinics number 2 Shevchenko district in Kyiv, Desnyanskiy clinic №3 district in Kyiv, medical center "Adonis plus". We examined 203 patients with arterial hypertension (average age 53,5 ± 4,5 years. Methods: socio-demographic, clinical, clinical and psychological, psychodiagnostical, mathematical and statistical methods. Psychodiagnostical method included: 8-item Morisky medical adherence scale (Morisky D. E., 2008; self-assessment anxiety scale Charles D. Spielberger – Y.L Hanin (A.V. Batarshev, 2005; the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory questionnaire (MMRI (F.B. Berezin, 1994; "The level of subjective control" (A.A. Rean, 2001; "Index of attitudes to health" (S.D. Deryabo, VA Yasvin, 2000. Results. According to the results of 8-item Morisky medical adherence scale patients were divided into 3 groups according to the level of compliance - with high (26.11%, average (24.14% and low (49.75% levels of adherence to antihypertensive therapy. The individual-psychological predictors of poor adherence to antihypertensive therapy include the following personal characteristics of patients: a low level of intensity of attitude to health, internal type of subjective control, a

  18. Individualized targeted therapy for glioblastoma: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Michael; Stupp, Roger; Hegi, Monika; Wick, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    This review will address the current state of individualized cancer therapy for glioblastoma. Glioblastomas are highly malignant primary brain tumors presumably originating from neuroglial progenitor cells. Median survival is less than 1 year. Recent developments in the morphologic, clinical, and molecular classification of glioblastoma were reviewed, and their impact on clinical decision making was analyzed. Glioblastomas can be classified by morphology, clinical characteristics, complex molecular signatures, single biomarkers, or imaging parameters. Some of these characteristics, including age and Karnofsky Performance Scale score, provide important prognostic information. In contrast, few markers help to choose between various treatment options. Promoter methylation of the O-methylguanine methyltransferase gene seems to predict benefit from alkylating agent chemotherapy. Hence, it is used as an entry criterion for alkylator-free experimental combination therapy with radiotherapy. Screening for a specific type of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation is currently being explored as a biomarker for selecting patients for vaccination. Positron emission tomography for the detection of ανβ3/5 integrins could be used to select patients for treatment with anti-integrin antiangiogenic approaches. Despite extensive efforts at defining biological markers as a basis for selecting therapies, most treatment decisions for glioblastoma patients are still based on age and performance status. However, several ongoing clinical trials may enrich the repertoire of criteria for clinical decision making in the very near future. The concept of individualized or personalized targeted cancer therapy has gained significant attention throughout oncology. Yet, data in support of such an approach to glioblastoma, the most malignant subtype of glioma, are limited, and personalized medicine plays a minor role in current clinical neuro-oncology practice. In essence, this concept proposes

  19. Processes of Sibling Influence in Adolescence: Individual and Family Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Christiansen, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence. Participants included 2 siblings (firstborn age M = 17.34; second-born age M = 14.76 years) from 191 maritally intact families. Adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence were measured via coded responses to open-ended questions about whether their…

  20. Selected forms of therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzinska Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a condition of multiple origins. It is characterised by a range of behaviour patterns, in addition to disturbed social and emotional functioning. Of note, early therapy is conducive to better treatment results. A few recently discussed therapies have a particularly positive impact on children with ASD. Corbett et al. [2] proposed Sense Theatre. This involves instilling appropriate behaviours and communication patterns into the afflicted individual through acting. Role-playing and other similar techniques also offer an opportunity for children with ASD to improve their areas of empathy and social cooperation. With regard to bio-feedback-related techniques, Friedrich et al. [3] was noted for developing the Brain-computer method, a system of game interface connected to an external device. The method targets the mirror neuron system (MNS in order to enhance cognitive, emotional and behavioural functions through neurofeedback. An approach put forward by Solomon et al. [10] is called ‘Play and Language for Autistic Youngsters (PLAY Project Home Consultation’. Herein, volunteers visit patients’ homes on a regular basis to engage the children in play and games, after which they discuss with parents, the issues that came up. The PLAY reduces guardians’ stress levels and improves children’s skills. A pharmacological method is that of administering sulphoraphane [9], which reduces damaging effects. As others claim [8,1,7], other dietary approaches prove efficient as well. In summation, an early intervention and the employment of a multimodal treatment approach can be of importance for enhancing the life of ASD-affected children.

  1. Predictability of the individual clinical outcome of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for cellulite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaudraff KU

    2014-05-01

    .05 correlation was found between individual values for δ-1 and δ-2 and cellulite grade at baseline, BMI, weight, height, or age.Conclusion: Radial shock wave therapy is a safe and effective treatment option for cellulite. The individual clinical outcome cannot be predicted by the patient's individual cellulite grade at baseline, BMI, weight, height, or age.Keywords: acoustic wave therapy, AWT, extracorporeal pulse activation therapy, EPAT, radial shock wave therapy, RSWT

  2. Clinical observation on individualized therapy for dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the efficacy of individualized therapy on dry eye induced by different reasons. METHODS: Totally 140 cases(140 eyesof dry eye were divided into three categories according to eye symptoms. First category: 60 cases(60 eyeswith meibomian gland dysfunction(MGDwere divided into A1 group(palpebralis margin treatment groupand B1 group(control group; Second category: 50 cases(50 eyeswith corneal epithelium damage(corneal fluorescence staining FL Score≥5were divided into A2 group(bandage contact lens groupand B2 group(control group; Third category: 30 cases(30 eyeswith low Schirmer test(Schirmer Ⅰ≤5mmwere divided into A3 group(lacrimal punctum plug groupand B3 group(control group. Both former categories treated by 1g/L fluorometholone eye drops and 1g/L hyaluronate sodium eye drops, but received limbus palpebralis cleaning, oral doxycycline in A1 group and bandage contact lens in A2 group else. The third category was treated by 10g/L cyclosporine A and carbomer eye gel, but lacrimal punctum plug in A3 group before received the drug treatment. Two weeks follow up, each case was examined by subjective symptom, cornea fluorescence colouration test, tear break-up time(BUT, and Schirmer test Ⅰ(SⅠtin the treatment groups(A1,A2,A3and the control groups(B1,B2,B3, the results pre- and post-treatment were compared. The t test was used for inferential statistics. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between treatment groups(A1, A2, A3and control groups(B1, B2, B3before treatment. Two weeks after treatment, there was statistical difference between the treatment groups(A1, A2, A3and control groups(B1, B2, B3in subjective symptoms and BUT. The difference among A3 group(lacrimal punctum plug group, in which the lacrimal river line formed were observed 2 weeks after treatmentand B3 (control groupwas statistically significant in SⅠt. CONCLUSION:On base of anti-inflammatory and use of artificial tears, individualized therapy is an

  3. Neural correlates of individual differences in manual imitation fidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke eBraadbaart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Imitation is crucial for social learning, and so it is important to identify what determines between-subject variability in imitation fidelity. This might help explain what makes some people, like those with social difficulties such as in Autism Spectrum Disorder, significantly worse at performance on these tasks than others. A novel paradigm was developed to provide objective measures of imitation fidelity in which participants used a touchscreen to imitate videos of a model drawing different shapes. Comparisons between model and participants’ kinematic data provided three measures of imitative fidelity. We hypothesised that imitative ability would predict variation in BOLD signal whilst performing a simple imitation task in the MRI-scanner. In particular, an overall measure of accuracy (correlation between model and imitator would predict activity in the overarching imitation system, whereas bias would be subject to more general aspects of motor control. Participants lying in the MRI-scanner were instructed to imitate different grips on a handle, or to watch someone or a circle moving the handle. Our hypothesis was partly confirmed as correlation between model and imitator was mediated by somatosensory cortex but also ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and bias was mediated mainly by cerebellum but also by the medial frontal and parietal cortices and insula. We suggest that this variance differentially reflects cognitive functions such as feedback-sensitivity and reward-dependent learning, contributing significantly to variability in individuals’ imitative abilities as characterised by objective kinematic measures.

  4. Cognitive Correlates of Perseverations in Individuals with Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Heinik, Jeremia

    2017-02-01

    This study examines which cognitive measure best accounts for perseverations in individuals with memory impairment. The sample included 85 individuals, of whom 21 had subjective memory concerns, 27 had mild cognitive impairment, and 37 had Alzheimer's disease. Participants produced responses on a semantic category fluency task and on the ideational fluency (IF) task from the Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Revised. Measures of word finding, working memory, and abstract thinking were also assessed. Significant group differences in percentage of perseverations emerged on both tasks. No cognitive measure accounted for the percentage of perseverations on the semantic fluency task. A measure of abstract thinking was the best predictor of the percentage of perseverations on the IF task, followed by a measure of working memory. The underlying cognitive mechanisms that lead to perseverations differ across tasks, with perseverations on the IF task reflecting both conceptual deficits and working memory limitations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2002-01-01

    Persons in middle or last stages of dementia seem to respond less and less to music. Experiences from clinical music therapy practise with a structured and safe setting shows that this population responds to music therapy and communicates musically. The presentation consists of a short descriptio...

  6. Presurgical nasoalveolar molding therapy in cleft lip and palate individuals: Case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan H Gandedkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nasoalveolar molding (NAM therapy is advocated to reduce the severity of alveolar cleft and nasal deformity. NAM therapy has demonstrated to be an effective method for reducing cleft and improve nose anatomy. This paper presents a case report of three cleft lip and palate individuals treated with NAM therapy. Furthermore, the paper highlights the advantages of NAM therapy along with an enumeration of literature suggesting in favor of NAM therapy and otherwise. Regardless of controversies and divergent views involved with NAM therapy, the immediate success of NAM therapy facilitating primary lip repair surgery cannot be under-emphasized.

  7. Do senescence markers correlate in vitro and in situ within individual human donors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Gunn, David A; van Heemst, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Little is known on how well senescence markers in vitro and in situ correlate within individual donors. We studied correlations between the same and different in vitro markers. Furthermore, we tested correlations between in vitro markers with in situ p16INK4a positivity.From 100 donors (20-91 yea...

  8. Multidimensional correlation among plan complexity, quality and deliverability parameters for volumetric-modulated arc therapy using canonical correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lanxiao; Chen, Shan; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Han, Ce; Zheng, Xiaomin; Deng, Zhenxiang; Zhou, Yongqiang; Gong, Changfei; Xie, Congying; Jin, Xiance

    2018-03-01

    A multidimensional exploratory statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA), was applied to evaluate the impact of complexity parameters on the plan quality and deliverability of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and to determine parameters in the generation of an ideal VMAT plan. Canonical correlations among complexity, quality and deliverability parameters of VMAT, as well as the contribution weights of different parameters were investigated with 71 two-arc VMAT nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients, and further verified with 28 one-arc VMAT prostate cancer patients. The average MU and MU per control point (MU/CP) for two-arc VMAT plans were 702.6 ± 55.7 and 3.9 ± 0.3 versus 504.6 ± 99.2 and 5.6 ± 1.1 for one-arc VMAT plans, respectively. The individual volume-based 3D gamma passing rates of clinical target volume (γCTV) and planning target volume (γPTV) for NPC and prostate cancer patients were 85.7% ± 9.0% vs 92.6% ± 7.8%, and 88.0% ± 7.6% vs 91.2% ± 7.7%, respectively. Plan complexity parameters of NPC patients were correlated with plan quality (P = 0.047) and individual volume-based 3D gamma indices γ(IV) (P = 0.01), in which, MU/CP and segment area (SA) per control point (SA/CP) were weighted highly in correlation with γ(IV) , and SA/CP, percentage of CPs with SA plan quality with coefficients of 0.98, 0.68 and -0.99, respectively. Further verification with one-arc VMAT plans demonstrated similar results. In conclusion, MU, SA-related parameters and PTV volume were found to have strong effects on the plan quality and deliverability.

  9. Early Therapeutic Alliance and Treatment Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Dauber, Sarah; Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Cecero, John J.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of early therapeutic alliance was examined in 100 clients receiving either individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or family therapy for adolescent substance abuse. Observational ratings of adolescent alliance in CBT and adolescent and parent alliance in family therapy were used to predict treatment retention (in CBT only) and…

  10. Art Therapy for an Individual with Late Stage Dementia: A Clinical Case Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucknott-Cohen, Tisah; Ehresman, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the healing benefits of art therapy for an individual with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In this clinical case description, a woman diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease received individual art therapy for 17 weeks. The treatment concerns that arose, altered view of reality, agitation, and retrogenesis provide insight on…

  11. Decreased Serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF in Individuals with Bipolar Disorder Normalizes after Zinc and Anti-oxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess serum HGF concentration in individuals with bipolar disorder and investigate the efficacy of zinc therapy on these levels. Subjects and Methods Serum from 35 individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 19 age and gender similar controls were tested for HGF concentration using ELISAs, and copper and zinc plasma levels using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results HGF serum levels of individuals with bipolar disorder were significantly lower than age and gender similar controls ( P = 0.0021. HGF serum concentration was significantly lower in Bipolar patients pre-therapy ( P = 0.0009 and HGF levels normalized post-therapy. Zinc levels in these same individuals also normalized ( P = 0.0046 and patient's perceived severity of Bipolar symptoms significantly decreased after therapy ( P = 0.0003. We also found a significant direct correlation between Zinc and HGF serum concentration in the bipolar patients ( P = 0.04. Discussion These results suggest an association between low HGF levels and bipolar disorder and also demonstrate that zinc therapy may be associated with the normalization of HGF levels and decrease in severity of disease.

  12. Helping Individuals with Sleep Disturbances: Some Behavior Therapy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Patricia M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a range of behavior therapy techniques for treating sleep disturbances, including physical activity, relaxation training, biofeedback, autogenic training, and cognitive techniques. The importance of understanding the client's background is emphasized. Restoring the client's self-control and positive psychological growth are stressed.…

  13. Feasibility of Group Voice Therapy for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searl, Jeff; Wilson, Kristel; Haring, Karen; Dietsch, Angela; Lyons, Kelly; Pahwa, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose was to demonstrate the feasibility of executing treatment tasks focused on increasing loudness in a group format for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). A second purpose was to report preliminary pre-to-post treatment outcomes for individuals with PD immediately after they complete the group program. Methods:…

  14. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual Music Therapy with Persons with Frontotemporal Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2007-01-01

    It is possible to slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease with pharmacological treatment. When this treatment is given to people with types of dementia that affect the frontal and temporal lobes (Frontotemporal Dementia) the results are discouraging. It is observed that the patients show...... is an integration of a relational music therapy approach and a more physiologically based arousal model, and is here illustrated in a case study that integrated both qualitative and quantitative data in a flexible research design1 ....... pronounced restlessness and mania. In this article we describe a nonpharmacological psychosocial approach, music therapy, and how it is possible to work with this method when constitutional, regulative, dialogical, and integrative aspects are included. The focus is on therapeutic singing where well......-known songs are applied in order to build up structure and stability and/or as means of arousal regulation. Songs with personal meaning make it possible to acknowledge the person's emotions, breaking the social isolation, and meeting the music therapy participant's psychosocial needs. The clinical approach...

  16. Individual Music Therapy with Persons with Frontotemporal Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Aldridge, David

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to slow down the progression of Alzheimer’s disease with pharmacological treatment. When this treatment is given to people with types of dementia that affect the frontal and temporal lobes (Frontotemporal Dementia) the results are discouraging. It is observed that the patients show...... is an integration of a relational music therapy approach and a more physiologically based arousal model, and is here illustrated in a case study research that integrated both qualitative and quantitative data in a flexible research design....... pronounced restlessness and mania. In this article we describe a non-pharmacological psychosocial approach, music therapy, and how it is possible to work with this method when constitutional, regulative, dialogical, and integrative aspects are included. The focus is on therapeutic singing where well known...... songs are applied in order to build up structure and stability and/or as means of arousal regulation. Songs with personal meaning make it possible to acknowledge the person’s emotions, breaking the social isolation, and meeting the music therapy participant’s psychosocial needs. The clinical approach...

  17. Results of correlation of values of individual behaviour of rats with liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K; Kunz, K

    1976-01-01

    A significant negative correlation was found between the individual animal's horizontal activity in an open field and liver tryptophan pyrrolase (LTP) activity. On the other hand, the duration of immobility in an open field correlated postively and significantly with liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

  18. Individual Music Therapy with Persons with Frontotemporal Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Aldridge, David

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to slow down the progression of Alzheimer’s disease with pharmacological treatment. When this treatment is given to people with types of dementia that affect the frontal and temporal lobes (Frontotemporal Dementia) the results are discouraging. It is observed that the patients show...... is an integration of a relational music therapy approach and a more physiologically based arousal model, and is here illustrated in a case study research that integrated both qualitative and quantitative data in a flexible research design.......It is possible to slow down the progression of Alzheimer’s disease with pharmacological treatment. When this treatment is given to people with types of dementia that affect the frontal and temporal lobes (Frontotemporal Dementia) the results are discouraging. It is observed that the patients show...... pronounced restlessness and mania. In this article we describe a non-pharmacological psychosocial approach, music therapy, and how it is possible to work with this method when constitutional, regulative, dialogical, and integrative aspects are included. The focus is on therapeutic singing where well known...

  19. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  20. How is individualization in constraint-induced movement therapy performed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gunhild Mo; Pallesen, Hanne; Normann, Britt

    2016-01-01

    compensatory strategies in the more affected upper limb. Non-participatory observations of four individuals undergoing CIMT group training with a physiotherapist were conducted, followed by theme-based content analysis using concepts from practice knowledge and movement analysis as analytical tools...

  1. The effects of antiretroviral therapy on HIV-positive individuals in Wakiso District, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tina Yang

    2015-01-01

    AIM The aim was to explore the experiences of HIV-positive individuals before and after gaining access to antiretroviral therapy in Wakiso District, Uganda and how antiretroviral therapy impacts certain aspects of those living with HIV, such as sexual behavior, support systems, faith and personal identity. METHODS Based on secondary data analysis of “Life On Antiretroviral Therapy: People’s Adaptive Coping And Adjustment To Living With HIV As A Chronic Condition In Wakiso District, Uganda” by...

  2. Searching for Music's Potential: A Critical Examination of Research on Music Therapy with Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordino, Robert; Comer, Ronald; Heller, Wendy B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a literature review on music therapy for individuals with autism because of the frequent use of music therapy for those with autism and recent research on the musical abilities of this population. To accomplish this narrative review, articles were searched from relevant databases, reference lists from articles, and book…

  3. Integrative Problem-Centered Therapy: Toward the Synthesis of Family and Individual Psychotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, William M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an overview of the Integrative Problem-Centered Therapy (IPCT) Model, and describes its core principles and premises, and basic methodological steps. The IPCT provides a technique for applying individual and family therapy and behavioral, communicational, and psychodynamic orientations to client problems. Its goal is to create efficient…

  4. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  5. [Assessment of individual clinical outcomes: regarding an electroconvulsive therapy case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraurgi, Ioseba; Gorbeña, Susana; Martínez-Cubillos, Miren-Itxaso; Escribano, Margarita; Gómez-de-Maintenant, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of therapeutic results and of the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments is an area of interest both for clinicians and researchers. In general, randomized controlled trial designs have been used as the methodology of choice in which intergroup comparisons are made having a minimum of participants in each arm of treatment. However, these procedures are seldom used in daily clinical practice. Despite this fact, the evaluation of treatment results for a specific patient is important for the clinician in order to address if therapeutic goals have been accomplished both in terms of statistical significance and clinical meaningfulness. The methodology based on the reliable change index (Jacobson y Truax)1 provides an estimate of these two criteria. The goal of this article is to propose a procedure to apply the methodology with a single case study of a woman diagnosed with major depression and treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Individualized Hydrocodone Therapy Based on Phenotype, Pharmacogenetics, and Pharmacokinetic Dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Oscar A; Fudin, Jeffrey; Daly, Annemarie L; Boston, Raymond C

    2015-12-01

    (1) To quantify hydrocodone (HC) and hydromorphone (HM) metabolite pharmacokinetics with pharmacogenetics in CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizer (UM), extensive metabolizer (EM), and poor metabolizer (PM) metabolizer phenotypes. (2) To develop an HC phenotype-specific dosing strategy for HC that accounts for HM production using clinical pharmacokinetics integrated with pharmacogenetics for patient safety. In silico clinical trial simulation. Healthy white men and women without comorbidities or history of opioid, or any other drug or nutraceutical use, age 26.3±5.7 years (mean±SD; range, 19 to 36 y) and weight 71.9±16.8 kg (range, 50 to 108 kg). CYP2D6 phenotype-specific HC clinical pharmacokinetic parameter estimates and phenotype-specific percentages of HM formed from HC. PMs had lower indices of HC disposition compared with UMs and EMs. Clearance was reduced by nearly 60% and the t1/2 was increased by about 68% compared with EMs. The canonical order for HC clearance was UM>EM>PM. HC elimination mainly by the liver, represented by ke, was reduced about 70% in PM. However, HC's apparent Vd was not significantly different among UMs, EMs, and PM. The canonical order of predicted plasma HM concentrations was UM>EM>PM. For each of the CYP2D6 phenotypes, the mean predicted HM levels were within HM's therapeutic range, which indicates HC has significant phenotype-dependent pro-drug effects. Our results demonstrate that pharmacogenetics afford clinicians an opportunity to individualize HC dosing, while adding enhanced opportunity to account for its conversion to HM in the body.

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jessica S.

    2017-01-01

    Depression is common in individuals with intellectual disabilities, but evidence regarding treatment for this population is lacking. Through a systematic literature review of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals with intellectual disabilities, a total of six studies were identified that used pretest-post-test nonequivalent control…

  8. Verbal responses, depressive symptoms, reminiscence functions and cognitive emotion regulation in older women receiving individual reminiscence therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Hao; Gong, Qiyong; Hu, Xiuying

    2018-07-01

    To examine the effectiveness of individual reminiscence therapy in community-dwelling older women with depressive symptoms and to explore the characteristics of participants' verbalisation in the process. Previous studies have found reminiscence was related to depression and anxiety. Although reminiscence therapy is widely used to reduce depression, little is known about how it works, and the content of verbalisations might provide one explanation. The study employed a one-group pretest-post-test design. Twenty-seven participants underwent 6-week interventions of individual reminiscence therapy at home that were conducted by one nurse and induced through seeing old photographs. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Reminiscence Functions Scale and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire were used to measure the emotional states, reminiscence functions and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Participants' verbalisations were categorised using the Client Behavior System. Reminiscence therapy relieved depression and anxiety. Both the reminiscence function and cognitive emotion regulation became more favourable after interventions. Furthermore, higher frequencies of recounting, cognitive-behavioural exploration and affective exploration were noted in the process. Participants with more severe depressive symptoms tended to display a higher frequency of affective exploration. The reduction in depression, self-negative reminiscence and negative-focused emotion regulation were respectively associated with verbalisations. Individual reminiscence therapy might relieve negative emotion and improve reminiscence function and cognitive emotion regulation. The participants' verbalisation is worthy of our attention, due to its correlation with the severity of depression and its mitigating effects on the depression, anxiety, self-negative reminiscence and negative-focused regulation in older women. The results contribute to our understanding of

  9. Complementary Therapies for Pain Among Individuals Receiving Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zins, Savannah; Gross, Cynthia R; Huff, Edwin D; Hooke, Mary Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Pain is a major problem for individuals undergoing hemodialysis and can lead to decreased quality of life when ineffectively managed. Pain is often reported as burdensome; thus, nurses must learn effective, nonpharmacological adjuncts to help care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of this review was to identify non-pharmacologic complementary therapies and evaluate their effectiveness in minimizing pain among individuals undergoing hemodialysis. Multiple complementary interventions were identified, and several reduced pain, but evidence is qualified by limitations in study methods. Complementary therapies have the potential to reduce pain among individuals undergoing hemodialysis; however, more research is needed. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  10. Single case design studies in music therapy: resurrecting experimental evidence in small group and individual music therapy clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Hitchcock, John H

    2014-01-01

    The profession would benefit from greater and routine generation of causal evidence pertaining to the impact of music therapy interventions on client outcomes. One way to meet this goal is to revisit the use of Single Case Designs (SCDs) in clinical practice and research endeavors in music therapy. Given the appropriate setting and goals, this design can be accomplished with small sample sizes and it is often appropriate for studying music therapy interventions. In this article, we promote and discuss implementation of SCD studies in music therapy settings, review the meaning of internal study validity and by extension the notion of causality, and describe two of the most commonly used SCDs to demonstrate how they can help generate causal evidence to inform the field. In closing, we describe the need for replication and future meta-analysis of SCD studies completed in music therapy settings. SCD studies are both feasible and appropriate for use in music therapy clinical practice settings, particularly for testing effectiveness of interventions for individuals or small groups. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Black Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Motl, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    To examine variables from social cognitive theory as correlates of physical activity in black and white individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional. National survey. Black (n=151) and white (n=185) individuals with MS were recruited through the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis Registry. Not applicable. The battery of questionnaires included information on demographic and clinical characteristics, physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, function, social support, exercise outcome expectations, and exercise goal setting and planning. Black individuals with MS reported significantly lower levels of physical activity compared with white individuals with MS. Physical activity levels were significantly correlated with self-efficacy, outcome expectations, functional limitations as impediments, and goal setting in black participants with MS. The pattern and magnitude of correlations were comparable with those observed in white participants based on Fisher z tests. Researchers should consider applying behavioral interventions that target social cognitive theory variables for increasing physical activity levels among black individuals with MS. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Individual Reminiscence Therapy can Decrease Depression Level on Elderly at Social Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in oldest old. The psychosocial development of the elderly to enhance self-integration. Reminiscence therapy is one of psychosocial treatment for elderly using memory recall of one’s life event in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of individual reminiscence therapy on depression among elderly in the social homes. Method: The study design was used Quasy-Eksperiment Pre-Post Test with Control Group. A total of 60 elderly people were recruited in this study and assigned into two groups,  31 participants in the intervention group and 29 participants in the control group. Independent variable was reminiscence therapy five sessions, which given to the intervention group. While, dependent variable was the level of depression on elderly. Data were collected by using GDS, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney statistical test with level of significance α≤0.05. Result: After providing individual reminiscence therapy, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in depression as compared to those in the control group was found (p=0.008. Discussion: The individual reminiscence therapy is useful to overcome depression among elderly. The nurse can know the personality of each elderly so as to improve the quality of nursing care for elderly Keywords: individual reminiscence therapy, depression, elderly

  13. Universality and correlations in individuals wandering through an online extremist space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z.; Zheng, M.; Vorobyeva, Y.; Song, C.; Johnson, N. F.

    2018-03-01

    The "out of the blue" nature of recent terror attacks and the diversity of apparent motives highlight the importance of understanding the online trajectories that individuals follow prior to developing high levels of extremist support. Here we show that the physics of stochastic walks, with and without temporal correlation, provides a unifying description of these online trajectories. Our unique data set comprising all users of a global social media site reveals universal characteristics in individuals' online lifetimes. Our accompanying theory generates analytical and numerical solutions that describe the characteristics shown by individuals that go on to develop high levels of extremist support and those that do not. Going forward, it is conceivable that a deeper understanding of these temporal and many-body correlations may eventually contribute to the important task of better countering the spread of radical propaganda online.

  14. Art Therapy for Individuals with Borderline Personality: Using a Dialectical Behavior Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drass, Jessica Masino

    2015-01-01

    Art therapy has shown benefits for people with borderline personality disorder and borderline personality traits by alleviating interpersonal difficulties such as affect regulation, an unstable sense of self, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation. Borderline personality disorder is currently viewed as a trauma spectrum disorder, because…

  15. Neural correlation of successful cognitive behaviour therapy for spider phobia: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Alderson-Day, Ben; Prendergast, Garreth; Kennedy, Juliette; Bennett, Sophie; Docherty, Mary; Whitton, Clare; Manea, Laura; Gouws, Andre; Tomlinson, Heather; Green, Gary

    2013-12-30

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be an effective treatment for spider phobia, but the underlying neural correlates of therapeutic change are yet to be specified. The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study responses within the first half second, to phobogenic stimuli in a group of individuals with spider phobia prior to treatment (n=12) and then in nine of them following successful CBT (where they could touch and manage live large common house spiders) at least 9 months later. We also compared responses to a group of age-matched healthy control participants (n=11). Participants viewed static photographs of real spiders, other fear-inducing images (e.g. snakes, sharks) and neutral stimuli (e.g. kittens). Beamforming methods were used to localise sources of significant power changes in response to stimuli. Prior to treatment, participants with spider phobia showed a significant maximum response in the right frontal pole when viewing images of real spiders specifically. No significant frontal response was observed for either control participants or participants with spider phobia post-treatment. In addition, participants' subjective ratings of spider stimuli significantly predicted peak responses in right frontal regions. The implications for understanding brain-based effects of cognitive therapies are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...... of the study with pre-and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis...

  17. Predictability of the individual clinical outcome of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for cellulite

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaudraff, Kai-Uwe; Kiessling, Maren C; Császár, Nikolaus BM; Schmitz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Kai-Uwe Schlaudraff,1 Maren C Kiessling,2 Nikolaus BM Császár,2 Christoph Schmitz21Concept Clinic, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Anatomy II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: Extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been successfully introduced for the treatment of cellulite in recent years. However, it is still unknown whether the individual clinical outcome of cellulite treatment with extracorporeal shock wave therapy can be predict...

  18. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake, discharge, and 6-month follow-up. Observational ratings of adherence and competence were collected on early and later phases of treatment (192 CBT ...

  19. Neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in social anxiety in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue; Hou, Xin; Wang, Kangcheng; Wei, Dongtao; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Socially anxious individuals are characterized as those with distorted negative self-beliefs (NSBs), which are thought to enhance reactions of social distress (emotional reactivity) and social avoidance (social functioning). However, it remains unclear whether individual differences in social distress and social avoidance are represented by differences in brain morphometry. To probe into these neural correlates, we analyzed magnetic resonance images of a sample of 130 healthy subjects and used the Connectome Computation System (CCS) to evaluate these factors. The results showed that social distress was correlated with the cortical volume of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the subcortical volume of the left amygdala, while social avoidance was correlated with the cortical volume of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Additionally, loneliness might mediate the relationship between the amygdala volume and the social distress score. Our results demonstrated that social distress and social avoidance were represented by segregated cortical regions in the healthy individuals. These findings might provide a valuable basis for understanding the stable brain structures underlying individual differences in social anxiety.

  20. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Perchoux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were (1 to define physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviors (SB patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2 to identify pattern(s of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii sedentary transportation, (iv sedentary occupation and leisure, (v active transportation, and (vi active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the “active transportation” cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with “active transportation” included “high availability of destinations around home,” “presence of bicycle paths,” and “low traffic.” A “positive image of walking/cycling,” the “individual feeling of being physically active,” and a “high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends” were positively related to “active transportation,” identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors’ complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.

  1. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Enaux, Christophe; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Menai, Mehdi; Charreire, Hélène; Salze, Paul; Weber, Christiane; Hercberg, Serge; Feuillet, Thierry; Hess, Franck; Roda, Célina; Simon, Chantal; Nazare, Julie-Anne

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were (1) to define physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation) in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2) to identify pattern(s) of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i) active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii) sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii) sedentary transportation, (iv) sedentary occupation and leisure, (v) active transportation, and (vi) active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the "active transportation" cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with "active transportation" included "high availability of destinations around home," "presence of bicycle paths," and "low traffic." A "positive image of walking/cycling," the "individual feeling of being physically active," and a "high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends" were positively related to "active transportation," identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors' complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.

  2. Correlates of individual, and age-related, differences in short-term learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Davis, Hasker P; Salthouse, Timothy A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2007-07-01

    Latent growth models were applied to data on multitrial verbal and spatial learning tasks from two independent studies. Although significant individual differences in both initial level of performance and subsequent learning were found in both tasks, age differences were found only in mean initial level, and not in mean learning. In neither task was fluid or crystallized intelligence associated with learning. Although there were moderate correlations among the level parameters across the verbal and spatial tasks, the learning parameters were not significantly correlated with one another across task modalities. These results are inconsistent with the existence of a general (e.g., material-independent) learning ability.

  3. Correlates of individual, and age-related, differences in short-term learning☆

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Davis, Hasker P.; Salthouse, Timothy A.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2007-01-01

    Latent growth models were applied to data on multitrial verbal and spatial learning tasks from two independent studies. Although significant individual differences in both initial level of performance and subsequent learning were found in both tasks, age differences were found only in mean initial level, and not in mean learning. In neither task was fluid or crystallized intelligence associated with learning. Although there were moderate correlations among the level parameters across the verb...

  4. Therapy service use among individuals with fragile X syndrome: findings from a US parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G E; Ausderau, K K; Raspa, M; Bishop, E; Mallya, U; Bailey, D B

    2013-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is known to be associated with a range of developmental challenges, yet the occurrence and intensity of therapy services along with associated factors have not been determined. In a US national survey, caregivers provided information regarding the therapy services received by their sons (n = 1013) and daughters (n = 283) with FXS (from birth to 63 years; mean = 15.6 years, SD = 10.6). Caregivers reported (1) type, (2) amount, (3) location, and (4) overall satisfaction with services. Associations with other child variables and family income were also examined. Key findings included that 72% of males and 47% of females were currently receiving at least one type of therapy service; the most common services for both males and females were speech-language therapy (ST) and occupational therapy (OT). Overall, males were more likely to receive therapy services as well as a greater number of services than females. Autism status was significantly associated with both males and females receiving ST and males receiving OT and behaviour management therapy. Therapies were provided in a variety of locations, and parents were generally satisfied with the amount and quality of therapy services. Age-related declines were evident in the use of services for both males and females, with very few individuals receiving any therapy services after 20 years of age. This study provides a baseline description of the current state of therapy services for children with FXS, laying a foundation for future research and recommendations for service provision and policy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  5. Effect of analytical treatment interruption and reinitiation of antiretroviral therapy on HIV reservoirs and immunologic parameters in infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarridge, Katherine E; Blazkova, Jana; Einkauf, Kevin; Petrone, Mary; Refsland, Eric W; Justement, J Shawn; Shi, Victoria; Huiting, Erin D; Seamon, Catherine A; Lee, Guinevere Q; Yu, Xu G; Moir, Susan; Sneller, Michael C; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Chun, Tae-Wook

    2018-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-free HIV remission in infected individuals are under active investigation. Considering the vast majority of HIV-infected individuals experience plasma viral rebound upon cessation of therapy, clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of curative strategies would likely require inclusion of ART interruption. However, it is unclear what impact short-term analytical treatment interruption (ATI) and subsequent reinitiation of ART have on immunologic and virologic parameters of HIV-infected individuals. Here, we show a significant increase of HIV burden in the CD4+ T cells of infected individuals during ATI that was correlated with the level of plasma viral rebound. However, the size of the HIV reservoirs as well as immune parameters, including markers of exhaustion and activation, returned to pre-ATI levels 6-12 months after the study participants resumed ART. Of note, the proportions of near full-length, genome-intact and structurally defective HIV proviral DNA sequences were similar prior to ATI and following reinitiation of ART. In addition, there was no evidence of emergence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations within intact HIV proviral DNA sequences following reinitiation of ART. These data demonstrate that short-term ATI does not necessarily lead to expansion of the persistent HIV reservoir nor irreparable damages to the immune system in the peripheral blood, warranting the inclusion of ATI in future clinical trials evaluating curative strategies.

  6. Changes in functional connectivity correlate with behavioral gains in stroke patients after therapy using a brain-computer interface device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interface (BCI technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of 9 stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT, and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS domains of Hand Function (HF and Activities of Daily Living (ADL were also assessed. Group-level analyses examined changes in whole-brain task-based functional connectivity (FC to seed regions in the motor network observed during and after BCI therapy. Whole-brain FC analyses seeded in each thalamus showed FC increases from baseline at mid-therapy and post-therapy (p< 0.05. Changes in FC between seeds at both the network and the connection levels were examined for correlations with changes in behavioral measures. Average motor network FC was increased post-therapy, and changes in average network FC correlated (p < 0.05 with changes in performance on ARAT (R2=0.21, 9-HPT (R2=0.41, SIS HF (R2=0.27, and SIS ADL (R2=0.40. Multiple individual connections within the motor network were found to correlate in change from baseline with changes in behavioral measures. Many of these connections involved the thalamus, with change in each of four behavioral measures significantly correlating with change from baseline FC of at least one thalamic connection. These preliminary results show changes in FC that occur with the administration of rehabilitative therapy using a BCI system. The correlations noted between changes in FC measures and changes in behavioral outcomes indicate that both adaptive and maladaptive changes in FC may develop with this therapy and also suggest a brain-behavior relationship that may be stimulated by the neuromodulatory component of BCI therapy.

  7. Correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite in Class II Division 1 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric pattern of Class II Division 1 individuals with deep bite, and to determine possible correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite. Comparisons were also made between genders and cases that were to be treated both with and without premolar extraction. A total of 70 lateral cephalograms were used, from both male (n = 35 and female (n = 35 individuals with an average age of 11.6 years, who simultaneously presented with ANB > 5º and overbite > 4 mm. Statistical analysis involved parametric (t-test and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney tests for independent samples, as well as the Spearman correlation test (p < 0.05. The values of Go-Me, Ar-Pog, PM-1 and PM-CMI were higher in males (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were found among the averages of the cephalometric measurements when the sample was divided by treatment with and without extraction. Deep bite was positively correlated to the PM-1 and SNA measurements, and negatively correlated to the Go-Me, Ar-Pog, SNB and SNGoMe measurements. The main factors associated with the determination of deep bite in Angle's Class II Division 1 cases were: greater lower anterior dentoalveolar growth and/or lower incisor extrusion, horizontal growth pattern, maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion.

  8. Correlating HIV tropism with immunological response under combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, J; Schöni-Affolter, F; Böni, J; Gorgievski-Hrisoho, M; Martinetti, G; Battegay, M; Klimkait, T

    2016-09-01

    A significant percentage of patients infected with HIV-1 experience only suboptimal CD4 cell recovery while treated with combination therapy (cART). It is still unclear whether viral properties such as cell tropism play a major role in this incomplete immune response. This study therefore intended to follow the tropism evolution of the HIV-1 envelope during periods of suppressive cART. Viruses from two distinct patient groups, one with good and another one with poor CD4 recovery after 5 years of suppressive cART, were genotypically analysed for viral tropism at baseline and at the end of the study period. Patients with CCR5-tropic CC-motif chemokine receptor 5 viruses at baseline tended to maintain this tropism to the study end. Patients who had a CXCR4-tropic CXC-motif chemokine receptor 4 virus at baseline were overrepresented in the poor CD4 recovery group. Overall, however, the majority of patients presented with CCR5-tropic viruses at follow-up. Our data lend support to the hypothesis that tropism determination can be used as a parameter for disease progression even if analysed long before the establishment of a poorer immune response. Moreover, the lasting predominating CCR5-tropism during periods of full viral control suggests the involvement of cellular mechanisms that preferentially reduce CXCR4-tropic viruses during cART. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  9. FDG PET in non-pharmacological therapy in Alzheimer's disease; cerebral metabolic increase correlates with clinical improvement after cognitive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Park, Seong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    In management of AD, pharmacological treatment alone using acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) is general consensus, and provides beneficial effect to prolong their progression. Combined non-pharmacological therapy, especially cognitive therapy is recently having attention with expectation of improvement in cognitive ability. This study examined the effect of combined cognitive therapy in AD patients who were maintaining AChEI using FDG PET. Four patients (689 yrs) who diagnosed as probable Alzheimer's disease based on the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria participated in this study. 12-week cognitive therapy comprised seven fields to enhance orientation, memory, recall, visuo-motor organization, categorization and behavior modification/sequencing. They received 45-minute sessions twice per week with maintaining their previous medication. Clinical improvement was assessed by comprehensive neuropsychological tests. Two FDG PET studies were performed before cognitive therapy and in the middle of the therapy, and compared to evaluate the effect of cognitive therapy to cerebral metabolism. Two of 4 patients whose initial cognitive impairment was milder had clinical improvement after 12 weeks, the rest who were more severely impaired failed to have clinical improvement. Regional cerebral hypometabolism on initial PET was correlated with their functional status. Follow up PET of two responders demonstrated the increases in regional metabolism in the temporal and/or frontal cortex, which was associated their functional improvement. Cerebral metabolism in poor responders were minimally increased or no changed. This preliminary data suggests that cognitive therapy is potentially useful to stabilize or improve cognitive and functional performance in AD patients with relatively mild cognitive dysfunction. And FDG PET could demonstrate possible candidates for cognitive therapy and the effect of the therapy

  10. Mental Health Correlates of Cigarette Use in LGBT Individuals in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Christopher F; Lopez, Eliot J; Griffin, James A; Toomey, Thomas M; Eldridge, Elizabeth D; Stepleman, Lara M

    2018-05-12

    Smoking prevalence for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals is higher than for heterosexual, cisgender individuals. Elevated smoking rates have been linked to psychiatric comorbidities, substance use, poverty, low education levels, and stress. This study examined mental health (MH) correlates of cigarette use in LGBT individuals residing in a metropolitan area in the southeastern United States. Participants were 335 individuals from an LGBT health needs assessment (mean age 34.7; SD = 13.5; 63% gay/lesbian; 66% Caucasian; 81% cisgender). Demographics, current/past psychiatric diagnoses, number of poor MH days in the last 30, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) 2 depression screener, the Three-Item Loneliness Scale, and frequency of cigarette use were included. Analyses included bivariate correlations, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression. Multiple demographic and MH factors were associated with smoker status and frequency of smoking. A logistic regression indicated that lower education and bipolar disorder were most strongly associated with being a smoker. For smokers, a hierarchical regression model including demographic and MH variables accounted for 17.6% of the variance in frequency of cigarette use. Only education, bipolar disorder, and the number of poor MH days were significant contributors in the overall model. Conclusions/Importance: Less education, bipolar disorder, and recurrent poor MH increase LGBT vulnerability to cigarette use. Access to LGBT-competent MH providers who can address culturally specific factors in tobacco cessation is crucial to reducing this health disparities.

  11. Relationships Between Individual Endorsement of Aggressive Behaviors and Thoughts With Prejudice Relevant Correlates Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages. PMID:28344674

  12. Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-11-01

    Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration. Published by Oxford University Press 2013. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Individual music therapy for agitation in dementia: an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette O; Stige, Brynjulf; Qvale, Liv Gunnhild; Gold, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Agitation in nursing home residents with dementia leads to increase in psychotropic medication, decrease in quality of life, and to patient distress and caregiver burden. Music therapy has previously been found effective in treatment of agitation in dementia care but studies have been methodologically insufficient. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of individual music therapy on agitation in persons with moderate/severe dementia living in nursing homes, and to explore its effect on psychotropic medication and quality of life. In a crossover trial, 42 participants with dementia were randomized to a sequence of six weeks of individual music therapy and six weeks of standard care. Outcome measures included agitation, quality of life and medication. Agitation disruptiveness increased during standard care and decreased during music therapy. The difference at -6.77 (95% CI (confidence interval): -12.71, -0.83) was significant (p = 0.027), with a medium effect size (0.50). The prescription of psychotropic medication increased significantly more often during standard care than during music therapy (p = 0.02). This study shows that six weeks of music therapy reduces agitation disruptiveness and prevents medication increases in people with dementia. The positive trends in relation to agitation frequency and quality of life call for further research with a larger sample.

  14. Individual music therapy for agitation in dementia: an exploratory randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stige, Brynjulf; Qvale, Liv Gunnhild; Gold, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Agitation in nursing home residents with dementia leads to increase in psychotropic medication, decrease in quality of life, and to patient distress and caregiver burden. Music therapy has previously been found effective in treatment of agitation in dementia care but studies have been methodologically insufficient. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of individual music therapy on agitation in persons with moderate/severe dementia living in nursing homes, and to explore its effect on psychotropic medication and quality of life. Method: In a crossover trial, 42 participants with dementia were randomized to a sequence of six weeks of individual music therapy and six weeks of standard care. Outcome measures included agitation, quality of life and medication. Results: Agitation disruptiveness increased during standard care and decreased during music therapy. The difference at −6.77 (95% CI (confidence interval): −12.71, −0.83) was significant (p = 0.027), with a medium effect size (0.50). The prescription of psychotropic medication increased significantly more often during standard care than during music therapy (p = 0.02). Conclusion: This study shows that six weeks of music therapy reduces agitation disruptiveness and prevents medication increases in people with dementia. The positive trends in relation to agitation frequency and quality of life call for further research with a larger sample. PMID:23621805

  15. Towards personalized therapy for multiple sclerosis: prediction of individual treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalincik, Tomas; Manouchehrinia, Ali; Sobisek, Lukas; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Horakova, Dana; Havrdova, Eva; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Girard, Marc; Prat, Alexandre; Duquette, Pierre; Grammond, Pierre; Sola, Patrizia; Hupperts, Raymond; Grand'Maison, Francois; Pucci, Eugenio; Boz, Cavit; Alroughani, Raed; Van Pesch, Vincent; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Terzi, Murat; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Iuliano, Gerardo; Granella, Franco; Spitaleri, Daniele; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Slee, Mark; Ampapa, Radek; Verheul, Freek; McCombe, Pamela; Olascoaga, Javier; Amato, Maria Pia; Vucic, Steve; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Flechter, Shlomo; Cristiano, Edgardo; Rozsa, Csilla; Moore, Fraser; Luis Sanchez-Menoyo, Jose; Laura Saladino, Maria; Barnett, Michael; Hillert, Jan; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2017-09-01

    Timely initiation of effective therapy is crucial for preventing disability in multiple sclerosis; however, treatment response varies greatly among patients. Comprehensive predictive models of individual treatment response are lacking. Our aims were: (i) to develop predictive algorithms for individual treatment response using demographic, clinical and paraclinical predictors in patients with multiple sclerosis; and (ii) to evaluate accuracy, and internal and external validity of these algorithms. This study evaluated 27 demographic, clinical and paraclinical predictors of individual response to seven disease-modifying therapies in MSBase, a large global cohort study. Treatment response was analysed separately for disability progression, disability regression, relapse frequency, conversion to secondary progressive disease, change in the cumulative disease burden, and the probability of treatment discontinuation. Multivariable survival and generalized linear models were used, together with the principal component analysis to reduce model dimensionality and prevent overparameterization. Accuracy of the individual prediction was tested and its internal validity was evaluated in a separate, non-overlapping cohort. External validity was evaluated in a geographically distinct cohort, the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. In the training cohort (n = 8513), the most prominent modifiers of treatment response comprised age, disease duration, disease course, previous relapse activity, disability, predominant relapse phenotype and previous therapy. Importantly, the magnitude and direction of the associations varied among therapies and disease outcomes. Higher probability of disability progression during treatment with injectable therapies was predominantly associated with a greater disability at treatment start and the previous therapy. For fingolimod, natalizumab or mitoxantrone, it was mainly associated with lower pretreatment relapse activity. The probability of

  16. Individual differences in non-verbal number acuity correlate with maths achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberda, Justin; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2008-10-02

    Human mathematical competence emerges from two representational systems. Competence in some domains of mathematics, such as calculus, relies on symbolic representations that are unique to humans who have undergone explicit teaching. More basic numerical intuitions are supported by an evolutionarily ancient approximate number system that is shared by adults, infants and non-human animals-these groups can all represent the approximate number of items in visual or auditory arrays without verbally counting, and use this capacity to guide everyday behaviour such as foraging. Despite the widespread nature of the approximate number system both across species and across development, it is not known whether some individuals have a more precise non-verbal 'number sense' than others. Furthermore, the extent to which this system interfaces with the formal, symbolic maths abilities that humans acquire by explicit instruction remains unknown. Here we show that there are large individual differences in the non-verbal approximation abilities of 14-year-old children, and that these individual differences in the present correlate with children's past scores on standardized maths achievement tests, extending all the way back to kindergarten. Moreover, this correlation remains significant when controlling for individual differences in other cognitive and performance factors. Our results show that individual differences in achievement in school mathematics are related to individual differences in the acuity of an evolutionarily ancient, unlearned approximate number sense. Further research will determine whether early differences in number sense acuity affect later maths learning, whether maths education enhances number sense acuity, and the extent to which tertiary factors can affect both.

  17. Reasons for not starting antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals : a changing landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehr, Jan; Nicca, Dunja; Goffard, Jean Christophe; Haerry, David; Schlag, Michael; Papastamopoulos, Vasileios; Hoepelman, Andy; Skoutelis, Athanasius; Diazaraque, Ruth; Ledergerber, Bruno

    Purpose A cross-sectional survey was conducted to better understand why chronically HIV-1-infected individuals stratified by CD4 count (≤349; 350–499; ≥500 cells/μL) were not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Before the consultation, treatment-naive patients and their physicians independently

  18. Personalized Prediction of Lifetime Benefits with Statin Therapy for Asymptomatic Individuals: A Modeling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.S. Ferket (Bart); B.J.H. van Kempen (Bob); J. Heeringa (Jan); S. Spronk (Sandra); K.E. Fleischmann (Kirsten); R.L. Nijhuis (Rogier); A. Hofman (Albert); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Physicians need to inform asymptomatic individuals about personalized outcomes of statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, current prediction models focus on short-term outcomes and ignore the competing risk of death due to other causes.

  19. Challenges in implementing individualized medicine illustrated by antimetabolite therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Borst, Louise; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    , but also multiplied the complex interaction of genetic and other laboratory parameters that can be used for therapy adjustments. Thus, with the advances in the laboratory techniques, post laboratory issues have become major obstacles for treatment individualization. Many of these challenges have been...

  20. Couple Discord and Depression in Couples during Couple Therapy and in Depressed Individuals during Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C.; Dimidjian, Sona; Bedics, Jamie D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The association between depression and relationship distress as well as the impact of treatment for the one on the other was examined across 2 treatment-seeking samples: individuals seeking treatment for depression (N = 120) and couples seeking marital therapy (N = 134 couples). Although there was a baseline association between depression and…

  1. The effect of combined antiretroviral therapy on the overall mortality of HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, A. N.; Gilson, R.; Easterbrook, P.; Fisher, M.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, M.; Walsh, J.; Leen, C.; Orkin, C.; Anderson, J.; Pillay, D.; Delpech, V.; Schwenk, A.; Dunn, D.; Gompels, M.; Hill, T.; Porter, K.; Babiker, A.; Sabin, C.; Waters, A.; Crates, D.; Mohamed-Saad, S.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Harris, W.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Dodds, J.; Rider, A.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Gumley, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani, D.; Weber, J.; Cashin, S.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Gann, S.; Wilson, A.; Ainsworth, J.; de Wolf, F.; Bezemer, D. O.; Gras, L. A. J.; Kesselring, A. M.; van Sighem, A. I.; Smit, C.; Zhang, S.; Zaheri, S.; Prins, J. M.; Bos, J. C.; Eeftinck-Schattenkerk, J. K. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Lange, J. M. A.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Olszyna, D. P.; van der Poll, M.; Reiss, P.; Sankatsing, S. U. C.; Steingrover, R.; van der Valk, M.; Vermeulen, J. N.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Schreij, G.; van der Geest, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Lowe, S.; Verbon, A.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Pajkrt, D.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Ende, M. E.; Bax, H.; van der Feltz, M.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Nouwen, J. L.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Schurink, C. A. M.; de Vries, T. E. M. S.; Driessen, G.; van der Flier, M.; Hartwig, N. G.; Branger, J.; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; den Hollander, J. G.; Bronsveld, W.; Vriesendorp, R.; Jeurissen, F. J. F.; Leyten, E. M. S.; van Houte, D.; Polée, M. B.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Mairuhu, A. T. A.; Wagenaar, J.; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Veenstra, J.; Vasmel, W. L. E.; Koopmans, P. P.; Brouwer, A. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; van Assen, S.; van Leeuwen, J. T. M.; Stek, C. J.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Peters, E. J. G.; Mudrikova, T.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Weijer, S.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Hillebrand, M. E.; de Jong, E. V.; Kortmann, W.; Perenboom, R. M.; bij de Vaate, E. A.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J.; Gisolf, E. H.; Tanis, A. A.; Duits, A. J.; Winkel, K.; Elisabeth, S. T.; Abgrall, S.; Barin, F.; Bentata, M.; Billaud, E.; Boué, F.; Burty, C.; Cabié, A.; Costagliola, D.; Cotte, L.; de Truchis, P.; Duval, X.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Gaud, C.; Gilquin, J.; Grabar, S.; Katlama, C.; Khuong, M. A.; Lang, J. M.; Lascaux, A. S.; Launay, O.; Mahamat, A.; Mary-Krause, M.; Matheron, S.; Meynard, J. L.; Pavie, J.; Pialoux, G.; Pilorgé, F.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Pradier, C.; Reynes, J.; Rouveix, E.; Simon, A.; Tattevin, P.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Viard, J. P.; Viget, N.; Salomon, Valérie; Jacquemet, N.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Liévre, L.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J. M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P. M.; Meyohas, M. C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Clauvel, J. P.; Decazes, J. M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J. M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Roudière, L.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, P. H.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J. P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M. F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J. P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Daures, J. P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J. L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Legrand, M. F. Thiercelin; Pontonnier, G.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Delmont, J. P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J. A.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J. M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P. A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J. P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J. M.; Touraine, J. L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Contant, M.; Aebi, C.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Brazzola, P.; Bucher, H. C.; Bürgisser, P. H.; Calmy, A.; Cattacin, S.; Cavassini, M.; Cheseaux, J.-J.; Drack, G.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fischer, M.; Flepp, M.; Fontana, A.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H. J.; Fux, C.; Gayet-Ageron, A.; Gerber, S.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Gyr, T. H.; Hirsch, H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Hüsler, M.; Kaiser, L.; Kahlert, C. H.; Karrer, U.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T. H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez, B.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Paccaud, F.; Pantaleo, G.; Raio, L.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Wyler, C.-A.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Miró, J. M.; Alquézar, A.; Isern, V.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J. M.; Agüero, F.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Romero, A.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Ortega, N.; Lazzari, E.; Puchol, E.; Sanchez, M.; Blanco, J. L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; López-Dieguez, M.; García-Goez, J. F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M. C.; Olmo, M.; Barragan, P.; Saumoy, M.; Bolao, F.; Cabellos, C.; Peña, C.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Amengual, M. J.; Navarro, M.; Penelo, E.; Berenguer, J.; del Amo, J.; García, F.; Gutiérrez, F.; Labarga, P.; Moreno, S.; Muñoz, M. A.; Caro-Murillo, A. M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Sirvent, J. L. Gómez; Rodríguez, P.; Alemán, M. R.; Alonso, M. M.; López, A. M.; Hernández, M. I.; Soriano, V.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M. E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; de Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervás, R. I.; Iribarren, J. A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M. J.; Camino, X.; Rodríguez-Arrondo, F.; von Wichmann, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M. A.; Masiá, M.; Ramos, J. M.; Padilla, S.; Sánchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; López, J. C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sánchez, M.; Gutiérrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Viladés, C.; López-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J. L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; de los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J. A.; Blanco, J. R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M. J.; Irigoyen, C.; Antela, A.; Casado, J. L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M. J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L. F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A. C.; Fiellin, D. A.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K. A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J. L.; Hernán, M. A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J. M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Phillips, A.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Fidler, S.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; McLean, K.; Porter, Kholoud; Cursley, Adam; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Lodi, Sara; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Gwynedd, Ysbyty; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S. P. R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, A. J.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, D. N.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; DeSouza, C. B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; Franca, A.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P. J.; Mazhude, C.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; Mchale, J.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Rice, P.; Mullaney, S. A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey-Puttock, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M. R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A. M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, S. V.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Luzzi, G.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, J.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M. T.; Bergmann, J. F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Parrinello, M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A. P.; Allègre, T.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; de Boever, C. Merle; Tramoni, C.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Yeni, P.; Bouvet, E.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Morelon, S.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J. D.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumaître, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M. C.; Drenou, B.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Tubiana, R.; Mohand, H. Ait; Chermak, A.; Abdallah, S. Ben; Touam, F.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J. M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Bornarel, D.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Amirat, N.; Brancion, C.; Cabane, J.; Tredup, J.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Belan, A. Greder; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A. M.; Zeng, A.; Fournier, L.; Fuzibet, J. G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; Szmania, I. De Lacroix; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Drogoul, M. P.; Martin, I. Poizot; Fabre, G.; de Cursay, G. Lambert; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J. L.; Leprêtre, A.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A. S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J. J.; Quinsat, D. T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Slama, B.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G. A.; Levy, A.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M. S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne- Dessus, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Colasante, U.; Nouaouia, W.; Vilde, J. L.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J. L.; Pietrie, M. P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Bourdillon, F.; Lelievre, J. D.; Obenga, G.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Schneider, L.; Iguertsira, M.; Tomei, C.; Dhiver, C.; Dupont, H. Tissot; Vallon, A.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J. P.; Karsenti, J. M.; Venti, H.; Ceppi, C.; Krivitsky, J. A.; Bouchaud, O.; Honore, P.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Hoyos, S. Pérez; Ferreros, I.; Hurtado, I.; González, C.; Caro, A. M.; Muga, R.; Sanvicens, A.; Tor, J.; del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; García, Soledad; Alastrue, I.; Belda, J.; Trullen, P.; Fernández, E.; Santos, C.; Tasa, T.; Zafra, T.; Guerrero, R.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Ruiz, I.; Nuñez, R.; Pérez, R.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; de Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on mortality among HIV-infected individuals after appropriate adjustment for time-varying confounding by indication. DESIGN: A collaboration of 12 prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States (the HIV-CAUSAL

  2. Combined group and individual schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickhaut, V.; Arntz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Schema Therapy (ST) is a highly effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). In a group format, delivery costs could be reduced and recovery processes catalyzed by specific use of group processes. As patients may also need individual attention, we piloted

  3. Monitoring of peri-operative fluid administration by individualized goal-directed therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Holte, Kathrine; Secher, N H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to avoid peri-operative hypovolaemia or fluid overload, goal-directed therapy with individual maximization of flow-related haemodynamic parameters has been introduced. The objectives of this review are to update research in the area, evaluate the effects on outcome and assess...

