WorldWideScience

Sample records for individual systematic interview

  1. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  2. Systematic Interviewing Skills. Typescript Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Roy C.; Rubin, Stanford E.

    Part of a five-part package (see note) of training materials to teach interviewing skills to human services personnel, this typescript manual is intended for use as a visual reference to aid in understanding the taped dialogues of the packages tape/slide demonstrations of interview interaction, and for referral in class discussions. The typescript…

  3. Beyond face-to-face individual counseling: A systematic review on alternative modes of motivational interviewing in substance abuse treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Wu, Lingli; Gao, Xiaoli

    2017-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI), delivered in modes other than face-to-face individual counseling, in preventing and treating substance abuse related behaviors. Four databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of alternative modes of MI (other than face-to-face individual counseling) in preventing and treating substance abuse. Eligible studies were rated on methodological quality and their findings were qualitatively synthesized. A total of 25 articles (on 22 RCTs) were eligible for this review. Beyond face-to-face counseling, telephone was the most frequently used medium for delivering MI (11 studies), followed by Internet communication (4 studies) and short message service (SMS) (2 studies). Mail was incorporated as a supplement in one of the studies for telephone MI. In contrast to one-to-one individual counseling, group MI was adopted in 5 studies. The effectiveness of telephone MI in treating substance abuse was supported by all of the published RCTs we located. Internet-based MI was effective in preventing and treating alcoholism, but its outcome appeared to be inconsistent for smoking cessation and poor for abstinence from illicit drugs. SMS-based MI appeared to be useful for controlling tobacco and drinking. Group MI was attempted for quitting alcohol and drugs, with mixed findings on its outcomes. Collectively, the studies reviewed indicate that telephone MI is a promising mode of intervention in treating and preventing substance abuse. The effectiveness of other alternative modes (SMS-based MI, Internet-based MI and group MI) remains inconclusive given the controversial findings and a limited number of studies. By synthesizing the currently available evidence, this systematic review suggested that telephone MI might be considered as an alternative to face

  4. Patient-generated aspects in oral rehabilitation decision making I. Comparison of traditional history taking and an individual systematic interview method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Elverdam, Beth

    2009-01-01

    it with a traditional history taking, in generating information to be used in decision making in oral rehabilitation. Fifty-seven participants in need of oral rehabilitation were enrolled in the study. The participants underwent a traditional history taking and were interviewed using the SEIQoL-DW method. The SEIQo......Decision making in oral rehabilitation is often based on diagnoses related to impairment of different oral functions. In making the decision when to treat, the dentist must work in cooperation with the patient. By incorporating patient-generated aspects into the decision making process, the dentist...... percentage of the participants were positive towards the use of the SEIQoL-DW method in their treatment planning. The SEIQoL-DW was considered to be a viable tool for decision making in oral rehabilitation....

  5. Virtual Reality Job Interview Training for Individuals with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J.; Ginger, Emily J.; Wright, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Services are available to help support existing employment for individual with psychiatric disabilities; however, there is a gap in services targeting job interview skills that can help obtain employment. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of Virtual Reality Job Interview Training (VR-JIT) in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized to VR-JIT (n=25) or treatment as usual (TAU) (n=12) groups. VR-JIT consisted of 10 hours of simulated job interviews with a virtual character and didactic online training. Participants attended 95% of lab-based training sessions and found VR-JIT easy-to-use and felt prepared for future interviews. The VR-JIT group improved their job interview role-play performance (pinterview skills and self-confidence. Future research may help clarify whether this intervention is efficacious in community-based settings. PMID:25099298

  6. Virtual reality job interview training for individuals with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Ginger, Emily J; Wright, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Boteler Humm, Laura; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D; Fleming, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    Services are available to help support existing employment for individuals with psychiatric disabilities; however, there is a gap in services targeting job interview skills that can help obtain employment. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of Virtual Reality Job Interview Training (VR-JIT) in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized to VR-JIT (n = 25) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 12) groups. VR-JIT consisted of 10 hours of simulated job interviews with a virtual character and didactic online training. The participants attended 95% of laboratory-based training sessions and found VR-JIT easy to use and felt prepared for future interviews. The VR-JIT group improved their job interview role-play performance (p ≤ 0.05) and self-confidence (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and follow-up as compared with the TAU group. VR-JIT performance scores increased over time (R = 0.65). VR-JIT demonstrated initial feasibility and efficacy at improving job interview skills and self-confidence. Future research may help clarify whether this intervention is efficacious in community-based settings.

  7. The Impact of Simulated Interviews for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Zachary; Vasquez, Eleazar; Wienke, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the efficacy of role-playing and coaching in mixed-reality environments for the acquisition and generalization of social skills leading to successful job interview performance. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, five young adults with intellectual disability practiced…

  8. Effect of changes of personal interview data on estimation of individual thyroid dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakevich, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Results of initial and second personal interviews are analyzed for more than one thousand men. Change of individual thyroid dose is considered as consequence of changes of personal interview data. (authors)

  9. Interview

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    New column in ECHO The editorial team would like to give the â€ワpeople at CERN” the chance to have their say. Through regular interviews, it wishes to highlight the particularities of those who help CERN remain a centre of excellence.

  10. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend

    Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekte...... disciplin gennem en præsentation af dets syv stadier, hvor forfatterne klæder læseren fagligt på til at planlægge og foretage interviews....

  11. Systematic methodological review: developing a framework for a qualitative semi-structured interview guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Hanna; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Johnson, Martin; Kangasniemi, Mari

    2016-12-01

    To produce a framework for the development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous data collection procedures fundamentally influence the results of studies. The semi-structured interview is a common data collection method, but methodological research on the development of a semi-structured interview guide is sparse. Systematic methodological review. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science for methodological papers on semi-structured interview guides from October 2004-September 2014. Having examined 2,703 titles and abstracts and 21 full texts, we finally selected 10 papers. We analysed the data using the qualitative content analysis method. Our analysis resulted in new synthesized knowledge on the development of a semi-structured interview guide, including five phases: (1) identifying the prerequisites for using semi-structured interviews; (2) retrieving and using previous knowledge; (3) formulating the preliminary semi-structured interview guide; (4) pilot testing the guide; and (5) presenting the complete semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide contributes to the objectivity and trustworthiness of studies and makes the results more plausible. Researchers should consider using this five-step process to develop a semi-structured interview guide and justify the decisions made during it. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Virtual reality job interview training and 6-month employment outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia seeking employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Fleming, Michael F; Wright, Michael A; Roberts, Andrea G; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have low employment rates and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain employment. Virtual reality training has demonstrated efficacy at improving interview skills and employment outcomes among multiple clinical populations. However, the effects of this training on individuals with schizophrenia are unknown. This study evaluated the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) at improving job interview skills and employment outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia in a small randomized controlled trial (n=21 VR-JIT trainees, n=11 waitlist controls). Trainees completed up to 10h of virtual interviews using VR-JIT, while controls received services as usual. Primary outcome measures included two pre-test and two post-test video-recorded role-play interviews scored by blinded raters with expertise in human resources and self-reported interviewing self-confidence. Six-month follow-up data on employment outcomes were collected. Trainees reported that the intervention was easy-to-use, helpful, and prepared them for future interviews. Trainees demonstrated increased role-play scores between pre-test and post-test while controls did not (p=0.001). After accounting for neurocognition and months since prior employment, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6month follow-up compared to controls (OR: 8.73, p=0.04) and more training was associated with fewer weeks until receiving a job offer (r=-0.63, pjob interview skills in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6-month follow-up. Future studies could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT within community-based services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The efficacy of motivational interviewing for disordered gambling: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Igor; Quigley, Leanne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Hodgins, David C; Ronksley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Motivational interviewing is a client-centered therapeutic intervention that aims to resolve ambivalence toward change. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of motivational interviewing, compared to non-motivational interviewing controls, in the treatment of disordered gambling. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials that evaluated change in gambling behavior using motivational interviewing in adult disordered gamblers. The primary outcomes were the weighted mean difference (WMD) for change in average days gambled per month and average dollars lost per month. The search strategy yielded 447 articles, of which 20 met criteria for full text review. Overall, 8 studies (N=730) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for systematic review and 5 (N=477) were included in the meta-analysis. Motivational interviewing was associated with significant reduction in gambling frequency up to a year after treatment delivery. For gambling expenditure, motivational interviewing yielded significant reductions in dollars spent gambling compared to non-motivational controls at post-treatment only (1-3 months). Overall, the results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing is an efficacious style of therapy for disordered gambling in the short term. Whether treatment effects are maintained over time remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

  15. Supporting public involvement in interview and other panels: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan; Clowes, Mark; Muir, Delia; Baird, Wendy; Broadway-Parkinson, Andrea; Bennett, Carole

    2017-10-01

    Members of the public are increasingly being invited to become members of a variety of different panels and boards. This study aimed to systematically search the literature to identify studies relating to support or training provided to members of the public who are asked to be members of an interview panel. A systematic search for published and unpublished studies was carried out from June to September 2015. The search methods included electronic database searching, reference list screening, citation searching and scrutinizing online sources. We included studies of any design including published and unpublished documents which outlined preparation or guidance relating to public participants who were members of interview panels or representatives on other types of panels or committees. Results were synthesised via narrative methods. Thirty-six documents were included in the review. Scrutiny of this literature highlighted ten areas which require consideration when including members of the public on interview panels: financial resources; clarity of role; role in the interview process; role in evaluation; training; orientation/induction; information needs; terminology; support; and other public representative needs such as timing, accessibility and support with information technology. The results of the review emphasize a range of elements that need to be fully considered when planning the involvement of public participants on interview panels. It highlights potential issues relating to the degree of involvement of public representatives in evaluating/grading decisions and the need for preparation and on-going support. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Which Individual Therapist Behaviors Elicit Client Change Talk and Sustain Talk in Motivational Interviewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Jackson, Kristina M; Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Barnett, Nancy P

    2016-02-01

    To identify individual therapist behaviors which elicit client change talk or sustain talk in motivational interviewing sessions. Motivational interviewing sessions from a single-session alcohol intervention delivered to college students were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC), a therapy process coding system. Participants included 92 college students and eight therapists who provided their treatment. The MISC was used to code 17 therapist behaviors related to the use of motivational interviewing, and client language reflecting movement toward behavior change (change talk), away from behavior change (sustain talk), or unrelated to the target behavior (follow/neutral). Client change talk was significantly more likely to immediately follow individual therapist behaviors [affirm (p=.013), open question (pmotivational interviewing can either elicit both client change talk and sustain talk or suppress both types of client language. Affirm was the only therapist behavior that both increased change talk and also reduced sustain talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rehabilitation after THR: Telephone interview and individual support versus visits in outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørdam, Britta

    2011-01-01

    . Participating patients were allocated to a control group or an intervention group after discharge. The intervention group had telephone-interviews and individual counseling 2 and 8 months after THR, and the control group had conventional visit in outpatient clinic 3 months after THR. Outcome: Patients......Results from a RCT carried out from 2006 to 2007 including 180 patients aged 65 years and over based on patients´ self-rated health and by using telephone interviews and individual counseling as intervention 2 and 10 weeks after discharge had a significant improvement in patients´ self-rated health...... by using SF-36 scores within 3 months after surgery, whereas the control group had improvement after 9 months. Both groups had SF-36 filled out preoperatively and 3, 6 and 9 months after THR. In a new study a sub group was identified by having a reduction in general health during 12 months postoperatively...

  18. Job Offers to Individuals With Severe Mental Illness After Participation in Virtual Reality Job Interview Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Fleming, Michael F; Wright, Michael A; Jordan, Neil; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness have low employment rates, and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain competitive employment. Prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicated that virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) improved job interviewing skills among trainees. This study assessed whether VR-JIT participation was associated with greater odds of receiving job offers in the six-months after completion of training. To assess the efficacy of VR-JIT, trainees (N=39) in the method and a comparison group (N=12) completed a brief survey approximately six months after participating in the RCTs. Primary vocational outcome measures included receiving a job offer and number of weeks searching for employment. A larger proportion of trainees than comparison participants received a job offer (51% versus 25%, respectively). Trainees were more likely to receive a job offer than comparison participants (odds ratio=9.64, p=.02) after analyses accounted for cognition, recency of last job, and diagnosis. Trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer for each completed VR-JIT trial (odds ratio=1.41, p=.04), and a greater number of completed VR-JIT trials predicted fewer weeks of searching for employment (β=-.74, p=.02). Results provide preliminary support that VR-JIT is a promising intervention associated with enhanced vocational outcomes among individuals with severe mental illness. Given that participants had minimal access to standardized vocational services, future research could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT among individuals with and without access to standardized vocational services as well as evaluate strategies to implement VR-JIT within a large community mental health service provider.

  19. Pre-Medicare Eligible Individuals' Decision-Making In Medicare Part D: An Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to elicit salient beliefs among pre-Medicare eligible individuals regarding (1 the outcomes associated with enrolling in the Medicare Part D program; (2 those referents who might influence participants' decisions about enrolling in the Part D program; and (3 the perceived barriers and facilitators facing those considering enrolling in the Part D program. Methods: Focused interviews were used for collecting data. A sample of 10 persons between 62 and 64 years of age not otherwise enrolled in the Medicare program was recruited. Interviews were audio taped and field notes were taken concurrently. Audio recordings were reviewed to amend field notes until obtaining a thorough reflection of interviews. Field notes were analyzed to elicit a group of beliefs, which were coded into perceived outcomes, the relevant others who might influence Medicare Part D enrollment decisions and perceived facilitators and impediments. By extracting those most frequently mentioned beliefs, modal salient sets of behavioral beliefs, relevant referents, and control beliefs were identified. Results: Analyses showed that (1 most pre-Medicare eligible believed that Medicare Part D could "provide drug coverage", "save money on medications", and "provide financial and health security in later life". However, "monthly premiums", "the formulary with limited drug coverage" and "the complexity of Medicare Part D" were perceived as major disadvantages; (2 immediate family members are most likely to influence pre-Medicare eligible's decisions about Medicare Part D enrollment; and (3 internet and mailing educational brochures are considered to be most useful resources for Medicare Part D enrollment. Major barriers to enrollment included the complexity and inadequacy of insurance plan information. Conclusion: There are multiple factors related to decision-making surrounding the Medicare Part D enrollment. These factors include the advantages

  20. Questioning Transcription: The Case for the Systematic and Reflexive Interviewing and Reporting (SRIR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Loubere

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The recording and verbatim transcription of interviews is often considered to be one of the more tedious but necessary aspects of the in-depth qualitative research process. While transcription is undoubtedly a necessary methodological tool for researchers focusing specifically on discourse and language, it has also been widely adopted by researchers across the social sciences, and is sometimes advocated as a means of inherently improving the rigour of qualitative research. Based on recent experience from fieldwork in rural China, where I had initially expected to utilise the verbatim transcription method, in this article I critically assess the role of transcription in the design, implementation, and outcome of cross-cultural multilingual qualitative research. I argue that, in certain cases, verbatim transcription can limit the kind of information that may be considered valuable as data, and delay the processes of data reduction and analysis, thus separating the researcher from the fieldwork event. In response to these critiques, I propose an alternative approach to collecting, categorising, coding, and analysing qualitative data: the systematic and reflexive interviewing and reporting (SRIR method. The SRIR method utilises semi-structured and unstructured interviews conducted by two or more researchers. After completing an interview, researchers engage in reflexive dialogue, and jointly write interview and analysis reports. In this way, the SRIR method begins the process of coding and analysis in situ, thus facilitating critical engagement with emergent themes during fieldwork rather than afterwards. The method is, therefore, ideally suited to research projects that are designed to be open ended and flexible, in order to follow up on new information and potentially even change focus. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1702152

  1. Communication Assessment for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Kagohara, Debora; van der Meer, Larah; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed studies that aimed to determine whether behaviors, such as body movements, vocalizations, eye gaze, and facial expressions, served a communicative function for individuals with Rett syndrome. A systematic search identified eight studies, which were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) assessment targets, (c) assessment…

  2. Motivational interviewing to enhance treatment attendance in mental health settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, P; Fulbrook, P; Somerset, S; Schulz, P

    2017-11-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite differences between samples, some literature reviews have suggested that MI is effective in enhancing treatment attendance for individuals with mental health issues. Little is known regarding the effects of MI as a pre-treatment on individuals who are not seeking treatment for mental health issues. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis demonstrates that MI is most beneficial for individuals who are not seeking mental health treatment. MI represents an opportunity for health promotion when patients are unmotivated but may otherwise be amenable to an intervention. MI is effective as a pre-treatment intervention to motivate individuals to attend further post-MI treatment and counselling. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: MI is a process and a useful tool for clinicians in all therapeutic interactions, to motivate their patients to seek further assistance for mental heath issues. Health promotion and encouragement to attend further treatment sessions can be facilitated through telephone contact. Introduction The stages of change model suggests that individuals seeking treatment are in the "preparation" or the "action" stage of change, which is the desired outcome of successful Motivational Interviewing (MI) interventions. MI is known to enhance treatment attendance among individuals with mental health problems. Aim This study examined the published research on MI as a pre-treatment to enhance attendance among individuals treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking for mental health issues. Methods Fourteen randomized controlled trials were identified, and MI efficacy was examined dichotomously: attendance or non-attendance for post-MI therapy. Subgroup analysis investigated treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking groups. Results Despite wide variations in sample sizes, blinding and monitoring, intervention fidelity was absent in the majority of published

  3. Effect of Educational Debt on Emergency Medicine Residents: A Qualitative Study Using Individual Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Timothy P; Brown, Madison M; Reibling, Ellen T; Ghassemzadeh, Sassan; Gordon, Dawn M; Phan, Tammy H; Thomas, Tamara L; Brown, Lance

    2016-10-01

    In 2001, less than 20% of emergency medicine residents had more than $150,000 of educational debt. Our emergency medicine residents anecdotally reported much larger debt loads. Surveys have reported that debt affects career and life choices. Qualitative approaches are well suited to explore how and why such complex phenomena occur. We aim to gain a better understanding of how our emergency medicine residents experience debt. We conducted individual semistructured interviews with emergency medicine residents. We collected self-reported data related to educational debt and asked open-ended questions about debt influence on career choices, personal life, future plans, and financial decisions. We undertook a structured thematic analysis using a qualitative approach based in the grounded theory method. Median educational debt was $212,000. Six themes emerged from our analysis: (1) debt influenced career and life decisions by altering priorities; (2) residents experienced debt as a persistent source of background stress and felt powerless to change it; (3) residents made use of various techniques to negotiate debt in order to focus on day-to-day work; (4) personal debt philosophy, based on individual values and obtained from family, shaped how debt affected each individual; (5) debt had a normative effect and was acculturated in residency; and (6) residents reported a wide range of financial knowledge, but recognized its importance to career success. Our emergency medicine residents' debt experience is complex and involves multiple dimensions. Given our current understanding, simple solutions are unlikely to be effective in adequately addressing this issue. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Workplace productivity and voice disorders: a cognitive interviewing study on presenteeism in individuals with spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isetti, Derek; Meyer, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain initial reactions and suggested modifications to two existing presenteeism scales: the Stanford Presenteeism Scale 6 (SPS-6) and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire-Specific Health Problem (WPAI-SHP) among a cohort of employed individuals with a focal laryngeal dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia (SD). The study design is a qualitative study. Nine speakers with SD underwent cognitive interviews, during which they were asked to evaluate the relevance of statements and clarity of wording on the SPS-6, the WPAI-SHP, and an additional set of voice-related statements designed by the researchers. Participants were asked to complete the scales, rank order statements in terms of perceived importance, and suggest additional statements of relevance. Although all participants noted that their SD did have an effect on their jobs, there were suggestions for modifying both the WPAI-SHP and the SPS-6. Participants regarded specific voice-related statements that were generated by the researchers to be of greater importance than the majority of the statements on the SPS-6. Minor changes in the wording of the instructions on the WPAI-SHP were recommended. Presenteeism is an important construct to measure in individuals with a chronic voice disorder such as SD. However, existing presenteeism scales might best be administered in conjunction with additional statements that are more voice related so that clinicians can be made aware of specific difficulties encountered in the workplace. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing at improving oral health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Morales Cascaes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI at improving oral health behaviors (oral hygiene habits, sugar consumption, dental services utilization or use of fluoride and dental clinical outcomes (dental plaque, dental caries and periodontal status. METHODS : A systematic search of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PsyINFO, Cochrane and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted looking for intervention studies that investigated MI as the main approach to improving the oral health outcomes investigated. RESULTS : Of the 78 articles found, ten met the inclusion criteria, all based on randomized controlled trials. Most studies (n = 8 assessed multiple outcomes. Five interventions assessed the impact of MI on oral health behaviors and nine on clinical outcomes (three on dental caries, six on dental plaque, four on gingivitis and three on periodontal pockets. Better quality of evidence was provided by studies that investigated dental caries, which also had the largest population samples. The evidence of the effect of MI on improving oral health outcomes is conflicting. Four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. In two interventions, the actual difference between groups was not reported or able to be recalculated. CONCLUSIONS : We found inconclusive effectiveness for most oral health outcomes. We need more and better designed and reported interventions to fully assess the impact of MI on oral health and understand the appropriate dosage for the counseling interventions.

  6. Knowledge, care and trans-individuation: An interview with Bernard Stiegler

    OpenAIRE

    Crogan, P.

    2010-01-01

    An Interview with French philosopher of technology and activist, Bernard Stiegler. The interview was conducted in November 2008 in Paris. It appears in the special issue on Stiegler in the journal Cultural Politics (6:2, July 2010), guest edited by Patrick Crogan. Stiegler discusses culture, politics and his current projects including the book series, Prendre Soin. The interview was translated for the journal by Chris Turner.

  7. Impression Management in the Psychiatric Interview: Quality, Style, and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Mark; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The ability of 24 Veterans Administration Day Treatment Center psychiatric outpatients to vary intentionally their degree of apparent psychopathology during structured interviews was studied. Patients defined as sick presenters behaved in a significantly more pathological manner during an interview preceded by "fake sick" instructions than they…

  8. Access to Opportunities for Bilingualism for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Key Informant Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valenzuela, Julia Scherba; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Parkington, Karisa; Mirenda, Pat; Cain, Kate; MacLeod, Andrea A N; Segers, Eliane

    The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a thematic analysis of 79 semi-structured interviews collected at six research sites in four countries in relation to the inclusion and exclusion of students with developmental disabilities (DD) in and from special education and bilingual opportunities. The participants were individuals with expertise either in special needs and/or language education to support bilingualism (e.g., second language (L2) instruction), who served as key informants about service delivery and/or policy in these areas. Six themes emerged as salient during the analysis: we include all kids, special needs drives it, time/scheduling conflicts, IEP/IPP/statement drives it, it's up to the parents, and service availability. The results suggested that access to language programs and services is limited for children with DD, even though participants at all sites reported adherence to a philosophy of inclusion. A priority on special education services over language services was identified, as well as barriers to providing children with DD access to programs and services to support bilingual development. Some of these barriers included time and scheduling conflicts and limited service availability. Additionally, the role of parents in decision making was affirmed, although, in contrast to special education services, decision-making about participation or exemption from language programs was typically left up to the parents. Overall, the results suggest a need for greater attention to providing supports for both first (L1) and L2 language development for bilingual children with DD and greater access to available language programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Motivational interviewing by general practitioners for Type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepwongsa, Isaraporn; Muthukumar, Radhakrishnan; Kessomboon, Pattapong

    2017-08-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an effective tool to help clinicians with facilitating behavioural changes in many diseases and conditions. However, different forms of MI are required in different health care settings and for different clinicians. Although general practitioners (GPs) play a major role in Type 2 diabetes management, the effects of MI delivered by GPs intended to change the behaviours of their Type 2 diabetes patients and GP outcomes, defined as GP knowledge, satisfaction and practice behaviours, have not been systematically reviewed. An electronic search was conducted through Cochrane Library, Scopus, ProQuest, Wiley Online Library, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE Complete and Google Scholar from the earliest date of each database to 2017. Reference lists from each article obtained were reviewed. Measured changes in GP satisfaction, knowledge, and practice behaviours, and patient outcomes were recorded. Eight out of 1882 studies met the criteria for inclusion. Six studies examined the effects of MI on Type 2 diabetes patient outcomes, only one of which examined its effects on GP outcomes. Two-thirds of the studies (4/6) found a significant improvement in at least one of the following patient outcomes: total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference and physical activity. The effects of MI on GP outcomes yielded mixed results. Few studies have examined evidence for the effectiveness of MI delivered by GPs to Type 2 diabetes patients. Evidence to support the effectiveness of MI on GP and patient outcomes is weak. Further quality studies are needed to examine the effects of MI on GP and patient outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. PATIENT-REPORTED OUTCOMES IN RARE LYSOSOMAL STORAGE DISEASES: KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS AND A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW PROTOCOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patricia A; Mulla, Sohail M; Adams-Webber, Thomasin; Sivji, Yasmin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Johnston, Bradley C

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the use, challenges and opportunities associated with using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in studies with patients with rare lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), we conducted interviews with researchers and health technology assessment (HTA) experts, and developed the methods for a systematic review of the literature. The purpose of the review is to identify the psychometrically sound generic and disease-specific PROs used in studies with patients with five LSDs of interest: Fabry, Gaucher (Type I), Niemann-Pick (Type B) and Pompe diseases, and mucopolysaccharidosis (Types I and II). Researchers and HTA experts who responded to an email invitation participated in a telephone interview. We used qualitative content analysis to analyze the anonymized transcripts. We conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies that used PROs to investigate burden of disease or to assess the impact of interventions across the five LSDs of interest. Interviews with seven researchers and six HTA experts representing eight countries revealed five themes. These were: (i) the importance of using psychometrically sound PROs in studies with rare diseases, (ii) the paucity of disease-specific PROs, (iii) the importance of having PRO data for economic analyses, (iv) practical and psychometric limitations of existing PROs, and (v) suggestions for new PROs. The systematic review has been completed. The interviews highlight current challenges and opportunities experienced by researchers and HTA experts involved in work with rare LSDs. The ongoing systematic review will highlight the experience, opportunities, and limitations of PROs in LSDs and provide suggestions for future research.

  11. Access to opportunities for bilingualism for individuals with developmental disabilities: Key informant interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherba de Valenzuela, J.; Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Parkington, K.; Mirenda, P.; Cain, K.; MacLeod, A.A.N.; Segers, P.C.J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a thematic analysis of 79 semi-structured interviews collected at six research sites in four countries in relation to the inclusion and exclusion of students with developmental disabilities (DD) in and from special education and bilingual

  12. Selection bias in follow-up interviews with individuals attending the emergency department for occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Rytter, Søren

    2017-01-01

    : Workers aged 18-70 years who contacted the two emergency departments for an acute occupational injury in 2013 were eligible and given a short questionnaire. Following written consent, a semi-structured interview concerning health and transient risk factors was conducted by telephone. The two departments...

  13. Motivational interviewing interventions and alcohol abuse among college students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Okyere, Paul; Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer; Cross, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to assess the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) interventions in reducing alcohol consumption among college students, as compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. It also sought to identify the potential moderators to MI intervention effects. Database sources consulted included Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLE, PsycLIT, CINAHL, and MEDLINE. Included studies were (1) underpinned by experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental designs; (2) studies in which participants were either college males only or females only or both; and (3) studies in which adaptations of MI were based on key MI principles. Excluded studies were (1) non-English language studies; (2) studies not published from 2000-2012; (3) studies in which participants were not college students; (4) studies in which intervention was not delivered by face-to-face approach; and (5) studies that failed to embark on postintervention follow-ups. A total of 115 abstracts were screened. These were narrowed down to 13 studies from which data for the study were extracted. Selected studies were underpinned by experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental designs. Owing to the heterogeneity in selected studies, a narrative synthesis was used. MI interventions were found to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption among college students, when compared to alternative interventions or no intervention. Potential moderators of MI intervention effects were identified to include practitioner's adherence to MI techniques and individual's drinking motives. MI presents itself as a promising tool that can augment the many existing social-environmental strategies of health promotion.

  14. Using a Computer Simulation to Improve Psychological Readiness for Job Interviewing in Unemployed Individuals of Pre-Retirement Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysina, Rimma M; Efremova, Galina I; Maksimenko, Zhanna A; Nikiforov, Mikhail V

    2017-05-01

    Unemployed individuals of pre-retirement age face significant challenges in finding a new job. This may be partly due to their lack of psychological readiness to go through a job interview. We view psychological readiness as one of the psychological attitude components. It is an active conscious readiness to interact with a certain aspect of reality, based on previously acquired experience. It includes a persons' special competence to manage their activities and cope with anxiety. We created Job Interview Simulation Training (JIST) - a computer-based simulator, which allowed unemployed job seekers to practice interviewing repeatedly in a stress-free environment. We hypothesized that completion of JIST would be related to increase in pre-retirement job seekers' psychological readiness for job interviewing in real life. Participants were randomized into control (n = 18) and experimental (n = 21) conditions. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention job interview role-plays and self-reporting forms of psychological readiness for job interviewing. JIST consisted of 5 sessions of a simulated job interview, and the experimental group found it easy to use and navigate as well as helpful to prepare for interviewing. After finishing JIST-sessions the experimental group had significant decrease in heart rate during the post-intervention role-play and demonstrated significant increase in their self-rated psychological readiness, whereas the control group did not have changes in these variables. Future research may help clarify whether JIST is related to an increase in re-employment of pre-retirement job seekers.

  15. Is individualized medicine more cost-effective? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatz, Maximilian H M; Schremser, Katharina; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2014-05-01

    Individualized medicine (IM) is a rapidly evolving field that is associated with both visions of more effective care at lower costs and fears of highly priced, low-value interventions. It is unclear which view is supported by the current evidence. Our objective was to systematically review the health economic evidence related to IM and to derive general statements on its cost-effectiveness. A literature search of MEDLINE database for English- and German-language studies was conducted. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility studies for technologies meeting the MEDLINE medical subject headings (MeSH) definition of IM (genetically targeted interventions) were reviewed. This was followed by a standardized extraction of general study characteristics and cost-effectiveness results. Most of the 84 studies included in the synthesis were from the USA (n = 43, 51 %), cost-utility studies (n = 66, 79 %), and published since 2005 (n = 60, 71 %). The results ranged from dominant to dominated. The median value (cost-utility studies) was calculated to be rounded $US22,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained (adjusted to $US, year 2008 values), which is equal to the rounded median cost-effectiveness in the peer-reviewed English-language literature according to a recent review. Many studies reported more than one strategy of IM with highly varying cost-effectiveness ratios. Generally, results differed according to test type, and tests for disease prognosis or screening appeared to be more favorable than tests to stratify patients by response or by risk of adverse effects. However, these results were not significant. Different definitions of IM could have been used. Quality assessment of the studies was restricted to analyzing transparency. IM neither seems to display superior cost-effectiveness than other types of medical interventions nor to be economically inferior. Instead, rather than 'whether' healthcare was individualized, the question of 'how' it was individualized was

  16. Exploring how individuals complete the choice tasks in a discrete choice experiment: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien Veldwijk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To be able to make valid inferences on stated preference data from a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE it is essential that researchers know if participants were actively involved, understood and interpreted the provided information correctly and whether they used complex decision strategies to make their choices and thereby acted in accordance with the continuity axiom. Methods During structured interviews, we explored how 70 participants evaluated and completed four discrete choice tasks aloud. Hereafter, additional questions were asked to further explore if participants understood the information that was provided to them and whether they used complex decision strategies (continuity axiom when making their choices. Two existing DCE questionnaires on rotavirus vaccination and prostate cancer-screening served as case studies. Results A large proportion of the participants was not able to repeat the exact definition of the risk attributes as explained to them in the introduction of the questionnaire. The majority of the participants preferred more optimal over less optimal risk attribute levels. Most participants (66 % mentioned three or more attributes when motivating their decisions, thereby acting in accordance with the continuity axiom. However, 16 out of 70 participants continuously mentioned less than three attributes when motivating their decision. Lower educated and less literate participants tended to mention less than three attributes when motivating their decision and used trading off between attributes less often as a decision-making strategy. Conclusion The majority of the participants seemed to have understood the provided information about the choice tasks, the attributes, and the levels. They used complex decision strategies (continuity axiom and are therefore capable to adequately complete a DCE. However, based on the participants’ age, educational level and health literacy additional, actions should be

  17. Motivational interviewing for older adults in primary care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purath, Janet; Keck, Annmarie; Fitzgerald, Cynthia E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease is now the leading cause of death and disability in United States. Many chronic illnesses experienced by older adults can be prevented or managed through behavior change, making patient counseling an essential component of disease prevention and management. Motivational Interviewing (MI), a type of conversational method, has been effective in eliciting health behavior changes in people in a variety of settings and may also be a useful tool to help older adults change. This review of the literature analyzes current research and describes potential biases of MI interventions that have been conducted in primary care settings with older adults. MI shows promise as a technique to elicit health behavior change among older adults. However, further study with this population is needed to evaluate efficacy of MI interventions in primary care settings. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.

  19. Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.

  20. The effectiveness of motivational interviewing for health behaviour change in primary care settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Katie; Beauchamp, Mark; Prothero, Anna; Joyce, Lauren; Saunders, Laura; Spencer-Bowdage, Sarah; Dancy, Bernadette; Pedlar, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centred approach to behaviour change that was originally developed in the addiction field but has increasingly been applied to public health settings with a focus on health promotion. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence base for MI interventions in primary care settings with non-clinical populations to achieve behaviour change for physical activity, dietary behaviours and/or alcohol intake. We also sought to explore the specific behaviour change techniques included in MI interventions within primary care. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles and 33 papers met inclusion criteria and were included. Approximately 50% of the included studies (n = 18) demonstrated positive effects in relation to health behaviour change. The efficacy of MI approaches is unclear given the inconsistency of MI descriptions and intervention components. Furthermore, research designs that do not isolate the effects of MI make it difficult to determine the effectiveness of such approaches. We offer a number of recommendations for researchers and practitioners seeking to include MI within behaviour change interventions to help improve the quality of the research and the effectiveness of MI-based interventions within primary care settings.

  1. Motivational interviews to improve contraceptive use in populations at high risk of unintended pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amie; Nirantharakumar, Krishnarajah; Truchanowicz, Ewa G; Surenthirakumaran, Rajendra; MacArthur, Christine; Coomarasamy, Arri

    2015-08-01

    Effective contraceptive use has the potential to prevent around 230 million births each year. An estimated 222 million women want to delay pregnancy or cease childbearing, but are not actively using contraception. Lack of education is a known barrier for effective contraceptive use. Motivational interviews are presumed to improve effective contraceptive use, but studies to date report varied findings. Some studies demonstrate an improvement and others report no effect. A systematic review of evidence on the impact of motivational interviews on contraceptive use in women of childbearing age was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, BNI, Cochrane library, CINHAL, African Index Medicus, Web of Science, the Reproductive Health Library, and the Science Citation Index (inception-January 2013) without language restriction. Search terms included 'motivational interview* AND contraception OR family planning OR maternal OR pregnancy'. Randomised controlled trials comparing the effect of motivational interviews with standard practice on effective contraception use in women of reproductive age were included. The outcome measures were use of effective contraception or use of high-level contraception, and subsequent births or pregnancies. The random effects model was used to pool the risk ratios from individual studies. Eight randomised controlled trials were included in the review with a total of 3424 women at high risk of pregnancy. Meta-analysis showed an increase in effective contraceptive use with motivational interviews when compared with control (RR 1.32 95%CI 1.11, 1.56: P=0.002) in the period of zero to four months post intervention. No difference in effective contraceptive use was shown at four to eight months (RR 1.10, 95%CI 0.93, 1.32: P=0.27), and between eight to twelve months (RR 1.18 95%CI 0.96, 1.46: P=0.12). No evidence of effect in the reduction of subsequent pregnancies or births at twelve to twenty-four months was seen with motivational interviews (RR 0.80 95

  2. Prevalence of osteoarthritis in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wshah A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adnan Wshah,1,2 Sara JT Guilcher,2,3 Roger Goldstein,1,2,4,5 Dina Brooks1,2,5 1Respiratory Medicine, West Park Healthcare Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: The objective of this review was to examine the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA in individuals with COPD. A computer-based literature search of CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO and Embase databases was performed. Studies reporting the prevalence of OA among a cohort of individuals with COPD were included. The sample size varied across the studies from 27 to 52,643 with a total number of 101,399 individuals with COPD recruited from different countries. The mean age ranged from 59 to 76 years. The prevalence rates of OA among individuals with COPD were calculated as weighted means. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria with a prevalence ranging from 12% to 74% and an overall weighted mean of 35.5%. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of OA is high among individuals with COPD and should be considered when developing and applying interventions in this population. Keywords: COPD, osteoarthritis, prevalence, comorbidities, pulmonary rehabilitation

  3. Body Dissatisfaction in Individuals with Obesity Compared to Normal-Weight Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha-Alexandra Weinberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body dissatisfaction has been identified as a psychological correlate of obesity that is related to disordered eating, poor self-esteem, and depression. However, not all individuals with obesity are equally vulnerable to these correlates, and ‘normative discontent' is present in individuals with normal weight, too. In this light, the complex relationship of body image and individual weight status seems like a worthwhile direction of research inquiry. As such, this review aims to systematically explore the degree of body dissatisfaction in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted. All quantitative studies of adult samples reporting results regarding differences in body dissatisfaction between individuals with normal weight and obesity were included. Results: 17 articles were found. Across studies, individuals with obesity reported higher body dissatisfaction than normal-weight individuals (questionnaires: d = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.63-1.16, p Conclusion: The findings underline the severity of body dissatisfaction among individuals with obesity and especially among women. Future research recommendations are discussed.

  4. Teaching individuals with autism spectrum disorder to ask questions: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raulston, T.; Carnett, A.; Lang, R.B.; Tostanoski, A.; Lee, A.; Machalicek, W.A.; Sigafoos, J.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Didden, H.C.M.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of studies aimed at teaching individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to ask questions (i.e., teaching mands for information). A systematic search of databases, reference lists, and journals identified 21 studies that met predetermined

  5. Early Disk dynamics Inferred from Isotope Systematics of Individual Chrondules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollard, Jean Francois André

    imply that they must be the product of one of the most energetic processes that operated in the early Solar System. Chondrules are the only samples available to investigate the early Solar System and the chemical and thermal evolution of the Solar protoplanetary disk. Although relative 26Al-26Mg dating....../or reservoirs over time. Finally, the fifth chapter explores the Solar System 26Al homogeneity paradigm by comparing of Al-Mg systematics in chondrules with their respective Pb-Pb ages. We report a consistent age offset between the two chronometers that we infer reflects a reduced abundance of 26Al relative...... to different reservoirs. Lastly, a reduced abundance of 26Al relative to 27Al in inner Solar System objects implies that asteroid accretion must have occurred very early in the Solar System’s formation, to allow melting and differentiation driven by 26Al decay. With respect to our Pb-Pb chondrule chronology...

  6. Detecting anxiety in individuals with Parkinson disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Bria; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Smith, Eric E; Pringsheim, Tamara; Ismail, Zahinoor; Goodarzi, Zahra

    2018-01-02

    To examine diagnostic accuracy of anxiety detection tools compared with a gold standard in outpatient settings among adults with Parkinson disease (PD). A systematic review was conducted. MEDLINE, EMABASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to April 7, 2017. Prevalence of anxiety and diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were gathered. Pooled prevalence of anxiety was calculated using Mantel-Haenszel-weighted DerSimonian and Laird models. A total of 6,300 citations were reviewed with 6 full-text articles included for synthesis. Tools included within this study were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety, Parkinson's Anxiety Scale (PAS), and Mini-Social Phobia Inventory. Anxiety diagnoses made included generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and any anxiety type. Pooled prevalence of anxiety was 30.1% (95% confidence interval 26.1%-34.0%). The GAI had the best-reported sensitivity of 0.86 and specificity of 0.88. The observer-rated PAS had a sensitivity of 0.71 and the highest specificity of 0.91. While there are 6 tools validated for anxiety screening in PD populations, most tools are only validated in single studies. The GAI is brief and easy to use, with a good balance of sensitivity and specificity. The PAS was specifically developed for PD, is brief, and has self-/observer-rated scales, but with lower sensitivity. Health care practitioners involved in PD care need to be aware of available validated tools and choose one that fits their practice. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Postural control in blind individuals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Rodolfo Borges; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2017-09-01

    Postural control (PC) requires the interaction of the three sensory systems for a good maintenance of the balance, and in blind people, lack of visual input can harm your PC. Thus the objective is to perform a literature review concerning role of sight in the maintenance of PC and the adaptation of brain structures when vision is absent. Studies were searched from Pubmed, and EMBASE that included individuals with congenital blindness. Articles studying person with acquired blindness or low vision was excluded from this review. 26 out of 322 articles were selected for review, and we found that 1) blind individuals exhibit PC deficits and that is compensated by the intensification of the remaining systems; 2) Neuroplastic adaptation occurs throughout the entire cerebral cortex; and 3) Sensorimotor stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation seem to be a rehabilitation strategy. According to this review, the findings suggest that improved remaining sensations in the presence of adaptations and neuroplasticity, does not translate into better postural control performance. Regarding rehabilitation strategies, more studies are needed to show which therapeutic modality best contributes to postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise for Individuals with Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inskip

    Full Text Available Individuals with Lewy body Dementia (LBD, which encompasses both Parkinson disease dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB experience functional decline through Parkinsonism and sedentariness exacerbated by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Exercise may improve functional outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the multi-domain nature of the LBD cluster of symptoms (physical, cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic results in vulnerable individuals often being excluded from exercise studies evaluating physical function in PD or cognitive function in dementia to avoid confounding results. This review evaluated existing literature reporting the effects of exercise interventions or physical activity (PA exposure on cluster symptoms in LBD.A high-sensitivity search was executed across 19 databases. Full-length articles of any language and quality, published or unpublished, that analysed effects of isolated exercise/physical activity on indicative Dementia with Lewy Bodies or PD-dementia cohorts were evaluated for outcomes inclusive of physical, cognitive, psychiatric, physiological and quality of life measures. The protocol for this review (Reg. #: CRD42015019002 is accessible at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/.111,485 articles were initially retrieved; 288 full articles were reviewed and 89.6% subsequently deemed ineligible due to exclusion of participants with co-existence of dementia and Parkinsonism. Five studies (1 uncontrolled trial, 1 randomized controlled trial and 3 case reports evaluating 16 participants were included. Interventions were diverse and outcome homogeneity was low. Habitual gait speed outcomes were measured in 13 participants and increased (0.18m/s, 95% CI -0.02, 0.38m/s, exceeding moderate important change (0.14m/s for PD cohorts. Other outcomes appeared to improve modestly in most participants.Scarce research investigating exercise in LBD exists. This review confirms

  9. Depression Case Finding in Individuals with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Zahra S; Mele, Bria S; Roberts, Derek J; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna

    2017-05-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of depression case finding tools with a criterion standard in the outpatient setting among adults with dementia. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies of older outpatients with dementia. Elderly outpatients (clinic and long-term care) with dementia (N = 3,035). Prevalence of major depression and diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. From the 11,539 citations, 20 studies were included for qualitative synthesis and 15 for a meta-analysis. Tools included were the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Single Question, Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression Scale, and Even Briefer Assessment Scale-Depression. The pooled prevalence of depression in individuals with dementia was 30.3% (95% CI = 22.1-38.5). The average age was 75.2 (95% CI = 71.7-78.7), and mean Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranged from 11.2 to 24. The diagnostic accuracy of the individual tools was pooled for the best-reported cutoffs and for each cutoff, if available. The CSDD had a sensitivity of 0.84 (95% CI = 0.73-0.91) and a specificity of 0.80 (95% CI = 0.65-0.90), the 30-item GDS (GDS-30) had a sensitivity of 0.62 (95% CI = 0.45-0.76) and a specificity 0.81 (95% CI = 0.75-0.85), and the HDRS had a sensitivity of 0.86 (95% CI = 0.63-0.96) and a specificity of 0.84 (95% CI = 0.76-0.90). Summary statistics for all tools across best-reported cutoffs had significant heterogeneity. There are many validated tools for the detection of depression in individuals with dementia. Tools that incorporate a physician interview with patient and collateral histories, the CSDD and HDRS, have higher sensitivities, which would ensure fewer false-negatives. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics

  10. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and repor...

  11. A Systematic Review of Effects of Social Stories Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Barton, Erin E.; Collier, Margo; Lin, Yi-Ling; Montoya, Charisse

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize 22 single-case research design (SCRD) studies on social stories intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) SCRD standards to analyze study rigor and evidence of a causal relation. We calculated four nonoverlap indices to…

  12. Train the Trainer Effectiveness Trials of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals with Autism: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…

  13. Systematic processing of the external individual monitoring data obtained by photographic film and capacitor dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.; Shtuk, D.

    1983-01-01

    Individual radiation load measurements have been carried out both with photographic film and capacitor type dosemeters (CD). Systematic statistics methods were applied for the obtained data processing. The CD data were shown to exceed those measured with the film dosemeters. Specific features of the CD application are revealed that should be taken into account in practice [ru

  14. Treatment of Bruxism in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; White, Pamela J.; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Kang, Soyeon; Aquilar, Jeannie; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed studies involving the treatment of bruxism (i.e., teeth clenching or teeth grinding) in individuals with developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 11 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participants, (b) procedures…

  15. Physical Exercise and Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…

  16. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-06-01

    To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and reported in prospective, long-term, injury studies in team ball sports. A systematic search of three online databases for articles published before 2016. Publications were included if (1) they collected prospective data on musculoskeletal injuries in individual participants; (2) the study duration was >1 consecutive calendar year/season; and (3) individuals were the unit of analysis. Key study features were summarised, including definitions of injury, how multiple individual injuries were reported and results relating to multiple injuries. Of the 71 publications included, half did not specifically indicate multiple individual injuries; those that did were largely limited to reporting recurrent injuries. Eight studies reported the number/proportion of athletes with more than one injury, and 11 studies presented the mean/number of injuries per athlete. Despite it being relatively common to collect data on individuals across more than one season, the reporting of multiple injuries within individuals is much more limited. Ultimately, better addressing of multiple injuries will improve the accuracy of injury incidence studies and enable more precise targeting and monitoring of the effectiveness of preventive interventions.

  17. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing on lifestyle modification and health outcomes of clients at risk or diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Windy W M; Choi, K C; Yum, Royce W Y; Yu, Doris S F; Chair, S Y

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, there is an increasing trend in using motivational interviewing as a counseling method to help clients with cardiovascular diseases to modify their unhealthy lifestyle in order to decrease the risk of disease occurrence. As motivational interviewing has gained increased attention, research has been conducted to examine its effectiveness. This review attempts to identify the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of motivational interviewing on lifestyle modification, physiological and psychological outcomes for clients at risk of developing or with established cardiovascular diseases. Systematic review of studies incorporating motivational interviewing in modifying lifestyles, improving physiological and psychological outcomes for clients at risk of or diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases. Major English and Chinese electronic databases were searched to identify citations that reported the effectiveness of motivational interviewing. The searched databases included MEDLINE, British Nursing Index, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, CJN, CBM, HyRead, WanFang Data, Digital Dissertation Consortium, and so on. Two reviewers independently assessed the relevance of citations based on the inclusion criteria. Full texts of potential citations were retrieved for more detailed review. Critical appraisal was conducted by using the standardized critical appraisal checklist for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled studies from the Joanna Briggs Institute - Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStaRI). After eligibility screening, 14 articles describing 9 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Only certain outcomes in certain studies were pooled for meta-analysis because of the large variability of the studies included, other findings were presented in narrative form. For lifestyle modification, the review showed that motivational interviewing could be more effective than usual care on

  18. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Individuals with Binge Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Claudine; Mathieu, Marie-Ève; St-Laurent, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; St-Amour, Nathalie; Drapeau, Vicky

    2018-03-01

    Our systematic review aims to assess the overall evidence available in the literature regarding the role of physical activity (PA) in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) and better understand the potential underlying mechanisms of action. Currently, the most effective and well-established psychological treatment for BED is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with a remission rate around 80%. CBT is sometimes combined with pharmacotherapy targeting comorbidities associated with BED, such as obesity and depression. Another avenue of treatment that has been less studied is PA. It has been suggested that PA addresses the underlying mechanisms of BED and, thus, increases treatment efficiency. This systematic review provides additional knowledge concerning the benefits of PA in the treatment of individuals with BED including reduction of binge eating (BE) episodes and improvement in other associated comorbidities. Potential mechanisms of action of PA include neurochemical alterations affecting the reward system, reduction of negative affect, and its anorexigenic effects.

  19. Proficiency of individuals with autism spectrum disorder at disembedding figures: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlin, Chiara; Black, Melissa; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review examines the proficiency and visual search strategies of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) while disembedding figures and whether they differ from typical controls and other comparative samples. Five databases, including Proquest, Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL and Science Direct were used to identify published studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty articles were included in the review, the majority of which matched participants by mental age. Outcomes discussed were time taken to identify targets, the number correctly identified, and fixation frequency and duration. Individuals with ASD perform at the same speed or faster than controls and other clinical samples. However, there appear to be no differences between individuals with ASD and controls for number of correctly identified targets. Only one study examined visual search strategies and suggests that individuals with ASD exhibit shorter first and final fixations to targets compared with controls.

  20. Factors Related to the Accuracy of Self-Reported Dietary Intake of Children Aged 6 to 12 Years Elicited with Interviews: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Stefanie J; Skouteris, Helen; Powell, Martine B; Watson, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children's dietary consumption and health is important. As such, it is crucial to explore factors related to the accuracy of children's reports of what they consumed. The objective was to evaluate factors related to the accuracy of self-reported dietary intake information elicited by interview methods from children aged 6 to 12 years. A systematic review of English articles using PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PsycEXTRA, PsycBOOKS, CINAHL Complete, Global Health, and MEDLINE Complete was performed. Search terms included interview, diet, children, and recall; studies were limited to those published from 1970 onward. Additional studies were identified using the reference lists of published articles. Studies that assessed children's dietary intake using direct observation, doubly labeled water, or the double-portion method and compared it with their recall of that intake (unassisted by parents) using an interview were included. The 45 studies that met the inclusion criteria showed that specific interview techniques designed to enhance children's recall accuracy had little effect. Rather, the timing of the interview appeared most important: The shorter the retention interval between children's consumption and their recall, the more accurate their memories. Children's age, body mass index, social desirability, food preferences, and cognitive ability were also related to accuracy. Factors related to the accuracy of children's dietary reporting should be taken into consideration when asking about consumption. Further research is required to examine whether other interview techniques, such as those developed to enhance children's recall of repeated staged events, can improve children's dietary reporting accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The broad autism phenotype in parents of individuals with autism: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Prata Cruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The broad autism phenotype (BAP is a milder manifestation of the defining symptoms of the syndrome in individuals without autism. This study conducted a systematic review of studies about behavioral characteristics of interpersonal relationships, communication and rigidity, as well as about three cognitive models, Theory of Mind, central coherence and executive function, in parents of individuals with autism. The indexed databases were LILACS, IBECS, Web of Science, and MEDLINE, and the studies retrieved were published between 1991 and March 2012. Parents of individuals with autism have more difficulties in interpersonal relationships and in pragmatic language use and have more rigidity traits. The inclusions of the cognitive theories in the group of BAP characteristics were inconclusive.

  2. Sun protective behaviour in renal transplant recipients. A qualitative study based on individual interviews and the Health Belief Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Jette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Haedersdal, Merete

    2010-01-01

    : The major result was the finding that patients did not perceive the threat of skin cancer as an important health problem and, therefore, did not give a high priority to sun protection, even though patients were aware of their increased risk of developing skin cancer. Moreover, negative individual attitudes......BACKGROUND: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at high-risk of developing aggressive and potentially lethal non-melanoma skin cancer, which emphasizes the need for consistent sun protective behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that exert an influence on the sun protective behaviour of RTRs...... recommend that RTRs are informed about the potential severity of skin cancer, and about the importance of consistent sun protective behaviour....

  3. Proficiency in Motivational Interviewing among Nurses in Child Health Services Following Workshop and Supervision with Systematic Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Enö Persson

    Full Text Available Research on training in motivational interviewing (MI has shown eroding skills after workshops not followed by additional training input (supervision/coaching. There is a need for more research evaluating different types and lengths of post-workshop training with follow-up periods extending six months. This study is an extension of a previous evaluation of the level of proficiency in MI after workshop and four sessions of supervision among nurses in Swedish child health services.To explore the level of MI proficiency among nurses participating in an intervention to prevent childhood obesity (n = 33, after receiving five additional sessions of supervision including feedback on observed practice, as well as level of proficiency at follow-up.Level of proficiency was measured 4 and 12 months after completed supervision using recorded practice samples coded according to the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI Code. Potential predictors of outcome were investigated.Proficiency remained on the same levels after nine sessions of supervision as after four sessions, and was generally low. The percentage of nurses reaching the proficiency level ranged from 18.2 to 54.5% across indicators. MI-spirit had increased significantly at follow-up, and the rest of the indicators remained on the same levels. No predictors of outcome were found.Comprehensive training programs with prolonged post-workshop supervision and feedback on observed practice may help to sustain but not improve participants' proficiency in MI. Potential explanations to the results and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Individual determinants of research utilization by nurses: a systematic review update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Lars

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions that have a better than random chance of increasing nurses' use of research are important to the delivery of quality patient care. However, few reports exist of successful research utilization in nursing interventions. Systematic identification and evaluation of individual characteristics associated with and predicting research utilization may inform the development of research utilization interventions. Objective To update the evidence published in a previous systematic review on individual characteristics influencing research utilization by nurses. Methods As part of a larger systematic review on research utilization instruments, 12 online bibliographic databases were searched. Hand searching of specialized journals and an ancestry search was also conducted. Randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational study designs examining the association between individual characteristics and nurses' use of research were eligible for inclusion. Studies were limited to those published in the English, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian languages. A vote counting approach to data synthesis was taken. Results A total of 42,770 titles were identified, of which 501 were retrieved. Of these 501 articles, 45 satisfied our inclusion criteria. Articles assessed research utilization in general (n = 39 or kinds of research utilization (n = 6 using self-report survey measures. Individual nurse characteristics were classified according to six categories: beliefs and attitudes, involvement in research activities, information seeking, education, professional characteristics, and socio-demographic/socio-economic characteristics. A seventh category, critical thinking, emerged in studies examining kinds of research utilization. Positive relationships, at statistically significant levels, for general research utilization were found in four categories: beliefs and attitudes, information seeking, education, and professional

  6. Individual determinants of research utilization by nurses: a systematic review update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions that have a better than random chance of increasing nurses' use of research are important to the delivery of quality patient care. However, few reports exist of successful research utilization in nursing interventions. Systematic identification and evaluation of individual characteristics associated with and predicting research utilization may inform the development of research utilization interventions. Objective To update the evidence published in a previous systematic review on individual characteristics influencing research utilization by nurses. Methods As part of a larger systematic review on research utilization instruments, 12 online bibliographic databases were searched. Hand searching of specialized journals and an ancestry search was also conducted. Randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational study designs examining the association between individual characteristics and nurses' use of research were eligible for inclusion. Studies were limited to those published in the English, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian languages. A vote counting approach to data synthesis was taken. Results A total of 42,770 titles were identified, of which 501 were retrieved. Of these 501 articles, 45 satisfied our inclusion criteria. Articles assessed research utilization in general (n = 39) or kinds of research utilization (n = 6) using self-report survey measures. Individual nurse characteristics were classified according to six categories: beliefs and attitudes, involvement in research activities, information seeking, education, professional characteristics, and socio-demographic/socio-economic characteristics. A seventh category, critical thinking, emerged in studies examining kinds of research utilization. Positive relationships, at statistically significant levels, for general research utilization were found in four categories: beliefs and attitudes, information seeking, education, and professional characteristics. The only

  7. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. Objective This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. Data Synthesis This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: “Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?” The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. Conclusion The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33, as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA, this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72. Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace.

  8. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2016-07-01

    The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: "Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?" The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace.

  9. Metastatic involvement of the pituitary gland: a systematic review with pooled individual patient data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenzhuan; Chen, Fangxiang; Dalm, Brian; Kirby, Patricia A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-02-01

    To report a rare case of pituitary metastasis (PM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and help better understand the incidence of PM and its most common presenting symptoms through a pooled individual patient data analysis. Literature regarding PM was systematically reviewed with a pooled individual patient data analysis conducted. Pooled individual data analysis result is also compared with the result in a most recent systematic review. Our results demonstrate that the incidence of PM among all intracranial metastases is 0.87% (95% CI 0.56, 1.18); it is 1.9% (95% CI 1.46, 2.34) among all autopsied cancer cases; it is 11.56% (95% CI 7.08, 16.04) among all breast cancer patients who had hypophysectomies and 12.83% (95% CI 10.5, 15.16) among all autopsied breast cancer patients. The fixed effect model showed that the incidence of PM in breast cancer patients group is significantly higher (p anterior hypopituitarism (23.68 vs 39.66%, p = 0.015), visual deterioration (27.89 vs 41.38%, p = 0.039), cranial nerve palsies (21.58 vs 41.38%, p = 0.003) and headaches (15.79 vs 32.76%, p = 0.005) were reported significantly higher than previously described in the literature. Pituitary metastasis is rare in patients with cancer, and the pituitary gland is an uncommonly involved location in patients with intracranial metastases. With advanced diagnostic imaging techniques and increased awareness about the manifestation of sellar lesions, the incidence of cranial nerve palsies and anterior pituitarism are higher than reported. This information may allow earlier diagnosis of PM.

  10. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2017-02-13

    Stress is a common experience in today's society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in different contexts. The evidence of the validity of

  11. The efficacy of treadmill training on balance dysfunction in individuals with chronic stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tally, Zachary; Boetefuer, Laura; Kauk, Courtney; Perez, Gabriela; Schrand, Lorraine; Hoder, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity and exercise interventions are useful in facilitating the functional recovery of those with chronic stroke and, routinely, are gait-specific. While treadmill training has proven useful in gait performance recovery post-stroke, its efficacy on balance dysfunction has not been  systematically reviewed. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of treadmill training (TT) interventions on balance dysfunction in individuals with chronic stroke. A systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL was performed. Eligible randomized controlled trials were published between 2007 and 2016. Selected trials investigated TT interventions in persons with chronic stroke and implemented at least one objective balance measure. Methodological quality was assessed using PEDro criteria. Eight studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the qualitative analysis. Studies differed in TT implementation and use of adjunctive treatments; however, all trials demonstrated improvements in balance measures that were as effective, if not more so, than conventional physical therapy treatments, including targeted balance training. This review recognized moderate evidence in favor of TT interventions in balance and stroke rehabilitation programs. With TT, intensity may be a more critical factor than specificity and may offer additional carryover to recovery parameters of postural control and balance, beyond gait performance. It is recommended that clinicians utilizing TT incorporate objective measures of balance to assess the potential for skill transference and improvements in balance. Higher quality studies and additional research are needed to denote critical parameters by which improvements in balance may be optimized.

  12. Neurocognitive outcomes of individuals with a sex chromosome trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY: a systematic review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEGGETT, VICTORIA; JACOBS, PATRICIA; NATION, KATE; SCERIF, GAIA; BISHOP, DOROTHY V M

    2010-01-01

    Aim To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). Method A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. Results We identified 35 articles on five neonatally identified samples that had adequate power for our review. An additional 11 studies were included where cases had been identified for reasons other than neurodevelopmental concerns. Individuals with an additional X chromosome had mean IQs that were within broadly normal limits but lower than the respective comparison groups, with verbal IQ most affected. Cognitive outcomes were poorest for females with XXX. Males with XYY had normal-range IQs, but all three SCT groups (XXX, XXY, and XYY) had marked difficulties in speech and language, motor skills, and educational achievement. Nevertheless, most adults with SCTs lived independently. Less evidence was available for brain structure and for attention, social, and psychiatric outcomes. Within each group there was much variation. Interpretation Individuals with SCTs are at risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties. However, the evidence base is slender, and further research is needed to ascertain the nature, severity, and causes of these difficulties in unselected samples. PMID:20059514

  13. Neurocognitive outcomes of individuals with a sex chromosome trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Victoria; Jacobs, Patricia; Nation, Kate; Scerif, Gaia; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2010-02-01

    To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. We identified 35 articles on five neonatally identified samples that had adequate power for our review. An additional 11 studies were included where cases had been identified for reasons other than neurodevelopmental concerns. Individuals with an additional X chromosome had mean IQs that were within broadly normal limits but lower than the respective comparison groups, with verbal IQ most affected. Cognitive outcomes were poorest for females with XXX. Males with XYY had normal-range IQs, but all three SCT groups (XXX, XXY, and XYY) had marked difficulties in speech and language, motor skills, and educational achievement. Nevertheless, most adults with SCTs lived independently. Less evidence was available for brain structure and for attention, social, and psychiatric outcomes. Within each group there was much variation. Individuals with SCTs are at risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties. However, the evidence base is slender, and further research is needed to ascertain the nature, severity, and causes of these difficulties in unselected samples.

  14. Measuring physical activity with accelerometers for individuals with intellectual disability: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Willie; Siebert, Erin A; Yun, Joonkoo

    2017-08-01

    Multiple studies have reported differing physical activity levels for individuals with intellectual disabilities when using accelerometers. One of the potential reasons for these differences may be due to how researchers measure physical activity. Currently there is a lack of understanding on measurement protocol of accelerometers. The purpose of this study was to synthesize the current practice of using accelerometers to measure physical activity levels among individuals with intellectual disabilities. A systematic search was conducted using multiple databases including Medline (1998-2015), Sport Discus (1992-2015), Web of Science (1965-2015), and Academic Research Premier (2004-2015). Seventeen articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. There is a lack of consistent research protocols for measuring physical activity levels with accelerometers. Issues with the amount of time participants wore the accelerometer was a challenge for multiple studies. Studies that employed external strategies to maximize wear time had higher compliance rates. There is a need to establish and standardize specific accelerometer protocols for measuring physical activity levels of individuals with intellectual disabilities for higher quality and more comparable data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. I Move: systematic development of a web-based computer tailored physical activity intervention, based on motivational interviewing and self-determination theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This article describes the systematic development of the I Move intervention: a web-based computer tailored physical activity promotion intervention, aimed at increasing and maintaining physical activity among adults. This intervention is based on the theoretical insights and practical applications of self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. Methods/design Since developing interventions in a systemically planned way increases the likelihood of effectiveness, we used the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop the I Move intervention. In this article, we first describe how we proceeded through each of the six steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol. After that, we describe the content of the I Move intervention and elaborate on the planned randomized controlled trial. Discussion By integrating self-determination theory and motivational interviewing in web-based computer tailoring, the I Move intervention introduces a more participant-centered approach than traditional tailored interventions. Adopting this approach might enhance computer tailored physical activity interventions both in terms of intervention effectiveness and user appreciation. We will evaluate this in an randomized controlled trial, by comparing the I Move intervention to a more traditional web-based computer tailored intervention. Trial registration NTR4129 PMID:24580802

  16. Anatomy of Student Models in Adaptive Learning Systems: A Systematic Literature Review of Individual Differences from 2001 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakic, Jelena; Granic, Andrina; Glavinic, Vlado

    2015-01-01

    This study brings an evidence-based review of user individual characteristics employed as sources of adaptation in recent adaptive learning systems. Twenty-two user individual characteristics were explored in a systematically designed search procedure, while 17 of them were identified as sources of adaptation in final selection. The content…

  17. A systematic review on screening for Fabry disease: prevalence of individuals with genetic variants of unknown significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tol, L.; Smid, B. E.; Poorthuis, B. J. H. M.; Biegstraaten, M.; Deprez, R. H. Lekanne; Linthorst, G. E.; Hollak, C. E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Screening for Fabry disease (FD) reveals a high prevalence of individuals with α-galactosidase A (GLA) genetic variants of unknown significance (GVUS). These individuals often do not express characteristic features of FD. A systematic review on FD screening studies was performed to interpret the

  18. The Facilitators, Obstacles and Needs of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Conditions Accessing Further and Higher Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Nicky; Hanley, Terry; Hebron, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Many young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) intend to go to college and/or university, yet research suggests that these individuals find aspects of college and university life challenging. To explore the views of individuals directly affected by these challenges, a systematic review of the existing qualitative literature in…

  19. Whatever works: a systematic user-centered training protocol to optimize brain-computer interfacing individually.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth V C Friedrich

    Full Text Available This study implemented a systematic user-centered training protocol for a 4-class brain-computer interface (BCI. The goal was to optimize the BCI individually in order to achieve high performance within few sessions for all users. Eight able-bodied volunteers, who were initially naïve to the use of a BCI, participated in 10 sessions over a period of about 5 weeks. In an initial screening session, users were asked to perform the following seven mental tasks while multi-channel EEG was recorded: mental rotation, word association, auditory imagery, mental subtraction, spatial navigation, motor imagery of the left hand and motor imagery of both feet. Out of these seven mental tasks, the best 4-class combination as well as most reactive frequency band (between 8-30 Hz was selected individually for online control. Classification was based on common spatial patterns and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis. The number and time of classifier updates varied individually. Selection speed was increased by reducing trial length. To minimize differences in brain activity between sessions with and without feedback, sham feedback was provided in the screening and calibration runs in which usually no real-time feedback is shown. Selected task combinations and frequency ranges differed between users. The tasks that were included in the 4-class combination most often were (1 motor imagery of the left hand (2, one brain-teaser task (word association or mental subtraction (3, mental rotation task and (4 one more dynamic imagery task (auditory imagery, spatial navigation, imagery of the feet. Participants achieved mean performances over sessions of 44-84% and peak performances in single-sessions of 58-93% in this user-centered 4-class BCI protocol. This protocol is highly adjustable to individual users and thus could increase the percentage of users who can gain and maintain BCI control. A high priority for future work is to examine this protocol with severely

  20. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for chronic pain in individuals with HIV: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Vucovich, Lee A.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Starrels, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain occurs in as many as 85% of individuals with HIV and is associated with substantial functional impairment. Little guidance is available for HIV providers seeking to address their patients’ chronic pain. We conducted a systematic review to identify clinical trials and observational studies that examined the impact of pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic interventions on pain and/or functional outcomes among HIV-infected individuals with chronic pain in high-development countries. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and were mostly low or very low quality. Seven examined pharmacologic interventions (gabapentin, pregabalin, capsaicin, analgesics including opioids) and four examined non-pharmacologic interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, self-hypnosis, smoked cannabis). The only controlled studies with positive results were of capsaicin and cannabis, and had short-term follow-up (≤12 weeks). Among the seven studies of pharmacologic interventions, five had substantial pharmaceutical industry sponsorship. These findings highlight several important gaps in the HIV/chronic pain literature that require further research. PMID:27267445

  1. Timeline interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... for life story research, it can also be used for ther types of studies where interviews are made....... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...