  4. Chronic Kidney Disease and Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achhra, Amit C; Nugent, Melinda; Mocroft, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as an important health concern in HIV-positive individuals. Preventing long-term kidney toxicity from an antiretroviral therapy is therefore critical. Selected antiretroviral agents, especially tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and some ritonavir-boosted...

  5. Ethical hot spots of combined individual and group therapy: applying four ethical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabender, Virginia M; Fallon, April

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Combined therapy presents ethical quandaries that occur in individual psychotherapy and group psychotherapy, and dilemmas specifically associated with their integration. This paper examines two types of ethical frameworks (a classical principle-based framework and a set of context-based frameworks) for addressing the ethical hot spots of combined therapy: self-referral, transfer of information, and termination. The principle-based approach enables the practitioner to see what core values may be served or violated by different courses of action in combined therapy dilemmas. Yet, the therapist is more likely to do justice to the complexity and richness of the combined therapy situation by supplementing a principle analysis with three additional ethical frameworks. These approaches are: virtue ethics, feminist ethics, and casuistry. An analysis of three vignettes illustrates how these contrasting ethical models not only expand the range of features to which the therapist attends but also the array of solutions the therapist generates.

  6. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of sedentary behaviours in adults: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Stephanie A; Gresty, Katelin M; Reed, Jennifer L; Wright, Erica; Tremblay, Mark S; Reid, Robert D

    2014-10-21

    Adults spend the majority of their time being sedentary, and evidence suggests that those who spend more of their day engaged in sedentary activities (TV viewing, sitting, screen-based activities) are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality, regardless of whether they exercise regularly. In order to develop effective interventions to reduce sedentary time, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable factors of these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence in order to identify individual, social, environmental and policy correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours (TV time, sitting time, screen time) and total sedentary time among adults. Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all studies that report on individual, social and/or environmental correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours and total sedentary time in adults. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on modifiable individual (e.g. health behaviours and status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status), social (e.g. crime, safety, social support, climate and capital), environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, transportation environment) and policy correlates and determinants (based on study design) of sedentary behaviours in an adult population (mean age ≥18 years) will be included. Study quality and risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all correlates, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. This review will provide a comprehensive examination of evidence in the field and will serve to highlight gaps for future research on the determinants of sedentary behaviours and inform intervention

  7. Group therapy task training versus individual task training during inpatient stroke rehabilitation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Caroline Ie; Outermans, Jacqueline; Ludwig, Ricarda; Brendel, Christiane; Kwakkel, Gert; Hummelsheim, Horst

    2016-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of intensive daily applied progressive group therapy task training with equally dosed individual progressive task training on self-reported mobility for patients with moderate to severe stroke during inpatient rehabilitation. Randomized controlled clinical trial. In-patient rehabilitation center. A total of 73 subacute patients with stroke who were not able to walk without physical assistance at randomisation. Patients were allocated to group therapy task training (GT) or individual task training (IT). Both interventions were intended to improve walking competency and comprised 30 sessions of 90 minutes over six weeks. Primary outcome was the mobility domain of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-3.0). Secondary outcomes were the other domains of SIS-3.0, standing balance, gait speed, walking distance, stair climbing, fatigue, anxiety and depression. No adverse events were reported in either arm of the trial. There were no significant differences between groups for the SIS mobility domain at the end of the intervention (Z= -0.26, P = 0.79). No significant differences between groups were found in gait speed improvements (GT:0.38 ±0.23; IT:0.26±0.35), any other gait related parameters, or in non-physical outcomes such as depression and fatigue. Inpatient group therapy task training for patients with moderate to severe stroke is safe and equally effective as a dose-matched individual task training therapy. Group therapy task training may be delivered as an alternative to individual therapy or as valuable adjunct to increase time spent in gait-related activities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Individual-and Setting-Level Correlates of Secondary Traumatic Stress in Rape Crisis Center Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Sorell, Nicole R; Allen, Nicole E

    2016-02-01

    Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an issue of significant concern among providers who work with survivors of sexual assault. Although STS has been studied in relation to individual-level characteristics of a variety of types of trauma responders, less research has focused specifically on rape crisis centers as environments that might convey risk or protection from STS, and no research to knowledge has modeled setting-level variation in correlates of STS. The current study uses a sample of 164 staff members representing 40 rape crisis centers across a single Midwestern state to investigate the staff member-and agency-level correlates of STS. Results suggest that correlates exist at both levels of analysis. Younger age and greater severity of sexual assault history were statistically significant individual-level predictors of increased STS. Greater frequency of supervision was more strongly related to secondary stress for non-advocates than for advocates. At the setting level, lower levels of supervision and higher client loads agency-wide accounted for unique variance in staff members' STS. These findings suggest that characteristics of both providers and their settings are important to consider when understanding their STS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Individual and family correlates for cigarette smoking among Taiwanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Liu, Chun-Te; Lee, Ming-Been; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2009-01-01

    This college-based questionnaire survey aimed to explore the individual, family, and peer correlates for cigarette smoking among first-year college students. The sample included 2918 first-year college students (males, 45.5%) recruited from a national university in Taiwan (participation rate, 79.1%). The participants reported on questions about various substances, attitudes toward substances, personality characteristics, psychopathology, suicidal behaviors, parenting style, family function and use of substances, and peer substance use. There were 263 (9.0%; males, 70.6%) current smokers. Compared to nonsmokers, college smokers were more extraverted and neurotic, and showed less harm avoidance, and more novelty seeking in their personality. They had more hostile, somatic, depressive, paranoid, and psychotic symptoms in terms of psychopathology. Smokers were more likely to use other substances, and to have suicidal ideations, wishes, plans, and attempts. Smokers perceived lower family cohesion, less care from their fathers, and less overprotection from their mothers. They were more likely to have peers and family members who also smoked or used other substances. The most associated correlates were male sex, older age, other substance use, novelty seeking, suicidal ideation and attempts, sibling and peer substance use, a prosubstance attitude, and less maternal overprotection. Our findings support the association of cigarette use in Taiwanese young adults with several individual, family, and peer factors identified in Western studies. Intervention in cigarette use should be multifaceted, by taking its correlates and the concurrent psychopathology, use of substances, and suicidality into consideration.

  10. Individual changes of DNA catabolite excretion in the course of antitumor therapy of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienstbier, Z.; Blehova, Z.; Masopust, J.; Samal, M.

    1980-01-01

    In patients with morbus Hodgkin, treated primarily by the actino- and chemotherapy, the excretion was followed of DNA catabolites (deoxycytidine, deoxyuridine, thymidine and their sum) in the course of the therapy. The dynamics was studied of changes in the time interval of interest and attention was paid to its relation to the clinical and histological type of disease and to the successful character of the therapy defined by reaching a complete remission. The group of patient as a whole was characterized by an increased excretion of catabolites in the time interval of interest. No dependence was demonstrated between the catabolite excretion and extent of the disease similarly as between the excretion and successful character of the therapy. The dynamics of the changes in the time intervals of interest was neither remarkbly nor continuously increased or decreased. The test of the excretion of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides possesses sufficient sensitivity for demonstrationg laws in relation to the therapy during group evaluation. With respect to individual variability of values of particular patients and to the absence of the relations mentioned above the test is not suitable to indicate the individual response to the anticancer therapy. (orig.) [de

  11. Individual psychological therapy in an acute inpatient setting: Service user and psychologist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Catherine; Pistrang, Nancy; Huddy, Vyv; Williams, Claire

    2018-01-18

    The acute inpatient setting poses potential challenges to delivering one-to-one psychological therapy; however, there is little research on the experiences of both receiving and delivering therapies in this environment. This qualitative study aimed to explore service users' and psychologists' experiences of undertaking individual therapy in acute inpatient units. It focused on the relationship between service users and psychologists, what service users found helpful or unhelpful, and how psychologists attempted to overcome any challenges in delivering therapy. The study used a qualitative, interview-based design. Eight service users and the six psychologists they worked with were recruited from four acute inpatient wards. They participated in individual semi-structured interviews eliciting their perspectives on the therapy. Service users' and psychologists' transcripts were analysed together using Braun and Clarke's (2006, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77) method of thematic analysis. The accounts highlighted the importance of forming a 'human' relationship - particularly within the context of the inpatient environment - as a basis for therapeutic work. Psychological therapy provided valued opportunities for meaning-making. To overcome the challenges of acute mental health crisis and environmental constraints, psychologists needed to work flexibly and creatively; the therapeutic work also extended to the wider context of the inpatient unit, in efforts to promote a shared understanding of service users' difficulties. Therapeutic relationships between service users and clinicians need to be promoted more broadly within acute inpatient care. Psychological formulation can help both service users and ward staff in understanding crisis and working collaboratively. Practice-based evidence is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of adapted psychological therapy models. Developing 'human' relationships at all levels of acute inpatient care continues to be an

  12. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, Jean; Epstein, Irvin; Liu, Lu; French, Paul; Boydell, Katherine M; Zipursky, Robert B

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in early detection during the prodromal phase of a psychotic disorder. To date a few treatment studies have been published with some promising results for both pharmacological treatments, using second generation antipsychotics, and psychological interventions, mainly cognitive behavioral therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine first if cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was more effective in reducing the rates of conversion compared to a supportive therapy and secondly whether those who received CBT had improved symptoms compared to those who received supportive therapy. Fifty-one individuals at clinical high risk of developing psychosis were randomized to CBT or a supportive therapy for up to 6 months. The sample was assessed at 6, 12 and 18 months post baseline on attenuated positive symptoms, negative symptoms, depression, anxiety and social functioning. Conversions to psychosis only occurred in the group who received supportive therapy although the difference was not significant. Both groups improved in attenuated positive symptoms, depression and anxiety and neither improved in social functioning and negative symptoms. There were no differences between the two treatment groups. However, the improvement in attenuated positive symptoms was more rapid for the CBT group. There are limitations of this trial and potential explanations for the lack of differences. However, both the results of this study and the possible explanations have significant implications for early detection and intervention in the pre-psychotic phase and for designing future treatments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neural correlates of the individual emotional Stroop in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Rullkoetter, Nina; Mensebach, Christoph; Beblo, Thomas; Mertens, Markus; Kreisel, Stefan; Toepper, Max; Driessen, Martin; Woermann, Friedrich G

    2009-05-01

    Emotional dysregulation is a key feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with altered inhibitory functions having suggested as being crucial. The anterior cingulate cortex and further prefrontal brain regions are crucial for response inhibition. The regulation of emotions is ensured via inhibitory control over the amygdala. The present study aimed to investigate neural correlates of response inhibition in BPD by using an emotional Stroop paradigm extending the task to word stimuli which were related to stressful life events. Twenty BPD patients and 20 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the individual emotional Stroop task. A block design was used with the following word type conditions: neutral words, general negative words, and individual negative words. The individual negative words were recruited from a prior interview conducted with each participant. While BPD patients had overall slower reaction times in the Stroop task compared to healthy controls, there was no increased slowing with emotional interference. Controls exhibited significant fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent signal increases in the anterior cingulate cortex as well as in frontal cortex contrasting generally negative vs. neutral and individual negative vs. neutral conditions, respectively. BPD patients did not show equivalent signal changes. These results provide further evidence for a dysfunctional network of brain areas in BPD, including the ACC and frontal brain regions. These areas are crucial for the regulation of stress and emotions, the core problems of BPD patients.

  14. Correlation between balance, speed, and walking ability in individuals with chronic hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Maria Jácome de Sousa Britto

    Full Text Available Abstract Alterations in balance and gait are frequently present in patients with hemiparesis. This study aimed at determining whether there is a correlation between static and functional balance, gait speed and walking capacity. To that end, 17 individuals with chronic hemiparesis of both sexes (58.8% men and 42.25 women, mean age of 56.3 ± 9.73 years, took part in the study. Static balance was assessed by computerized baropodometry, under two different sensory conditions: eyes open (EO and eyes closed (EC. Functional balance was evaluated by Berg Balance Scale and walking ability by the Functional Ambulation Classification. Gait speed was assessed by kinemetry. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to verify data distribution normality. Parametric variables were correlated by Pearson's test and their non-parametric parameters by Spearman's test. Functional balance showed a positive correlation with gait speed (p=0.005; r=0.64 and walking ability (p = 0.019; r = 0.56. Anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML alterations with EO and EC exhibited negative correlations with gait speed (EO: AP amplitude (p = 0.0049 and r = -0.48; mean ML deviation (p = 0.019 and r =-0.56/ EC: mean AP deviation (p = 0.018 and r = -0.56 and mean ML deviation (p = 0.032 and r = -0.52; AP amplitude (p = 0.014 and r = -0.57 and ML amplitude (p = 0.032 and r = -0.52; postural instability (p = 0.019 and r = -0.55 and walking ability (EO: mean AP deviation (p = 0.05 and r = -0.47 and AP amplitude (p = 0.024 and r = -0.54. The results suggest correlations between static and functional balance and gait speed and walking ability, and that balance training can be an important component of gait recovery protocols.

  15. Correlation of plasma endothelin-1 levels with pulmonary hypertension after inhaled nitric oxide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzaq, Z.; Naqvi, S.; Aslam, M.

    2009-01-01

    Variable response to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) having pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been documented in early studies. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma Endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in those patients and to correlate them with pulmonary vascular indices after iNO therapy. It was Quesi-experimental study. Methods: Thirty patients with mitral or mixed mitral and aortic valve disease with severe pulmonary hypertension and enrolled for valve replacement surgery were included. Before the replacement, baseline pulmonary vascular indices and cardiac output were recorded. After the surgery, 10 - 20 was in administered for 1 hour and all the parameters were again recorded. Patients were grouped into responders and non responders on the basis of % reduction in Pulmonary Vascular Resistance (PVR) after iNO therapy. Plasma ET-1 levels were measured in both groups by ELISA before and after the iNO therapy. Paired sample t-test was used to compare mean values for significance. The correlations between variables were then calculated by using Pearson's coefficient. Results: The plasma ET-1 levels were very high in all patients. They reduced in responders after iNO therapy; non-responders paradoxically showed significant increase in the levels of ET-1 after iNO therapy. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed in plasma ET-1 levels and post operative levels of PVR. Conclusion: The correlation of changes in PVR and plasma ET-1 levels in responders suggests that high plasma ET-1 is a key mediator of poor response in PH secondary to MS, after iNO therapy. (author)

  16. Sex-Dependent Individual Differences and the Correlational Relationship Between Proprioceptive and Verbal Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liutsko Liudmila

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between proprioceptive and verbal tests on personality in both sexes separately due to existing proprioceptive differences in fine motor behavior between men and women in our previous studies [1, 2, 3]. Material and methods. 114 middle-aged participants from Belarus completed verbal tests (personality: Eysenck's EPQ, Big Five in Hromov's Russian adaptation, and Rosenberg's Self-esteem together with Proprioceptive Diagnostics of Temperament and Character (by Tous. Complementary information, such as tests of time perception, was collected and used in correlative and ANOVA analyses with the use of SPSS v.19. Results. The relationship between proprioceptive variables in personality and individual differences, time perception and the results of verbal tests were determined for each sex subgroup and discussed. ANOVA results reflected the corresponding differences and similarities between men and women in the variables of each test. Time perception was found to be significantly correlated to all five dimensions of the Big Five Test in both sexes, and both had a significant relationship to the same variables of the DP-TC test. Conclusions. Time perception can be used as an indirect indicator of personality. Existing individual and personality differences should be taken into account in coaching and education to obtain more effective results.

  17. Social phobia in Finnish general adolescent population: prevalence, comorbidity, individual and family correlates, and service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the epidemiology of social phobia (SP) among early to middle adolescents, at the time of suggested mean onset of the disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, comorbidity, individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP among Finnish 12-17-year-old adolescents in general population. A sample of 784 adolescents was screened with the Social Phobia Inventory, and a sub-sample (n=350) was interviewed with a semi-structured clinical interview to identify SP, sub-clinical SP (SSP), and a range of other axis I DSM-IV disorders. Individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP were also inquired. We found a 12-month prevalence of 3.2% for SP, and 4.6% for SSP. The prevalence rose and the gender ratio shifted to female preponderance as age increased. SP was frequently comorbid with other anxiety disorders (41%) and depressive disorders (41%). Adolescents with SP/SSP were impaired in their academic and global functioning, and reported more parental psychiatric treatment contacts. Two thirds (68%) of adolescents with SP reported having been bullied by peers. Only one fifth of adolescents with non-comorbid SP had been in contact with a mental health professional. We conclude that adolescent SP is a relatively frequent, undertreated and highly comorbid condition, associated with educational impairment, depression and anxiety in parents, and peer victimization. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Individualized 131I-mIBG therapy in the management of refractory and relapsed neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sally L; Falzone, Nadia; Chittenden, Sarah; Kirk, Stephanie J; Lancaster, Donna; Vaidya, Sucheta J; Mandeville, Henry; Saran, Frank; Pearson, Andrew D J; Du, Yong; Meller, Simon T; Denis-Bacelar, Ana M; Flux, Glenn D

    2016-05-01

    Iodine-131-labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (I-mIBG) therapy is an established treatment modality for relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma, most frequently administered according to fixed or weight-based criteria. We evaluate response and toxicity following a dosimetry-based, individualized approach. A review of 44 treatments in 25 patients treated with I-mIBG therapy was performed. Patients received I-mIBG therapy following relapse (n=9), in refractory disease (n=12), or with surgically unresectable disease despite conventional treatment (n=4). Treatment schedule (including mIBG dose and number of administrations) was individualized according to the clinical status of the patient and dosimetry data from either a tracer study or previous administrations. Three-dimensional tumour dosimetry was also performed for eight patients. The mean administered activity was 11089±7222 MBq and the mean whole-body dose for a single administration was 1.79±0.57 Gy. Tumour-absorbed doses varied considerably (3.70±3.37 mGy/MBq). CTCAE grade 3/4 neutropenia was documented following 82% treatments and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia following 71% treatments. Further acute toxicity was found in 49% of patients. All acute toxicities resolved with appropriate therapy. The overall response rate was 58% (complete or partial response), with a further 29% of patients having stable disease. A highly personalized approach combining patient-specific dosimetry and clinical judgement enables delivery of high activities that can be tolerated by patients, particularly with stem cell support. We report excellent response rates and acceptable toxicity following individualized I-mIBG therapy.

  19. Correlations among measures of knee stiffness, gait performance and complaints in individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatis, Carol A; Wolff, Edward F; Lockard, Margery A; Michener, Lori A; Robbins, Steven J

    2013-03-01

    Stiffness is a common complaint in individuals with knee osteoarthritis and is a component of the osteoarthritis diagnosis. Yet the relationship between stiffness and function is poorly understood and methods to quantify stiffness are limited. Using a cross-sectional observational design with 66 subjects with knee osteoarthritis, stiffness and damping coefficients were calculated from a relaxed knee oscillation procedure. Gait parameters were measured using an electronic walkway. Self-reported pain, stiffness, and function were measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index. Correlation and Alexander's normalized-t approximation analyses were used to assess associations among the variables. Subset analysis was performed on subjects with and without tibiofemoral joint crepitus. Slight to moderate correlations existed between stiffness and damping coefficients and most gait parameters ((| r |=0.30-0.56; PMcMaster Osteoarthritis Index scores and all gait parameters (| r |=0.35-0.62; Pcoefficient was only slightly associated with patient-rated Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index stiffness subscale scores. Subset analysis revealed significant correlations that differed between those with and without crepitus. These findings suggest that laboratory measured stiffness and damping coefficients, Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index scores and gait-related measurements assess different aspects related to movement in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Stiffness and damping coefficients may offer the ability to explain gait changes in the knee that are independent of a person's perceptions particularly in the early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional homogeneity of the resting-state brain activity correlates with individual intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leiqiong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

    2011-01-25

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has confirmed that the strengths of the long distance functional connectivity between different brain areas are correlated with individual differences in intelligence. However, the association between the local connectivity within a specific brain region and intelligence during rest remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between local connectivity and intelligence. Fifty-nine right-handed healthy adults participated in the study. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to assess the strength of local connectivity. The associations between ReHo and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) scores were studied in a voxel-wise manner using partial correlation analysis controlling for age and sex. We found that the FSIQ scores were positively correlated with the ReHo values of the bilateral inferior parietal lobules, middle frontal, parahippocampal and inferior temporal gyri, the right thalamus, superior frontal and fusiform gyri, and the left superior parietal lobule. The main findings are consistent with the parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence, supporting the view that general intelligence involves multiple brain regions throughout the brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between interpersonal problems, therapeutic alliance, and outcomes following group and individual cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Peter M; Burgess, Melissa M; Nathan, Paula

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is efficacious, but there remains individual variability in outcomes. Patient's interpersonal problems may affect treatment outcomes, either directly or through a relationship mediated by helping alliance. Interpersonal problems may affect alliance and outcomes differentially in individual and group (CBGT) treatments. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between interpersonal problems, alliance, dropout and outcomes for a clinical sample receiving either individual or group CBT for anxiety or depression in a community clinic. Patients receiving individual CBT (N=84) or CBGT (N=115) completed measures of interpersonal problems, alliance, and disorder specific symptoms at the commencement and completion of CBT. In CBGT higher pre-treatment interpersonal problems were associated with increased risk of dropout and poorer outcomes. This relationship was not mediated by alliance. In individual CBT those who reported higher alliance were more likely to complete treatment, although alliance was not associated with symptom change, and interpersonal problems were not related to attrition or outcome. Allocation to group and individual therapy was non-random, so selection bias may have influenced these results. Some analyses were only powered to detect large effects. Helping alliance ratings were high, so range restriction may have obscured the relationship between helping alliance, attrition and outcomes. Pre-treatment interpersonal problems increase risk of dropout and predict poorer outcomes in CBGT, but not in individual CBT, and this relationship is not mediated by helping alliance. Stronger alliance is associated with treatment completion in individual, but not group CBT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Can We Predict Individual Combined Benefit and Harm of Therapy? Warfarin Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation as a Test Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Li

    Full Text Available To construct and validate a prediction model for individual combined benefit and harm outcomes (stroke with no major bleeding, major bleeding with no stroke, neither event, or both in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF with and without warfarin therapy.Using the Kaiser Permanente Colorado databases, we included patients newly diagnosed with AF between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012 for model construction and validation. The primary outcome was a prediction model of composite of stroke or major bleeding using polytomous logistic regression (PLR modelling. The secondary outcome was a prediction model of all-cause mortality using the Cox regression modelling.We included 9074 patients with 4537 and 4537 warfarin users and non-users, respectively. In the derivation cohort (n = 4632, there were 136 strokes (2.94%, 280 major bleedings (6.04% and 1194 deaths (25.78% occurred. In the prediction models, warfarin use was not significantly associated with risk of stroke, but increased the risk of major bleeding and decreased the risk of death. Both the PLR and Cox models were robust, internally and externally validated, and with acceptable model performances.In this study, we introduce a new methodology for predicting individual combined benefit and harm outcomes associated with warfarin therapy for patients with AF. Should this approach be validated in other patient populations, it has potential advantages over existing risk stratification approaches as a patient-physician aid for shared decision-making.

  3. Intra-operative mapping of the atria: the first step towards individualization of atrial fibrillation therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Charles; Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), an age-related progressive disease, is becoming a worldwide epidemic with a prevalence rate of 33 million. Areas covered: In this expert review, an overview of important results obtained from previous intra-operative mapping studies is provided. In addition, our novel intra-operative high resolution mapping studies, its surgical considerations and data analyses are discussed. Furthermore, the importance of high resolution mapping studies of both sinus rhythm and AF for the development of future AF therapy is underlined by our most recent results. Expert commentary: Progression of AF is determined by the extensiveness of electropathology which is defined as conduction disorders caused by structural damage of atrial tissue. The severity of electropathology is a major determinant of therapy failure. At present, we do not have any diagnostic tool to determine the degree of electropathology in the individual patient and we can thus not select the most optimal treatment modality for the individual patient. An intra-operative, high resolution scale, epicardial mapping approach combined with quantification of electrical parameters may serve as a diagnostic tool to stage AF in the individual patient and to provide patient tailored therapy.

  4. [Individual therapy goals: on outcome documentation of inpatient psychotherapy from the patient and therapist viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuft, G; Senf, W; Wagener, R; Pintelon, C; Lorenzen, J

    1996-01-01

    The results of a study evaluation in practicability of two newly developed documentation forms are presented. Examined are 82 inpatient treatment episodes in an already published clinical concept with different treatment settings. Parallel versions of the forms were completed by patients and therapists. The 'Erge-Doku-A-Form' allows for the naming of up to five therapy goals determined at the beginning of therapy and evaluated in relation to their achieved quality at the end of therapy. The 'Erge-Doku-B-Form' describes a variety of problem areas as well as questions related to medication and changes induced by therapy. Surprising there were a high number of 230 Individual Therapy Goals (ITG) by patients and 262 ITG by therapists which could be arranged into 89 content categories and 5 main categories. Outcome measurement shows different results. There was a significant relationship between the 'well-being', the impression of 'satisfying treatment' at the end of the inpatient period and 'success in the main ITG'. The documentation forms presented here allow an outcome-measurement depending on differential indications.

  5. Whole body vibration versus magnetic therapy on bone mineral density in elderly osteoporotic individuals.

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    Shanb, Alsayed Abdelhameed; Youssef, Enas Fawzy; Muaidi, Qassim Ibrahim; Alothman, Abdullah Ahmed

    2017-08-03

    Osteoporosis usually develops gradually and progresses without significant signs and symptoms. It is one of the most common musculoskeletal conditions associated with aging. To evaluate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) or magnetic therapy in addition to standard pharmacological treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly individuals being treated for osteoporosis. Eighty-five participants, 60-75 years of age, were randomly divided into three groups. All three groups received the same standard pharmacological treatment comprised of vitamin D, calcium, and alendronate sodium. In Group I, thirty participants were also exposed to WBV for 25 minutes in each session with two sessions per week for 4 months. In Group II, thirty participants were exposed to magnetic therapy for 50 minutes in each session with two sessions per week for 4 months. In Group III, twenty-five participants received only pharmacological treatment. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral heads before and after interventions. Venus blood sample was drawn for analysis of calcium and vitamin D. An ANOVA test detected significant (pmagnetic therapy. Statistical t-tests detected significant (pmagnetic therapy in combination with pharmacological treatment, but no significant increase after pharmacological treatment alone. Addition of either WBV or magnetic therapy to standard pharmacological treatment for osteoporosis significantly increased BMD in elderly subjects. No significant difference in effectiveness was detected between these two alternative therapy modalities. Consequently, either WBV or magnetic therapy could be effectively applied in conjunction with pharmacological treatment to increase BMD in elderly osteoporotic patients.

  6. The effects of aquatic therapy on mobility of individuals with neurological diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho-Buzelli, Andresa R; Bonnyman, Alison M; Verrier, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    To summarize evidence on the effects of aquatic therapy on mobility in individuals with neurological diseases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CENTRAL, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, PsycBITE and OT Seeker were searched from inception to 15 September 2014. Hand-searching of reference lists was performed in the selected studies. The search included randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies that investigated the use of aquatic therapy and its effect on mobility of adults with neurological diseases. One reviewer screened titles and abstracts of retrieved studies from the search strategy. Two reviewers independently examined the full texts and conducted the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. A narrative synthesis of data was applied to summarize information from included studies. The Downs and Black Scale was used to assess methodological quality. A total of 116 articles were obtained for full text eligibility. Twenty studies met the specified inclusion criteria: four Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), four non-randomized studies and 12 before-and-after tests. Two RCTs (30 patients with stroke in the aquatic therapy groups), three non-randomized studies and three before-and-after studies showed "fair" evidence that aquatic therapy increases dynamic balance in participants with some neurological disorders. One RCT (seven patients with stroke in the aquatic therapy group) and two before-and-after tests (20 patients with multiple sclerosis) demonstrated "fair" evidence on improvement of gait speed after aquatic therapy. Our synthesis showed "fair" evidence supporting the use of aquatic therapy to improve dynamic balance and gait speed in adults with certain neurological conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Estimation of uncertainty bounds for individual particle image velocimetry measurements from cross-correlation peak ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charonko, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have established firmly that particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a robust method for non-invasive, quantitative measurements of fluid velocity, and that when carefully conducted, typical measurements can accurately detect displacements in digital images with a resolution well below a single pixel (in some cases well below a hundredth of a pixel). However, to date, these estimates have only been able to provide guidance on the expected error for an average measurement under specific image quality and flow conditions. This paper demonstrates a new method for estimating the uncertainty bounds to within a given confidence interval for a specific, individual measurement. Here, cross-correlation peak ratio, the ratio of primary to secondary peak height, is shown to correlate strongly with the range of observed error values for a given measurement, regardless of flow condition or image quality. This relationship is significantly stronger for phase-only generalized cross-correlation PIV processing, while the standard correlation approach showed weaker performance. Using an analytical model of the relationship derived from synthetic data sets, the uncertainty bounds at a 95% confidence interval are then computed for several artificial and experimental flow fields, and the resulting errors are shown to match closely to the predicted uncertainties. While this method stops short of being able to predict the true error for a given measurement, knowledge of the uncertainty level for a PIV experiment should provide great benefits when applying the results of PIV analysis to engineering design studies and computational fluid dynamics validation efforts. Moreover, this approach is exceptionally simple to implement and requires negligible additional computational cost. (paper)

  8. Metabolic syndrome among individuals with heroin use disorders on methadone therapy: Prevalence, characteristics, and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillo, Gabriel; Robles, María José; Torrens, Marta; Samos, Pilar; Roquer, Albert; Martires, Paula K; Sanvisens, Arantza; Muga, Roberto; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2018-01-02

    Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in subjects on methadone therapy; there are, however, limited data about metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. A cross-sectional study in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy at a drug abuse outpatient center. Medical examinations and laboratory analyses after a 12-hour overnight fast were recorded. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. One hundred and twenty-two subjects were included, with a mean age of 46.1 ± 9 years, a median body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m 2 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21.2-28), and 77.9% were men. Median exposure to methadone therapy was 13 years (IQR: 5-20). Overweight and obesity were present in 29.5% and 17.2% of the participants, respectively. Metabolic syndrome components were low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (51.6%), hypertriglyceridemia (36.8%), high blood pressure (36.8%), abdominal obesity (27.0%), and raised blood glucose levels (18.0%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent in women (52% vs. 20%, P = >0.01) and high blood pressure more prevalent in men (41.1% vs. 22.2%, P = .07). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6-31.8). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (per 1 kg/m 2 increase odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.27-1.76) and exposure time to methadone therapy (per 5 years of treatment increase OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.28-1.48) were associated with metabolic syndrome. Overweight and metabolic syndrome are prevalent findings in individuals with heroin use disorder on methadone therapy. Of specific concern is the association of methadone exposure with metabolic syndrome. Preventive measures and clinical routine screening should be

  9. Using Videoconferencing to Deliver Individual Therapy and Pediatric Psychology Interventions with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eve-Lynn; Patton, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Because of the widening access gap between need for individual and pediatric psychology services and child specialist availability, secure videoconferencing options are more needed than ever to address access challenges across underserved settings. The authors summarize real-time videoconferencing evidence to date across individual therapy with children and pediatric psychology interventions using videoconferencing. The authors summarize emerging guidelines that inform best practices for individual child therapy over videoconferencing. The authors present three case examples to illustrate best practices. The first behavioral pediatrics case summarizes evidence-based approaches in treating a rural young adolescent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and hearing impairment. The second pediatric psychology case describes similarities and difference between on-site and videoconferencing services in treating a rural child with toileting concerns. The third adolescent case describes treatment of an urban honors student with depression. Videoconferencing is an effective approach to improving access to individual and pediatric psychology interventions for children and adolescents. Videoconferencing approaches are well accepted by families and show promise for disseminating evidence-based treatments to underserved communities.

  10. Human Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to the Number of CD4+ T-Cells and Is Restored by Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

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    Luciana Morganti Ferreira Maselli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity is suggested to be altered in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1. We investigated PON1 activity in individuals receiving different regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Methods. PON1 activity was evaluated in 91 HIV-1 seronegative and 624 HIV-1 infected individuals (115 were not undergoing therapy (ART-naïve, and 509 were receiving HAART. HIV-1 infected individuals were treated with the following: efavirenz (EFV; n=195 or nevirapine (NVP; n=95 or lopinavir/ritonavir (LOP/r; n=219. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL fractions and the atherogenic indices (AI, TC : HDL, and LDL : HDL ratios were determined. Results. PON1 activity (U/L was lower in the ART-naïve group compared with the other groups. PON1 activity correlated with CD4+ T-cell number of ART-naïve group (r=0,121; P=0,014. The LOP/r group showed a reduction in HDL and an increase in AI (TC : HDL ratio in comparison with other groups. Conclusion. PON1 activity was reduced in untreated individuals, but not in individuals receiving HAART. PON1 activity correlated with the number of CD4+ T-cells. The findings suggest that the activity of PON1 is associated with the immune status of HIV-1 infected individuals.

  11. Sleep recordings in individuals with borderline personality disorder before and after trauma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, Sara Lena; Göder, Robert; Pabst, Astrid; Scharff, Anna-Lena; Schauer, Maggie; Baier, Paul Christian; Aldenhoff, Josef; Elbert, Thomas; Seeck-Hirschner, Mareen

    2017-02-01

    Most individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have been exposed to severe and traumatic stressors and thus frequently present with symptoms of a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Severe sleep disturbances often accompany these complex cases, but changes of sleep parameters during therapy and the impact of sleep on treatment response have barely been studied. Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) is an evidence-based approach for the treatment of trauma-related psychological disorders. To investigate the effect of NET on sleep in patients with BPD and comorbid PTSD, we screened 45 inpatients and outpatients who met the inclusion criteria of both diagnoses according to DSM-IV and who had a minimum of 2 weeks' stable medication. Patients were allocated to NET (N = 13) or treatment as usual (TAU; N = 8) in blocks. Polysomnographies and psychological questionares were performed before, directly and 6 months after the last therapy session. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effectiveness of trauma therapy by NET on sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep continuity (sleep efficiency and awakenings) in patients with comorbid BPD and PTSD. Participants of the NET group compared with those who received TAU showed an increased reduction in sleep latency from baseline to the end of therapy and a reduction in arousals over time. Patients with longer pre-treatment total sleep time and pre-treatment REM sleep duration showed a better outcome of NET with respect to PTSD symptoms. NET seems not lead to a change in sleep for the worse during therapy and seems to improve sleep as good as treatment as usual. Furthermore, our results provide evidence of an influence of sleep structure at baseline on treatment success later on.

  12. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

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    Valentina A. Andreeva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women, and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men, age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women. The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol was positively associated with BMI (men and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men, and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts.

  13. Who Believes in the Giant Skeleton Myth? An Examination of Individual Difference Correlates

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    Viren Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined individual difference correlates of belief in a narrative about the discovery of giant skeletal remains that contravenes mainstream scientific explanations. A total of 364 participants from Central Europe completed a survey that asked them to rate their agreement with a short excerpt describing the giant skeleton myth. Participants also completed measures of the Big Five personality factors, New Age orientation, anti-scientific attitudes, superstitious beliefs, and religiosity. Results showed that women, as compared with men, and respondents with lower educational qualifications were significantly more likely to believe in the giant skeleton myth, although effect sizes were small. Correlational analysis showed that stronger belief in the giant skeleton myth was significantly associated with greater anti-scientific attitudes, stronger New Age orientation, greater religiosity, stronger superstitious beliefs, lower Openness to Experience scores, and higher Neuroticism scores. However, a multiple regression showed that the only significant predictors of belief in myth were Openness, New Age orientation, and anti-scientific attitudes. These results are discussed in relation to the potential negative consequences of belief in myths.

  14. Personalized prediction of lifetime benefits with statin therapy for asymptomatic individuals: a modeling study.

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    Bart S Ferket

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physicians need to inform asymptomatic individuals about personalized outcomes of statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, current prediction models focus on short-term outcomes and ignore the competing risk of death due to other causes. We aimed to predict the potential lifetime benefits with statin therapy, taking into account competing risks. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A microsimulation model based on 5-y follow-up data from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort of individuals aged 55 y and older living in the Ommoord district of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, was used to estimate lifetime outcomes with and without statin therapy. The model was validated in-sample using 10-y follow-up data. We used baseline variables and model output to construct (1 a web-based calculator for gains in total and CVD-free life expectancy and (2 color charts for comparing these gains to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE charts. In 2,428 participants (mean age 67.7 y, 35.5% men, statin therapy increased total life expectancy by 0.3 y (SD 0.2 and CVD-free life expectancy by 0.7 y (SD 0.4. Age, sex, smoking, blood pressure, hypertension, lipids, diabetes, glucose, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and creatinine were included in the calculator. Gains in total and CVD-free life expectancy increased with blood pressure, unfavorable lipid levels, and body mass index after multivariable adjustment. Gains decreased considerably with advancing age, while SCORE 10-y CVD mortality risk increased with age. Twenty-five percent of participants with a low SCORE risk achieved equal or larger gains in CVD-free life expectancy than the median gain in participants with a high SCORE risk. CONCLUSIONS: We developed tools to predict personalized increases in total and CVD-free life expectancy with statin therapy. The predicted gains we found are small. If the underlying model is validated in an independent cohort, the

  15. Individual differences in circadian locomotor parameters correlate with anxiety- and depression-like behavior.

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    Jeffrey Anyan

    Full Text Available Disrupted circadian rhythms are a core feature of mood and anxiety disorders. Circadian rhythms are coordinated by a light-entrainable master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Animal models of mood and anxiety disorders often exhibit blunted rhythms in locomotor activity and clock gene expression. Interestingly, the changes in circadian rhythms correlate with mood-related behaviours. Although animal models of depression and anxiety exhibit aberrant circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior, it is possible that the methodology being used to induce the behavioral phenotype (e.g., brain lesions, chronic stress, global gene deletion affect behavior independently of circadian system. This study investigates the relationship between individual differences in circadian locomotor parameters and mood-related behaviors in healthy rats. The circadian phenotype of male Lewis rats was characterized by analyzing wheel running behavior under standard 12h:12h LD conditions, constant dark, constant light, and rate of re-entrainment to a phase advance. Rats were then tested on a battery of behavioral tests: activity box, restricted feeding, elevated plus maze, forced swim test, and fear conditioning. Under 12h:12h LD conditions, percent of daily activity in the light phase and variability in activity onset were associated with longer latency to immobility in the forced swim test. Variability in onset also correlated positively with anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Rate of re-entrainment correlated positively with measures of anxiety in the activity box and elevated plus maze. Lastly, we found that free running period under constant dark was associated with anxiety-like behaviors in the activity box and elevated plus maze. Our results provide a previously uncharacterized relationship between circadian locomotor parameters and mood-related behaviors in healthy rats and provide a basis for future examination into circadian clock

  16. Climate Change Risk Perception in Taiwan: Correlation with Individual and Societal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Han, Ziqiang

    2018-01-08

    This study differentiates the risk perception and influencing factors of climate change along the dimensions of global severity and personal threat. Using the 2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSGS) data (N = 2001) as a representative sample of adults from Taiwan, we investigated the influencing factors of the risk perceptions of climate change in these two dimensions (global severity and personal threat). Logistic regression models were used to examine the correlations of individual factors (gender, age, education, climate-related disaster experience and risk awareness, marital status, employment status, household income, and perceived social status) and societal factors (religion, organizational embeddedness, and political affiliations) with the above two dimensions. The results demonstrate that climate-related disaster experience has no significant impact on either the perception of global severity or the perception of personal impact. However, climate-related risk awareness (regarding typhoons, in particular) is positively associated with both dimensions of the perceived risks of climate change. With higher education, individuals are more concerned about global severity than personal threat. Regarding societal factors, the supporters of political parties have higher risk perceptions of climate change than people who have no party affiliation. Religious believers have higher risk perceptions of personal threat than non-religious people. This paper ends with a discussion about the effectiveness of efforts to enhance risk perception of climate change with regard to global severity and personal threat.

  17. Navigational efficiency in a biased and correlated random walk model of individual animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph D; Wallis, Jamie; Codling, Edward A

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how an individual animal is able to navigate through its environment is a key question in movement ecology that can give insight into observed movement patterns and the mechanisms behind them. Efficiency of navigation is important for behavioral processes at a range of different spatio-temporal scales, including foraging and migration. Random walk models provide a standard framework for modeling individual animal movement and navigation. Here we consider a vector-weighted biased and correlated random walk (BCRW) model for directed movement (taxis), where external navigation cues are balanced with forward persistence. We derive a mathematical approximation of the expected navigational efficiency for any BCRW of this form and confirm the model predictions using simulations. We demonstrate how the navigational efficiency is related to the weighting given to forward persistence and external navigation cues, and highlight the counter-intuitive result that for low (but realistic) levels of error on forward persistence, a higher navigational efficiency is achieved by giving more weighting to this indirect navigation cue rather than direct navigational cues. We discuss and interpret the relevance of these results for understanding animal movement and navigation strategies. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Does an individual estimation of halflife improve the results of radioiodine therapy of Graves' disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Koerber, C.; Koerber-Hafner, N.; Haenscheid, H.; Reiners, Chr.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The impact of our dosimetry concept on radioiodine therapy success in Graves' disease (GD) was analysed. Three questions arised: Did individual estimation of pretherapeutic halflife improve therapeutic success? Did individual dosimetry result in accurate dose calculation? Did antithyroid medication have a measurable influence on therapeutic success under the prevailing conditions? Methods: 126 consecutive patients were treated with 200 Gy I-131 in our therapy ward for GD and followed-up six to nine months after therapy. Success quote was assessed using a standardized protocol and treatment was classified as successful when the patients was eu- or hypothyroid, or unsuccessful when he or she presented with a suppressed TSH-level or in hyperthyroid condition after antithyroid medication withdrawal. Antithyroid medication, activity I-131, dose, concentration of fT 3 and fT 4 , specific delivered dose and halflife were put into a multiple regression model to assess their influence on therapeutic success. In order to assess possible factors disturbing the therapeutic outcome, relevant parameters were analyzed using Logit transformation. Results: Out of 126 patients 84 were classified as successfully treated and 42 (33,3%) as failures. A significant influence on the outcome only was found for thyroid mass. However, therapeutic success appeared to be more distinctly determined by the specific delivered dose using an estimated halflife of 5.5 days (Odds: 10.0, p [de

  19. Individual Correlates of Podoconiosis in Areas of Varying Endemicity: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Yordanos B.; Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Wardrop, Nicola; Baxter, Peter; Atkinson, Peter M.; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is a non-filarial form of elephantiasis resulting in lymphedema of the lower legs. Previous studies have suggested that podoconiosis arises from the interplay of individual and environmental factors. Here, our aim was to understand the individual-level correlates of podoconiosis by comparing 460 podoconiosis-affected individuals and 707 unaffected controls. Methods/principal findings This was a case-control study carried out in six kebeles (the lowest governmental administrative unit) in northern Ethiopia. Each kebele was classified into one of three endemicity levels: ‘low’ (prevalence 5%). A total of 142 (30.7%) households had two or more cases of podoconiosis. Compared to controls, the majority of the cases, especially women, were less educated (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.2), were unmarried (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.6–4.6) and had lower income (t = −4.4, p<0.0001). On average, cases started wearing shoes ten years later than controls. Among cases, age of first wearing shoes was positively correlated with age of onset of podoconiosis (r = 0.6, t = 12.5, p<0.0001). Among all study participants average duration of shoe wearing was less than 30 years. Between both cases and controls, people in ‘high’ and ‘medium’ endemicity kebeles were less likely than people in ‘low’ endemicity areas to ‘ever’ have owned shoes (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4–0.7). Conclusions Late use of shoes, usually after the onset of podoconiosis, and inequalities in education, income and marriage were found among cases, particularly among females. There were clustering of cases within households, thus interventions against podoconiosis will benefit from household-targeted case tracing. Most importantly, we identified a secular increase in shoe-wearing over recent years, which may give opportunities to promote shoe-wearing without increasing stigma among those at high risk of podoconiosis. PMID:24340109

  20. Individual correlates of podoconiosis in areas of varying endemicity: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial form of elephantiasis resulting in lymphedema of the lower legs. Previous studies have suggested that podoconiosis arises from the interplay of individual and environmental factors. Here, our aim was to understand the individual-level correlates of podoconiosis by comparing 460 podoconiosis-affected individuals and 707 unaffected controls.This was a case-control study carried out in six kebeles (the lowest governmental administrative unit in northern Ethiopia. Each kebele was classified into one of three endemicity levels: 'low' (prevalence 5%. A total of 142 (30.7% households had two or more cases of podoconiosis. Compared to controls, the majority of the cases, especially women, were less educated (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.2, were unmarried (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.6-4.6 and had lower income (t = -4.4, p<0.0001. On average, cases started wearing shoes ten years later than controls. Among cases, age of first wearing shoes was positively correlated with age of onset of podoconiosis (r = 0.6, t = 12.5, p<0.0001. Among all study participants average duration of shoe wearing was less than 30 years. Between both cases and controls, people in 'high' and 'medium' endemicity kebeles were less likely than people in 'low' endemicity areas to 'ever' have owned shoes (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.7.Late use of shoes, usually after the onset of podoconiosis, and inequalities in education, income and marriage were found among cases, particularly among females. There were clustering of cases within households, thus interventions against podoconiosis will benefit from household-targeted case tracing. Most importantly, we identified a secular increase in shoe-wearing over recent years, which may give opportunities to promote shoe-wearing without increasing stigma among those at high risk of podoconiosis.

  1. Patterns and correlates of cannabis use among individuals with HIV/AIDS in Maritime Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gregory E; Dupuis, Lise; Mugford, Gerald J; Johnston, Lynn; Haase, David; Page, Ginny; Haldane, Heather; Harris, Nicholas; Midodzi, William K; Dow, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cannabis use in HIV-infected individuals is high and its long-term effects are unclear. METHODS: The prevalence, perceived benefits and consequences, and predictors of cannabis use were studied using a cross-sectional survey in two immunodeficiency clinics in Maritime Canada. RESULTS: Current cannabis use was identified in 38.5% (87 of 226) of participants. Almost all cannabis users (85 of 87 [97.7%]) acknowledged its use for recreational purposes, with 21.8% (19 of 87) reporting medicinal cannabis use. The majority of patients enrolled in the present study reported mild or no symptoms related to HIV (n=179). Overall, 80.5% (70 of 87) of the cannabis-using participants reported a symptom-relieving benefit, mostly for relief of stress, anorexia or pain. Participants consumed a mean (± SD) of 18.3±21.1 g of cannabis per month and spent an average of $105.15±109.87 on cannabis per month. Cannabis use was associated with rural residence, lower income level, driving under the influence of a substance, and consumption of ecstasy and tobacco. Income level, ecstasy use and tobacco use were retained as significant predictors in regression modelling. Cannabis use was not associated with adverse psychological outcomes. DISCUSSION: Prolonged previous cannabis consumption and the substantial overlap between recreational and medicinal cannabis use highlight the challenges in obtaining a tenable definition of medicinal cannabis therapy. PMID:24634690

  2. The Experience of Couples in the Process of Treatment of Pathological Gambling: Couple vs. Individual Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Joël; Dufour, Magali; Bertrand, Karine; Blanchette-Martin, Nadine; Ferland, Francine; Savard, Annie-Claude; Saint-Jacques, Marianne; Côté, Mélissa

    2018-01-01

    Context: Couple treatment for pathological gambling is an innovative strategy. There are some results supporting its potential effectiveness, but little is known about the subjective experiences of the participants. Objective: The aim of this article is to document the experiences of gamblers and their partners participating in one of two treatments, namely individual or couple. Method: In a study aiming to evaluate the efficacy of the Integrative Couple Treatment for Pathological Gambling (ICT-PG), couples who were entering specialized treatment for the addiction of one member who was a pathological gambler were randomly assigned to individual or ICT-PG. Nine months after their admission to treatment, gamblers and partners (n = 21 couples; n = 13 ICT-PG; n = 8 individual treatment) were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. A sequenced thematization method was used to extract the major themes. Results: This study highlighted five major themes in the therapeutic process noted by the gamblers and their partners mainly after the couple treatment but also partly through the individual therapy. These were: (1) the gamblers' anxiety about having to reveal their gambling problems in couple therapy; (2) the wish to develop a mutually beneficial understanding of gambling and its effects on the partners in the two types of treatments; (3) the transformation of negative attributions through a more effective intra-couple communication fostered by the couple therapy; (4) the partners' contribution to changes in gambling behavior and prevention of relapses, which were both better supported in couple therapy; and (5) the interpersonal nature of gambling and its connections with the couples' relationship. However, gamblers who were in individual treatment were more likely to mention that their partners' involvement was not necessary. Participants likewise made a few recommendations about the conditions underlying the choice of one treatment method or the other. Discussion

  3. The Experience of Couples in the Process of Treatment of Pathological Gambling: Couple vs. Individual Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Tremblay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Couple treatment for pathological gambling is an innovative strategy. There are some results supporting its potential effectiveness, but little is known about the subjective experiences of the participants.Objective: The aim of this article is to document the experiences of gamblers and their partners participating in one of two treatments, namely individual or couple.Method: In a study aiming to evaluate the efficacy of the Integrative Couple Treatment for Pathological Gambling (ICT-PG, couples who were entering specialized treatment for the addiction of one member who was a pathological gambler were randomly assigned to individual or ICT-PG. Nine months after their admission to treatment, gamblers and partners (n = 21 couples; n = 13 ICT-PG; n = 8 individual treatment were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. A sequenced thematization method was used to extract the major themes.Results: This study highlighted five major themes in the therapeutic process noted by the gamblers and their partners mainly after the couple treatment but also partly through the individual therapy. These were: (1 the gamblers' anxiety about having to reveal their gambling problems in couple therapy; (2 the wish to develop a mutually beneficial understanding of gambling and its effects on the partners in the two types of treatments; (3 the transformation of negative attributions through a more effective intra-couple communication fostered by the couple therapy; (4 the partners' contribution to changes in gambling behavior and prevention of relapses, which were both better supported in couple therapy; and (5 the interpersonal nature of gambling and its connections with the couples' relationship. However, gamblers who were in individual treatment were more likely to mention that their partners' involvement was not necessary. Participants likewise made a few recommendations about the conditions underlying the choice of one treatment method or the other

  4. Molecular Diagnostics of Copper-Transporting Protein Mutations Allows Early Onset Individual Therapy of Menkes Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králík, L; Flachsová, E; Hansíková, H; Saudek, V; Zeman, J; Martásek, P

    2017-01-01

    Menkes disease is a severe X-linked recessive disorder caused by a defect in the ATP7A gene, which encodes a membrane copper-transporting ATPase. Deficient activity of the ATP7A protein results in decreased intestinal absorption of copper, low copper level in serum and defective distribution of copper in tissues. The clinical symptoms are caused by decreased activities of copper-dependent enzymes and include neurodegeneration, connective tissue disorders, arterial changes and hair abnormalities. Without therapy, the disease is fatal in early infancy. Rapid diagnosis of Menkes disease and early start of copper therapy is critical for the effectiveness of treatment. We report a molecular biology-based strategy that allows early diagnosis of copper transport defects and implementation of individual therapies before the full development of pathological symptoms. Low serum copper and decreased activity of copperdependent mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase in isolated platelets found in three patients indicated a possibility of functional defects in copper-transporting proteins, especially in the ATPA7 protein, a copper- transporting P-type ATPase. Rapid mutational screening of the ATP7A gene using high-resolution melting analysis of DNA indicated presence of mutations in the patients. Molecular investigation for mutations in the ATP7A gene revealed three nonsense mutations: c.2170C>T (p.Gln724Ter); c.3745G>T (p.Glu1249Ter); and c.3862C>T (p.Gln1288Ter). The mutation c.3745G>T (p.Glu1249Ter) has not been identified previously. Molecular analysis of the ATOX1 gene as a possible modulating factor of Menkes disease did not reveal presence of pathogenic mutations. Molecular diagnostics allowed early onset of individual therapies, adequate genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis in the affected families.