  2. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of sedentary behaviours in adults: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Stephanie A; Gresty, Katelin M; Reed, Jennifer L; Wright, Erica; Tremblay, Mark S; Reid, Robert D

    2014-10-21

    Adults spend the majority of their time being sedentary, and evidence suggests that those who spend more of their day engaged in sedentary activities (TV viewing, sitting, screen-based activities) are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality, regardless of whether they exercise regularly. In order to develop effective interventions to reduce sedentary time, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable factors of these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence in order to identify individual, social, environmental and policy correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours (TV time, sitting time, screen time) and total sedentary time among adults. Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all studies that report on individual, social and/or environmental correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours and total sedentary time in adults. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on modifiable individual (e.g. health behaviours and status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status), social (e.g. crime, safety, social support, climate and capital), environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, transportation environment) and policy correlates and determinants (based on study design) of sedentary behaviours in an adult population (mean age ≥18 years) will be included. Study quality and risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all correlates, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. This review will provide a comprehensive examination of evidence in the field and will serve to highlight gaps for future research on the determinants of sedentary behaviours and inform intervention

  3. Home foreclosure, health, and mental health: a systematic review of individual, aggregate, and contextual associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    Full Text Available The U.S. foreclosure crisis intensified markedly during the Great Recession of 2007-09, and currently an estimated five percent of U.S. residential properties are more than 90 days past due or in the process of foreclosure. Yet there has been no systematic assessment of the effects of foreclosure on health and mental health.I applied systematic search terms to PubMed and PsycINFO to identify quantitative or qualitative studies about the relationship between home foreclosure and health or mental health. After screening the titles and abstracts of 930 publications and reviewing the full text of 76 articles, dissertations, and other reports, I identified 42 publications representing 35 unique studies about foreclosure, health, and mental health. The majority of studies (32 [91%] concluded that foreclosure had adverse effects on health or mental health, while three studies yielded null or mixed findings. Only two studies examined the extent to which foreclosure may have disproportionate impacts on ethnic or racial minority populations.Home foreclosure adversely affects health and mental health through channels operating at multiple levels: at the individual level, the stress of personally experiencing foreclosure was associated with worsened mental health and adverse health behaviors, which were in turn linked to poorer health status; at the community level, increasing degradation of the neighborhood environment had indirect, cross-level adverse effects on health and mental health. Early intervention may be able to prevent acute economic shocks from eventually developing into the chronic stress of foreclosure, with all of the attendant benefits this implies for health and mental health status. Programs designed to encourage early return of foreclosed properties back into productive use may have similar health and mental health benefits.

  4. Expectation versus Reality: The Impact of Utility on Emotional Outcomes after Returning Individualized Genetic Research Results in Pediatric Rare Disease Research, a Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Cara N; Chandler, Ariel E; Towne, Meghan C; Beggs, Alan H; Holm, Ingrid A

    2016-01-01

    Much information on parental perspectives on the return of individual research results (IRR) in pediatric genomic research is based on hypothetical rather than actual IRR. Our aim was to understand how the expected utility to parents who received IRR on their child from a genetic research study compared to the actual utility of the IRR received. We conducted individual telephone interviews with parents who received IRR on their child through participation in the Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research Gene Discovery Core (GDC) at Boston Children's Hospital (BCH). Five themes emerged around the utility that parents expected and actually received from IRR: predictability, management, family planning, finding answers, and helping science and/or families. Parents expressing negative or mixed emotions after IRR return were those who did not receive the utility they expected from the IRR. Conversely, parents who expressed positive emotions were those who received as much or greater utility than expected. Discrepancies between expected and actual utility of IRR affect the experiences of parents and families enrolled in genetic research studies. An informed consent process that fosters realistic expectations between researchers and participants may help to minimize any negative impact on parents and families.

  5. A systematic review of the individual determinants of research evidence use in allied health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarondo L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L Lizarondo, K Grimmer-Somers, S KumarInternational Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: The use of evidence-based practice (EBP is often not reflected in allied health (AH practitioners’ day-to-day practice (the research-practice gap. Research suggests that considerable differences between and within AH disciplines exist, which require different approaches in order to influence practice behavior. It is therefore important to develop a better understanding of what influences individual AH practitioners’ adoption of evidence into daily practice.Objective: This systematic review aims to examine the individual characteristics of AH practitioners which determine their uptake of evidence into practice.Methods: Studies which examined individual factors or variables that influence research evidence use by any AH practitioner were included in the review. The methodological quality of the included papers was assessed using the Quality Assessment and Validity Tool for Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative summary of the findings was presented.Results: Six studies were included and the methodological quality scores indicated that two were weak and the remainder had moderate–weak quality. The review demonstrated that factors such as educational degree or academic qualification, involvement in research or EBP-related activities, and practitioners’ perceptions, attitudes and beliefs about research and EBP are significant predictors of self-reported research evidence use in AH. The effect of other factors such as professional characteristics, clinical setting/work environment, information-seeking behavior and sociodemographic variables are less clear. Whether there is an interaction effect between evidence-uptake factors has not been tested.Conclusion: Improving the research knowledge of clinicians and overcoming negative attitudes toward EBP have the potential to move AH

  6. Narrative interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.

  7. Research Review: Test-retest reliability of standardized diagnostic interviews to assess child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laura; Comeau, Jinette; Wang, Li; Vitoroulis, Irene; Boyle, Michael H; Bennett, Kathryn

    2018-02-19

    A better understanding of factors contributing to the observed variability in estimates of test-retest reliability in published studies on standardized diagnostic interviews (SDI) is needed. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the pooled test-retest reliability for parent and youth assessments of seven common disorders, and to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity in reliability. Following a systematic review of the literature, multilevel random effects meta-analyses were used to analyse 202 reliability estimates (Cohen's kappa = ҡ) from 31 eligible studies and 5,369 assessments of 3,344 children and youth. Pooled reliability was moderate at ҡ = .58 (CI 95% 0.53-0.63) and between-study heterogeneity was substantial (Q = 2,063 (df = 201), p reliability varied across informants for specific types of psychiatric disorder (ҡ = .53-.69 for parent vs. ҡ = .39-.68 for youth) with estimates significantly higher for parents on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and the broad groupings of externalizing and any disorder. Reliability was also significantly higher in studies with indicators of poor or fair study methodology quality (sample size reliability of SDIs and the usefulness of these tools in both clinical and research contexts. Potential remedies include the introduction of standardized study and reporting requirements for reliability studies, and exploration of other approaches to assessing and classifying child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. Robotic Gait Training for Individuals With Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Igor; Pinto, Sérgio Medeiros; Chagas, Daniel das Virgens; Praxedes Dos Santos, Jomilto Luiz; de Sousa Oliveira, Tainá; Batista, Luiz Alberto

    2017-11-01

    To identify the effects of robotic gait training practices in individuals with cerebral palsy. The search was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Medline (OvidSP), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Scopus, Compendex, IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, Academic Search Premier, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database. Studies were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) they investigated the effects of robotic gait training, (2) they involved patients with cerebral palsy, and (3) they enrolled patients classified between levels I and IV using the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The information was extracted from the selected articles using the descriptive-analytical method. The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies was used to quantitate the presence of critical components in the articles. To perform the meta-analysis, the effects of the intervention were quantified by effect size (Cohen d). Of the 133 identified studies, 10 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed positive effects on gait speed (.21 [-.09, .51]), endurance (.21 [-.06, .49]), and gross motor function in dimension D (.18 [-.10, .45]) and dimension E (0.12 [-.15, .40]). The results obtained suggest that this training benefits people with cerebral palsy, specifically by increasing walking speed and endurance and improving gross motor function. For future studies, we suggest investigating device configuration parameters and conducting a large number of randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and individuals with homogeneous impairment. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águida Foerster

    Full Text Available Introduction Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been used to modify cortical excitability and promote motor learning. Objective To systematically review published data to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals. Methods Randomized or quasi-randomized studies that evaluated the tDCS effects on motor learning were included and the risk of bias was examined by Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. The following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL with no language restriction. Results It was found 160 studies; after reading the title and abstract, 17 of those were selected, but just 4 were included. All studies involved healthy, right-handed adults. All studies assessed motor learning by the Jebsen Taylor Test or by the Serial Finger Tapping Task (SFTT. Almost all studies were randomized and all were blinding for participants. Some studies presented differences at SFTT protocol. Conclusion The result is insufficient to draw conclusions if tDCS influences the motor learning. Furthermore, there was significant heterogeneity of the stimulation parameters used. Further researches are needed to investigate the parameters that are more important for motor learning improvement and measure whether the effects are long-lasting or limited in time.

  10. eHealth and the use of individually tailored information: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Nicholas; Webster, Clare; Smith, Blair; Wake, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    Tailored messages are those that specifically target individuals following an assessment of their unique characteristics. This systematic review assesses the evidence regarding the effectiveness of tailoring within eHealth interventions aimed at chronic disease management. OVID Medline/Embase databases were searched for randomised control trials, controlled clinical, trials, before -after studies, and time series analyses from inception - May 2014. Objectively measured clinical processes/outcomes were considered. Twenty-two papers were eligible for inclusion: 6/22 used fully tailored messaging and 16/22 used partially tailored messages. Two studies isolated tailoring as the active component. The remainder compared intervention with standard care. In all, 12/16 studies measuring clinical processes and 2/6 studies reporting clinical outcomes showed improvements, regardless of target group. Study quality was low and design did not allow for identification of interventions' active component. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. This review has demonstrated that there is a lack of evidence to suggest that tailoring within an eHealth context confers benefit over non-tailored eHealth interventions.

  11. Investigating the benefits of sport participation for individuals with schizophrenia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundy, Andrew; Roskell, Carolyn; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Vancampfort, Davy

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review was to consider the impact of being introduced to a sport and sport participation on (a) weight loss and psychiatric symptoms, (b) any other health benefits in people with schizophrenia, supported by quantitative and qualitative findings. A systematic review in accordance with the PRISMA statement was conducted. Searches were undertaken in January 2014. Articles were eligible that (1) considered the effect (quantitative studies) and experience (qualitative and case studies) of either; being introduced to a 'sport' or undertaking a sport activity, (2) included >85% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective spectrum disorders according to recognised criteria. A total of 10 studies including 5 trials (2*pre-experimental, 2*controlled trials, 1*randomised control trial), 2 qualitative studies and 3 case studies were included (n=185). Two out of 3 studies that considered weight as an outcome measure reported significant reductions in weight and psychiatric symptoms following sports participation. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI) ranged from -0.7kg.m2 (pschizophrenia. Sport has the potential to improve an individual's quality of life through providing a meaningful normalizing activity that leads to achievement, success and satisfaction. Well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to fully determine the health effects of sports participation in schizophrenia.

  12. Systematic Standardized and Individualized Assessment of Masticatory Cycles Using Electromagnetic 3D Articulography and Computer Scripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Masticatory movements are studied for decades in odontology; a better understanding of them could improve dental treatments. The aim of this study was to describe an innovative, accurate, and systematic method of analyzing masticatory cycles, generating comparable quantitative data. The masticatory cycles of 5 volunteers (Class I, 19 ± 1.7 years without articular or dental occlusion problems were evaluated using 3D electromagnetic articulography supported by MATLAB software. The method allows the trajectory morphology of the set of chewing cycles to be analyzed from different views and angles. It was also possible to individualize the trajectory of each cycle providing accurate quantitative data, such as number of cycles, cycle areas in frontal view, and the ratio between each cycle area and the frontal mandibular border movement area. There was a moderate negative correlation (−0.61 between the area and the number of cycles: the greater the cycle area, the smaller the number of repetitions. Finally it was possible to evaluate the area of the cycles through time, which did not reveal a standardized behavior. The proposed method provided reproducible, intelligible, and accurate quantitative and graphical data, suggesting that it is promising and may be applied in different clinical situations and treatments.

  13. Thermodynamic optimization of individual steel database by means of systematic DSC measurements according the CALPHAD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presoly, P; Bernhard, C; Six, J

    2016-01-01

    Reliable thermodynamic data are essential information required for the design of new steel types and are a prerequisite to effective process optimization and simulation. Moreover, it is important to know the exact temperatures at which the high-temperature phase transformations (T Liquid , T Solid , T Perit , T γ→δ ) occur in order to describe the solidification sequence and to describe further processing parameters. By utilizing DTA/DSC measurements, our earlier experimental studies of selected commercial DP, TRIP and high-Mn TWIP steels, have indicated that currently commercially available databases can often not be utilised to reliably describe the behaviour and microstructural development in such complex alloy systems. Because of these ostensible deficiencies, an experimental study was undertaken in an attempt to determine the pertaining thermodynamic data to analyse the behaviour of the important five- component Fe-C-Si-Mn-Al alloy system. High purity model alloys with systematic alloy variations were prepared and utilized in order to determine the influence of individual alloying elements in this complex, but industrially important alloy system. The present study provides new validated experimental thermodynamic data and analysis of the five-component Fe-C-Si- Mn-Al system, which will allow the construction of new phase diagrams, prediction of solidification sequences and the assessment of micro-segregation. (paper)

  14. Thermodynamic optimization of individual steel database by means of systematic DSC measurements according the CALPHAD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presoly, P.; Six, J.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-03-01

    Reliable thermodynamic data are essential information required for the design of new steel types and are a prerequisite to effective process optimization and simulation. Moreover, it is important to know the exact temperatures at which the high-temperature phase transformations (TLiquid, TSolid, TPerit, Tγ→δ) occur in order to describe the solidification sequence and to describe further processing parameters. By utilizing DTA/DSC measurements, our earlier experimental studies of selected commercial DP, TRIP and high-Mn TWIP steels, have indicated that currently commercially available databases can often not be utilised to reliably describe the behaviour and microstructural development in such complex alloy systems. Because of these ostensible deficiencies, an experimental study was undertaken in an attempt to determine the pertaining thermodynamic data to analyse the behaviour of the important five- component Fe-C-Si-Mn-Al alloy system. High purity model alloys with systematic alloy variations were prepared and utilized in order to determine the influence of individual alloying elements in this complex, but industrially important alloy system. The present study provides new validated experimental thermodynamic data and analysis of the five-component Fe-C-Si- Mn-Al system, which will allow the construction of new phase diagrams, prediction of solidification sequences and the assessment of micro-segregation.

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dropout rates in individual psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Hallford, David J; Rice, Simon M; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Gersh, Hannah; Gersh, Benji; McCarty, Carolyn A

    2017-12-01

    Despite being a relatively prevalent and debilitating disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is the second least studied anxiety disorder and among the most difficult to treat. Dropout from psychotherapy is concerning as it is associated with poorer outcomes, leads to service inefficiencies and can disproportionately affect disadvantaged populations. No study to date has calculated a weighted mean dropout rate for GAD and explored associated correlates. A systematic review was conducted using PsycINFO, Medline and Embase databases, identifying studies investigating individual psychotherapies for adults with GAD. Forty-five studies, involving 2224 participants, were identified for meta-analysis. The weighted mean dropout rate was 16.99% (95% confidence interval 14.42%-19.91%). The Q-statistic indicated significant heterogeneity among studies. Moderator analysis and meta-regressions indicated no statistically significant effect of client age, sex, symptom severity, comorbidity, treatment type, study type (randomized trial or not), study quality, number of sessions or therapist experience. In research investigating psychotherapy for GAD, approximately one in six clients can be expected to drop out of treatment. Dropout rate was not significantly moderated by the client, therapist or treatment variables investigated. Future research should specify the definition of dropout, reasons for dropout and associated correlates to assist the field's progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early onset facioscapulohumeral dystrophy - a systematic review using individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goselink, Rianne J M; Voermans, Nicol C; Okkersen, Kees; Brouwer, Oebele F; Padberg, George W; Nikolic, Ana; Tupler, Rossella; Dorobek, Malgorzata; Mah, Jean K; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Schreuder, Tim H A; Erasmus, Corrie E

    2017-12-01

    Infantile or early onset is estimated to occur in around 10% of all facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) patients. Although small series of early onset FSHD patients have been reported, comprehensive data on the clinical phenotype is missing. We performed a systematic literature search on the clinical features of early onset FSHD comprising a total of 43 articles with individual data on 227 patients. Additional data from four cohorts was provided by the authors. Mean age at reporting was 18.8 years, and 40% of patients were wheelchair-dependent at that age. Half of the patients had systemic features, including hearing loss (40%), retinal abnormalities (37%) and developmental delay (8%). We found an inverse correlation between repeat size and disease severity, similar to adult-onset FSHD. De novo FSHD1 mutations were more prevalent than in adult-onset FSHD. Compared to adult FSHD, our findings indicate that early onset FSHD is overall characterized by a more severe muscle phenotype and a higher prevalence of systemic features. However, similar as in adults, a significant clinical heterogeneity was observed. Based on this, we consider early onset FSHD to be on the severe end of the FSHD disease spectrum. We found natural history studies and treatment studies to be very scarce in early onset FSHD, therefore longitudinal studies are needed to improve prognostication, clinical management and trial-readiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, M.; Jokela, M.; Madsen, I. E.; Magnusson Hanson, L. L.; Lallukka, T.; Nyberg, S. T.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, D.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Ferrie, J. E.; Heikkilä, K.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identi...

  18. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Michael D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm infants requiring assisted ventilation are at significant risk of both pulmonary and cerebral injury. Inhaled Nitric Oxide, an effective therapy for pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure in the full term infant, has also been studied in preterm infants. The most recent Cochrane review of preterm infants includes 11 studies and 3,370 participants. The results show a statistically significant reduction in the combined outcome of death or chronic lung disease (CLD in two studies with routine use of iNO in intubated preterm infants. However, uncertainty remains as a larger study (Kinsella 2006 showed no significant benefit for iNO for this combined outcome. Also, trials that included very ill infants do not demonstrate significant benefit. One trial of iNO treatment at a later postnatal age reported a decrease in the incidence of CLD. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis is to confirm or refute these potentially conflicting results and to determine the extent to which patient or treatment characteristics may explain the results and/or may predict benefit from inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants. Methods/Design The Meta-Analysis of Preterm Patients on inhaled Nitric Oxide (MAPPiNO Collaboration will perform an individual patient data meta-analysis to answer these important clinical questions. Studies will be included if preterm infants receiving assisted ventilation are randomized to receive inhaled Nitric Oxide or to a control group. The individual patient data provided by the Collaborators will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis where possible. Binary outcomes will be analyzed using log-binomial regression models and continuous outcomes will be analyzed using linear fixed effects models. Adjustments for trial differences will be made by including the trial variable in the model specification. Discussion Thirteen (13 trials, with a total of 3567 infants are eligible for inclusion

  19. Kinematic measures for assessing gait stability in elderly individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, D; Singh, N B; Van Dieën, J H; Heller, M O; Taylor, W R

    2011-12-07

    Falls not only present a considerable health threat, but the resulting treatment and loss of working days also place a heavy economic burden on society. Gait instability is a major fall risk factor, particularly in geriatric patients, and walking is one of the most frequent dynamic activities of daily living. To allow preventive strategies to become effective, it is therefore imperative to identify individuals with an unstable gait. Assessment of dynamic stability and gait variability via biomechanical measures of foot kinematics provides a viable option for quantitative evaluation of gait stability, but the ability of these methods to predict falls has generally not been assessed. Although various methods for assessing gait stability exist, their sensitivity and applicability in a clinical setting, as well as their cost-effectiveness, need verification. The objective of this systematic review was therefore to evaluate the sensitivity of biomechanical measures that quantify gait stability among elderly individuals and to evaluate the cost of measurement instrumentation required for application in a clinical setting. To assess gait stability, a comparative effect size (Cohen's d) analysis of variability and dynamic stability of foot trajectories during level walking was performed on 29 of an initial yield of 9889 articles from four electronic databases. The results of this survey demonstrate that linear variability of temporal measures of swing and stance was most capable of distinguishing between fallers and non-fallers, whereas step width and stride velocity prove more capable of discriminating between old versus young (OY) adults. In addition, while orbital stability measures (Floquet multipliers) applied to gait have been shown to distinguish between both elderly fallers and non-fallers as well as between young and old adults, local stability measures (λs) have been able to distinguish between young and old adults. Both linear and nonlinear measures of foot

  20. Sensorimotor Control in Individuals With Idiopathic Neck Pain and Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Rutger M J; Osmotherly, Peter G; Rivett, Darren A; Farrell, Scott F; Snodgrass, Suzanne J

    2017-06-01

    (1) To identify reported tests used to assess sensorimotor control in individuals with idiopathic neck pain and (2) to investigate whether these tests can quantify differences between individuals with idiopathic neck pain and healthy individuals. Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus. Studies reporting sensorimotor outcomes in individuals with idiopathic neck pain or healthy individuals were identified. There were 1,677 records screened independently by 2 researchers for eligibility: 43 studies were included in the review, with 30 of these studies included in the meta-analysis. Methodologic quality was determined using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction table. Sensorimotor control was most commonly assessed by joint position error and postural sway. Pooled means for joint position error after cervical rotation in individuals with neck pain (range, 2.2°-9.8°) differed significantly (P=.04) compared with healthy individuals (range, 1.66°-5.1°). Postural sway with eyes open ranged from 4.85 to 10.5cm 2 (neck pain) and 3.5 to 6.6cm 2 (healthy) (P=.16), and postural sway with eyes closed ranged from 2.51 to 16.6cm 2 (neck pain) and 2.74 to 10.9cm 2 (healthy) (P=.30). Individual studies, but not meta-analysis, demonstrated differences between neck pain and healthy groups for postural sway. Other test conditions and other tests were not sufficiently investigated to enable pooling of data. The findings from this review suggest sensorimotor control testing may be clinically useful in individuals with idiopathic neck pain. However, results should be interpreted with caution because clinical differences were small; therefore, further cross-sectional research with larger samples is needed to determine the magnitude of the relation between

  1. Group versus individual sessions delivered by a physiotherapist for female urinary incontinence: an interview study with women attending group sessions nested within a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the concerns and expectations of women invited to attend group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence and whether the experience changed their views; and to gather recommendations from women attending group sessions on the design and delivery of these sessions Methods An interview study nested within a randomised controlled trial in five British NHS physiotherapy departments, including 22 women who had expressed a preference for an individual physiotherapy session but were randomised to, and attended, group sessions. Results Embarrassment was woven throughout women's accounts of experiencing urinary incontinence and seeking health care. Uncertainty about the nature of group sessions was a source of concern. Attending the first session was seen as a big hurdle by many women. However, a sense of relief was common once the session started, with most women describing some benefit from attendance. Recommendations for design and delivery of the sessions from women focused on reducing embarrassment and uncertainty prior to attendance. Conclusion Taking account of women's embarrassment and providing detailed information about the content of group sessions will enable women to benefit from group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence. Trial Registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN 16772662

  2. Perceived needs and experiences with healthcare services of women with spinal cord injury during pregnancy and childbirth - a qualitative content analysis of focus groups and individual interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschy, Sue; Geyh, Szilvia; Pannek, Jürgen; Meyer, Thorsten

    2015-06-16

    Women after a spinal cord injury (SCI), who decide to get pregnant and to become mothers, have special health care service needs. This study aims to identify the perceived service needs of woman with SCI during pregnancy and childbirth in Switzerland and to reconstruct their experiences of healthcare service utilization based on their accounts. A qualitative content analysis based on focus groups and individual interviews was conducted. 17 mothers with SCI who had given birth following SCI within the past 15 years participated. The data were transcribed verbatim before content analyses were carried out. Primary data was collected from August 2012 to September 2013 at the Swiss Paraplegic Research Centre, Nottwil; the University of Lausanne and at the homes of the participants. Mothers reported a broad spectrum of medical needs, including the need for access to improved integrated care. They also reported difficulties finding providers with knowledge of both paraplegiology (i.e. spinal cord medicine) and gynaecology. Mothers preferred using local health care services and regular birth hospitals, and reported receiving no additional benefit from the services of specialised SCI centres during pregnancy. A pre-existing provider-patient relationship was helpful for optimizing care processes. This study showed that pregnant women with SCI have various perceived healthcare needs and health care service use. Effective programs to improve these women's access to integrated care during pregnancy and childbirth and policies requiring the provision of specific pregnancy information and pre-birth services are necessary.

  3. Uptake of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data in clinical practice guidelines: descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vale, C.L.; Rydzewska, L.H.; Rovers, M.M.; Emberson, J.R.; Gueyffier, F.; Stewart, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the extent to which systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) are being used to inform the recommendations included in published clinical guidelines. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Database maintained by the Cochrane IPD Meta-analysis

  4. The effects of work-related and individual factors on the Work Ability Index: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); L.A.M. Elders (Leo); B.C.H. Zwart, de; A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper systematically reviews the scientific literature on the effects of individual and work-related factors on the Work Ability Index (WAI). Studies on work ability published from 1985 to 2006 were identified through a structured search in PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were

  5. Neurocognitive Outcomes of Individuals with a Sex Chromosome Trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY--A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Victoria; Jacobs, Patricia; Nation, Kate; Scerif, Gaia; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). Method: A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. Results: We identified 35…

  6. The Effects of DSM-5 Criteria on Number of Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Isaac C.; Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has raised concerns about the number of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to DSM-IV-TR who may no longer qualify for diagnoses under the new DSM-5 criteria, published in May 2013. The current study systematically reviews 25 articles evaluating samples according to both DSM-IV-TR and…

  7. Active Video Games as a Training Tool for Individuals With Chronic Respiratory Diseases: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stacey J; Lee, Annemarie L; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina

    2018-02-26

    Exercise is an effective treatment for reducing symptom severity and improving quality of life for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Active video games offer a new and enjoyable way to exercise and have gained popularity in a rehabilitation setting. However, it is unclear whether they achieve comparable physiological and clinical effects as traditional exercise training. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies that included an active video game component as a form of exercise training and a comparator group in chronic respiratory disease. Two assessors independently reviewed study quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and extracted data for exercise capacity, quality of life, and preference of exercise model. Six studies were included in this review. Because of the heterogeneity of the populations, study designs, length of intervention, and outcome measures, meta-analysis could not be performed. Active video game training resulted in comparable training maximal heart rate and dyspnea levels to those achieved when exercising using a treadmill or cycle (n = 5). There was insufficient evidence (n = 3) to determine whether active video game training improved exercise capacity as measured by 6-min walk test or treadmill endurance walking. Although the quality of evidence was low, in a small number of studies active video games induced peak heart rates and dyspnea levels comparable with traditional exercise training. Larger and longer-term randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the impact of video game training for individuals with chronic respiratory diseases.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  8. Individuals with chronic ankle instability exhibit dynamic postural stability deficits and altered unilateral landing biomechanics: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffrey D; Stewart, Ethan M; Macias, David M; Chander, Harish; Knight, Adam C

    2018-06-13

    To evaluate the literature regarding unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Four online databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and SportDiscus) were searched from the earliest records to 31 January 2018, as well as reference sections of related journal articles, to complete the systematic search. Studies investigating the influence of CAI on unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability were systematically reviewed and evaluated. Twenty articles met the criteria and were included in the systematic review. Individuals with CAI were found to have deficits in dynamic postural stability on the affected limb with medium to large effect sizes and altered lower extremity kinematics, most notably in the ankle and knee, with medium to large effect sizes. Additionally, greater loading rates and peak ground reaction forces, in addition to reductions in ankle muscle activity were also found in individuals with CAI during unilateral jump-landing tasks. Individuals with CAI demonstrate dynamic postural stability deficits, lower extremity kinematic alterations, and reduced neuromuscular control during unilateral jump-landings. These are likely factors that contribute recurrent lateral ankle sprain injuries during dynamic activity in individuals with CAI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A core outcome set for localised prostate cancer effectiveness trials: protocol for a systematic review of the literature and stakeholder involvement through interviews and a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Steven; Bekema, Hendrika J; Williamson, Paula R; Campbell, Marion K; Stewart, Fiona; MacLennan, Sara J; N'Dow, James M O; Lam, Thomas B L

    2015-03-04

    Prostate cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. The management of localised prostate cancer is controversial. It is unclear which of several surgical, radiotherapeutic, ablative, and surveillance treatments is the most effective. All have cost, process and recovery, and morbidity implications which add to treatment decision-making complexity for patients and healthcare professionals. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal because of uncertainty as to what constitutes important outcomes. Another issue hampering evidence synthesis is heterogeneity of outcome definition, measurement, and reporting. This project aims to determine which outcomes are the most important to patients and healthcare professionals, and use these findings to recommend a standardised core outcome set for comparative effectiveness trials of treatments for localised prostate cancer, to optimise decision-making. The range of potentially important outcomes and measures will be identified through systematic reviews of the literature and semi-structured interviews with patients. A consultation exercise involving representatives from two key stakeholder groups (patients and healthcare professionals) will ratify the list of outcomes to be entered into a three round Delphi study. The Delphi process will refine and prioritise the list of identified outcomes. A methodological substudy (nested RCT design) will also be undertaken. Participants will be randomised after round one of the Delphi study to one of three feedback groups, based on different feedback strategies, in order to explore the potential impact of feedback strategies on participant responses. This may assist the design of a future core outcome set and Delphi studies. Following the Delphi study, a final consensus meeting attended by representatives from both stakeholder groups will determine the final recommended core outcome set. This study will inform clinical practice and future trials of interventions of

  10. Morbidity and mortality in homeless individuals, prisoners, sex workers, and individuals with substance use disorders in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W; Story, Alistair; Hwang, Stephen W; Nordentoft, Merete; Luchenski, Serena A; Hartwell, Greg; Tweed, Emily J; Lewer, Dan; Vittal Katikireddi, Srinivasa; Hayward, Andrew C

    2017-11-10

    Inclusion health focuses on people in extremely poor health due to poverty, marginalisation, and multimorbidity. We aimed to review morbidity and mortality data on four overlapping populations who experience considerable social exclusion: homeless populations, individuals with substance use disorders, sex workers, and imprisoned individuals. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 1, 2015. We included only systematic reviews, meta-analyses, interventional studies, and observational studies that had morbidity and mortality outcomes, were published in English, from high-income countries, and were done in populations with a history of homelessness, imprisonment, sex work, or substance use disorder (excluding cannabis and alcohol use). Studies with only perinatal outcomes and studies of individuals with a specific health condition or those recruited from intensive care or high dependency hospital units were excluded. We screened studies using systematic review software and extracted data from published reports. Primary outcomes were measures of morbidity (prevalence or incidence) and mortality (standardised mortality ratios [SMRs] and mortality rates). Summary estimates were calculated using a random effects model. Our search identified 7946 articles, of which 337 studies were included for analysis. All-cause standardised mortality ratios were significantly increased in 91 (99%) of 92 extracted datapoints and were 11·86 (95% CI 10·42-13·30; I 2 =94·1%) in female individuals and 7·88 (7·03-8·74; I 2 =99·1%) in men. Summary SMR estimates for the International Classification of Diseases disease categories with two or more included datapoints were highest for deaths due to injury, poisoning, and other external causes, in both men (7·89; 95% CI 6·40-9·37; I 2 =98·1%) and women (18·72; 13·73-23·71; I 2 =91·5%). Disease prevalence was consistently

  11. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  12. Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ashley Carvalho,1,2 Irene Maeve Rea,2 Tanyalak Parimon,3,4 Barry J Cusack3,51Department of Public Health, 2School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK; 3Research and Development Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, ID, USA; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 5Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USABackground: It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition.Methods: Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age.Results: Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation.Conclusion: The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine

  13. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of individual participant data: the PRISMA-IPD Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lesley A; Clarke, Mike; Rovers, Maroeska; Riley, Richard D; Simmonds, Mark; Stewart, Gavin; Tierney, Jayne F

    2015-04-28

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) aim to collect, check, and reanalyze individual-level data from all studies addressing a particular research question and are therefore considered a gold standard approach to evidence synthesis. They are likely to be used with increasing frequency as current initiatives to share clinical trial data gain momentum and may be particularly important in reviewing controversial therapeutic areas. To develop PRISMA-IPD as a stand-alone extension to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement, tailored to the specific requirements of reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of IPD. Although developed primarily for reviews of randomized trials, many items will apply in other contexts, including reviews of diagnosis and prognosis. Development of PRISMA-IPD followed the EQUATOR Network framework guidance and used the existing standard PRISMA Statement as a starting point to draft additional relevant material. A web-based survey informed discussion at an international workshop that included researchers, clinicians, methodologists experienced in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of IPD, and journal editors. The statement was drafted and iterative refinements were made by the project, advisory, and development groups. The PRISMA-IPD Development Group reached agreement on the PRISMA-IPD checklist and flow diagram by consensus. Compared with standard PRISMA, the PRISMA-IPD checklist includes 3 new items that address (1) methods of checking the integrity of the IPD (such as pattern of randomization, data consistency, baseline imbalance, and missing data), (2) reporting any important issues that emerge, and (3) exploring variation (such as whether certain types of individual benefit more from the intervention than others). A further additional item was created by reorganization of standard PRISMA items relating to interpreting results. Wording

  14. Psychosocial Interventions for Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela C. Pascoe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Depressive and anxiety symptoms are common amongst individuals with chronic kidney disease and are known to affect quality of life adversely. Psychosocial interventions have been shown to decrease depressive and anxiety symptoms in various chronic diseases, but few studies have examined their efficacy in people with chronic kidney disease and no meta-analysis has been published. Thus, the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial interventions on depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as quality of life in individuals diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and/or their carers.Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we included published randomized controlled trials comparing psychosocial interventions versus usual care for impacting depressive and anxiety symptoms and quality of life.Results: Eight studies were included in the systematic review and six of these were subjected to meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were associated with a medium effect size for reduction in depressive symptoms and a small effect size for improved quality of life in the in individuals with chronic-kidney-disease and their carers. Some evidence suggested a reduction in anxiety.Conclusion: Psychosocial interventions appear to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with chronic-kidney-disease and their carers and to have some beneficial impact on anxiety. However, the small number of identified studies indicates a need for further research in this field.