  5. Audiological and electrophysiological alterations in HIV-infected individuals subjected or not to antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluisio

    2017-08-02

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and infections related to it can affect multiple sites in the hearing system. The use of High-Activity Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) can cause side effects such as ototoxicity. Thus, no consistent patterns of hearing impairment in adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome have been established, and the problems that affect the hearing system of this population warrant further research. This study aimed to compare the audiological and electrophysiological data of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive patients with and without Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, who were receiving High-Activity Anti-Retroviral Therapy, to healthy individuals. It was a cross-sectional study conducted with 71 subjects (30-48 years old), divided into groups: Research Group I: 16 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive individuals without Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (not receiving antiretroviral treatment); Research Group II: 25 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive individuals with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (receiving antiretroviral treatment); Control Group: 30 healthy subjects. All individuals were tested by pure-tone air conduction thresholds at 0.25-8kHz, extended high frequencies at 9-20kHz, electrophysiological tests (Auditory Brainstem Response - ABR, Middle Latency Responses - MLR, Cognitive Potential - P300). Research Group I and Research Group II had higher hearing thresholds in both conventional and high frequency audiometry when compared to the control group, prolonged latency of waves I, III, V and interpeak I-V in Auditory Brainstem Response and prolonged latency of P300 Cognitive Potential. Regarding Middle Latency Responses, there was a decrease in the amplitude of the Pa wave of Research Group II compared to the Research Group I. Both groups with Human Immunodeficiency Virus had higher hearing thresholds when compared to healthy individuals (group exposed to antiretroviral

  6. Alexithymia level and response to computer-based training in cognitive behavioral therapy among cocaine-dependent methadone maintained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morie, Kristen P; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen; Potenza, Marc N; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2015-07-01

    Alexithymia, a characteristic marked by poor ability to identify, define and communicate emotions, has been associated with poorer treatment outcome, including traditional clinician delivered CBT. Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT), an effective adjunct to treatment, may provide a means of conveying skills without requiring interaction with a clinician. Seventy-three methadone maintained, cocaine dependent individuals participating in an 8-week randomized clinical trial comparing standard methadone maintenance to methadone maintenance plus CBT4CBT completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) at pretreatment, post-treatment, and follow-ups conducted one, two, and 6 months after treatment. There were no statistically significant differences on baseline TAS-20 scores by multiple demographic and substance use variables including gender and substance use severity. Higher TAS-20 scores were associated with somewhat higher levels of distress as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and multiple Brief Severity Index scales. TAS-20 scores remained relatively stable throughout the duration of treatment and follow-up. Indicators of treatment process, including treatment retention, adherence and therapeutic alliance, were not significantly correlated with TAS-20 scores. There was a significant interaction of alexithymia and treatment condition, such that individuals with higher baseline scores on the TAS-20 submitted significantly higher percentages of cocaine-negative urine toxicology specimens and reported a higher percentage of abstinence days, and longer periods of consecutive abstinence within treatment when assigned to CBT4CBT compared with treatment as usual. These findings suggest that individuals with increased alexithymia may benefit from computerized CBT; possibly via reduced demands on interpersonal skills and interactions associated with computerized therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing long familiar songs in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit. My...... hypotheses are …  … that singing has an influence on persons with dementia, and that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics.  … that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system of communicative...

  8. Correlates of admitted sexual interest in children among individuals convicted of child pornography offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2017-06-01

    Recent research on a risk assessment tool for child pornography offending suggests that admission of sexual interest in children is a risk factor for any sexual recidivism. Admission is easily vulnerable to lying, however, or to refusals to respond when asked about sexual interests. This may become a particular issue when individuals are concerned about the potential impact of admission of sexual interest on sentencing and other risk-related decisions. In this study, we identified the following behavioral correlates (coded yes/no) of admission of sexual interest in children in the risk tool development sample of 286 men convicted of child pornography offenses: (a) never married (54% of sample), (b) child pornography content included child sexual abuse videos (64%), (c) child pornography content included sex stories involving children (31%), (d) evidence of interest in child pornography spanned 2 or more years (55%), (e) volunteered in a role with high access to children (7%), and (f) engaged in online sexual communication with a minor or officer posing as a minor (10%). When summed, the average score on this Correlates of Admission of Sexual Interest in Children (CASIC) measure was 2.21 (SD = 1.22, range 0-6) out of a possible 6, and the CASIC score was significantly associated with admission of sexual interest in children, area under the curve (AUC) = .71, 95% CI [ .65, .77]. The CASIC had a stronger relationship with admission in a small cross-validation sample of 60 child pornography offenders, AUC = .81, 95% CI [.68, .95]. CASIC scores may substitute for admission of sexual interest in risk assessment involving those with child pornography offenses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Neural correlates of emotional distractibility in bipolar disorder patients, unaffected relatives, and individuals with hypomanic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Heissler, Janine; Schönfelder, Sandra; Forneck, Johanna; Wessa, Michèle

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological deficits and emotion dysregulation are present in symptomatic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. However, there is little evidence on how cognitive functioning is influenced by emotion, what the neural correlates of emotional distraction effects are, and whether such deficits are a consequence or a precursor of the disorder. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate these questions. fMRI was used first to localize the neural network specific to a certain cognitive task (mental arithmetic) and then to test the effect of emotional distractors on this network. Euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (N=22), two populations at high risk for developing the disorder (unaffected first-degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder [N=17]), and healthy participants with hypomanic personality traits [N=22]) were tested, along with three age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy comparison groups (N=22, N=17, N=24, respectively). There were no differences in performance or activation in the task network for mental arithmetic. However, while all participants exhibited slower responses when emotional distractors were present, this response slowing was greatly enlarged in bipolar patients. Similarly, task-related activation was generally increased under emotional distraction; however, bipolar patients exhibited a further increase in right parietal activation that correlated positively with the response slowing effect. The results suggest that emotional dysregulation leads to exacerbated neuropsychological deficits in bipolar patients, as evidenced by behavioral slowing and task-related hyperactivation. The lack of such a deficit in high-risk populations suggests that it occurs only after disease onset, rather than representing a vulnerability marker.

  10. Individual psychological therapy in the outpatient treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa J; Claudino, Angélica M; Touyz, Stephen; Abd Elbaky, Ghada

    2015-07-27

    Anorexia nervosa is a disorder with high morbidity and significant mortality. It is most common in young adult women, in whom the incidence may be increasing. The focus of treatment has moved to an outpatient setting, and a number of differing psychological therapies are presently used in treatment. This is an update of a Cochrane review which was last published in 2008. To assess the effects of specific individual psychological therapies for anorexia nervosa in adults or older adolescents treated in an outpatient setting. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) (16 July 2014). This register includes relevant randomised controlled trials from: the Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We screened reference lists of all included studies and sent letters to identified, notable researchers requesting information on unpublished or ongoing studies. All randomised controlled trials of one or more individual outpatient psychological therapies for adults with anorexia nervosa, as defined by DSM-5 or similar international criteria. We selected a range of outcome variables, including physical state, severity of eating disorder attitudes and beliefs, interpersonal function, and general psychiatric symptom severity. Continuous outcome data comparisons used the mean or standardised mean difference (MD or SMD), and binary outcome comparisons used the risk ratio (RR). Two review authors (PH and AC or ST) extracted data independently. We identified 10 trials from the search, with a total of 599 anorexia nervosa participants, and included them in the review. Seven had been identified in the previous versions of this review and we now include three new trials. We now deem one previously identified ongoing trial to be ineligible, and six ongoing trials are new for this update. Two of the 10 trials included children. Trials tested diverse psychological

  11. Individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Nassau

    Full Text Available As the detrimental health effects of sedentary behaviour are well established, insight into the individual and environmental factors that influence adults' sedentary behaviour is needed. Most studies to date rely on self-reported measures of sedentary time. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults. Between March and August 2014, Belgian (n = 133 and Dutch (n = 223 adults, recruited as sub-sample of the SPOTLIGHT survey, wore an ActiGraph accelerometer to provide objectively measured sedentary and moderate to vigorous physical activity time. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic (country of residence, age, gender and educational level, lifestyle (sleep, smoking, sugar-containing beverage consumption, alcohol intake, health (body mass index, self-rated health, work (employment status and type of work, happiness, physical environmental (owning a car, number of screens, socioeconomic status and residential density and social environmental factors (social network, social cohesion. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that Belgian participants had a lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to Dutch participants. Women, older participants and those meeting the WHO recommendation for physical activity were also less likely to sit for 9 hours or more per day. Participants doing (heavy manual work or being in education, homemaker, unemployed had lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to participants with a sitting job. Those with a higher self-reported social network also had lower odds for sedentary time. No associations between physical and other social environmental characteristics and sedentary time were found. Our findings add to the growing evidence of factors associated with prolonged sedentary time in adults. These findings may

  12. Identifying the Correlates and Barriers of Future Planning among Parents of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan; Arnold, Catherine; Owen, Aleksa

    2018-01-01

    Although individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are living longer lives, fewer than half of parents of individuals with IDD conduct future planning. The correlates and barriers to future planning must be identified to develop targeted interventions to facilitate future planning. In this study, 388 parents of individuals…

  13. What's your poison? Impact of individual repair capacity on the outcomes of genotoxic therapies in cancer. Part II - information content and validity of biomarkers for individual repair capacity in the assessment of outcomes of anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Rumena; Chelenkova, Pavlina; Georgieva, Elena; Chakarov, Stoian

    2014-01-02

    The individual variance in the efficiency of repair of damage induced by genotoxic therapies may be an important factor in the assessment of eligibility for different anticancer treatments, the outcomes of various treatments and the therapy-associated complications, including acute and delayed toxicity and acquired drug resistance. The second part of this paper analyses the currently available information about the possibilities of using experimentally obtained knowledge about individual repair capacity for the purposes of personalised medicine and healthcare.

  14. Predictability of the individual clinical outcome of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaudraff, Kai-Uwe; Kiessling, Maren C; Császár, Nikolaus Bm; Schmitz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been successfully introduced for the treatment of cellulite in recent years. However, it is still unknown whether the individual clinical outcome of cellulite treatment with extracorporeal shock wave therapy can be predicted by the patient's individual cellulite grade at baseline, individual patient age, body mass index (BMI), weight, and/or height. Fourteen Caucasian females with cellulite were enrolled in a prospective, single-center, randomized, open-label Phase II study. The mean (± standard error of the mean) cellulite grade at baseline was 2.5±0.09 and mean BMI was 22.8±1.17. All patients were treated with radial extracorporeal shock waves using the Swiss DolorClast(®) device (Electro Medical Systems, S.A., Nyon, Switzerland). Patients were treated unilaterally with 2 weekly treatments for 4 weeks on a randomly selected side (left or right), totaling eight treatments on the selected side. Treatment was performed at 3.5-4.0 bar, with 15,000 impulses per session applied at 15 Hz. Impulses were homogeneously distributed over the posterior thigh and buttock area (resulting in 7,500 impulses per area). Treatment success was evaluated after the last treatment and 4 weeks later by clinical examination, photographic documentation, contact thermography, and patient satisfaction questionnaires. The mean cellulite grade improved from 2.5±0.09 at baseline to 1.57±0.18 after the last treatment (ie, mean δ-1 was 0.93 cellulite grades) and 1.68±0.16 at follow-up (ie, mean δ-2 was 0.82 cellulite grades). Compared with baseline, no patient's condition worsened, the treatment was well tolerated, and no unwanted side effects were observed. No statistically significant (ie, Pcellulite grade at baseline, BMI, weight, height, or age. Radial shock wave therapy is a safe and effective treatment option for cellulite. The individual clinical outcome cannot be predicted by the patient's individual cellulite grade at baseline, BMI, weight

  15. Genes: Interactions with Language on Three Levels—Inter-Individual Variation, Historical Correlations and Genetic Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediu, Dan

    The complex inter-relationships between genetics and linguistics encompass all four scales highlighted by the contributions to this book and, together with cultural transmission, the genetics of language holds the promise to offer a unitary understanding of this fascinating phenomenon. There are inter-individual differences in genetic makeup which contribute to the obvious fact that we are not identical in the way we understand and use language and, by studying them, we will be able to both better treat and enhance ourselves. There are correlations between the genetic configuration of human groups and their languages, reflecting the historical processes shaping them, and there also seem to exist genes which can influence some characteristics of language, biasing it towards or against certain states by altering the way language is transmitted across generations. Besides the joys of pure knowledge, the understanding of these three aspects of genetics relevant to language will potentially trigger advances in medicine, linguistics, psychology or the understanding of our own past and, last but not least, a profound change in the way we regard one of the emblems of being human: our capacity for language.

  16. Soluble sortilin is present in excess and positively correlates with progranulin in CSF of aging individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgaard, Simon; Demontis, Ditte; Nicholson, Alexandra M; Finch, Nicole A; Petersen, Ronald C; Petersen, Claus M; Rademakers, Rosa; Nykjaer, Anders; Glerup, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Mutations in progranulin are a major cause of frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD). Hence, plasma progranulin is an attractive biomarker in FTLD but poorly reflects levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), suggesting tissue-specific regulation of progranulin levels. Sortilin was recently identified as a progranulin scavenger receptor that destines it for lysosomal degradation. Proteolysis or alternative splicing generates soluble sortilin variants that retain progranulin binding and potentially functions as a decoy receptor. In the present study, we analyzed soluble sortilin and progranulin in plasma and CSF in 341 aging individuals. We found that soluble sortilin exists in CSF in ten-fold molar excess compared to progranulin and observed a highly significant positive correlation between soluble sortilin and progranulin levels in CSF but not in plasma. However, carriers of the minor allele of SNP rs646776 in SORT1 encoding sortilin displayed significantly increased soluble sortilin and reduced progranulin specifically in plasma but not in CSF. Taken together, our findings suggest that soluble sortilin may affect progranulin levels in both a tissue-specific and genotype-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Event-related potential correlates of suspicious thoughts in individuals with schizotypal personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-bing; Huang, Jia; Cheung, Eric F C; Gong, Qi-yong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2011-01-01

    Suspiciousness is a common feature of schizophrenia. However, suspicious thoughts are also commonly experienced by the general population. This study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of suspicious thoughts in individuals with and without schizotypal personality disorder (SPD)-proneness, using an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded when the "feeling of being seen through" was evoked in the participants. The findings showed a prominent positive deflection of the difference wave within the time window 250-400 ms after stimuli presentation in both SPD-prone and non-SPD-prone groups. Furthermore, the P3 amplitude was significantly reduced in the SPD-prone group compared to the non-SPD-prone group. The current density analysis also indicated hypoactivity in both frontal and temporal regions in the SPD-prone group, suggesting that the frontotemporal cortical network may play a role in the onset of suspicious thoughts. The P3 of difference wave was inversely correlated with the cognitive-perception factor and the suspiciousness/paranoid ideation trait, which provided preliminary electrophysiological evidence for the association of suspiciousness with SPD features.

  18. Individual and School Correlates of Adolescent Leisure Time Physical Activity in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Massougbodji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leisure time physical activity (LTPA correlates have been mostly studied in relation to adolescents’ home neighbourhoods, but not so much in relation to the environment of their schools’ neighbourhoods. We sought to investigate how objective environmental measures of the schools’ vicinity are related to adolescents’ self-reported LTPA. Methods: Individual data from the Quebec High School Students Health Survey (QHSSHS were matched with schools’ socioeconomic indicators, as well as geographic information system-based indicators of their built environments. Self-reported levels of LTPA during the school year were assessed according to intensity, frequency and index of energy expenditure. Associations per gender between covariates and LTPA were estimated using ordinal multilevel regression with multiple imputations. Results: Boys (21% of which were highly active were more active than girls (16% of which were highly active (p ≤ 0.01. The incremental variance between schools explained by the contextual variables in the final models was higher among girls (7.8% than boys (2.8%. The number of parks or green spaces within 750 m around their schools was positively associated with student LTPA in both genders. Conclusions: The promotion of parks around schools seems to be an avenue to be strengthened.

  19. Individual differences in the perception of biological motion and fragmented figures are not correlated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice L Jung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We live in a cluttered, dynamic visual environment that poses a challenge for the visual system: for objects, including those that move about, to be perceived, information specifying those objects must be integrated over space and over time. Does a single, omnibus mechanism perform this grouping operation, or does grouping depend on separate processes specialized for different feature aspects of the object? To address this question, we tested a large group of healthy young adults on their abilities to perceive static fragmented figures embedded in noise and to perceive dynamic point-light biological motion figures embedded in dynamic noise. There were indeed substantial individual differences in performance on both tasks, but none of the statistical tests we applied to this data set uncovered a significant correlation between those performance measures. These results suggest that the two tasks, despite their superficial similarity, require different segmentation and grouping processes that are largely unrelated to one another. Whether those processes are embodied in distinct neural mechanisms remains an open question.

  20. Brain lesion correlates of fatigue in individuals with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberger, Michael; Reutens, David; Beare, Richard; O'Sullivan, Richard; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neurological correlates of both subjective fatigue as well as objective fatigability in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study has a cross-sectional design. Participants (N = 53) with TBI (77% male, mean age at injury 38 years, mean time since injury 1.8 years) underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), while a subsample (N = 36) was also tested with a vigilance task. While subjective fatigue (FSS) was not related to measures of brain lesions, multilevel analyses showed that a change in the participants' decision time was significantly predicted by grey matter (GM) lesions in the right frontal lobe. The time-dependent development of the participants' error rate was predicted by total brain white matter (WM) lesion volumes, as well as right temporal GM and WM lesion volumes. These findings could be explained by decreased functional connectivity of attentional networks, which results in accelerated exhaustion during cognitive task performance. The disparate nature of objectively measurable fatigability on the one hand and the subjective experience of fatigue on the other needs further investigation.

  1. Individual Differences in Reward and Somatosensory-Motor Brain Regions Correlate with Adiposity in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapuano, Kristina M; Huckins, Jeremy F; Sargent, James D; Heatherton, Todd F; Kelley, William M

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of adolescent obesity has increased dramatically over the past three decades, and research has documented that the number of television shows viewed during childhood is associated with greater risk for obesity. In particular, considerable evidence suggests that exposure to food marketing promotes eating habits that contribute to obesity. The present study examines neural responses to dynamic food commercials in overweight and healthy-weight adolescents using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Compared with non-food commercials, food commercials more strongly engaged regions involved in attention and saliency detection (occipital lobe, precuneus, superior temporal gyri, and right insula) and in processing rewards [left and right nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)]. Activity in the left OFC and right insula further correlated with subjects' percent body fat at the time of the scan. Interestingly, this reward-related activity to food commercials was accompanied by the additional recruitment of mouth-specific somatosensory-motor cortices-a finding that suggests the intriguing possibility that higher-adiposity adolescents mentally simulate eating behaviors and offers a potential neural mechanism for the formation and reinforcement of unhealthy eating habits that may hamper an individual's ability lose weight later in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Individual and Environmental Correlates to Quality of Life in Park Users in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marina Camargo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To explore individual and environmental correlates to quality of life (QoL in park users in Colombia. Methods: A cross-sectional study with face-to-face interviews was conducted with 1392 park users from ten parks in Colombia. The survey included sociodemographic questions, health condition assessed with EuroQuol-5-Dimensions-5-Levels; in addition, questions about accessibility to the parks and perceptions about quality of infrastructure and green areas were asked. The Spanish version of the questionnaire EUROHIS-QOL-8 items was applied to assess QoL. Log-binomial regression models were applied for analyses. Results: Years of schooling, visits to the park with a companion, active use of the park, a maximum score for quality of trees and walking paths, and the perception of safety on the way to the park were positively associated with a better QoL (p < 0.05. Health conditions related to problems in the ability to perform activities of daily living and anxiety/depression showed negative associations. Conclusions: The present study contributes to the Latin American studies by providing information on how parks in an intermediate city may contribute to increased QoL of park users through safety in neighborhoods, social support, active use, and aesthetics, cleanliness, and care of green areas.

  3. Individualization of anticancer therapy; molecular targets of novel drugs in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Regulska

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of cellular signal transduction, caused by gene mutations, has been recognized as a basic factor of cancer initiation, promotion and progression. Thus, the ability to control the activity of overstimulated signal molecules by the use of appropriate inhibitors became the idea of targeted cancer therapy, which has provided an effective tool to normalize the molecular disorders in malignant cells and to treat certain types of cancer. The molecularly targeted drugs are divided into two major pharmaceutical classes: monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule kinase inhibitors. This review presents a summary of their characteristics, analyzing their chemical structures, specified molecular targets, mechanisms of action and indications for use. Also the molecules subjected to preclinical trials or phase I, II and III clinical trials evaluating their efficiency and safety are presented. Moreover, the article discusses further perspectives for development of targeted therapies focusing on three major directions: systematic searching and discovery of new targets that are oncogenic drivers, improving the pharmacological properties of currently known drugs, and developing strategies to overcome drug resistance. Finally, the role of proper pharmacodiagnostics as a key to rational anticancer therapy has been emphasized since the verification of reliable predictive biomarkers is a basis of individualized medicine in oncology. 

  4. A mixed methods analysis of songs written by bereaved preadolescents in individual music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Melina; McFerran, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    Providing opportunities for children to process loss and express grief in response to the loss of a loved one has been shown to assist with successful coping (Worden, 1996). Songwriting may be a relevant method that fosters the expression of thoughts and feelings related to the loss. The purpose of this study was to analyse lyrics written by bereaved children during individual music therapy and to determine if they did use the opportunity to address grief through songwriting. Participants were 14 bereaved children (13 girls, 1 boy) aged between 7 and 12 years. Children were recruited and participated in individual music therapy in their homes with a credentialed music therapist. Participants wrote a total of 49 songs and their lyrics were analysed using a mixed methods content analysis. An inductive analysis identified categories existing within the lyrics and each lyric was then deductively attributed to one of the categories. Results revealed that the children wrote songs about themselves, their experiences, and their relationships, including, but not limited to the topic of loss. It became apparent that through songwriting these children expressed their experiences of the world based on their developmental capacities and limitations.

  5. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit E

    2011-05-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in individual (n=33) and group (n=37) cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). IR and TAF declined significantly during CBT, and the decline was positively associated with change in OCD symptoms. However, when controlling for change in depressive symptoms, only change in IR remained significantly associated with OCD symptom change. The moral subtype of TAF predicted poorer treatment outcome, but only in group CBT. Both treatments produced a similar amount of change in the dysfunctional beliefs. The results provide some, preliminary evidence that IR, but not TAF, may be specifically involved in the change mechanisms of both individual and group CBT for OCD, although the design of the study with pre- and post-therapy measurements only does not allow for a causal mediator analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled crossover pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Lavinia; McQuaid, John R; Liu, Lianqi; Natarajan, Loki; He, Feng; Cornejo, Monique; Lawton, Susan; Parker, Barbara A; Sadler, Georgia R; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Estimates of insomnia in breast cancer patients are high, with reports of poor sleep lasting years after completion of cancer treatment. This randomized controlled crossover pilot study looked at the effects of individual cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (IND-CBT-I) on sleep in breast cancer survivors. Patients and methods Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (six weekly IND-CBT-I sessions followed by six weeks of follow up) or a delayed treatment control group (no treatment for six weeks followed by six weekly IND-CBT-I sessions). Of these, 14 participants completed the pilot study (six in the treatment group and eight in the delayed treatment control group). Results Self-rated insomnia was significantly improved in the treatment group compared to the waiting period in the delayed treatment control group. The pooled pre-post-IND-CBT-I analyses revealed improvements in self-rated insomnia, sleep quality, and objective measures of sleep. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that IND-CBT-I is appropriate for improving sleep in breast cancer survivors. Individual therapy in a clinic or private practice may be a more practical option for this population as it is more easily accessed and readily available in an outpatient setting. PMID:23616695

  7. Predicting optimal outcomes in cognitive therapy or interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed individuals using the personalized advantage index approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, M.J.H.; Cohen, Z.D.; Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Arntz, A.; Peeters, F.P.M.L.; Cuijpers, P.; DeRubeis, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works

  8. Predicting optimal outcomes in cognitive therapy or interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed individuals using the personalized advantage index approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, M.J.H.; Cohen, Z.D.; Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Arntz, A.; Peeters, F.P.M.L.; Cuijpers, P.; DeRubeis, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works

  9. Cost Effectiveness of Individual versus Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Problems of Depression and Anxiety in an HMO Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Joan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared the cost effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy, traditional process-oriented interpersonal group, and individual cognitive behavior therapy in dealing with depression and anxiety in a health maintenance organization population (N=44). Results suggest that cost considerations can become relatively important when decisions are…

  10. The discriminatory analysis about factors correlative with the early hypothyroidism after 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Lingjing; Liang Changhua; Deng Haoyu; Li Xinhui; Hu Shuo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the factors correlative with the early hypothyroidism after 131 I therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism so as to cure it and decrease the early hypothyroidism occurring and prevent it from becoming irreversible hypothyroidism. Methods: Logistic regression discriminatory analysis by introducing multiple factors from group data and forward stepwise selection of 11 independent variables of 240 hyperthyroidism patients from clinical data and 1 dependent variable from follow-up data after 131 I therapy was conducted. Univariate analysis of each observed factor was performed, too. Results: (1)The results of multivariate analysis showed that the age of patients, the weight of thyroid, the suffering situation, the curve of 131 I absorption rate and the giving 131 I dosage/g thyroid tissue were correlated to early hypothyroidism. The results of univariate analysis showed that the weight of thyroid, the highest absorption of 131 I, the total treatment dosage of 131 I were correlated to early hypothyroidism. (2) The logistic regression equation was statistically significant. (3) The positive and negative predicting accuracy of the early hypothyroidism occurring was 64.08 %, 78.83 %, respectively, the overall predicting accuracy was 72.50%. Conclusions: The dosage of 131 I for treatment of hyperthyroid is the key factor according to the five correlative factors which are relating to the early hypothyroidism and the discriminatory classification. Enhanced follow-up and in time supplement of thyroid hormone are important measures for preventing the early hypothyroidism from becoming irreversible hypothyroidism

  11. Individual, Parental, and Environmental Correlates of Cigar, Cigarillo, and Little Cigar Use Among Middle School Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapl, Erika S; Yoder, Laura D; Frank, Jean L; Borawski, Elaine A; Sattar, Abdus

    2016-05-01

    Youth use of cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars (CCLC) is increasing. While correlates of cigarette smoking have been well documented, use of CCLC is not as well understood among young adolescents. This study assessed whether smoking beliefs, parenting practices, and environmental exposures were associated with CCLC use among 7th to 8th grade youth in an urban, mid-Western city. The Cleveland Youth Risk Behavior Survey was conducted with 7th to 8th grade students in spring 2012. CCLC use was assessed by asking if students had smoked CCLC in the past 30 days. Covariates include self-reported gender, race, grade, acceptability of smoking, parental monitoring, hours of self-care, visits to corner stores, and current cigarette smoking. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine associations with current CCLC use. Overall, 14.3% of youth reported current CCLC use. Students reporting higher acceptability of smoking, lower parental monitoring, longer periods of self-care, more visits to corner stores and current cigarette smoking were more likely to report current CCLC use in both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models. CCLC use is associated with multiple levels of influence, indicating that prevention of youth CCLC use must utilize a multilevel approach. Increased utilization of corner stores was associated with higher odds of CCLC use, and could indicate that youth stopping at corner stores may be exposed to increased tobacco retail advertising and tobacco products. The findings of this study have implications for FDA regulation to prevent CCLC initiation among youth. While correlates of cigarette smoking have been well documented, use of CCLC is not as well understood among young adolescents. This is the first study that has examined the association between individual, family, and environmental characteristics and CCLC use. The results of this study illustrate that youth attitudes, perceived parenting practices, and

  12. Bothersome Tics in Patients with Chronic Tic Disorders: Characteristics and Individualized Treatment Response to Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F.; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Woods, Douglas W.; Villarreal, Robert; Wilhelm, Sabine; Walkup, John T.; Peterson, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    This report examined the most frequently reported bothersome tics among individuals with chronic tic disorders and evaluated the improvement and remission of tics and their associated characteristics. Youths and adults (N = 240) were randomly assigned to receive the comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) or psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, motor tics and tics with an urge were rated as more bothersome relative to vocal tics and tics without premonitory urges. The five most common bothersome tics included eye blinking, head jerks, sniffing, throat clearing, and other complex motor tics. While CBIT outperformed PST across tic type and urge presence, tics preceded by premonitory urges at baseline had higher severity at posttreatment across treatment condition. Six individual tic types had lower severity at posttreatment following CBIT relative to PST. Baseline urge presence was associated with tic remission for CBIT but not PST. Specific bothersome tics were more likely to remit with CBIT relative to PST. Findings suggest that individual tics respond and remit differently to CBIT relative to PST, with implications highlighting the negative reinforcement hypothesis in tic symptom maintenance. PMID:25988365

  13. Bothersome tics in patients with chronic tic disorders: Characteristics and individualized treatment response to behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Woods, Douglas W; Villarreal, Robert; Wilhelm, Sabine; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-07-01

    This report examined the most frequently reported bothersome tics among individuals with chronic tic disorders and evaluated the improvement and remission of tics and their associated characteristics. Youths and adults (N = 240) were randomly assigned to receive the comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) or psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, motor tics and tics with an urge were rated as more bothersome relative to vocal tics and tics without premonitory urges. The five most common bothersome tics included eye blinking, head jerks, sniffing, throat clearing, and other complex motor tics. While CBIT outperformed PST across tic type and urge presence, tics preceded by premonitory urges at baseline had higher severity at posttreatment across treatment condition. Six individual tic types had lower severity at posttreatment following CBIT relative to PST. Baseline urge presence was associated with tic remission for CBIT but not PST. Specific bothersome tics were more likely to remit with CBIT relative to PST. Findings suggest that individual tics respond and remit differently to CBIT relative to PST, with implications highlighting the negative reinforcement hypothesis in tic symptom maintenance. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00218777; NCT00231985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Acupuncture therapy improves vascular hemodynamics and stiffness in middle-age hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenteva, Nina; Chernykh, Oksana; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Wong, Alexei

    2018-02-01

    Acupuncture (ACU) is becoming a more common practice among hypertensive individuals. However, the reported therapeutic effects of ACU in lowering brachial blood pressure (BP) are ambiguous. Therefore, evaluating more sensitive markers of arterial functioning might unveil the protective effects of ACU on hypertension. We examined the effects of an 8-week ACU therapy intervention on vascular hemodynamics and stiffness in middle-age hypertensive individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to either ACU (n = 23) or a control group (n = 22). Brachial and aortic BP, wave reflection (AIx) and arterial stiffness (SI) were measured before and after 8 weeks. There was a significant group x time interaction (P < 0.05) for brachial and aortic BP, AIx and SI which significantly decreased (P < 0.05) following ACU but not after control. ACU led to reductions in brachial and aortic BP, wave reflection and arterial stiffness in middle-age hypertensive individuals. ACU might be effective in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of the prevalence of dyslipidemia in individuals with HIV and its association with antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Gabriela de Limas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART has been used to treat large numbers of patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Lipid disorders are often observed in these patients, and include elevations in total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using 333 patient records from the Regional Hospital of São José Doutor Homero de Miranda Gomes (HRSJHMG. The study population consisted of patients with HIV who were under medical follow up, either on or off drug treatment. The data were entered into Excel and exported to SPSS 16.0 for analysis using chi-square testing. We used prevalence ratios as the measure of association. Results Lipid abnormalities were observed in 78.9% of individuals who received ART. Of the 308 subjects on ART, 59.1%, 41.9%, and 33.1% had TG, TC and low-density lipoprotein (LDL abnormalities, respectively. The prevalence of LDL changes was 2.57-fold higher in individuals who had been using ART for more than 12 months, compared to those using ART for 6 to 12 months. Conclusions HIV patients showed a significant increase in the association between TC and TG levels and the use of ART. In particular, changes in TC, LDL and TG were greater in individuals who had received ART for over more than 12 months.

  16. Combination antiretroviral therapy improves cognitive performance and functional connectivity in treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuchuan; Qiu, Xing; Wang, Lu; Ma, Qing; Mapstone, Mark; Luque, Amneris; Weber, Miriam; Tivarus, Madalina; Miller, Eric; Arduino, Roberto C; Zhong, Jianhui; Schifitto, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cognitive performance and functional and structural connectivity and their relationship to plasma levels of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Seventeen ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals (baseline mean CD4 cell count, 479 ± 48 cells/mm 3 ) were age matched with 17 HIV-uninfected individuals. All subjects underwent a detailed neurocognitive and functional assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. HIV-infected subjects were scanned before starting cART and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Uninfected subjects were assessed once at baseline. Functional connectivity (FC) was assessed within the default mode network while structural connectivity was assessed by voxel-wise analysis using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography within the DMN. Tenofovir and emtricitabine blood concentration were measured at week 12 of cART. Prior to cART, HIV-infected individuals had significantly lower cognitive performance than control subjects as measured by the total Z-score from the neuropsychological tests assessing six cognitive domains (p = 0.020). After 12 weeks of cART treatment, there remained only a weak cognitive difference between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects (p = 0.057). Mean FC was lower in HIV-infected individuals compared with those uninfected (p = 0.008), but FC differences became non-significant after treatment (p = 0.197). There were no differences in DTI metrics between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals using the TBSS approach and limited evidence of decreased structural connectivity within the DMN in HIV-infected individuals. Tenofovir and emtricitabine plasma concentrations did not correlate with either cognitive performance or imaging metrics. Twelve weeks of cART improves cognitive performance and functional connectivity in ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals with relatively

  17. T-cell responses targeting HIV Nef uniquely correlate with infected cell frequencies after long-term antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison S Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses limit viral replication in untreated infection. After the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART, these responses decay and the infected cell population that remains is commonly considered to be invisible to T-cells. We hypothesized that HIV antigen recognition may persist in ART-treated individuals due to low-level or episodic protein expression. We posited that if persistent recognition were occurring it would be preferentially directed against the early HIV gene products Nef, Tat, and Rev as compared to late gene products, such as Gag, Pol, and Env, which have higher barriers to expression. Using a primary cell model of latency, we observed that a Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell clone exhibited low-level recognition of infected cells prior to reactivation and robust recognition shortly thereafter. A Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell clone failed to recognized infected cells under these conditions, corresponding with a lack of detectable Gag expression. We measured HIV-specific T-cell responses in 96 individuals who had been suppressed on ART for a median of 7 years, and observed a significant, direct correlation between cell-associated HIV DNA levels and magnitudes of IFN-γ-producing Nef/Tat/Rev-specific T-cell responses. This correlation was confirmed in an independent cohort (n = 18. Correlations were not detected between measures of HIV persistence and T-cell responses to other HIV antigens. The correlation with Nef/Tat/Rev-specific T-cells was attributable to Nef-specific responses, the breadth of which also correlated with HIV DNA levels. These results suggest that ongoing Nef expression in ART-treated individuals drives preferential maintenance and/or expansion of T-cells reactive to this protein, implying sensing of infected cells by the immune system. The direct correlation, however, suggests that recognition does not result in efficient elimination of infected cells. These results raise the possibility that

  18. [Between individual therapy and political intervention: campaigns against "diseases of civilization" between 1920 and 1960].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelcke, V

    1995-01-01

    The concept of "disease of civilization" is commonly used for a variety of conditions. It implies a criticism of the "modern" way of life. This criticism and the strategies put forward to prevent diseases of civilization are correlated to the specific historical context in which they are formulated. The paper analyses three positions characterising different periods in 20th century German history: In the Weimar Republic, representatives of paediatrics and social hygiene asked for the expansion of public health care programmes according to the principles laid down by the Weimar constitution. During the time of National Socialism, more radical measures were propagated by exponents of hygiene and psychotherapy, aiming at a fundamental restructuration of society in accordance with the Nazi ideology. After 1945, strategies focused on the individual: Physical exercise, abstinence, and individual psychotherapy were propagated to prevent or treat the consequences of life in modern society.

  19. Year-to-year correlations in blood metal levels among individuals of two species of North American sea ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, M.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Kellett, D.; Traylor, J.; Swoboda, C.; Neugebauer, E.; Mehl, K.

    2007-01-01

    Sea duck populations have declined in North America. Contaminants, especially metals, have been listed as possible contributing factors. Sea ducks are long-lived. Thus, individuals chronically exposed to elevated metal levels may be at greatest risk. Information about long-term exposure (≥1 year) of individuals to metals is absent. To address this information gap, we examined year-to-year correlations among individual White-Winged Scoters and King Eiders in levels of blood cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium. Positive correlations (r ≥ 0.43), were found in six, five, five and two of seven correlations for cadmium, selenium, lead and mercury. Thus, certain individuals of these species may be exposed over two or more years to higher levels of cadmium, selenium and lead (but apparently not mercury) than other individuals. Single blood samples are appropriate metrics of exposure for studies that examine long-term effects of certain metals on these birds. - Some individuals of two species of sea ducks experience greater long-term (≥1 year) exposure to cadmium, selenium and lead compared to other individuals

  20. Correlation of in vivo tumor response and singlet oxygen luminescence detection in mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excited-state singlet oxygen (1O2, generated during photodynamic therapy (PDT, is believed to be the primary cytotoxic agent with a number of clinically approved photosensitizers. Its relative concentration in cells or tissues can be measured directly through its near-infrared (NIR luminescence emission, which has correlated well with in vitro cell and in vivo normal skin treatment responses. Here, its correlation with the response of tumor tissue in vivo is examined, using the photosensitizer meso-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC in an animal model comprising luciferase- and green fluorescent protein (GFP-transduced gliosarcoma grown in a dorsal window chamber. The change in the bioluminescence signal, imaged pretreatment and at 2, 5 and 9 d post treatment, was used as a quantitative measure of the tumor response, which was classified in individual tumors as "non", "moderate" and "strong" in order to reduce the variance in the data. Plotting the bioluminescence-based response vs the 1O2 counts demonstrated clear correlation, indicating that 1O2 luminescence provides a valid dosimetric technique for PDT in tumor tissue.

  1. Correlation of the controlled attenuation parameter with indices of liver steatosis in overweight or obese individuals: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Giovanna; Tinelli, Carmine; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Zicchetti, Mabel; Faliva, Milena; Perna, Simone; Perani, Guido; Alessandrino, Francesco; Calliada, Fabrizio; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Filice, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical relevance of the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) by analyzing the correlations between CAP and indirect indices of liver steatosis in obese or overweight individuals. Consecutive participants were prospectively enrolled. BMI, waist circumference, hepatic steatosis index, fatty liver index, percent fat mass and regional fat masses as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), fat signal fraction as assessed by MRI, and CAP were obtained. Pearson's r coefficient was used to test the correlation between two study variables. A total of 88 individuals were studied. They included 31 men [age, 50.4 years (12.9 years); BMI, 30.7 kg/m (4.8 kg/m)] and 57 women [age, 49.0 years (12.6 years); BMI, 31.4 kg/m (5.6 kg/m)]. DXA, anthropometric parameters, and fatty liver index were moderately correlated with CAP in men. In women, there was a moderate correlation of CAP with the hepatic steatosis index and anthropometric parameters and only a slight or fair correlation of CAP with DXA parameters. CAP and fat signal fraction showed a good correlation (r=0.65 in men, P=0.002; r=0.68 in women, P=0.0009). Measurement of CAP is a reliable method for noninvasive assessment of liver steatosis, showing a correlation with other indirect markers of central obesity and a good correlation with MRI results.

  2. Molecular genetics of Turner syndrome: correlation with clinical phenotype and response to growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsezou, A; Hadjiathanasiou, C; Gourgiotis, D; Galla, A; Kavazarakis, E; Pasparaki, A; Kapsetaki, M; Sismani, C; Theodoridis, C; Patsalis, P C; Moschonas, N; Kitsiou, S

    1999-12-01

    To correlate the origin of the retained X in Turner syndrome with phenotype, pre-treatment height and response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy, systematic clinical assessment and molecular studies were carried out in 33 Greek children with Turner syndrome and their parents including 18 children with 45,X and 15 with X-mosaicism. Microsatellite markers on X chromosomes (DXS101 and DXS337) revealed that the intact X was paternal (Xp) in 15/30 and maternal (Xm) in 15/30 children, while 3/33 families were non-informative. No significant relationship was found between parental origin of the retained X and birth weight/length/gestational age, blepharoptosis, pterygium colli, webbed neck, low hairline, abnormal ears, lymphoedema, short 4th metacarpal, shield chest, widely spaced nipples, cubitus valgus, pigmented naevi, streak gonads, and cardiovascular/renal anomalies. With regard to the children's pre-treatment height, there was a significant correlation with maternal height and target height in both Xm and Xp groups. No differences were found between Xm and Xp groups and the improvement of growth velocity (GV) during the first and second year of rhGH administration, while for both groups GV significantly improved with rhGH by the end of the first and the second year. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to correlate the parental origin of Turner syndrome with the response to rhGH therapy.

  3. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Transcutaneous Oxygen Partial Pressure During Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lan; Ye, Yong; Li, Chunfeng; Gao, Guangkai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is to increase the oxygen (O₂) supply to the body significantly. Because of the toxic side effects and complications of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂), the environmental pressure and treatment time must be restricted. The research team hypothesized that other therapies administered during HBOT could safely improve the value of the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO₂) during HBOT and improve its therapeutic effect. The study intended to investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) while receiving HBOT had a greater effect for healthy individuals than HBOT or EA alone or EA combined with normobaric pure oxygen (pure O₂). The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study was performed in the Department of Hyperbaric Medicine at the No. 401 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army in Qingdao, China. A total of 81 volunteers were recruited. After thorough physical examination and laboratory testing, 21 volunteers were excluded from the study. Participants included 60 healthy volunteers. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups of 15 participants each: (1) an HBOT group, (2) an EA group, (3) an EA During HBOT group, and (4) an EA Combined With Pure O₂group. Because at the current technology level a blood gas analyzer cannot test PaO₂during HBOT, transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure (PtcO₂) of the participants was tested instead. Before, during, and after EA, variations in PtcO₂were monitored in each group. For the EA During HBOT group, (1) the increase in PtcO₂during EA was significantly greater than that observed for the other 3 groups (P > .05). The EA During HBOT method provided improvements in the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of HBOT, and the study's results partially demonstrated the accuracy of the research team's hypothesis that EA therapy applied during HBOT could safely improve the value of PtcO₂(PaO₂) during HBOT and produce a greater therapeutic effect.

  4. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jonas Grahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS.Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a smart neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and

  5. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Abrahamsen, Randi; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    Effects of hypnotherapy (HT) and self-hypnosis training on extreme dental anxiety in adults aged 19-65 years were compared with group therapy (GT) and individual desensitization (SD) using scales of dental anxiety, dental beliefs, and fear of a next dentist (after specialist treatment). All...... experimental groups were demographically comparable and showed reduced anxiety and improved dental beliefs compared with 51 control patients. The 25 HT patients did not differ significantly in numbers of dropouts during training compared with the 30 GT patients or 68 SD patients. For patients completing...... (8/32), but not GT (15/30). Hypnotizability was found to vary from patient to patient, with a direct relationship to time saved. But hypnotizability had an inverse relationship to STAI general anxiety level for those who went on to dentists after 1 year. Transference effects were noted for most HT...

  6. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depressed individuals improves suppression of irrelevant mental-sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Shapero, Benjamin G; Mischoulon, David; Lazar, Sara W

    2017-04-01

    An impaired ability to suppress currently irrelevant mental-sets is a key cognitive deficit in depression. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was specifically designed to help depressed individuals avoid getting caught in such irrelevant mental-sets. In the current study, a group assigned to MBCT plus treatment-as-usual (n = 22) exhibited significantly lower depression scores and greater improvements in irrelevant mental-set suppression compared to a wait-list plus treatment-as-usual (n = 18) group. Improvements in mental-set-suppression were associated with improvements in depression scores. Results provide the first evidence that MBCT can improve suppression of irrelevant mental-sets and that such improvements are associated with depressive alleviation.

  7. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of individually oriented Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for severe agressive behavior in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Figge, M.A.; Changoe, K.; van Horn, J.; Hendriks, J.; Wissink, I.B.

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis, including six studies (13 effect sizes) and 164 adolescents, examined the effectiveness of individually oriented treatment (which means that the intervention contained at least an individual component, possibly in combination with group and/or family therapy) with CBT-elements

  8. Spinal Manipulative Therapy Specific Changes In Pain Sensitivity In Individuals With Low Back Pain (NCT01168999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosky, Joel E; George, Steven Z; Horn, Maggie E; Price, Donald D; Staud, Roland; Robinson, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Spinal Manipulative Therapy (SMT) is effective for some individuals experiencing low back pain (LBP); however, the mechanisms are not established regarding the role of placebo. SMT is associated with changes in pain sensitivity suggesting related altered central nervous system response or processing of afferent nociceptive input. Placebo is also associated with changes in pain sensitivity and the efficacy of SMT for changes in pain sensitivity beyond placebo has not been adequately considered. We randomly assigned 110 participants with LBP to receive SMT, placebo SMT, placebo SMT with the instructional set, “The manual therapy technique you will receive has been shown to significantly reduce low back pain in some people”, or no intervention. Participants receiving the SMT and placebo SMT received their assigned intervention 6 times over two weeks. Pain sensitivity was assessed prior to and immediately following the assigned intervention during the first session. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline and following two weeks of participation in the study. Immediate attenuation of suprathreshold heat response was greatest following SMT (p= 0.05, partial η2= 0.07). Group dependent differences were not observed for changes in pain intensity and disability at two week. Participant satisfaction was greatest following the enhanced placebo SMT. PMID:24361109

  9. A novel bilateral lower extremity mirror therapy intervention for individuals with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas D. Crosby

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements made in stroke rehabilitation, motor impairment and gait deficits persist at discharge. New interventions are needed. Mirror therapy has promise as one element of a rehabilitation program. The primary objectives were to 1 describe a bilateral, lower extremity mirror therapy (LE-MT device and training protocol and 2 investigate the feasibility of LE-MT. A LE-MT device was constructed to train bilateral LE movements for 30 min, 3 times/week for 4 weeks, as an adjunct to physiotherapy in three individuals post-stroke. Sessions were digitally recorded and reviewed to extract feasibility measures; repetitions, rests and session duration. Pre and post measures of gait and motor impairment were taken. Two participants completed 100% of the sessions and a third completed 83% due to a recurrence of pre-existing back pain. Repetitions increased and session duration was maintained. Number of rests decreased for two participants and increased for one participant. Participants reported fatigue and mild muscle soreness but also that the intervention was tolerable. Positive gait changes included increased velocity and decreased variability. LE motor impairment also improved. A bilateral LE-MT adjunct intervention for stroke is feasible and may have positive effects. A history of low back pain should be a precaution.

  10. Individual Versus Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Partner-Violent Men: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher M; Eckhardt, Christopher I; Clifford, Judith M; Lamotte, Adam D; Meis, Laura A

    2017-04-01

    A randomized clinical trial tested the hypothesis that a flexible, case formulation-based, individual treatment approach integrating motivational interviewing strategies with cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) is more efficacious than a standardized group cognitive-behavioral approach (GCBT) for perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Forty-two men presenting for services at a community domestic violence agency were randomized to receive 20 sessions of ICBT or a 20-week group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program. Participants and their relationship partners completed assessments of relationship abuse and relationship functioning at baseline and quarterly follow-ups for 1 year. Treatment uptake and session attendance were significantly higher in ICBT than GCBT. However, contrary to the study hypothesis, GCBT produced consistently equivalent or greater benefits than ICBT. Participant self-reports revealed significant reductions in abusive behavior and injuries across conditions with no differential benefits between conditions. Victim partner reports revealed more favorable outcomes for group treatment, including a statistically significant difference in psychological aggression, and differences exceeding a medium effect size for physical assault, emotional abuse, and partner relationship adjustment. In response to hypothetical relationship scenarios, GCBT was associated with greater reductions than ICBT (exceeding a medium effect) in articulated cognitive distortions and aggressive intentions. Treatment competence ratings suggest that flexible, individualized administration of CBT creates challenges in session agenda setting, homework implementation, and formal aspects of relationship skills training. Although caution is needed in generalizing findings from this small-scale trial, the results suggest that the mutual support and positive social influence available in group intervention may be particularly helpful for IPV perpetrators.

  11. Correlation of compliance to statin therapy with lipid profile and serum HMGCoA reductase levels in dyslipidemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Abhinav; Rehan, Harmeet Singh; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Yadav, Madhur

    The efficacy of statin therapy may be lost or vary with reduction in compliance and intensity of statin therapy. To study and correlate the quantitative effect of compliance on lipid profile and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA-R) levels in dyslipidemic patients. Compliance to different intensity of statin therapy assessed by pill count was correlated with serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and HMGCoA-R. Out of 200 patients, 160 received moderate intensity statin therapy whereas 40 were on high intensity statin therapy. The overall mean compliance of patients was 56.7%. The compliance of patients on moderate intensity statin therapy was higher (56.8%) than those on high intensity (56.4%) (p=0.92). There was significant inverse correlation (pstatin therapy was increased above 60%. It is appropriate to improve the compliance to existing statin therapy than switching over to higher intensity statin therapy. Estimation of HMGCoA-R levels may be explored as a surrogate marker to monitor and assess the compliance of patients to statin therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Factorial and construct validity of the revised short form integrative psychotherapy alliance scales for family, couple, and individual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, William M; Zinbarg, Richard; Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M

    2008-09-01

    The Integrative Psychotherapy Alliance model brought an interpersonal and systemic perspective to bear on theory, research, and practice on the psychotherapeutic alliance. Questions have been raised about the independence of the theoretical factors in the model and their operationalization in the Individual, Couple, and Family Therapy Alliance Scales. This paper presents results of a confirmatory factor analysis of the scales that delineated at least three distinct interpersonal factors as well as shorter versions of the three scales to facilitate their use in research and practice. The paper also presents the results of a study testing each factor's association with client retention and progress over the first eight sessions in individual and couple therapy. At least two of the interpersonal factors were uniquely associated with progress in individual and couple functioning. Implications of the results for theory, research, practice, and training in individual, couple, and family therapy are elaborated.

  13. Individual versus group female-specific cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; McCrady, Barbara S; Hallgren, Kevin A; Gaba, Ayorkor; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Litt, Mark D

    2018-05-01

    To test group-based Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (G-FS-CBT) for women with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) against an individual Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (I-FS-CBT). This aims of this paper are to describe G-FS-CBT development, content, feasibility, acceptability, group process, engagement in treatment, and within- and post-treatment outcomes. Women with AUD (n=155) were randomly assigned to 12 manual-guided sessions of G-FS-CBT or I-FS-CBT; 138 women attended at least one treatment session. Women in G-FS-CBT attended fewer sessions (M=7.6) than women in I-FS-CBT (M=9.7; p<.001). Women in both conditions reported high satisfaction with the treatments. Independent coders rated high fidelity of delivery of both G-FS-CBT and I-FS-CBT. Therapeutic alliance with the therapist was high in both conditions, with I-FS-CBT being slightly but significantly higher than G-FS-CBT. In the first six weeks of treatment, women in both treatment conditions significantly reduced their percent drinking days (PDD) and percent heavy days drinking (PHD) by equivalent amounts, maintained through the rest of treatment and the 12month follow up with no treatment condition effects. Women reported significant improvement in all but one of the secondary outcomes during treatment; gains made during treatment in depression, anxiety, autonomy, and interpersonal problems were maintained during the follow-up period, while gains made during treatment in use of coping skills, self-efficacy for abstinence, self-care, and sociotropy deteriorated over follow up but remained improved compared to baseline. Findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a group format for female-specific CBT for AUD, a new 12-session, single gender, community friendly, group therapy with programming specifically for women. Similar, positive outcomes for individual and group treatment formats were found for drinking, mood, coping skills, self-confidence, interpersonal

  14. From the best results of medical research to therapy involving the context of an individual patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata K. Szerla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation is the process of identifying specific factors of a patient’s life situation, which is focused on individualised care. In the light of reference books, contextualisation is an integral part of therapy with an active participation of the patient and/or his/her carers. Among many factors that constitute the functioning of a person, family and socio-material situation, access to professional health care, and the ability to exercise self-care are major contextual factors of the patient’s health situation. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the fact that the limiting oneself exclusively to algorithms as procedures based on the best evidence (best evidence medical research – BEMR may raise the specific danger of underestimating the variability of individual responses of the human body under the influence of factors forming a personal context. The phenomenon of contextualisation in the treatment of an individual patient is still not adequately disseminated, although it is an important element in the decision-making process, with proven impact on the efficiency and quality of care and satisfaction of a patient.

  15. Personality Patterns in Narcotics Anonymous Members versus Individuals with Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Shabrang, Moslem; Rezaei, Omid; Rezaei, Farzin

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy. This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons). Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI). Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test. We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness. People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.

  16. Different nutritional-state indicators of HIV-positive individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Geraix

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at learning about the nutritional profile of HIV-positive individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy and at comparing the performance of nutritional-state indicators. A transversal study was performed on 94 patients attending the Tropical Diseases Outpatient Hospital of Botucatu Medical School (FMB - UNESP. The body mass index (BMI and the classification by Papini-Berto (PB were used to evaluate nutritional state, aiming at detecting malnutrition and obesity. The waist-to-hips ratio (W/HR and waist circumference (WC were adopted for identification of abdominal obesity and lipodystrophy. According to BMI, most of the individuals were eutrophic, followed by 30.9% overweight and 6.4% malnourished. By using the PB classification, the frequency of malnourished increased (22.3%. The analysis of the PB classification in relation to BMI indicated that the former presented high sensitivity and good specificity for malnutrition diagnosis, namely 100% and 83%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 7.44% according to WC, and a higher prevalence (38.3% was observed when taking W/HR into account. There was significant positive association between nutritional diagnosis according to PB and T CD4+ lymphocyte. The results support the use of PB classification for malnutrition detection as well as that of BMI and W/HR for overweight and fat redistribution.

  17. Personality Patterns in Narcotics Anonymous Members versus Individuals with Addiction Receiving Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic interventions can be classified into two distinct approaches: abstinent and maintenance method. Currently, there are no clear criteria for referring addicted patients to one of these modalities. We aimed to compare the personality characteristics of individuals with addiction who attended narcotics anonymous sessions with those who received methadone maintenance therapy.This was a cross- sectional study. The participants were NA members and patients who were undergoing methadone maintenance treatment in outpatient clinics. Using the randomized cluster sampling method, 200 individuals with opioid dependence were selected (each group 100 persons. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the five-factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI. Comparison of the mean scores of NEO-PPI in the two groups was performed by independent t test, and qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test.We found a significant difference between the MMT and NA groups with respect to neuroticism, extroversion, and agreeableness. No significant difference was found in the subscales of conscientious and openness.People who regularly attended the NA sessions had lower neuroticism and higher agreeableness than patients who were under the maintenance modality. Whether this is the cause or effect of attending NA sessions requires future large-scale cohort studies.

  18. Effects of massage therapy and occlusal splint therapy on mandibular range of motion in individuals with temporomandibular disorder: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Politti, Fabiano; Andrade, Daniel Ventura; de Sousa, Dowglas Fernando Magalhães; Herpich, Carolina Marciela; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of massage therapy compared with occlusal splint therapy on mandibular range of motion (ROM) in individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and compare the results with ROM obtained in a group of individuals without this disorder. A blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Twenty-eight volunteers with TMD were randomly distributed into either a massage therapy group or an occlusal splint group. Both treatments were provided for 4 weeks. Fourteen individuals without TMD were consecutively allocated to a comparison group. Fonseca anamnestic index was used to characterize TMD and allocate the volunteers to either of the intervention groups or asymptomatic comparison group. Mandibular ROM was evaluated before and after treatment using a digital caliper. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with a post hoc Bonferroni testing was used for intergroup and intragroup comparisons (level of significance was set to 5%). Cohen d was used to calculate the effect size. In the intragroup analysis, significant increases in ROM were found for all measures in both the massage and occlusal splint groups (P massage therapy and asymptomatic comparison groups (0.2 Massage therapy on the masticatory muscles and the use of an occlusal splint lead to an increase in mandibular ROM similar to that of the asymptomatic comparison group with regard to maximum active mouth opening and both right and left excursion in individuals with TMD. © 2013. Published by National University of Health Sciences All rights reserved.

  19. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial of individualized occupational therapy for patients with schizophrenia in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohori, Manami; Inagaki, Yusuke; Shimooka, Yuko; Sugimura, Naoya; Ishihara, Ikuyo; Yoshida, Tomotaka

    2018-01-01

    The individualized occupational therapy (IOT) program is a psychosocial program that we developed to facilitate proactive participation in treatment and improve cognitive functioning and other outcomes for inpatients with acute schizophrenia. The program consists of motivational interviewing, self-monitoring, individualized visits, handicraft activities, individualized psychoeducation, and discharge planning. This multicenter, open-labeled, blinded-endpoint, randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of adding IOT to a group OT (GOT) program as usual for outcomes in recently hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Japanese psychiatric hospitals setting compared with GOT alone. Patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to the GOT+IOT group or the GOT alone group. Among 136 randomized patients, 129 were included in the intent-to-treat population: 66 in the GOT+IOT and 63 in the GOT alone groups. Outcomes were administered at baseline and discharge or 3 months following hospitalization including the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J), the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale Japanese version, the Social Functioning Scale Japanese version, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory Japanese version (IMI-J), the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Japanese version of Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8J). Results of linear mixed effects models indicated that the IOT+GOT showed significant improvements in verbal memory (p IOT demonstrated significant improvements on the CSQ-8J compared with the GOT alone (p IOT program and its effectiveness for improving cognitive impairment and other outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:29621261

  20. Correlation of individual differences in schizotypal personality traits with amphetamine-induced dopamine release in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Neil D; Cowan, Ronald L; Park, Sohee; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Li, Rui; Doop, Mikisha; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2011-04-01

    Schizotypal personality traits are associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders demonstrate increased dopamine transmission in the striatum. The authors sought to determine whether individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits are correlated with dopamine transmission in the striatum and in extrastriatal brain regions. Sixty-three healthy volunteers with no history of psychiatric illness completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and underwent positron emission tomography imaging with [(18)F]fallypride at baseline and after administration of oral d-amphetamine (0.43 mg/kg). Dopamine release, quantified by subtracting each participant's d-amphetamine scan from his or her baseline scan, was correlated with Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire total and factor scores using region-of-interest and voxel-wise analyses. Dopamine release in the striatum was positively correlated with overall schizotypal traits. The association was especially robust in the associative subdivision of the striatum. Voxel-wise analyses identified additional correlations between dopamine release and schizotypal traits in the left middle frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus. Exploratory analyses of Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire factor scores revealed correlations between dopamine release and disorganized schizotypal traits in the striatum, thalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, insula, and inferior frontal cortex. The association between dopamine signaling and psychosis phenotypes extends to individual differences in normal variation in schizotypal traits and involves dopamine transmission in both striatal and extrastriatal brain regions. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release may be a useful endophenotype for investigating the genetic basis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  1. Improving the dose-myelotoxicity correlation in radiometabolic therapy of bone metastases with {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacilio, Massimiliano; Basile, Chiara [Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Medical Physics; Ventroni, Guido; Mango, Lucio [Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Ialongo, Pasquale [Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Becci, Domenico [University of Rome, Health Physics Postgraduate School, Rome (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    {sup 153}Sm-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid ({sup 153}Sm-EDTMP) is widely used to palliate pain from bone metastases, and is being studied for combination therapy beyond palliation. Conceptually, red marrow (RM) dosimetry allows myelotoxicity to be predicted, but the correlation is poor due to dosimetric uncertainty, individual sensitivity and biological effects from previous treatments. According to EANM guidelines, basic dosimetric procedures have been studied to improve the correlation between dosimetry and myelotoxicity in {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP therapy. RM dosimetry for 33 treatments of bone metastases from breast, prostate and lung tumours was performed prospectively (with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP) and retrospectively, acquiring whole-body scans early and late after injection. The {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP activity was calculated by prospective dosimetry based on measured skeletal uptake and full physical retention, with the RM absorbed dose not exceeding 3.8 Gy. Patient-specific RM mass was evaluated by scaling in terms of body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM) and trabecular volume (TV) estimated from CT scans of the L2-L4 vertebrae. Correlations with toxicity were determined in a selected subgroup of 27 patients, in which a better correlation between dosimetry and myelotoxicity was expected. Skeletal uptakes of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 153}Sm (Tc{sub %} and Sm{sub %}) were well correlated. The median Sm{sub %} was higher in prostate cancer (75.3 %) than in lung (60.5 %, p = 0.005) or breast (60.8 %, p = 0.008). PLT and WBC nadirs were not correlated with administered activity, but were weakly correlated with uncorrected RM absorbed doses, and the correlation improved after rescaling in terms of BW, LBM and TV. Most patients showed transient toxicity (grade 1-3), which completely and spontaneously recovered over a few days. Using TV, RM absorbed dose was in the range 2-5 Gy, with a median of 312 cGy for PLT in patients with toxicity and 247 cGy in those with no

  2. Precision Medicine for Advanced Pancreas Cancer: The Individualized Molecular Pancreatic Cancer Therapy (IMPaCT) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrill, Lorraine A; Nagrial, Adnan M; Watson, Clare; Johns, Amber L; Martyn-Smith, Mona; Simpson, Skye; Mead, Scott; Jones, Marc D; Samra, Jaswinder S; Gill, Anthony J; Watson, Nicole; Chin, Venessa T; Humphris, Jeremy L; Chou, Angela; Brown, Belinda; Morey, Adrienne; Pajic, Marina; Grimmond, Sean M; Chang, David K; Thomas, David; Sebastian, Lucille; Sjoquist, Katrin; Yip, Sonia; Pavlakis, Nick; Asghari, Ray; Harvey, Sandra; Grimison, Peter; Simes, John; Biankin, Andrew V

    2015-05-01

    Personalized medicine strategies using genomic profiling are particularly pertinent for pancreas cancer. The Individualized Molecular Pancreatic Cancer Therapy (IMPaCT) trial was initially designed to exploit results from genome sequencing of pancreatic cancer under the auspices of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) in Australia. Sequencing revealed small subsets of patients with aberrations in their tumor genome that could be targeted with currently available therapies. The pilot stage of the IMPaCT trial assessed the feasibility of acquiring suitable tumor specimens for molecular analysis and returning high-quality actionable genomic data within a clinically acceptable timeframe. We screened for three molecular targets: HER2 amplification; KRAS wild-type; and mutations in DNA damage repair pathways (BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM). Tumor biopsy and archived tumor samples were collected from 93 patients and 76 were screened. To date 22 candidate cases have been identified: 14 KRAS wild-type, 5 cases of HER2 amplification, 2 mutations in BRCA2, and 1 ATM mutation. Median time from consent to the return of validated results was 21.5 days. An inability to obtain a biopsy or insufficient tumor content in the available specimen were common reasons for patient exclusion from molecular analysis while deteriorating performance status prohibited a number of patients from proceeding in the study. Documenting the feasibility of acquiring and screening biospecimens for actionable molecular targets in real time will aid other groups embarking on similar trials. Key elements include the need to better prescreen patients, screen more patients, and offer more attractive clinical trial options. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Inter and Intratumour Heterogeneity: A Barrier to Individualized Medical Therapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Rosalie; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2012-01-01

    -mTOR treatments remain inadequate. Furthermore, individualized therapy for mRCC has not been achieved; resistance to treatment is a major problem for which the molecular basis has not been determined, and biomarkers predictive of response or resistance have not been developed.

  4. Dance therapy for individuals with Parkinson's disease: improving quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackney ME

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Madeleine E Hackney,1–3 Crystal G Bennett4,5 1Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation R&D Center of Excellence, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Birmingham-Atlanta VA Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Decatur, GA, USA; 3Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Nursing, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USA; 5Department of Adult and Elderly Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD affects mobility and health-related quality of life (HRQOL, through a neurodegenerative disease process. Drugs and pharmacology do not fully address motor, cognitive, and psychosocial symptoms; therefore, adjunctive therapies have been researched for their efficacy at addressing these issues. One form of exercise, dance, has received attention because recent studies have demonstrated dance's ability to improve mobility and HRQOL in people with PD. The purpose of this integrative review was to present evidence supporting or refuting improved HRQOL in individuals with PD after participation in a dance- or music-based movement intervention. Potential mechanisms of HRQOL improvement are offered. Search terms including "Parkinson's disease", "dance", "quality of life", "exercise", "dance/movement therapy", and "music" were entered in groupings into PubMed, CINAHL®, EMBASE™, PsycINFO®, Web of Science™, and the Cochrane Library databases. Papers were included if they were randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, or case reports that were related to HRQOL and dance/movement and/or specifically related to determining the mechanisms potentially underlying dance effects. To date, the available research has been inconclusive in demonstrating that dance has a positive impact on HRQOL; however, further research is required. This review suggests that, at the very least, dance has the potential to impact the

  5. Prediction of Individual Response to Electroconvulsive Therapy via Machine Learning on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Ronny; Opel, Nils; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Zaremba, Dario; Bürger, Christian; Münker, Sandra; Mühlmann, Lisa; Wahl, Patricia; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Alferink, Judith; Zwanzger, Peter; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Kugel, Harald; Dannlowski, Udo

    2016-06-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe depression. However, biomarkers that accurately predict a response to ECT remain unidentified. To investigate whether certain factors identified by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are able to predict ECT response. In this nonrandomized prospective study, gray matter structure was assessed twice at approximately 6 weeks apart using 3-T MRI and voxel-based morphometry. Patients were recruited through the inpatient service of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, from March 11, 2010, to March 27, 2015. Two patient groups with acute major depressive disorder were included. One group received an ECT series in addition to antidepressants (n = 24); a comparison sample was treated solely with antidepressants (n = 23). Both groups were compared with a sample of healthy control participants (n = 21). Binary pattern classification was used to predict ECT response by structural MRI that was performed before treatment. In addition, univariate analysis was conducted to predict reduction of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score by pretreatment gray matter volumes and to investigate ECT-related structural changes. One participant in the ECT sample was excluded from the analysis, leaving 67 participants (27 men and 40 women; mean [SD] age, 43.7 [10.6] years). The binary pattern classification yielded a successful prediction of ECT response, with accuracy rates of 78.3% (18 of 23 patients in the ECT sample) and sensitivity rates of 100% (13 of 13 who responded to ECT). Furthermore, a support vector regression yielded a significant prediction of relative reduction in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score. The principal findings of the univariate model indicated a positive association between pretreatment subgenual cingulate volume and individual ECT response (Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] coordinates x = 8, y = 21, z = -18

  6. Morphometric and immunocytochemical analysis of melanoma samples for individual optimization of therapy for boron neutron capture (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpano, M; Dagrosa, A; Brandizzi, D; Nievas, S; Olivera, M S; Perona, M; Rodriguez, C; Cabrini, R; Juvenal, G; Pisarev, M

    2012-01-01

    an average maximum concentration of 21.47 ± 5.4, with individual values between 19.92 and 25.91 ppm of 10B at 2 h post injection. Tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-distal skin ratios were 7.09 and 3.66 respectively. Normal tissue temperature correlated with body core temperature with average values of 37 o C. Histological studies showed a wide area of tumor viability with small foci of necrosis. Tumors with large areas of viability showed a higher boron uptake. The immunohistochemical studies showed a high number of Ki67 positive tumor cells and the presence of vasculature in the peripheral zone with blood vessels of big diameter in tumors which showed a higher boron uptake. Conclusion: These findings seem to indicate a direct correlation between BPA uptake, viability, proliferative state and vascularisation of tumors. The determination of indirect indicators of the boron concentration in tumor will allow us to adjust the dose of neutrons for the optimization of individual therapy (author)

  7. Cerebral activation is correlated to regional atrophy of the spinal cord and functional motor disability in spinal cord injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Christensen, Mark Schram; Barthélemy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of function following lesions in the nervous system requires adaptive changes in surviving circuitries. Here we investigate whether changes in cerebral activation are correlated to spinal cord atrophy and recovery of functionality in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). 19...... hand and the functional ability of the SCI participants measured by the clinical motor score on the other. There was no significant correlation between activation in any other cerebral area and the motor score. Activation in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1), M1 and PMC was negatively correlated...... to the width of the spinal cord in the left-right direction, where the corticospinal tract is located, but not in the antero-posterior direction. There was a tendency for a negative correlation between cerebral activation in ipsilateral S1, M1 and PMC and the amplitude of motor evoked potentials...

  8. Sentinel lymph node imaging guided IMRT for prostate cancer: Individualized pelvic radiation therapy versus RTOG guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien P. Chen, MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: SLN-guided pelvic radiation therapy can be used to either treat the most critical nodes only or as an addition to RTOG guided pelvic radiation therapy to ensure that the most important nodes are included.

  9. Clinical evidence for individual animal therapy for papillomatous digital dermatitis (hairy heel wart) and infectious bovine pododermatitis (foot rot).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Data supporting individual animal therapy for papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) and infectious pododermatitis (IP) in cattle are available for treatment with multiple drugs in the form of randomized, prospective clinical trials conducted in naturally occurring disease with negative controls and masked subjective evaluators. In the case of PDD, these trials support the use of topical tetracycline and oxytetracycline, lincomycin, a copper-containing preparation, and a nonantimicrobial cream. In individual therapy for IP, trial evidence is available to support systemic treatment with ceftiofur, florfenicol, tulathromycin, and oxytetracycline. However, it was not available for IP standards such as penicillin G, sulfadimethoxine, and tylosin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral couples therapy in alcohol use disorder: a comparative evaluation in community-based addiction treatment centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedel, Ellen; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol

  11. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral couples therapy in alcohol use disorder: A comparative evaluation in community-based addiction treatment centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedel, E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Schippers, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol

  12. Evaluation of client progress in music therapy : An illustration of an N-of-1 design in individual short-term improvisational music therapy with clients with depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Spreen, Marinus; Bosveld-van Haandel, Linda; Bogaerts, S.

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces music therapy clinicians to a research design that can be easily implemented in clinical practice to evaluate and monitor the impact of interventions on individual clients: the systemic N-of-1 design. In this single-case design, the client’s network, consisting of

  13. Reasons for not starting antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected individuals: a changing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Jan; Nicca, Dunja; Goffard, Jean-Christophe; Haerry, David; Schlag, Michael; Papastamopoulos, Vasileios; Hoepelman, Andy; Skoutelis, Athanasius; Diazaraque, Ruth; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to better understand why chronically HIV-1-infected individuals stratified by CD4 count (≤349; 350-499; ≥500 cells/μL) were not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Before the consultation, treatment-naive patients and their physicians independently completed a 90-item-questionnaire about barriers and their readiness to start/defer ART. The study was carried out at 34 sites in nine countries in Europe and Australia. Between December 2011 and October 2012, 508 pairs of patient- and physician-questionnaires were completed. 426 (84 %) patients were male and 39 (8 %), 138 (27 %), and 330 (65 %) were in the three stratified groups based on CD4 count, respectively. In the category 'Body and symptoms' the most commonly identified reason for patients not to start was: "As long as I feel good I don't have to take medication" (44 %). Less than 20 % of respondents indicated fears of side effects and toxicity or problems to manage pills. Most patients were in the lowest stage of treatment-readiness (N = 323, 68 %), especially patients with CD4 cells ≥500 cells/μL (N = 240, 79 %). Physicians answered in 92 (18 %) cases that ART was not indicated for CD4 cells perception that patients were 'too depressed' (13 %) or that they had not known them long enough (13 %). Nowadays patient-barriers to ART are commonly related to health-and treatment-beliefs compared to fear of toxicity or ART manageability in the past. This new barrier pattern seems to reflect the era of well tolerated, easier ART regimens and has to be considered in light of the new recommendations to treat all HIV-infected individuals regardless of the CD4 cell count.

  14. Individualized Selection of Beam Angles and Treatment Isocenter in Tangential Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninkhof, Joan, E-mail: j.penninkhof@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Spadola, Sara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Baaijens, Margreet [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lanconelli, Nico [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Heijmen, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose and Objective: Propose a novel method for individualized selection of beam angles and treatment isocenter in tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: For each patient, beam and isocenter selection starts with the fully automatic generation of a large database of IMRT plans (up to 847 in this study); each of these plans belongs to a unique combination of isocenter position, lateral beam angle, and medial beam angle. The imposed hard planning constraint on patient maximum dose may result in plans with unacceptable target dose delivery. Such plans are excluded from further analyses. Owing to differences in beam setup, database plans differ in mean doses to organs at risk (OARs). These mean doses are used to construct 2-dimensional graphs, showing relationships between: (1) contralateral breast dose and ipsilateral lung dose; and (2) contralateral breast dose and heart dose (analyzed only for left-sided). The graphs can be used for selection of the isocenter and beam angles with the optimal, patient-specific tradeoffs between the mean OAR doses. For 30 previously treated patients (15 left-sided and 15 right-sided tumors), graphs were generated considering only the clinically applied isocenter with 121 tangential beam angle pairs. For 20 of the 30 patients, 6 alternative isocenters were also investigated. Results: Computation time for automatic generation of 121 IMRT plans took on average 30 minutes. The generated graphs demonstrated large variations in tradeoffs between conflicting OAR objectives, depending on beam angles and patient anatomy. For patients with isocenter optimization, 847 IMRT plans were considered. Adding isocenter position optimization next to beam angle optimization had a small impact on the final plan quality. Conclusion: A method is proposed for individualized selection of beam angles in tangential breast IMRT. This may be especially important for patients with cardiac risk factors or an

  15. Failure after Success: Correlates of Recidivism among Individuals Who Successfully Completed Coerced Drug Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hung-En; Belenko, Steven

    2005-01-01

    A subset of criminal offenders diverted from prison to treatment return to crime after successful completion of treatment. Identifying correlates of recidivism among treatment completers will improve our ability to help treated offenders to better capitalize on their treatment experiences. Data from 156 mandated clients of long-term residential…

  16. Microbial correlates of Fusarium biomass and deoxynivalenol content in individual wheat seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manipulating the microbiome of wheat seeds and heads may contribute to control of Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin accumulation in grain, which creates a food safety hazard. With the aim of identifying novel management targets, we looked for correlations between Fusarium biomass or deoxynivalenol ...

  17. Individual and social correlates of aggressive behavior in Lebanese undergraduates: The role of trait emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Baaklini, Amal

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between Aggressive Behavior and individual factors, namely trait Emotional Intelligence, personality dimensions, emotion regulation and self-worth, as well as social factors, namely accepting/rejecting parenting styles and exposure to violence. The sample consisted of 252 university students in Lebanon (154 females), from 16 to 30 years old. Results from hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for age and gender and in the presence of social and individual predictors) showed that the Self-control and Emotionality factors of trait Emotional Intelligence were significant negative predictors of Aggressive Behavior while controlling for age and gender and in the presence of social and individual predictors). Exposure to violence and openness to experience also predicted Aggressive Behavior. Implications for future research and limitations of the present study are discussed.

  18. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, G.H.; Ali, M.; Ahmed, J.; Abbas, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    To find out the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to polluted air, 438 workers, and their family members were studied at Thermal Power Station (TPS), Sheikhmanda (Quetta). Individuals with a stay of less than three years at TPS and patients with known chronic respiratory infections (tuberculosis and its squelae, bronchiectasis) were excluded from the study. Remaining 175 males (mean age 43.4 years) and 71 females (mean age 34.2 years) were divided into three groups A, B, C on the basis of their exposure time to polluted air per day during the three years. Each groups was further subdivided into smoker and non-smoker members. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in the individuals exposed to polluted air as compared to non-exposed individuals (P<0.05). A strong positive correlation (r=0.91) exists between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in smoker groups; however, no definite correlation (r=0.06) was found between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in non-smoker groups. Function abnormalities was noted only in smoker groups and non-smokers of even maximally exposed group (group C) had almost no respiratory function abnormalities. (author)

  19. How Do Different Ways of Measuring Individual Differences in Zero-Acquaintance Personality Judgment Accuracy Correlate With Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith A; Back, Mitja D; Nestler, Steffen; Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Ruben, Mollie A

    2018-04-01

    This research compares two different approaches that are commonly used to measure accuracy of personality judgment: the trait accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate among targets on a given trait, thus making intertarget comparisons, and the profile accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate between traits for a given target, thus making intratarget comparisons. We examined correlations between these methods as well as correlations among accuracies for judging specific traits. The present article documents relations among these approaches based on meta-analysis of five studies of zero-acquaintance impressions of the Big Five traits. Trait accuracies correlated only weakly with overall and normative profile accuracy. Substantial convergence between the trait and profile accuracy methods was only found when an aggregate of all five trait accuracies was correlated with distinctive profile accuracy. Importantly, however, correlations between the trait and profile accuracy approaches were reduced to negligibility when statistical overlap was corrected by removing the respective trait from the profile correlations. Moreover, correlations of the separate trait accuracies with each other were very weak. Different ways of measuring individual differences in personality judgment accuracy are not conceptually and empirically the same, but rather represent distinct abilities that rely on different judgment processes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Proposal of a methodology for individualized iodine-131 therapy for Graves' disease in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Francisco de; Melo, Rossana Corbo de; Rebelo, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder Augusto de

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Several methods are utilized for determining the radioiodine activity in the treatment of Graves' disease (hyperthyroidism). Some of this methods do not take into consideration the thyroid absorbed dose or the necessary parameters for this estimation. The association between absorbed dose and administered activity depends on effective half-life, iodine uptake and thyroid mass of each patient. The present study was aimed at developing a methodology for individualized 131 I therapy for Graves' disease in patients with hyperthyroidism of the Graves' disease. Materials and methods: A neck-thyroid phantom developed at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, containing a standard solution of 131 I, was utilized for calibrating the scintillation gamma camera and uptake probe installed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Results: The view angle of the collimator/detector assembly presented values compatible with the thyroid gland size for distances of 25 cm (uptake probe) and 45.8 cm (scintillation gamma camera). Calibration factors were 39.3 ± 0.78 and 4.3 ± 0.17 cpm/kBq, respectively. The 14-30-hour interval in the retention curve allows the estimation of activity between two points for determining the effective iodine half-life in the thyroid. Conclusion: The utilization of equipment usually available in nuclear medicine clinics is feasible, so this is a simple, effective and low cost methodology. (author)

  1. In pursuit of sisterhood: adult siblings as a resource for combined individual and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M D; Bank, S

    1981-03-01

    Therapists traditionally view brothers and sisters as rivalrous and self-seeking. Under carefully arranged conditions, however, siblings can learn to cooperate with each other to resolve important conflicts in family relationships. This case documents a dramatic change in the relationship between a 29-year-old woman and her father, the outcome of a three-step therapeutic intervention in which sibling dynamics were selectively used by the psychotherapist. As part of her individual therapy, the therapist first aroused the woman's discontent with her status as the neglected "baby of the family." Next, a series of meetings were held with the woman and her three sisters that permitted resolution of their previous anger and misunderstandings, thus helping them to become a more cohesive group of sisters. The third step brought the sisters, now as allies both of the identified patient and of the therapist, into a constructive confrontation with the parents. This resulted in lasting personal change for the identified patient and improved relationships throughout the entire family.

  2. The individual reminiscence therapy for patients with dementia. Assessment with SPECT and neuropsychological test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated psychosocial and neuronal effects of the individual reminiscence therapy (IRT) for patients with cognitive impairment. 25 IRT- treated outpatients with Alzheimer disease were compared with 14 outpatients who were not receiving any treatments including IRT. The subjects were treated with the total of 8 IRT sessions within 4 months. The changes of cognitive function, mood, volition, and the ability of caregiver were measured with questionnaires. The changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with IRT were measured using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In IRT group, depressed mood was improved after 4 month-IRT, which reached the significance level one year later. On the contrary, we could not observe any psychosocial changes in control group. Significant increase in regional blood flow was observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and in the right temporoparietal cortex in IRT group. On the contrary, the significant increase in the rCBF was observed only in the left DLPFC in control group. These results suggest that the IRT might improve the depressed mood and the spatial cognition in patients with cognitive impairment with neuronal change. (author)

  3. The Elicitation of Relaxation and Interoceptive Awareness Using Floatation Therapy in Individuals With High Anxiety Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Justin S; Khalsa, Sahib S; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Al Zoubi, Obada; Arevian, Armen C; Wohlrab, Colleen; Pantino, Marie K; Cartmell, Laci J; Simmons, W Kyle; Stein, Murray B; Paulus, Martin P

    2018-03-09

    Floatation-REST (Reduced Environmental Stimulation Therapy), an intervention that attenuates exteroceptive sensory input to the nervous system, has recently been found to reduce state anxiety across a diverse clinical sample with high levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS). To further examine this anxiolytic effect, the present study investigated the affective and physiological changes induced by Floatation-REST and assessed whether individuals with high AS experienced any alterations in their awareness for interoceptive sensation while immersed in an environment lacking exteroceptive sensation. Using a within-subject crossover design, 31 participants with high AS were randomly assigned to undergo a 90-minute session of Floatation-REST or an exteroceptive comparison condition. Measures of self-reported affect and interoceptive awareness were collected before and after each session, and blood pressure was measured during each session. Relative to the comparison condition, Floatation-REST generated a significant anxiolytic effect characterized by reductions in state anxiety and muscle tension and increases in feelings of relaxation and serenity (p 12 mm Hg). The float environment also significantly enhanced awareness and attention for cardiorespiratory sensations. Floatation-REST induced a state of relaxation and heightened interoceptive awareness in a clinical sample with high AS. The paradoxical nature of the anxiolytic effect in this sample is discussed in relation to Wolpe's theory of reciprocal inhibition and the regulation of distress via sustained attention to present moment visceral sensations such as the breath. Copyright © 2018 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n=8 or no therapy (n=6. Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test, and the Nine-Hole Peg Test as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and one month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy but not in the absence of therapy to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  5. Additional weekend therapy may reduce length of rehabilitation stay after stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Coralie; Shields, Nora; Brusco, Natasha K; Taylor, Nicholas F; Watts, Jennifer J; Peiris, Casey; Bernhardt, Julie; Crotty, Maria; Esterman, Adrian; Segal, Leonie; Hillier, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Among people receiving inpatient rehabilitation after stroke, does additional weekend physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy reduce the length of rehabilitation hospital stay compared to those who receive a weekday-only service, and does this change after controlling for individual factors? Does additional weekend therapy improve the ability to walk and perform activities of daily living, measured at discharge? Does additional weekend therapy improve health-related quality of life, measured 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation? Which individual, clinical and hospital characteristics are associated with shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay? This study pooled individual data from two randomised, controlled trials (n=350) using an individual patient data meta-analysis and multivariate regression. People with stroke admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Additional weekend therapy (physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy) compared to usual care (5 days/week therapy). Length of rehabilitation hospital stay, independence in activities of daily living measured with the Functional Independence Measure, walking speed and health-related quality of life. Participants who received weekend therapy had a shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay. In the un-adjusted analysis, this was not statistically significant (MD -5.7 days, 95% CI -13.0 to 1.5). Controlling for hospital site, age, walking speed and Functional Independence Measure score on admission, receiving weekend therapy was significantly associated with a shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay (β=7.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 13.4, p=0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in Functional Independence Measure scores (MD 1.9 points, 95% CI -2.8 to 6.6), walking speed (MD 0.06 m/second, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.04) or health-related quality of life (SMD -0.04, 95% CI -0.26 to 0.19) at discharge. Modest evidence indicates that additional weekend therapy might reduce

  6. Additional weekend therapy may reduce length of rehabilitation stay after stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie English

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Questions: Among people receiving inpatient rehabilitation after stroke, does additional weekend physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy reduce the length of rehabilitation hospital stay compared to those who receive a weekday-only service, and does this change after controlling for individual factors? Does additional weekend therapy improve the ability to walk and perform activities of daily living, measured at discharge? Does additional weekend therapy improve health-related quality of life, measured 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation? Which individual, clinical and hospital characteristics are associated with shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay? Design: This study pooled individual data from two randomised, controlled trials (n = 350 using an individual patient data meta-analysis and multivariate regression. Participants: People with stroke admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Intervention: Additional weekend therapy (physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy compared to usual care (5 days/week therapy. Outcome measures: Length of rehabilitation hospital stay, independence in activities of daily living measured with the Functional Independence Measure, walking speed and health-related quality of life. Results: Participants who received weekend therapy had a shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay. In the un-adjusted analysis, this was not statistically significant (MD –5.7 days, 95% CI –13.0 to 1.5. Controlling for hospital site, age, walking speed and Functional Independence Measure score on admission, receiving weekend therapy was significantly associated with a shorter length of rehabilitation hospital stay (β = 7.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 13.4, p = 0.001. There were no significant between-group differences in Functional Independence Measure scores (MD 1.9 points, 95% CI –2.8 to 6.6, walking speed (MD 0.06 m/second, 95% CI –0.15 to 0.04 or health-related quality of life (SMD –0.04, 95% CI

  7. Parental Leave and Work Adaptation at the Transition to Parenthood: Individual, Marital, and Social Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Sussman, Amy L.; Zigler, Edward

    2004-01-01

    This study examined individual, marital, and social--contextual factors associated with the length of maternity and paternity leave and the parents' work adaptation at the transition to parenthood. Ninety-eight dual-earner parents of 3- to 5-month-old infants were surveyed following the mother's return to work. A shorter maternity leave (less than…

  8. The Neural Correlates of Health Risk Perception in Individuals with Low and High Numeracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Stephan E.; Keller, Carmen; Koschutnig, Karl; Reishofer, Gernot; Ebner, Franz; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael; Grabner, Roland H.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to use numerical information in different contexts is a major goal of mathematics education. In health risk communication, outcomes of a medical condition are frequently expressed in probabilities. Difficulties to accurately represent probability information can result in unfavourable medical decisions. To support individuals with…

  9. Neural Correlates of Individual Differences in Infant Visual Attention and Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Guy, Maggie W.; Zhang, Dantong

    2011-01-01

    Past studies have identified individual differences in infant visual attention based upon peak look duration during initial exposure to a stimulus. Colombo and colleagues found that infants that demonstrate brief visual fixations (i.e., short lookers) during familiarization are more likely to demonstrate evidence of recognition memory during…

  10. Electrophysiological correlates of implicit valenced self-processing in high vs. low self-esteem individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John G; Benarroch, Miriam F F; Lebarr, A Nicole; Shedden, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first high-temporal resolution account of the self-esteem implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald & Farnham, 2000) to highlight important similarities and differences between the cognitive processes corresponding to implicit valenced self-processing in high vs. low self-esteem individuals. We divided individuals into high and low self-esteem groups based on the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and administered the self-esteem IAT while recording electroencephalographic data. We show that the P2 captured group (high vs. low self-esteem) differences, the N250 and the late parietal positivity (LPP) captured differences corresponding to category pairing (self/positive vs. self/negative pairing), and the N1, P2, and P300-400 components captured interactions between self-esteem groups and whether the self was paired with positive or negative categories in the IAT. Overall, both high and low self-esteem groups were sensitive to the distinction between positive and negative information in relation to the self (me/negative generally displayed larger event-related potential amplitudes than me/positive), but for high self-esteem individuals, this difference was generally larger, earlier, and most pronounced over left-hemisphere electrodes. These electrophysiological differences may reflect differences in attentional resources devoted to teasing apart these two oppositely valenced associations. High self-esteem individuals appear to devote more automatic (early) attentional resources to strengthen the distinction between positively or negatively valenced information in relation to the self.

  11. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence into Adulthood: Environmental and Individual Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Nevell, Alyssa M.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify trajectories of marijuana use in the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808) sample from age 14 through 30, and to examine the extent to which individuals in these trajectories differed in their substance use problems, mental health, problem behavior, economic outcomes, and positive functioning at age 33. In…

  12. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial of individualized occupational therapy for patients with schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Ohori, Manami; Inagaki, Yusuke; Shimooka, Yuko; Sugimura, Naoya; Ishihara, Ikuyo; Yoshida, Tomotaka; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    The individualized occupational therapy (IOT) program is a psychosocial program that we developed to facilitate proactive participation in treatment and improve cognitive functioning and other outcomes for inpatients with acute schizophrenia. The program consists of motivational interviewing, self-monitoring, individualized visits, handicraft activities, individualized psychoeducation, and discharge planning. This multicenter, open-labeled, blinded-endpoint, randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of adding IOT to a group OT (GOT) program as usual for outcomes in recently hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Japanese psychiatric hospitals setting compared with GOT alone. Patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to the GOT+IOT group or the GOT alone group. Among 136 randomized patients, 129 were included in the intent-to-treat population: 66 in the GOT+IOT and 63 in the GOT alone groups. Outcomes were administered at baseline and discharge or 3 months following hospitalization including the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J), the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale Japanese version, the Social Functioning Scale Japanese version, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory Japanese version (IMI-J), the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Japanese version of Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8J). Results of linear mixed effects models indicated that the IOT+GOT showed significant improvements in verbal memory (p <0.01), working memory (p = 0.02), verbal fluency (p < 0.01), attention (p < 0.01), and composite score (p < 0.01) on the BACS-J; interest/enjoyment (p < 0.01), value/usefulness (p < 0.01), perceived choice (p < 0.01), and IMI-J total (p < 0.01) on the IMI-J; MMAS-8 score (p < 0.01) compared with the GOT alone. Patients in the GOT+IOT demonstrated significant improvements on the CSQ-8J

  13. SU-E-J-48: Development of An Abdominal Compression Device for Respiratory Correlated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop the abdominal compression device which could control pressure level according to the abdominal respiratory motion and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: In this study, we focused on developing the abdominal compression device which could control pressure level at any point of time so the developed device is possible to use a variety of purpose (gating technique or respiratory training system) while maintaining the merit of the existing commercial device. The compression device (air pad form) was designed to be able to compress the front and side of abdomen and the pressure level of the abdomen is controlled by air flow. Pressure level of abdomen (air flow) was determined using correlation data between external abdominal motion and respiratory volume signal measured by spirometer. In order to verify the feasibility of the device, it was necessary to confirm the correlation between the abdominal respiratory motion and respiratory volume signal and cooperation with respiratory training system also checked. Results: In the previous study, we could find that the correlation coefficient ratio between diaphragm and respiratory volume signal measured by spirometer was 0.95. In this study, we confirmed the correlation between the respiratory volume signal and the external abdominal motion measured by belt-transducer (correlation coefficient ratio was 0.92) and used the correlated respiratory volume data as an abdominal pressure level. It was possible to control the pressure level with negligible time delay and respiratory volume data based guiding waveforms could be properly inserted into the respiratory training system. Conclusion: Through this feasibility study, we confirmed the correlation between the respiratory volume signal and the external abdominal motion. Also initial assessment of the device and its compatibility with the respiratory training system were verified. Further study on application in respiratory gated

  14. Correlation between the organism response to acute hypoxia and individual radiosensitivity of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, A.Yu.; Silin, D.Ya.

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of a correlation between the response of basal metabolism to acute hypoxia and the life span of rats after irradiation resulting in the development of a cerebral form of radiation sickness. The more radiosensitive animals consumed a larger amount of oxygen, exhaled a smaller amount of carbon dioxide and showd an increased normal expiratory exchange per minute. After the effect of acure hypoxia all the indices under study revealed an opposite picture

  15. Individual music therapy for managing neuropsychiatric symptoms for people with dementia and their carers: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming Hung; Flowerdew, Rosamund; Parker, Michael; Fachner, Jörg; Odell-Miller, Helen

    2015-07-18

    Previous research highlights the importance of staff involvement in psychosocial interventions targeting neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Music therapy has shown potential effects, but it is not clear how this intervention can be programmed to involve care staff within the delivery of patients' care. This study reports initial feasibility and outcomes from a five month music therapy programme including weekly individual active music therapy for people with dementia and weekly post-therapy video presentations for their carers in care homes. 17 care home residents and 10 care staff were randomised to the music therapy intervention group or standard care control group. The cluster randomised, controlled trial included baseline, 3-month, 5-month and post-intervention 7-month measures of residents' symptoms and well-being. Carer-resident interactions were also assessed. Feasibility was based on carers' feedback through semi-structured interviews, programme evaluations and track records of the study. The music therapy programme appeared to be a practicable and acceptable intervention for care home residents and staff in managing dementia symptoms. Recruitment and retention data indicated feasibility but also challenges. Preliminary outcomes indicated differences in symptoms (13.42, 95 % CI: [4.78 to 22.07; p = 0.006]) and in levels of wellbeing (-0.74, 95 % CI: [-1.15 to -0.33; p = 0.003]) between the two groups, indicating that residents receiving music therapy improved. Staff in the intervention group reported enhanced caregiving techniques as a result of the programme. The data supports the value of developing a music therapy programme involving weekly active individual music therapy sessions and music therapist-carer communication. The intervention is feasible with modifications in a more rigorous evaluation of a larger sample size. Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT01744600.

  16. Statin therapy and mortality in HIV-infected individuals; a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that statins possess diverse immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. As statins might attenuate inflammation, statin therapy has been hypothesized to reduce mortality in HIV-infected individuals. We therefore used a Danish nationwide cohort of HIV......-infected individuals to estimate the impact of statin use on mortality before and after a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease or diabetes....

  17. Individual differences in the effects of chronic stress on memory: behavioral and neurochemical correlates of resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, B M; Veverka, K K; Dhillon, E S; Urban, J H; Lucas, L R

    2013-08-29

    Chronic stress has been shown to impair memory, however, the extent to which memory can be impaired is often variable across individuals. Predisposed differences in particular traits, such as anxiety, may reveal underlying neurobiological mechanisms that could be driving individual differences in sensitivity to stress and, thus, stress resiliency. Such pre-morbid characteristics may serve as early indicators of susceptibility to stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and enkephalin (ENK) are neurochemical messengers of interest implicated in modulating anxiety and motivation circuitry; however, little is known about how these neuropeptides interact with stress resiliency and memory. In this experiment, adult male rats were appetitively trained to locate sugar rewards in a motivation-based spatial memory task before undergoing repeated immobilization stress and then being tested for memory retention. Anxiety-related behaviors, among other characteristics, were monitored longitudinally. Results indicated that stressed animals which showed little to no impairments in memory post-stress (i.e., the more stress-resilient individuals) exhibited lower anxiety levels prior to stress when compared to stressed animals that showed large deficits in memory (i.e., the more stress-susceptible individuals). Interestingly, all stressed animals, regardless of memory change, showed reduced body weight gain as well as thymic involution, suggesting that the effects of stress on metabolism and the immune system were dissociated from the effects of stress on higher cognition, and that stress resiliency seems to be domain-specific rather than a global characteristic within an individual. Neurochemical analyses revealed that NPY in the hypothalamus and amygdala and ENK in the nucleus accumbens were modulated differentially between stress-resilient and stress-susceptible individuals, with elevated expression of these neuropeptides fostering anxiolytic and pro-motivation function, thus driving

  18. Deep sequencing analysis of HBV genotype shift and correlation with antiviral efficiency during adefovir dipivoxil therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Wang

    Full Text Available Viral genotype shift in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients during antiviral therapy has been reported, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive.38 CHB patients treated with ADV for one year were selected for studying genotype shift by both deep sequencing and Sanger sequencing method.Sanger sequencing method found that 7.9% patients showed mixed genotype before ADV therapy. In contrast, all 38 patients showed mixed genotype before ADV treatment by deep sequencing. 95.5% mixed genotype rate was also obtained from additional 200 treatment-naïve CHB patients. Of the 13 patients with genotype shift, the fraction of the minor genotype in 5 patients (38% increased gradually during the course of ADV treatment. Furthermore, responses to ADV and HBeAg seroconversion were associated with the high rate of genotype shift, suggesting drug and immune pressure may be key factors to induce genotype shift. Interestingly, patients with genotype C had a significantly higher rate of genotype shift than genotype B. In genotype shift group, ADV treatment induced a marked enhancement of genotype B ratio accompanied by a reduction of genotype C ratio, suggesting genotype C may be more sensitive to ADV than genotype B. Moreover, patients with dominant genotype C may have a better therapeutic effect. Finally, genotype shifts was correlated with clinical improvement in terms of ALT.Our findings provided a rational explanation for genotype shift among ADV-treated CHB patients. The genotype and genotype shift might be associated with antiviral efficiency.

  19. Graves' Disease as a Manifestation of Immune Reconstitution in HIV-Infected Individuals after Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Rasul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in certain HIV-1-infected individuals has been described as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. This phenomenon should be suspected in individuals who present with clinical deterioration and a presentation suggestive of hyperthyroidism despite good virological and immunological response to HAART. Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism may be discrete or overt and typically develop 8–33 months after initiating therapy. One to two percent of HIV-infected patients can present with overt thyroid disease. Relatively few cases of Graves' IRIS have been reported in the literature to date. We describe four cases of Graves' IRIS in HIV-infected patients who were started on HAART therapy.

  20. Smoking and life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in Europe and North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret T.; Ingle, Suzanne M.; Dabis, Francois; Reiss, Peter; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Costagliola, Dominique; d'Arminio, Antonella; Cavassini, Matthias; Smith, Colette; Justice, Amy C.; Gill, John; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Obel, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS malignancies have become major causes of death among HIV-infected individuals. The relative impact of lifestyle and HIV-related factors are debated. We estimated associations of smoking with mortality more than 1 year after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation

  1. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Individuals Whose Lives Have Been Affected by Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Elizabeth; Baillie, Andrew; Huxter, Malcolm; Price, Melanie; Sinclair, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals with a diagnosis of cancer. Method: Participants (N = 115) diagnosed with cancer, across site and stage, were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the wait-list condition. Treatment was conducted at 1 site, by a single…

  2. Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…

  3. Music therapy for individuals with dementia: areas of interventions and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, A; Gianelli, M V

    2009-06-01

    This contribution focuses on the definition of music therapy as a specific applicative context to be seen as distinct from the generic use of music in a variety of pathologies. Music therapy is presented as a discipline grounded both upon relationship and upon the theoretical-methodological principles peculiar to each applicative model. The therapeutic nature proper to music therapy is highlighted with specific reference to the domain of the dementias. Music therapy facilitates expression, communication and relationship in the non-verbal context. Such an opportunity allows persons with dementia to establish contact, to express, and even contrive an organisation/regulation of their emotions, through the sonorous-musical relationship with the music therapist. On the basis of a brief analysis of the relevant literature, attention is drawn to the importance of both evidence-based clinical practice and music therapy evaluations, aimed at proving the effectiveness of music therapy, while promoting its correct application.

  4. Music therapy services for individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a survey of clinical practices and training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Petra; Rivera, Nicole R; Chandler, Alie; Humpal, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the definitions, diagnoses, prevalence rates, theories about the causes, evidence-based treatment options, and practice guidelines pertaining to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have undergone numerous changes. While several recent studies evaluate the effects of music therapy interventions for individuals with ASD, no current review reflects the latest music therapy practices and trends. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of music therapy practices for serving clients with ASD, the implementation of national ASD standards and guidelines, the awareness of recent developments, and training needs of music therapists. Professional members of the American Music Therapy Association who are working with individuals with ASD served as the sample for this national cross-sectional survey study (N = 328). A 45-item online questionnaire was designed and distributed through email and social media. Participants accessed the online survey through SurveyMonkey®. Findings suggest music therapy practices and services for individuals with ASD have shifted and now reflect a slightly higher percentage of caseload, a broader age range of clients, and a trend to serve clients in home and community settings. Most therapeutic processes align with recommended practices for ASD and incorporate several of the recognized evidence-based practices. Less understood or recognized are inclusion practices and latest developments in the field of ASD. Music therapists have a solid understanding of providing services for individuals with ASD, but would benefit from advanced online training and improved information dissemination to stay current with the rapidly changing aspects pertinent to this population. © 2013 by the American Music Therapy Association.

  5. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  6. Exploring the Correlates to Depression in Elder Abuse Victims: Abusive Experience or Individual Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana João; Nunes, Baltazar; Kislaya, Irina; Gil, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms have been studied both as risk factors and consequences of elder abuse, even though the most common cross-sectional design of the studies does not allow inferring cause or consequence relationships. This study estimates the proportion of older adults who screened positive for depressive symptoms among those self-reporting elder abuse and examines whether individual characteristics and/or abusive experience aspects are associated with self-reported depressive symptoms. Participants were 510 older adults self-reporting experiences of abuse in family setting enrolled in the cross-sectional victims' survey of the Aging and Violence Study. Depressive symptoms were assessed through the abbreviated version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-5). Poisson regression was used to determine the prevalence ratio (PR) of screening depressive symptoms according to individual and abusive experience covariates: sex, age group, cohabitation, perceived social support, chronic diseases, functional status, violence type, perpetrator, and number of conducts. Women (PR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.04, 1.35]) individuals perceiving low social support level (PR = 1.36, 95% CI = [1.16, 1.60]) and with long-term illness (PR = 1.17, 95% CI = [1.02, 1.33]) were found to be associated with increased risk for screening depressive symptoms. In regard to abusive experience, only the number of abusive conducts increased the PR (PR = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.05, 1.09]). Routine screening for elder abuse should include psychological well-being assessment. Interventions toward risk alleviation for both mental health problems and elder abuse should target women perceiving low social support level and with long-term illness.

  7. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Loehr, Mario [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC or {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV{sub max} in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm{sup 3} was a median of 23.4 x 10{sup -6} (range 0.4 x 10{sup -6} to 68.3 x 10{sup -6}). A strong correlation was observed between SUV{sub max} and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P < 0.01). Excluding one patient who showed large differences in biokinetics between PET and PRRT and another patient with incomplete data, linear regression analysis indicated significant correlations between SUV{sub max} and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV{sub max} and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10{sup -6} (maximum 9.3 x 10{sup -6}) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) {sup 177}Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour

  8. Incidence and timing of cancer in HIV-infected individuals following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Napravnik, Sonia; Cole, Stephen R; Achenbach, Chad J; Gopal, Satish; Olshan, Andrew; Dittmer, Dirk P; Kitahata, Mari M; Mugavero, Michael J; Saag, Michael; Moore, Richard D; Mayer, Kenneth; Mathews, W Christopher; Hunt, Peter W; Rodriguez, Benigno; Eron, Joseph J

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but patterns of cancer incidence after combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation remain poorly characterized. We evaluated the incidence and timing of cancer diagnoses among patients initiating ART between 1996 and 2011 in a collaboration of 8 US clinical HIV cohorts. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rates. Cox regression was used to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with cancer incidence after ART initiation. At initiation of first combination ART among 11 485 patients, median year was 2004 (interquartile range [IQR], 2000-2007) and median CD4 count was 202 cells/mm(3) (IQR, 61-338). Incidence rates for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and lymphomas were highest in the first 6 months after ART initiation (P cancers combined increased from 416 to 615 cases per 100 000 person-years from 1 to 10 years after ART initiation (average 7% increase per year; 95% confidence interval, 2%-13%). Lower CD4 count at ART initiation was associated with greater risk of KS, lymphoma, and human papillomavirus-related cancer. Calendar year of ART initiation was not associated with cancer incidence. KS and lymphoma rates were highest immediately following ART initiation, particularly among patients with low CD4 cell counts, whereas other cancers increased with time on ART, likely reflecting increased cancer risk with aging. Our results underscore recommendations for earlier HIV diagnosis followed by prompt ART initiation along with ongoing aggressive cancer screening and prevention efforts throughout the course of HIV care.

  9. Prediction of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy and establishment of individualized therapy in advanced rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Toshihiro; Iwata, Takashi; Hotchi, Masanori; Yoshikawa, Kozo; Higashijima, Jun; Nishi, Masaaki; Takasu, Chie; Eto, Shohei; Teraoku, Hiroki; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2015-10-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, no specific biomarker has been identified to predict a response to preoperative CRT. The aim of the present study was to assess the gene expression patterns of patients with advanced rectal cancer to predict their responses to preoperative CRT. Fifty-nine rectal cancer patients were subjected to preoperative CRT. Patients were randomly assigned to receive CRT with tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (S-1 group, n=30) or tegafur-uracil (UFT group, n=29). Gene expression changes were studied with cDNA and miRNA microarray. The association between gene expression and response to CRT was evaluated. cDNA microarray showed that 184 genes were significantly differentially expressed between the responders and the non‑responders in the S-1 group. Comparatively, 193 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the responders in the UFT group. TBX18 upregulation was common to both groups whereas BTNL8, LOC375010, ADH1B, HRASLS2, LOC284232, GCNT3 and ALDH1A2 were significantly differentially lower in both groups when compared with the non-responders. Using miRNA microarray, we found that 7 and 16 genes were significantly differentially expressed between the responders and non-responders in the S-1 and UFT groups, respectively. miR-223 was significantly higher in the responders in the S-1 group and tended to be higher in the responders in the UFT group. The present study identified several genes likely to be useful for establishing individualized therapies for patients with rectal cancer.

  10. Personality correlates of individual differences in the recruitment of cognitive mechanisms when rewards are at stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Allan J; Long, Laura J; Woodman, Geoffrey F; Zald, David H

    2018-02-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their sensitivity to rewards and punishments. In the extreme, these differences are implicated in a range of psychiatric disorders from addiction to depression. However, it is unclear how these differences influence the recruitment of attention, working memory, and long-term memory when responding to potential rewards. Here, we used a rewarded memory-guided visual search task and ERPs to examine the influence of individual differences in self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity, as measured by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Activation System (BAS) scales, on the recruitment of cognitive mechanisms in conditions of potential reward. Select subscales of the BAS, including the fun seeking and reward responsiveness scales, showed unique relationships with context updating to reward cues and working memory maintenance of potentially rewarded stimuli. In contrast, BIS scores showed unique relationships with deployment of attention at different points in the task. These results suggest that sensitivity to rewards (i.e., BAS) and to punishment (i.e., BIS) may play an important role in the recruitment of specific and distinct cognitive mechanisms in conditions of potential rewards. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Outlier populations: individual and social network correlates of solvent-using injection drug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souradet Y Shaw

    Full Text Available We previously identified a high prevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV amongst solvent-using injection drug users (S-IDU relative to other injection drug users within the same locality. Here we incorporated social network variables to better characterize some of the behavioural characteristics that may be putting this specific subgroup of IDU at elevated disease risk.A cross-sectional survey of at-risk populations was carried out in Winnipeg, Canada in 2009. Individuals reporting any history of injection drug and/or solvent use were included in the study. Associations between subgroup membership, infection with HCV and HIV and individual and social network variables were examined.In relation to other IDU, S-IDU were more likely to be infected with HCV, to report ever having shared a syringe, and to associate with other IDU. They were further differentiated in terms of their self-reported sexual orientation, ethnicity and in the injection drugs typically used.Solvent use stands as a proxy measure of numerous other characteristics that put this group of IDU at higher risk of infection. Provision of adequate services to ostracized subpopulations may result in wider population-level benefits.

  12. Neural correlates of sexual cue reactivity in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Mole, Thomas B; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Morris, Laurel; Mitchell, Simon; Lapa, Tatyana R; Karr, Judy; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Irvine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking) to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions.

  13. Analysis of pairwise correlations in multi-parametric PET/MR data for biological tumor characterization and treatment individualization strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfarth, Sara; Moennich, David; Thorwarth, Daniela [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section for Biomedical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Simoncic, Urban [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section for Biomedical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Welz, Stefan; Zips, Daniel [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Schmidt, Holger; Schwenzer, Nina [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this pilot study was to explore simultaneous functional PET/MR for biological characterization of tumors and potential future treatment adaptations. To investigate the extent of complementarity between different PET/MR-based functional datasets, a pairwise correlation analysis was performed. Functional datasets of N=15 head and neck (HN) cancer patients were evaluated. For patients of group A (N=7), combined PET/MR datasets including FDG-PET and ADC maps were available. Patients of group B (N=8) had FMISO-PET, DCE-MRI and ADC maps from combined PET/MRI, an additional dynamic FMISO-PET/CT acquired directly after FMISO tracer injection as well as an FDG-PET/CT acquired a few days earlier. From DCE-MR, parameter maps K{sup trans}, v{sub e} and v{sub p} were obtained with the extended Tofts model. Moreover, parameter maps of mean DCE enhancement, ΔS{sub DCE}, and mean FMISO signal 0-4 min p.i., anti A{sub FMISO}, were derived. Pairwise correlations were quantified using the Spearman correlation coefficient (r) on both a voxel and a regional level within the gross tumor volume. Between some pairs of functional imaging modalities moderate correlations were observed with respect to the median over all patient datasets, whereas distinct correlations were only present on an individual basis. Highest inter-modality median correlations on the voxel level were obtained for FDG/FMISO (r = 0.56), FDG/ anti A{sub FMISO} (r = 0.55), anti A{sub FMISO}/ΔS{sub DCE} (r = 0.46), and FDG/ADC (r = -0.39). Correlations on the regional level showed comparable results. The results of this study suggest that the examined functional datasets provide complementary information. However, only pairwise correlations were examined, and correlations could still exist between combinations of three or more datasets. These results might contribute to the future design of individually adapted treatment approaches based on multiparametric functional imaging.

  14. Investigating Behavioral and Psychophysiological Reactions to Conflict-Related and Individualized Stimuli as Potential Correlates of Repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kessler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which “unbearable” mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation. Due to its complex and highly individual nature, repression has been notoriously difficult to investigate. We investigated repression with an individualized experiment in healthy subjects in order to establish methods to study repression in clinical populations. To this end we operationalized repression using individualized experimental conditions, and then studied potential behavioral [memory and reaction time (RT] and psychophysiological correlates [skin conductance response (SCR].Method: Twenty-nine healthy female subjects were asked to freely associate to individualized cue sentences. Sentences were generated from individual psychodynamic interviews based on operationlized psychodynamic diagnosis (OPD, and were comprised of three different types: positive, negative non-conflictual, and negative conflict-related sentences. Subjects were asked to name the first three associations coming into their mind. Afterward, the remaining time was used for free association. SCR during each association trial and RT of the first given association were recorded. The memory for the first three associations was subsequently tested in an unexpected recall.Results: Associations to conflict-related cue sentences were associated with longer RTs and increased SCRs. Moreover, the unexpected recall task showed memory for these associations to be reduced.Conclusion: We interpret these findings as possible correlates of

  15. Investigating Behavioral and Psychophysiological Reactions to Conflict-Related and Individualized Stimuli as Potential Correlates of Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Henrik; Schmidt, Anna Christine; Hildenbrand, Oliver; Scharf, Daniela; Kehyayan, Aram; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2017-01-01

    Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which "unbearable" mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts) are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation. Due to its complex and highly individual nature, repression has been notoriously difficult to investigate. We investigated repression with an individualized experiment in healthy subjects in order to establish methods to study repression in clinical populations. To this end we operationalized repression using individualized experimental conditions, and then studied potential behavioral [memory and reaction time (RT)] and psychophysiological correlates [skin conductance response (SCR)]. Method: Twenty-nine healthy female subjects were asked to freely associate to individualized cue sentences. Sentences were generated from individual psychodynamic interviews based on operationlized psychodynamic diagnosis (OPD), and were comprised of three different types: positive, negative non-conflictual, and negative conflict-related sentences. Subjects were asked to name the first three associations coming into their mind. Afterward, the remaining time was used for free association. SCR during each association trial and RT of the first given association were recorded. The memory for the first three associations was subsequently tested in an unexpected recall. Results: Associations to conflict-related cue sentences were associated with longer RTs and increased SCRs. Moreover, the unexpected recall task showed memory for these associations to be reduced. Conclusion: We interpret these findings as possible correlates of repression, in line

  16. Self-Care Self-Efficacy Correlates with Independence in Basic Activities of Daily Living in Individuals with Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Yael; Weingarden, Harold; Zeilig, Gabi; Nota, Ayala; Rand, Debbie

    2015-07-01

    (1) To characterize the self-care self-efficacy (SCSE) of community dwelling individuals with chronic stroke and (2) to determine the contribution of SCSE to the independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL) and the participation of individuals with chronic stroke. SCSE is the confidence in one's own ability to perform self-care activities. This cross-sectional study included fifty community-dwelling individuals mean (SD) age 59.8 (9.3) years, mean (SD) 3.1 (1.7) years post-stroke who were able to walk at least 10 meters. SCSE was assessed using the Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ), BADL was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) (interview), the IADL questionnaire assessed IADL and the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) assessed participation. Correlation and regression analyses were performed after controlling for grip strength, executive functions and gait speed, factors known to influence independence in daily living. The mean SCSE level was moderate-high (70%). Significant moderate correlations were found between SCSE to independence in BADL (r = .596, P < .001), IADL (r = .567, P < .001) and participation (r = .340, P < .005). SCSE of our cohort explained 7.4% of the variance of the individual's independence in BADL after controlling for executive functions and gait speed, but did not contribute to their independence in IADL and participation. Higher SCSE of individuals with chronic stroke contributes to more independence in BADL. Additional questionnaires regarding self efficacy for IADL should be developed and investigated. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual differences in learning correlate with modulation of brain activity induced by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Brian; Wada, Atsushi; Parasuraman, Raja

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance cognitive performance on a variety of tasks. It is hypothesized that tDCS enhances performance by affecting task related cortical excitability changes in networks underlying or connected to the site of stimulation facilitating long term potentiation. However, many recent studies have called into question the reliability and efficacy of tDCS to induce modulatory changes in brain activity. In this study, our goal is to investigate the individual differences in tDCS induced modulatory effects on brain activity related to the degree of enhancement in performance, providing insight into this lack of reliability. In accomplishing this goal, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) concurrently with tDCS stimulation (1 mA, 30 minutes duration) using a visual search task simulating real world conditions. The experiment consisted of three fMRI sessions: pre-training (no performance feedback), training (performance feedback which included response accuracy and target location and either real tDCS or sham stimulation given), and post-training (no performance feedback). The right posterior parietal cortex was selected as the site of anodal tDCS based on its known role in visual search and spatial attention processing. Our results identified a region in the right precentral gyrus, known to be involved with visual spatial attention and orienting, that showed tDCS induced task related changes in cortical excitability that were associated with individual differences in improved performance. This same region showed greater activity during the training session for target feedback of incorrect (target-error feedback) over correct trials for the tDCS stim over sham group indicating greater attention to target features during training feedback when trials were incorrect. These results give important insight into the nature of neural excitability induced by tDCS as it relates to variability in

  18. Hormone therapy in transgender adults is safe with provider supervision; A review of hormone therapy sequelae for transgender individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Weinand, Jamie D.; Safer, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Some providers report concern for the safety of transgender hormone therapy (HT). Methods: This is a systematic literature review of HT safety for transgender adults. Results: Current literature suggests HT is safe when followed carefully for certain risks. The greatest health concern for HT in transgender women is venous thromboembolism. HT among transgender men appears to cause polycythemia. Both groups experienced elevated fasting glucose. There is no increase in cancer...