  15. Systematic Desensitization Of Test Anxiety: A Comparison Of Group And Individual Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scissons, Edward H.; Njaa, Lloyd J.

    1973-01-01

    The results indicate the effectiveness of both individual desensitization and group desensitization in the treatment of high test anxiety. More research is needed in comparing the effectiveness of group desensitization and individual desensitization with intratreatment variables. (Author)

  16. Predictors for Work Participation in Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Introduction Research shows that only about 25% of people with autism are employed. Method We conducted a systematic review on factors facilitating or hindering work participation of people with autism in longitudinal studies. An extensive search in biomedical and psychological databases yielded 204

  17. Measuring Health Literacy in Individuals with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Evaluation of Available Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sayah, Fatima; Williams, Beverly; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify instruments used to measure health literacy and numeracy in people with diabetes; evaluate their use, measurement scope, and properties; discuss their strengths and weaknesses; and propose the most useful, reliable, and applicable measure for use in research and practice settings. Methods" A systematic literature review…

  18. Evaluating Bang for the Buck: A Cost-Effectiveness Comparison Between Individual Interviews and Focus Groups Based on Thematic Saturation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namey, Emily; Guest, Greg; McKenna, Kevin; Chen, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Evaluators often use qualitative research methods, yet there is little evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of the two most commonly employed qualitative methods--in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus groups (FGs). We performed an inductive thematic analysis of data from 40 IDIs and 40 FGs on the health-seeking behaviors of African…

  19. Systematic review of peer education intervention programmes among individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Tricia K; Serafica, Reimund; Johnson, Michael

    2017-12-01

    To systematically review published randomised controlled trials of peer education interventions among adults with type 2 diabetes. Systematic reviews have shown mixed results for peer support interventions to improve diabetes self-management. Given the effectiveness of diabetes education by healthcare professionals, peer education interventions may be a useful alternative approach. This review addressed that gap. Systematic review. A systematic search of published randomised controlled trials between 2006-2016 was conducted using the keywords diabetes, type 2 diabetes, randomised controlled trials, self-management, peer education and peer support. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Jadad scale. Seven studies were included in the final review, and the Jadad scores ranged from 8-10 of a possible 13 points. There was no consistent design, setting, or outcome measurement among the studies. There were two types of peer education interventions compared to traditional diabetes education: face-to-face or a combination of face-to-face and telephone/texting. The most common clinical outcome measure was HbA1c. Two of six studies showed statistically significant improvement in HbA1c between intervention and control groups. An increase in diabetes knowledge was also statistically significant in two of five studies. Peer education could be successful in improving clinical outcomes. No evidence was found indicating that healthcare provider education was superior in regard to clinical knowledge or behavioural or psychological outcome measures than peer education. HbA1c was statistically significantly lower in some peer education groups compared to control groups. There is evidence that peer education can be useful in achieving positive clinical outcomes such as decreasing HbA1c levels and increasing diabetes knowledge. A certified diabetes educator or a trained healthcare professional should not be overlooked though when using peer educators. © 2017

  20. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  1. Standing Postural Control in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi Huey; Partridge, Katie; Girdler, Sonya; Morris, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in postural control affect the development of motor and social skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review compared the effect of different sensory conditions on static standing postural control between ASD and neurotypical individuals. Results from 19 studies indicated a large difference in postural control…

  2. Sibling Involvement in Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Carolyn M.; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have studied various interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Occasionally, siblings will be included in intervention studies, participating in programs designed to address a number of challenges faced by individuals with ASD. Although sibling involvement in such interventions is not a new phenomenon,…

  3. Does Pain in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis Affect Employment? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shahrbanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS experience some of the highest unemployment rates among all groups of chronic illnesses. Pain has been found to be a common reason for sick leave or early retirement in healthy populations or other groups with chronic illness; however, there is little awareness regarding the effect of pain on the work status of individuals with MS.

  4. A Systematic Review of Assistive Technology for Individuals with Intellectual Disability in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash-Macneil, Virginia; Johnson, Friggita; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that assistive technology (AT) can help support employment skills for individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The authors of this review examined the effectiveness of various types of AT support for individuals with ID in the workplace with a focus on the participant's independent ability to demonstrate a specific…

  5. A systematic review exploring therapist competence, adherence, and therapy outcomes in individual CBT for children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapley, Hannah A; Loades, Maria E

    2018-04-22

    Whilst the evidence base for cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with children and young people is growing, the mechanisms through which these beneficial effects occur are still unclear. This systematic review seeks to appraise the relationship between therapeutic outcomes in CBT and therapist adherence and competence, within the child and adolescent literature. A systematic review was carried out, with five studies identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. The literature is currently small and inconclusive. Amongst the studies reviewed, there were inconsistent findings, with minimal-to-no effect sizes found between adherence, competence, and outcomes. The current paucity of research in this area means that conclusions are currently limited. The role and impact of adherence and competence on therapeutic outcomes remains unclear within individual CBT in a child population. This is comparable with the current adult literature, where findings also remain inconclusive. Further research avenues are discussed.

  6. Complementary Therapies for Pain Among Individuals Receiving Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zins, Savannah; Gross, Cynthia R; Huff, Edwin D; Hooke, Mary Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Pain is a major problem for individuals undergoing hemodialysis and can lead to decreased quality of life when ineffectively managed. Pain is often reported as burdensome; thus, nurses must learn effective, nonpharmacological adjuncts to help care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of this review was to identify non-pharmacologic complementary therapies and evaluate their effectiveness in minimizing pain among individuals undergoing hemodialysis. Multiple complementary interventions were identified, and several reduced pain, but evidence is qualified by limitations in study methods. Complementary therapies have the potential to reduce pain among individuals undergoing hemodialysis; however, more research is needed. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  7. Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Konstantinos I; Spyrou, Nikolaos; Bougioukas, Konstantinos I; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2018-07-15

    Creatine is a supplement used by sportsmen to increase athletic performance by improving energy supply to muscle tissues. It is also an essential brain compound and some hypothesize that it aids cognition by improving energy supply and neuroprotection. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of oral creatine administration on cognitive function in healthy individuals. A search of multiple electronic databases was performed for the identification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining the cognitive effects of oral creatine supplementation in healthy individuals. Six studies (281 individuals) met our inclusion criteria. Generally, there was evidence that short term memory and intelligence/reasoning may be improved by creatine administration. Regarding other cognitive domains, such as long-term memory, spatial memory, memory scanning, attention, executive function, response inhibition, word fluency, reaction time and mental fatigue, the results were conflicting. Performance on cognitive tasks stayed unchanged in young individuals. Vegetarians responded better than meat-eaters in memory tasks but for other cognitive domains no differences were observed. Oral creatine administration may improve short-term memory and intelligence/reasoning of healthy individuals but its effect on other cognitive domains remains unclear. Findings suggest potential benefit for aging and stressed individuals. Since creatine is safe, future studies should include larger sample sizes. It is imperative that creatine should be tested on patients with dementias or cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  9. Is standing balance altered in individuals with chronic low back pain? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenshteyn, Yevgeniy; Gibson, Kelsey; Hackett, Gavin C; Trem, Andrew B; Wilhelm, Mark

    2018-01-30

    To examine the static standing balance of individuals with chronic low back pain when compared to a healthy control group. A search of available literature was done using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Scopus databases. Studies were included if they contained the following: (1) individuals with chronic low back pain 3 months or longer; (2) healthy control group; (3) quantified pain measurement; and (4) center of pressure measurement using a force plate. Two authors independently reviewed articles for inclusion, and assessed for quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross Sectional Studies. Cohen's d effect size was calculated to demonstrate the magnitude of differences between groups. Nine articles were included in this review. Quality scores ranged from 5/8 to 8/8. Although center of pressure measures were nonhomogeneous, subjects with chronic low back pain had poorer performance overall compared to healthy controls. Despite inconsistencies in statistical significance, effect sizes were frequently large, indicating a lack of sufficient power in the included studies. Data were insufficiently reported among certain studies, limiting the ability of direct study comparison. Results suggest that balance is impaired in individuals with chronic low back pain when compared to healthy individuals. Implications for rehabilitation Static balance is affected in individuals with chronic low back pain. Balance assessments should be completed for individuals with chronic low back pain. Results from balance assessments should be used to indicate areas of improvement and help guide the course of treatment, as well as reassess as treatment progresses.

  10. Intervention modalities for targeting cognitive-motor interference in individuals with neurodegenerative disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Douglas A; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with neurodegenerative disease (NDD) commonly have elevated cognitive-motor interference, change in either cognitive or motor performance (or both) when tasks are performed simultaneously, compared to healthy controls. Given that cognitive-motor interference is related to reduced community ambulation and elevated fall risk, it is a target of rehabilitation interventions. Areas covered: This review details the collective findings of previous dual task interventions in individuals with NDD. A total of 21 investigations focusing on 4 different neurodegenerative diseases and one NDD precursor (Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia other than AD, and mild cognitive impairment) consisting of 721 participants were reviewed. Expert commentary: Preliminary evidence from interventions targeting cognitive-motor interference, both directly and indirectly, show promising results for improving CMI in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases. Methodological limitations, common to pilot investigations preclude firm conclusions. Well-designed randomized control trials targeting cognitive motor interference are warranted.

  11. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else M; Henriksen, Marius; Wæhrens, Eva E; Gudbergsen, Henrik; Bliddal, Henning; Astrup, Arne; Knop, Filip K; Carmona, Loreto; Taylor, William J; Singh, Jasvinder A; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Kristensen, Lars E; Christensen, Robin

    2017-11-01

    Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. We searched six databases for longitudinal studies, reporting the effect of weight loss in overweight/obese gout patients. Risk of bias was assessed using the tool Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. From 3991 potentially eligible studies, 10 were included (including one randomised trial). Interventions included diet with/without physical activity, bariatric surgery, diuretics, metformin or no intervention. Mean weight losses ranged from 3 kg to 34 kg. Clinical heterogeneity in study characteristics precluded meta-analysis. The effect on serum uric acid (sUA) ranged from -168 to 30 μmol/L, and 0%-60% patients achieving sUA target (gout attacks. Two studies indicated dose-response relationship for sUA, achieving sUA target and gout attacks. At short term, temporary increased sUA and gout attacks tended to occur after bariatric surgery. The available evidence is in favour of weight loss for overweight/obese gout patients, with low, moderate and low quality of evidence for effects on sUA, achieving sUA target and gout attacks, respectively. At short term, unfavourable effects may occur. Since the current evidence consists of a few studies (mostly observational) of low methodological quality, there is an urgent need to initiate rigorous prospective studies (preferably randomised controlled trials). PROSPERO, CRD42016037937. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Sexual practices of HIV-positive individuals attending antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Addis Ababa public hospitals: findings from in-depth interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Yadeta; Deresa, Merga

    2012-01-01

    The rollout of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) and improved health care services contributed in recuperating the quality of life and the functional status of HIV-positive people. These clinical effects of the treatment and cares are believed to bring a change on their sexual practices. The objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices of the HIV-positive people who were getting ART in selected Addis Ababa public hospitals. A qualitative in-depth interview was conducted. The interviews were made by trained nurse counselors of the same sex and were tape recorded. Verbatim transcription was made before the analysis. Thematic categorizations were made to present the findings. Most participants expressed regained sexual desires with initiation of ART while some others didn't appreciate the regains. Not using condoms or inconsistently using them was identified risky sexual practices. Sero-discordances and sero-status non-disclosure were common issues among the partners. Sero-status non-disclosure, non-use of condom and inconsistent using them were common sexual issues. These hinder the efforts that are being made to reduce new HIV infections and re-infections. Interventions against these problems can be made when clients come for their ART treatment and clinical care follow up.

  13. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Mutz, Julian; Clough, Peter J; Papageorgiou, Kostas A

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a 'mental toughness advantage' with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings.

  14. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not

  15. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review on Communication Treatments for Individuals with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman; Frymark, Tobi; Venedictov, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the research evidence related to the treatment of individuals with right hemisphere communication disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature using key words related to right hemisphere brain damage and communication treatment was conducted in 27 databases (e.g.,…

  16. Evaluation of patient involvement in a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data in cervical cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vale Claire L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2005, researchers based at the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, set out to involve women affected by cervical cancer in a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data to evaluate treatments for this disease. Each of the women had previously been treated for cervical cancer. Following completion of the meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the process of involvement from the researcher and research partner perspective. Methods An advisory group was first established to give advice on recruiting, supporting and involving women and led to efforts to recruit women to take part in the systematic review using different approaches. Evaluation of the process and outcomes of the partnership between the systematic reviewers and the patients, in respect to what the partnership achieved; what worked well and what were the difficulties; what was learned and the resource requirements, took place during the conduct of the meta-analysis and again after completion of the project. Results Six women, each of whom had received treatments for cervical cancer, were recruited as Patient Research Partners and five of these women subsequently took part in a variety of activities around the systematic review. They attended progress meetings and all but one attended a meeting at which the first results of the review were presented to all collaborators and gave feedback. Three of the women also became involved in a further related research project which led to an editorial publication from the patient perspective and also participated, along with two lead researchers, in the evaluation of the process and outcomes. While they were generally positive about the experience, one Patient Research Partner questioned the extent of the impact patients could make to the systematic review process. Conclusions In general, researchers and patient research partners felt that they had learned a lot from the process and considered

  17. Acute effects of muscle fatigue on anticipatory and reactive postural control in older individuals: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Garg, Hina; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury and fractures and the No. 1 cause of emergency department visits by older adults. Although declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. In an effort to increase awareness of the detrimental effects of skeletal muscle fatigue on postural control, we sought to systematically review research studies examining this issue. The specific purpose of this review was to provide a detailed assessment of how anticipatory and reactive postural control tasks are influenced by acute muscle fatigue in healthy older individuals. An extensive search was performed using the CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and AgeLine databases for the period from inception of each database to June 2013. This systematic review used standardized search criteria and quality assessments via the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine Methodology to Develop Systematic Reviews of Treatment Interventions (2008 version, revision 1.2, AACPDM, Milwaukee, Wisconsin). A total of 334 citations were found. Six studies were selected for inclusion, whereas 328 studies were excluded from the analytical review. The majority of articles (5 of 6) utilized reactive postural control paradigms. All studies incorporated extrinsic measures of muscle fatigue, such as declines in maximal voluntary contraction or available active range of motion. The most common biomechanical postural control task outcomes were spatial measures, temporal measures, and end-points of lower extremity joint kinetics. On the basis of systematic review of relevant literature, it appears that muscle fatigue induces clear deteriorations in reactive postural control. A paucity of high-quality studies examining anticipatory postural control supports the need for further research in this area. These results should serve to heighten

  18. Effect of ethnicity on HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Priscila Aparecida Correa; Gross, Jorge Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Disparities in HbA1c levels have been observed among ethnic groups. Most studies were performed in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), which may interfere with results due to the high variability of glucose levels. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of ethnicity on HbA1c levels in individuals without DM. Methods This is a systematic review with meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 2016. Studies published after 1996, performed in adults without DM, reporting HbA1c results measured by certified/standardized methods were included. A random effects model was used and the effect size was presented as weighted HbA1c mean difference (95% CI) between different ethnicities as compared to White ethnicity. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria, totalling data from 49,238 individuals. There were significant differences between HbA1c levels in Blacks [0.26% (2.8 mmol/mol); 95% CI 0.18 to 0.33 (2.0 to 3.6), p HbA1c values are higher in Blacks, Asians, and Latinos when compared to White persons. Although small, these differences might have impact on the use of a sole HbA1c point to diagnose DM in all ethnic populations. PMID:28192447

  19. Systematic Review of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Without Extinction for Individuals With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaul, Hannah L; Neely, Leslie C

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedures without extinction for individuals with autism. Using predetermined inclusion criteria, a total of 10 studies were included and summarized in terms of the following: (a) participant characteristics (e.g., sex, age, and diagnosis), (b) treatment setting, (c) problem behavior, (d) function, (e) alternative behavior, (f) intervention, (g) outcomes, and (h) conclusiveness of evidence. Of the 10 studies, nine demonstrated positive effects and one mixed effects. Five studies successfully reduced problem behavior by manipulating different reinforcement parameters (magnitude, immediacy, and quality) and four manipulated the schedule of reinforcement. One study had mixed results with two of the three participants requiring extinction. The findings of this review suggest that variations of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior interventions without an extinction component may be considered promising practices for the treatment of challenging behavior in individuals with autism.

  20. Management of Anticoagulation for Portal Vein Thrombosis in Individuals with Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Huard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic portal vein thrombosis (PVT is an increasingly recognized complication of liver cirrhosis. It is often diagnosed fortuitously and can be either partial or complete. The clinical significance of PVT is not obvious except in some situations such as when patients are on the waiting list for liver transplantation. The only known therapy is anticoagulation which has been shown to permit the disappearance of thrombosis and to prevent further extension. Anticoagulation is a challenging therapy in individuals with liver cirrhosis because of the well-recognized coagulation abnormalities observed in that setting and because of the increased risk of bleeding, especially from gastrointestinal tract caused by portal hypertension. We herein review the current knowledge on that topic in order to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the currently proposed therapeutic attitudes in face of the diagnosis of PVT in individuals with cirrhosis.

  1. Implantation of a new certification systematic of external individual monitoring services in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, Ivan P.A.; Cunha, Paulo G. da; Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Mota, Helvecio C.; Ramos, Manoel M.O.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    1996-01-01

    Brazilian regulations for External Individual Monitoring Services (SMIE) were established since 1981 and they weren't able to accomplish that these services reached the standards of quality assurance programs appointed for both national and international recommendations. Intercomparisons and audits took in course in 80's showed the necessity of improving the quality of services operating in Brazil. These services are responsible for monitoring more than 40.000 workers in this country. In 1992, the Committee of Assessment of External Individual Monitoring (named CASMIE) was created in the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN) in the aim of developing technical standards and to propose new procedures of SMIEs accreditation by Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). The new procedures are implemented in 1995. In this work, the relevant aspects of this process are presented, as well as a summary of the technical documents that were developed by CASMIE. (author)

  2. Effect of upper body plyometric training on physical performance in healthy individuals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Deepika; Hussain, M Ejaz; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2018-01-01

    To determine the impact of upper body plyometric training (UBPT) on physical performance parameters such as strength, ball throwing speed, ball throw distance and power in healthy individuals. PubMed, Scopus, ResearchGate and ERIC databases were searched up to August 2017. Selection of articles was done if they described the outcomes of an upper body plyometric exercise intervention; included measures of strength, ball throwing speed, ball throw distance, or power; included healthy individuals; used a randomized control trial; and had full text available in English language. The exclusion criteria were unpublished research work and clubbing of UBPT with some other type(s) of training apart from routine sports training. PEDro scale was used to rate the quality of studies eligible for this review. Initially 264 records were identified and out of them only 11 articles met the eligibility criteria and were selected (PEDro score = 4 to 6). Though large to very small effects observed in improving ball throwing velocity, ball throwing distance, power and strength of upper limb muscles after UBPT, the results should be implemented with caution. Inconclusive results obtained preclude any strong conclusion regarding the efficacy of UBPT on physical performance in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Delay discounting differences in brain activation, connectivity, and structure in individuals with addiction: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Max M; Amlung, Michael T; Beach, Steven R H; Sweet, Lawrence H; MacKillop, James

    2017-07-11

    Delayed reward discounting (DRD), the degree to which future rewards are discounted relative to immediate rewards, is used as an index of impulsive decision-making and has been associated with a number of problematic health behaviors. Given the robust behavioral association between DRD and addictive behavior, there is an expanding literature investigating the differences in the functional and structural correlates of DRD in the brain between addicted and healthy individuals. However, there has yet to be a systematic review which characterizes differences in regional brain activation, functional connectivity, and structure and places them in the larger context of the DRD literature. The objective of this systematic review is to summarize and critically appraise the existing literature examining differences between addicted and healthy individuals in the neural correlates of DRD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A systematic search strategy will be implemented that uses Boolean search terms in PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO, as well as manual search methods, to identify the studies comprehensively. This review will include studies using MRI or fMRI in humans to directly compare brain activation, functional connectivity, or structure in relation to DRD between addicted and healthy individuals or continuously assess addiction severity in the context of DRD. Two independent reviewers will determine studies that meet the inclusion criteria for this review, extract data from included studies, and assess the quality of included studies using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Then, narrative review will be used to explicate the differences in structural and functional correlates of DRD implicated by the literature and assess the strength of evidence for this conclusion. This review will provide a needed critical exegesis of the MRI studies that have been conducted investigating

  4. Alteration in Peripheral Muscle Strength among Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Mohan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral muscle dysfunction in Overweight (OW and Obesity (OB leads to fatigue and activity limitations. However, there are contradictory views regarding the exact level with regard to hand grip and quadriceps muscle strength in OW and OB. The main objective of the present systematic review was to synthesize the literature for the strength part of the hand grip and quadriceps muscle strength among OW and OB. Literature search of Scopus, EBSCO and PubMed databases from 01.01.2004 to 30.06.2016, was performed. We set our search strategy using the terms “overweight OR obesity” AND “muscle strength” AND “grip OR quadriceps”. Two reviewers administered established eligible criteria and extracted the data. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE was used to assess the risk of bias. Sixteen articles which were included identified Handgrip Strength (HGS, shoulder flexor, elbow flexor and knee extensor were found to be altered. There were consistent results with an increase in quadriceps muscle strength, whereas differed results were found in hand grip to increase and decrease in muscle strength in the presence of OW and OB. It is concluded that HGS appeared to be diversified with findings of increased and decrease strength, whereas regarding the quadriceps muscles, the findings were homogeneous.

  5. Mindfulness-based stress reduction as a stress management intervention for healthy individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E

    2014-10-01

    Stress is a global public health problem with several negative health consequences, including anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from January 2009 to January 2014 and examine whether mindfulness-based stress reduction is a potentially viable method for managing stress. A systematic search from Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for all types of quantitative articles involving mindfulness-based stress reduction. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Thaís C.; Turci, Aline M.; Pinheiro, Carina F.; Sousa, Letícia M.; Grossi, Débora B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. METHOD: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. RESULTS: Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients. PMID:25590441

  7. Life adversities and suicidal behavior in young individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Muzio, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Flouri, Eirini; Ferrigno, Gabriella; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Suicidal behavior in young people is a significant public health problem. However, it is not yet clear whether adversities (adverse life events) may be related to suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. This paper aimed to investigate systematically the association between the type/number of adverse life events and experiences and suicidal behavior in young people. We developed a detailed strategy to search relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Science Direct (January 1980-January 2015) about adverse life events and suicidal behavior. Adverse life events and experiences included maltreatment and violence, loss events, intra-familial problems, school and interpersonal problems. Studies were restricted to suicidal behavior in young people aged 10-25 years. The search yielded 245 articles, of which 28 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported a strong association between adversities and suicidality (both suicidal ideation and attempts). Based on the main results, the number of adversities or negative life events experienced seemed to have a positive dose-response relationship with youth suicidal behavior. However, the type of event experienced also appeared to matter: one of the most consistent findings was the association between suicidal behavior and experience of sexual abuse. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of risk accumulation and risk specificity for youth suicide.

  8. Distress in unaffected individuals who decline, delay or remain ineligible for genetic testing for hereditary diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Louise; Butow, Phyllis N; Price, Melanie A; Charles, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Reviews on the psychosocial aspects of genetic testing for hereditary diseases typically focus on outcomes for carriers and non-carriers of genetic mutations. However, the majority of unaffected individuals from high-risk families do not undergo predictive testing. The aim of this review was to examine studies on psychosocial distress in unaffected individuals who delay, decline or remain ineligible for predictive genetic testing. Systematic searches of Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PubMed and handsearching of related articles published between 1990 and 2012 identified 23 articles reporting 17 different studies that were reviewed and subjected to quality assessment. Findings suggest that definitions of delaying and declining are not always straightforward, and few studies have investigated psychological distress among individuals who remain ineligible for testing. Findings related to distress in delayers and decliners have been mixed, but there is evidence to suggest that cancer-related distress is lower in those who decline genetic counselling and testing, compared with testers, and that those who remain ineligible for testing experience more anxiety than tested individuals. Psychological, personality and family history vulnerability factors were identified for decliners and individuals who are ineligible for testing. The small number of studies and methodological limitations preclude definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, subgroups of those who remain untested appear to be at increased risk for psychological morbidity. As the majority of unaffected individuals do not undergo genetic testing, further research is needed to better understand the psychological impact of being denied the option of testing, declining and delaying testing. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Shared sanitation versus individual household latrines: a systematic review of health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Heijnen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Shared sanitation included any type of facilities intended for the containment of human faeces and used by more than one household, but excluded public facilities. Health outcomes included diarrhoea, helminth infections, enteric fevers, other faecal-oral diseases, trachoma and adverse maternal or birth outcomes. Studies were included regardless of design, location, language or publication status. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the STROBE guidelines. Twenty-two studies conducted in 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies show a pattern of increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation compared to individual household latrines. A meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting on diarrhoea found increased odds of disease associated with reliance on shared sanitation (odds ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18-1.76. CONCLUSION: Evidence to date does not support a change of existing policy of excluding shared sanitation from the definition of improved sanitation used in international monitoring and targets. However, such evidence is limited, does not adequately address likely confounding, and does not identify potentially important distinctions among types of shared facilities. As reliance on shared sanitation is increasing, further research is necessary to determine the circumstances, if any, under which shared sanitation can offer a safe, appropriate and acceptable alternative to individual household latrines.

  10. Applications of virtual reality in individuals with alcohol misuse: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiţă, Alexandra; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol use and misuse have been intensively studied, due to their negative consequences in the general population. Evidence-based literature emphasizes that alcohol craving plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-drinking patterns. Many individuals develop Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD); significantly, after treatment many also experience relapses, in which alcohol craving has been repeatedly implicated. Cue-exposure therapy (CET) has been widely used in the treatment of alcohol misuse, but the results are inconsistent. Virtual reality (VR) can add effectiveness to cue-exposure techniques by providing multiple variables and inputs that enable personalized alcohol use assessment and treatment. The aim of this review was to examine the applications of virtual reality in individuals who misuse alcohol. We conducted an exhaustive literature search of the Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and PsycInfo databases, using as search items terms such as "alcohol" and its derivates, and virtual reality. We identified 13 studies on alcohol craving that implemented virtual reality as an assessment or treatment tool. The studies that incorporate VR present clear limitations. First, no clinical trials were conducted to explore the efficacy of the VR as a treatment tool; nor were there any studies of the generalization of craving responses in the real world, or of the long-term effects of VR treatment. Despite these limitations, the studies included showed consistent results as regards eliciting and reducing alcohol craving. We suggest that VR shows promise as a tool for the assessment and treatment of craving among individuals with alcohol misuse. Further studies implementing VR in the field of alcohol consumption are now required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Individuality that is unheard of: systematic temporal deviations in scale playing leave an inaudible pianistic fingerprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Tijmen Van Vugt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Whatever we do, we do it in our own way, and we recognise master artists by small samples of their work. This study investigates individuality of temporal deviations in musical scales in pianists in the absence of deliberate expressive intention. Note-by-note timing deviations away from regularity form a remarkably consistent "pianistic fingerprint". First, 8 professional pianists played C-major scales in two sessions, separated by fifteen minutes. Euclidian distances between deviation traces originating from different pianists were reliably larger than traces originating from the same pianist. As a result, a simple classifier that matched deviation traces by minimising their distance was able to recognise each pianist with 100% accuracy. Furthermore, within each pianist, fingerprints produced by the same movements were more similar than fingerprints resulting in the same scale sound. This allowed us to conclude that the fingerprints are mostly neuromuscular rather than intentional or expressive in nature. However, human listeners were not able to distinguish the temporal fingerprints by ear. Next, 18 pianists played C-major scales on a normal or muted piano. Recognition rates ranged from 83% to 100%, further supporting the view that auditory feedback is not implicated in the creation of the temporal signature. Finally, 20 pianists were recognised 20 months later at above-chance level, showing signature effects to be long lasting. Our results indicate that even non-expressive playing of scales reveals consistent, partially effector-unspecific, but inaudible inter-individual differences. We suggest that machine learning studies into individuality in performance will need to take into account unintentional but consistent variability below the perceptual threshold.

  12. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. Methods The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Results Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Discussion Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood

  13. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F; De Kort, Wim L A M; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-09-01

    The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood supply.

  14. Egg consumption and cardiovascular disease among diabetic individuals: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran NL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nga L Tran, Leila M Barraj, Jacqueline M Heilman, Carolyn G ScraffordExponent Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Washington, DC, USABackground: This study reviewed epidemiological and experimental evidence on the relationship between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD risks among type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM individuals, and T2DM risk in nondiabetic subjects.Results: Four of the six studies that examined CVD and mortality and egg consumption among diabetics found a statistically significant association. Of the eight studies evaluating incident T2DM and egg consumption, four prospective studies found a statistically significant association. Lack of adjustment for dietary confounders was a common study limitation. A small number of experimental studies examined the relationship between egg intake and CVD risk biomarkers among diabetics or individuals with T2DM risk factors. Studies among healthy subjects found suggestive evidence that dietary interventions that include eggs may reduce the risk of T2DM and metabolic syndrome.Conclusion: Differences in study design, T2DM status, exposure measurement, subject age, control for confounders and follow-up time present significant challenges for conducting a meta-analysis. Conflicting results, coupled with small sample sizes, prevent broad interpretation. Given the study limitations, these findings need to be further investigated.Keywords: type II diabetes mellitus, diet, cardiovascular risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke

  15. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) in Individuals with Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Zaina; Laffin, Michael; Gramlich, Leah; Senior, Peter; McAlister, Finlay A

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of diabetes in surgical patients is 10-40%. It is well recognized that they have higher rates of complications, and longer stays in hospital compared to patients without diabetes. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is an evidence-based multimodal surgical care pathway that improves postoperative complications and length of stay in patients without diabetes. This review evaluates the evidence on whether individuals with diabetes would benefit from ERAS implementation. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE searched with no language restrictions applied. Conference proceedings and bibliographies were reviewed. Experts in the field were contacted, and www.clinicaltrials.gov searched for ongoing trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) looking at individuals with diabetes undergoing surgery randomized to ERAS ® or conventional care. Non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies, interrupted time series, and cohort studies with concurrent controls were also considered. Two authors independently screened studies. The electronic search yielded 437 references. After removing duplicates, 376 were screened for eligibility. Conference proceedings and bibliographies identified additional references. Searching www.clinicaltrials.gov yielded 59 references. Contacting experts in the field identified no further studies. Fourteen full articles were assessed and subsequently excluded for the following reasons: used an intervention other than ERAS ® , did not include patients with diabetes, or used an uncontrolled observational design. To date, the effects of ERAS ® on patients with diabetes have not been rigorously evaluated. This review highlights the lack of evidence in this area and provides guidance on design for future studies.

  16. Risky behavior in gambling tasks in individuals with ADHD--a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Groen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks

  17. Protective versus Conventional Ventilation for Surgery: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Barbas, Carmen S V; Beiderlinden, Martin; Biehl, Michelle; Binnekade, Jan M; Canet, Jaume; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Futier, Emmanuel; Gajic, Ognjen; Hedenstierna, Göran; Hollmann, Markus W; Jaber, Samir; Kozian, Alf; Licker, Marc; Lin, Wen-Qian; Maslow, Andrew D; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Reis Miranda, Dinis; Moine, Pierre; Ng, Thomas; Paparella, Domenico; Putensen, Christian; Ranieri, Marco; Scavonetto, Federica; Schilling, Thomas; Schmid, Werner; Selmo, Gabriele; Severgnini, Paolo; Sprung, Juraj; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Treschan, Tanja; Unzueta, Carmen; Weingarten, Toby N; Wolthuis, Esther K; Wrigge, Hermann; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies show that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes (VT) can prevent postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). The aim of this individual patient data meta-analysis is to evaluate the individual associations between VT size and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level and occurrence of PPC. Randomized controlled trials comparing protective ventilation (low VT with or without high levels of PEEP) and conventional ventilation (high VT with low PEEP) in patients undergoing general surgery. The primary outcome was development of PPC. Predefined prognostic factors were tested using multivariate logistic regression. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were included (2,127 patients). There were 97 cases of PPC in 1,118 patients (8.7%) assigned to protective ventilation and 148 cases in 1,009 patients (14.7%) assigned to conventional ventilation (adjusted relative risk, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.88; P ventilation with low VT and high PEEP levels and 63 cases in 525 patients (12%) assigned to ventilation with low VT and low PEEP levels (adjusted relative risk, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.37; P = 0.72). A dose-response relationship was found between the appearance of PPC and VT size (R2 = 0.39) but not between the appearance of PPC and PEEP level (R2 = 0.08). These data support the beneficial effects of ventilation with use of low VT in patients undergoing surgery. Further trials are necessary to define the role of intraoperative higher PEEP to prevent PPC during nonopen abdominal surgery.

  18. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosalia; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect) for the hormonal treatment-induced better mental well-being. In conclusion, this review indicates that gender dysphoria-related mental distress may benefit from hormonal treatment intervention, suggesting a transient reaction to the nonsatisfaction connected to the incongruent body

  19. Individual vulnerability to insomnia, excessive sleepiness and shift work disorder amongst healthcare shift workers. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Lauren A; Magee, Michelle; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Sletten, Tracey L; Howard, Mark E

    2018-03-27

    Shift workers often experience reduced sleep quality, duration and/or excessive sleepiness due to the imposed conflict between work and their circadian system. About 20-30% of shift workers experience prominent insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness consistent with the circadian rhythm sleep disorder known as shift work disorder. Individual factors may influence this vulnerability to shift work disorder or sleep-related impairment associated with shift work. This paper was registered with Prospero and was conducted using recommended standards for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Published literature that measured sleep-related impairment associated with shift work including reduced sleep quality and duration and increased daytime sleepiness amongst healthcare shift workers and explored characteristics associated with individual variability were reviewed. Fifty-eight studies were included. Older age, morning-type, circadian flexibility, being married or having children, increased caffeine intake, higher scores on neuroticism and lower on hardiness were related to a higher risk of sleep-related impairment in response to shift work, whereas physical activity was a protective factor. The review highlights the diverse range of measurement tools used to evaluate the impact of shift work on sleep. Use of standardised and validated tools would enable cross-study comparisons. Longitudinal studies are required to establish causal relationships between individual factors and the development of shift work disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Balancing measures or a balanced accounting of improvement impact: a qualitative analysis of individual and focus group interviews with improvement experts in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Madalina; Dreischulte, Tobias; Gray, Nicola M; Campbell, Diane; Guthrie, Bruce

    2018-07-01

    As quality improvement (QI) programmes have become progressively larger scale, the risks of implementation having unintended consequences are increasingly recognised. More routine use of balancing measures to monitor unintended consequences has been proposed to evaluate overall effectiveness, but in practice published improvement interventions hardly ever report identification or measurement of consequences other than intended goals of improvement. We conducted 15 semistructured interviews and two focus groups with 24 improvement experts to explore the current understanding of balancing measures in QI and inform a more balanced accounting of the overall impact of improvement interventions. Data were analysed iteratively using the framework approach. Participants described the consequences of improvement in terms of desirability/undesirability and the extent to which they were expected/unexpected when planning improvement. Four types of consequences were defined: expected desirable consequences ( goals ); expected undesirable consequences ( trade-offs ); unexpected undesirable consequences ( unpleasant surprises ); and unexpected desirable consequences ( pleasant surprises ). Unexpected consequences were considered important but rarely measured in existing programmes, and an improvement pause to take stock after implementation would allow these to be more actively identified and managed. A balanced accounting of all consequences of improvement interventions can facilitate staff engagement and reduce resistance to change, but has to be offset against the cost of additional data collection. Improvement measurement is usually focused on measuring intended goals , with minimal use of balancing measures which when used, typically monitor trade-offs expected before implementation. This paper proposes that improvers and leaders should seek a balanced accounting of all consequences of improvement across the life of an improvement programme, including deliberately pausing

  1. Individual, premigration and postsettlement factors, and academic achievement in adolescents from refugee backgrounds: A systematic review and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charissa W S; Schweitzer, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    We have limited understanding of the precursors of academic achievement in resettled adolescents from refugee backgrounds. To date, no clear model has been developed to conceptualise the academic trajectories of adolescents from refugee backgrounds at postsettlement. The current review had two aims. First, to propose an integrated adaptive model to conceptualise the impact of individual, premigration, and postsettlement factors on academic achievement at postsettlement; and second, to critically examine the literature on factors that predict academic achievement in adolescents from refugee backgrounds in relation to the proposed model and highlight issues deserving future exploration. Following the protocol of a systematic literature review, 13 studies were identified for full-text review. Gender, ethnicity, English proficiency, psychological distress, premigration trauma, premigration loss, postsettlement social support, and postsettlement school connectedness, were found to predict academic achievement in adolescents from refugee backgrounds.

  2. Individual differences in adult attachment are systematically related to dream narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R; Avihou-Kanza, Neta

    2011-03-01

    Self-reported individual differences in attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) are sometimes assumed to tap only conscious mental processes, although many studies have found correlations between such measures and responses to the Thematic Apperception Test, the Rorschach Inkblot Test, and diverse laboratory measures of unconscious mental processes. Dreams offer another route into the unconscious, as Freud famously claimed: a route found useful in psychotherapy. In this study, approximately 1000 dreams reported by 68 young adults who kept dream diaries for a month were analyzed using the Core Conflictual Relationships Theme method, and the themes were examined in relation to (a) scores on the Experiences in Close Relationships measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance and (b) stress experienced the day before each dream. In line with attachment theory and previous research, attachment-related avoidance predicted avoidant wishes and negative representations of other people in dreams. Attachment anxiety predicted wishes for interpersonal closeness, especially in dreams following stressful days, and negative representations of self and both positive and negative representations of others, with negative representations being more common in dreams following stressful days.

  3. Online-based interventions for sexual health among individuals with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Sun; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Seong Man; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2018-03-07

    Online interventions have the advantages of being widely available, accessible, comfortable, cost effective, and they can provide tailored information and support. Despite these benefits, the effects of specifically devised online intervention programs for cancer patients' sexual problems are somewhat unclear. The aim of this review is to describe online-based interventions and to assess their effects on sexual health among cancer survivors and/or their partners. We investigated the effects of online sexual interventions among individuals with cancer or their partners. Among these, we considered 4 eligible articles. Despite the diversity of contents of the interventions, the identified modes of delivery among most of the interventions were as follows: education, interactive methods, cognitive behavior therapy, tailored information, and self-monitoring. Methods of monitoring the interventions, including the utilization of the web site and post-treatment program rating, were reported. All the online intervention programs incorporated a focus on physical, psychological, cognitive, and social aspects of sexual health. Significant effects on patient sexual function and interest and the psychological aspect of sexual problems were reported. This study provides evidence that online-based interventions would be effective in improving the psycho-sexual problems of cancer survivors and their partners.

  4. Effectiveness of cooperative learning compared to competitive or individual situations and its application to technology: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia CAMILLI TRUJILLO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on reviewing significant evidence about cooperative learning in comparison to competitive and individual situations. To do this, we identified the factors that improve or limit its application together with the impact of technology on this methodology. This evidence was the result of 18 meta-analyses made between 1980 and 2010. Meta-analysis is defined as the statistical analysis of a large collection of results that concern a research issue and come from individual studies with the idea of integrating their conclusions. The English and Spanish descriptors used were aprendizaje cooperativo, aprendizaje colaborativo, cooperative learning, collaborative learning and other terms related to meta-analysis such as evidencias significativas, mejores evidencias, integración de resultados, revisión sistemática, síntesis cuantitativa, meta-analysis, bestevidence, integrating findings, systematic integration, systematic review, synthesis. The search was not referred to any particular period of time. The resources and databases reviewed were extracted from the Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and the list of references given in the meta-analysis. The results show that cooperative learning, as a methodology, is more appropriate than other traditional methodologies. Its application in the new higher education context, as a result of the European Higher Education Area, can open the way for the inclusion of active and innovative teaching methodologies. So, the challenge for the faculty consists on integrating research, innovation and evaluation in their teaching in order to improve educational quality levels. In short, cooperative learning becomes a valuable indicator and a suitable tool to forecast positive results.

  5. Efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training for people with hearing loss: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Henshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auditory training involves active listening to auditory stimuli and aims to improve performance in auditory tasks. As such, auditory training is a potential intervention for the management of people with hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review (PROSPERO 2011: CRD42011001406 evaluated the published evidence-base for the efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training to improve speech intelligibility, cognition and communication abilities in adults with hearing loss, with or without hearing aids or cochlear implants. METHODS: A systematic search of eight databases and key journals identified 229 articles published since 1996, 13 of which met the inclusion criteria. Data were independently extracted and reviewed by the two authors. Study quality was assessed using ten pre-defined scientific and intervention-specific measures. RESULTS: Auditory training resulted in improved performance for trained tasks in 9/10 articles that reported on-task outcomes. Although significant generalisation of learning was shown to untrained measures of speech intelligibility (11/13 articles, cognition (1/1 articles and self-reported hearing abilities (1/2 articles, improvements were small and not robust. Where reported, compliance with computer-based auditory training was high, and retention of learning was shown at post-training follow-ups. Published evidence was of very-low to moderate study quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that published evidence for the efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training for adults with hearing loss is not robust and therefore cannot be reliably used to guide intervention at this time. We identify a need for high-quality evidence to further examine the efficacy of computer-based auditory training for people with hearing loss.

  6. Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T; Madsen, Ida E H; Lallukka, Tea; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lunau, Thorsten; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-01-13

    To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333,693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100,602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥ 55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate

  7. The effects of aquatic therapy on mobility of individuals with neurological diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho-Buzelli, Andresa R; Bonnyman, Alison M; Verrier, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    To summarize evidence on the effects of aquatic therapy on mobility in individuals with neurological diseases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CENTRAL, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, PsycBITE and OT Seeker were searched from inception to 15 September 2014. Hand-searching of reference lists was performed in the selected studies. The search included randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies that investigated the use of aquatic therapy and its effect on mobility of adults with neurological diseases. One reviewer screened titles and abstracts of retrieved studies from the search strategy. Two reviewers independently examined the full texts and conducted the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. A narrative synthesis of data was applied to summarize information from included studies. The Downs and Black Scale was used to assess methodological quality. A total of 116 articles were obtained for full text eligibility. Twenty studies met the specified inclusion criteria: four Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), four non-randomized studies and 12 before-and-after tests. Two RCTs (30 patients with stroke in the aquatic therapy groups), three non-randomized studies and three before-and-after studies showed "fair" evidence that aquatic therapy increases dynamic balance in participants with some neurological disorders. One RCT (seven patients with stroke in the aquatic therapy group) and two before-and-after tests (20 patients with multiple sclerosis) demonstrated "fair" evidence on improvement of gait speed after aquatic therapy. Our synthesis showed "fair" evidence supporting the use of aquatic therapy to improve dynamic balance and gait speed in adults with certain neurological conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Incidence of HIV-associated tuberculosis among individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendesayi Kufa

    Full Text Available Knowledge of tuberculosis incidence and associated factors is required for the development and evaluation of strategies to reduce the burden of HIV-associated tuberculosis.Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of tuberculosis incidence rates among HIV-infected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy.From PubMed, EMBASE and Global Index Medicus databases, 42 papers describing 43 cohorts (32 from high/intermediate and 11 from low tuberculosis burden settings were included in the qualitative review and 33 in the quantitative review. Cohorts from high/intermediate burden settings were smaller in size, had lower median CD4 cell counts at study entry and fewer person-years of follow up. Tuberculosis incidence rates were higher in studies from Sub-Saharan Africa and from World Bank low/middle income countries. Tuberculosis incidence rates decreased with increasing CD4 count at study entry and duration on combination antiretroviral therapy. Summary estimates of tuberculosis incidence among individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy were higher for cohorts from high/intermediate burden settings compared to those from the low tuberculosis burden settings (4.17 per 100 person-years [95% Confidence Interval (CI 3.39-5.14 per 100 person-years] vs. 0.4 per 100 person-years [95% CI 0.23-0.69 per 100 person-years] with significant heterogeneity observed between the studies.Tuberculosis incidence rates were high among individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high/intermediate burden settings. Interventions to prevent tuberculosis in this population should address geographical, socioeconomic and individual factors such as low CD4 counts and prior history of tuberculosis.

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognosis of language outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Brignell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Language difficulties are common in autism spectrum disorder, yet little is known about the prognosis of language in children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this study was to systematically review studies reporting language outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Method A comprehensive search strategy with a well-established sensitive prognosis filter for Medline, adapted for five other databases, was used. Included studies observed individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder for ≥12 months and had ≥30 participants. Risk of bias was assessed. Results Fifty-four studies (N = 5064 met inclusion criteria. Language outcomes were standardised assessments (n = 35, notation of presence/absence of verbal language (n = 11 or both (n = 8. Age at baseline ranged from 17 months to 26 years, duration of follow-up from 1 to 38 years. Most publications (92% were rated medium to high risk of bias. In all but one study individuals had below-average scores at baseline and follow-up. However, in most (n = 24/25; 96% studies reporting standard scores, individuals (aged ≤ 11 years at follow-up progressed at a comparable rate to age-expected norms or demonstrated some ‘catch up’ over time. Meta-analyses found mean standard scores increased over time in three language domains (composite receptive language, composite expressive language and adaptive language. Nineteen to thirty percent of children aged five years and under gained verbal language. For children aged over five years 5–32% gained verbal language over the course of study. Age, baseline language scores, IQ and length of follow-up did not moderate between study differences in composite language or adaptive language growth or the acquisition of verbal language. Conclusion Despite variability in study methods, findings were consistent, with the majority of studies reporting children under 11 years on average progressed at a

  10. The effects of work-related and individual factors on the Work Ability Index: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T I J; Elders, L A M; de Zwart, B C H; Burdorf, A

    2009-04-01

    This paper systematically reviews the scientific literature on the effects of individual and work-related factors on the Work Ability Index (WAI). Studies on work ability published from 1985 to 2006 were identified through a structured search in PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were included if the WAI was used as measure of work ability and if quantitative information was presented on determinants of work ability. In total, 20 studies were included with 14 cross-sectional studies and six longitudinal studies. Factors associated with poor work ability, as defined by WAI, were lack of leisure-time vigorous physical activity, poor musculoskeletal capacity, older age, obesity, high mental work demands, lack of autonomy, poor physical work environment, and high physical work load. The WAI is associated with individual characteristics, lifestyle, demands at work, and physical condition. This multifactorial nature of work ability should be taken into account in health promotion programmes aimed at maintaining and promoting the participation of the labour force and improvement of the performance at work.

  11. A systematic literature review of the physical and psychosocial correlates of Special Olympics participation among individuals with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, A; Thomson, K; Weiss, J A

    2017-04-01

    Special Olympics (SO) is commonly cited to play an important role in the lives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of the current review was to (a) synthesise key findings regarding the physical, psychological/emotional, social and/or intellectual/cognitive correlates of SO participation for individuals with ID and (b) highlight limitations in the extant research as well as directions for future research. A systematic review of electronic databases was undertaken. A total of 46 articles were confirmed to meet study criteria. Quality assessments of included studies were conducted using checklists from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network methodology checklists (SIGN 50; SIGN 2008). There was a larger amount of support for physical, psychological/emotional and social outcomes as compared with cognitive/intellectual outcomes; however, many studies were confounded by measurement difficulties, sampling procedures and a lack of replicable methods, which hinder generalisation of results. This review highlights the need for a continued critical focus on SO programme evaluation research with more rigorous and replicable methods. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The effect of theory-based interventions on physical activity participation among overweight/obese individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Gravel, A; Godin, G; Vézina-Im, L-A; Amireault, S; Poirier, P

    2011-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to the evaluation of the long-term impact of theory-based interventions on physical activity participation among overweight/obese individuals after the interventions have ended. The primary aim of this systematic review was to investigate the long-term effectiveness of theory-based interventions increasing physical activity and identify the most effective techniques for behaviour change among overweight/obese individuals. The secondary aim was to investigate the effect of these interventions on theoretical variables. Eighteen studies were reviewed. Among these studies, three reported significant short-term and two long-term effects of interventions on physical activity participation. Most of the studies observed a significant short- or long-term effect of time on this behaviour. Theoretical frameworks most often applied included the Behavioural Model and the Social Learning/Cognitive Theory. However, few of the studies reported any impact on theoretical variables. The most prevalent techniques consisted of providing opportunities for social comparison and instruction as well as self-monitoring. Leading techniques differentiating the experimental group from the control group included prompting practice and intentions formation and barriers identification. Although the combination of these three techniques appears successful, the long-term impact of theory-based interventions remains ambiguous. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Resistance Training Prevents Muscle Loss Induced by Caloric Restriction in Obese Elderly Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V. Sardeli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear as to what extent resistance training (RT can attenuate muscle loss during caloric restriction (CR interventions in humans. The objective here is to address if RT could attenuate muscle loss induced by CR in obese elderly individuals, through summarized effects of previous studies. Databases MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science were used to perform a systematic search between July and August 2017. Were included in the review randomized clinical trials (RCT comparing the effects of CR with (CRRT or without RT on lean body mass (LBM, fat body mass (FBM, and total body mass (BM, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, on obese elderly individuals. The six RCTs included in the review applied RT three times per week, for 12 to 24 weeks, and most CR interventions followed diets of 55% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 30% fat. RT reduced 93.5% of CR-induced LBM loss (0.819 kg [0.364 to 1.273], with similar reduction in FBM and BM, compared with CR. Furthermore, to address muscle quality, the change in strength/LBM ratio tended to be different (p = 0.07 following CRRT (20.9 ± 23.1% and CR interventions (−7.5 ± 9.9%. Our conclusion is that CRRT is able to prevent almost 100% of CR-induced muscle loss, while resulting in FBM and BM reductions that do not significantly differ from CR.

  14. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental toughness (MT is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a ‘mental toughness advantage’ with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings.

  15. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Mutz, Julian; Clough, Peter J.; Papageorgiou, Kostas A.

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a ‘mental toughness advantage’ with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings. PMID:28848466

  16. Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Lallukka, Tea; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lahelma, Eero; Nielsen, Martin L; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Shipley, Martin J; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G; Wang, Jian Li; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-05-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2 =45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small. Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.

  17. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Adrian R; Jolliffe, David A; Hooper, Richard L; Greenberg, Lauren; Aloia, John F; Bergman, Peter; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Esposito, Susanna; Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Ginde, Adit A; Goodall, Emma C; Grant, Cameron C; Griffiths, Christopher J; Janssens, Wim; Laaksi, Ilkka; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Mauger, David; Murdoch, David R; Neale, Rachel; Rees, Judy R; Simpson, Steve; Stelmach, Iwona; Kumar, Geeta Trilok; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-02-15

    Objectives  To assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection, and to identify factors modifying this effect. Design  Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from randomised controlled trials. Data sources  Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry from inception to December 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection  Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D 3 or vitamin D 2 of any duration were eligible for inclusion if they had been approved by a research ethics committee and if data on incidence of acute respiratory tract infection were collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Results  25 eligible randomised controlled trials (total 11 321 participants, aged 0 to 95 years) were identified. IPD were obtained for 10 933 (96.6%) participants. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants (adjusted odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96; P for heterogeneity acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most benefit. Systematic review registration  PROSPERO CRD42014013953. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Dual-task training effects on motor and cognitive functional abilities in individuals with stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Yao, Liqing; Pang, Marco Yiu Chung

    2018-02-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the effects of dual-task balance and mobility training in people with stroke. An extensive electronic databases literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Wiley Online Library. Randomized controlled studies that assessed the effects of dual-task training in stroke patients were included for the review (last search in December 2017). The methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration recommendation, and level of evidence was determined according to the criteria described by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. About 13 articles involving 457 participants were included in this systematic review. All had substantial risk of bias and thus provided level IIb evidence only. Dual-task mobility training was found to induce more improvement in single-task walking function (standardized effect size = 0.14-2.24), when compared with single-task mobility training. Its effect on dual-task walking function was not consistent. Cognitive-motor balance training was effective in improving single-task balance function (standardized effect size = 0.27-1.82), but its effect on dual-task balance ability was not studied. The beneficial effect of dual-task training on cognitive function was provided by one study only and thus inconclusive. There is some evidence that dual-task training can improve single-task walking and balance function in individuals with stroke. However, any firm recommendation cannot be made due to the weak methodology of the studies reviewed.

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Strength Training in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis Or Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Travis M.; Reyes, Alvaro R.; Ziman, Melanie R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Strength training has, in recent years, been shown to be beneficial for people with Parkinson disease and multiple sclerosis. Consensus regarding its utility for these disorders nevertheless remains contentious among healthcare professionals. Greater clarity is required, especially in regards to the type and magnitude of effects as well as the response differences to strength training between individuals with Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis. This study examines the effects, magnitude of those effects, and response differences to strength training between patients with Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis. A comprehensive search of electronic databases including Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL was conducted from inception to July 2014. English articles investigating the effect of strength training for individuals with neurodegenerative disorders were selected. Strength training trials that met the inclusion criteria were found for individuals with Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis. Individuals with Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis were included in the study. Strength training interventions included traditional (free weights/machine exercises) and nontraditional programs (eccentric cycling). Included articles were critically appraised using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Of the 507 articles retrieved, only 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were randomized and 6 were nonrandomized controlled articles in Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis. Six randomized and 2 nonrandomized controlled articles originated from 3 trials and were subsequently pooled for systematic analysis. Strength training was found to significantly improve muscle strength in people with Parkinson disease (15%–83.2%) and multiple sclerosis (4.5%–36%). Significant improvements in mobility (11.4%) and disease progression were also reported in people

  20. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosalia Costa,1 Marco Colizzi2 1Gender Identity Development Service, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Tavistock Centre, 2Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect

  1. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  2. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  3. Using iPods[R] and iPads[R] in Teaching Programs for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; Ramdoss, Sathiyaprakash; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Davis, Tonya N.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Sutherland, Dean; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies that involved iPods[R], iPads[R], and related devices (e.g., iPhones[R]) in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities. The search yielded 15 studies covering five domains: (a) academic, (b) communication, (c) employment, (d) leisure, and (e) transitioning across school settings.…

  4. True aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenzhuan; Gandhi, Chirag D; Quinn, John; Karimi, Reza; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2011-01-01

    To review and analyze systematically the reported cases of "true" posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm. A retrospective review of the published literature was performed, and a meta-analysis of individual patient data was conducted. Pooled data showed that "true" PCoA aneurysms represent about 1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8%, 1.7%) of all intracranial aneurysms and 6.8% (95% CI 4.3%, 9.2%) of all PCoA aneurysms. Mean patient age was 53.5 years (53.5 years ± 15.4), and age range was 23-79 years. Of the 49 patients reported in the literature, 44 (89.8%) were reported as ruptured, and 4 (10.2%) were reported as unruptured. There were no significant differences in ruptured status between age (P = 0.321), left vs right aneurysm (P = 0.537), and shape of aneurysm (P = 0.408). No significant differences in complication rates were found between rupture status (P = 0.27), and operative modalities (P = 0.878). The mean ages of patients who had no complications and patients who had complications were 53 years (53 years ± 2.59) vs 53.2 years (53.2 years ± 5.02) (P = 0.972). "True" PCoA aneurysms represent about 1.3% of all intracranial aneurysms and 6.8% of all PCoA aneurysms. They are more prone to rupture compared with their counterpart junctional aneurysms. When surgical management is indicated, a good understanding of the location and configuration of the aneurysm neck before surgical treatment is critical in the successful treatment of these lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of “add-on” interventions on exercise training in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Camillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus “add-on” therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V′O2peak, work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of “high” quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10. 74 studies (2506 subjects met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V′O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of “add-on” therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring “add-on” therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation. The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of “add-on” interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as “one size fits all” eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of “add-on” therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct

  6. Effect of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi, Sabine K; Held, Ulrike; Frank, Irène; Spengler, Christina M

    2012-08-01

    Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects. A computerized search was performed without language restriction in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. RMT studies with healthy individuals assessing changes in endurance exercise performance by maximal tests (constant load, time trial, intermittent incremental, conventional [non-intermittent] incremental) were screened and abstracted by two independent investigators. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify effects of subjects' fitness, type of RMT (inspiratory or combined inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength training, respiratory muscle endurance training), type of exercise test, test duration and type of sport (rowing, running, swimming, cycling) on changes in performance after RMT. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of RMT on endurance performance in those studies providing the necessary data. The multiple linear regression analysis including 46 original studies revealed that less fit subjects benefit more from RMT than highly trained athletes (6.0% per 10 mL · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹ decrease in maximal oxygen uptake, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 10.2%; p = 0.005) and that improvements do not differ significantly between inspiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle endurance training (p = 0.208), while combined inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength training seems to be superior in improving performance, although based on only 6 studies (+12.8% compared with inspiratory muscle strength training, 95% CI 3

  7. Interactive and independent associations between the socioeconomic and objective built environment on the neighbourhood level and individual health: a systematic review of multilevel studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Bolte, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The research question how contextual factors of neighbourhood environments influence individual health has gained increasing attention in public health research. Both socioeconomic neighbourhood characteristics and factors of the built environment play an important role for health and health-related behaviours. However, their reciprocal relationships have not been systematically reviewed so far. This systematic review aims to identify studies applying a multilevel modelling approach which consider both neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and factors of the objective built environment simultaneously in order to disentangle their independent and interactive effects on individual health. The three databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically searched with terms for title and abstract screening. Grey literature was not included. Observational studies from USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Western European countries were considered which analysed simultaneously factors of neighbourhood SEP and the objective built environment with a multilevel modelling approach. Adjustment for individual SEP was a further inclusion criterion. Thirty-three studies were included in qualitative synthesis. Twenty-two studies showed an independent association between characteristics of neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual health outcomes or health-related behaviours. Twenty-one studies found cross-level or within-level interactions either between neighbourhood SEP and the built environment, or between neighbourhood SEP or the built environment and individual characteristics, such as sex, individual SEP or ethnicity. Due to the large variation of study design and heterogeneous reporting of results the identification of consistent findings was problematic and made quantitative analysis not possible. There is a need for studies considering multiple neighbourhood dimensions and applying multilevel modelling in order to clarify their causal

  8. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise training

  9. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    Full Text Available Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance.Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review.Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD, 50 (6 % of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28. Some investigations (n = 13 lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i optimizing electrode positioning, (ii fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise

  10. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Methods Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Results Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and

  11. Reporting to parents on children's exposures to asthma triggers in low-income and public housing, an interview-based case study of ethics, environmental literacy, individual action, and public health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Laura J; Ohayon, Jennifer Liss; Cousins, Elicia Mayuri; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Brody, Julia Green

    2018-05-21

    Emerging evidence about the effects of endocrine disruptors on asthma symptoms suggests new opportunities to reduce asthma by changing personal environments. Right-to-know ethics supports returning personal results for these chemicals to participants, so they can make decisions to reduce exposures. Yet researchers and institutional review boards have been reluctant to approve results reports in low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by asthma. Concerns include limited literacy, lack of resources to reduce exposures, co-occurring stressors, and lack of models for effective reporting. To better understand the ethical and public health implications of returning personal results in low-income communities, we investigated parents' experiences of learning their children's environmental chemical and biomonitoring results in the Green Housing Study of asthma. The Green Housing Study measured indoor chemical exposures, allergens, and children's asthma symptoms in "green"-renovated public housing and control sites in metro-Boston and Cincinnati in 2011-2013. We developed reports for parents of children in the study, including results for their child and community. We observed community meetings where results were reported, and metro-Boston residents participated in semi-structured interviews in 2015 about their report-back experience. Interviews were systematically coded and analyzed. Report-back was positively received, contributed to greater understanding, built trust between researchers and participants, and facilitated action to improve health. Sampling visits and community meetings also contributed to creating a positive study experience for participants. Participants were able to make changes in their homes, such as altering product use and habits that may reduce asthma symptoms, though some faced roadblocks from family members. Participants also gained access to medical resources, though some felt that clinicians were not responsive

  12. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, U; Jaensson, M; Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Grönlund, Å; Hagberg, L; Eriksson, M

    2016-01-13

    Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery.The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A-C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. NCT02492191; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  13. Det kritiske interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lars

    Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler.......Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler....

  14. Research Interview Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, Eustatius

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research interviews is to obtain information from different respondents in order to answer a research question. The two main types of research interviews are standardized survey interviews and open interviews. The information obtained should meet scientific requirements. These

  15. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke : a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimaki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. METHODS: We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-anal...

  16. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, M.; Jokela, M.; Nyberg, S.T.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Fransson, E.I.; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J.B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Casini, A.; Clays, E.; Bacquer, D. de; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Geuskens, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. Methods: We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-anal...

  17. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, M.; Jokela, M.; Nyberg, S. T.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Fransson, E. I.; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Casini, A.; Clays, E.; De Bacquer, D.; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Geuskens, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. / Methods: We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Met...