  19. Changes in N400 Topography Following Intensive Speech Language Therapy for Individuals with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. Ryan; O'Rourke, Heather; Wozniak, Linda A.; Kostopoulos, Ellina; Marchand, Yannick; Newman, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to characterize the effects of intensive aphasia therapy on the N400, an electrophysiological index of lexical-semantic processing. Immediately before and after 4 weeks of intensive speech-language therapy, people with aphasia performed a task in which they had to determine whether spoken words were a "match" or a "mismatch" to…

  20. Neural correlates of sexual cue reactivity in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Voon

    Full Text Available Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions.

  1. The relationship of sick leave benefits, employment patterns, and individual characteristics to radiation therapy-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Patricia

    2006-05-03

    To examine the relationship among sick leave benefits, employment patterns, individual characteristics, and fatigue in patients receiving radiation therapy. Prospective, longitudinal design. A community hospital radiation oncology department. 77 patients receiving radiation therapy to the breast, chest, head and neck, pelvis, or prostate. All were employed at the time of diagnosis. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model guided the study. The Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), Brief Fatigue Inventory, and a single-item scale were used to measure five dimensions of subjective fatigue. Sick leave, employment, individual characteristics, and fatigue were measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and at one month post-treatment. Employment patterns, availability of sick leave benefits, and fatigue. Mean total fatigue scores on the PFS ranged from 0-4.77 at baseline (mean = 0.46, SD = 0.93), 0-8.77 at the completion of treatment (mean = 2.84, SD = 2.40), and 0-4.82 at one month post-treatment (mean = 0.77, SD = 1.20). Side effects, education, living situation, age, treatment site, and work were associated with fatigue along the trajectory of radiation therapy. Study participants who were working at the end of radiation had lower fatigue scores than those who were not. Availability of sick leave benefits was associated with employment patterns during treatment. Work may have benefits during radiation therapy but may be affected by radiation therapy-related fatigue. Management of treatment side effects, including fatigue, may help patients remain in the workforce during radiation.

  2. Fractionating the neural correlates of individual working memory components underlying arithmetic problem solving skills in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Arron W. S.; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Baddeley and Hitch’s multi-component working memory (WM) model has played an enduring and influential role in our understanding of cognitive abilities. Very little is known, however, about the neural basis of this multi-component WM model and the differential role each component plays in mediating arithmetic problem solving abilities in children. Here, we investigate the neural basis of the central executive (CE), phonological (PL) and visuo-spatial (VS) components of WM during a demanding mental arithmetic task in 7–9 year old children (N=74). The VS component was the strongest predictor of math ability in children and was associated with increased arithmetic complexity-related responses in left dorsolateral and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortices as well as bilateral intra-parietal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus in posterior parietal cortex. Critically, VS, CE and PL abilities were associated with largely distinct patterns of brain response. Overlap between VS and CE components was observed in left supramarginal gyrus and no overlap was observed between VS and PL components. Our findings point to a central role of visuo-spatial WM during arithmetic problem-solving in young grade-school children and highlight the usefulness of the multi-component Baddeley and Hitch WM model in fractionating the neural correlates of arithmetic problem solving during development. PMID:24212504

  3. Fractionating the neural correlates of individual working memory components underlying arithmetic problem solving skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Arron W S; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Menon, Vinod

    2013-10-01

    Baddeley and Hitch's multi-component working memory (WM) model has played an enduring and influential role in our understanding of cognitive abilities. Very little is known, however, about the neural basis of this multi-component WM model and the differential role each component plays in mediating arithmetic problem solving abilities in children. Here, we investigate the neural basis of the central executive (CE), phonological (PL) and visuo-spatial (VS) components of WM during a demanding mental arithmetic task in 7-9 year old children (N=74). The VS component was the strongest predictor of math ability in children and was associated with increased arithmetic complexity-related responses in left dorsolateral and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortices as well as bilateral intra-parietal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus in posterior parietal cortex. Critically, VS, CE and PL abilities were associated with largely distinct patterns of brain response. Overlap between VS and CE components was observed in left supramarginal gyrus and no overlap was observed between VS and PL components. Our findings point to a central role of visuo-spatial WM during arithmetic problem-solving in young grade-school children and highlight the usefulness of the multi-component Baddeley and Hitch WM model in fractionating the neural correlates of arithmetic problem solving during development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Individual correlates of self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders with and without comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Zuzana Sigmundova1 1Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital in Olomouc, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Palacky University in Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: A number of psychiatric patients experience stigma connected to prejudices about mental disorders. It has been shown that stigma is most harmful when it is internalized. Most of the studies were performed on individuals either with psychoses or with mood disorders, and hence, there are almost no studies with other diagnostic categories. The goals of this research were to identify factors that are significantly related to self-stigma in patients with anxiety disorders and to suggest possible models of causality for these relationships.Methods: A total of 109 patients with anxiety disorders and possible comorbid depressive or personality disorders, who were admitted to the psychotherapeutic department participated in this study. All patients completed several psychodiagnostic methods, ie, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Version, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, and Clinical Global Impression (also completed by the senior psychiatrist.Results: The overall level of self-stigma was positively associated with a comorbid personality disorder, more severe symptomatology, more intense symptoms of anxiety and depression, and higher levels of dissociation and harm avoidance. Self-stigma was negatively related to hope, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Multiple regression analysis showed that the most significant factors connected to self-stigma are harm avoidance, the intensity of depressive symptoms, and self-directedness. Two models of causality were proposed and validated. It

  5. Correlates of Cancer Information Overload: Focusing on Individual Ability and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jiyoung; Lee, Chul-joo; Jensen, Jakob D

    2016-01-01

    The present study defined cancer information overload (CIO) as an aversive disposition wherein a person is confused and overwhelmed by cancer information, which occurs when he or she fails to effectively categorize new information due to a lack of resources for effective learning. Based on the definition and informed by previous studies on information overload and the cognitive mediation model, we hypothesized that low ability and motivation to process cancer information would lead to CIO. We used education level and trait anxiety as factors related to ability. Cancer history and the use of active media channels (such as the Internet and print media) were adopted as motivational factors. Four samples (three from the United States and one from South Korea) were used to explore the relationship between ability/motivation and CIO. Among them, only Sample 4 participants answered questions about stomach cancer, and other participants were asked about cancer in general. In all four samples, trait anxiety was positively associated with CIO. Health information use from active media channels (print or the Internet) was negatively associated with CIO in three samples. The associations between family history and CIO, and between education and CIO, were found in two samples. In short, the present study demonstrated that CIO partly depends on individual ability and motivation, thereby showing that CIO is influenced by personal characteristics as well as environmental factors.

  6. Neighborhood Walking and Social Capital: The Correlation between Walking Experience and Individual Perception of Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heechul Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between people’s actual walking experience and their social capital levels in order to examine the possibility of restoring weakened social functions of streets and public spaces in a walking-friendly urban environment. Based on the survey data of 591 residents of Seoul, we empirically analyzed the relationship between walking experience for various purposes and individual perceptions of social capital using one-way ANOVA and OLS regression models. As a result of the analysis, we found that the levels of neighborly trust and networking of people who experienced leisure walking were higher than those of people who did not, while there was no difference in the level of social capital according to walking experiences for other purposes. This result is significant in that it shows the basis for the restoration of the social function of neighborhoods through social capital formation of people as an effect of walking. Hence, it is important to create a walking environment that supports leisure activities.

  7. Correlated individual differences suggest a common mechanism underlying metacognition in visual perception and visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Jason; Postle, Bradley R

    2017-11-29

    Adaptive behaviour depends on the ability to introspect accurately about one's own performance. Whether this metacognitive ability is supported by the same mechanisms across different tasks is unclear. We investigated the relationship between metacognition of visual perception and metacognition of visual short-term memory (VSTM). Experiments 1 and 2 required subjects to estimate the perceived or remembered orientation of a grating stimulus and rate their confidence. We observed strong positive correlations between individual differences in metacognitive accuracy between the two tasks. This relationship was not accounted for by individual differences in task performance or average confidence, and was present across two different metrics of metacognition and in both experiments. A model-based analysis of data from a third experiment showed that a cross-domain correlation only emerged when both tasks shared the same task-relevant stimulus feature. That is, metacognition for perception and VSTM were correlated when both tasks required orientation judgements, but not when the perceptual task was switched to require contrast judgements. In contrast with previous results comparing perception and long-term memory, which have largely provided evidence for domain-specific metacognitive processes, the current findings suggest that metacognition of visual perception and VSTM is supported by a domain-general metacognitive architecture, but only when both domains share the same task-relevant stimulus feature. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Correlation of administered activity and dosimetric data in patients treated with 131MIBG therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, M.; Chiesa, C.; Aliberti, G.; Maccauro, M.; Seregni, E.; Lorenzoni, A.; Luksch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aims: the purpose of the study was to optimized 131-MIBG (or 131 I-MIBG) therapy in children and adults patients with neural crest tumors, by correlating the administered pro/KXg activity to whole-body dosimetry and hematologic toxicity. Materials and methods: from September 2003, to June 2012 twenty-four patients (9 children, 15 adults) (13 neuroblastoma, 9 pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, 2 medullary thyroid carcinoma) treated with 131 I-MIBG were enrolled in the study. In each patient dosimetric estimation was carried out with MIRD method after patient therapy, using imaging acquisition or probe determination (from 1 to 168 hours). Hematological toxicity was evaluated according to WHO grade by weekly blood count for at least 6 weeks or until recovery. Whole Body Dose (WBD) was correlated with administered pro/KXg activity and bone marrow toxicity. Results: a total of forty-five dosimetric studies have been performed, 16/45 in children and 29/45 in adult patients. Administered activity ranged from 7.4 to 16.65 GBq, corresponding in children to 5-21 mCi/KXg (median 10 mCi/KXg) and in adults to 3-7 mCi/KXg. (median 5 mCi/KXg). In 4 patients (3 children, 1 adult) 2 weeks after 131 I-MING therapy autologous stem cell transplantations were performed. Grade II-III hematological toxicity was observed in all children and in 6/15 adult patient. Whole Body Dose ranged from 1 Gy to 3.6 Gy (median 1.7 Gy) in children, meanwhile it ranged between 0.55 and 1.87 Gy (median 0.96 Gy) in adults. In 5/16 children studies WBD was about 2 Gy and one child received a dose of 3.6 Gy (0.4 Gy/GBq), corresponding to an activity of 18 mCi/KXg. Conclusion: contrary to published data in children the pro/KXg activity is not a good predictor of WBD. In these cases WBD calculation can be affected by the presence of large tumor masses which overestimates the absorbed dose. In any case the administration of activity superior to 15 mCi/KXg is known to be associated

  9. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among Chinese schizophrenia inpatients receiving antipsychotic mono-therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Min Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence rate of cigarette smoking and its socio-demographic and clinical correlates in Chinese schizophrenia inpatients receiving antipsychotic mono-therapy. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional, two-site, hospital-based survey. Four hundred and twenty-nine schizophrenia patients (male/female: 66.9% vs. 33.1% were consecutively recruited from psychosis inpatient wards of two large specialty psychiatric hospitals in mainland China. Patients were assessed using a cigarette smoking questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, the Simpson Angus Scale, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Socio-demographic and other clinical data were also collected. We calculated the prevalence of current smoking in our sample as well as its indirectly standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR using data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey in China. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of current smoking was 40.6% in our sample, and 57.5% in males and 6.3% in females. The ISPRs of all patients, men and women were 1.11(95%CI: 0.95 ∼ 1.29, 1.07(95%CI = 0.91 ∼ 1.24 and 4.64(95% CI = 2.12 ∼ 8.82, respectively. The overall and male-specific prevalence of current smoking did not differ significantly between patients and the general population. In multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, older age, poor marital status, alcohol use, use of first-generation antipsychotics, longer duration of illness, more frequent hospitalizations, and more severe negative symptoms were independently associated with current smoking. CONCLUSION: Male Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia who received a mono-therapy of antipsychotics were not more likely to smoke than the general population. Cigarette smoking is more common in schizophrenia patients with more severe illness.

  10. Parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using snowball sampling of resting-state correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S; Laumann, Timothy O; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Nelson, Steven M; Glasser, Matthew F; Miezin, Francis M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2014-08-01

    We describe methods for parcellating an individual subject's cortical and subcortical brain structures using resting-state functional correlations (RSFCs). Inspired by approaches from social network analysis, we first describe the application of snowball sampling on RSFC data (RSFC-Snowballing) to identify the centers of cortical areas, subdivisions of subcortical nuclei, and the cerebellum. RSFC-Snowballing parcellation is then compared with parcellation derived from identifying locations where RSFC maps exhibit abrupt transitions (RSFC-Boundary Mapping). RSFC-Snowballing and RSFC-Boundary Mapping largely complement one another, but also provide unique parcellation information; together, the methods identify independent entities with distinct functional correlations across many cortical and subcortical locations in the brain. RSFC parcellation is relatively reliable within a subject scanned across multiple days, and while the locations of many area centers and boundaries appear to exhibit considerable overlap across subjects, there is also cross-subject variability-reinforcing the motivation to parcellate brains at the level of individuals. Finally, examination of a large meta-analysis of task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging data reveals that area centers defined by task-evoked activity exhibit correspondence with area centers defined by RSFC-Snowballing. This observation provides important evidence for the ability of RSFC to parcellate broad expanses of an individual's brain into functionally meaningful units. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Individual and Network Correlates of Antisocial Personality Disorder Among Rural Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel V; Young, April M; Mullins, Ursula L; Havens, Jennifer R

    2017-04-01

    Examination of the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with substance use and HIV risk behaviors within the social networks of rural people who use drugs. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to assess substance use, HIV risk behavior, and social network characteristics of drug users (n = 503) living in rural Appalachia. The MINI International Psychiatric Interview was used to determine whether participants met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD and Axis-I psychological comorbidities (eg, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder). Participants were also tested for herpes simplex 2, hepatitis C, and HIV. Multivariate generalized linear mixed modeling was used to determine the association between ASPD and risk behaviors, substance use, and social network characteristics. Approximately one-third (31%) of participants met DSM-IV criteria for ASPD. In multivariate analysis, distrust and conflict within an individual's social networks, as well as past 30-day use of heroin and crack, male gender, younger age, lesser education, heterosexual orientation, and comorbid MDD were associated with meeting diagnostic criteria for ASPD. Participants meeting criteria for ASPD were more likely to report recent heroin and crack use, which are far less common drugs of abuse in this population in which the predominant drug of abuse is prescription opioids. Greater discord within relationships was also identified among those with ASPD symptomatology. Given the elevated risk for blood-borne infection (eg, HIV) and other negative social and health consequences conferred by this high-risk subgroup, exploration of tailored network-based interventions with mental health assessment is recommended. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  12. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael; Loehr, Mario; Verburg, Frederik A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq 177 Lu-DOTATOC or 177 Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV max in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm 3 was a median of 23.4 x 10 -6 (range 0.4 x 10 -6 to 68.3 x 10 -6 ). A strong correlation was observed between SUV max and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P max and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV max and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10 -6 (maximum 9.3 x 10 -6 ) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) 177 Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour radionuclide uptake in PRRT of meningioma and an estimate of the achievable dose. (orig.)

  13. Constitutive STAT5 Activation Correlates With Better Survival in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Helen H.W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chou, Cheng-Yang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Yuan-Hua; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Chiung-Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Guo, How-Ran [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wen-Ying, E-mail: 7707@so-net.net.tw [Department of Pathology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China) and Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Wu-Chou, E-mail: sunnysu@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-01

    specific STATs in cervical carcinoma. Our results indicate that constitutive STAT5 activation correlates with better metastasis-free survival and overall survival in cervical cancer patients who have received radiation therapy.

  14. Predictors and correlates of adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for chronic HIV infection: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Langebeek, Nienke; Gisolf, Elizabeth H; Reiss, Peter; Vervoort, Sigrid C; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B; Richter, Clemens; Sprangers, Mirjam AG; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2014-01-01

    Background Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key predictor of the success of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, and is potentially amenable to intervention. Insight into predictors or correlates of non-adherence to ART may help guide targets for the development of adherence-enhancing interventions. Our objective was to review evidence on predictors/correlates of adherence to ART, and to aggregate findings into quantitative estimates of their impact on adher...

  15. WALKING CAPACITY AND FALLS-EFFICACY CORRELATES WITH PARTICIPATION RESTRICTION IN INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC STROKE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Nayak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mobility impairments seen after Stroke impact walking speed, endurance and balance. Almost all the individuals with Stroke have fear of fall. The physical impairments in balance and gait along with individual’s perception about his/her own abilities to maintain balance might have an impact on level of activity and participation in the community. The association of these variables with recovery of Stroke has been well studied. However, it is currently unknown which of these variables are most associated with activity and participation in the community. This study aimed to identify the correlation of walking capacity and perception of fall with activity & participation. Methods: 30 Subjects were assessed for - walking capacity (6 minute walk test & Self-efficacy for falls (Modified Falls Efficacy scale. Level of Activity Limitation (AL & Participation Restriction (PR was graded on validated ICF Measure of Participation and Activities. (IMPACT-S Results: Data was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient & regression model. Walking distance and Falls-efficacy is significantly correlated (r=-0.751 and -0.683, respectively with Participation restriction. Walking distance correlated with Activity Limitation (r=-0.714 significantly. Falls efficacy has a correlation coefficient of -0.642 with Activity Limitation. When put into Regression models, Walking Capacity & Gait Velocity was found to be independently associated with AL &PR. Conclusion: There is significant relationship between falls self-efficacy, walking capacity and Post-stroke activity & participation. Participation can be impacted by factors such as self-motivation and confidence about one's balance abilities. This is reflected by the correlation between falls efficacy and participation. Physical parameters such as the distance walked can contribute to participating in the community, and can predict variation in AL-PR

  16. Evidence-based diabetes nutrition therapy recommendations are effective: the key is individualization

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Marion J; Boucher, Jackie L; Evert, Alison B

    2014-01-01

    Marion J Franz,1 Jackie L Boucher,2 Alison B Evert3 1Nutrition Concepts by Franz, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, 2Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, 3Diabetes Care Center, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Current nutrition therapy recommendations for the prevention and treatment of diabetes are based on a systematic review of evidence and answer important nutrition care questions. First, is diabetes nutrition therapy effective? Clinical trials...

  17. Incidental white matter lesions identified on magnetic resonance images of normal Japanese individuals; Correlation with age and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Iwakoshi, Takanori; Niwa, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Tatsuya [Komaki City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    Incidental white matter high-intensity lesions are frequently seen on T[sub 2]-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain in older people. The incidence increases with advancing age or hypertension. Brain MR images of 59 normal individuals were examined to analyze this phenomenon. The total number of white matter high-intensity lesions correlated significantly with age (p=0.004) or systolic blood pressure (p=0.03). The 60- to 69-year-old group demonstrated a very close correlation of white matter lesions with systolic (p=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.01), in contrast to the 50- to 59-year-old group. Hypertensive subjects in their 60s are thought to develop more white matter lesions than subjects in their 50s. (author).

  18. Correlative scanning-transmission electron microscopy reveals that a chimeric flavivirus is released as individual particles in secretory vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Burlaud-Gaillard

    Full Text Available The intracellular morphogenesis of flaviviruses has been well described, but flavivirus release from the host cell remains poorly documented. We took advantage of the optimized production of an attenuated chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus for vaccine purposes to study this phenomenon by microscopic approaches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the release of numerous viral particles at the cell surface through a short-lived process. For transmission electron microscopy (TEM studies of the intracellular ultrastructure of the small number of cells releasing viral particles at a given time, we developed a new correlative microscopy method: CSEMTEM (for correlative scanning electron microscopy - transmission electron microscopy. CSEMTEM analysis suggested that chimeric flavivirus particles were released as individual particles, in small exocytosis vesicles, via a regulated secretory pathway. Our morphological findings provide new insight into interactions between flaviviruses and cells and demonstrate that CSEMTEM is a useful new method, complementary to SEM observations of biological events by intracellular TEM investigations.

  19. Assessment of metabolic and mitochondrial dynamics in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in virologically suppressed HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse J R Masson

    Full Text Available Metabolism plays a fundamental role in supporting the growth, proliferation and effector functions of T cells. We investigated the impact of HIV infection on key processes that regulate glucose uptake and mitochondrial biogenesis in subpopulations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from 18 virologically-suppressed HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART; median CD4+ cell count: 728 cells/μl and 13 HIV seronegative controls. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and reactive oxygen species (ROS production were also analysed in total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Among HIV+/cART individuals, expression of glucose transporter (Glut1 and mitochondrial density were highest within central memory and naïve CD4+ T cells, and lowest among effector memory and transitional memory T cells, with similar trends in HIV-negative controls. Compared to HIV-negative controls, there was a trend towards higher percentage of circulating CD4+Glut1+ T cells in HIV+/cART participants. There were no significant differences in mitochondrial dynamics between subject groups. Glut1 expression was positively correlated with mitochondrial density and MMP in total CD4+ T cells, while MMP was also positively correlated with ROS production in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Our study characterizes specific metabolic features of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in HIV-negative and HIV+/cART individuals and will invite future studies to explore the immunometabolic consequences of HIV infection.

  20. Clinical correlates of complicated grief among individuals with acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pini S

    2015-10-01

    positively correlated with SCI-CG scores. An inverse relationship with SCI-CG scores was observed for patients who experienced ACS more than 48 months after the loss (P=0.005. The SCI-CG scores significantly predicted lower scores on the “general health” domain of MOS-SF-36 (P=0.030, as well as lower scores on “emotional well-being” domain (P=0.010.Conclusion: A great proportion of subjects with ACS report the loss of a loved one. Among these, the loss of a close relative and the severity of CG symptoms are associated with poorer health status. Our data corroborate previous data indicating a strong relationship between CG symptoms and severe cardiac problems. Keywords: acute coronary syndrome (ACS, coronary heart disease (CHD, CG symptoms, complicated grief, DSM-5 

  1. Neural correlates of distraction in borderline personality disorder before and after dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Niedtfeld, Inga; Schmitt, Ruth; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2017-02-01

    Neural underpinnings of emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by limbic hyperactivity and disturbed prefrontal activity. It is unknown whether neural correlates of emotion regulation change after a psychotherapy which has the goal to improve emotion dysregulation in BPD, such as dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). We investigated distraction as a main emotion regulation strategy before and after DBT in female patients with BPD. Thirty-one BPD patients were instructed to either passively view or memorize letters before being confronted with negative or neutral pictures in a distraction task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. This paradigm was applied before and after a 12-week residential DBT-based treatment program. We compared the DBT group to 15 BPD control patients, who continued their usual, non-DBT-based treatment or did not have any treatment, and 22 healthy participants. Behaviorally, BPD groups and healthy participants did not differ significantly with respect to alterations over time. On the neural level, BPD patients who received DBT-based treatment showed an activity decrease in the right inferior parietal lobe/supramarginal gyrus during distraction from negative rather than neutral stimuli when compared to both control groups. This decrease was correlated with improvement in self-reported borderline symptom severity. DBT responders exhibited decreased right perigenual anterior cingulate activity when viewing negative (rather than neutral) pictures. In conclusion, our findings reveal changes in neural activity associated with distraction during emotion processing after DBT in patients with BPD. These changes point to lower emotional susceptibility during distraction after BPD symptom improvement.

  2. Antidepressant Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy Correlate With Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Activity and Connectivity in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Du, Lian; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Haixia; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Dan; Zeng, Jinkun; Li, Xingbao; Fu, Yixiao; Qiu, Haitang; Li, Xirong; Qiu, Tian; Hu, Hua; Meng, Huaqing; Luo, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanisms underlying the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder (MDD) are not fully understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a new tool to study the effects of brain stimulation interventions, particularly ECT. The authors aim to investigate the mechanisms of ECT in MDD by rs-fMRI. They used rs-fMRI to measure functional changes in the brain of first-episode, treatment-naive MDD patients (n = 23) immediately before and then following 8 ECT sessions (brief-pulse square-wave apparatus, bitemporal). They also computed voxel-wise amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as a measure of regional brain activity and selected the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) to evaluate functional connectivity between the sgACC and other brain regions. Increased regional brain activity measured by ALFF mainly in the left sgACC following ECT. Functional connectivity of the left sgACC increased in the ipsilateral parahippocampal gyrus, pregenual ACC, contralateral middle temporal pole, and orbitofrontal cortex. Importantly, reduction in depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with increased ALFF in the left sgACC and left hippocampus, and with distant functional connectivity between the left sgACC and contralateral middle temporal pole. That is, across subjects, as depression improved, regional brain activity in sgACC and its functional connectivity increased in the brain. Eight ECT sessions in MDD patients modulated activity in the sgACC and its networks. The antidepressant effects of ECT were negatively correlated with sgACC brain activity and connectivity. These findings suggest that sgACC-associated prefrontal-limbic structures are associated with the therapeutic effects of ECT in MDD. PMID:26559309

  3. Correlation between TL and OSL signals in KMgF3:Ce3+: Bleaching study of individual glow-peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallas, G.I.; Polymeris, G.S.; Afouxenidis, D.; Tsirliganis, N.C.; Tsagas, N.F.; Kitis, G.

    2010-01-01

    KMgF 3 :Ce 3+ is an ultra sensitive Thermoluminescence (TL) material with a complex TL and OSL glow-curve structure. The aim of the present work is to attempt a one-to-one correspondence between specific TL glow-peaks and OSL components in KMgF 3 :Ce 3+ . The correlation study involves the deconvolution of the TL curves and the estimation of the bleaching decay constants for individual glow-peaks followed by the deconvolution of the LM-OSL curve using the estimated decay constants. It was found that the bleaching of each individual glow-peak takes place in three different rates; namely in a fast, medium and slow rate.

  4. Untangling individual variation in natural populations: ecological, genetic and epigenetic correlates of long-term inequality in herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C M; Bazaga, P

    2011-04-01

    Individual variation in ecologically important features of organisms is a crucial element in ecology and evolution, yet disentangling its underlying causes is difficult in natural populations. We applied a genomic scan approach using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to quantify the genetic basis of long-term individual differences in herbivory by mammals at a wild population of the violet Viola cazorlensis monitored for two decades. In addition, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analyses were used to investigate the association between browsing damage and epigenetic characteristics of individuals, an aspect that has been not previously explored for any wild plant. Structural equation modelling was used to identify likely causal structures linking genotypes, epigenotypes and herbivory. Individuals of V. cazorlensis differed widely in the incidence of browsing mammals over the 20-year study period. Six AFLP markers (1.6% of total) were significantly related to herbivory, accounting altogether for 44% of population-wide variance in herbivory levels. MSAP analyses revealed considerable epigenetic variation among individuals, and differential browsing damage was significantly related to variation in multilocus epigenotypes. In addition, variation across plants in epigenetic characteristics was related to variation in several herbivory-related AFLP markers. Statistical comparison of alternative causal models suggested that individual differences in herbivory are the outcome of a complex causal structure where genotypes and epigenotypes are interconnected and have direct and indirect effects on herbivory. Insofar as methylation states of MSAP markers influential on herbivory are transgenerationally heritable, herbivore-driven evolutionary changes at the study population will involve correlated changes in genotypic and epigenotypic distributions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Correlates of previous couples’ HIV counseling and testing uptake among married individuals in three HIV prevalence strata in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. B. Matovu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies show that uptake of couples’ HIV counseling and testing (couples’ HCT can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples’ HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples’ HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples’ HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7–11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4–16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5–43% in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples’ HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2. Results: Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5% had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66% were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%; of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9% reported that they had ever received couples’ HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples’ HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%, middle (n=295, 41.7%, and high (n=242, 39.7% HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61. Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1–2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.04–1.08] and

  6. Blood vessel damage correlated with irradiance for in vivo vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinde; Tan, Zou; Niu, Xiangyu; Lin, Linsheng; Lin, Huiyun; Li, Buhong

    2016-10-01

    Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) has been widely utilized for the prevention or treatment of vascular-related diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, port-wine stains and prostate cancer. In order to quantitative assessment the blood vessel damage during V-PDT, nude mice were implanted with Titanium dorsal skin window chambers for in vivo V-PDT studies. For treatments, various irradiances including 50, 75, 100 and 200 mW/cm2 provided by a 532 nm semiconductor laser were performed with the same total light dose of 30 J/cm2 after the mice were intravenously injection of Rose Bengal for 25 mg/Kg body weight. Laser speckle imaging and microscope were used to monitor blood flow dynamics and vessel constriction during and after V-PDT, respectively. The V-PDT induced vessel damages between different groups were compared. The results show that significant difference in blood vessel damage was found between the lower irradiances (50, 75 and 100 mW/cm2) and higher irradiance (200 mW/cm2), and the blood vessel damage induced by V-PDT is positively correlated with irradiance. This study implies that the optimization of irradiance is required for enhancing V-PDT therapeutic efficiency.

  7. Gene Polymorphism-related Individual and Interracial Differences in the Outcomes of Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Naohiro; Shiota, Masaki; Tomisaki, Ikko; Minato, Akinori

    2017-06-01

    Among patients with prostate cancer, the prognosis after androgen deprivation therapy differs significantly among individuals and among races; however, the reasons underlying these differences are poorly understood. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes associated with prostate cancer progression or castration resistance might serve as the host factor that influences prognosis and, thus, accounts for these individual and racial gaps in treatment outcomes. Accordingly, single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with treatment outcomes could be used as predictive and/or prognostic biomarkers for patient stratification and to identify personalized treatment and follow-up protocols. The present review has summarized the genetic polymorphisms that have been reported to associate with androgen deprivation therapy outcomes among patients with prostate cancer and compared the allele frequencies among different ethnic groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors and correlates of adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for chronic HIV infection: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langebeek, Nienke; Gisolf, Elizabeth H.; Reiss, Peter; Vervoort, Sigrid C.; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B.; Richter, Clemens; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key predictor of the success of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, and is potentially amenable to intervention. Insight into predictors or correlates of non-adherence to ART may help guide targets for the development of

  9. Laryngeal carcinoma after radiation therapy: correlation of abnormal MR imaging signal patterns in laryngeal cartilage with the risk of recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelijns, J. A.; van den Brekel, M. W.; Tobi, H.; Smit, E. M.; Golding, R. P.; van Schaik, C.; Snow, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    To correlate abnormal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging signal patterns in cartilage with the effectiveness of radiation treatment. Eighty previously untreated patients underwent MR imaging and radiation therapy with a curative intent. Cartilage was considered to have an abnormal signal pattern if it

  10. Global Pattern of Nasopharyngeal Cancer: Correlation of Outcome With Access to Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Ka-On [Clinical Oncology Center, University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen (China); Lee, Anne W.M., E-mail: annelee@hku-szh.org [Clinical Oncology Center, University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen (China); Choi, Cheuk-Wai [Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Sze, Henry C.K. [Clinical Oncology Center, University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen (China); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Kirsten I.; Rosenblatt, Eduardo [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the treatment outcome of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) across the world and its correlation with access to radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The age-standardized mortality (ASM) and age-standardized incidence (ASI) rates of NPC from GLOBOCAN (2012) were summarized, and [1−(ASM/ASI)] was computed to give the proxy relative survival (RS). Data from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Bank were used to assess the availability of RT in surrogate terms: the number of RT equipment units and radiation oncologists per million population. Results: A total of 112 countries with complete valid data were analyzed, and the proxy RS varied widely from 0% to 83% (median, 50%). Countries were categorized into Good, Median, and Poor outcome groups on the basis of their proxy RS (<45%, 45%-55%, and >55%). Eighty percent of new cases occurred in the Poor outcome group. Univariable linear regression showed a significant correlation between outcome and the availability of RT: proxy RS increased at 3.4% (P<.001) and 1.5% (P=.001) per unit increase in RT equipment and oncologist per million population, respectively. The median number of RT equipment units per million population increased significantly from 0.5 in the Poor, to 1.5 in the Median, to 4.6 in the Good outcome groups, and the corresponding number of oncologists increased from 1.1 to 3.3 to 7.1 (P<.001). Conclusions: Nasopharyngeal cancer is a highly treatable disease, but the outcome varies widely across the world. The current study shows a significant correlation between survival and access to RT based on available surrogate indicators. However, the possible reasons for poor outcome are likely to be multifactorial and complex. Concerted international efforts are needed not only to address the fundamental requirement for adequate RT access but also to obtain more comprehensive and accurate data for research to improve cancer outcome.

  11. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Individually tailored internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with anxiety disorders: A pilot effectiveness study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Silfvernagel; Malin Gren-Landell; Marie Emanuelsson; Per Carlbring; Gerhard Andersson

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study of adolescents suffering from anxiety disorder in Sweden to receive individually tailored internet-based treatment within a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic. The primary aim of this effectiveness study was to examine the effects of tailored internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents. 11 adolescents, aged 15-19 years, were allocated to treatment after assessment. Screening consisted of online questionnaires followed by a diagnostic face-to-face...

  13. Incidence of HIV-associated tuberculosis among individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendesayi Kufa

    Full Text Available Knowledge of tuberculosis incidence and associated factors is required for the development and evaluation of strategies to reduce the burden of HIV-associated tuberculosis.Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of tuberculosis incidence rates among HIV-infected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy.From PubMed, EMBASE and Global Index Medicus databases, 42 papers describing 43 cohorts (32 from high/intermediate and 11 from low tuberculosis burden settings were included in the qualitative review and 33 in the quantitative review. Cohorts from high/intermediate burden settings were smaller in size, had lower median CD4 cell counts at study entry and fewer person-years of follow up. Tuberculosis incidence rates were higher in studies from Sub-Saharan Africa and from World Bank low/middle income countries. Tuberculosis incidence rates decreased with increasing CD4 count at study entry and duration on combination antiretroviral therapy. Summary estimates of tuberculosis incidence among individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy were higher for cohorts from high/intermediate burden settings compared to those from the low tuberculosis burden settings (4.17 per 100 person-years [95% Confidence Interval (CI 3.39-5.14 per 100 person-years] vs. 0.4 per 100 person-years [95% CI 0.23-0.69 per 100 person-years] with significant heterogeneity observed between the studies.Tuberculosis incidence rates were high among individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high/intermediate burden settings. Interventions to prevent tuberculosis in this population should address geographical, socioeconomic and individual factors such as low CD4 counts and prior history of tuberculosis.

  14. EFFECT OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY BASED ON NEW METHOD OF INDIVIDUAL CHOICE OF DRUGS ON LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Pshenichkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effects of antihypertensive therapy based on consideration of individual heart rhythm variability (HRV on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in hypertensive elderly patients.Material and methods. 60 hypertensive elderly patients with LVH were included in the study. They were split in two groups (30 people in each one. Patients of the group-I had common antihypertensive therapy. Patients of group-II received medications prescribed with consideration of individual heart rate variability. Holter monitoring with analysis of HRV, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and ultrasonography were conducted initially and 18 months after treatment beginning.Results. BP control was reached in the majority of patients of both groups. The patients of group-II in comparison with patients of group-I had reduction of low- high frequency power ratio (LF/HF and higher rate of LVH reduction. Relationship between LVH dynamics and ratio LF/HF was found.Conclusion. Arterial hypertension therapy considering individual HRV contributes in LVH reduction in elderly patients.

  15. The efficacy of individual treatment of subjective tinnitus with cognitive behavioural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Pascual; Pérez Del Valle, Belén; Lopez, Francisco; Marco, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    It has been a long time since subjective tinnitus cases were described for the first time but they still lack a treatment with proven effectiveness. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in these patients. Between 2012 and 2013, 310 patients that suffered from subjective tinnitus were studied. Of these, 267 were included in treatment based on cognitive behavioural therapy. The monitoring period lasted 18 months for most cases, while it lasted 21 months for 11 patients. Considering patients that interrupted their treatment as failures, the percentage of recovery was 95.7%. Cognitive behavioural therapy should always be included in the treatment of people suffering from tinnitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the cardiovascular effects of electroconvulsive therapy in individuals older than 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takada J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of electroconvulsive therapy on arterial blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability, and the occurrence of ischemia or arrhythmias, 38 (18 men depressive patients free from systemic diseases, 50 to 83 years old (mean: 64.7 ± 8.6 underwent electroconvulsive therapy. All patients were studied with simultaneous 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and Holter monitoring, starting 18 h before and continuing for 3 h after electroconvulsive therapy. Blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate variability, arrhythmias, and ischemic episodes were recorded. Before each session of electroconvulsive therapy, blood pressure and heart rate were in the normal range; supraventricular ectopic beats occurred in all patients and ventricular ectopic beats in 27/38; 2 patients had non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. After shock, systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure increased 29, 25, and 24% (P < 0.001, respectively, and returned to baseline values within 1 h. Maximum, mean and minimum heart rate increased 56, 52, and 49% (P < 0.001, respectively, followed by a significant decrease within 5 min; heart rate gradually increased again thereafter and remained elevated for 1 h. Analysis of heart rate variability showed increased sympathetic activity during shock with a decrease in both sympathetic and parasympathetic drive afterwards. No serious adverse effects occurred; electroconvulsive therapy did not trigger any malignant arrhythmias or ischemia. In middle-aged and elderly people free from systemic diseases, electroconvulsive therapy caused transitory increases in blood pressure and heart rate and a decrease in heart rate variability but these changes were not associated with serious adverse clinical events.

  17. Noise genetics: inferring protein function by correlating phenotype with protein levels and localization in individual human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Farkash-Amar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand gene function, genetic analysis uses large perturbations such as gene deletion, knockdown or over-expression. Large perturbations have drawbacks: they move the cell far from its normal working point, and can thus be masked by off-target effects or compensation by other genes. Here, we offer a complementary approach, called noise genetics. We use natural cell-cell variations in protein level and localization, and correlate them to the natural variations of the phenotype of the same cells. Observing these variations is made possible by recent advances in dynamic proteomics that allow measuring proteins over time in individual living cells. Using motility of human cancer cells as a model system, and time-lapse microscopy on 566 fluorescently tagged proteins, we found 74 candidate motility genes whose level or localization strongly correlate with motility in individual cells. We recovered 30 known motility genes, and validated several novel ones by mild knockdown experiments. Noise genetics can complement standard genetics for a variety of phenotypes.

  18. Pooled Analysis of Multiple Crossover Trials To Optimize Individual Therapy Response to Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrykiv, Sergei I; Laverman, Gozewijn Dirk; Persson, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    to angiotensin receptor blockers; n=5) or NSAIDs (n=1), changing from RAASi to NSAIDs (n=2), and changing from high to low sodium intake (n=5). A two-stage meta-analysis was conducted: Deming regression was conducted in each study to assess correlations in response, and individual study results were then meta...

  19. Effectiveness of individual music therapy with mentally ill children and adolescents: A controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gold, Christian

    2003-01-01

    This research addressed the efficacy and effectiveness of music therapy for children and adolescents with mental disorders. Findings from previous experimental research, as summarised in a meta-analysis, suggest that music therapy is an efficacious treatment with a medium to large effect size....... However, little is known about its effectiveness in clinical settings and about factors that might influence its effectiveness. A controlled quasi-experimental pre-test post-test design was used to assess the development in children and adolescents who received on average 23 weekly sessions of music...

  20. Monitoring of peri-operative fluid administration by individualized goal-directed therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Holte, Kathrine; Secher, N H

    2007-01-01

    (n = 725) found a reduced hospital stay. Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and ileus were reduced in three studies and complications were reduced in four studies. Of the monitors that may be applied for goal-directed therapy, only oesophageal Doppler has been tested adequately; however......, several other options exist. CONCLUSION: Goal-directed therapy with the maximization of flow-related haemodynamic variables reduces hospital stay, PONV and complications, and facilitates faster gastrointestinal functional recovery. So far, oesophageal Doppler is recommended, but other monitors...

  1. Statistical characteristics and correlations of histomorphometric, clinical and biochemical indices in systemic therapy in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Hryhorovskyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Actuality. The correlation analysis between various indices of bone tissue condition was not previously carried out in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Aim. On purpose to determine differences and index correlations before and after intake of pamidronate systemic therapy in 13 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta indices of some methods including histomorphometric were studied. Results. We found correlation parametres of biochemical indices, on one side and histomorphometric – on the other. Conclusion. After systemic therapy mean parametres of «bone volume» in iliobiopsies increase, and «osteoid surface» and «osteoclast index per surface unit» in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta of I type – decrease, that one can regard as a tendency to improvement of the bone tissue structural-functional condition.

  2. Correlation of Vocal Intensity with Velopharyngeal Closing Mechanism in Individuals with and without Complaint of Velopharyngeal Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girelli, Karina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Velopharyngeal sphincter is a portion of the muscle of the palatopharyngeal arch that is capable of separating the oral cavity from the nasal cavity. It has not been determined yet whether voice intensity has an influence on this capacity. Velopharyngeal sphincter closure is accomplished by elevating and retracting the soft palate at the same time as the nasopharyngeal walls are constricted. Objective This study aims to correlate voice intensity with velopharyngeal sphincter closure in individuals without velopharyngeal dysfunction and patients with cleft lip and palate. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, comparative, and contemporary study. The sample consisted of 16 individuals in the control group and 16 individuals in the study group. Patients underwent instrumental assessment, which we subsequently analyzed using a computer program, and a brief medical history review. The mean age of the control group was 27.6 years, whereas the mean age of the case group was 15.6 years. Results Cases showed higher voice intensity in regular and weak fricative sentences when compared with controls. There was no agreement on the analysis of the instrumental assessment between the assessors and the computer program. Regardless of voice intensity, the computer program demonstrated a similar closure pattern. Conclusion The computer program showed similar closure pattern for the three levels of intensity. There was no agreement between the three assessors and the closure pattern determined by the computer program. There was no statistically significant correlation between voice intensity and degree of velopharyngeal sphincter closure.

  3. Developing Emotional Literacy through Individual Dance Movement Therapy: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekums, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a pragmatic mixed methods pilot study of teacher perceptions regarding a school-based Dance Movement therapy (DMT) service for six children aged four to seven in a North of England primary school. No previous studies have systematically evaluated DMT in terms of the development of Emotional Literacy (EL), though theoretical…

  4. Correlates of Unstructured Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption in a Cohort of HIV-Positive Individuals in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Chen, Yalin; Salters, Kate; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment interruptions (TIs) limit the therapeutic success of combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. HIV-positive individuals dealing with concurrent health issues, access challenges and competing life demands are hypothesized to be more likely to interrupt treatment. Individuals were included if they initiated cART ≥1 year prior to interview date and had a CD4 cell count or initial regimen recorded at initiation. Using pharmacy recording, TIs were defined as a patient-initiated interruption in treatment ≥90 consecutive days during the 12 months preceding or following the study interview. 117 (15%) of 768 participants included in this study had a TI during the study window. 76.0% of participants were male, 27.5% were of Aboriginal ethnicity and the median age was 46 (interquartile range (IQR): 40–52). In multivariable logistic regression, TIs were significantly associated with current illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.68); perception of overall health (aOR: 1.64 95% CI: 1.05–2.55); being unemployed (aOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.16–4.23); and younger age at interview (aOR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.44–0.75, per 10 year increment). Addressing socioeconomic barriers to treatment retention is vital for supporting the continuous engagement of patients in care. PMID:24781638

  5. Loss of largest and oldest individuals of the Montpellier snake correlates with recent warming in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calderón, Cosme; Feriche, Mónica; Alaminos, Esmeralda; Pleguezuelos, Juan M

    2017-12-01

    The effects of climate change on organisms are now being extensively studied in many different taxa. However, the variation in body size, usually shrinkage in response to increasing temperature, has received little attention regarding to reptiles. During past periods of global warming, many organisms shrank in size, and current evidence and experiments manipulating temperature have shown a biomass decrease in some organisms with increasing temperatures. Here we test whether the body size of the Montpellier snake Malpolon monspessulanus from the southeastern Iberian Peninsula is changing and correlated with the increasing temperature in this region during a 39-year period (1976-2014). We measured the snout-vent length (SVL) of vouchers in scientific collections to check for trends in adult body size at the population level in relation with temperature, while controlling for the age of the individuals (estimated by skeletochronology, n  =141). Given the great ontogenetic variation in body size of the study species, we categorized age in 3 classes: "young adults" (under 5 years old), "intermediate adults" (from 5 to 7 years old), and "old adults" (from 8 to 14 years old). By means of linear mixed models, we found a negative relationship between SVL of "old adults" and average annual temperature in the region during the lifetime of each individual. Our results indicate that largest and oldest individuals of the Montpellier Snake, that is, males because of strong sexual size dimorphism in this species, disappeared from the study population, and suggest that it occurred in response to rising environmental temperature.

  6. A Feedback-Controlled Mandibular Positioner Identifies Individuals With Sleep Apnea Who Will Respond to Oral Appliance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, John E; Topor, Zbigniew; Grosse, Joshua; Vranjes, Nikola; Mosca, Erin V; Brant, Rollin; Bruehlmann, Sabina; Charkhandeh, Shouresh; Zareian Jahromi, Seyed Abdolali

    2017-07-15

    Mandibular protruding oral appliances represent a potentially important therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, their clinical utility is limited by a less-than-ideal efficacy rate and uncertainty regarding an efficacious mandibular position, pointing to the need for a tool to assist in delivery of the therapy. The current study assesses the ability to prospectively identify therapeutic responders and determine an efficacious mandibular position. Individuals (n = 202) with OSA participated in a blinded, 2-part investigation. A system for identifying therapeutic responders was developed in part 1 (n = 149); the predictive accuracy of this system was prospectively evaluated on a new population in part 2 (n = 53). Each participant underwent a 2-night, in-home feedback-controlled mandibular positioner (FCMP) test, followed by treatment with a custom oral appliance and an outcome study with the oral appliance in place. A machine learning classification system was trained to predict therapeutic outcome on data obtained from FCMP studies on part 1 participants. The accuracy of this trained system was then evaluated on part 2 participants by examining the agreement between prospectively predicted outcome and observed outcome. A predicted efficacious mandibular position was derived from each FCMP study. Predictive accuracy was as follows: sensitivity 85%; specificity 93%; positive predictive value 97%; and negative predictive value 72%. Of participants correctly predicted to respond to therapy, the predicted mandibular protrusive position proved efficacious in 86% of cases. An unattended, in-home FCMP test prospectively identifies individuals with OSA who will respond to oral appliance therapy and provides an efficacious mandibular position. The trial that this study reports on is registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT03011762, study name: Feasibility and Predictive Accuracy of an In-Home Computer Controlled Mandibular Positioner in Identifying Favourable

  7. Contributions of speech-language therapy to the integration of individuals with Down syndrome in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Talita Maria Monteiro Farias; Lima, Ivonaldo Leidson Barbosa; Alves, Giorvan Ânderson Dos Santos; Delgado, Isabelle Cahino

    2018-03-01

    To analyze the contributions of speech-language therapy in the integration of young individuals with Down syndrome (DS) into the workplace, with reference to their professionalization. A questionnaire was distributed to eight undergraduate students (tutors) who participated in a project with individuals with DS, five mothers of individuals with DS, and five employees from the institution in which the present study was conducted. The questionnaire assessed the communication, memory, behavior, social interaction, autonomy and independence of the participants with DS, called "trainees". The trainees were employed in one of five routine work sectors at the university that conducted the present study. The data collected in this descriptive and cross-sectional study were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The Research Ethics Committee of the affiliated institute approved the project. Mothers and tutors rated the trainees' language skills as "good". However, their ratings differed from those of the participating employees. After the trainees with DS were placed in a work environment, significant changes were observed in their communication and autonomy. There was no improvement in the trainees' independence, but after training noticeable changes were observed in their social behavior and autonomy. Speech-language therapy during vocational training led to positive changes in the social behavior of individuals with DS, as evidenced by an increase in their autonomy and communication.

  8. ABO blood type correlates with survival on prostate cancer vaccine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthana, Saddam M; Gulley, James L; Hodge, James W; Schlom, Jeffrey; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-13

    Immunotherapies for cancer are transforming patient care, but clinical responses vary considerably from patient to patient. Simple, inexpensive strategies to target treatment to likely responders could substantially improve efficacy while simultaneously reducing health care costs, but identification of reliable biomarkers has proven challenging. Previously, we found that pre-treatment serum IgM to blood group A (BG-A) correlated with survival for patients treated with PROSTVAC-VF, a therapeutic cancer vaccine in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer. These results suggested that ABO blood type might influence efficacy. Unfortunately, blood types were not available in the clinical records for all but 8 patients and insufficient amounts of sera were left for standard blood typing methods. To test the hypothesis, therefore, we developed a new glycan microarray-based method for determining ABO blood type. The method requires only 4 μL of serum, provides 97% accuracy, and allows simultaneous profiling of many other serum anti-glycan antibodies. After validation with 220 healthy subjects of known blood type, the method was then applied to 74 PROSTVAC-VF patients and 37 control patients from a phase II trial. In this retrospective study, we found that type B and O PROSTVAC-VF patients demonstrated markedly improved clinical outcomes relative to A and AB patients, including longer median survival, longer median survival relative to Halabi predicted survival, and improved overall survival via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (p = 0.006). Consequently, blood type may provide an inexpensive screen to pre-select patients likely to benefit from PROSTVAC-VF therapy.

  9. Correlates of use of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy for help with smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Little, Melissa A; Fagan, Pebbles; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-12-01

    Electronic- or e-cigarettes are nicotine-delivery devices commonly used by smokers to quit or reduce smoking. At present, not much is known about the characteristics of smokers who specifically try e-cigarettes to quit smoking compared to the nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Determining the characteristics of smokers who are likely to choose e-cigarettes as cessation aids would help develop strategies to impart valid information about e-cigarettes to such smokers as facts regarding the safety and utility of e-cigarettes emerge. This study is based on 834 daily smokers [mean age=45.8 (standard deviation=13)] from Hawaii. Demographic, smoking- and cessation-related variables were examined as correlates of ever use of e-cigarette only or any FDA-approved NRT product only or both as cessation aids. Results indicated that younger smokers, non-White smokers, and smokers reporting higher income, lower nicotine dependence, shorter smoking history, and higher lifetime quit attempts were more likely to have tried e-cigarettes but not NRT products for help with smoking cessation. Smokers who are attracted to use e-cigarettes but not FDA-approved NRT products may differ from smokers who are likely to have used NRT products but not e-cigarettes in terms of demographic (e.g., age, ethnicity) and smoking- or cessation-related characteristics (e.g., nicotine dependence, quit attempts). Given the lack of knowledge regarding the health effects of e-cigarettes and their efficacy as cessation aids, future research needs to continue characterizing smokers who are likely to use e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of electroconvulsive therapy for Asian patients with schizophrenia (2001-2009): Trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu-Tao; Ungvari, Gabor S; Correll, Christoph U; Chiu, Helen F K; Lai, Kelly Y C; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Si, Tian-Mei; Lee, Edwin H M; He, Yan-Ling; Yang, Shu-Yu; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Kua, Ee-Heok; Fujii, Senta; Sim, Kang; Yong, Michael K H; Trivedi, Jitendra K; Chung, Eun-Kee; Udomratn, Pichet; Chee, Kok-Yoon; Sartorius, Norman; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use in Asian inpatients with schizophrenia. This study examined trends of ECT use for schizophrenia patients in Asia between 2001 and 2009 and its independent demographic and clinical correlates. Data on 6761 hospitalized schizophrenia patients (2001 = 2399, 2004 = 2136, and 2009 = 2226) in nine Asian countries and territories were collected by either chart review or interviews during a 1-month period. Patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, prescriptions of psychotropic drugs and ECT use were recorded using a standardized protocol and data-collection procedure. The frequency of ECT was 3.3% in the whole sample; rising from 1.8% in 2001 to 3.3% in 2004 and 4.9% in 2009 (P < 0.0001). However, this increased trend was driven solely by increased ECT use in China (P < 0.0001), and the inclusion of India in the 2009 survey. There were wide inter-country variations: 2001, 0% (Hong Kong, Korea) to 5.9% (China); 2004, 0% (Singapore) to 11.1% (China); 2009, 0% (Hong Kong) to 13.8% (India) and 15.2% (China). Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample revealed that patients receiving ECT were less likely in the 35-64-year age group, had shorter length of current hospitalization and fewer negative symptoms, and were more likely to receive second-generation antipsychotic medications compared to those who were not treated with ECT (R(2)  = 0.264, P < 0.001). ECT use for schizophrenia has increased over the past decade in China, being low/relatively stable in other Asian countries/regions. Reasons for substantial variations in ECT frequency in Asia require further study. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. The Correlation of Initial Sputum Smear Positivity on Treatment Failure of Category 1 Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Dyah Ayu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an infectious disease and is an important public health problem. Based on data from East Java Province Health Department reported that number of tuberculosis patient in Surabaya is the highest in East Java on year 2014. Early identification and good treatment based on the result of sputum identification are the strategy use to control tuberculosis widespread. So that why, microscopic observation to identify acid fast bacilli (AFB is the fundamental stage to determine recovery treatment. Initial sputum smear positivity is necessary to determine infectious graded. The objectives of the study were to identify of initial sputum smear positivity on treatment failure of category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in RS Paru Surabaya year 2011-2014. This study used case control method with quantitative approach. Forty two samples were taken from secondary data. Case group is 21 samples who have treatment failure and control group is 21 successful treatment. Samples were selected by simple random sampling. The chi square correlation showed that highly positive initial smear (p = 0,045; OR = 5,4 have correlated and risk factor to treatment failure on category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. The conclusion is patient’s high positive sputum smear initially correlated to treatment failure on category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in RS Paru Surabaya year 2011–2014. Keywords: initial sputum smear positivity, treatment failure,, category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

  12. Correlation between perception of quality of life and social/demographic/medical variables as well as anti-health behaviours among alcohol-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The level of life quality of people with alcohol dependence is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors such as: gender, marital status and having a family. Additionally promoting anti-health behaviors such as smoking or using psychoactive substances among those with alcohol dependence also reduces the quality of life in this population. Aim of the research: The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of selected psycho-social and medical factors on the quality of life in alcohol-dependent patients in relation to the duration of abstinence. Study data served to determine whether there is a correlation between the presence of selected psycho-social and medical factors and a patient’s subjective perception of his/her quality of life. Material and methods: The study involved alcohol-dependent patients undergoing treatment in the Residential Alcohol Addiction Therapy Department of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Lublin. In the first stage of the study, the severity of the alcohol problem was assessed with the MAST and CAGE tests and quality of life was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. An Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. In the second stage of the study, the SF-36 scale was used to evaluate the quality of life. The Original Socio-Demographic Questionnaire was also used. Results : The socio-economic factors that had a statistically significant impact on the quality of life of the alcohol-dependent individuals comprised sex, marital status and having a family. Marital status was shown to be one of the most important family-related factors significantly influencing the quality of life. Having a family was not a factor associated with subjective improvement of the quality of life during abstinence for alcohol-dependent individuals. Awareness of socio-economic and medical factors influencing quality of life in individuals addicted to alcohol and gambling is an important

  13. Correlation between Waardenburg syndrome phenotype and genotype in a population of individuals with identified PAX3 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, A L; Cupples, L A; Arnos, K S; Asher, J H; Baldwin, C T; Blanton, S; Carey, M L; da Silva, E O; Friedman, T B; Greenberg, J; Lalwani, A K; Milunsky, A; Nance, W E; Pandya, A; Ramesar, R S; Read, A P; Tassabejhi, M; Wilcox, E R; Farrer, L A

    1998-05-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, hair, and skin, and dystopia canthorum. The phenotype is variable and affected individuals may exhibit only one or a combination of several of the associated features. To assess the relationship between phenotype and gene defect, clinical and genotype data on 48 families (271 WS individuals) collected by members of the Waardenburg Consortium were pooled. Forty-two unique mutations in the PAX3 gene, previously identified in these families, were grouped in five mutation categories: amino acid (AA) substitution in the paired domain, AA substitution in the homeodomain, deletion of the Ser-Thr-Pro-rich region, deletion of the homeodomain and the Ser-Thr-Pro-rich region, and deletion of the entire gene. These mutation classes are based on the structure of the PAX3 gene and were chosen to group mutations predicted to have similar defects in the gene product. Association between mutation class and the presence of hearing loss, eye pigment abnormality, skin hypopigmentation, or white forelock was evaluated using generalized estimating equations, which allowed for incorporation of a correlation structure that accounts for potential similarity among members of the same family. Odds for the presence of eye pigment abnormality, white forelock, and skin hypopigmentation were 2, 8, and 5 times greater, respectively, for individuals with deletions of the homeodomain and the Pro-Ser-Thr-rich region compared to individuals with an AA substitution in the homeodomain. Odds ratios that differ significantly from 1.0 for these traits may indicate that the gene products resulting from different classes of mutations act differently in the expression of WS. Although a suggestive association was detected for hearing loss with an odds ratio of 2.6 for AA substitution in the paired domain compared with AA substitution in the homeodomain, this odds

  14. Beyond typing and grading: target analysis in individualized therapy as a new challenge for tumour pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipe, Hans H; von Wasielewski, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    In order to bring about its beneficial effects in oncology, targeted therapy depends on accurate target analysis. Whether cells of a tumour will be sensitive to a specific treatment is predicted by the detection of appropriate targets in cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry or molecular methods. In most instances this is performed by histopathologists. Reliability and reproducibility of tissue-based target analysis in histopathology require novel measures of quality assurance by internal and external controls. As a model for external quality assurance in targeted therapy an annual inter-laboratory trial has been set up in Germany applying tissue arrays with up to 60 mammary cancer samples which are tested by participants for expression of HER2/neu and steroid hormone receptors.

  15. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    E. Paul Cherniack; Ariella R. Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health...

  16. Singing in Individual Music Therapy with Elderly Persons suffering from Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2002-01-01

    To forget your keys, the name of your neighbour, where you put your glasses, or even forgetting your password, is annoying, - but well, it happens to all of us. But when you forget where you live, fail to recognise a close friend, forget what things around you are called, even your own name, then......, then you have a serious problem! The article describes a Ph.D.-research with focus on music therapy with persons suffering from dementia....

  17. Radiation therapy of malignant melanoma: Experience with high individual treatment doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habermalz, H.J.; Fischer, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Melanoma is a complex tumor, metastasizes early both by lymphatic and blood vessels, and which may invoke a significant host ''immune,'' response. One can imagine a number of potentially useful roles for an effective radiation therapy regimen: 1. Treatment of the primary lesion. For small lesions located on the extremities, surgery may be simpler and obviate the risk of radiation failure. In other areas, e.g., head and neck, which may require more cosmetically or functionally debilitating surgery, a trial of radiation therapy may be worthwhile. 2. Preoperative radiation to the primary lesion before surgical resection in the hope of preventing tumor dissemination. 3. Prophylactic, local and regional lymph node radiation therapy. It has been popular in the past to remove malignant melanoma with wide local excision and dissection of adjacent node areas. It is still an open question whether some or any additional patients will be cured by the more vigorous local and extended treatment. Generally, those procedures have fallen into disfavor because of the associated morbidity. Presumably subclinical amounts of malignant melanoma could be sterilized with doses of radiation smaller than those necessary for bulk tumor. Wide field irradiation to the areas surrounding the primary lesion and the adjacent lymph nodes, to doses causing little morbidity, may well be worth clinical trial. 4. In combination with other forms of therapy, e.g., chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, to reduce the number of malignant cells in localized areas known to contain diseases. This may be particularly important prior to initiation of immunotherapy which may be much more effective in the absence of gross disease

  18. Therapist adherence in individual cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge-eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brauhardt, Anne; de Zwaan, Martina; Herpertz, Stephan; Zipfel, Stephan; Svaldi, Jennifer; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-01-01

    While cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most well-established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED), little is known about process factors influencing its outcome. The present study sought to explore the assessment of therapist adherence, its course over treatment, and its associations with patient and therapist characteristics, and the therapeutic alliance. In a prospective multicenter randomized-controlled trial comparing CBT to internet-based guided self-help (INTERBED-study...

  19. The benefit of pets and animal-assisted therapy to the health of older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  20. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E. Paul; Cherniack, Ariella R.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals. PMID:25477957

  1. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Paul Cherniack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies utilizing dogs, cats, birds, fish, and robotic simulations of animals have tried to ascertain the health benefits of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy in the elderly. Several small unblinded investigations outlined improvements in behavior in demented persons given treatment in the presence of animals. Studies piloting the use of animals in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. Animals may provide intangible benefits to the mental health of older persons, such as relief social isolation and boredom, but these have not been formally studied. Several investigations of the effect of pets on physical health suggest animals can lower blood pressure, and dog walkers partake in more physical activity. Dog walking, in epidemiological studies and few preliminary trials, is associated with lower complication risk among patients with cardiovascular disease. Pets may also have harms: they may be expensive to care for, and their owners are more likely to fall. Theoretically, zoonotic infections and bites can occur, but how often this occurs in the context of pet ownership or animal-assisted therapy is unknown. Despite the poor methodological quality of pet research after decades of study, pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are likely to continue due to positive subjective feelings many people have toward animals.

  2. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Cellular Drug Transporters Are Associated with Intolerance to Antiretroviral Therapy in Brazilian HIV-1 Positive Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Barcellos Arruda

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions are the main cause of treatment discontinuation among HIV+ individuals. Genes related to drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME influence drug bioavailability and treatment response. We have investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 29 ADME genes and intolerance to therapy in a case-control study including 764 individuals. Results showed that 15 SNPs were associated with intolerance to nucleoside and 11 to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs, and 8 to protease inhibitors (PIs containing regimens under alpha = 0.05. After Bonferroni adjustment, two associations remained statistically significant. SNP rs2712816, at SLCO2B1 was associated to intolerance to NRTIs (ORGA/AA = 2.37; p = 0.0001, while rs4148396, at ABCC2, conferred risk of intolerance to PIs containing regimens (ORCT/TT = 2.64; p = 0.00009. Accordingly, haplotypes carrying rs2712816A and rs4148396T alleles were also associated to risk of intolerance to NRTIs and PIs, respectively. Our data reinforce the role of drug transporters in response to HIV therapy and may contribute to a future development of personalized therapies.

  3. The Broad Autism (EndoPhenotype: Neurostructural And Neurofunctional Correlates In Parents Of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Billeci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with an early-onset and a strong genetic component in their pathogenesis. According to genetic and epidemiological data, ASD relatives present personality traits similar to, but not as severe as the defining features of ASD, which have been indicated as the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP. BAP features seem to be more prevalent in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD than in the general population. Characterizing brain profiles of relatives of autistic probands may help to understand ASD endophenotype. The aim of this review was to provide an up-to-date overview of research findings on the neurostructural and neurofunctional substrates in parents of individuals with ASD (pASD. The primary hypothesis was that, like for the behavioral profile, the pASD express an intermediate neurobiological pattern between ASD individuals and healthy controls.The 13 reviewed studies evaluated structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain volumes, chemical signals using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, task-related functional activation by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, electroencephalography (EEG, or magnetoencephalography (MEG in pASD. The studies showed that pASD are generally different from healthy controls at a structural and functional level despite often not behaviorally impaired. More atypicalities in neural patterns of pASD seem to be associated with higher scores at BAP assessment. Some of the observed atypicalities are the same of the ASD probands. In addition, the pattern of neural correlates in pASD resembles that of adult individuals with ASD, or it is specific, possibly due to a compensatory mechanism are the same as those detected in ASD subjects. Future studies should ideally include a group of pASD and HC with their ASD and non-ASD probands respectively. They should subgrouping the pASD according to the BAP scores, considering gender as a

  4. Individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral couples therapy in alcohol use disorder: a comparative evaluation in community-based addiction treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, Ellen; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Schippers, Gerard M

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse serves as a chronic stressor between partners and has a deleterious effect on relationship functioning. Behavioral Couples Therapy (BCT) for alcohol dependence, studied as an adjunct to individual outpatient counseling, has shown to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption and enhancing marital functioning, but no study has directly tested the comparative effectiveness of stand-alone BCT versus an individually focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in a clinical community sample. The present study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of stand-alone BCT (n = 30) compared to individual CBT (n = 34) in the treatment of alcohol use disorders in community treatment centers in Dutch male and female alcoholics and their partners. Results show both BCT and CBT to be effective in changing drinking behavior after treatment. BCT was not found to be superior to CBT. Marital satisfaction of the spouse increased significantly in the BCT condition but not in the CBT condition, the differences being significant at the post-test. Patients' self-efficacy to withstand alcohol-related high-risk situations increased significantly in both treatment conditions, but more so in CBT than in BCT after treatment. Treatment involvement of the spouse did not increase retention. Regular practitioners in community treatment centers can effectively deliver both treatments. Stand-alone BCT is as effective as CBT in terms of reduced drinking and to some extent more effective in terms of enhancing relationship satisfaction. However, BCT is a more costly intervention, given that treatment sessions lasted almost twice as long as individual CBT sessions. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. An individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy for tension-type headache - two experimental case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Anne; Lagerlöf, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the effect of an individually tailored behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy, based on a functional behavioral analysis (FBA), for tension-type headache (TTH). Two case studies with A1-A2-B-A3 design of two patients with TTH was conducted. Outcome variables were headache frequency, headache index (mean intensity), consumption of analgesics, self-efficacy in headache management (Headache Management Self-efficacy Scale [HMSE]), disability, and perceived loss of happiness for activities with family and friends. The results showed that headache frequency and headache index decreased for one of the patients. Self-efficacy in headache management increased markedly for both patients. A behavioral medicine treatment in physical therapy based on an FBA can be a way for physical therapists to handle patients with TTH. Future investigations should focus on large group studies with longer observation periods.

  6. Correlation of lip patterns, gender, and blood group in North Kerala population: A study of over 800 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Shaini; Gopinath, Divya; Shameena, P M; Sudha, S; Lakshmi, J Dhana; Litha

    2017-01-01

    With the ever-changing field of criminal justice, the constant revision of criteria for acceptable evidence by the judiciary poses new challenges in forensic investigation. The applicability of cheiloscopy in individual identification is an area of extensive research in recent years. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of different lip print patterns in North Kerala population, to assess any sexual dimorphism in lip patterns, and to correlate lip print patterns with ABO and Rh blood groups. A total of 858 students, 471 males and 387 females, from different colleges in the district of Kozhikode in North Kerala were included in the study. Lip prints were obtained using lipstick and cello tape and transferred onto white papers. Blood group of the participants was noted. The most predominant pattern observed was Type I (48.3%), followed by Type II, Type III, Type IV, Type I', and Type V. We also observed that the lower lip exhibited an overwhelming predominance of Type I pattern in the North Kerala population while the upper lip showed a more even distribution. Gender-wise difference was observed with Type II being the most common in males and Type IV being the predominant pattern in females. No correlation was obtained between the blood groups and lip patterns. The potential usefulness of cheiloscopy in forensic medicine still remains largely untapped and under-recognized. Similar studies in different populations with large sample sizes will allow a more definite picture of lip print patterns to emerge.

  7. Health behaviour change theories: contributions to an ICF-based behavioural exercise therapy for individuals with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidl, Wolfgang; Semrau, Jana; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective is (1) to incorporate recent psychological health behaviour change (HBC) theories into exercise therapeutic programmes, and (2) to introduce the International Classification of Functioning (ICF)-based concept of a behavioural exercise therapy (BET). Relevant personal modifiable factors of physical activity (PA) were identified based on three recent psychological HBC theories. Following the principles of intervention mapping, a matrix of proximal programme objectives specifies desirable parameter values for each personal factor. As a result of analysing reviews on behavioural techniques and intervention programmes of the German rehabilitation setting, we identified exercise-related techniques that impact the personal determinants. Finally, the techniques were integrated into an ICF-based BET concept. Individuals' attitudes, skills, emotions, beliefs and knowledge are important personal factors of PA behaviour. BET systematically addresses these personal factors by a systematic combination of adequate exercise contents with related behavioural techniques. The presented 28 intervention techniques serve as a theory-driven "tool box" for designing complex BET programmes to promote PA. The current paper highlights the usefulness of theory-based integrative research in the field of exercise therapy, offers explicit methods and contents for physical therapists to promote PA behaviour, and introduces the ICF-based conceptual idea of a BET. Implications for Rehabilitation Irrespective of the clients' indication, therapeutic exercise programmes should incorporate effective, theory-based approaches to promote physical activity. Central determinants of physical activity behaviour are a number of personal factors: individuals' attitudes, skills, emotions, beliefs and knowledge. Clinicians implementing exercise therapy should set it within a wider theoretical framework including the personal factors that influence physical activity. To increase

  8. A systematic literature review of the physical and psychosocial correlates of Special Olympics participation among individuals with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, A; Thomson, K; Weiss, J A

    2017-04-01

    Special Olympics (SO) is commonly cited to play an important role in the lives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of the current review was to (a) synthesise key findings regarding the physical, psychological/emotional, social and/or intellectual/cognitive correlates of SO participation for individuals with ID and (b) highlight limitations in the extant research as well as directions for future research. A systematic review of electronic databases was undertaken. A total of 46 articles were confirmed to meet study criteria. Quality assessments of included studies were conducted using checklists from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network methodology checklists (SIGN 50; SIGN 2008). There was a larger amount of support for physical, psychological/emotional and social outcomes as compared with cognitive/intellectual outcomes; however, many studies were confounded by measurement difficulties, sampling procedures and a lack of replicable methods, which hinder generalisation of results. This review highlights the need for a continued critical focus on SO programme evaluation research with more rigorous and replicable methods. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Correlates of unstructured antiretroviral treatment interruption in a cohort of HIV-positive individuals in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Chen, Yalin; Salters, Kate; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

    2014-11-01

    Treatment interruptions (TIs) limit the therapeutic success of combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. HIV-positive individuals dealing with concurrent health issues, access challenges and competing life demands are hypothesized to be more likely to interrupt treatment. Individuals were included if they initiated cART ≥1 year prior to interview date and had a CD4 cell count and initial regimen recorded at initiation. Using pharmacy recording, a TI was defined as a patient-initiated gap in treatment ≥90 consecutive days during the 12 months preceding or following the study interview. 117 (15.2 %) of 768 participants included in this study had a TI during the study window. 76.0 % of participants were male, 27.5 % were of Aboriginal ancestry and the median age was 46 (interquartile range 40-52). In multivariable logistic regression, TIs were significantly associated with current illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.68, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.68); perception of overall health (aOR 1.64 95 % CI 1.05-2.55); being unemployed (aOR: 2.22, 95 % CI 1.16-4.23); and younger age at interview (aOR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.44-0.75, per 10 year increase). Addressing socioeconomic barriers to treatment retention is vital for supporting the continuous engagement of patients in care.

  10. Constraint - Induced Movement Therapy: Determinants and Correlates of Duration of Adherence to Restraint use Among Stroke Survivors with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinola Olasumbo Sanya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT was developed to improve purposeful movement of the stroke-affected extremity by restrictingthe use of the unaffected extremity. The two main components of CIMT are the training of the more-impaired arm to perform functional tasks, and the restraint of the less-impaired arm. One challenge that the application of CIMT faces is in ensuring adherence to the use of restraint.Purpose: There is a need to determine the factors that may influence adherence, as this would allow CIMT to be delivered more effectively, and prevent situations where unrealistic expectations are placed on stroke–affected individuals.Methods: Thirty stroke survivors with hemiparesis who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited from the physiotherapy out-patient clinics, using a purposive sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on clinical and socio-demographic parameters. The participants were given a restraint and an adherence time log-book, to make a daily record during the period they wore the restraint. The adherence time logbook was collected at the end of every week of the 3-week study. Motor function and functional use of the upper limb were measured using Motricity Index and Motor Activity Log respectively. Data was analysed using mean and standard deviations, independent t-test and Spearman rho; p was significant at 0.05.Results: Gender (p=0.73 and side affected/handedness (p=0.79 had no significant influence on the percentage duration of adherence to restraint use (DARU. The influence of socio-economic status was seen, with the participants of middle socio-economic status adhering for longer duration (p=0.02. Age had weak and no significant correlation with percentage DARU (p=0.55. There was significantly fair correlation between motor function/functional use at any stage (p=0.55 and the corresponding percentage duration of adherence to restraint use, except

  11. Perceptual and acoustic outcomes of voice therapy for male-to-female transgender individuals immediately after therapy and 15 months later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfer, Marylou Pausewang; Tice, Ruthanne M

    2013-05-01

    The present study examined how effectively listeners' perceptions of gender could be changed from male to female for male-to-female (MTF) transgender (TG) clients based on the voice signal alone, immediately after voice therapy and at long-term follow-up. Short- and long-term changes in masculinity and femininity ratings and acoustic measures of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) and vowel formant frequencies were also investigated. Prospective treatment study. Five MTF TG clients, five control female speakers, and five control male speakers provided a variety of speech samples for later analysis. The TG clients then underwent 8 weeks of voice therapy. Voice samples were collected immediately at the termination of therapy and again 15 months later. Two groups of listeners were recruited to evaluate gender and provide masculinity and femininity ratings. Perceptual results revealed that TG subjects were perceived as female 1.9% of the time in the pretest, 50.8% of the time in the immediate posttest, and 33.1% of the time in the long-term posttest. The TG speakers were also perceived as significantly less masculine and more feminine in the immediate posttest and the long-term posttest compared with the pre-test. Some acoustic measures showed significant differences between the pretest and the immediate posttest and long-term posttest. It appeared that 8 weeks of voice therapy could result in vocal changes in MTF TG individuals that persist at least partially for up to 15 months. However, some TG subjects were more successful with voice feminization than others. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does SGLT2 inhibition with dapagliflozin overcome individual therapy resistance to RAAS inhibition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrykiv, Sergei; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.

    Individual patients show a large variation in their response to renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system (RAAS) inhibition (RAASi), both in surrogates such as albuminuria and in hard renal outcomes. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2) have been shown to lower albuminuria and to confer

  13. Predicting Optimal Outcomes in Cognitive Therapy or Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Individuals Using the Personalized Advantage Index Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J H Huibers

    Full Text Available Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works best for the depressed individual. In this paper, we aim to replicate a recently developed treatment selection method, using data from an RCT comparing the effects of cognitive therapy (CT and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT.134 depressed patients completed the pre- and post-treatment BDI-II assessment. First, we identified baseline predictors and moderators. Second, individual treatment recommendations were generated by combining the identified predictors and moderators in an algorithm that produces the Personalized Advantage Index (PAI, a measure of the predicted advantage in one therapy compared to the other, using standard regression analyses and the leave-one-out cross-validation approach.We found five predictors (gender, employment status, anxiety, personality disorder and quality of life and six moderators (somatic complaints, cognitive problems, paranoid symptoms, interpersonal self-sacrificing, attributional style and number of life events of treatment outcome. The mean average PAI value was 8.9 BDI points, and 63% of the sample was predicted to have a clinically meaningful advantage in one of the therapies. Those who were randomized to their predicted optimal treatment (either CT or IPT had an observed mean end-BDI of 11.8, while those who received their predicted non-optimal treatment had an end-BDI of 17.8 (effect size for the difference = 0.51.Depressed patients who were randomized to their predicted optimal treatment fared much better than those randomized to their predicted non-optimal treatment. The PAI provides a great opportunity for formal decision-making to improve individual patient outcomes in depression. Although the utility of the PAI

  14. Slow pre-movement cortical potentials do not reflect individual response to therapy in writer's cramp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, K E; Peller, M; Knutzen, A

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) provide a physiological correlate that indicates the response to treatment in patients with writer's cramp. METHODS: In 21 patients with writer's cramp, who underwent 4 weeks of limb immobilization followed by re...... apart. RESULTS: Patients benefited from the therapeutical intervention (Zeuner et al., 2008). They showed no abnormalities of the MRCPs at baseline. In controls, MRCPs did not significantly change after 4 weeks. In patients, immobilization and re-training had no effect on MRCPs. There was no correlation......-training for 8 weeks, we recorded MRCPs preceding a self-initiated brisk finger abduction movement. MRCP measurements of pre-movement activity were performed at baseline, after the end of immobilization and four and 8 weeks of re-training. We examined 12 controls, who received no intervention, twice 4 weeks...

  15. I-SWOT as instrument to individually optimize therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: Effective, norm-compliant and meeting the needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachweh, A; von Kodolitsch, Y; Kölbel, T; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Wipper, S; Bernhardt, A M; Girdauskas, E; Detter, C; Reichenspurner, H; Blankart, C R; Debus, E S

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines summarize medical evidence, they identify the most efficient therapy under study conditions and recommend this therapy for use. The physician now has the challenge to translate a therapy that is efficient under laboratory conditions to a patient who is an individual person. To accomplish this task the physician has to make sure that (I) the ideal typical therapy is applicable and effective in this individual patient taking the special features into consideration, that (II) therapy is compliant with the norm including guidelines, laws and ethical requirements (conformity) and that (III) the therapy meets the patient's needs. How can physicians together with the patients translate the medical evidence into an individually optimized therapy? At the German Aortic Center in Hamburg we use I‑SWOT as an instrument to identify such individually optimized therapy. With I‑SWOT, we present an instrument with which we have developed an (I) efficient, (II) conform and (III) needs-oriented therapeutic strategy for individual patients. I-SWOT cross-tabulates strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) related to therapy with opportunities (O) and threats (T) related to individual patients. This I‑SWOT matrix identifies four fundamental types of strategy, which comprise "SO" maximizing strengths and opportunities, "WT" minimizing weaknesses and threats, "WO" minimizing weaknesses and maximizing opportunities and "ST" maximizing strengths and minimizing threats. We discuss the case of a patient with asymptomatic thoracoabdominal aneurysm to show how I‑SWOT is used to identify an individually optimized therapy strategy.

  16. Photobiomodulation of surgical wound dehiscence in a diabetic individual by low-level laser therapy following median sternotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehil Dixit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this single case study, we attempt to outline the possible effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT on delayed wound healing and pain in chronic dehiscent sternotomy of a diabetic individual. The methods that were employed to evaluate changes pre and post irradiation were wound photography, wound area measurement, pressure ulcer scale of healing (PUSH, and visual analogue scale (VAS for pain. After irradiation, proliferation of healthy granulation tissue was observed with decrease in scores of PUSH for sternal dehiscence and VAS for bilateral shoulders and sternal dehiscence. We found that LLLT irradiation could be a novel method of treatment for chronic sternal dehiscence following coronary artery bypass grafting, as it augments wound healing with an early closure of the wound deficit. Hence, this might be translated into an early functional rehabilitation and decreased pain perception of an individual following surgical complication.

  17. A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Findings About Dance/Movement Therapy for Individuals With Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Brooklyn; Land, Helen M

    2016-02-01

    The therapeutic potential of using dance/movement therapy is being increasingly recognized. Preliminary interdisciplinary research findings suggest engaging the body in trauma treatment might reduce the length of treatment by addressing the connections among thoughts, feelings, neurobiology, and somatic responses in the survivor. Unfortunately, empirical research investigating its effectiveness as a psychotherapeutic intervention has been limited due to the lack of a clear manual for mental health care practitioners. The present study aims to synthesize findings from the existing qualitative literature in a qualitative meta-synthesis. Our findings will contribute to the development of a body-oriented intervention for mental health care practitioners to use for trauma. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Pulmonary effects of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunisaki, Ken M; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Collins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV...... Services guidelines) either immediately, or deferred until CD4 T-cell counts decreased to 350 per μL or AIDS developed. The randomisation was determined by participation in the parent START study, and was not specific to the substudy. Because of the nature of our study, site investigators and participants...... were not masked to the treatment group assignment; however, the assessors who reviewed the outcomes were masked to the treatment group. The primary outcome was the annual rate of decline in lung function, expressed as the FEV1 slope in mL/year; spirometry was done annually during follow-up for up to 5...

  19. A pilot trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for interpersonal sensitivity in individuals with persecutory delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Freeman, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Advances in understanding delusions may be used to improve clinical interventions. Interpersonal sensitivity - feeling vulnerable in the presence of others due to the expectation of criticism or rejection - has been identified as a potential causal factor in the occurrence of persecutory delusions. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact on persecutory delusions of a (newly devised) cognitive behavioural intervention targeting interpersonal sensitivity (CBT-IPS). CBT-IPS was tested in an uncontrolled pilot study with eleven patients with persistent persecutory delusions in the context of a psychotic disorder. Patients had two baseline assessments over a fortnight period to establish the stability of the delusions, which was followed by six sessions of CBT-IPS, a post-therapy assessment, and a further follow-up assessment one month later. Interpersonal sensitivity and the persecutory delusions were stable during the baseline period. At the post-therapy assessment there were significant reductions of large effect size for both interpersonal sensitivity and the persecutory delusions. These gains were maintained at follow-up. The main limitation is that in this initial test there was no control group. The intervention may not have caused the reduction in delusions. Further, bias may have been introduced by the outcome data being collected by the therapist. The findings from this evaluation are consistent with the hypothesised causal role for interpersonal sensitivity in the occurrence of persecutory delusions. CBT-IPS shows promise as a therapeutic intervention but requires a rigorous test of its efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Individual radiation therapy patient whole-body phantoms for peripheral dose evaluations: method and specific software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alziar, I; Vicente, C; Giordana, G; Ben-Harrath, O; De Vathaire, F; Diallo, I; Bonniaud, G; Couanet, D; Chavaudra, J; Lefkopoulos, D; Ruaud, J B; Diaz, J C; Grandjean, P; Kafrouni, H

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a method aimed at creating radiotherapy (RT) patient-adjustable whole-body phantoms to permit retrospective and prospective peripheral dose evaluations for enhanced patient radioprotection. Our strategy involves virtual whole-body patient models (WBPM) in different RT treatment positions for both genders and for different age groups. It includes a software tool designed to match the anatomy of the phantoms with the anatomy of the actual patients, based on the quality of patient data available. The procedure for adjusting a WBPM to patient morphology includes typical dimensions available in basic auxological tables for the French population. Adjustment is semi-automatic. Because of the complexity of the human anatomy, skilled personnel are required to validate changes made in the phantom anatomy. This research is part of a global project aimed at proposing appropriate methods and software tools capable of reconstituting the anatomy and dose evaluations in the entire body of RT patients in an adapted treatment planning system (TPS). The graphic user interface is that of a TPS adapted to obtain a comfortable working process. Such WBPM have been used to supplement patient therapy planning images, usually restricted to regions involved in treatment. Here we report, as an example, the case of a patient treated for prostate cancer whose therapy planning images were complemented by an anatomy model. Although present results are preliminary and our research is ongoing, they appear encouraging, since such patient-adjusted phantoms are crucial in the optimization of radiation protection of patients and for follow-up studies. (note)

  1. Individual radiation therapy patient whole-body phantoms for peripheral dose evaluations: method and specific software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alziar, I; Bonniaud, G; Couanet, D; Ruaud, J B; Vicente, C; Giordana, G; Ben-Harrath, O; Diaz, J C; Grandjean, P; Kafrouni, H; Chavaudra, J; Lefkopoulos, D; de Vathaire, F; Diallo, I

    2009-09-07

    This study presents a method aimed at creating radiotherapy (RT) patient-adjustable whole-body phantoms to permit retrospective and prospective peripheral dose evaluations for enhanced patient radioprotection. Our strategy involves virtual whole-body patient models (WBPM) in different RT treatment positions for both genders and for different age groups. It includes a software tool designed to match the anatomy of the phantoms with the anatomy of the actual patients, based on the quality of patient data available. The procedure for adjusting a WBPM to patient morphology includes typical dimensions available in basic auxological tables for the French population. Adjustment is semi-automatic. Because of the complexity of the human anatomy, skilled personnel are required to validate changes made in the phantom anatomy. This research is part of a global project aimed at proposing appropriate methods and software tools capable of reconstituting the anatomy and dose evaluations in the entire body of RT patients in an adapted treatment planning system (TPS). The graphic user interface is that of a TPS adapted to obtain a comfortable working process. Such WBPM have been used to supplement patient therapy planning images, usually restricted to regions involved in treatment. Here we report, as an example, the case of a patient treated for prostate cancer whose therapy planning images were complemented by an anatomy model. Although present results are preliminary and our research is ongoing, they appear encouraging, since such patient-adjusted phantoms are crucial in the optimization of radiation protection of patients and for follow-up studies.

  2. [Diabetes type 1 therapy individualization among children suffering from autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Halla; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2011-01-01

    Over the last years studies suggest an association between type 1 diabetes (DM1) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this case study two children suffering from DM 1 and ASD were presented. Both are treated in the Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka in Katowice, Poland. The authors highligh everyday problems and challenges that patients, tutors and doctors have to face. The key to effective treatment is its individualization connected with proper education of the patient and his caregivers.

  3. Neuronal Correlates of Individual Differences in the Big Five Personality Traits: Evidences from Cortical Morphology and Functional Homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been many neuroimaging studies of human personality traits, and it have already provided glimpse into the neurobiology of complex traits. And most of previous studies adopt voxel-based morphology (VBM analysis to explore the brain-personality mechanism from two levels (vertex and regional based, the findings are mixed with great inconsistencies and the brain-personality relations are far from a full understanding. Here, we used a new method of surface-based morphology (SBM analysis, which provides better alignment of cortical landmarks to generate about the associations between cortical morphology and the personality traits across 120 healthy individuals at both vertex and regional levels. While to further reveal local functional correlates of the morphology-personality relationships, we related surface-based functional homogeneity measures to the regions identified in the regional-based SBM correlation. Vertex-wise analysis revealed that people with high agreeableness exhibited larger areas in the left superior temporal gyrus. Based on regional parcellation we found that extroversion was negatively related with the volume of the left lateral occipito-temporal gyrus and agreeableness was negatively associated with the sulcus depth of the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, increased regional homogeneity in the left lateral occipito-temporal gyrus is related to the scores of extroversion, and increased regional homogeneity in the left superior parietal lobule is related to the scores of agreeableness. These findings provide supporting evidence of a link between personality and brain structural mysteries with a method of SBM, and further suggest that local functional homogeneity of personality traits has neurobiological relevance that is likely based on anatomical substrates.

  4. Neuronal Correlates of Individual Differences in the Big Five Personality Traits: Evidences from Cortical Morphology and Functional Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Yan, Xu; Li, Yuan; Wang, Junjie; Li, Qiang; Li, Hong; Li, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    There have been many neuroimaging studies of human personality traits, and it have already provided glimpse into the neurobiology of complex traits. And most of previous studies adopt voxel-based morphology (VBM) analysis to explore the brain-personality mechanism from two levels (vertex and regional based), the findings are mixed with great inconsistencies and the brain-personality relations are far from a full understanding. Here, we used a new method of surface-based morphology (SBM) analysis, which provides better alignment of cortical landmarks to generate about the associations between cortical morphology and the personality traits across 120 healthy individuals at both vertex and regional levels. While to further reveal local functional correlates of the morphology-personality relationships, we related surface-based functional homogeneity measures to the regions identified in the regional-based SBM correlation. Vertex-wise analysis revealed that people with high agreeableness exhibited larger areas in the left superior temporal gyrus. Based on regional parcellation we found that extroversion was negatively related with the volume of the left lateral occipito-temporal gyrus and agreeableness was negatively associated with the sulcus depth of the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, increased regional homogeneity in the left lateral occipito-temporal gyrus is related to the scores of extroversion, and increased regional homogeneity in the left superior parietal lobule is related to the scores of agreeableness. These findings provide supporting evidence of a link between personality and brain structural mysteries with a method of SBM, and further suggest that local functional homogeneity of personality traits has neurobiological relevance that is likely based on anatomical substrates.

  5. How Iconicity Helps People Learn New Words: Neural Correlates and Individual Differences in Sound-Symbolic Bootstrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwilym Lockwood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sound symbolism is increasingly understood as involving iconicity, or perceptual analogies and cross-modal correspondences between form and meaning, but the search for its functional and neural correlates is ongoing. Here we study how people learn sound-symbolic words, using behavioural, electrophysiological and individual difference measures. Dutch participants learned Japanese ideophones —lexical sound- symbolic words— with a translation of either the real meaning (in which form and meaning show cross-modal correspondences or the opposite meaning (in which form and meaning show cross-modal clashes. Participants were significantly better at identifying the words they learned in the real condition, correctly remembering the real word pairing 86.7% of the time, but the opposite word pairing only 71.3% of the time. Analysing event-related potentials (ERPs during the test round showed that ideophones in the real condition elicited a greater P3 component and late positive complex than ideophones in the opposite condition. In a subsequent forced choice task, participants were asked to guess the real translation from two alternatives. They did this with 73.0% accuracy, well above chance level even for words they had encountered in the opposite condition, showing that people are generally sensitive to the sound-symbolic cues in ideophones. Individual difference measures showed that the ERP effect in the test round of the learning task was greater for participants who were more sensitive to sound symbolism in the forced choice task. The main driver of the difference was a lower amplitude of the P3 component in response to ideophones in the opposite condition, suggesting that people who are more sensitive to sound symbolism may have more difficulty to suppress conflicting cross-modal information. The findings provide new evidence that cross-modal correspondences between sound and meaning facilitate word learning, while cross-modal clashes make word

  6. Social network and individual correlates of sexual risk behavior among homeless young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Hu, Jianhui; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2012-10-01

    There is growing interest in network-based interventions to reduce HIV sexual risk behavior among both homeless youth and men who have sex with men. The goal of this study was to better understand the social network and individual correlates of sexual risk behavior among homeless young men who have sex with men (YMSM) to inform these HIV prevention efforts. A multistage sampling design was used to recruit a probability sample of 121 homeless YMSM (ages: 16-24 years) from shelters, drop-in centers, and street venues in Los Angeles County. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Because of the different distributions of the three outcome variables, three distinct regression models were needed: ordinal logistic regression for unprotected sex, zero-truncated Poisson regression for number of sex partners, and logistic regression for any sex trade. Homeless YMSM were less likely to engage in unprotected sex and had fewer sex partners if their networks included platonic ties to peers who regularly attended school, and had fewer sex partners if most of their network members were not heavy drinkers. Most other aspects of network composition were unrelated to sexual risk behavior. Individual predictors of sexual risk behavior included older age, Hispanic ethnicity, lower education, depressive symptoms, less positive condom attitudes, and sleeping outdoors because of nowhere else to stay. HIV prevention programs for homeless YMSM may warrant a multipronged approach that helps these youth strengthen their ties to prosocial peers, develop more positive condom attitudes, and access needed mental health and housing services. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum lithium levels and suicide attempts: a case-controlled comparison in lithium therapy-naive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehisa, Masayuki; Terao, Takeshi; Shiotsuki, Ippei; Kurosawa, Keiko; Takenaka, Ryuichi; Sakamoto, Teruo; Shigemitsu, Osamu; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Hatano, Koji; Hirakawa, Hirofumi

    2017-11-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown the inverse association of lithium levels in drinking water and suicide rates; however, it is necessary to perform a clinical study dealing with individual patients. We analyzed 199 patients including 31 patients with suicide attempts, 21 patients with self-harm, and 147 control patients. All were transferred to a university emergency department suffering from intoxication or injury, were aged 20 or more years, and were alive at the start of the study. The exclusion criteria consisted of suffering from schizophrenia and a past or present history of lithium therapy. These exclusions were applied because it is difficult to determine whether their suicide attempt was induced by the intent to end their life or by psychotic symptoms such as auditory hallucinations, and if the patient had received lithium therapy, the association between the small amount of lithium taken from drinking water and food and serum lithium levels cannot be detected. There was a significant difference (p = 0.043) between the three groups whereby patients with suicide attempts had significantly lower lithium levels than control patients (p = 0.012) in males but not females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender revealed that patients with suicide attempts had significantly lower lithium levels than control patients (p = 0.032, odds ratio 0.228, 95% CI 0.059-0.883). The limitations of the present study are the nature of observational research which cannot reveal a causal relationship and the relatively small number of subjects. The present findings suggest that higher serum lithium levels may be protective against suicide attempts in lithium therapy-naive individuals.

  8. Evaluating the outcome of an individual functional therapy program focused on children with cerebral palsy and cerebral visual impairment: A multiple case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Waninge, A.; Krijnen, W.P.; Schans, C.P. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: To date, there is no evidence-based functional therapy programme available for children with both cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI). This study evaluates an individually targeted functional therapy programme adapted for these children experiencing difficulties with

  9. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of children's active free-play: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Kylie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's unstructured outdoor free-play (or active free-play has the potential to make an important contribution to children's overall physical activity levels. Limited research has, however, examined physical activity in this domain. This study examined associations between individual, social and physical environmental factors and the frequency with which children play in particular outdoor locations outside school hours. This study also investigated whether the frequency of playing in outdoor locations was associated with children's overall physical activity levels. Methods Participants including 8-9 year old children and their parents (n = 187 were recruited from a selection of primary schools of varying socioeconomic status across metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Parents completed a survey and children's overall physical activity levels were measured by accelerometry. Regression models examined the odds of children playing in various outdoor settings according to particular correlates. Results Inverse associations were found between preference for activities not involving physical activity, and the likelihood of children playing in the yard at home on the weekend (OR = 0.65; CI = 0.45,0.95. Positive correlates of children playing in their own street included: parental perceptions that it was safe for their child to play in their street (weekdays [OR = 6.46; CI = 2.84,14.71], weekend days [OR = 6.01; CI = 2.68,13.47]; children having many friends in their neighbourhood (OR = 2.63; CI = 1.21,5.76; and living in a cul-de-sac (weekdays [OR = 3.99; CI = 1.65,9.66], weekend days [OR = 3.49; CI = 1.49,8.16]. Positive correlates of more frequent play in the park/playground on weekdays included family going to the park together on a weekly basis on weekdays (OR = 6.8; CI = 3.4,13.6; and on weekend days (OR = 7.36; CI = 3.6,15.0. No differences in mean mins/day of moderate-vigorous physical activity were found between children

  10. A Mixed-Methods Trial of Broad Band Noise and Nature Sounds for Tinnitus Therapy: Group and Individual Responses Modeled under the Adaptation Level Theory of Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Mithila; Searchfield, Grant D

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: A randomized cross-over trial in 18 participants tested the hypothesis that nature sounds, with unpredictable temporal characteristics and high valence would yield greater improvement in tinnitus than constant, emotionally neutral broadband noise. Study Design: The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Secondary measures were: loudness and annoyance ratings, loudness level matches, minimum masking levels, positive and negative emotionality, attention reaction and discrimination time, anxiety, depression and stress. Each sound was administered using MP3 players with earbuds for 8 continuous weeks, with a 3 week wash-out period before crossing over to the other treatment sound. Measurements were undertaken for each arm at sound fitting, 4 and 8 weeks after administration. Qualitative interviews were conducted at each of these appointments. Results: From a baseline TFI score of 41.3, sound therapy resulted in TFI scores at 8 weeks of 35.6; broadband noise resulted in significantly greater reduction (8.2 points) after 8 weeks of sound therapy use than nature sounds (3.2 points). The positive effect of sound on tinnitus was supported by secondary outcome measures of tinnitus, emotion, attention, and psychological state, but not interviews. Tinnitus loudness level match was higher for BBN at 8 weeks; while there was little change in loudness level matches for nature sounds. There was no change in minimum masking levels following sound therapy administration. Self-reported preference for one sound over another did not correlate with changes in tinnitus. Conclusions: Modeled under an adaptation level theory framework of tinnitus perception, the results indicate that the introduction of broadband noise shifts internal adaptation level weighting away from the tinnitus signal, reducing tinnitus magnitude. Nature sounds may modify the affective components of tinnitus via a secondary, residual pathway, but this appears to be less important

  11. Self-rated health by HIV-infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, a survey was applied to a probabilistically selected sample of 1,245 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Brazil. In this work, the analysis was focused on self-rated health. The analysis was conducted according to sex, age, socioeconomic variables, and clinical and treatment-related patient characteristics. Through stepwise logistic regression procedures, the main predictors of good perception of health status were established. Results showed that 65% self-rated health state as good or excellent, 81% do have no or slight difficulty in following treatment, but 34% men and 47% women reported intense or extreme degree of anxiety/worry feelings. Educational level, work situation, presence of side effects and AIDS-related symptoms were the main predictors of good self-perception of health. Problems related to animus status, involving worry and anxiety about the future are still barriers that must be overcome to improve quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  12. HIV Maintains an Evolving and Dispersed Population in Multiple Tissues during Suppressive Combined Antiretroviral Therapy in Individuals with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rebecca; Lamers, Susanna L; Nolan, David J; Maidji, Ekaterina; Faria, N R; Pybus, Oliver G; Dollar, James J; Maruniak, Samuel A; McAvoy, Andrew C; Salemi, Marco; Stoddart, Cheryl A; Singer, Elyse J; McGrath, Michael S

    2016-10-15

    While combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in undetectable plasma viral loads, it does not eradicate HIV infection. Furthermore, HIV-infected individuals while on cART remain at an increased risk of developing serious comorbidities, such as cancer, neurological disease, and atherosclerosis, suggesting that during cART, tissue-based HIV may contribute to such pathologies. We obtained DNA and RNA env, nef, and pol sequences using single-genome sequencing from postmortem tissues of three HIV(+) cART-treated (cART(+)) individuals with undetectable viral load and metastatic cancer at death and performed time-scaled Bayesian evolutionary analyses. We used a sensitive in situ hybridization technique to visualize HIV gag-pol mRNA transcripts in cerebellum and lymph node tissues from one patient. Tissue-associated virus evolved at similar rates in cART(+) and cART-naive (cART(-)) patients. Phylogenetic trees were characterized by two distinct features: (i) branching patterns consistent with constant viral evolution and dispersal among tissues and (ii) very recently derived clades containing both DNA and RNA sequences from multiple tissues. Rapid expansion of virus near death corresponded to wide-spread metastasis. HIV RNA(+) cells clustered in cerebellum tissue but were dispersed in lymph node tissue, mirroring the evolutionary patterns observed for that patient. Activated, infiltrating macrophages were associated with HIV RNA. Our data provide evidence that tissues serve as a sanctuary for wild-type HIV during cART and suggest the importance of macrophages as an alternative reservoir and mechanism of virus spread. Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces plasma HIV to undetectable levels; however, removal of cART results in plasma HIV rebound, thus highlighting its inability to entirely rid the body of infection. Additionally, HIV-infected individuals on cART remain at high risk of serious diseases, which suggests a contribution from residual HIV. In

  13. Secondary syphilis in HIV positive individuals: correlation with histopathologic findings, CD4 counts, and quantity of treponemes in microscopic sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gabriela; Procop, Gary W; Schold, Jesse D; Piliang, Melissa P

    2016-10-01

    Although syphilis is uncommon, infection rates are much higher in HIV-infected individuals than the general population. A proposed explanation is impaired cellular immunity with HIV infection. A search of one institution yielded 10 patients with a diagnosis of secondary syphilis on skin biopsy, positive syphilis serology and available CD4 counts. We evaluated 11 biopsies from the 10 patients. We correlated the patients' CD4 counts with the histologic findings and with the number of treponemes on skin biopsies, highlighted by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also compared the detection of spirochetes in silver stained sections (e.g. Warthin-Starry) with T. pallidum IHC. All biopsies were assessed for various histologic features. The sensitivity of IHC to detect treponemes was 64% and of silver stain was 9% (p-value 0.04). The number of treponemes on the biopsies was determined by IHC. High numbers of spirochetes (i.e. >100 per 10 hpf) were only seen in patients with CD4 counts less than 250 cells/ml. The most consistent histologic finding was a moderate to severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Although the study is small, it appears that a higher number of spirochetes is associated with CD4 counts less than 250 cell/ml. The T. pallidum IHC stain was vastly superior to the Warthin-Starry stain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Internet addiction, problematic internet use, nonproblematic internet use among Chinese adolescents: Individual, parental, peer, and sociodemographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Cao, Hongjian; Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Jintao; Yao, Yuanwei; Geng, Xiaomin; Lin, Xiuyun; Hou, Shumeng; Liu, Fenge; Chen, Xiaoli; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2018-05-01

    Internet addiction has been typically conceptualized as either a continuous construct or a dichotomous construct. Limited research has differentiated adolescents with problematic Internet use (PIU) from the Internet addiction group (IA) and/or nonproblematic Internet use group (NPIU) and examined the potential correlates. To fill this gap, based on data obtained from 956 Chinese adolescents (11-19 years, 47% male), this study examined if adolescents with PIU is a distinctive group from the IA and NPIU. This study also examined factors from different ecological levels that may differentiate among the three groups, including individual, parental, peer, and sociodemographic factors. Results indicated that IA, PIU, and NPIU differed significantly on scores of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Critical factors emerging from different ecological levels could differentiate between PIU and NPIU and between IA and NPIU. Such findings suggest that PIU may represent a distinct, intermediate group of Internet users. The potential theoretical and practical implications of identifying PIU were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Individual, Psychosocial, and environmental correlates of 4-year declines in walking among middle-to-older aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Hiroko; Winkler, Elisabeth; Owen, Neville

    2014-08-01

    We examined associations of individual, psychosocial and environmental characteristics with 4-year changes in walking among middle-to-older aged adults; few such studies have employed prospective designs. Walking for transport and walking for recreation were assessed during 2003-2004 (baseline) and 2007-2008 (follow-up) among 445 adults aged 50-65 years residing in Adelaide, Australia. Logistic regression analyses examined predictors of being in the highest quintile of decline in walking (21.4 minutes/day or more reduction in walking for transport; 18.6 minutes/day or more reduction in walking for recreation). Declines in walking for transport were related to higher level of walking at baseline, low perceived benefits of activity, low family social support, a medium level of social interaction, low sense of community, and higher neighborhood walkability. Declines in walking for recreation were related to higher level of walking at baseline, low self-efficacy for activity, low family social support, and a medium level of available walking facilities. Declines in middle-to-older aged adults' walking for transport and walking for recreation have differing personal, psychosocial and built-environment correlates, for which particular preventive strategies may be developed. Targeted campaigns, community-based programs, and environmental and policy initiatives can be informed by these findings.

  16. SU-F-P-64: The Impact of Plan Complexity Parameters On the Plan Quality and Deliverability of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy with Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, X; Yi, J; Xie, C [The 1st Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of complexity indices on the plan quality and deliverability of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and to determine the most significant parameters in the generation of an ideal VMAT plan. Methods: A multi-dimensional exploratory statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was adopted to study the correlations between VMAT parameters of complexity, quality and deliverability, as well as their contribution weights with 32 two-arc VMAT nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients and 31 one-arc VMAT prostate cancer patients. Results: The MU per arc (MU/Arc) and MU per control point (MU/CP) of NPC were 337.8±25.2 and 3.7±0.3, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of prostate cancer patients (MU/Arc : 506.9±95.4, MU/CP : 5.6±1.1). The plan complexity indices indicated that two-arc VMAT plans were more complex than one-arc VMAT plans. Plan quality comparison confirmed that one-arc VMAT plans had a high quality than two-arc VMAT plans. CCA results implied that plan complexity parameters were highly correlated with plan quality with the first two canonical correlations of 0.96, 0.88 (both p<0.001) and significantly correlated with deliverability with the first canonical correlation of 0.79 (p<0.001), plan quality and deliverability was also correlated with the first canonical correlation of 0.71 (p=0.02). Complexity parameters of MU/CP, segment area (SA) per CP, percent of MU/CP less 3 and planning target volume (PTV) were weighted heavily in correlation with plan quality and deliveability . Similar results obtained from individual NPC and prostate CCA analysis. Conclusion: Relationship between complexity, quality, and deliverability parameters were investigated with CCA. MU, SA related parameters and PTV volume were found to have strong effect on the plan quality and deliverability. The presented correlation among different quantified parameters could be used to improve the plan quality and the efficiency

  17. Cognitive training to improve memory in individuals undergoing electroconvulsive therapy: Negative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Wang, Yuanjia; Feng, Tianshu; Prudic, Joan

    2017-09-01

    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the most effective treatment for severe depression, some patients report persistent memory problems following ECT that impact their quality of life and their willingness to consent to further ECT. While cognitive training has been shown to improve memory performance in various conditions, this approach has never been applied to help patients regain their memory after ECT. In a double-blind study, we tested the efficacy of a new cognitive training program called Memory Training for ECT (Mem-ECT), specifically designed to target anterograde and retrograde memory that can be compromised following ECT. Fifty-nine patients with treatment-resistant depression scheduled to undergo ultra-brief right unilateral ECT were randomly assigned to either: (a) Mem-ECT, (b) active control comprised of nonspecific mental stimulation, or (c) treatment as usual. Participants were evaluated within one week prior to the start of ECT and then again within 2 weeks following the last ECT session. All three groups improved in global function, quality of life, depression, and self-reported memory abilities without significant group differences. While there was a decline in verbal delayed recall and mental status, there was no decline in general retrograde memory or autobiographical memory in any of the groups, with no significant memory or clinical benefit for the Mem-ECT or active control conditions compared to treatment as usual. While we report negative findings, these results continue to promote the much needed discussion on developing effective strategies to minimize the adverse memory side effects of ECT, in hopes it will make ECT a better and more easily tolerated treatment for patients with severe depression who need this therapeutic option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Automation and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Individualized High-Quality Tangent Breast Treatment Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, Thomas G.; Dinniwell, Robert E.; Fyles, Anthony; Sharpe, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the large-scale clinical implementation and performance of an automated treatment planning methodology for tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Automated planning was used to prospectively plan tangential breast IMRT treatment for 1661 patients between June 2009 and November 2012. The automated planning method emulates the manual steps performed by the user during treatment planning, including anatomical segmentation, beam placement, optimization, dose calculation, and plan documentation. The user specifies clinical requirements of the plan to be generated through a user interface embedded in the planning system. The automated method uses heuristic algorithms to define and simplify the technical aspects of the treatment planning process. Results: Automated planning was used in 1661 of 1708 patients receiving tangential breast IMRT during the time interval studied. Therefore, automated planning was applicable in greater than 97% of cases. The time for treatment planning using the automated process is routinely 5 to 6 minutes on standard commercially available planning hardware. We have shown a consistent reduction in plan rejections from plan reviews through the standard quality control process or weekly quality review multidisciplinary breast rounds as we have automated the planning process for tangential breast IMRT. Clinical plan acceptance increased from 97.3% using our previous semiautomated inverse method to 98.9% using the fully automated method. Conclusions: Automation has become the routine standard method for treatment planning of tangential breast IMRT at our institution and is clinically feasible on a large scale. The method has wide clinical applicability and can add tremendous efficiency, standardization, and quality to the current treatment planning process. The use of automated methods can allow centers to more rapidly adopt IMRT and enhance access to the documented

  19. Investigating the Possibility to Individualize Asthma Attack Therapy Based on Attack Severity and Patient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sárkány Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate with the help of a computerized simulation model whether the treatment of an acute asthma attack can be individualized based on the severity of the attack and the characteristics of the patient. Material and Method: A stochastic lung model was used to simulate the deposition of 1 nm - 10 μm particles during a mild and a moderate asthma attack. Breathing parameters were varied to maximize deposition, and simulation results were compared with those obtained in the case of a severe asthma attack. In order to investigate the effect of height on the deposition of inhaled particles, another series of simulations was carried out with identical breathing parameters, comparing patient heights of 155 cm, 175 cm and 195 cm. Results: The optimization process yielded an increase in the maximum deposition values of around 6-7% for each type of investigated asthma attack, and the difference between attacks of different degree of severity was around 5% for both the initial and the optimized values, a higher degree of obstruction increasing the amount of deposited particles. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the individualization of asthma attack treatment cannot be based on particles of different size, as the highest deposited fraction in all three types of attacks can be obtained using 0.01 μm particles. The use of a specific set of breathing parameters yields a difference between a mild and a moderate, as well as a moderate and a severe asthma attack of around 5%.

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Individual Addiction Counseling for Co-occurring Substance Use and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark P; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Alterman, Arthur I; Xie, Haiyi; Meier, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Co-occurring posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and substance use disorders provide clinical challenges to addiction treatment providers. Interventions are needed that are effective, well-tolerated by patients, and capable of being delivered by typical clinicians in community settings. This is a randomized controlled trial of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. METHODS: Fifty-three participants sampled from seven community addiction treatment programs were randomized to integrated cognitive behavioral therapy plus standard care or individual addiction counseling plus standard care. Fourteen community therapists employed by these programs delivered both manual-guided therapies. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms, substance use symptoms and therapy retention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy was more effective than individual addiction counseling in reducing PTSD re-experiencing symptoms and PTSD diagnosis. Individual addiction counseling was comparably effective to integrated cognitive behavioral therapy in substance use outcomes and on other measures of psychiatric symptom severity. Participants assigned to individual addiction counseling with severe PTSD were less likely to initiate and engage in the therapy than those assigned to integrated cognitive behavioral therapy. In general, participants with severe PTSD were more likely to benefit from integrated cognitive behavioral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the promise of efficacy of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy in improving outcomes for persons in addiction treatment with PTSD. Community counselors delivered both interventions with satisfactory adherence and competence. Despite several limitations to this research, a larger randomized controlled trial of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy appears warranted.