  18. Self-monitoring of blood pressure in hypertension: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine L; Sheppard, James P; Stevens, Richard; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bove, Alfred; Bray, Emma P; Earle, Kenneth; George, Johnson; Godwin, Marshall; Green, Beverly B; Hebert, Paul; Hobbs, F D Richard; Kantola, Ilkka; Kerry, Sally M; Leiva, Alfonso; Magid, David J; Mant, Jonathan; Margolis, Karen L; McKinstry, Brian; McLaughlin, Mary Ann; Omboni, Stefano; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Parati, Gianfranco; Qamar, Nashat; Tabaei, Bahman P; Varis, Juha; Verberk, Willem J; Wakefield, Bonnie J; McManus, Richard J

    2017-09-01

    Self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP) appears to reduce BP in hypertension but important questions remain regarding effective implementation and which groups may benefit most. This individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis was performed to better understand the effectiveness of BP self-monitoring to lower BP and control hypertension. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomised trials comparing self-monitoring to no self-monitoring in hypertensive patients (June 2016). Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility and the authors of eligible trials were approached requesting IPD. Of 2,846 articles in the initial search, 36 were eligible. IPD were provided from 25 trials, including 1 unpublished study. Data for the primary outcomes-change in mean clinic or ambulatory BP and proportion controlled below target at 12 months-were available from 15/19 possible studies (7,138/8,292 [86%] of randomised participants). Overall, self-monitoring was associated with reduced clinic systolic blood pressure (sBP) compared to usual care at 12 months (-3.2 mmHg, [95% CI -4.9, -1.6 mmHg]). However, this effect was strongly influenced by the intensity of co-intervention ranging from no effect with self-monitoring alone (-1.0 mmHg [-3.3, 1.2]), to a 6.1 mmHg (-9.0, -3.2) reduction when monitoring was combined with intensive support. Self-monitoring was most effective in those with fewer antihypertensive medications and higher baseline sBP up to 170 mmHg. No differences in efficacy were seen by sex or by most comorbidities. Ambulatory BP data at 12 months were available from 4 trials (1,478 patients), which assessed self-monitoring with little or no co-intervention. There was no association between self-monitoring and either lower clinic or ambulatory sBP in this group (clinic -0.2 mmHg [-2.2, 1.8]; ambulatory 1.1 mmHg [-0.3, 2.5]). Results for diastolic blood pressure (dBP) were similar. The main limitation of this work was that significant

  19. Self-monitoring of blood pressure in hypertension: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Tucker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP appears to reduce BP in hypertension but important questions remain regarding effective implementation and which groups may benefit most. This individual patient data (IPD meta-analysis was performed to better understand the effectiveness of BP self-monitoring to lower BP and control hypertension.Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomised trials comparing self-monitoring to no self-monitoring in hypertensive patients (June 2016. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility and the authors of eligible trials were approached requesting IPD. Of 2,846 articles in the initial search, 36 were eligible. IPD were provided from 25 trials, including 1 unpublished study. Data for the primary outcomes-change in mean clinic or ambulatory BP and proportion controlled below target at 12 months-were available from 15/19 possible studies (7,138/8,292 [86%] of randomised participants. Overall, self-monitoring was associated with reduced clinic systolic blood pressure (sBP compared to usual care at 12 months (-3.2 mmHg, [95% CI -4.9, -1.6 mmHg]. However, this effect was strongly influenced by the intensity of co-intervention ranging from no effect with self-monitoring alone (-1.0 mmHg [-3.3, 1.2], to a 6.1 mmHg (-9.0, -3.2 reduction when monitoring was combined with intensive support. Self-monitoring was most effective in those with fewer antihypertensive medications and higher baseline sBP up to 170 mmHg. No differences in efficacy were seen by sex or by most comorbidities. Ambulatory BP data at 12 months were available from 4 trials (1,478 patients, which assessed self-monitoring with little or no co-intervention. There was no association between self-monitoring and either lower clinic or ambulatory sBP in this group (clinic -0.2 mmHg [-2.2, 1.8]; ambulatory 1.1 mmHg [-0.3, 2.5]. Results for diastolic blood pressure (dBP were similar. The main limitation of this work was that

  20. Interview als Text vs. Interview als Interaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Deppermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131

  1. Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in individuals with Mucopolysaccharide Disease Type III (Sanfilippo Syndrome): a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfenden, C.; Wittkowski, A.; Hare, Dougal

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in many genetic disorders is well documented but not as yet in Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III). MPS III is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder and evidence suggests that symptoms of ASD present in MPS III. This systematic review examined the extant literature on the symptoms of ASD in MPS III and quality assessed a total of 16 studies. Results indicated that difficulties within speech, language and communication consistent with ...

  2. Interview with Helge Kragh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2017-01-01

    Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270......Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270...

  3. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  4. Interview with John Milnor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society......This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society...

  5. Kapitel 10. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2011-01-01

    Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping.......Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping....

  6. Interviewing Francis Bacon

    OpenAIRE

    Kisters, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    British painter Francis Bacon (1909-1992) was known for the eloquence with which he talked about his art. He was easy to talk to, and was interviewed countless times by numerous critics. However, when studying Bacon's paintings one soon comes across the published interviews with art critic and curator David Sylvester (1924-2001), who interviewed him as many as 18 times between 1962 and 1986. Art historian Sandra Kisters argues that Sylvester's interviews with Bacon are carefully constructed a...

  7. Preliminary examination of metabolic syndrome response to motivational interviewing for weight loss as compared to an attentional control and usual care in primary care for individuals with and without binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Barber, Jessica A

    2017-08-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) treatment for weight loss is being studied in primary care. The effect of such interventions on metabolic syndrome or binge eating disorder (BED), both highly related to excess weight, has not been examined in primary care. This study conducted secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial to test the impact of MI for weight loss in primary care on metabolic syndrome. 74 adult participants with overweight/obesity recruited through primary care were randomized to 12weeks of either MI, an attentional control, or usual care. Participants completed measurements for metabolic syndrome at pre- and post-treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in metabolic syndrome rates at pre-, X 2 (2)=0.16, p=0.921, or post-, X 2 (2)=0.852, p=0.653 treatment. The rates in metabolic syndrome, however, decreased for MI (10.2%) and attentional control (13.8%) participants, but not for usual care. At baseline, metabolic syndrome rates did not differ significantly between participants with BED or without BED across treatments. At post-treatment, participants with BED were significantly more likely to meet criteria for metabolic syndrome than participants without BED, X 2 (1)=5.145, p=0.023, phi=0.273. Across treatments, metabolic syndrome remitted for almost a quarter of participants without BED (23.1%) but for 0% of those with BED. These preliminary results are based on a small sample and should be interpreted with caution, but they are the first to suggest that relatively low intensity MI weight loss interventions in primary care may decrease metabolic syndrome rates but not for individuals with BED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Doing Dirty Interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene

    In this paper we will present and discuss an example of an interview characterized by the researcher moving back and forth between two positions. On the one hand the formal position of being an interviewer/researcher using her prepared interview guide as a tool and on the other hand bringing...... in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...... and the interviewee might seduce each other to develop a conversation in which intersections between supervision/coaching and interviewing merge. The example clearly demonstrates how subjectivity influences the knowledge that is being produced in an interview situation, which should be recognized and reflected upon...

  9. Coding interview questions concepts, problems, interview questions

    CERN Document Server

    Karumanchi, Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people

  10. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background. The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics

  11. TENS and heat therapy for pain relief and quality of life improvement in individuals with primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwea, Sylvester Emeka; Tabansi-Ochuogu, Chidinma Samantha; Abaraogu, Ukachukwu Okoroafor

    2016-08-01

    The present systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence for the effectiveness of TENS and heat therapy interventions from randomized trials. Six relevant databases were searched for studies on TENS and heat therapy for primary dysmenorrhea. Menstrual pain intensity and quality of life were the primary and secondary outcomes respectively. The search yielded 46 citations from which six studies on TENS and three studies on heat therapy were systematically reviewed. On the PEDRO quality scale, the trials methodological quality was 4.8 out of 10 for TENS and 6.3 out of 10 for heat therapy. TENS and heat therapy both showed evidence of pain reduction, but no study included quality of life as an outcome. Meta-analysis was not possible due to substantial heterogeneity in included studies. TENS and heat therapy show potential as adjunct remedies in the management of primary dysmenorrhea, but rigorous high quality trials are still needed to made conclusive recommendation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A systematic review and evaluation of inhibitory stimulus control procedures as a treatment for stereotyped behavior among individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Sinéad; Moran, Laura; Healy, Olive; Mulhern, Teresa; Enright Young, Kerie

    2017-11-01

    Stereotypy is pervasive among persons with autism and may impact negatively on social inclusion and learning. The implementation of resource-intensive behavioral interventions to decrease these behaviors has been questioned. Inhibitory stimulus control procedures (ISCPs) comprise a type of antecedent-based intervention that has been proposed as an effective treatment approach for stereotypy but has received limited research attention to date. The current systematic review sought to examine and synthesize the literature reporting applications of ISCPs in the treatment of stereotypy among persons with autism. Treatment outcomes were analyzed quantitatively and the status of ISCPs as evidence-based practice was evaluated in accordance with the National Autism Center's National Standards Report guidelines. A total of 11 studies were reviewed with results indicating that ISCPs constituted an emerging treatment for the stereotypy exhibited by persons with autism. ISCPs comprise a promising intervention for stereotyped behavior but further research is required.

  13. Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Individuals with Mucopolysaccharide Disease Type III (Sanfilippo Syndrome): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, C; Wittkowski, A; Hare, D J

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in many genetic disorders is well documented but not as yet in Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III). MPS III is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder and evidence suggests that symptoms of ASD present in MPS III. This systematic review examined the extant literature on the symptoms of ASD in MPS III and quality assessed a total of 16 studies. Results indicated that difficulties within speech, language and communication consistent with ASD were present in MPS III, whilst repetitive and restricted behaviours and interests were less widely reported. The presence of ASD-like symptoms can result in late diagnosis or misdiagnosis of MPS III and prevent opportunities for genetic counselling and the provision of treatments.

  14. Interviewing the moderator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2004-01-01

    There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...... of a one-on-one interview with the FG moderator by another member of the research team. The authors argue, with reference to a specific study, that interviewing the moderator adds a new and valuable dimension to group interviews used in research. They describe how this method came about and provide...

  15. Det kvalitative interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    Bogen begynder med en teoretisk funderet introduktion til det kvalitative interview gennem en skildring af de mange forskellige måder, hvorpå samtaler er blevet brugt til produktion af viden. Opmærksomheden henledes specielt på de komplementære positioner, der kendetegner det oplevelsesfokuserede...... interview (fænomenologiske positioner) og det sprogfokuserede interview (diskursorienterede positioner), som henholdsvis fokuserer på interviewsamtalen som rapporter (om interviewpersonens oplevelser) og redegørelser (foranlediget af interviewsituationen). De følgende kapitler omhandler forskellige måder...... forskningsresultater baseret på kvalitative interview....

  16. Interview with Henry Jenkins

    OpenAIRE

    TWC Editor

    2008-01-01

    An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW), and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.

  17. Family relationship of female breeders reduce the systematic inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota of inbred laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hufeldt, Majbritt Ravn; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2010-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) may influence disease expression in several animal models for inflammatory diseases. It may therefore seem reasonable to pursue reduction in the number of animals used for individual studies by reducing the variation in the GM. Previous studies have shown that the composit...... the family relatedness of the breeding pairs....

  18. Systematic Review of Theory-Based Interventions Aimed at Increasing Physical Activity in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jereme; Knowlden, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approximately 200,000 individuals have a spinal cord injury (SCI) and more than 12,000 new cases are diagnosed each year in the United States. Lowered physical functioning caused by SCI often leads to a sedentary lifestyle, increasing risk for chronic diseases, secondary medical conditions, and lower quality of life. Purpose: The aim…

  19. Effect of hypoxia and hyperoxia on exercise performance in healthy individuals and in patients with pulmonary hypertension: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Schneider, Simon R; Bloch, Konrad E

    2017-12-01

    Exercise performance is determined by oxygen supply to working muscles and vital organs. In healthy individuals, exercise performance is limited in the hypoxic environment at altitude, when oxygen delivery is diminished due to the reduced alveolar and arterial oxygen partial pressures. In patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), exercise performance is already reduced near sea level due to impairments of the pulmonary circulation and gas exchange, and, presumably, these limitations are more pronounced at altitude. In studies performed near sea level in healthy subjects, as well as in patients with PH, maximal performance during progressive ramp exercise and endurance of submaximal constant-load exercise were substantially enhanced by breathing oxygen-enriched air. Both in healthy individuals and in PH patients, these improvements were mediated by a better arterial, muscular, and cerebral oxygenation, along with a reduced sympathetic excitation, as suggested by the reduced heart rate and alveolar ventilation at submaximal isoloads, and an improved pulmonary gas exchange efficiency, especially in patients with PH. In summary, in healthy individuals and in patients with PH, alterations in the inspiratory Po 2 by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia or normobaric hyperoxia reduce or enhance exercise performance, respectively, by modifying oxygen delivery to the muscles and the brain, by effects on cardiovascular and respiratory control, and by alterations in pulmonary gas exchange. The understanding of these physiological mechanisms helps in counselling individuals planning altitude or air travel and prescribing oxygen therapy to patients with PH.

  20. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, Rene; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply on the long-term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related

  1. Psychometric properties of self-reported questionnaires for the evaluation of symptoms and functional limitations in individuals with rotator cuff disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Corinne; Desmeules, François; Dionne, Clermont E; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) of self-report questionnaires used to assess symptoms and functional limitations of individuals with rotator cuff (RC) disorders. A systematic search in three databases (Cinahl, Medline and Embase) was conducted. Data extraction and critical methodological appraisal were performed independently by three raters using structured tools, and agreement was achieved by consensus. A descriptive synthesis was performed. One-hundred and twenty articles reporting on 11 questionnaires were included. All questionnaires were highly reliable and responsive to change, and showed construct validity; seven questionnaires also shown known-group validity. The minimal detectable change ranged from 6.4% to 20.8% of total score; only two questionnaires (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon questionnaire [ASES] and Upper Limb Functional Index [ULFI]) had a measurement error below 10% of global score. Minimal clinically important differences were established for eight questionnaires, and ranged from 8% to 20% of total score. Overall, included questionnaires showed acceptable psychometric properties for individuals with RC disorders. The ASES and ULFI have the smallest absolute error of measurement, while the Western Ontario RC Index is one of the most responsive questionnaires for individuals suffering from RC disorders. All included questionnaires are reliable, valid and responsive for the evaluation of individuals with RC disorders. As all included questionnaires showed good psychometric properties for the targeted population, the choice should be made according to the purpose of the evaluation and to the construct being evaluated by the questionnaire. The WORC, a RC-specific questionnaire, appeared to be more responsive. It should therefore be used to evaluate change in time. If the evaluation is time-limited, shorter questionnaires or short versions should be considered (such as

  2. Skype interviewing: The new generation of online synchronous interview in qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Janghorban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing.

  3. Skype interviewing: the new generation of online synchronous interview in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing.

  4. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rosalia; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Rosalia Costa,1 Marco Colizzi2 1Gender Identity Development Service, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Tavistock Centre, 2Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and ...

  5. Equity in interviews: do personal characteristics impact on admission interview scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, Andrew B; Homer, Matthew; Miller, Amy

    2010-11-01

    Research indicates that some social groups are disadvantaged by medical school selection systems. The stage(s) of a selection process at which this occurs is unknown, but at interview, when applicant and interviewer are face-to-face, there is potential for social bias to occur. We performed a detailed audit of the interview process for a single-entry year to a large UK medical school. Our audit included investigating the personal characteristics of both interviewees and interviewers to find out whether any of these factors, including the degree of social matching between individual pairs of interviewees and interviewers, influenced the interview scores awarded. A total of 320 interviewers interviewed 734 applicants, providing complete data for 2007 interviewer-interviewee interactions. The reliability of the interview process was estimated using generalisability theory at 0.82-0.87. For both interviewers and interviewees, gender, ethnic background, socio-economic group and type of school attended had no influence on the interview scores awarded or achieved. Staff and student interviewer marks did not differ significantly. Although numbers in each group of staff interviewers were too small for formal statistical analysis, there were no obvious differences in marks awarded between different medical specialties or between interviewers with varying amounts of interviewing experience. Our data provide reassurance that the interview does not seem to be the stage of selection at which some social groups are disadvantaged. These results support the continued involvement of senior medical students in the interview process. Despite the lack of evidence that an interview is useful for predicting future academic or clinical success, most medical schools continue to use interviews as a fundamental component of their selection process. Our study has shown that at least this arguably misplaced reliance upon interviewing is not introducing further social bias into the selection

  6. Gender In Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.; Robinson, Andrea

    The interview is a special case of interpersonal communication. It is a communication event with a serious and predetermined purpose with the basic mode of communication being the asking and answering of questions. People are engaged in interviews throughout their lives from the employment setting to the counseling setting. This annotated…

  7. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  8. Interviewing like a researcher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Freytag, Per Vagn; Nielsen, Suna Løwe

    2018-01-01

    the transformation that neutral research methods go through, we consider an often-used method in business research, which researchers often become familiar with or have opinions about, which is the personal interview. The illustration of how the personal interview can be influenced by three different paradigms lays...

  9. Interview with Mikhail Gromov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration.......Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration....

  10. Interview with Ron Wasserstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Allan; Wasserstein, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Ron Wasserstein is Executive Director of the American Statistical Association (ASA). He previously served as Vice-President for Academic Affairs and Professor of Statistics at Washburn University. This interview took place via email on January 21- February 24, 2014. Topics covered in this interview are as follows: 1) Beginnings, 2) Teaching…

  11. Interview with Danny Kaplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…

  12. Interview with Peggy Papp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Peggy Papp, a faculty member at the Ackerman Institute for the Family, where she is director of the Depression in Context Project. The Interview focuses on Papp's journey to becoming a marriage and family therapist and her role as a leader in field of feminist therapy. (GCP)

  13. The impact of the multidisciplinary team in the management of individuals with diabetic foot ulcers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggy, A; Moore, Z

    2017-06-02

    To assess the impact of the multidisciplinary team in the management of the diabetic foot compared with those who did not receive multidisciplinary care. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the following databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. The following search terms were used: diabetic foot, multidisciplinary team, patient care team, multidisciplinary care team. Data were extracted using a bespoke data extraction tool and quality appraisal of the studies was undertaken using the EBL Critical Appraisal checklist. Data analysis was undertaken using RevMan with results presented as odds ratio for dichotomous data, or mean difference for continuous data, all with the associated 95% confidence intervals. The search identified 19 eligible studies. Severity of amputation, death rates and length of hospital stay of clients receiving multidisciplinary team care were improved when compared with those who did not receive multidisciplinary team care. Ulcer healing and quality of life showed an improvement but not all studies explored these outcomes. Only 7 of the 19 articles appraised were found to be of acceptable quality, questioning the generalisability of the results. From the currently available evidence a positive impact of the multidisciplinary team on diabetic foot outcomes can be seen, but due to the lack of high-quality evidence and substantial heterogeneity in the studies, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  14. Life-history interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    in qualitative interviews. I first presented the paper on a conference on life history research at Karlstad University in November 2010. My main purpose was to establish whether a paper discussing the use of time line interviews should be placed in the context of a life history research. The valuable comments......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...

  15. Interview: interview with P Jeffrey Conn. Interview by Hannah Coaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, P Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Dr Conn is the Lee E Limbird Professor of Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University and Director of the Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (VCNDD). Dr Conn received a PhD in Pharmacology from Vanderbilt in 1986 and pursued postdoctoral studies at Yale University. He served as a professor of Pharmacology at Emory University from 1988 to 2000, before moving to Merck and Co. (PA, USA) as head of the Department of Neuroscience. Dr Conn moved to Vanderbilt University in 2003 where he is the founding director of the VCNDD, with a primary mission of facilitating translation of recent advances in basic science to novel therapeutics. The VCNDD consists of approximately 100 full-time scientists and has advanced novel molecules from four major programs as development candidates for clinical testing with industry partners. Dr Conn has served in editorial positions with multiple international journals and has served the scientific advisory boards of multiple foundations and companies. He has received numerous awards based on the impact of his basic and translational research. Dr Conn's current research is focused on development of novel treatment strategies for schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and other serious brain disorders. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.

  16. Hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of estimated prevalence in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Tiago Castro Lopes; Zwahlen, Marcel; Rauch, Andri; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening is recommended for all HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy, data on epidemiologic characteristics of HCV infection in resource-limited settings are scarce. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies assessing the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected individuals in Africa and extracted data on laboratory methods used. Prevalence estimates from individual studies were combined for each country using random-effects meta-analysis. The importance of study design, population and setting as well as type of test (anti-HCV antibody tests and polymerase chain reactions) was examined with meta-regression. Three randomized controlled trials, 28 cohort studies and 121 cross-sectional analyses with 108,180 HIV-infected individuals from 35 countries were included. The majority of data came from outpatient populations (55%), followed by blood donors (15%) and pregnant women (14%). Based on estimates from 159 study populations, anti-HCV positivity prevalence ranged between 3.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-4.7) in Southern Africa and 42.3% (95% CI 4.1-80.5) in North Africa. Study design, type of setting and age distribution did not influence this prevalence significantly. The prevalence of replicating HCV infection, estimated from data of 29 cohorts, was 2.0% (95% CI 1.5-2.6). Ten studies from nine countries reported the HCV genotype of 74 samples, 53% were genotype 1, 24% genotype 2, 14% genotype 4 and 9% genotypes 3, 5 or 6. The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is high in HIV-infected patients in Africa, but replicating HCV infection is rare and varies widely across countries.

  17. Effects of virtual reality for stroke individuals based on the International Classification of Functioning and Health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Gisele Carla Dos Santos; Freitas, Tatiana Beline; Bonuzzi, Giordano Márcio Gatinho; Soares, Marcos Antonio Arlindo; Leite, Paulo Henrique Wong; Mazzini, Natália Araújo; Almeida, Murilo Ruas Groschitz; Pompeu, José Eduardo; Torriani-Pasin, Camila

    2017-05-01

    This review determines the effects of virtual reality interventions for stroke subjects based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability,and Health (ICF) framework. Virtual reality is a promising tool for therapy for stroke rehabilitation, but the effects of virtual reality interventions on post-stroke patients based on the specific ICF domains (Body Structures, Body Functions, Activity, and Participation) have not been investigated. A systematic review was conducted, including trials with adults with a clinical diagnosis of a chronic, subacute, or acute stroke. Eligible trials had to include studies with an intervention protocol and follow-up, with a focus on upper limbs and/or lower limbs and/or balance. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) was used to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials. Each trial was separated according to methodological quality into a high-quality trial (PEDro ≥ 6) and a low-quality trial (PEDro ≤ 6). Only high-quality trials were analyzed specifically based on the outcome of these trials. In total, 54 trials involving 1811 participants were included. Of the papers included and considered high quality, 14 trials evaluated areas of the Body Structures component, 20 trials of the Body Functions domain, 17 trials of the Activity component, and 8 trials of the Participation domain. In relation to ICF Part 2, four trials evaluated areas of the Personal Factors component and one trial evaluated domains of the Environmental Factors component. The effects of virtual reality on stroke rehabilitation based on the ICF framework are positive in Body Function and Body Structure. However, the results in the domains Activity and Participation are inconclusive. More high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of virtual reality in the domains of Activity and Participation.

  18. The use of virtual reality for balance among individuals with chronic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruthayarajah, Jerome; McIntyre, Amanda; Cotoi, Andreea; Macaluso, Steven; Teasell, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is becoming a popular alternative to traditional upper and lower limb rehabilitation following a stroke. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of VR interventions for improving balance in a chronic stroke (≥6 months) population. A literature search of Pubmed, Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Psycinfo, and Web of Science databases was conducted. English randomized controlled trials published up to September 2015 assessing balance with VR in chronic stroke participants. Mean and standard deviations from outcome measures were extracted. Pooled standard mean differences ± standard error were calculated for the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). In total, 20 studies were selected which assessed the Nintendo ® Wii Fit balance board (n = 7), treadmill training and VR (n = 7), and postural training using VR (n = 6). Significant improvements were found for VR interventions evaluating the BBS (n = 12; MD = 2.94 ± 0.57; p effect on BBS (n = 5) and TUG (n = 3) scores (BBS: MD = 3.82 ± 0.79; p effect on TUG scores (MD = 2.15 ± 0.89, p = 0.016). Overall, VR interventions compared to conventional rehabilitation had significant improvements. The meta-analyses also suggest that the Nintendo ® Wii Fit balance board may not be effective, although further confirmatory studies are necessary. Results should be interpreted with caution due to differences in therapy intensities and effect sizes within the included studies.

  19. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  20. Interview as intraviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kit Stender

    2014-01-01

    In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it become...... the children’s ways of responding to my questions and re-negotiated the positions of interviewer and interviewee.......In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...

  1. Philosophical Hermeneutic Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.

  2. Is Nintendo Wii an Effective Intervention for Individuals With Stroke? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Gary; Tan, Dawn; Low, Aiying; Hewitt, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of Nintendo Wii compared with no intervention or other exercise interventions in the rehabilitation of adults with stroke. Seven electronic databases were systematically searched to source for full-text studies published in peer-reviewed journals up to July 2014. Hand searches of reference lists were performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing Wii with no intervention or other exercise interventions, in patients with stroke, were selected. Methodological quality was assessed by 2 independent reviewers. Data pertaining to participants, interventions, outcomes, and clinical effectiveness were independently extracted by 2 reviewers using a standardized form and compared for accuracy. We calculated mean or standardized mean differences for analysis of continuous variables. Risk ratios were derived and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated. Six studies were included. Three trials (64 participants) compared Wii and conventional rehabilitation versus conventional rehabilitation alone. Three trials (102 participants) compared Wii with other exercise interventions. The addition of Wii to conventional rehabilitation resulted in significant mean differences in favor of additional Wii compared with standard care for Timed Up and Go test (TUG) (0.81 points, CI 0.29-1.33, P = .002), but not for other mobility and functional outcomes: Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score (0.45, CI -0.21-1.11, P = .18), Berg Balance Score (-0.64, CI -3.66-2.39, P = .68), anteroposterior postural sway (0.23, CI -0.38-0.84, P = .46). No serious adverse events were reported, and when Wii was compared with exercise alone, we demonstrated a decreased risk of participants dropping out of follow-up (RR 0.40, CI 0.20-0.78, P = .007). The addition of Wii gaming to conventional rehabilitation in patients with chronic stroke significantly improved performance in TUG and not in the other physical measures. The pooled effect was small and not beyond the

  3. A Systematic Review of Tablet Computers and Portable Media Players as Speech Generating Devices for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Elizabeth R; Parnell, Ashley; Whitby, Peggy Schaefer; Hantula, Donald

    2015-12-01

    Powerful, portable, off-the-shelf handheld devices, such as tablet based computers (i.e., iPad(®); Galaxy(®)) or portable multimedia players (i.e., iPod(®)), can be adapted to function as speech generating devices for individuals with autism spectrum disorders or related developmental disabilities. This paper reviews the research in this new and rapidly growing area and delineates an agenda for future investigations. In general, participants using these devices acquired verbal repertoires quickly. Studies comparing these devices to picture exchange or manual sign language found that acquisition was often quicker when using a tablet computer and that the vast majority of participants preferred using the device to picture exchange or manual sign language. Future research in interface design, user experience, and extended verbal repertoires is recommended.

  4. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Targets Individualized to Pressure-Reactivity Index in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Edward; McFadyen, Charles; Newcombe, Virginia; Synnot, Anneliese J; Czosnyka, Marek; Menon, David

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently triggers a disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) at which autoregulation is optimal ("CPPopt") varies between individuals, and can be calculated based on fluctuations between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. This review assesses the effect of individualizing CPP targets to pressure reactivity index (a measure of autoregulation) in patients with TBI. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE®, Embase, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched in March 2015 for studies assessing the effect of targeting CPPopt in TBI. We included all studies that assessed the impact of targeting CPPopt on outcomes including mortality, neurological outcome, and physiological changes. Risk of bias was assessed using the RTI Item Bank and evidence quality was considered using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Eight cohort studies (based on six distinct data sets) assessing the association between CPPopt and mortality, Glasgow Outcome Scale and physiological measures in TBI were included. The quality of evidence was deemed very low based on the GRADE criteria. Although the data suggest an association between variation from CPPopt and poor clinical outcome at 6 months, the quality of evidence prevents firm conclusions, particularly regarding causality, from being drawn. Available data suggest that targeting CPPopt might represent a technique to improve outcomes following TBI, but currently there is insufficient high-quality data to support a recommendation for use in clinical practice. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies should be undertaken to clarify its role in the acute management of TBI.

  5. A systematic review of individual and contextual factors affecting ART initiation, adherence, and retention for HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hodgson

    Full Text Available Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women.Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, intervention (ART, and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention. Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories.Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman's awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child's health or age. Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes.To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in their own context that are

  6. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  7. Interview with Henry Jenkins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC, the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW, and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.

  8. Job Satisfaction among Care Aides in Residential Long-Term Care: A Systematic Review of Contributing Factors, Both Individual and Organizational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E.; Hoben, Matthias; Linklater, Stefanie; Carleton, Heather L.; Graham, Nicole; Estabrooks, Carole A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing literature on professional nurses' job satisfaction, job satisfaction by nonprofessional nursing care providers and, in particular, in residential long-term care facilities, is sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence on which factors (individual and organizational) are associated with job satisfaction among care aides, nurse aides, and nursing assistants, who provide the majority of direct resident care, in residential long-term care facilities. Nine online databases were searched. Two authors independently screened, and extracted data and assessed the included publications for methodological quality. Decision rules were developed a priori to draw conclusions on which factors are important to care aide job satisfaction. Forty-two publications were included. Individual factors found to be important were empowerment and autonomy. Six additional individual factors were found to be not important: age, ethnicity, gender, education level, attending specialized training, and years of experience. Organizational factors found to be important were facility resources and workload. Two additional factors were found to be not important: satisfaction with salary/benefits and job performance. Factors important to care aide job satisfaction differ from those reported among hospital nurses, supporting the need for different strategies to improve care aide job satisfaction in residential long-term care. PMID:26345545

  9. Job Satisfaction among Care Aides in Residential Long-Term Care: A Systematic Review of Contributing Factors, Both Individual and Organizational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E; Hoben, Matthias; Linklater, Stefanie; Carleton, Heather L; Graham, Nicole; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing literature on professional nurses' job satisfaction, job satisfaction by nonprofessional nursing care providers and, in particular, in residential long-term care facilities, is sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence on which factors (individual and organizational) are associated with job satisfaction among care aides, nurse aides, and nursing assistants, who provide the majority of direct resident care, in residential long-term care facilities. Nine online databases were searched. Two authors independently screened, and extracted data and assessed the included publications for methodological quality. Decision rules were developed a priori to draw conclusions on which factors are important to care aide job satisfaction. Forty-two publications were included. Individual factors found to be important were empowerment and autonomy. Six additional individual factors were found to be not important: age, ethnicity, gender, education level, attending specialized training, and years of experience. Organizational factors found to be important were facility resources and workload. Two additional factors were found to be not important: satisfaction with salary/benefits and job performance. Factors important to care aide job satisfaction differ from those reported among hospital nurses, supporting the need for different strategies to improve care aide job satisfaction in residential long-term care.

  10. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic gait deviations in individuals with chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Shiek Abdullah; Button, Kate; Simic, Milena; Van Deursen, Robert; Pappas, Evangelos

    2016-06-01

    Altered joint motion that occurs in people with an anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee is proposed to play a role in the initiation of knee osteoarthritis, however, the exact mechanism is poorly understood. Although several studies have investigated gait deviations in individuals with chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee in the frontal and transverse planes, no systematic review has summarized the kinematic and kinetic deviations in these two planes. We searched five electronic databases from inception to 14th October 2013, with key words related to anterior cruciate ligament, biomechanics and gait, and limited to human studies only. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility based on predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria and methodological quality was evaluated using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement checklist. We identified 16 studies, totaling 183 subjects with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee and 211 healthy subjects. Due to the variability in reported outcomes, we could only perform meta-analysis for 13 sagittal plane outcomes. The only significant finding from our meta-analysis showed that individuals with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee demonstrated a significantly greater external hip flexor angular impulse compared to control (P=0.03). No consensus about what constitutes a typical walking pattern in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee can be made, nor can conclusions be derived to explain if gait deviations in the frontal and transverse plane contributed to the development of the knee osteoarthritis among this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effectiveness of external sensory cues in improving functional performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimatis, Constantine; Liu, Karen P Y; Fahey, Paul; Bissett, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect external sensory cued therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) performance that include walking and daily tasks such as dressing for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). A detailed computer-aided search of the literature was applied to MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE and PubMed. Studies investigating the effects of external sensory cued therapy on ADL performance for individuals with PD in all stages of disease progression were collected. Relevant articles were critically reviewed and study results were synthesized by two independent researchers. A data-analysis method was used to extract data from selected articles. A meta-analysis was carried out for all randomized-controlled trials. Six studies with 243 individuals with PD were included in this review. All six studies yielded positive findings in favour of external sensory cues. The meta-analysis showed that external sensory cued therapy improved statistically after treatment (P=0.011) and at follow-up (Psensory into a training programme focused on improving daily task performance.