  1. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasmana, Renu; Nagpal, Ramesh Chander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dry eye is one of the most common ocular diseases in this cyber era. Despite availability of multiple tests, no single test is accurate for the diagnosis of dry eye. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is the recent tool which can be added in the armentarium of dry eye tests. Aim To evaluate tear meniscus with anterior segment optical coherence tomography and its correlation with other tear variables in normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods In this prospective cross-sectional observational study, right eye of 203 consecutive patients were studied. All the patients were divided into three groups Group 1, 2 and 3 according to their age ≤20 years, 21-40 years and >40 years respectively. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examinations along with slit-lamp bio-microscopy for tear meniscus height measurement, tear film break up time, Schirmer’s I test (with anaesthesia) and optical coherence tomography imaging of inferior tear meniscus height. After focusing of the instrument with a Cross Line (CL) centered on lower tear meniscus at 6’0 clock of cornea, a 6 mm long scan was obtained. The tear meniscus height (μm) and tear meniscus area (mm2) were measured manually with help of callipers by joining upper corneo-meniscus junction to the lower lid-meniscus junction and tear meniscus height and area within the plotted line respectively and calculated by using the integrated analysis available in the custom software. Results There was significant decrease in the all tear variables with the increase in the age. According to age groups in group 1, the mean Schirmer’s (24.0±4.9)mm, tear film break up time (11.1±1.9) sec, tear meniscus height on slit lamp (600.2±167.3)mm were higher but decreased in group 2 (21.5±5.4,10.8±1.4, 597.5±186.3) and group 3 (19.8 ± 5.1, 10.2 ± 1.6, 485.6 ± 157.7) respectively. Schirmer’s test values and tear film break up time were similar in both sexes (p=0.1 and p= 0.9). Tear meniscus

  2. The effects of brief individual cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and homesickness among international students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Alias, Alizi; Mohamad, Mardiana

    2017-10-01

    Students who go to other countries for higher education face various psychological problems, particularly homesickness and depression. The objectives of this study were to: (a) identify differences between students who did and did not receive brief individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression to reduce homesickness; (b) identify whether brief individual CBT for depression reduces the level of homesickness in students between pre-, post- and follow-up assessment; and (c) compare the scores of students experiencing only homesickness and those experiencing both homesickness and depression. The sample consisted of 520 first-year undergraduate international students. The experimental group contained students who were diagnosed with depression and homesickness and received seven sessions of brief individual CBT for depression to reduce homesickness. The control group contained students who were diagnosed with depression and homesickness and received one session of advice and suggestions. The comparison group contained students who experienced only homesickness and did not receive any interventions. The study used the comparison group to determine if an interaction effect existed between students experiencing only homesickness and students experiencing both homesickness and depression. Students who received brief individual CBT displayed a significant reduction in their homesickness and depression scores compared to the scores of students in the control group. Students who experienced only homesickness exhibited a significant reduction in the scores on homesickness in the post-assessment compared to the control group's post-assessment homesickness scores. The results of this study cannot be generalized as data were collected from three universities in Malaysia. The follow-up assessment was conducted six months after the post-assessment, which also limits generalizability beyond six months. Overall, homesickness is considered a normal reaction. Brief

  3. Individual and Partner Correlates of Sexual Satisfaction and Relationship Happiness in Midlife Couples: Dyadic Analysis of the International Survey of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Donahue, Kelly L; Long, J Scott; Heiman, Julia R; Rosen, Raymond C; Sand, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    The current research reports a dyadic analysis of sexual satisfaction, relationship happiness, and correlates of these couple outcomes in a large multinational dataset consisting of 1,009 midlife heterosexual couples (2,018 individuals) recruited in Japan, Brazil, Germany, Spain, and the United States (Heiman et al., 2011). Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) identified correlates of sexual satisfaction that included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness. Even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' sexual satisfaction. Correlates of relationship happiness included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater sexual satisfaction, and once again, even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of each of these correlates contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' relationship happiness. Interactions of individual and partner effects with participant gender are also reported. Current results demonstrate empirically that the partner "matters" to an individual's sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness and indicate that a comprehensive understanding of factors contributing to these couple outcomes requires a couple-level research strategy. Partner effects, even when controlling for individual effects, were

  4. CEBPG transcription factor correlates with antioxidant and DNA repair genes in normal bronchial epithelial cells but not in individuals with bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, D'Anna N; Crawford, Erin L; Khuder, Sadik A; Hernandez, Dawn-Alita; Yoon, Youngsook; Willey, James C

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of bronchogenic carcinoma (BC), yet only 10–15% of heavy smokers develop BC and it is likely that this variation in risk is, in part, genetically determined. We previously reported a set of antioxidant genes for which transcript abundance was lower in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) of BC individuals compared to non-BC individuals. In unpublished studies of the same NBEC samples, transcript abundance values for several DNA repair genes were correlated with these antioxidant genes. From these data, we hypothesized that antioxidant and DNA repair genes are co-regulated by one or more transcription factors and that inter-individual variation in expression and/or function of one or more of these transcription factors is responsible for inter-individual variation in risk for BC. The putative transcription factor recognition sites common to six of the antioxidant genes were identified through in silico DNA sequence analysis. The transcript abundance values of these transcription factors (n = 6) and an expanded group of antioxidant and DNA repair genes (n = 16) were measured simultaneously by quantitative PCR in NBEC of 24 non-BC and 25 BC individuals. CEBPG transcription factor was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with eight of the antioxidant or DNA repair genes in non-BC individuals but not in BC individuals. In BC individuals the correlation with CEBPG was significantly (p < 0.01) lower than that of non-BC individuals for four of the genes (XRCC1, ERCC5, GSTP1, and SOD1) and the difference was nearly significant for GPX1. The only other transcription factor correlated with any of these five target genes in non-BC individuals was E2F1. E2F1 was correlated with GSTP1 among non-BC individuals, but in contrast to CEBPG, there was no significant difference in this correlation in non-BC individuals compared to BC individuals. We conclude that CEBPG is the transcription factor primarily responsible for regulating

  5. Public-health and individual approaches to antiretroviral therapy: township South Africa and Switzerland compared.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Keiser

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in resource-limited settings follows a public health approach, which is characterised by a limited number of regimens and the standardisation of clinical and laboratory monitoring. In industrialized countries doctors prescribe from the full range of available antiretroviral drugs, supported by resistance testing and frequent laboratory monitoring. We compared virologic response, changes to first-line regimens, and mortality in HIV-infected patients starting HAART in South Africa and Switzerland.We analysed data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and two HAART programmes in townships of Cape Town, South Africa. We included treatment-naïve patients aged 16 y or older who had started treatment with at least three drugs since 2001, and excluded intravenous drug users. Data from a total of 2,348 patients from South Africa and 1,016 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were analysed. Median baseline CD4+ T cell counts were 80 cells/mul in South Africa and 204 cells/mul in Switzerland. In South Africa, patients started with one of four first-line regimens, which was subsequently changed in 514 patients (22%. In Switzerland, 36 first-line regimens were used initially, and these were changed in 539 patients (53%. In most patients HIV-1 RNA was suppressed to 500 copies/ml or less within one year: 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] 95%-97% in South Africa and 96% (94%-97% in Switzerland, and 26% (22%-29% and 27% (24%-31%, respectively, developed viral rebound within two years. Mortality was higher in South Africa than in Switzerland during the first months of HAART: adjusted hazard ratios were 5.90 (95% CI 1.81-19.2 during months 1-3 and 1.77 (0.90-3.50 during months 4-24.Compared to the highly individualised approach in Switzerland, programmatic HAART in South Africa resulted in similar virologic outcomes, with relatively few changes to initial regimens. Further innovation and resources are

  6. The effect of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition in HIV-infected persons initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlay, Judith C; Sharma, Shweta; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L; Grunfeld, Carl

    2009-07-01

    To examine the long-term effects of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition among 416 persons initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). In a substudy of a clinical trial of persons initiating ART, changes in body composition attributable to individual ART were examined. ARTs assessed were as follows: indinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, efavirenz, nevirapine, stavudine (d4T), zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), didanosine, and abacavir. Skinfolds and circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 months. Mid arm, mid thigh, and waist subcutaneous tissue areas and nonsubcutaneous tissue areas were calculated. Rates of change per year of exposure to each individual ART drug were determined using multivariate longitudinal regression. d4T and ZDV use was associated with losses in subcutaneous tissue area and skinfold thickness. 3TC use was associated with gains in all subcutaneous tissue areas and skinfold thickness, whereas abacavir use was associated with an increase in waist subcutaneous tissue area. Indinavir was associated with gains in waist subcutaneous tissue area, whereas indinavir, efavirenz, and nevirapine were associated with increases in upper back skinfolds. d4T use was also associated with increases in all nonsubcutaneous tissue areas; 3TC use was associated with the greatest increase in waist nonsubcutaneous tissue area. In this prospective nonrandomized evaluation, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors d4T and ZDV were associated with decreases in subcutaneous tissue areas, whereas 3TC use was associated with increased subcutaneous tissue areas and waist nonsubcutaneous tissue area.

  7. A manual-based phenomenological art therapy for individuals diagnosed with moderate to severe depression (PATd): A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomdahl, Christina; Guregård, Suzanne; Rusner, Marie; Wijk, Helle

    2018-05-14

    This study investigated the effects of manual-based Phenomenological Art Therapy for individuals living with depression in addition to treatment as usual (PATd/TAU) compared with only treatment as usual (TAU) for individuals diagnosed with moderate to severe depression. 79 adults (men = 29.1%) were included in this randomized-controlled-trial (RCT), multicenter study in Sweden with an intention-to-treat design. Participants were randomized into either the PATd/TAU-group (n = 43) or TAU-group (n = 36). Data were collected at baseline and at end of treatment. The main outcomes were depression levels and self-esteem. Secondary outcomes were suicide ideation and sickness absence. The PATd/TAU-group showed a significant decrease of depression levels. The PATd/TAU-group returned to work to a higher degree than the TAU-group. Self-esteem significantly improved in both groups. Suicide ideation was unaffected. Manual-based PATd works as expected, being an effective treatment, and contributes to recovery for individuals with moderate to severe depression. This outcome needs to be confirmed and its long-term effects examined in further studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Comparison of three physical therapy interventions with an emphasis on the gait of individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Brandão Bueno

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Gait impairments are one of the earliest signs reported by patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and cause an increased number of falls and decreased quality of life among these patients. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three physical therapy interventions using Rhythmic Cues (RC, Swiss Ball (SB and Dual Task (DT, with an emphasis on gait treatment (step and stride length, duration and velocity, in individuals with PD. Methods: Quasi-randomized clinical trial addressing a sample composed of 45 individuals assigned to three groups. The individuals were assessed before and after the intervention protocol using the following: Modified Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, Footprint analysis, Video Gait analysis, and Timed Up and Go Test (TUG. The groups were homogeneous concerning age, HY and UPDRS. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 20.0. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in all the variables analyzed in the RC and SB groups when compared in the pre- and post-intervention. With the exception of the TUG variable, the DT group presented statistically significant differences in all the remaining variables. Conclusion: The three interventions were effective for the outcomes under study, but the SB group presented the greatest magnitude of change (effect size, while the RC group presented the greatest improvement in the temporal gait variables (duration and velocity and TUG.

  9. Effects of extracorporal shock wave therapy on symptomatic heel spurs: a correlation between clinical outcome and radiologic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, E; Keskin Akca, A; Selcuk, B; Kurtaran, A; Akyuz, M

    2012-02-01

    Plantar heel pain, a chronic and disabling foot alignment, occurs in the adult population. Extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT) offers a nonsurgical option in addition to stretching exercises, heel cups, NSAI, and corticosteroid injections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ESWT on calcaneal bone spurs and the correlation between clinical outcomes and radiologic changes. The study involved 108 patients with heel pain and radiologically diagnosed heel spurs. All patients underwent ESWT once a week for 5 weeks at the clinic. Each patient received 2,000 impulses of shock waves, starting with 0.05 mJ/mm2 (1.8 bar) and increasing to 0.4 mJ/mm2 (4.0 bar). Standard radiographies of the affected heels were obtained before and after the therapy. Clinical results demonstrated excellent (no pain) in 66.7% of the cases, good (50% of pain reduced) in 15.7% of the cases, and unsatisfactory (no reduction in pain) in 17.6%. After five ESWT treatments, no patients who received shock wave applications had significant spur reductions, but 19 patients (17.6%) had a decrease in the angle of the spur, 23 patients (21.3%) had a decrease in the dimensions of the spur, and one patient had a broken spur. Therefore, results showed no correlation between clinical outcome and radiologic changes. The present study supports the finding that even with no radiologic change after ESWT therapy, the therapy produces significant effects in reducing patients' complaints about heel spurs.

  10. Proteinuria is associated with neurocognitive impairment in antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayjian, Robert C; Wu, Kunling; Evans, Scott; Clifford, David B; Pallaki, Muraldihar; Currier, Judith S; Smryzynski, Marlene

    2014-09-01

    Proteinuria is a marker of vascular dysfunction that predicted increased cardiovascular mortality and is associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in population-based studies. We examined associations between proteinuria and HIV-associated NCI. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between NCI at the first neurocognitive assessment (baseline) and simultaneous, clinically significant proteinuria [as random spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratios (UP/Cr) ≥200 mg/g] in a prospective multicenter observational cohort study. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between baseline proteinuria and subsequent NCI among subjects without NCI at baseline. NCI was defined as a Z-score, derived from the combination of normalized scores from the Trailmaking A and B and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Symbol tests. A total of 1972 subjects were included in this analysis. Baseline proteinuria was associated with increased odds of NCI [odds ratio (OR): 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 1.85; P = 0.01] and with subsequent NCI among subjects without NCI at baseline (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.93; P = 0.046) in multivariable models adjusted for risk factors and potential confounders. Similar associations were evident when these analyses were limited to visits at which time study subjects maintained plasma HIV RNA levels <200 copies per milliliter. The association between proteinuria and NCI observed in this study adds to a growing body of evidence implicating contributions by vascular disease to NCI in antiretroviral treated individuals. Studies examining interventions that improve vascular function are warranted.

  11. Early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy for Indian HIV-Infected individuals with tuberculosis on antituberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sanjeev; Shekhar, Rahul C; Singh, Gurjeet; Shah, Nipam; Ahmad, Hafiz; Kumar, Narendra; Sharma, Surendra K; Samantaray, J C; Ranjan, Sanjai; Ekka, Meera; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T

    2012-07-31

    For antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults suffering from tuberculosis (TB), there is uncertainty about the optimal time to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after starting antituberculosis treatment (ATT), in order to minimize mortality, HIV disease progression, and adverse events. In a randomized, open label trial at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, eligible HIV positive individuals with a diagnosis of TB were randomly assigned to receive HAART after 2-4 or 8-12 weeks of starting ATT, and were followed for 12 months after HAART initiation. Participants received directly observed therapy short course (DOTS) for TB, and an antiretroviral regimen comprising stavudine or zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Primary end points were death from any cause, and progression of HIV disease marked by failure of ART. A total of 150 patients with HIV and TB were initiated on HAART: 88 received it after 2-4 weeks (early ART) and 62 after 8-12 weeks (delayed ART) of starting ATT. There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups after the introduction of HAART. However, incidence of ART failure was 31% in delayed versus 16% in early ART arm (p = 0.045). Kaplan Meier disease progression free survival at 12 months was 79% for early versus 64% for the delayed ART arm (p = 0.05). Rates of adverse events were similar. Early initiation of HAART for patients with HIV and TB significantly decreases incidence of HIV disease progression and has good tolerability. CTRI/2011/12/002260.

  12. Early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy for Indian HIV-Infected individuals with tuberculosis on antituberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Sanjeev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For antiretroviral therapy (ART naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected adults suffering from tuberculosis (TB, there is uncertainty about the optimal time to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART after starting antituberculosis treatment (ATT, in order to minimize mortality, HIV disease progression, and adverse events. Methods In a randomized, open label trial at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, eligible HIV positive individuals with a diagnosis of TB were randomly assigned to receive HAART after 2-4 or 8-12 weeks of starting ATT, and were followed for 12 months after HAART initiation. Participants received directly observed therapy short course (DOTS for TB, and an antiretroviral regimen comprising stavudine or zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Primary end points were death from any cause, and progression of HIV disease marked by failure of ART. Findings A total of 150 patients with HIV and TB were initiated on HAART: 88 received it after 2-4 weeks (early ART and 62 after 8-12 weeks (delayed ART of starting ATT. There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups after the introduction of HAART. However, incidence of ART failure was 31% in delayed versus 16% in early ART arm (p = 0.045. Kaplan Meier disease progression free survival at 12 months was 79% for early versus 64% for the delayed ART arm (p = 0.05. Rates of adverse events were similar. Interpretation Early initiation of HAART for patients with HIV and TB significantly decreases incidence of HIV disease progression and has good tolerability. Trial registration CTRI/2011/12/002260

  13. A systematic review exploring therapist competence, adherence, and therapy outcomes in individual CBT for children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapley, Hannah A; Loades, Maria E

    2018-04-22

    Whilst the evidence base for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with children and young people is growing, the mechanisms through which these beneficial effects occur are still unclear. This systematic review seeks to appraise the relationship between therapeutic outcomes in CBT and therapist adherence and competence, within the child and adolescent literature. A systematic review was carried out, with five studies identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. The literature is currently small and inconclusive. Amongst the studies reviewed, there were inconsistent findings, with minimal-to-no effect sizes found between adherence, competence, and outcomes. The current paucity of research in this area means that conclusions are currently limited. The role and impact of adherence and competence on therapeutic outcomes remains unclear within individual CBT in a child population. This is comparable with the current adult literature, where findings also remain inconclusive. Further research avenues are discussed.

  14. Dialectical behavior therapy for high suicide risk in individuals with borderline personality disorder: a randomized clinical trial and component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M; Korslund, Kathryn E; Harned, Melanie S; Gallop, Robert J; Lungu, Anita; Neacsiu, Andrada D; McDavid, Joshua; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Murray-Gregory, Angela M

    2015-05-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an empirically supported treatment for suicidal individuals. However, DBT consists of multiple components, including individual therapy, skills training, telephone coaching, and a therapist consultation team, and little is known about which components are needed to achieve positive outcomes. To evaluate the importance of the skills training component of DBT by comparing skills training plus case management (DBT-S), DBT individual therapy plus activities group (DBT-I), and standard DBT which includes skills training and individual therapy. We performed a single-blind randomized clinical trial from April 24, 2004, through January 26, 2010, involving 1 year of treatment and 1 year of follow-up. Participants included 99 women (mean age, 30.3 years; 69 [71%] white) with borderline personality disorder who had at least 2 suicide attempts and/or nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) acts in the last 5 years, an NSSI act or suicide attempt in the 8 weeks before screening, and a suicide attempt in the past year. We used an adaptive randomization procedure to assign participants to each condition. Treatment was delivered from June 3, 2004, through September 29, 2008, in a university-affiliated clinic and community settings by therapists or case managers. Outcomes were evaluated quarterly by blinded assessors. We hypothesized that standard DBT would outperform DBT-S and DBT-I. The study compared standard DBT, DBT-S, and DBT-I. Treatment dose was controlled across conditions, and all treatment providers used the DBT suicide risk assessment and management protocol. Frequency and severity of suicide attempts and NSSI episodes. All treatment conditions resulted in similar improvements in the frequency and severity of suicide attempts, suicide ideation, use of crisis services due to suicidality, and reasons for living. Compared with the DBT-I group, interventions that included skills training resulted in greater improvements in the frequency of NSSI

  15. FDM 3D printing of modified drug-delivery systems using hot melt extrusion: a new approach for individualized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Filho, Marcilio; Araújo, Maísa Rp; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Gratieri, Tais

    2017-11-01

    The production process of 3D-printed drugs offers unique advantages such as the possibility of individualizing the drug therapy and easily associating different drugs and release technologies in the same pharmaceutical unit. Fused deposition modeling, a 3D printing technique, seems especially interesting for pharmaceutical applications, due to its low cost, precise and reproducible control of the printed structures, and versatility for industrial and laboratory scale. This technique combined with another technology already adapted for the pharmaceutical industry, the hot melt extrusion, is able to incorporate various mechanisms of modified drug release. This special report aims to bring together data of the experimental progress achieved using the fused deposition modeling 3D printing combined with hot melt extrusion technique and its potential in drug delivery. [Formula: see text].

  16. Analysis of autonomic modulation of heart rate in patients with Parkinson's disease and elderly individuals submitted to game therapy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rodrigo Santiago Barbosa; De Oliveira Rocha, Larissa Salgado; Pena, Elza Sara Maués; Caldas, Laiz Cristinna Ponce; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2018-01-01

    Elderly patients and individuals with Parkinson's disease have a reduction in autonomic heart rate modulation, which may influence the survival of these patients, and rehabilitation can minimize this event. We tested the hypothesis that rehabilitation protocol with game console would influence the cardiac autonomic modulation of patients with Parkinson's Disease. Eight-seven volunteers were divided into two groups, control (n = 45) and Parkinson's (n = 42), they completed the study 40 volunteers in the control group (CG) and 31 patients in the Parkinson group (PG), and subjected to 24 sessions of game therapy physiotherapy, thrice a week. Analysis of autonomic HR modulation was conducted before and after the rehabilitation program using a Polar RS800CX HR sensor. For the analysis of heart rate variability the data were transferred to the Kubios HRV 2.2 program. Statistical analysis was performed in the Biostat 5.2 program, the comparison of the data by ANOVA followed by Tukey test, and the general characteristics by the chi-square test. The critical value for rejecting the null hypothesis was set at P modulation of HR values. Subjects with PD exhibit less autonomic modulation of HR and the rehabilitation protocol with game therapy improved autonomic modulation of HR. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 20-25. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Antivertiginous drug therapy does not hinder the efficacy of individualized vibrotactile neurofeedback training for vestibular rehabilitation - a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Dietmar; Borsellino, Liliana; Ernst, Arne

    2017-12-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation using individualized vibrotactile neurofeedback training (IVNT) can lead to significant improvement in the postural stability of patients with vestibular symptoms of different origins. However, some of these patients have complex, severe dizziness, meaning that a pharmacological pretreatment or parallel (to vestibular rehabilitation) treatment can help them perform the rehabilitation exercises. Hence, the present study investigated the influence of a pharmacological treatment on the efficacy of vibrotactile neurofeedback training in patients with chronic, noncompensated vestibulopathies. All participants performed IVNT for ∼10 min each day for 2 weeks. In addition, every second participant was selected randomly to receive oral medication (20 mg cinnarizine and 40 mg dimenhydrinate per tablet), taking three tables per day. Trunk and ankle sway and postural stability were measured. In addition, the dizziness handicap inventory was evaluated immediately before training on the last day of training and 6 months after training. After the 10-day period of IVNT, both groups showed a statistically significant improvement in all parameters tested. A follow-up analysis after 6 months showed a long-term efficacy for the IVNT, that is, the patients remained significantly improved in their postural stability. The antivertiginous therapy did not hinder the efficacy of the IVNT. The present results indicate that IVNT even in combination with an antivertiginous drug therapy is an effective treatment regime for patients with disabling vertigo of different origins.

  18. Impact of alemtuzumab on HIV persistence in an HIV-infected individual on antiretroviral therapy with Sezary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Thomas A; McMahon, James; Chang, J Judy; Symons, Jori; Roche, Michael; Dantanarayana, Ashanti; Okoye, Afam; Hiener, Bonnie; Palmer, Sarah; Lee, Wen Shi; Kent, Stephen J; Van Der Weyden, Carrie; Prince, H Miles; Cameron, Paul U; Lewin, Sharon R

    2017-08-24

    To study the effects of alemtuzumab on HIV persistence in an HIV-infected individual on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with Sezary syndrome, a rare malignancy of CD4 T cells. Case report. Blood was collected 30 and 18 months prior to presentation with Sezary syndrome, at the time of presentation and during alemtuzumab. T-cell subsets in malignant (CD7-CD26-TCR-VBeta2+) and nonmalignant cells were quantified by flow cytometry. HIV-DNA in total CD4 T cells, in sorted malignant and nonmalignant CD4 T cells, was quantified by PCR and clonal expansion of HIV-DNA assessed by full-length next-generation sequencing. HIV-hepatitis B virus coinfection was diagnosed and antiretroviral therapy initiated 4 years prior to presentation with Sezary syndrome and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The patient received alemtuzumab 10 mg three times per week for 4 weeks but died 6 weeks post alemtuzumab. HIV-DNA was detected in nonmalignant but not in malignant CD4 T cells, consistent with expansion of a noninfected CD4 T-cell clone. Full-length HIV-DNA sequencing demonstrated multiple defective viruses but no identical or expanded sequences. Alemtuzumab extensively depleted T cells, including more than 1 log reduction in total T cells and more than 3 log reduction in CD4 T cells. Finally, alemtuzumab decreased HIV-DNA in CD4 T cells by 57% but HIV-DNA remained detectable at low levels even after depletion of nearly all CD4 T cells. Alemtuzumab extensively depleted multiple T-cell subsets and decreased the frequency of but did not eliminate HIV-infected CD4 T cells. Studying the effects on HIV persistence following immune recovery in HIV-infected individuals who require alemtuzumab for malignancy or in animal studies may provide further insights into novel cure strategies.

  19. Effect of Active Music Therapy and Individualized Listening to Music on Dementia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Bellandi, Daniele; Baiardi, Paola; Gianotti, Marta; Ubezio, Maria Chiara; Zanacchi, Elisa; Granieri, Enrico; Imbriani, Marcello; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effects of active music therapy (MT) and individualized listening to music (LtM) on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) in persons with dementia (PWDs). Randomized controlled trial. Nine Italian institutions. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and BPSDs (N = 120) were randomized to one of three treatments. All groups received standard care (SC), and two groups attended 20 individualized MT or LtM sessions, twice a week, in addition to SC. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and Cornell-Brown Scale for Quality of Life in Dementia (CBS-QoL) were administered before treatment, after treatment, and at follow-up to evaluate behavioral and psychological outcomes. A specific coding scheme (Music Therapy Check List-Dementia) was used to evaluate the MT process. Behavioral assessment did not show significant differences between groups. All groups showed a reduction over time in NPI global score (P ≤ .001), CSDD (P = .001), and CBS-QoL (P = .01). The NPI global score fell 28% in the MT group, 12% in the LtM group, and 21% in the SC group at the end of treatment. An exploratory post hoc analysis showed similar within-group improvements for the NPI Delusion, Anxiety, and Disinhibition subscales. In the MT group, communication and relationships between the music therapists and PWDs showed a positive albeit nonsignificant trend during treatment. The addition of MT or LtM to standard care did not have a significant effect on BPSDs in PWDs. Further studies on the effects of the integration of standard care with different types of music interventions on BPSD in PWD are warranted. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Expression of interferon regulatory factor 4 in chronic myeloid leukemia: correlation with response to interferon alfa therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Hochhaus, A; König-Merediz, S A; Brendel, C; Proba, J; Hoppe, G J; Wittig, B; Ehninger, G; Hehlmann, R; Neubauer, A

    2000-10-01

    Mice experiments have established an important role for interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family members in hematopoiesis. We wanted to study the expression of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) in various hematologic disorders, especially chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and its association with response to interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) treatment in CML. Blood samples from various hematopoietic cell lines, different leukemia patients (70 CML, 29 acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 10 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia [CMMoL], 10 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 10 chronic lymphoid leukemia patients), and 33 healthy volunteers were monitored for IRF4 expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Then, with a focus on CML, the IRF4 level was determined in sorted cell subpopulations from CML patients and healthy volunteers and in in vitro-stimulated CML cells. Furthermore, IRF4 expression was compared in the CML samples taken before IFN-alpha therapy and in 47 additional CML samples taken during IFN-alpha therapy. IRF4 expression was then correlated with cytogenetic response to IFN-alpha. IRF4 expression was significantly impaired in CML, AML, and CMMoL samples. The downregulation of IRF4 in CML samples was predominantly found in T cells. In CML patients during IFN-alpha therapy, a significant increase in IRF4 levels was detected, and this was also observed in sorted T cells from CML patients. The increase seen during IFN-alpha therapy was not due to different blood counts. In regard to the cytogenetic response with IFN-alpha, a good response was associated with high IRF4 expression. IRF4 expression is downregulated in T cells of CML patients, and its increase is associated with a good response to IFN-alpha therapy. These data suggest IRF4 expression as a useful marker to monitor, if not predict, response to IFN-alpha in CML.

  1. Individualized Positron Emission Tomography–Based Isotoxic Accelerated Radiation Therapy Is Cost-Effective Compared With Conventional Radiation Therapy: A Model-Based Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, Mathilda L., E-mail: ml.bongers@vumc.nl [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Coupé, Veerle M.H. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Ruysscher, Dirk [Radiation Oncology University Hospitals Leuven/KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, GROW Research Institute, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, GROW Research Institute, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uyl-de Groot, Cornelia A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term health effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET)-based isotoxic accelerated radiation therapy treatment (PET-ART) compared with conventional fixed-dose CT-based radiation therapy treatment (CRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Our analysis uses a validated decision model, based on data of 200 NSCLC patients with inoperable stage I-IIIB. Clinical outcomes, resource use, costs, and utilities were obtained from the Maastro Clinic and the literature. Primary model outcomes were the difference in life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost/utility ratio (ICER and ICUR) of PET-ART versus CRT. Model outcomes were obtained from averaging the predictions for 50,000 simulated patients. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis and scenario analyses were carried out. Results: The average incremental costs per patient of PET-ART were €569 (95% confidence interval [CI] €−5327-€6936) for 0.42 incremental LYs (95% CI 0.19-0.61) and 0.33 QALYs gained (95% CI 0.13-0.49). The base-case scenario resulted in an ICER of €1360 per LY gained and an ICUR of €1744 per QALY gained. The probabilistic analysis gave a 36% probability that PET-ART improves health outcomes at reduced costs and a 64% probability that PET-ART is more effective at slightly higher costs. Conclusion: On the basis of the available data, individualized PET-ART for NSCLC seems to be cost-effective compared with CRT.

  2. Choosing Wisely? Patterns and Correlates of the Use of Hypofractionated Whole-Breast Radiation Therapy in the State of Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Heimburger, David [Munson Medical Center, Traverse City, Michigan (United States); Walker, Eleanor M. [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Grills, Inga S. [Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Boike, Thomas [McLaren Northern Michigan, Petoskey, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary; Moran, Jean M.; Hayman, James; Pierce, Lori J. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Given evidence from randomized trials that have established the non-inferiority of more convenient and less costly courses of hypofractionated radiotherapy to the whole breast in selected breast cancer patients who receive lumpectomy, we sought to investigate the use of hypofractionated radiation therapy and factors associated with its use in a consortium of radiation oncology practices in Michigan. We sought to determine the extent to which variation in use occurs at the physician or practice level versus the extent to which use reflects individualization based on potentially relevant patient characteristics (such as habitus, age, chemotherapy receipt, or laterality). Methods and Materials: We evaluated associations between receipt of hypofractionated radiation therapy and various patient, provider, and practice characteristics in a multilevel model. Results: Of 1477 patients who received lumpectomy and whole-breast radiation therapy and were registered by the Michigan Radiation Oncology Quality Consortium (MROQC) from October 2011 to December 2013, 913 had T1-2, N0 breast cancer. Of these 913, 283 (31%) received hypofractionated radiation therapy. Among the 13 practices, hypofractionated radiation therapy use ranged from 2% to 80%. On multilevel analysis, 51% of the variation in the rate of hypofractionation was attributable to the practice level, 21% to the provider level, and 28% to the patient level. On multivariable analysis, hypofractionation was more likely in patients who were older (odds ratio [OR] 2.16 for age ≥50 years, P=.007), less likely in those with larger body habitus (OR 0.52 if separation between tangent entry and exit ≥25 cm, P=.002), and more likely without chemotherapy receipt (OR 3.82, P<.001). Hypofractionation use was not higher in the last 6 months analyzed: 79 of 252 (31%) from June 2013 to December 2013 and 204 of 661 (31%) from October 2011 to May 2013 (P=.9). Conclusions: Hypofractionated regimens of whole

  3. SU-F-T-133: Uniform Scanning Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer: Toxicity and Its Correlation with Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y; Rana, S; Larson, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the toxicity of uniform scanning proton therapy for lung cancer patients and its correlation with dose distribution. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the toxicity of 128 lung cancer patients, including 18 small cell lung cancer and 110 non small cell lung cancer patients. Each patient was treated with uniform scanning proton beams at our center using typically 2–4 fields. The prescription was typically 74 Cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) at 2 CGE per fraction. 4D Computerized Tomography (CT) scans were used to evaluate the target motion and contour the internal target volume, and repeated 3 times during the course of treatment to evaluate the need for plan adaptation. Toxicity data for these patients were obtained from the proton collaborative group (PCG) database. For cases of grade 3 toxicities or toxicities of interest such as esophagitis and radiation dermatitis, dose distributions were reviewed and analyzed in attempt to correlate the toxicity with radiation dose. Results: At a median follow up time of about 21 months, none of the patients had experienced Grade 4 or 5 toxicity. The most common adverse effect was dermatitis (81%: 52%-Grade 1, 28%-Grade 2, and 1% Grade 3), followed by fatigue (48%), Cough (46%), and Esophagitis (45%), as shown in Figure 1. Severe toxicities, such as Grade 3 dermatitis or pain of skin, had a clear correlation with high radiation dose. Conclusion: Uniform scanning proton therapy is well tolerated by lung cancer patients. Preliminary analysis indicates there is correlation between severe toxicity and high radiation dose. Understanding of radiation resulted toxicities and careful choice of beam arrangement are critical in minimizing toxicity of skin and other organs.

  4. SU-F-T-133: Uniform Scanning Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer: Toxicity and Its Correlation with Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y; Rana, S; Larson, G [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To analyze the toxicity of uniform scanning proton therapy for lung cancer patients and its correlation with dose distribution. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the toxicity of 128 lung cancer patients, including 18 small cell lung cancer and 110 non small cell lung cancer patients. Each patient was treated with uniform scanning proton beams at our center using typically 2–4 fields. The prescription was typically 74 Cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) at 2 CGE per fraction. 4D Computerized Tomography (CT) scans were used to evaluate the target motion and contour the internal target volume, and repeated 3 times during the course of treatment to evaluate the need for plan adaptation. Toxicity data for these patients were obtained from the proton collaborative group (PCG) database. For cases of grade 3 toxicities or toxicities of interest such as esophagitis and radiation dermatitis, dose distributions were reviewed and analyzed in attempt to correlate the toxicity with radiation dose. Results: At a median follow up time of about 21 months, none of the patients had experienced Grade 4 or 5 toxicity. The most common adverse effect was dermatitis (81%: 52%-Grade 1, 28%-Grade 2, and 1% Grade 3), followed by fatigue (48%), Cough (46%), and Esophagitis (45%), as shown in Figure 1. Severe toxicities, such as Grade 3 dermatitis or pain of skin, had a clear correlation with high radiation dose. Conclusion: Uniform scanning proton therapy is well tolerated by lung cancer patients. Preliminary analysis indicates there is correlation between severe toxicity and high radiation dose. Understanding of radiation resulted toxicities and careful choice of beam arrangement are critical in minimizing toxicity of skin and other organs.

  5. Neural correlates of individual differences in processing of rising tones in Cantonese: Implications for speech perception and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampo Law

    2015-04-01

    tone condition [F = (2, 39 = 47.18, p < .001, η2 = .55] and group [F = (2, 39 = 75.89, p = .017, η2 = .14], with T5 eliciting more positive responses than T2, and stronger responses from the [+Per+Pro] than [+Per-Pro] group. Correlations between production accuracy of the two rising tones and perceptual measures found that the averaged production accuracy was negatively correlated with the discrimination RT (r = -.502, p = .001, with shorter discrimination RTs associated with higher production accuracy. In addition, the production accuracy was positively correlated with the mean amplitude of brain responses to rise time of T5 (r = .421, p = .006, the larger the response, the higher the production accuracy. In summary, the present study demonstrated that tone perception is highly dynamic and exploits different acoustic cues at different stages of processing – rise time at the sensory/perceptual level and pitch feature at the cognitive level, as the auditory signal unfolds over time. Moreover, our findings revealed differential sensitivities between individuals with and without distinctive production of the two rising tones as evidenced by the differences in discrimination latency of the two tones and magnitude of brain response to short rise time. The individual differences found in production are proposed to have a perceptual origin, in that less defined phonological representations lead to less distinctive production.

  6. Music-evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Salivary α-amylase as a marker of stress reduction in individuals with intellectual disability and autism in response to occupational and music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquérusse, J; Azhari, A; Setoh, P; Cainelli, S; Ripoli, C; Venuti, P; Esposito, G

    2018-02-01

    Although the benefits of a range of disability-centric therapies have been well studied, little remains known about how they work, let alone how to monitor these benefits in a precise and reliable way. Here, in two independent studies, we examine how sessions consisting of occupational or music therapy, both widely recognised for their effectiveness, modulate levels of salivary α-amylase (sAA), a now time- and cost-efficient marker of stress, in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Pre-session and post-session levels of sAA were compared in both groups in response to therapy and control sessions. In comparison to control sessions, occupational therapy significantly dampened rises in sAA levels while music therapy significantly decreased baseline sAA levels, highlighting the ability of both types of therapy to reduce stress and by proxy contribute to enhancing overall well-being. Not only do these results confirm the stress-reducing nature of two types of multisensory therapy, but they support the use of sAA as a potential tool for evaluating stress levels in individuals with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder, providing an important physiological lens that may guide strategies in clinical and non-clinical care for individuals with disabilities. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Online neurocognitive remediation therapy to improve cognition in community-living individuals with a history of depression: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Semkovska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a highly prevalent psychopathology with high relapse rates. Following remission from a depressive episode, neurocognitive difficulties in attention, working memory and executive function often persist, preventing full clinical recovery. These neurocognitive deficits are often present since the first depressive episode and have been shown to predict relapse. The efficacy of computerised neurocognitive remediation therapy (NCRT to improve attention, memory and executive function has been demonstrated in several clinical populations but randomised controlled trials (RCT have not been conducted in depression. The present study aimed to conduct a pilot, randomised study, of computerised NCRT for individuals with past depression, currently in remission. Twenty two individuals remitted from depression were randomly assigned to receive 20 one-hour sessions over 5 week of ether computerised NCRT or a component-equivalent allocation (play online computer games. The NCRT group showed significantly larger improvements in performance relative to the Games group in the three targeted neurocognitive domains: divided attention, verbal working memory, and planning, but also in non-targeted domains of long-term verbal memory and switching abilities. No significant effect was observed in the NCRT-targeted domain visual working memory. These preliminary results suggest computerised NCRT efficacy to improve targeted neurocognitive processes during depression remission and support its potential value as preventative connected intervention tool.

  9. New insights into the correlation structure of DSM-IV depression symptoms in the general population v. subsamples of depressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2018-06-01

    Previous research failed to uncover a replicable dimensional structure underlying the symptoms of depression. We aimed to examine two neglected methodological issues in this research: (a) adjusting symptom correlations for overall depression severity; and (b) analysing general population samples v. subsamples of currently depressed individuals. Using population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal data from two nations (Switzerland, 5883 young men; USA, 2174 young men and 2244 young women) we assessed the dimensions of the nine DSM-IV depression symptoms in young adults. In each general-population sample and each subsample of currently depressed participants, we conducted a standardised process of three analytical steps, based on exploratory and confirmatory factor and bifactor analysis, to reveal any replicable dimensional structure underlying symptom correlations while controlling for overall depression severity. We found no evidence of a replicable dimensional structure across samples when adjusting symptom correlations for overall depression severity. In the general-population samples, symptoms correlated strongly and a single dimension of depression severity was revealed. Among depressed participants, symptom correlations were surprisingly weak and no replicable dimensions were identified, regardless of severity-adjustment. First, caution is warranted when considering studies assessing dimensions of depression because general population-based studies and studies of depressed individuals generate different data that can lead to different conclusions. This problem likely generalises to other models based on the symptoms' inter-relationships such as network models. Second, whereas the overall severity aligns individuals on a continuum of disorder intensity that allows non-affected individuals to be distinguished from affected individuals, the clinical evaluation and treatment of depressed individuals should focus directly on each individual's symptom profile.

  10. THE CORRELATION OF VALUES, SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTITUDES OF MILITARY PERSONNEL AND THEIR INDIVIDUAL READINESS FOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Terekhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Modern military servicemen quite often should cope with operational and military tasks in non-standard and sometimes extreme situations. Therefore, the problem of psychological and pedagogical support of professional development of the military personnel aimed at their valuable attitudes and readiness formation to perform professional duties under uncertainty is brought into focus. The effective solution of this problem requires studying of various psychological aspects of valuable orientations of the military personnel. The aim of the present article is to investigate the link between the interrelationships of values, socio-psychological attitudes of the military personnel and their personal readiness for change. Methodology and research methods. In the course of the work, the following theoretical methods of the research were used: an overview analysis of works in the field of value orientations, socio-psychological attitudes of the individual, personal readiness for change. Practical methods involve a questionnaire PVQ-R (Portrait Values Questionnaire – Revised by Sh. Schwartz; a technique for diagnosing socio-psychological attitudes of the person by O. Potemkina; the methodology «Personal Change – Readiness Survey» (PCRS developed by A. Rolnik, S. Hezer, M. Gold and K. Hall in the adaptation of N. Bazhanova and G. Bardier. The processing of the data obtained during the study was carried out using a statistical information processing program – SPSS version 19. Results and scientific novelty. Available studies have not treated the issue of psychological and pedagogical support of professional development of the military personnel in much detail. Thus, sufficient availability to study the interrelationships of values and socio-psychological attitudes of young military personnel in the process of their professional socialization has been revealed. The criteria of formation of this system are designated; significant

  11. Power spectrum, growth velocities and cross-correlations of longitudinal and transverse oscillations of individual Nicotiana tabacum pollen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haduch-Sendecka, Aleksandra; Pietruszka, Mariusz; Zajdel, Paweł

    2014-08-01

    We report on our results concerning growth rate and oscillation modes of the individual pollen tube apex. The observed volumetric growth and growth rate periodicity in the longitudinal (axial) direction are accompanied by transverse oscillations with similar frequencies but higher energies than the axial modes. Examination of the time-domain coherence between oscillations in mutually perpendicular directions revealed minimal energy dissipation in the unperturbed (isotonic) case, opposite to the two remaining cases (hypertonic, hypotonic) with notable correlations. We conjecture that the minimal energy loss is therefore optimal in the natural growth conditions. The longitudinal growth velocity is also found to be the fastest in the unperturbed case. As a result, the isolated system (pollen tube tip) is conserving energy by transforming it from elastic potential energy of extending apical wall to the kinetic energy of periodical motion. The energy dissipation is found to be about 20 % smaller in axial direction than in lateral one, indicating that the main energy consumption is dedicated to the elongation. We further observe that the hypertonic spectrum is shifted towards lower and the hypotonic towards higher frequencies with respect to the isotonic spectrum. In consequence, the turgor pressure inside the growing cell influences monotonically the frequency of both modes of oscillations. The calculated power spectrum seen as a measure of the overall energy efficiency of tip growth under hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic conditions implies that the biochemistry has been fine tuned to be optimal under normal growth conditions, which is the developmental implication of this work. A simple theoretical extension of the Ortega equation is derived and analysed with respect to its contribution to power spectrum. We show that the plastic term, related to the effective turgor pressure, with maximum contribution at frequency f = 0 is responsible for the steady growth. In turn

  12. On your bike! a cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapp Georgina SA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active school transport (AST has declined rapidly in recent decades. While many studies have examined walking, cycling to school has received very little attention. Correlates of cycling are likely to differ to those from walking and cycling enables AST from further distances. This study examined individual, social and environmental factors associated with cycling to school among elementary school-aged children, stratified by gender. Methods Children (n = 1197 attending 25 Australian primary schools located in high or low walkable neighborhoods, completed a one-week travel diary and a parent/child questionnaire on travel habits and attitudes. Results Overall, 31.2% of boys and 14.6% of girls cycled ≥ 1 trip/week, however 59.4% of boys and 36.7% of girls reported cycling as their preferred school transport mode. In boys (but not girls, school neighborhood design was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., boys attending schools in neighborhoods with high connectivity and low traffic were 5.58 times more likely to cycle (95% CI 1.11-27.96 and for each kilometer boys lived from school the odds of cycling reduced by 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.99. Irrespective of gender, cycling to school was associated with parental confidence in their child's cycling ability (boys: OR 10.39; 95% CI 3.79-28.48; girls: OR 4.03; 95% CI 2.02-8.05, parental perceived convenience of driving (boys: OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.74; girls: OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.82; and child's preference to cycle (boys: OR 5.68; 95% CI 3.23-9.98; girls: OR 3.73; 95% CI 2.26-6.17. Conclusion School proximity, street network connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods was associated with boys (but not girls cycling to school. Irrespective of gender, parents need to be confident in their child's cycling ability and must prioritize cycling over driving.

  13. Cultural dimension of individualism and collectivism and its perceptual and cognitive correlates in cross-cultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Čeněk

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the current findings on the dimension of individualism/collectivism, which might be a useful tool for the comparison of different cultures and for the investigation of the effect of culture as a psychological concept on individual mental processes. The validity and reliability of the concept of the dimension of individualism/collectivism is discussed. The related theory of analytic and holistic thinking is introduced within a framework of extensive comparative research in t...

  14. Novel devices for individualized controlled inhalation can optimize aerosol therapy in efficacy, patient care and power of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the treatment of pulmonary diseases the inhalation of aerosols plays a key role - it is the preferred route of drug delivery in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cystic fibrosis. But, in contrast to oral and intravenous administration drug delivery to the lungs is controlled by additional parameters. Beside its pharmacology the active agent is furthermore determined by its aerosol characteristics as particle diameter, particle density, hygroscopicity and electrical charge. The patient related factors like age and stage of pulmonary disease will be additionally affected by the individual breathing pattern and morphometry of the lower airways. A number of these parameters with essential impact on the pulmonary drug deposition can be influenced by the performance of the inhalation system. Therefore, the optimization of nebulisation technology was a major part of aerosol science in the last decade. At this time the control of inspiration volume and air flow as well as the administration of a defined aerosol bolus was in the main focus. Up to date a more efficient and a more targeted pulmonary drug deposition - e.g., in the alveoli - will be provided by novel devices which also allow shorter treatment times and a better reproducibility of the administered lung doses. By such means of precise dosing and drug targeting the efficacy of inhalation therapy can be upgraded, e.g., the continuous inhalation of budesonide in asthma. From a patients' perspective an optimized inhalation manoeuvre means less side effects, e.g., in cystic fibrosis therapy the reduced oropharyngeal tobramycin exposure causes fewer bronchial irritations. Respecting to shorter treatment times also, this result in an improved quality of life and compliance. For clinical trials the scaling down of dose variability in combination with enhanced pulmonary deposition reduces the number of patients to be included and the requirement of pharmaceutical

  15. Influence of dietary protein on postprandial blood glucose levels in individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus using intensive insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, M A; Smart, C E M; Lopez, P E; McElduff, P; Attia, J; Morbey, C; King, B R

    2016-05-01

    To determine the effects of protein alone (independent of fat and carbohydrate) on postprandial glycaemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus using intensive insulin therapy. Participants with Type 1 diabetes mellitus aged 7-40 years consumed six 150 ml whey isolate protein drinks [0 g (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100] and two 150 ml glucose drinks (10 and 20 g) without insulin, in randomized order over 8 days, 4 h after the evening meal. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to assess postprandial glycaemia. Data were collected from 27 participants. Protein loads of 12.5 and 50 g did not result in significant postprandial glycaemic excursions compared with control (water) throughout the 300 min study period (P > 0.05). Protein loads of 75 and 100 g resulted in lower glycaemic excursions than control in the 60-120 min postprandial interval, but higher excursions in the 180-300 min interval. In comparison with 20 g glucose, the large protein loads resulted in significantly delayed and sustained glucose excursions, commencing at 180 min and continuing to 5 h. Seventy-five grams or more of protein alone significantly increases postprandial glycaemia from 3 to 5 h in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus using intensive insulin therapy. The glycaemic profiles resulting from high protein loads differ significantly from the excursion from glucose in terms of time to peak glucose and duration of the glycaemic excursion. This research supports recommendations for insulin dosing for large amounts of protein. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  16. Discordant CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA in individuals on virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy in Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, Ameet N; Natrajan, Kartik; Kulkarni, Milind M; Saraf, Chinmay K; Mahajan, Uma S; Kore, Sachin D; Rathod, Niranjan M; Mahajan, Umakant S; Wadia, Rustom S

    2018-02-01

    Aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance in virologically suppressed individuals presenting with incident neurologic symptoms.In this retrospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2009, and March 1, 2017, HIV-1 infected adults exposed to atleast 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and having plasma viral load (VL) CSF/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance by measuring HIV-1 RNA in collected plasma and CSF samples. CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance was defined as either detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA (VL > 20 copies/mL) with an undetectable plasma RNA (complete viral suppression, VL ≤20 copies/mL) or CSF HIV-1 RNA ≥ 0.5 log10 higher than plasma RNA when plasma VL was between 20 and 1000 copies/mL (low-level viremia, LLV).Out of 1584 virologically suppressed patients, 71 (4.4%) presented with incident neurologic symptoms. Twenty out of 71 (28.2%) patients were diagnosed with CSF/Plasma HIV-1 discordance. Median plasma and CSF VL in patients with discordance was 120 [interquartile range (IQR): CSF HIV-1 genotypic resistance testing was done showed mutations that would compromise efficacy of prescribed ART regimen. Prevalence of CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance was higher among neurologically symptomatic patients with plasma LLV as compared with those with complete viral suppression (70% vs 11.8%, P CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance indicates replication of HIV-1 that has adapted to the CNS or has developed antiretroviral drug resistance. Larger studies should be performed to study incidence of discordance in India. This will help in managing patients presenting with neurologic symptoms on suppressive ART with appropriate neuroeffective therapy.

  17. A Controlled Trial of CPAP Therapy on Metabolic Control in Individuals with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Tanya G.; Wang, Xuelei; Rueschman, Michael; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Aylor, Joan; Babineau, Denise C.; Mehra, Reena; Redline, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To address whether treatment of sleep apnea improves glucose tolerance. Design: Randomized, double-blind crossover study. Setting: Sleep clinic referrals. Patients: 50 subjects with moderate to severe sleep apnea (AHI > 15) and impaired glucose tolerance. Interventions: Subjects were randomized to 8 weeks of CPAP or sham CPAP, followed by the alternate therapy after a one-month washout. After each treatment, subjects underwent 2-hour OGTT, polysomnography, actigraphy, and measurements of indices of glucose control. Measurements and Results: The primary outcome was normalization of the mean 2-h OGTT; a secondary outcome was improvement in the Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI (0,120). Subjects were 42% men, mean age of 54 (10), BMI of 39 (8), and AHI of 44 (27). Baseline fasting glucose was 104 (12), and mean 2-h OGTT was 110 (57) mg/dL. Seven subjects normalized their mean 2-h OGTT after CPAP but not after sham CPAP, while 5 subjects normalized after sham CPAP but not after CPAP. Overall, there was no improvement in ISI (0,120) between CPAP and sham CPAP (3.6%; 95% CI: [-2.2%, 9.7%]; P = 0.22). However, in those subjects with baseline AHI ≥ 30 (n = 25), there was a 13.3% (95% CI: [5.2%, 22.1%]; P CPAP compared to sham CPAP. Conclusions: This study did not show that IGT normalizes after CPAP in subjects with moderate sleep apnea and obesity. However, insulin sensitivity improved in those with AHI ≥ 30, suggesting beneficial metabolic effects of CPAP in severe sleep apnea. Clinical Trials Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01385995. Citation: Weinstock TG; Wang X; Rueschman M; Ismail-Beigi F; Aylor J; Babineau DC; Mehra R; Redline S. A controlled trial of CPAP therapy on metabolic control in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and sleep apnea. SLEEP 2012;35(5):617-625. PMID:22547887

  18. Independent spinal cord atrophy measures correlate to motor and sensory deficits in individuals with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Hans Magnus Henrik; Barthelemy, Dorothy; Skimminge, A.

    2011-01-01

    touch and pinprick, and muscle strength. Antero-posterior width (APW), left-right width (LRW) and cross-sectional spinal cord area (SCA) were extracted from MRI at the spinal level of C2. The angular variation of the spinal cord radius over the full circle was also extracted and compared...... with the clinical scores.Results:The motor score was correlated to LRW and the sensory scores were correlated to APW. The scores correlated also well with decreases in spinal cord radius in oblique angles in coherent and non-overlapping sectors for the sensory and motor qualities respectively.Conclusion:APW and LRW...

  19. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  20. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT.

  1. Correlation of clinical outcome to the estimated radiation dose from Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, M.

    1996-01-01

    A phase I/II trial delivering a single fraction of BNCT using p-Boronophenylalanine-Fructose and epithermal neutrons at the the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was initiated in September 1994. The primary endpiont of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a given BNCT dose. The clinical outcome of the disease was a secondary endpoint of the study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the correlation of the clinical outcome of patients to the estimated radiation dose from BNCT

  2. Persistence of Activated and Adaptive-Like NK Cells in HIV+ Individuals despite 2 Years of Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Hearps

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune dysfunction persists in HIV+ individuals despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We recently demonstrated that an adaptive-like CD56dim NK cell population lacking the signal transducing protein FcRγ is expanded in HIV+ individuals. Here, we analyzed a cohort of HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 20 at baseline and following 6, 12, and 24 months of cART and compared them with uninfected MSM (n = 15 to investigate the impact of cART on NK cell dysfunction. Proportions of NK cells expressing markers of early (CD69+ and late (HLA-DR+/CD38+ activation were elevated in cART-naïve HIV+ MSM (p = 0.004 and 0.015, respectively, as were FcRγ− NK cells (p = 0.003. Using latent growth curve modeling, we show that cART did not reduce levels of FcRγ− NK cells (p = 0.115 or activated HLA-DR+/CD38+ NK cells (p = 0.129 but did reduce T cell and monocyte activation (p < 0.001 for all. Proportions of FcRγ− NK cells were not associated with NK cell, T cell, or monocyte activation, suggesting different factors drive CD56dim FcRγ− NK cell expansion and immune activation in HIV+ individuals. While proportions of activated CD69+ NK cells declined significantly on cART (p = 0.003, the rate was significantly slower than the decline of T cell and monocyte activation, indicating a reduced potency of cART against NK cell activation. Our findings indicate that 2 years of suppressive cART have no impact on CD56dim FcRγ− NK cell expansion and that NK cell activation persists after normalization of other immune parameters. This may have implications for the development of malignancies and co-morbidities in HIV+ individuals on cART.

  3. Hyperacute stroke patients and catheter thrombolysis therapy. Correlation between computed tomography perfusion maps and final infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yukari; Tanaka, Shigeko; Inoue, Yuichi; Ota, Shinsuke; Sakaki, Saburo; Kitagaki, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between abnormal perfusion areas by computed tomography perfusion (CTP) study of hyperacute stroke patients and the final infarction areas after intraarterial catheter thrombolysis. CTP study using the box-modulation transfer function (box-MTF) method based on the deconvolution analysis method was performed in 22 hyperacute stroke patients. Ischemic lesions were immediately treated with catheter thrombolysis after CTP study. Among them, nine patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion were investigated regarding correlations of the size of the prolonged mean transit time (MTT) area, the decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) area, and the final infarction area. Using the box-MTF method, the prolonged MTT area was almost identical to the final infarction area in the case of catheter thrombolysis failure. The decreased CBV areas resulted in infarction or hemorrhage, irrespective of the outcome of recanalization after catheter thrombolysis. The prolonged MTT areas, detected by the box-MTF method of CTP in hyperacute stroke patients, included the area of true prolonged MTT and the tracer delay. The prolonged MTT area was almost identical to the final infarction area when recanalization failed. We believe that a tracer delay area also indicates infarction in cases of thrombolysis failure. (author)

  4. Correlation of morphological variants of the soft palate and Need's ratio in normal individuals: A digital cephalometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Juneja, Suruchi; Kumaraswam; Kikkeri Lakshminarayana; Basavaraju, Suman

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the variation of soft palate morphology in different age and gender groups. The correlations of radiographic velar length (VL), velar width (VW), pharyngeal depth (PD), and Need's ratio with soft palate variants were also studied in the North Indian subpopulation. The study sample consisted of 300 subjects aged between 15 and 45 (mean: 31.32) years. The velar morphology on lateral cephalograms was examined and grouped into six types. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the correlation between variants of the soft palate with gender and different age groups. The most frequent type of soft palate was leaf shaped (48.7%), and the least common was crook shaped (3.0%) among both the genders and various age groups, showing a significant correlation. The mean VL, VW, and PD values were significantly higher in males and significantly correlated with the types of soft palate. A significant correlation was observed between the mean VL, VW, PD, and Need's ratio with various age groups, showing an inconsistent pattern with an increase in age. The types of soft palate, gender, and Need's ratio were also significantly correlated, with an overall higher mean value of the Need's ratio among female subjects and the S-shaped soft palate. The knowledge of a varied spectrum of velar morphology and the variants of the soft palate help in a better understanding of the velopharyngeal closure and craniofacial anomalies.

  5. Association of Suboptimal Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence With Inflammation in Virologically Suppressed Individuals Enrolled in the SMART Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo-Mancilla, Jose R; Phillips, Andrew N; Neaton, James D

    2018-01-01

    Suboptimal (ie, <100%) antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence has been associated with heightened inflammation in cohort studies, even among people with virologic suppression. We aimed to evaluate this association among participants in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMAR...

  6. Individually tailored internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for older adults with anxiety and depression: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfvernagel, Kristin; Westlinder, Anna; Andersson, Stina; Bergman, Kajsa; Diaz Hernandez, Rosario; Fallhagen, Line; Lundqvist, Ida; Masri, Nicole; Viberg, Linda; Forsberg, Marie-Louise; Lind, Maria; Berger, Thomas; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard

    2018-07-01

    Mixed anxiety and depression is common among older adults. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of an eight-week-long tailored internet-supported cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) programme and to compare against the provision of weekly general support. A second aim was to investigate if pre-treatment cognitive flexibility and self-reported cognitive problems would predict outcome. We included 66 older adults (aged over 60 years) with mixed anxiety/depression following media recruitment and randomised them into treatment and control groups. We also included a one-year follow-up. As a measure of executive function, we used the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (perseverative errors) and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire during the pre-treatment phase. Results showed a moderate between-group effect on the main outcome measure, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) (d= .50), favouring the treatment group. Nearly half (45.5%) of that group were classified as responders. One person (3%) in the treatment group deteriorated. There were significant correlations between perseverative errors and outcome (on the BAI r = -.45), but not among self-reported cognitive function. We conclude that guided, tailored ICBT may be effective for some older adults and that the role of cognitive function needs to be investigated further.

  7. Correlates of motivation to change in pathological gamblers completing cognitive-behavioral group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Penelo, Eva; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Alvarez-Moya, Eva; Santamaría, Juan José; Moragas, Laura; Neus Aymamí, Maria; Gunnard, Katarina; Menchón, José M; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana

    2012-07-01

    The present study analyzes the association between the motivation to change and the cognitive-behavioral group intervention, in terms of dropouts and relapses, in a sample of male pathological gamblers. The specific objectives were as follows: (a) to estimate the predictive value of baseline University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale (URICA) scores (i.e., at the start of the study) as regards the risk of relapse and dropout during treatment and (b) to assess the incremental predictive ability of URICA scores, as regards the mean change produced in the clinical status of patients between the start and finish of treatment. The relationship between the URICA and the response to treatment was analyzed by means of a pre-post design applied to a sample of 191 patients who were consecutively receiving cognitive-behavioral group therapy. The statistical analysis included logistic regression models and hierarchical multiple linear regression models. The discriminative ability of the models including the four URICA scores regarding the likelihood of relapse and dropout was acceptable (area under the receiver operating haracteristic curve: .73 and .71, respectively). No significant predictive ability was found as regards the differences between baseline and posttreatment scores (changes in R(2) below 5% in the multiple regression models). The availability of useful measures of motivation to change would enable treatment outcomes to be optimized through the application of specific therapeutic interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia with Veterans: evaluation of effectiveness and correlates of treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trockel, Mickey; Karlin, Bradley E; Taylor, C Barr; Manber, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in Veterans and the effects of two process measures on CBT-I outcomes: 1) therapist ratings of patient adherence and 2) patient ratings of therapeutic alliance. Data are from 316 therapists in the Department of Veterans Affairs CBT-I Training Program and 696 patients receiving CBT-I from therapists undergoing training. Mixed effects model results indicate Insomnia Severity Index scores decreased from 20.7 at baseline to 10.9 (d = 2.3) during a typical course of CBT-I. Patients with highest tercile compared to those with lowest tercile adherence achieved, on average, 4.1 points greater reduction in ISI scores (d = 0.95). The effect of therapeutic alliance on change in insomnia severity was not significant after adjusting for adherence to CBT-I. These results support the effectiveness and feasibility of large-scale training in and implementation of CBT-I and indicate that greater focus on patient adherence may lead to enhanced outcomes. The current findings suggest that CBT-I therapists and training programs place greater emphasis on attending to and increasing patient adherence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Correlation of microdosimetric measurements with relative biological effectiveness from clinical experience for two neutron therapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Kuchnir, F.T.; Myrianthopoulos, L.C.; Horton, J.L. Jr.; Roberts, W.K.

    1986-01-01

    Microdosimetric measurements were made for the neutron therapy beams at the University of Chicago and at the Cleveland Clinic with the same geometry and phantom material using the same tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter and standard techniques. The energy deposition spectra (dose distributions in lineal energy) are compared for these beams and for their scattered components (direct beam blocked). The model of dual radiation action (DRA) of Kellerer and Rossi is employed to interpret these data in terms of biological effectiveness over this limited range of radiation qualities. The site-diameter parameter of the DRA theory is determined for the Cleveland beam by setting the biological effectiveness (relative to 60 Co gamma radiation) equal to the relative biological effectiveness value deduced from radiobiology experiments and clinical experience. The resulting value of this site-diameter parameter is then used to predict the biological effectiveness of the Chicago beam. The prediction agrees with the value deduced from radiobiology and clinical experience. The biological effectiveness of the scattered components of both beams is also estimated using the model

  10. Individual Psychotherapy ("Talking Therapy"): A Survey of Attitudes among Residents & Specialists in Psychiatry, Israel 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi Shachar, Orit; Mendlovic, Shlomo; Hertzberg, Libi; Baruch, Yehuda; Lurie, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Individual psychotherapy is an efficient tool and an integral part of psychiatric treatment. However, its status among psychiatrists in Israel has never been explored. To explore and map the attitudes of psychiatrists in Israel regarding psychotherapy and psychotherapy training during residency, with comparisons between residents vs. specialists, peripheral vs. central institutions and mental health vs. medical centers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to examine the attitudes toward individual psychotherapy. The questionnaire was delivered via email and direct approach to psychiatrists in Israel. The survey was completed by 229 of 1,502 registered psychiatrists (15.3%). While 96% (n=218) had positive attitudes towards psychotherapy, 93.1% (n=215) thought psychotherapy was less available than pharmacotherapy. Psychiatrists from peripheral institutions prefer cognitive behavioral therapy, while psychiatrists from central institutions prefer dynamic psychotherapy. Psychiatrists from mental health centers use more dynamic psychotherapy compared to psychiatrists from medical centers. The number of dynamic psychotherapy treatments psychiatrists delivered during their residencies has been decreasing over time, meaning residents today deliver fewer dynamic psychotherapy treatments compared to the number of treatments specialists delivered during their residencies. Additionally, 97.4% (n=225) believed psychotherapy training should be included in the psychiatric residency and 87.3% thought that the training should be improved to a great extent. The survey demonstrates mixed but overall positive attitudes towards psychotherapy among psychiatrists in Israel. The findings should be taken into consideration by psychiatrists who design the residency program and by policy makers who are in charge of the mental health reform in Israel, or the psychotherapy usage and therapeutic potential may diminish, as has happened in other countries.

  11. Associations among Race/Ethnicity, ApoC-III Genotypes, and Lipids in HIV-1-Infected Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protease inhibitors (PIs are associated with hypertriglyceridemia and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Identifying HIV-1-infected individuals who are at increased risk of PI-related dyslipidemia will facilitate therapeutic choices that maintain viral suppression while reducing risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III gene variants, which vary by race/ethnicity, have been associated with a lipid profile that resembles PI-induced dyslipidemia. However, the association of race/ethnicity, or candidate gene effects across race/ethnicity, with plasma lipid levels in HIV-1-infected individuals, has not been reported. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional analysis of race/ethnicity, apoC-III/apoA-I genotypes, and PI exposure on plasma lipids was performed in AIDS Clinical Trial Group studies (n = 626. Race/ethnicity was a highly significant predictor of plasma lipids in fully adjusted models. Furthermore, in stratified analyses, the effect of PI exposure appeared to differ across race/ethnicity. Black/non-Hispanic, compared with White/non-Hispanics and Hispanics, had lower plasma triglyceride (TG levels overall, but the greatest increase in TG levels when exposed to PIs. In Hispanics, current PI antiretroviral therapy (ART exposure was associated with a significantly smaller increase in TGs among patients with variant alleles at apoC-III-482, -455, and Intron 1, or at a composite apoC-III genotype, compared with patients with the wild-type genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: In the first pharmacogenetic study of its kind in HIV-1 disease, we found race/ethnic-specific differences in plasma lipid levels on ART, as well as differences in the influence of the apoC-III gene on the development of PI-related hypertriglyceridemia. Given the multi-ethnic distribution of HIV-1 infection, our findings underscore the need for future studies of metabolic and cardiovascular complications of ART that specifically account for racial

  12. Cultural dimension of individualism and collectivism and its perceptual and cognitive correlates in cross-cultural research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current findings on the dimension of individualism/collectivism, which might be a useful tool for the comparison of different cultures and for the investigation of the effect of culture as a psychological concept on individual mental processes. The validity and reliability of the concept of the dimension of individualism/collectivism is discussed. The related theory of analytic and holistic thinking is introduced within a framework of extensive comparative research in the field of cross-cultural psychology. Several interesting research designs on cross-cultural differences in cognition and perception are described. The empirical part contains a short report of research conducted on a sample (N=92 of Czech and Czech Vietnamese university students using a scale of horizontal and vertical individualism/collectivism (Bartoš, 2010. The results do not fully support the traditional view of individualistic Europeans and collectivistic Asians.

  13. Diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation syndrome. Individual radiosensitivity assessment in patients undergoing medical exposures presenting severe cutaneous radiation induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Perez, Maria R.; Portas, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burn Center) is one of the reference hospitals of the Medical Radiological Emergency Response Network of Argentina. In the frame of an agreement between the Burn Center and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, a research project for an approach based on diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation induced lesions is in progress. Individual radiosensitivity assessment was conducted in patients included in this research protocol that showed acute and/or late cutaneous reactions with grades 3 and 4 of the Toxicity criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and the European organization for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC). DNA repair capacity and its kinetics were evaluated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test. In this paper, two representative cases, in which the research protocol was applied, are presented. Therapeutic response and its correlation with radiosensitivity test results are described. Case 1: female patient undergoing external radiotherapy for invasive ductal breast cancer that presented acute cutaneous radiotoxicity, grade 3 (confluent moist epithelitis, )that led to treatment break. Case 2: male patient undergoing coronary angioplasty (interventional radiology), which developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity, grade 4 (ulceration at the dorsal region). Patients were treated with: topic administration of trolamine and silver sulfadiazine with lidocaine, associated with systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and anti-oxidants. The therapeutic response was evaluated through clinical follow-up, serial photographic record and complementary tests (tele thermography and high frequency ultrasonography). Case 1 response was positive (favorable) with early local recovery and complete remission of signs and symptoms after 5 months. Both MN frequencies and comet assay showed values compatible with normal radiosensitivity

  14. How does dialectical behavior therapy facilitate treatment retention among individuals with comorbid borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A; Daughters, Stacey B

    2007-12-01

    For individuals presenting with comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders (SUD), rates of treatment dropout from combined mental health and substance abuse treatment centers approach 80%, rendering dropout the rule rather than the exception. Several studies indicate that utilizing a more comprehensive treatment such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) may be useful for client retention; however, given the scope and effort required to conduct this treatment, it may be more practical to determine which specific components within DBT are useful in retaining clients in substance use treatment. Thus, the purpose of the current paper is first to determine what exact deficits underlie treatment dropout among the BPD-SUD comorbidity. Second, we review and evaluate effectiveness of DBT retention-enhancing strategies by assembling work from other samples and literatures that also tests retention-enhancing strategies discussed in DBT. As a last step, the paper will conclude with a discussion on methodological limitations and potential future directions in this line of research.

  15. Can Trainees Effectively Deliver Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder? Outcomes From a Training Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L; Hughes, Christopher D; Hittman, Alexandra D; Vieira Oliveira, Pedro

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-month course of comprehensive dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) provided in a training clinic with doctoral students as therapists and assessors. Clinical outcomes for 50 individuals with borderline personality disorder (80% female, M age = 29.52 [SD = 9.64]) are reported. Reliable change indices and clinical significance were calculated for measures. Finally, our results were benchmarked against a "gold standard" randomized clinical trial (RCT; McMain et al., 2009). Analyses with both the full sample and the treatment completers indicate significant reductions in mental health symptomatology that were reliable, clinically and statistically significant, and comparable in effect size to the benchmarked RCT. This DBT training clinic produced good outcomes, comparable to that of a large RCT. Results have implications for who can provide DBT treatment, as well as improving access to DBT in community settings where training clinics may be located. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Proposal of a methodology for individualized iodine-131 therapy for Graves' disease in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francisco de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: faraujo@ird.gov.br; Melo, Rossana Corbo de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Rebelo, Ana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder Augusto de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Objective: Several methods are utilized for determining the radioiodine activity in the treatment of Graves' disease (hyperthyroidism). Some of this methods do not take into consideration the thyroid absorbed dose or the necessary parameters for this estimation. The association between absorbed dose and administered activity depends on effective half-life, iodine uptake and thyroid mass of each patient. The present study was aimed at developing a methodology for individualized {sup 131}I therapy for Graves' disease in patients with hyperthyroidism of the Graves' disease. Materials and methods: A neck-thyroid phantom developed at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, containing a standard solution of {sup 131}I, was utilized for calibrating the scintillation gamma camera and uptake probe installed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Results: The view angle of the collimator/detector assembly presented values compatible with the thyroid gland size for distances of 25 cm (uptake probe) and 45.8 cm (scintillation gamma camera). Calibration factors were 39.3 {+-} 0.78 and 4.3 {+-} 0.17 cpm/kBq, respectively. The 14-30-hour interval in the retention curve allows the estimation of activity between two points for determining the effective iodine half-life in the thyroid. Conclusion: The utilization of equipment usually available in nuclear medicine clinics is feasible, so this is a simple, effective and low cost methodology. (author)

  17. Further Evaluation of Androgen Therapy In Aplastic Anemia: With Special Reference to Correlation Between Response to Androgen and EEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, Kee Suk [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Deagu (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-03-15

    Patients with aplastic anemia were treated with a combination of depo-testosterone cyclopentylpropionate (Upjohn) and dexamethasone. In 7 of 15 patients treated, there was response in which either a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, a prolonged interval or a cessation of blood transfusion requirement developed during androgen therapy. Younger patients with cellular marrow appeared to be better responding to androgen. EEI (Effective Erythropoietic Index) formulated by Gardner and Nathan (1966) which was a helpful measurement as to whether patients with myelofibrosis would response to androgen, was evaluated in patients with aplastic anemia. It was concluded that EEI as well as ferrokinetics indices (Plasma-{sup 59}Fe-disappearance rate, RBC {sup 59}Fe net incorporation) did not significantly correlate with the degree of response to androgen in aplastic anemia.

  18. Further Evaluation of Androgen Therapy In Aplastic Anemia: With Special Reference to Correlation Between Response to Androgen and EEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, Kee Suk

    1967-01-01

    Patients with aplastic anemia were treated with a combination of depo-testosterone cyclopentylpropionate (Upjohn) and dexamethasone. In 7 of 15 patients treated, there was response in which either a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, a prolonged interval or a cessation of blood transfusion requirement developed during androgen therapy. Younger patients with cellular marrow appeared to be better responding to androgen. EEI (Effective Erythropoietic Index) formulated by Gardner and Nathan (1966) which was a helpful measurement as to whether patients with myelofibrosis would response to androgen, was evaluated in patients with aplastic anemia. It was concluded that EEI as well as ferrokinetics indices (Plasma- 59 Fe-disappearance rate, RBC 59 Fe net incorporation) did not significantly correlate with the degree of response to androgen in aplastic anemia.

  19. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Demonstrates Correlation between Behavioral Recovery and Correction of Dopamine Neurotransmission after Gene Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leriche, L.; Besret, L.; Gregoire, M.C.; Deglon, N.; Hantraye, Ph.; Leriche, L.; Besret, L.; Gregoire, M.C.; Deglon, N.; Hantraye, Ph.; Bjorklund, T.; Breysse, N.; Carlsson, T.; Kirik, D.; Dolle, F.; Mandel, R.J.; Kirik, D.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo gene transfer using viral vectors is an emerging therapy for neuro-degenerative diseases with a clinical impact recently demonstrated in Parkinson's disease patients. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors, in particular, provide an excellent tool for long-term expression of therapeutic genes in the brain. Here we used the [ 11 C]raclopride [(S)-(-)-3, 5-dichloro-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-2-hydroxy- 6-methoxybenzamide] micro-positron emission tomography (PET) technique to demonstrate that delivery of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) enzymes using an rAAV5 vector normalizes the increased [ 11 C]raclopride binding in hemi-parkinsonian rats. Importantly, we show in vivo by micro-PET imaging and postmortem by classical binding assays performed in the very same animals that the changes in [ 11 C]raclopride after viral vector-based enzyme replacement therapy is attributable to a decrease in the affinity of the tracer binding to the D2 receptors, providing evidence for reconstitution of a functional pool of endogenous dopamine in the striatum. Moreover, the extent of the normalization in this non-invasive imaging measure was highly correlated with the functional recovery in motor behavior. The PET imaging protocol used in this study is fully adaptable to humans and thus can serve as an in vivo imaging technique to follow TH+GCH1 gene therapy in PD patients and provide an additional objective measure to a potential clinical trial using rAAV vectors to deliver L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in the brain. (authors)

  20. Decreasing Signs of Negative Affect and Correlated Self-Injury in an Individual with Mental Retardation and Mood Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Steven E.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an enriched environment, based on a paired-choice preference assessment, on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and frequency of negative affect displayed by a woman with mental retardation and a mood disorder. Results suggested that SIB and negative affect were highly correlated and that the enriched environment…

  1. Predicting Esophagitis After Chemoradiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, David A., E-mail: david.palma@uwo.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oberije, Cary [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO Clinic), GROW – School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Belderbos, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dios, Núria Rodríguez de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Barriger, R. Bryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Moreno-Jiménez, Marta [Department of Oncology, Radiation Oncology Division, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Kim, Tae Hyun [Center for Proton Therapy, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Ramella, Sara [Division of Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); Everitt, Sarah [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia and Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University (Australia); Rengan, Ramesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); De Ruyck, Kim [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) improves survival compared with sequential treatment for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, but it increases toxicity, particularly radiation esophagitis (RE). Validated predictors of RE for clinical use are lacking. We performed an individual-patient-data meta-analysis to determine factors predictive of clinically significant RE. Methods and Materials: After a systematic review of the literature, data were obtained on 1082 patients who underwent CCRT, including patients from Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Patients were randomly divided into training and validation sets (2/3 vs 1/3 of patients). Factors predictive of RE (grade ≥2 and grade ≥3) were assessed using logistic modeling, with the concordance statistic (c statistic) used to evaluate the performance of each model. Results: The median radiation therapy dose delivered was 65 Gy, and the median follow-up time was 2.1 years. Most patients (91%) received platinum-containing CCRT regimens. The development of RE was common, scored as grade 2 in 348 patients (32.2%), grade 3 in 185 (17.1%), and grade 4 in 10 (0.9%). There were no RE-related deaths. On univariable analysis using the training set, several baseline factors were statistically predictive of RE (P<.05), but only dosimetric factors had good discrimination scores (c > .60). On multivariable analysis, the esophageal volume receiving ≥60 Gy (V60) alone emerged as the best predictor of grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 RE, with good calibration and discrimination. Recursive partitioning identified 3 risk groups: low (V60 <0.07%), intermediate (V60 0.07% to 16.99%), and high (V60 ≥17%). With use of the validation set, the predictive model performed inferiorly for the grade ≥2 endpoint (c = .58) but performed well for the grade ≥3 endpoint (c = .66). Conclusions: Clinically significant RE is common, but life-threatening complications occur in <1% of patients. Although several factors

  2. Environmental and Individual Correlates of Various Types of Physical Activity among Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Saito

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested the importance of the neighborhood environment in determining the specific type of physical activity. However, few studies on this topic have been undertaken in Japan. This study examined the association of three types of physical activity and their associations with individual and neighborhood environmental factors among middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Participants were 2,449 adults aged 40–69 living in Fujisawa city who had undergone health checkups and responded to our survey by mail. Individual factors, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long form, and its environmental module acted as inputs to the study. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs of high levels of moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time physical activity (LTPA, walking for active recreation, and transportation were calculated in relation to individual and neighborhood environmental factors through multiple logistic regression models. Not working and good self-rated health were significantly associated with a higher level of each physical activity outcome. According to the adjusted ORs, higher educational attainment, higher economic status, good access to exercise facilities, and owning motor vehicles were associated with longer LTPA time. However, different sets of factors were associated with longer walking times for recreation and transportation. The results suggest that diverse individual and neighborhood environmental characteristics are associated with different physical activity outcomes. Therefore, customizing environments to become activity-friendly is necessary to increase physical activity effectively among middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

  3. Siblings of Individuals with Smith-Magenis Syndrome: An Investigation of the Correlates of Positive and Negative Behavioural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshier, M. S.; York, T. P.; Silberg, J. L.; Elsea, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately one out of 25 000 births worldwide. To date, no research has been conducted to investigate how having an individual with SMS in a family is a positive or negative influence on siblings. Methods: To investigate this question we conducted a study…

  4. Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Hepark, Sevket; Kan, Cornelis C; Barendregt, Henk P; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E M

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) would enhance attenuated amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing performance monitoring biomarkers of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty adult ADHD patients took part in a randomised controlled study investigating ERP and clinical measures pre-to-post MBCT. Twenty-six patients were randomly allocated to MBCT, 24 to a wait-list control. Main outcome measures included error processing (ERN, Pe), conflict monitoring (NoGo-N2), and inhibitory control (NoGo-P3) ERPs concomitant to a continuous performance task (CPT-X). Inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity ADHD symptoms, psychological distress and social functioning, and mindfulness skills were also assessed. MBCT was associated with increased Pe and NoGo-P3 amplitudes, coinciding with reduced 'hyperactivity/impulsivity' and 'inattention' symptomatology. Specific to the MBCT; enhanced Pe amplitudes correlated with a decrease in hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and increased 'act-with-awareness' mindfulness skill, whereas, enhanced P3 correlated with amelioration in inattention symptoms. MBCT enhanced ERP amplitudes associated with motivational saliency and error awareness, leading to improved inhibitory regulation. MBCT suggests having comparable modulation on performance monitoring ERP amplitudes as pharmacological treatments. Further study and development of MBCT as a treatment for ADHD is warranted, in addition to its potential scope for clinical applicability to broader defined externalising disorders and clinical problems associated with impairments of the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical Dyssynchrony by Tissue Doppler Cross-Correlation is Associated with Risk for Complex Ventricular Arrhythmias after Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayal, Bhupendar; Gorcsan, John; Delgado-Montero, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue Doppler cross-correlation analysis has been shown to be associated with long-term survival after cardiac resynchronization defibrillator therapy (CRT-D). Its association with ventricular arrhythmia (VA) is unknown. METHODS: From two centers 151 CRT-D patients (New York Heart...... Association functional classes II-IV, ejection fraction ≤ 35%, and QRS duration ≥ 120 msec) were prospectively included. Tissue Doppler cross-correlation analysis of myocardial acceleration curves from the basal segments in the apical views both at baseline and 6 months after CRT-D implantation was performed...... with a substantially increased risk for VA (hazard ratio [HR], 4.4; 95% CI, 1.2-16.3; P = .03) and VA or death (HR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.7-9.6; P = .002) after adjusting for other covariates. Similarly, patients with new dyssynchrony had increased risk for VA (HR, 10.6; 95% CI, 2.8-40.4; P = .001) and VA or death (HR, 5...

  6. Factors contributing to risk for cancer among HIV-infected individuals, and evidence that earlier combination antiretroviral therapy will alter this risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically appraise recent published literature about factors associated with cancer risk likely to be influenced by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential of earlier cART initiation to reduce this risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Fact...

  7. Comparative effectiveness of immediate antiretroviral therapy versus CD4-based initiation in HIV-positive individuals in high-income countries: observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Sara; Phillips, Andrew; Logan, Roger; Olson, Ashley; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Justice, Amy; Gandhi, Neel; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Moreno, Santiago; Monge, Susana; Touloumi, Giota; Pantazis, Nikos; Sterne, Jonathan; Young, Jessica G.; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Dabis, Francois; Vandehende, Marie-Anne; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Jose, Sophie; Sabin, Caroline; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ainsworth, J.; Anderson, J.; Babiker, A.; Delpech, V.; Dunn, D.; Easterbrook, P.; Fisher, M.; Gazzard, B.; Gilson, R.; Gompels, M.; Hill, T.; Johnson, M.; Leen, C.; Orkin, C.; Phillips, A.; Pillay, D.; Porter, K.; Sabin, C.; Walsh, J.; Glabay, A.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Williams, I.; Dooley, D.; Schwenk, A.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Chaloner, C.; Puradiredja, D. Ismajani; Bansi, L.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D. O.; Kesselring, A. M.; van Sighem, A. I.; Smit, C.; Zaheri, S.; Kortmann, W.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Godfried, M. H.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M. L.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Vrouwe, Lieve; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Ziekenhuis, Andreas; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Mulder, J. W.; Lauw, F. N.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Perenboom, R. M.; Bomers, M.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; Schippers, E. F.; van Elzakker, E. P.; Bravenboer, B.; Kootstra, G. J.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; van Assen, S.; Gasthuis, Kennemer; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; Jolink, H.; Bauer, M. P.; Weijer, S.; Lowe, S.; Lashof, A. Oude; Posthouwer, D.; Koopmans, P. P.; Warris, A.; van Crevel, R.; Nouwen, J. L.; Nispen, M. H.; Verbon, A.; Hassing, R. J.; Hartwig, N. G.; Ziekenhuis, Maasstad; Pogany, K.; Ziekenhuis, Sint Elisabeth; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Mudrikova, T.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Barth, R. E.; Kinderziekenhuis, Wilhelmina; Bont, L. J.; de Ruyter Ziekenhuis, Admiraal; Stegeman, A.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; Abgrall, S.; Barin, F.; Bentata, M.; Billaud, E.; Boué, F.; Burty, C.; Cabié, A.; de Truchis, P.; Duval, X.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Gaud, C.; Katlama, C.; Khuong, M. A.; Lang, J. M.; Lascaux, A. S.; Launay, O.; Mahamat, A.; Mary-Krause, M.; Meynard, J. L.; Pavie, J.; Pialoux, G.; Pilorgé, F.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Pradier, C.; Reynes, J.; Rouveix, E.; Simon, A.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Viard, J. P.; Viget, N.; Jacquemet, N.; Costagliola, D.; Grabar, S.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Lacombe, J. M.; Potard, V.; Pitié, G. H.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Desplanque, N.; Meyohas, M. C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Clauvel, J. P.; Decazes, J. M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J. M.; Lariboisière-Fernand, G. H.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Ecobichon, J. L.; Matheron, S.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Tarnier-Cochin, G. H.; Auperin, I.; Gilquin, J.; Roudière, L.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J. P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Basse-Normandie, Corevih; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Bourgogne, Corevih; Bretagne, Corevih; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M. F.; Hoen, B.; Faller, J. P.; Haute-Normandie, Corevih; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Daures, J. P.; Lorraine, Corevih; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J. L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Legrand, M. F. Thiercelin; Pontonnier, G.; de Calais, Corevih Nord-Pas; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pugliese, P.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Tissot, H.; Delmont, J. P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J. A.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J. M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P. A.; Bonnet, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J. P.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J. M.; Touraine, J. L.; Strobel, M.; Saint-Martin, C. H.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Martinique, Corevih; Guyon, Félix; Contant, M.; HC, Bucher; CA, Fux; HH, Hirsch; de Tejada B, Martinez; Casabona, J.; Miró, Jose M.; de Barcelona-Idibaps, Clínic; Gallois, A.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J. M.; Manzardo, C.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Cifuentes, C.; Dalmau, D.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Pérez, I.; Gargoulas, Freyra; Blanco, J. L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; García-Goez, J. F.; Sirera, G.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M. C.; Saumoy, M.; Imaz, A.; Tiraboschi, J. M.; Murillo, O.; Bolao, F.; Peña, C.; Cabellos, C.; Vila, A.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Amengual, Jose; Navarro, M.; Barrufet, P.; Molina, J.; Alvaro, M.; Mercadal, J.; Fernández, Juanse; Ospina, Jesús E.; Berenguer, J.; García, F.; Gutiérrez, F.; Labarga, P.; Moreno, S.; Caro-Murillo, A. M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Sirvent, J. L. Gómez; Rodríguez, P.; Alemán, M. R.; Alonso, M. M.; López, A. M.; Hernández, M. I.; Soriano, V.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M. E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Iribarren, J. A.; Camino, X.; Rodríguez-Arrondo, F.; von Wichmann, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M. A.; Masiá, M.; Ramos, J. M.; Padilla, S.; Sánchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; Marañón, Gregorio; López, J. C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sánchez, M.; Gutiérrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Veloso, S.; Viladés, C.; López-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J. A.; Blanco, J. R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M. J.; Irigoyen, C.; Antela, A.; Casado, J. L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M. J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L. F.; Mata, R.; Justice, A. C.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K. A.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J. L.; Hernán, M. A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J. M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Brettle, R.; Fidler, S.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Porter, Kholoud; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Gwynedd, Ysbyty; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Stanley, B.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, A. J.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; Lean, C.; Morris, S.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Williams, G.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; DeSouza, C. B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; Franca, A.; William, L.; Peters, B.; El, S.; Easterbrook, P. J.; Mazhude, C.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; Mchale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Rice, P.; Mullaney, S. A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Cook, James; Haynes, J.; Keynes, Milton; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Das, R.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Eliot, George; Girgis, M. R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A. M.; Williams, O.; Clwyd, Glan; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, S. V.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Luzzi, G.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M. T.; Bergmann, J. F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Girard, P. M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Herriot, E.; Blanc, A. P.; Allègre, T.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; de Boever, C. Merle; Tramoni, C.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Slama, L.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Trepo, C.; Koffi, K.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Montpied, G.; Olivier, C.; Paré, A.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Maignan, A.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J. D.; Mondor, H.; Aumaître, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Salmon, D.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M. C.; Dron, C. H.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Muller, E.; Tubiana, R.; Mohand, H. Ait; Touam, F.; Folzer, A.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J. M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Bornarel, D.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Batisse, D.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Amirat, N.; Cabane, J.; Tredup, J.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Choutet, P.; Bastides, F.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; Berthé, H.; Poincaré, R.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Belan, A. Greder; Mignot, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A. M.; Zeng, A.; Mourier, L.; Fournier, L.; Jacquet, M.; Fuzibet, J. G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Pasteur, L.; Moreau, P.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; de Lacroix Szmania, I.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Drogoul, M. P.; Martin, I. Poizot; Fabre, G.; Lambert, G.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J. L.; Leprêtre, A.; Veil, S.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A. S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J. J.; Quinsat, D. T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Debab, Y.; Nicolle, C.; Perronne, V.; Quesnay, F.; Slama, B.; Duffaut, H.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Ballanger, R.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Beclere, Antoine; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G. A.; Levy, A.; Bicetre, Le Kremlin; Duracinsky, M.; Bras, P. Le; Ngussan, M. S.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne, D.; Colasante, U.; Vilde, J. L.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Lagneau, J. L.; Pietrie, M. P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Bourdillon, F.; Obenga, G.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Schneider, L.; Iguertsira, M.; Stein, A.; Tomei, C.; Dhiver, C.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J. P.; Karsenti, J. M.; Ceppi, C.; Krivitsky, J. A.; Honore, P.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Schiaffino, A.; Monge, D. Alvarez S.; Pujol, I.; Muga, R.; Sanvisens, A.; Tor, J.; Rivas, I.; Vallecillo, G.; del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Alastrue, E. Fernandez I.; Tasa, C. Santos T.; Juan, A.; Trullen, J.; de Olalla, P. Garcia; Cayla, J.; Sambeat, M. A.; Guerrero, R.; Rivera, E.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Gonzalez, C.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; de Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Ortíz, M.; G, Daikos; T, Kordossis; G, Panos; H, Sambatakou; M, Chini; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Man, S.-L.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Gras, L. A. J.; Branger, J.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Peters, E. J. G.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; Leyten, E. M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Ziekenhuis, Catharina; Pronk, M. J. H.; Delsing, C. E.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Bierman, W. F. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; de Boer, M. G. J.; ter Vollaard, H. J. M.; Zuiderzee, M. C.; Schreij, G.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smeulders, A. W. M.; den Hollander, J. G.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Cotte, L.; Tattevin, P.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Crickx, B.; Lesprit, Ph; Rey, D.; Lucht, F.; Chavanet, P.; Eglinger, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Pelissier, L.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Furrer, H.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; Force, L.; Mallolas, J.; López-Dieguez, M.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Masó, M.; Bejarano, G.; del Amo, J.; Muñoz, M. A.; Arrizabalaga, A. J.; Aramburu, M. J.; Escolano, C.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Aldeguer, J. L.; Blanes, M.; de los Santos, I.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Trastoy, M.; Fiellin, D. A.; Titanji, R.; Butt, A.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; Darbyshire, J.; Cursley, Adam; Eduards, S.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; Jebakumar, S. P. R.; McMillan, S.; Green, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Monteiro, E.; Jendrulek, I.; Deheragada, A.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Parrinello, M.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Morelon, S.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Drenou, B.; Drobacheff, C.; Gonzales-Canali, A.; Cheret, A.; Brancion, C.; Ravault, I.; Nau, P.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Chaillou, S.; Niault, M.; Richier, L.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Tremollieres, F.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Kazatchkine, M.; Fonquernie, L.; Lelievre, J. D.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Venti, H.; Bouchaud, O.; Hurtado, I.; Belda, J.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Katsarou, O.; Lazanas, M.; Paparizos, V.; Paraskevis, D.; Skoutelis, A.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Gioukari, V.; Antoniadou, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Daikos, G.; Psichogiou, M.; Xylomenos, G.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kordossis, T.; Kontos, A.; Tsogas, N.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Sambatakou, H.; Mariolis, I.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations have differed nationally and internationally with respect to the best time to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared effectiveness of three strategies for initiation of ART in high-income countries for HIV-positive individuals who do not have AIDS: immediate initiation,

  8. High-dose statin therapy in patients with stable coronary artery disease: treating the right patients based on individualized prediction of treatment effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, Johannes A. N.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Kastelein, John J. P.; LaRosa, John C.; Pedersen, Terje R.; Demicco, David A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Cook, Nancy R.; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians need to identify coronary artery disease patients for whom the benefits of high-dose versus usual-dose statin therapy outweigh potential harm. We therefore aimed to develop and validate a model for prediction of the incremental treatment effect of high-dose statins for individual patients

  9. GRP-R expression in breast cancer as target for nuclear imaging and therapy, correlation with ER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalm, S.U.; Melis, M.; Sieuwerts, A.M.; Martens, J.W.M.; Jong, M. de

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease: several molecular characteristics reflect subtypes, partly overlapping with therapeutic targets. Examples include the expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER), expressed in approximately 75 % of all breast cancer cases. Currently mammography, MRI, 99m Tc-Sestamibi scintigraphy, and 18 F-FDG PET are commonly used for diagnostic imaging to accurately localize BC. Since it has been reported that the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) is expressed in BC, targeting this receptor with radiolabeled GRP analogues might offer opportunities for SPECT/CT or PET/CT imaging as well as radionuclide therapy in BC. In this study GRP-R expression was determined in human BC specimens and BC cell lines and correlated with ER status. Methods: GRP-R mRNA levels of 90 human breast cancer specimens, with known ER status (48 ER-positive and 42 ER-negative) were determined using qRT-PCR in a Taqman Gene expression assay. Furthermore a panel of 21 BC cell lines characterized for ER expression (13 ER-positive, 8 ER-negative) was analysed for GRP-R expression at the protein level. Internalisation studies were performed with 10-9 M 111 In-AMBA (an receptor-agonist GRP analogue) for 1 hour and 15 minutes at 37 C. degrees. Thirteen of these BC cell lines were also analyzed for GRP-R expression at mRNA level using qRT-PCR. Results: Clinical BC specimens with high GRP-R mRNA level were all ER-positive, resulting in a significant positive correlation (p=0.03). Fifty-two percent of the analyzed BC cell lines showed the ability to internalize 111 In-AMBA, although high variation between cell lines was observed. GRP-R mRNA levels of the BC cell lines significantly correlated with the internalisation rate (p=0.0003), indicating that the amount of internalized 111 In-AMBA is partly determined by the level of receptor expression. However, no correlation was found between ER status and GRP

  10. Structure of the physical therapy benefit in a typical Blue Cross Blue Shield preferred provider organization plan available in the individual insurance market in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Robert W; Lehman, Jedd; Hahn, Lee; Ballard, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 establishes American Health Benefit Exchanges. The benefit design of insurance plans in state health insurance exchanges will be based on the structure of existing small-employer-sponsored plans. The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of the physical therapy benefit in a typical Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) preferred provider organization (PPO) health insurance plan available in the individual insurance market in 2011. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The physical therapy benefit within 39 BCBS PPO plans in 2011 was studied for a standard consumer with a standard budget. First, whether physical therapy was a benefit in the plan was determined. If so, then the structure of the benefit was described in terms of whether the physical therapy benefit was a stand-alone benefit or part of a combined-discipline benefit and whether a visit or financial limit was placed on the physical therapy benefit. Physical therapy was included in all BCBS plans that were studied. Ninety-three percent of plans combined physical therapy with other disciplines. Two thirds of plans placed a limit on the number of visits covered. The results of the study are limited to 1 standard consumer, 1 association of insurance companies, 1 form of insurance (a PPO), and 1 PPO plan in each of the 39 states that were studied. Physical therapy is a covered benefit in a typical BCBS PPO health insurance plan. Physical therapy most often is combined with other therapy disciplines, and the number of covered visits is limited in two thirds of plans.

  11. Effect of computerized cognitive behavioral therapy on acquisition of coping skills among cocaine-dependent individuals enrolled in methadone maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, Brian D; DeVito, Elise E; Buck, Matthew B; Hunkele, Karen; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2017-11-01

    The acquisition of coping skills has long been considered one of the putative mechanisms of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders, yet consistent statistical support is lacking. This study sought to replicate and extend prior findings regarding the quality of coping skills as a mediator of abstinence outcomes from a computerized CBT program for substance users. Participants were methadone-maintained, cocaine dependent individuals enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of computer-based training for CBT ('CBT4CBT') as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU+CBT4CBT) compared to TAU only. A subsample (N=71) completed a role play assessment to measure coping skills, the Drug Risk Response Test (DRRT), which was administered before, during (week 4), and after the 8-week treatment period. Participants' verbal responses to various high-risk situations for cocaine use were recorded and independent evaluators rated the quality of the coping responses. Results of repeated measures analyses revealed a main effect of time for the quality of overall responses [F(1, 141.26)=4.29, pskills across groups, yet no differential effect of treatment. Despite the significant association between coping responses and abstinence outcomes, analyses did not support the quality of coping skills as a mediator of treatment effects. However, among the high-risk situations wherein individuals provided lower quality responses at baseline, those assigned to TAU+CBT4CBT showed greater improvement compared to those assigned to TAU only [F(1, 697.65)=6.47, p=0.01]. This study failed to replicate the quality of coping skills as a mediator of CBT4CBT's effect on reducing drug use previously shown in a mixed outpatient substance use sample. However, in this methadone maintained sample, those with poorer quality skills in response to certain high-risk situations at baseline appeared to improve their coping strategies following CBT4CBT compared to standard methadone

  12. Concurrently examining unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism: Temporal shifts, individual-difference and event-specific correlates, and behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthig, Joelle C; Gamblin, Bradlee W; Jones, Kelly; Vanderzanden, Karen; Kehn, Andre

    2017-02-01

    Researchers have spent considerable effort examining unrealistic absolute optimism and unrealistic comparative optimism, yet there is a lack of research exploring them concurrently. This longitudinal study repeatedly assessed unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism within a performance context over several months to identify the degree to which they shift as a function of proximity to performance and performance feedback, their associations with global individual difference and event-specific factors, and their link to subsequent behavioural outcomes. Results showed similar shifts in unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism based on proximity to performance and performance feedback. Moreover, increases in both types of unrealistic optimism were associated with better subsequent performance beyond the effect of prior performance. However, several differences were found between the two forms of unrealistic optimism in their associations with global individual difference factors and event-specific factors, highlighting the distinctiveness of the two constructs. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  13. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro–macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings—which remains to be proven by future research—is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  14. Stability and individual change in depressive symptoms among mothers raising young children with ASD: maternal and child correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alice S; Martínez-Pedraza, Frances de L; Gray, Sarah A O

    2009-12-01

    Mothers raising children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) evidence elevated depressive symptoms, but symptom stability has not been examined. Mothers (N=143) of toddlers with ASD (77% boys) were enrolled and assessed when their children were 18 to 33 months old and followed annually for 2 years. Multilevel modeling revealed no significant change in group depressive symptom level, which was in the moderately elevated range (Intercept=13.67; SE=.96). In contrast, there was significant individual variation in change over time. Child problem behaviors and delayed competence, maternal anxiety symptoms and angry/hostile mood, low parenting efficacy and social supports, and coping styles were associated with depression severity. Only maternal anxiety and parenting efficacy predicted individual change. Many mothers do not appear to adapt, supporting the need for early intervention for maternal well-being.

  15. The Broad Autism (Endo)Phenotype: Neurostructural and Neurofunctional Correlates in Parents of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Billeci, Lucia; Calderoni, Sara; Conti, Eugenia; Gesi, Camilla; Carmassi, Claudia; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Cioni, Giovanni; Muratori, Filippo; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with an early-onset and a strong genetic component in their pathogenesis. According to genetic and epidemiological data, ASD relatives present personality traits similar to, but not as severe as the defining features of ASD, which have been indicated as the “Broader Autism Phenotype” (BAP). BAP features seem to be more prevalent in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD than in the general population. Characteri...

  16. Neural correlates of vocal learning in songbirds and humans: cross-species fMRI studies into individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Anne Marie van der

    2015-01-01

    Animal models, songbirds particularly, are increasingly used to study the human capacity for speech and language. In the light of understanding both language evolution and individual language acquisition these models are highly valuable, provided that they are studied within a valid comparative framework. In the past few decades, non-invasive methods such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) have become available for human as well as animal bra...

  17. Individual working memory capacity is uniquely correlated with feature-based attention when combined with spatial attention

    OpenAIRE

    Bengson, Jesse J.; Mangun, George R.

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Both involve the selection of task-relevant information, and both are characterized by capacity limits. Furthermore, studies using a variety of methodological approaches have demonstrated convergent working memory and attention-related processing at the individual, neural and behavioral level. Given the varieties of both constructs, the specific kinds of attention and WM must be considered. We find...

  18. Neural and personality correlates of individual differences related to the effects of acute tryptophan depletion on future reward evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoto, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Aoyama, Shiori; Onoda, Keiichi; Munakata, Ayumi; Nomura, Michio; Tanaka, Saori C; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Doya, Kenji; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-01-01

    In general, humans tend to discount the value of delayed reward. An increase in the rate of discounting leads to an inability to select a delayed reward over a smaller immediate reward (reward-delay impulsivity). Although deficits in the serotonergic system are implicated in this reward-delay impulsivity, there is individual variation in response to serotonin depletion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the effects of serotonin depletion on the ability to evaluate future reward are affected by individual personality traits or brain activation. Personality traits were assessed using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Temperament and Character Inventory. The central serotonergic levels of 16 healthy volunteers were manipulated by dietary tryptophan depletion. Subjects performed a delayed reward choice task that required the continuous estimation of reward value during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Discounting rates were increased in 9 participants, but were unchanged or decreased in 7 participants in response to tryptophan depletion. Participants whose discounting rate was increased by tryptophan depletion had significantly higher neuroticism and lower self-directedness. Furthermore, tryptophan depletion differentially affected the groups in terms of hemodynamic responses to the value of predicted future reward in the right insula. These results suggest that individuals who have high neuroticism and low self-directedness as personality traits are particularly vulnerable to the effect of low serotonin on future reward evaluation accompanied by altered brain activation patterns. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Histoculture and the immunodeficient mouse come to the cancer clinic - rational approaches to individualizing cancer-therapy and new drug-evaluation (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R

    1992-09-01

    Originating from the experiments of Alexis Carrel, tissues in culture were originally grown in three dimensions and maintained important in vivo-like structural and functional properties. However, in modem times, monolayer cell culture methods have become predominant despite losses of structural and functional properties of the cells. Strangeways, Fell, Leighton, Sutherland and others have designed various methods of three-dimensional culture using cellulose supports, mesh supports, collagen gel or sponge supports and floatation that allow tissues to maintain many in vivo-like properties such as native architecture, differentiated functions, gene regulation, invasive properties and drug sensitivities which are very different than cells in monolayer cultures. Collagen-sponge-gel-supported histoculture has been shown to support the growth and native three-dimensional architecture of both tumor and normal tissue, often for long periods of time. This method of histoculture was utilized to develop a chemosensitivity assay for individual cancer patients by assessing the effects of drug on the patients' histocultured tumor. Various end points to measure drug response have been utilized in histoculture, including [H-3]thymidine incorporation measured by histological autoradiography and the use of vital dyes to indicate cell viability. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) end point was applied to the histoculture assay in an attempt to increase in vitro-in vivo correlation. The chemosensitivities of 16 human tumor lines were determined in vitro by the histoculture assay, and retrospectively correlated to their in vivo chemosensitivity as xenografts in nude mice. The overall correlation rate of the efficacy results of the drug-response assay to in vivo chemosensitivities was 89.8%, with 90.0% true-positive and 89.7% true-negative rates, 81.7% sensitivity and 94.6% specificity, thereby indicating potential clinical use for tumor

  20. Country-level and individual correlates of overweight and obesity among primary school children: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Olaya, Beatriz; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Eke, Ceyda; Goelitz, Dietmar; Keyes, Katherine M.; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskienė, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Haro, Josep Maria; Kovess, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study aims to estimate childhood overweight and obesity prevalence and their association with individual and population-level correlates in Eastern and Western European countries. METHODS: Data were obtained from the School Children Mental Health in Europe, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010 in Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania and Turkey. The sample consists of 5,206 school children aged 6 to 11 years old. Information on socio-demog...

  1. Prospective Assessment of Optimal Individual Position (Prone Versus Supine) for Breast Radiotherapy: Volumetric and Dosimetric Correlations in 100 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymberis, Stella C.; Wyngaert, John Keith de; Parhar, Preeti; Chhabra, Arpit M.; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Chang Jengwha; Hochman, Tsivia; Guth, Amber; Roses, Daniel; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Damage to heart and lung from breast radiotherapy is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and lung cancer development. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate which position is best to spare lung and heart from radiotherapy exposure. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive Stage 0–IIA breast cancer patients consented to participate in a research trial that required two computed tomography simulation scans for planning both supine and prone positions. The optimal position was defined as that which best covered the contoured breast and tumor bed while it minimized critical organ irradiation, as quantified by the in-field heart and lung volume. The trial was designed to plan the first 100 patients in each position to study correlations between in-field volumes of organs at risk and dose. Results: Fifty-three left and 47 right breast cancer patients were consecutively accrued to the trial. In all patients, the prone position was optimal for sparing lung volume compared to the supine setup (mean lung volume reduction was 93.5 cc for right and 103.6 cc for left breast cancer patients). In 46/53 (87%) left breast cancer patients best treated prone, in-field heart volume was reduced by a mean of 12 cc and by 1.8 cc for the other 7/53 (13%) patients best treated supine. As predicted, supine-prone differences in in-field volume and mean dose of heart and lung were highly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient for left breast cancer patients was 0.90 for heart and 0.94 for lung and 0.92 for right breast cancer patients for lung). Conclusions: Prone setup reduced the amount of irradiated lung in all patients and reduced the amount of heart volume irradiated in 87% of left breast cancer patients. In-field organ volume is a valid surrogate for predicting dose; the trial continued to the planned target of 400.

  2. Individual radiosensitivity does not correlate with radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphoblastoid cell lines or CD{sup 3+} lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wistop, A.; Keller, U.; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Sauer, R.; Distel, L.V.R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander Univ. Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Sprung, C.N. [Div. of Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2005-05-01

    Background and purpose: spontaneous and radiation-induced apoptosis of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from healthy donors, cancer patients and donors with radiosensitivity syndromes as well as CD{sup 3+} lymphocytes from patients with {>=} grade 3 late toxicity were investigated as a possible marker for the detection of individual radiosensitivity. These investigations are based on the hypothesis that hypersensitive patients have reduced levels of apoptosis after in vitro irradiation as a result of a defect in the signaling pathway. Material and methods: Epstein-Barr virus-(EBV-)transformed LCLs derived from five healthy donors, seven patients with heterozygous or homozygous genotype for ataxia-telangiectasia or Nijmegen breakage syndrome and five patients with {>=} grade 3 late toxicity (RTOG) were investigated. In addition, CD{sup 3+} lymphocytes from 21 healthy individuals and 18 cancer patients including five patients with a proven cellular hypersensitivity to radiation were analyzed. Cells were irradiated in vitro with a dose of 2 and 5 Gy and were incubated for 48 h. Apoptotic rates were measured by the TUNEL assay followed by customized image analysis. Results: four out of seven radiosensitivity syndrome patients were identified to have an increased cellular radiosensitivity as determined by reduced apoptotic rates after irradiation of their respective LCLs. Comparatively, only two of the five hypersensitive cancer patients were clearly identified by reduced apoptotic rates. Spontaneous apoptotic rates were very homogeneous among all 39 samples from controls and patients, while lymphocytes of all cancer patients showed significantly lower radiation-induced rates. Conclusion: only a subgroup of hypersensitive patients may be identified by reduction of radiation-induced apoptotic rate. It is concluded that the hypothesis according to which hypersensitive cells have reduced levels of apoptosis is only conditionally true. The authors suggest that this

  3. Defensive aggregation (huddling in Rattus norvegicus toward predator odor: individual differences, social buffering effects and neural correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Bowen

    Full Text Available Aggregation is a defensive strategy employed by many prey species in response to predatory threat. Our group has characterized defensive aggregation (huddling in Rattus norvegicus in response to a ball of cat fur. In this situation some rats huddle less, and approach the threatening cue more than others (active vs. passive responders. The present study explored whether active responding is a stable phenotype associated with behaviors outside direct predatory encounters. The neural substrates of active and passive responding under predatory threat were explored using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Finally, we examined whether the presence of conspecifics during predatory threat biases behavior towards active responding. Active and passive responding styles were found to be stable in individual rats across consecutive group exposures to cat fur, and were predicted by anxiety-like behavior in an open-field emergence test. Active responders displayed less conditioned fear in an environment associated with predatory threat, and had higher post-exposure intake of a weak sucrose solution (a test of "anhedonia". Active responding was associated with: greater cat fur-induced activation of the accessory olfactory bulb, reflecting greater olfactory stimulation in rats actively approaching the fur; lowered activation of somatosensory cortex, reflecting reduced huddling with conspecifics; and reduced activation in the lateral septum. Social exposure to cat fur promoted active responding relative to individual exposure, and lowered c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial periaqueductal grey, medial caudate putamen and lateral habenula. We conclude that individual differences in anti-predator behavior appear stable traits with active responders having a more resilient phenotype. Social exposure to predatory threat has an acute buffering effect, subtly changing the neural and behavioral response towards threat and encouraging active responding. An association between

  4. Defensive Aggregation (Huddling) in Rattus Norvegicus toward Predator Odor: Individual Differences, Social Buffering Effects and Neural Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Michael T.; Kevin, Richard C.; May, Matthew; Staples, Lauren G.; Hunt, Glenn E.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation is a defensive strategy employed by many prey species in response to predatory threat. Our group has characterized defensive aggregation (huddling) in Rattus norvegicus in response to a ball of cat fur. In this situation some rats huddle less, and approach the threatening cue more than others (active vs. passive responders). The present study explored whether active responding is a stable phenotype associated with behaviors outside direct predatory encounters. The neural substrates of active and passive responding under predatory threat were explored using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Finally, we examined whether the presence of conspecifics during predatory threat biases behavior towards active responding. Active and passive responding styles were found to be stable in individual rats across consecutive group exposures to cat fur, and were predicted by anxiety-like behavior in an open-field emergence test. Active responders displayed less conditioned fear in an environment associated with predatory threat, and had higher post-exposure intake of a weak sucrose solution (a test of “anhedonia”). Active responding was associated with: greater cat fur-induced activation of the accessory olfactory bulb, reflecting greater olfactory stimulation in rats actively approaching the fur; lowered activation of somatosensory cortex, reflecting reduced huddling with conspecifics; and reduced activation in the lateral septum. Social exposure to cat fur promoted active responding relative to individual exposure, and lowered c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial periaqueductal grey, medial caudate putamen and lateral habenula. We conclude that individual differences in anti-predator behavior appear stable traits with active responders having a more resilient phenotype. Social exposure to predatory threat has an acute buffering effect, subtly changing the neural and behavioral response towards threat and encouraging active responding. An association between active

  5. Defensive aggregation (huddling) in Rattus norvegicus toward predator odor: individual differences, social buffering effects and neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Michael T; Kevin, Richard C; May, Matthew; Staples, Lauren G; Hunt, Glenn E; McGregor, Iain S

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation is a defensive strategy employed by many prey species in response to predatory threat. Our group has characterized defensive aggregation (huddling) in Rattus norvegicus in respon