  12. Job Satisfaction among Care Aides in Residential Long-Term Care: A Systematic Review of Contributing Factors, Both Individual and Organizational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Squires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing literature on professional nurses’ job satisfaction, job satisfaction by nonprofessional nursing care providers and, in particular, in residential long-term care facilities, is sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence on which factors (individual and organizational are associated with job satisfaction among care aides, nurse aides, and nursing assistants, who provide the majority of direct resident care, in residential long-term care facilities. Nine online databases were searched. Two authors independently screened, and extracted data and assessed the included publications for methodological quality. Decision rules were developed a priori to draw conclusions on which factors are important to care aide job satisfaction. Forty-two publications were included. Individual factors found to be important were empowerment and autonomy. Six additional individual factors were found to be not important: age, ethnicity, gender, education level, attending specialized training, and years of experience. Organizational factors found to be important were facility resources and workload. Two additional factors were found to be not important: satisfaction with salary/benefits and job performance. Factors important to care aide job satisfaction differ from those reported among hospital nurses, supporting the need for different strategies to improve care aide job satisfaction in residential long-term care.

  13. Interviews in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.

  14. Interview with Staffan Selander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Lindstrand

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Designs for Learning features an interview with professor Staffan Selander, who has contributed in important ways to the shaping of the field we talk about as “designs for learning”. In the interview that follows we hope to give some further insights regarding interests, influences and experiences that have formed a background to the development of his theoretical approach to issues concerning education and learning.

  15. Interview with Srinivasa Varadhan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    S. R. S. Varadhan is the recipient of the 2007 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. On May 21, 2007, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Varadhan was interviewed by Martin Raussen of Aalborg University and Christian Skau of the Norwegian University of Science...... and Technology. This interview originally appeared in the September 2007 issue of the European Mathematical Society Newsletter....

  16. Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Depression and Prognosis in Persons With Myocardial Infarction: A MINDMAPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Frank; McGee, Hannah; Conroy, Ronán; Conradi, Henk Jan; Meijer, Anna; Steeds, Richard; Sato, Hiroshi; Stewart, Donna E; Parakh, Kapil; Carney, Robert; Freedland, Kenneth; Anselmino, Matteo; Pelletier, Roxanne; Bos, Elisabeth H; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Using combined individual patient data from prospective studies, we explored sex differences in depression and prognosis post-myocardial infarction (MI) and determined whether disease indices could account for found differences. Individual patient data analysis of 10,175 MI patients who completed diagnostic interviews or depression questionnaires from 16 prospective studies from the MINDMAPS study was conducted. Multilevel logistic and Cox regression models were used to determine sex differences in prevalence of depression and sex-specific effects of depression on subsequent outcomes. Combined interview and questionnaire data from observational studies showed that 36% (635/1760) of women and 29% (1575/5526) of men reported elevated levels of depression (age-adjusted odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-0.77). The risk for all-cause mortality associated with depression was higher in men (hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.30-1.47) than in women (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.31; sex by depression interaction: p < .001). Low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was associated with higher depression scores in men only (sex by LVEF interaction: B = 0.294, 95% CI = 0.090-0.498), which attenuated the sex difference in the association between depression and prognosis. The prevalence of depression post-MI was higher in women than in men, but the association between depression and cardiac prognosis was worse for men. LVEF was associated with depression in men only and accounted for the increased risk of all-cause mortality in depressed men versus women, suggesting that depression in men post-MI may, in part, reflect cardiovascular disease severity.

  17. Chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer: four systematic meta-analyses of individual patient data from 37 randomized trials. Advanced Ovarian Cancer Trialists' Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aabo, K.; Adams, M.; Adnitt, P.; Alberts, D. S.; Athanazziou, A.; Barley, V.; Bell, D. R.; Bianchi, U.; Bolis, G.; Brady, M. F.; Brodovsky, H. S.; Bruckner, H.; Buyse, M.; Canetta, R.; Chylak, V.; Cohen, C. J.; Colombo, N.; Conte, P. F.; Crowther, D.; Edmonson, J. H.; Gennatas, C.; Gilbey, E.; Gore, M.; Guthrie, D.; Yeap, B. Y.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic study was to provide an up to date and reliable quantitative summary of the relative benefits of various types of chemotherapy (non-platinum vs platinum, single-agent vs combination and carboplatin vs cisplatin) in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Also, to investigate whether well-defined patient subgroups benefit more or less from cisplatin- or carboplatin-based therapy. Meta-analyses were based on updated individual patient data from all available randomized controlled trials (published and unpublished), including 37 trials, 5667 patients and 4664 deaths. The results suggest that platinum-based chemotherapy is better than non-platinum therapy, show a trend in favour of platinum combinations over single-agent platinum, and suggest that cisplatin and carboplatin are equally effective. There is no good evidence that cisplatin is more or less effective than carboplatin in any particular subgroup of patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9836481

  18. Systematic review of studies generating individual participant data on the efficacy of drugs for treating soil-transmitted helminthiases and the case for data-sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Julia B; Benton, Joanne; Julé, Amélie M; Guérin, Phillipe J; Olliaro, Piero L; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Walker, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT) by mass drug administration is the cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s policy to control soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) and hookworm species (Necator americanus and Ancylostama duodenale) which affect over 1 billion people globally. Despite consensus that drug efficacies should be monitored for signs of decline that could jeopardise the effectiveness of PCT, systematic monitoring and evaluation is seldom implemented. Drug trials mostly report aggregate efficacies in groups of participants, but heterogeneities in design complicate classical meta-analyses of these data. Individual participant data (IPD) permit more detailed analysis of drug efficacies, offering increased sensitivity to identify atypical responses potentially caused by emerging drug resistance. We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies concluding after 2000 that collected IPD suitable for estimating drug efficacy against STH. We included studies that administered a variety of anthelmintics with follow ups less than 60 days after treatment. We estimated the number of IPD and extracted cohort- and study-level meta-data. We estimate that there exist individual data on approximately 35,000 participants from 129 studies conducted in 39 countries, including 34 out of 103 countries where PCT is recommended. We find significant heterogeneity in diagnostic methods, times of outcome assessment, and the reported measure of efficacy. We also quantify cohorts comprising pre-school age children, pregnant women, and co-infected participants, including with HIV. We argue that establishing a global IPD repository would improve the capacity to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs, respond to changes and safeguard the ongoing effectiveness of PCT. Establishing a fair, transparent data governance policy will be key for the

  19. Systematic review of studies generating individual participant data on the efficacy of drugs for treating soil-transmitted helminthiases and the case for data-sharing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia B Halder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT by mass drug administration is the cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO's policy to control soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm, Trichuris trichiura (whipworm and hookworm species (Necator americanus and Ancylostama duodenale which affect over 1 billion people globally. Despite consensus that drug efficacies should be monitored for signs of decline that could jeopardise the effectiveness of PCT, systematic monitoring and evaluation is seldom implemented. Drug trials mostly report aggregate efficacies in groups of participants, but heterogeneities in design complicate classical meta-analyses of these data. Individual participant data (IPD permit more detailed analysis of drug efficacies, offering increased sensitivity to identify atypical responses potentially caused by emerging drug resistance.We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies concluding after 2000 that collected IPD suitable for estimating drug efficacy against STH. We included studies that administered a variety of anthelmintics with follow ups less than 60 days after treatment. We estimated the number of IPD and extracted cohort- and study-level meta-data.We estimate that there exist individual data on approximately 35,000 participants from 129 studies conducted in 39 countries, including 34 out of 103 countries where PCT is recommended. We find significant heterogeneity in diagnostic methods, times of outcome assessment, and the reported measure of efficacy. We also quantify cohorts comprising pre-school age children, pregnant women, and co-infected participants, including with HIV.We argue that establishing a global IPD repository would improve the capacity to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs, respond to changes and safeguard the ongoing effectiveness of PCT. Establishing a fair, transparent data governance policy will be key for

  20. Systematic review of clinical trials assessing the therapeutic efficacy of visceral leishmaniasis treatments: A first step to assess the feasibility of establishing an individual patient data sharing platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob T Bush

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL annually. A variety of factors are taken into account when considering the best therapeutic options to cure a patient and reduce the risk of resistance, including geographical area, malnourishment and HIV coinfection. Pooled analyses combine data from many studies to answer specific scientific questions that cannot be answered with individual studies alone. However, the heterogeneity of study design, data collection, and analysis often makes direct comparison difficult. Individual Participant Data (IPD files can be standardised and analysed, allowing detailed analysis of this merged larger pool, but only a small fraction of systematic reviews and meta-analyses currently employ pooled analysis of IPD. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify published studies and studies reported in clinical trial registries to assess the feasibility of developing a VL data sharing platform to facilitate an IPD-based analysis of clinical trial data. Studies conducted between 1983 to 2015 that reported treatment outcome were eligible.From the 2,271 documents screened, 145 published VL clinical trials were identified, with data from 26,986 patients. Methodologies varied for diagnosis and treatment outcomes, but overall the volume of data potentially available on different drugs and dose regimens identified hundreds or possibly thousands of patients per arm suitable for IPD pooled meta-analyses.A VL data sharing platform would provide an opportunity to maximise scientific use of available data to enable assessment of treatment efficacy, contribute to evidence-based clinical management and guide optimal prospective data collection.

  1. Intra-cystic concentrations of albendazole-sulphoxide in human cystic echinococcosis: a systematic review and analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Felix; Naderer, Judith; Skuhala, Tomislava; Groger, Mirjam; Auer, Herbert; Kaczirek, Klaus; Waneck, Fredrik; Ramharter, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widespread zoonosis caused by the species complex Echinococcus granulosus. Albendazole (ABZ)-the first-line anthelminthic drug for medical treatment of CE-is metabolized in vivo to the active derivative ABZ-sulphoxide (ABZ-SO). Target-site ABZ-SO concentrations in the hydatid cyst mediate the anthelminthic effect in CE. Primary outcome of this systematic review of individual patient data was the intra-cystic ABZ-SO concentration stratified by cyst size, location, calcification status and use of praziquantel. Studies reporting intra-cystic ABZ-SO concentrations in humans were identified by a systematic search. A pooled analysis of individual patient data was performed to assess intra-cystic concentrations. Pharmacokinetic data of 121 individual cysts were analysed. There was no correlation between plasma and intra-cystic ABZ-SO concentrations (rho = -0.03, p = 0.76). Intra-cystic drug concentrations were also not associated with sex and treatment duration. Use of praziquantel in combination with ABZ was associated with higher plasma (median 540 vs. 240 μg/L; p = 0.04) but not intra-cystic ABZ-SO concentrations (median 220 vs. 199 μg/L; p = 0.36). Relative drug concentrations in hepatic cysts were higher than in other cysts (0.8 vs. 0.4; p = 0.05). Intra-cystic concentrations were higher in calcified than non-calcified cysts (median 897 vs. 245 μg/L; p = 0.03). There was a trend towards higher intra-cystic concentrations in smaller sized cysts (β = -17.2 μg/L/cm; 95th CI, -35.9 to 1.6; p = 0.07). This study demonstrates that mean intra-cystic drug concentrations are similar to plasma concentrations on a population level. However, in individual patients plasma concentrations are not directly predictive for intra-cystic concentrations. The use of booster drugs was not associated with higher intra-cystic ABZ-SO concentrations in this analysis.

  2. A systematic review on the association between inflammatory genes and cognitive decline in non-demented elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, David; Ciobanu, Liliana G; Baune, Bernhard T

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, or decline, is not only a feature of Alzheimer׳s disease and other forms of dementia but also normal ageing. Abundant evidence from epidemiological studies points towards perturbed inflammatory mechanisms in aged individuals, though the cause-effect nature of this apparent relationship is difficult to establish. Genetic association studies focusing on polymorphism in and around inflammatory genes represent a viable approach to establish whether inflammatory mechanisms might play a causal role in cognitive decline, whilst also enabling the identification of specific genes potentially influencing specific cognitive facets. Thus, here we provide a review of published genetic association studies investigating inflammatory genes in the context of cognitive decline in elderly, non-demented, samples. Numerous candidate gene association studies have been performed to date, focusing almost exclusively on genes encoding major cytokines. Some of these studies report significant cognitive domain-specific associations implicating Interleukin 1β (IL1β) (rs16944), Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) (rs1800629) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in various domains of cognitive function. However, the majority of these studies are lacking in statistical power and have other methodological limitations, suggesting some of them may have yielded false positive results. Genome-wide association studies have implicated less direct and less obvious regulators of inflammatory processes (i.e., PDE7A, HS3ST4, SPOCK3), indicating that a shift away from the major cytokine-encoding genes in future studies will be important. Furthermore, better cohesion across studies with regards to the cognitive test batteries administered to participants along with the continued application of longitudinal designs will be vital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods: a study of individuals who have been physically assaulted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Antley, Angus; Ehlers, Anke; Dunn, Graham; Thompson, Claire; Vorontsova, Natasha; Garety, Philippa; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Glucksman, Edward; Slater, Mel

    2014-09-01

    Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Yield of diagnostic tests for celiac disease in individuals with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Chey, William D; Talley, Nicholas J; Malhotra, Ashish; Spiegel, Brennan M R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2009-04-13

    Individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) report abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea, symptoms similar to those in celiac disease. Studies suggest that the prevalence of celiac disease is increased in individuals with IBS; however, evidence is conflicting, and current guidelines do not always recommend screening for celiac disease in these individuals. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate prevalence of celiac disease in unselected adults who met diagnostic criteria for IBS. MEDLINE (1950 to May 31, 2008) and EMBASE (1980 to May 31, 2008) were searched. Case series and case-control studies that used serologic tests for celiac disease were eligible for inclusion. Prevalence of positive serologic indications of celiac disease and biopsy-proved celiac disease were extracted and pooled for all studies and were compared between cases and controls using an odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Fourteen studies were identified comprising 4204 individuals, of whom 2278 (54%) met diagnostic criteria for IBS. Pooled prevalence of positive IgA-class antigliadin antibodies, either positive endomysial antibodies or tissue transglutaminase, and biopsy-proved celiac disease were 4.0% (95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.2), 1.63% (0.7-3.0), and 4.1% (1.9-7.0), respectively. Pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for positive IgA-class antigliadin antibodies, either positive endomysial antibodies or tissue transglutaminase, and biopsy-proved celiac disease in cases meeting diagnostic criteria for IBS compared with controls without IBS were 3.40 (1.62-7.13), 2.94 (1.36-6.35), and 4.34 (1.78-10.6). Prevalence of biopsy-proved celiac disease in cases meeting diagnostic criteria for IBS was more than 4-fold that in controls without IBS.

  5. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third......There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...

  6. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength. This systematic review investigates the current evidence regarding the effects of WBV training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PEDro, and Science citation index for research articles published prior to March 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, strength and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading 'Osteoarthritis knee'. This meta-analysis was limited to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. The quality of the selected studies was assessed by two independent evaluators using the PEDro scale and criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions (ISMNI) for reporting WBV intervention studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool for domain-based evaluation. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength was calculated for each intervention. Eighteen studies were identified in the search. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of these four studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Out of the four studies, only one study found significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength gains following WBV compared to the control group. In three of the four studies that compared a control group performing the same exercise as the WBV groups, no additional effect of WBV on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee OA was indicated. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interviews with information receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Waste Policy Institute (WPI), through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted telephone interviews with people who requested OST publications to better understand why they wanted information from OST, how they used the information, and whether the information met their needs. Researchers selected 160 people who requested one of the two OST publications-either the Technology Summary Series (Rainbow Books) or the Initiatives newsletter. Of the 160 selected, interviewers spoke with 79 people nationwide representing six stakeholder audience categories

  8. Interview with Gavin Butt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson

    2008-01-01

    We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....

  9. Interviewing media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.

  10. Interview with Jessica Utts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Utts, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a transcript of author Allan Rossman's interview with Jessica Utts, Professor and Chair of Statistics at the University of California-Irvine. Utts is also a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recipient of a Founders Award from ASA. Additionally, she has been elected as President of ASA for the year 2016. The…

  11. Interview with Dennis Pearl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Pearl, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Dennis Pearl is Professor of Statistics at Pennsylvania State University and Director of the Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE). He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. This interview took place via email on November 18-29, 2016, and provides Dennis Pearl's background story, which describes…

  12. Interview with Christine Franklin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…

  13. Interview with Louise Lonabocker

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Munkwitz-Smith, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This issue of "College and University" marks a transition in the Editor-in-Chief Position, with the interview of Louise Lonabocker, who has served in this capacity for the past ten years. She has also served as President of AACRAO, and in both positions, Lonabocker has been a role model for many AACRAO leaders. Lonabocker describes the…

  14. Interview with Pierre Deligne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Pierre Deligne is the recipient of the 2013 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. This interview was conducted in May 2013 in conjunction with the Abel Prize celebration. The article originally appeared in the September 2013 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical...

  15. Interview with Steve Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…

  16. TECHNOS Interview: Esther Dyson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Mardell

    1997-01-01

    This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…

  17. The Unstructured Clinical Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2010-01-01

    In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…

  18. New Materialism: Interviews & Cartographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tuin, I.; Dolphijn, R.

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first monograph on the theme of “new materialism,” an emerging trend in 21st century thought that has already left its mark in such fields as philosophy, cultural theory, feminism, science studies, and the arts. The first part of the book contains elaborate interviews with some of

  19. Milton Friedman: "TECHNOS" Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TECHNOS, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This interview with Milton Friedman addresses his economic policies and how they might improve American public education. Highlights include teachers' unions and their negative impact on education, private schools and tax relief, the Edison Project, privatization of educational services, special needs students, California's Educational Freedom…

  20. Improving Reliability of a Residency Interview Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Michelle L.; Gundrum, Todd E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To improve the reliability and discrimination of a pharmacy resident interview evaluation form, and thereby improve the reliability of the interview process. Methods. In phase 1 of the study, authors used a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement model to optimize an existing evaluation form for reliability and discrimination. In phase 2, interviewer pairs used the modified evaluation form within 4 separate interview stations. In phase 3, 8 interviewers individually-evaluated each candidate in one-on-one interviews. Results. In phase 1, the evaluation form had a reliability of 0.98 with person separation of 6.56; reproducibly, the form separated applicants into 6 distinct groups. Using that form in phase 2 and 3, our largest variation source was candidates, while content specificity was the next largest variation source. The phase 2 g-coefficient was 0.787, while confirmatory phase 3 was 0.922. Process reliability improved with more stations despite fewer interviewers per station—impact of content specificity was greatly reduced with more interview stations. Conclusion. A more reliable, discriminating evaluation form was developed to evaluate candidates during resident interviews, and a process was designed that reduced the impact from content specificity. PMID:24159209

  1. Improving reliability of a residency interview process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Michael J; Serres, Michelle L; Gundrum, Todd E

    2013-10-14

    To improve the reliability and discrimination of a pharmacy resident interview evaluation form, and thereby improve the reliability of the interview process. In phase 1 of the study, authors used a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement model to optimize an existing evaluation form for reliability and discrimination. In phase 2, interviewer pairs used the modified evaluation form within 4 separate interview stations. In phase 3, 8 interviewers individually-evaluated each candidate in one-on-one interviews. In phase 1, the evaluation form had a reliability of 0.98 with person separation of 6.56; reproducibly, the form separated applicants into 6 distinct groups. Using that form in phase 2 and 3, our largest variation source was candidates, while content specificity was the next largest variation source. The phase 2 g-coefficient was 0.787, while confirmatory phase 3 was 0.922. Process reliability improved with more stations despite fewer interviewers per station-impact of content specificity was greatly reduced with more interview stations. A more reliable, discriminating evaluation form was developed to evaluate candidates during resident interviews, and a process was designed that reduced the impact from content specificity.

  2. New Perspectives From Unstructured Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1980s, Ray Pahl, a sociologist at the University of Kent, and PhD student Claire Wallace conducted interviews examining young people’s experiences of growing up, work, and unemployment on the Isle of Sheppey; these interviews are now deposited at the University of Essex, and this article examines how historians and others might reuse them to interrogate other subjects. The article examines one working-class young woman’s ideas about gender and sexuality in the early 1980s, using the Listening Guide method developed by psychologist Carol Gilligan to probe the individual subjectivity and emotion, as well as the cultural discourses at play in this interview. The interviewee was a young woman who was involved in a culture of casual sex with men “on the ships,” and the article focuses on how she saw the exchanges of money, drink, and gifts between them and herself, and how she avoided seeing her actions as “prostitution.” The analysis shows how in a particular locality in the early 1980s, a particular subculture could allow some young women to sidestep the dominant codes governing young, working-class women’s sexuality and go “on the ships” without seeing this as marking them as “prostitutes”’ or any related category. Thus, the article troubles the ontology of “prostitution” as a category. It also suggests how we can use a single individual’s narrative to offer a broader account of cultures or subcultures, by starting with the individual and examining how one subjectivity navigated and interacted with broader cultural discourses. Finally, this article also offers suggestions about some of the methodological and ethical issues with reusing archived sociological data but argues that it holds rich possibilities.

  3. Characteristic Interviews, Different Strategies: Methodological Challenges in Qualitative Interviewing among Respondents with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten

    2014-01-01

    Conducting qualitative research interviews among individuals with intellectual disabilities, including cognitive limitations and difficulties in communication, presents particular research challenges. One question is whether the difficulties that informants encounter affect interviews to such an extent that the validity of the results is weakened.…

  4. Interview with Herwig Wolfram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Albertoni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the interview deals with the education of Herwig Wolfram in Wien and Los Angeles (one year and the relationship with the scholars who influenced him more (H. von Fichtenau, G.B. Ladner, the identification of the study of kingship and the choice of combining constantly the historical with the philological method. The interview then turns to the encounter with R. Wenskus and the theory of the ethnogenesis and the impact of this encounter on the studies of Wolfram and ultimately on the “Viennese” scholars. Another part is devoted to the book on the Goths and to the developments of the "Wien school" in relation to the study of early medieval peoples of Europe and to participation in international debate, very vibrant, on the subject. Also taken into consideration the themes of kingship, the local history, the "auxiliary disciplines" and historiographical communication and finally how research in organized and evaluated in Austria.

  5. Interviews within experimental frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    2010-01-01

    , an amount of control was required over the nature of those experiences.  With these requirements, a hybrid study was designed by deconstructing the conceptualization of "the experiment" and utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods.  The resulting study involved the following: a within......-subjects experimental design served as the framework for the study, while in-depth qualitative interviews were employed alongside surveys and audio and video recording as the data collection methods.  Data collection occurred while participants were engaging with the media products, via talk aloud protocols......, and afterwards when they were asked to recall and compare these situations in open-ended questionnaires and interviews structured using Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology.  Having completed the study using this mixed method(ology) approach, I discuss the effectiveness of this approach, and where the approach...

  6. Creativity in ethnographic interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    2014-01-01

    making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character...... of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process....

  7. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy for Pain and Self-reported Function in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Brian J; Kietrys, David M; Parrott, J Scott

    2018-05-01

    Study Design Systematic literature review with meta-analysis. Background Management of patellofemoral pain (PFP) may include the utilization of manual therapy (MT) techniques to the patellofemoral joint, surrounding soft tissues, and/or lumbopelvic region. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of MT, used alone or as an adjunct intervention, compared to standard treatment or sham for reducing pain and improving self-reported function in individuals with PFP. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL databases for studies investigating MT for individuals with PFP. Studies published through August 2017 that compared MT (local or remote to the knee), used alone or in combination with other interventions, to control or sham interventions were included. Patient-reported pain and functional outcomes were collected and synthesized. Trials were assessed via the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, and a meta-analysis of the evidence was performed. Results Nine studies were included in the review, 5 of which were rated as having a low risk of bias. The use of MT, applied to the local knee structure, was associated with favorable short-term changes in self-reported function and pain in individuals with PFP, when compared to a comparison (control or sham) intervention. However, the changes were clinically meaningful only for pain (defined as a 2-cm or 2-point improvement on a visual analog scale or numeric pain-rating scale). The evidence regarding lumbopelvic manipulation was inconclusive for pain improvement in individuals with PFP, based on 3 studies. Conclusion The data from this review cautiously suggest that MT may be helpful in the short term for decreasing pain in patients with PFP. Several studies integrated MT into a comprehensive treatment program. Changes in self-reported function with the inclusion of MT were shown to be significant, but not clinically meaningful. The

  8. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...

  9. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for depression in patients receiving disability benefits: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanil Ebrahim

    Full Text Available To systematically summarize the randomized trial evidence regarding the relative effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT in patients with depression in receipt of disability benefits in comparison to those not receiving disability benefits.All relevant RCTs from a database of randomized controlled and comparative studies examining the effects of psychotherapy for adult depression (http://www.evidencebasedpsychotherapies.org, electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCINFO, AMED, CINAHL and CENTRAL to June 2011, and bibliographies of all relevant articles. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: Adult patients with major depression, randomly assigned to CBT versus minimal/no treatment or care-as-usual.Three teams of reviewers, independently and in duplicate, completed title and abstract screening, full text review and data extraction. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to summarize data.Of 92 eligible trials, 70 provided author contact information; of these 56 (80% were successfully contacted to establish if they captured receipt of benefits as a baseline characteristic; 8 recorded benefit status, and 3 enrolled some patients in receipt of benefits, of which 2 provided individual patient data. Including both patients receiving and not receiving disability benefits, 2 trials (227 patients suggested a possible reduction in depression with CBT, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, mean difference [MD] (95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.61 (-5.28, 0.07, p = 0.06; minimally important difference of 5. The effect appeared larger, though not significantly, in those in receipt of benefits (34 patients versus not receiving benefits (193 patients; MD (95% CI = -4.46 (-12.21, 3.30, p = 0.26.Our data does not support the hypothesis that CBT has smaller effects in depressed patients receiving disability benefits versus other patients. Given that the confidence interval is wide, a

  10. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mailton; Stein, Dirson João; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Social defeat (SD) in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior. A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors. Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology. The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  11. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailton Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social defeat (SD in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior.Methods: A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors.Results: Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology.Conclusion: The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  12. Structured Interviews: Developing Interviewing Skills in Human Resource Management Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Jessica L.

    2018-01-01

    Structured interviews are widely used in the employment process; however, students often have little experience asking and responding to structured interview questions. In a format similar to "speed dating," this exercise actively engages students in the interview process. Students pair off to gain experience as an interviewer by asking…

  13. Interviewer-Respondent Interactions in Conversational and Standardized Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittereder, Felicitas; Durow, Jen; West, Brady T.; Kreuter, Frauke; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2018-01-01

    Standardized interviewing (SI) and conversational interviewing are two approaches to collect survey data that differ in how interviewers address respondent confusion. This article examines interviewer-respondent interactions that occur during these two techniques, focusing on requests for and provisions of clarification. The data derive from an…

  14. Multiple mini interview (MMI) for general practice training selection in Australia: interviewers' motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; Roberts, Chris; Sureshkumar, Premala; Mossman, Karyn

    2018-01-25

    to their desire to contribute to their profession, and ultimately improve future patient care. Interviewers recognised the importance of interviewing, and felt their individual roles made a crucial contribution to the profession of general practice. Good administration and leadership at each NAC is needed. By gaining an understanding of interviewers' motivation, and enhancing this, engagement and retention of interviewers may be increased.

  15. Refining a brief decision aid in stable CAD: cognitive interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly-Blake, Karen; Clark, Stacie; Dontje, Katherine; Olomu, Adesuwa; Henry, Rebecca C; Rovner, David R; Rothert, Marilyn L; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the “Making Choices©” Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the “think aloud” interview techniq...

  16. Effects of lifestyle interventions that include a physical activity component in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Baillot

    Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further

  17. Apathy and depressive symptoms in older people and incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurelings, Lisa Sm; van Dalen, Jan Willem; Ter Riet, Gerben; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Richard, Edo; van Gool, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that apathy symptoms independently of depressive symptoms measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older individuals. To study whether apathy and depressive symptoms in older people are associated with future CVD, stroke, and mortality using individual patient-data meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo databases up to September 3, 2013, were systematically searched without language restrictions. We sought prospective studies with older (mean age ≥65 years) community-dwelling populations in which the GDS was employed and subsequent stroke and/or CVD were recorded to provide individual participant data. Apathy symptoms were defined as the three apathy-related subitems of the GDS, with depressive symptoms the remaining items. We used myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause mortality as main outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and MI/stroke history. An adaptation of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to evaluate bias. Hazard ratios were calculated using one-stage random-effect Cox regression models. Of the 52 eligible studies, 21 (40.4%) were included, comprising 47,625 older people (mean age [standard deviation] 74 [7.4] years), over a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Participants with apathy symptoms had a 21% higher risk of MI (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.36), a 37% higher risk of stroke (95% CI 1.18-1.59), and a 47% higher risk of all-cause mortality (95% CI 1.38-1.56). Participants with depressive symptoms had a comparably higher risk of stroke (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.18-1.56) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.35-1.53), but not of MI (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.29). Associations for isolated apathy and isolated depressive symptoms were comparable. Sensitivity analyses according to risk of bias yielded similar results. Our findings stress the clinical importance of recognizing apathy independently of depressive symptoms, and could help

  18. Interview of Didier Houssin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    In an interview, the manager of the IEA market and energy security Directorate comments the results of the Rio+20 summit, the possible evolutions of oil price in a context of world energy demand under tension and of geopolitical risks, the trends on the world gas market as they have been published by the IEA, how to solve the gas competition issue in Europe, the future of the oil refining activity in Europe as it looses competitiveness, and the indexing of gas price on oil price

  19. Interview: Joseph Agassi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Agassi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Agassi is an Israeli scholar born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927. He has many books and articles published contributing to the fields of logic, scientific method, foundations of sciences, epistemology and, most importantly for this Journal, in the historiography of science. He studied with Karl Popper, who was definitely his biggest influence. He taught around the world in different universities. He currently lives in Herzliya, Israel. For his important contribution to the historiography of science, we chose to open the first issue of this journal with this interview recognizing his importance for the field, as well as paying our homage to him.

  20. Interview with faz chowdhury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Faz

    2014-06-01

    Faz Chowdhury is the Chief Executive Officer of Nemaura Pharma (Loughborough, UK), a pharmaceutical drug-delivery company developing patented formulation technologies alongside transdermal systems. Having originally trained as a pharmaceutical scientist, Dr Chowdhury received his PhD in Nanomedicine from the University of Oxford (Oxford, UK). With recognized expertise in the pharmaceutical industry and the holder of more than 15 patents on drug-delivery systems, Dr Chowdhury discussed the challenges faced in microneedle-based drug delivery, an area widely expected to revolutionize the transdermal field over the coming years. Interview conducted by James Potticary, Commissioning Editor.

  1. Associations Between Measures of Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength/Power in Healthy Individuals Across the Lifespan: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    2015-12-01

    It has frequently been reported that balance and lower-extremity muscle strength/power are associated with sports-related and everyday activities. Knowledge about the relationship between balance, strength, and power are important for the identification of at-risk individuals because deficits in these neuromuscular components are associated with an increased risk of sustaining injuries and falls. In addition, this knowledge is of high relevance for the development of specifically tailored health and skill-related exercise programs. The objectives of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis were to characterize and, if possible, quantify associations between variables of balance and lower-extremity muscle strength/power in healthy individuals across the lifespan. A computerized systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus up to March 2015 to capture all relevant articles. A systematic approach was used to evaluate the 996 articles identified for initial review. Studies were included only if they investigated healthy individuals aged ≥6 years and tested at least one measure of static steady-state balance (e.g., center of pressure [CoP] displacement during one-legged stance), dynamic steady-state balance (e.g., gait speed), proactive balance (e.g., distance in the functional-reach-test), or reactive balance (e.g., CoP displacement during perturbed one-legged stance), and one measure of maximal strength (e.g., maximum voluntary contraction), explosive force (e.g., rate of force development), or muscle power (e.g., jump height). In total, 37 studies met the inclusionary criteria for review. The included studies were coded for the following criteria: age (i.e., children: 6-12 years, adolescents: 13-18 years, young adults: 19-44 years, middle-aged adults: 45-64 years, old adults: ≥65 years), sex (i.e., female, male), and test modality/outcome (i.e., test for the assessment of balance

  2. Interview with Karol Modzelewski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Guglielmotti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The first section of this interview addresses the political and cultural milieu that shaped Karol Modzelewski’s education (in Poland and Italy, too, the relations with both his mentor Aleksander Gieysztor and the historians of the previous generation, the condition of education in Poland especially in the ’60s, his political involvement, the selection of his research interests and the development the latter underwent. Then the interview examines Modzelewski’s relations with scholars belonging to other historiographical schools, with particular attention to the issue of ethnogenesis, the methodology concerning the structure of sources to reconstruct the history of the Barbarian world in the first millennium, the matter of the “Barbaric collectivism”, the reception of his study L’Europa dei barbari (‘The Europe of the Barbarians’, 2004, and finally how research is organized and evaluated in Poland. Quotable as Intervista a Karol Modzelewski, a cura di Paola Guglielmotti e Gian Maria Varanini, "Reti Medievali - Rivista", 11, 1 (2010, p. 509-579, url: .

  3. Interview With Jean Laplanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplanche, Jean; Danon, Gisèle; Lauru, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The starting point for this interview with Jean Laplanche is a question regarding the place of infantile sexuality within psychoanalysis today. Laplanche begins by underscoring the audaciousness of Freud's characterization of infantile sexuality and the significance of the expansion of the field of "the sexual" that this characterization entails. He goes on to outline his celebrated "general theory of seduction." In doing so he explains key terms associated with it, such as the "enigmatic message" and the "fundamental anthropological situation," and clarifies how the theory seeks to account for sexuality in the expanded sense. In particular, Laplanche stresses the intersubjective origins of "drive" sexuality in infancy, its chaotic evolution, its unique economic mode of functioning, and its subsequent conflict with innate "instinctual" sexual impulses that surge forth at puberty. He also positions the general theory of seduction in relation to the important advances made by attachment theory in the field of the adult-child relationship. Throughout the interview, the discussion touches on social contexts, and at points Laplanche outlines positions on topical concerns connected to education, media, and the law, and the importance of rethinking certain psychoanalytic paradigms in an age of new family structures that do not correspond to the nuclear unit.

  4. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the performance appraisal of reference year 2003, the interview calendar has been fixed between 1 January and 31 March 2004. This new calendar gives a better time schedule to the supervisors to conduct the interviews. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of the new CERN structure as from 2004. With this later time limit, the new departments are invited to strictly respect the target date of 31 March. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage: http://cern.ch/hr-div will lead directly to the page with the form. The personal data for the first page of the form can be generated by each divisional hierarchy, by the Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) or by the staff member himself via HRT. Following discussions about the first two years of MAPS, and in order to improve the performance appraisal process, some modifications have been brought to section 2 (Assessme...

  5. Dyadic Interviews as a Tool for Qualitative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L.; Eliot, Susan; Lowe, Robert A.; Gorman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Although evaluation researchers frequently make use of focus groups and individual interviews as sources of qualitative data, there has been far less attention to dyadic interviews that create a conversation between two research participants. This article describes dyadic interviews as a format that shares many of the advantages of focus groups,…

  6. African Primary Care Research: qualitative interviewing in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Steve; Mash, Bob

    2014-06-05

    This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews.There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.

  7. 10 CFR 10.12 - Interview and other investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interview and other investigation. 10.12 Section 10.12... Interview and other investigation. (a) The Director, Division of Facilities and Security, Office of... the information in the possession of the NRC or may authorize an interview with the individual, if the...

  8. General Exercise Does Not Improve Long-Term Pain and Disability in Individuals With Whiplash-Associated Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Alexandra; Leaver, Andrew; Moloney, Niamh

    2017-07-01

    Study Design Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Background General exercise, defined as purposeful physical activity involving repetitive exercises and incorporating multiple muscle groups, is frequently used in the management of whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). Evidence supporting its efficacy is not well established. Objectives To determine whether general exercise is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with WAD. Methods Studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and May 2015 were eligible if they evaluated a general exercise intervention compared with a different intervention or control. Studies were required to evaluate pain and disability at medium-term (6-14 weeks) and long-term (52 weeks) follow-ups. The mean ± SD and sample size were recorded for follow-up scores and for change scores from baseline to follow-up. Results Of the 3 high-quality studies that were eligible for inclusion, none investigated general exercise alone. There were no clinically meaningful differences between comprehensive exercise programs, which included general exercise, and minimal intervention controls in the medium and long term. No studies directly compared general exercise with a no-treatment control. All included studies used different control interventions, preventing meta-analysis. Conclusion A lack of significant long-term improvements from general exercise interventions in individuals with WAD was identified. This finding differs from the positive benefits of general exercise for other musculoskeletal conditions. This may, in part, relate to the complexity of whiplash conditions. This may also reflect the challenge of exercise prescription in this population, where the need for sufficient intensity is balanced against the impact that exercise has on pain. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1a. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(7):472-480. Epub 16 Jun 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7081.

  9. Subgroup analyses of the effectiveness of oral glucosamine for knee and hip osteoarthritis: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis from the OA trial bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runhaar, Jos; Rozendaal, Rianne M; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Bijlsma, Hans J W; Doherty, Michael; Dziedzic, Krysia S; Lohmander, L Stefan; McAlindon, Timothy; Zhang, Weiya; Bierma Zeinstra, Sita

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of oral glucosamine in subgroups of people with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) based on baseline pain severity, body mass index (BMI), sex, structural abnormalities and presence of inflammation using individual patient data. After a systematic search of the literature and clinical trial registries, all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of any oral glucosamine substance in patients with clinically or radiographically defined hip or knee OA were contacted. As a minimum, pain, age, sex and BMI at baseline and pain as an outcome measure needed to be assessed. Of 21 eligible studies, six (n=1663) shared their trial data with the OA Trial Bank. Five trials (all independent of industry, n=1625) compared glucosamine with placebo, representing 55% of the total number of participants in all published placebo-controlled RCTs. Glucosamine was no better than placebo for pain or function at short (3 months) and long-term (24 months) follow-up. Glucosamine was also no better than placebo among the predefined subgroups. Stratification for knee OA and type of glucosamine did not alter these results. Although proposed and debated for several years, open trial data are not widely made available for studies of glucosamine for OA, especially those sponsored by industry. Currently, there is no good evidence to support the use of glucosamine for hip or knee OA and an absence of evidence to support specific consideration of glucosamine for any clinically relevant OA subgroup according to baseline pain severity, BMI, sex, structural abnormalities or presence of inflammation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Factors affecting compliance with clinical practice guidelines for pap smear screening among healthcare providers in africa: systematic review and meta-summary of 2045 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Asonganyi

    Full Text Available Although the importance of the Pap smear in reducing cancer incidence and mortality is known, many countries in Africa have not initiated yet widespread national cervical cancer screening programs. The World Health Organization (WHO has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs on cervical cancer screening in developing countries; however, there is a gap between expectations and clinical performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-summary to identify factors affecting compliance with CPGs for Pap screening among healthcare providers in Africa.And Findings: MEDLINE, Scirus, Opengate and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2012. Studies involving medical personnel practicing in Africa, whose outcome measured any factors that affect medical personnel from using a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer, were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles and abstracts, then full-texts, extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted. We calculated Frequency effect sizes (FES for each finding and Intensity effect sizes (IES for each article to represent their magnitudes in the analyses. Of 1011 studies retrieved, 11 studies were included (2045 individuals. Six different themes related to the factors affecting compliance with CPGs were identified: Insufficient Knowledge/Lack of awareness (FES = 82%, Negligence/Misbeliefs (FES = 82%, Psychological Reasons (FES = 73%, Time/Cost Constraint (FES = 36%, Insufficient infrastructure/training (FES = 45% and also no reason given (FES = 36%. IES for articles ranged between 33 and 83%.These results suggest that prevention initiatives should be comprehensive to include education and resources needs assessments and improvement, Pap smear test training, strategies on costing, and practitioner time studies.

  11. Accuracy of cystatin C for the detection of abnormal renal function in children undergoing chemotherapy for malignancy: a systematic review using individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Penny; Birnie, Kate; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Jameson, Catherine; Skinner, Rod; Phillips, Bob

    2018-05-01

    We conducted a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to examine the utility of cystatin C for evaluation of glomerular function in children with cancer. Eligible studies evaluated the accuracy of cystatin C for detecting poor renal function in children undergoing chemotherapy. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2. Authors of four studies shared IPD. We calculated the correlation between log cystatin C and GFR stratified by study and measure of cystatin C. We dichotomized the reference standard at GFR 80 ml/min/1.73m 2 and stratified cystatin C at 1 mg/l, to calculate sensitivity and specificity in each study and according to age group (0-4, 5-12, and ≥ 13 years). In sensitivity analyses, we investigated different GFR and cystatin C cut points. We used logistic regression to estimate the association of impaired renal function with log cystatin C and quantified diagnostic accuracy using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Six studies, which used different test and reference standard thresholds, suggested that cystatin C has the potential to monitor renal function in children undergoing chemotherapy for malignancy. IPD data (504 samples, 209 children) showed that cystatin C has poor sensitivity (63%) and moderate specificity (89%), although use of a GFR cut point of C has better diagnostic accuracy than creatinine as a test for glomerular dysfunction in young people undergoing treatment for cancer. Diagnostic accuracy is not sufficient for it to replace current reference standards for predicting clinically relevant impairments that may alter dosing of important nephrotoxic agents.

  12. F167. ACCESS, UNDERSTAND, APPRAISE AND APPLY TO / OF HEALTH INFORMATION AND HEALTH LITERACY IN INDIVIDUALS AT-RISK FOR PSYCHOSIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seves, Mauro; Haidl, Theresa; Eggers, Susanne; Rostamzadeh, Ayda; Genske, Anna; Jünger, Saskia; Woopen, Christiane; Jessen, Frank; Ruhrmann, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous studies suggest that health literacy (HL) plays a crucial role in maintaining and improving individual health. Furthermore, empirical findings highlight the relation between levels of a person’s HL and clinical outcomes. So far, there are no reviews, which investigate HL in individuals at-risk for psychosis. The aim of the current review is to assess how individuals at risk of developing a first episode of psychosis gain access to, understand, evaluate and apply risk-related health information. Methods A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize a variety of study types including qualitative and quantitative studies. Search strategy, screening and data selection have been carried out according to the PRISMA criteria. The systematic search was applied on peer-reviewed literature in PUBMED, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies were included if participants met clinical high risk criteria (CHR), including the basic symptom criterion (BS) and the ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria. The UHR criteria comprise the attenuated psychotic symptom criterion (APS), the brief limited psychotic symptom criterion (BLIPS) and the genetic risk and functional decline criterion (GRDP) Furthermore, studies must have used validated HL measures or any operationalization of the HL’s subdimensions (access, understanding, appraisal, decision-making or action) as a primary outcome. A third inclusion criterion comprised that the concept of HL or one of the four dimensions was mentioned in title or abstract. Data extraction and synthesis was implemented according to existing recommendations for appraising evidence from different study types. The quality of the included studies was evaluated and related to the study results. Results The search string returned 10587 papers. After data extraction 15 quantitative as well as 4 qualitative studies and 3 reviews were included. The Quality assessment evaluated 12 publications as

  13. Evaluation of a mock interview session on residency interview skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Kelsey; Karr, Samantha; Nisly, Sarah A; Kelley, Kristi

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of student pharmacist participation in a mock interview session on confidence level and preparation regarding residency interview skills. The study setting was a mock interview session, held in conjunction with student programming at the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Annual Meeting. Prior to the mock interview session, final year student pharmacists seeking residency program placement were asked to complete a pre-session survey assessing confidence level for residency interviews. Each student pharmacist participated in up to three mock interviews. A post-session survey evaluating confidence level was then administered to consenting participants. Following the American Society for Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Pharmacy Resident Matching Program (RMP), a post-match electronic survey was sent to study participants to determine their perception of the influence of the mock interview session on achieving successful interactions during residency interviews. A total of 59 student pharmacists participated in the mock interview session and completed the pre-session survey. Participants completing the post-session survey (88%, n = 52) unanimously reported an enhanced confidence in interviewing skills following the session. Thirty responders reported a program match rate of 83%. Approximately 97% (n = 29) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the questions asked during the mock interview session were reflective of questions asked during residency interviews. Lessons learned from this mock interview session can be applied to PGY1 residency mock interview sessions held locally, regionally, and nationally. Students participating in the ACCP Mock Interview Session recognized the importance of the interview component in obtaining a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitive Interviewing in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Laura; Dowling, Maura; Larkin, Philip; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we focus on important considerations when planning and conducting qualitative interviews on sensitive topics. Drawing on experiences of conducting interviews with dementia caregivers, a framework of essential elements in qualitative interviewing was developed to emphasize study participants' needs while also providing guidance for researchers. Starting with a definition of sensitive research, the framework includes preparing for interviews, interacting with gatekeepers of vulnerable groups, planning for interview timing, and location, building relationships and conducting therapeutic interactions, protecting ethically vulnerable participants, and planning for disengagement. This framework has the potential to improve the effectiveness of sensitive interviewing with vulnerable groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Real Communication through Interview and Conversation Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Therese M.; Birckbichler, Diane W.

    1975-01-01

    A method for use in foreign language teaching which involves the use of conversation cards and interview cards is described. The method is intended to improve the ability of the student to communicate in the language and allow for greater individualization of instruction. (RM)

  16. Motivational interviewing in the health care setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorders are related to many negative health, emotional, societal, and economic consequences. These disorders are often difficult to treat because individuals suffering from them tend to be ambivalent about and resistant to change. Motivational interviewing (MI) provides healthcare prov...

  17. Using Motivational Interviewing to Help Your Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Motivational interviewing, which began as a counseling technique in addiction recovery, is a client-centered tool for making changes, increasing helpful behaviors and decreasing unhelpful behaviors. It relies on an individual's intrinsic motivation and interest in change, using a non-confrontational approach to frame goals in a practical,…

  18. Apathy and depressive symptoms in older people and incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurelings LSM

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lisa SM Eurelings,1,* Jan Willem van Dalen,1,* Gerben ter Riet,2 Eric P Moll van Charante,2 Edo Richard,1,3 Willem A van Gool1 On behalf of the ICARA Study Group 1Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Neurology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Previous findings suggest that apathy symptoms independently of depressive symptoms measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD in older individuals.Aims: To study whether apathy and depressive symptoms in older people are associated with future CVD, stroke, and mortality using individual patient-data meta-analysis.Methods: Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo databases up to September 3, 2013, were systematically searched without language restrictions. We sought prospective studies with older (mean age ≥65 years community-dwelling populations in which the GDS was employed and subsequent stroke and/or CVD were recorded to provide individual participant data. Apathy symptoms were defined as the three apathy-related subitems of the GDS, with depressive symptoms the remaining items. We used myocardial infarction (MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality as main outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and MI/stroke history. An adaptation of the Newcastle–Ottawa scale was used to evaluate bias. Hazard ratios were calculated using one-stage random-effect Cox regression models.Results: Of the 52 eligible studies, 21 (40.4% were included, comprising 47,625 older people (mean age [standard deviation] 74 [7.4] years, over a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Participants with apathy symptoms had a 21% higher risk of MI (95% confidence

  19. Interview with Peter Jenni

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Newsletter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Jenni, former spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration, discusses the challenges and satisfactions from his long-standing career in high-energy physics in this month’s PH Newsletter.   Peter Jenni. Following a long career at CERN that dates back to 1970 (ranging from Summer Student to Fellow and to Staff), Peter Jenni recently retired after about 40 years marked by exciting discoveries (from the first two-photon production of eta-prime at SPEAR to the Higgs boson at the LHC). Peter was involved in the LHC from its very beginnings and was spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration until February 2009. Peter Jenni will continue working with ATLAS as a guest scientist with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, and when he's not travelling he still spends most of his time in his office in Building 40, where he met with interviewer Panos Charitos. Panos Charitos: When did you first arrive to CERN? Peter Jenni: I first came to CERN as a Summer Student in ...

  20. Interview with Lenny Kaye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Garrigós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lenny Kaye has been Patti Smith’s long term guitarist, friend and collaborator, ever since they first began together in the early 1970s. He grew up between New York and New Jersey, graduating in American History from Rutgers University, where he later taught a course in the Department of American Studies on the History of American Rock, which became famous because of the large number of students who wanted to enroll in it. A very prolific writer and musician, he has produced an important number of records, as well as collaborated with numerous music magazines. He is the author of two books, Waylon Jennings: An Autobiography (1996 and You Call it Madness, The Sensuous Song of the Croon (2004. Nuggets (1972, his anthology of 60s garage music, is famous for defining the genre. This interview took place when he was visiting Spain in November 2012 with the Patti Smith Group. In it, we discussed the New York scene of the 70s, music, literature, drugs, politics, and many other things.

  1. Walking training associated with virtual reality-based training increases walking speed of individuals with chronic stroke: systematic review with meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana M. Rodrigues-Baroni; Lucas R. Nascimento; Louise Ada; Luci F. Teixeira-Salmela

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the available evidence on the efficacy of walking training associated with virtual reality-based training in patients with stroke. The specific questions were: Is walking training associated with virtual reality-based training effective in increasing walking speed after stroke? Is this type of intervention more effective in increasing walking speed, than non-virtual reality-based walking interventions? METHOD: A systematic review with meta-analysis of rando...

  2. Marion L. Williams Interview (MORS)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Marion L.

    2015-01-01

    Interviewers: Keethler, Greg; Sheldon, Robert S.. Interview location(s): Headquarters Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center, Kirkland Air Force Base, New Mexico and United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado

  3. Interview of David Elliston Allen

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, David

    2009-01-01

    Interviewed on 12 April 1983 by Jack Goody and Alan Macfarlane and filmed and edited by Sarah Harrison. Made on old and low quality equipment. An interview of the historian and naturalist David Elliston Allen

  4. Plasma chitotriosidase activity versus CCL18 level for assessing type I Gaucher disease severity: protocol for a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskovalova, Tatiana; Deegan, Patrick B; Yang, Ruby; Pavlova, Elena; Stirnemann, Jérome; Labarère, José; Zimran, Ari; Mistry, Pramod K; Berger, Marc

    2017-04-20

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency in acid beta-glucosidase. GD exhibits a wide clinical spectrum of disease severity with an unpredictable natural course. Plasma chitotriosidase activity and CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) have been exchangeably used for monitoring GD activity and response to enzyme replacement therapy in conjunction with clinical assessment. Yet, a large-scale head-to-head comparison of these two biomarkers is currently lacking. We propose a collaborative systematic review with meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) to compare the accuracy of plasma chitotriosidase activity and CCL18 in assessing type I (i.e., non-neuropathic) GD severity. Eligible studies include cross-sectional, cohort, and randomized controlled studies recording both plasma chitotriosidase activity and CCL18 level at baseline and/or at follow-up in consecutive children or adult patients with type I GD. Pre-specified surrogate outcomes reflecting GD activity include liver and spleen volume, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and symptomatic bone events with imaging confirmation. Primary studies will be identified by searching Medline (1995 onwards), EMBASE (1995 onwards), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Electronic search will be complemented by contacting research groups in order to identify unpublished relevant studies. Where possible, IPD will be extracted from published articles. Corresponding authors will be invited to collaborate by supplying IPD. The methodological quality of retrieved studies will be appraised for each study outcome, using a checklist adapted from the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. The primary outcome will be a composite of liver volume >1.25 multiple of normal (MN), spleen volume >5 MN, hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL, or platelet count <100 × 10 9 /L. Effect size estimates for biomarker comparative accuracy in

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of active smoking among individuals living with hypertension and/or diabetes in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafeu, Guy S; Tankeu, Aurel T; Endomba, Francky Teddy A; Nansseu, Jobert Richie; Kaze, Arnaud D; Bigna, Jean Joel; Noubiap, Jean Jacques

    2017-10-10

    Tobacco use significantly increases cardiovascular complications in people living with hypertension and/or diabetes. We aim to summarise data on the prevalence and factors associated with active smoking in these conditions in Africa. We will search PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and African Journals Online for relevant abstracts of studies on active smoking in individuals living with diabetes and/or hypertension published from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016, with no language restriction. Additionally, relevant unpublished papers and conference proceedings will be checked, as well as references of included articles. Two investigators will independently screen, select studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias in each study. Data will be analysed using Stata software (Stata V.14, Texas, USA). The study-specific estimates will be pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis model to obtain an overall summary estimate of the prevalence of smoking across studies. Also, we will assess factors associated to smoking. Heterogeneity of studies will be evaluated by the χ2 test on Cochrane's Q statistic. Funnel plots analysis and Egger's test will be done to detect publication bias. Results will be presented by geographic region (central, eastern, northern, southern and western Africa). A p value less than 0.05 will be considered significant for factors associated to smoking. This study is based on published data, and therefore ethical approval is not a requirement. This systematic review and meta-analysis is expected to serve as a basis for designing cost-effective interventions to reduce and prevent smoking in patients with diabetes and/or hypertension, and as a guide for future research based on the remaining gaps. The final report of this study in the form of a scientific paper will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Findings will further be presented at conferences and submitted to relevant health authorities. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  6. Efficacy and safety of co-administered ivermectin plus albendazole for treating soil-transmitted helminths: A systematic review, meta-analysis and individual patient data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeirim, Marta S; Hürlimann, Eveline; Knopp, Stefanie; Speich, Benjamin; Belizario, Vicente; Joseph, Serene A; Vaillant, Michel; Olliaro, Piero; Keiser, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    The soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, infect 1.5 billion people worldwide and cause an estimated burden of 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Current control strategies focus on morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy (PC) but the most commonly used recommended drugs (albendazole and mebendazole) are particularly inefficacious against T. trichiura. This, together with the threat of emerging drug resistance, calls for new control strategies, including co-administration with other anthelminthics. Ivermectin plus albendazole is widely used against lymphatic filariasis, but its efficacy and safety against STH infections has not yet been fully understood. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of ivermectin-albendazole co-administration in five different databases (i.e. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CENTRAL and clinicaltrials.gov) from 1960 to January 2018. Four studies reporting efficacy of ivermectin-albendazole against STH infections and five studies on its safety met the selection criteria and were included for quantitative analysis. Ivermectin-albendazole was significantly associated with lower risk (risk ratio (RR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.31-0.62) for T. trichiura infection after treatment compared to albendazole alone. The co-administration revealed no or only a marginal benefit on cure and egg reduction rates over albendazole alone for A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections. Adverse events (AEs) occurring after ivermectin-albendazole co-administration were mostly mild and transient. Overall, the number of individuals reporting any AE was not different (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.87-1.36) in co-treated and albendazole-treated patients. However, although not statistically significant, sub-group analysis showed a tendency for slightly more AEs in patients with filariasis treated with ivermectin

  7. Does transcranial electrical stimulation enhance corticospinal excitability of the motor cortex in healthy individuals? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, Thusharika; Zoghi, Maryam; Farrell, Michael; Egan, Gary F; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2017-08-01

    Numerous studies have explored the effects of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS), cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS), transcranial alternative current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE) in healthy populations. However, the efficacy of these techniques and their optimal parameters for producing robust results has not been studied. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to consolidate current knowledge about the effects of various parameters of a-tDCS, c-tDCS, tACS, tRNS and tPCS on the CSE of the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy people. Leading electronic databases were searched for relevant studies published between January 1990 and February 2017; 126 articles were identified, and their results were extracted and analysed using RevMan software. The meta-analysis showed that a-tDCS application on the dominant side significantly increases CSE (P < 0.01) and that the efficacy of a-tDCS is dependent on current density and duration of application. Similar results were obtained for stimulation of M1 on the non-dominant side (P = 0.003). The effects of a-tDCS reduce significantly after 24 h (P = 0.006). Meta-analysis also revealed significant reduction in CSE following c-tDCS (P < 0.001) and significant increases after tRNS (P = 0.03) and tPCS (P = 0.01). However, tACS effects on CSE were only significant when the stimulation frequency was ≥140 Hz. This review provides evidence that tES has substantial effects on CSE in healthy individuals for a range of stimulus parameters. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Efficacy and safety of co-administered ivermectin plus albendazole for treating soil-transmitted helminths: A systematic review, meta-analysis and individual patient data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeirim, Marta S.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Knopp, Stefanie; Belizario, Vicente; Joseph, Serene A.; Olliaro, Piero

    2018-01-01

    Background The soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, infect 1.5 billion people worldwide and cause an estimated burden of 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Current control strategies focus on morbidity reduction through preventive chemotherapy (PC) but the most commonly used recommended drugs (albendazole and mebendazole) are particularly inefficacious against T. trichiura. This, together with the threat of emerging drug resistance, calls for new control strategies, including co-administration with other anthelminthics. Ivermectin plus albendazole is widely used against lymphatic filariasis, but its efficacy and safety against STH infections has not yet been fully understood. Methods and findings We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of ivermectin-albendazole co-administration in five different databases (i.e. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CENTRAL and clinicaltrials.gov) from 1960 to January 2018. Four studies reporting efficacy of ivermectin-albendazole against STH infections and five studies on its safety met the selection criteria and were included for quantitative analysis. Ivermectin-albendazole was significantly associated with lower risk (risk ratio (RR) = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.31–0.62) for T. trichiura infection after treatment compared to albendazole alone. The co-administration revealed no or only a marginal benefit on cure and egg reduction rates over albendazole alone for A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections. Adverse events (AEs) occurring after ivermectin-albendazole co-administration were mostly mild and transient. Overall, the number of individuals reporting any AE was not different (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.87–1.36) in co-treated and albendazole-treated patients. However, although not statistically significant, sub-group analysis showed a tendency for slightly more AEs in patients with filariasis

  9. THE WRITTEN DISCOURSE OF INTERVIEWING STYLE FOR A MAGAZINE INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Barrot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse

  10. Orthopaedic Sports Medicine Fellowship Interviews: Structure and Organization of the Interview Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haislup, Brett D; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Baweja, Rishi; McCarty, Eric C; Mulcahey, Mary K

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a trend toward an increasing subspecialization in orthopaedic surgery, with orthopaedic sports medicine being one of the most competitive subspecialties. Information regarding the application and interview process for sports medicine fellowships is currently lacking. To survey orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship program directors (PDs) to better define the structure of the sports medicine fellowship interview and to highlight important factors that PDs consider in selecting fellows. Cross-sectional study. A complete list of accredited programs was obtained from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website. An anonymous survey was distributed to fellowship PDs of all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited orthopaedic sports medicine fellowships in the United States. The survey included 12 questions about the fellowship interview and selection process. Of the 95 orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship PDs surveyed, 38 (40%) responded. Of these, 16 (42.1%) indicated that they interview between 21 and 30 applicants per year. Eleven of the 38 fellowship programs (28.9%) have only 1 fellow per year at their respective program. Most programs (27/37, 73%) reported that between 0 and 5 faculty members interview applicants, and 29 of the 38 programs (76.3%) arrange for applicants to have ≥4 interviews during their interview day. Large group interviews are conducted at 36 of 38 (94.7%) sports medicine fellowship programs, and most programs (24/38, 63.2%) hold individual interviews that last between 5 and 15 minutes. The most important applicant criterion taken into account by PDs was the quality of the interview, with an average score of 8.68 of 10. The most significant factor taken into account by PDs when deciding how to rank applicants was the quality of the interview. Many orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs interview between 21 and 30 applicants per year

  11. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603,838 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Fransson, Eleonor I; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A; Hamer, Mark; Hooftman, Wendela E; Houtman, Irene L; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lunau, Thorsten; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Shipley, Martin J; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; O'Reilly, Dermot; Kumari, Meena; Batty, G David; Ferrie, Jane E; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-10-31

    Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium and open-access data archives. We used cumulative random-effects meta-analysis to combine effect estimates from published and unpublished data. We included 25 studies from 24 cohorts in Europe, the USA, and Australia. The meta-analysis of coronary heart disease comprised data for 603,838 men and women who were free from coronary heart disease at baseline; the meta-analysis of stroke comprised data for 528,908 men and women who were free from stroke at baseline. Follow-up for coronary heart disease was 5·1 million person-years (mean 8·5 years), in which 4768 events were recorded, and for stroke was 3·8 million person-years (mean 7·2 years), in which 1722 events were recorded. In cumulative meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, compared with standard hours (35-40 h per week), working long hours (≥55 h per week) was associated with an increase in risk of incident coronary heart disease (relative risk [RR] 1·13, 95% CI 1·02-1·26; p=0·02) and incident stroke (1·33, 1·11-1·61; p=0·002). The excess risk of stroke remained unchanged in analyses that addressed reverse causation, multivariable adjustments for other risk factors, and different methods of stroke ascertainment (range of RR estimates 1·30-1·42). We recorded a dose-response association for stroke, with RR estimates of 1·10 (95% CI 0·94-1·28; p=0·24) for 41-48 working hours, 1·27 (1·03-1·56; p=0·03) for 49-54 working hours, and 1·33 (1·11-1·61; p

  12. Focused psychosocial interventions for children in low-resource humanitarian settings: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Purgato, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Results from studies evaluating the effectiveness of focused psychosocial support interventions in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low-income and middle-income countries have been inconsistent, showing varying results by setting and subgroup (eg, age or gender. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of these interventions, and to explore which children are likely to benefit most. Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD from 3143 children recruited to 11 randomised controlled trials of focused psychosocial support interventions versus waiting list. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycArticles, Web of Science, and the main local low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs databases according to the list of databases relevant to LMIC developed collaboratively by Cochrane and WHO Library, up to November, 2016. We included randomised controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of focused psychosocial support interventions in children exposed to traumatic events in LMICs, compared with waiting lists (eg, inactive controls. We excluded quasi-randomised trials, studies that did not focus on psychosocial support interventions, and studies that compared two active interventions without control conditions. We requested anonymised data from each trial for each of the prespecified variables for each child who was randomly assigned. The main outcomes considered were continuous scores in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms assessed with rating scales administered immediately (0–4 weeks after the intervention. We harmonised all individual items from rating scales using item response theory methods. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42013006960. Findings: We identified a beneficial effect of focused psychosocial support interventions on

  13. Characteristic interviews, different strategies: Methodological challenges in qualitative interviewing among respondents with mild intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten

    2014-06-01

    Conducting qualitative research interviews among individuals with intellectual disabilities, including cognitive limitations and difficulties in communication, presents particular research challenges. One question is whether the difficulties that informants encounter affect interviews to such an extent that the validity of the results is weakened. This article focuses on voluntary informed consent and the specific challenges with the greatest effects on such interviews. The discussion shows that complementary and meaningful descriptions from informants imply the need to employ alternative strategies and methods that may, in other contexts, challenge the traditional understanding of what is acceptable in research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS - 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The procedures for the above [Administrative Circular 26(Rev. 2)] will be as for 1999.The Appraisal Report form template is available as follows:For Macintosh usersConnect to the server SRV4-Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), and then use the volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word file 'MOAS FORM' is available in the folder COM, folder Public.For PC usersStart Word; in File + New, choose document 'CERN MOAS FORM' in CERN Template.In view of the wide use of the form template, and to reduce use of paper, only the first page, pre-printed with staff members' individual data, will be distributed to divisions on request. Otherwise, this data will be transmitted electronically only.Users of the electronic template are asked to be careful to copy accurately the personal data.Personnel DivisionTel. 74480

  15. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    that these are constructed in adherence with the IR’s formal neutrality as provided by the turn-taking system for the news interview. The paper suggests that debate interview cannot be adequately understood as organised according to one turn-taking system, but rather as organised by the turn-taking system for news......In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  16. [Suffering at work among medical students: qualitative study using semi-structured interviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Provost, A-S; Loddé, B; Pietri, J; De Parscau, L; Pougnet, L; Dewitte, J-D; Pougnet, R

    2018-01-01

    Suffering at work among health professionals is a hot topic. Medical students, doctors of tomorrow, are far from being spared. Prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders range from 20.3 to 69 % for the former and from 12 to 30 % for the latter. The purpose of this article is to determine these factors by qualitative research, according to medical students' points of view. It is a qualitative study using semistructured interviews. The analysis is done according to the Grounded Theory. 12 medical students are interviewed. They expressed difficulties at work and positive factors. Three major themes are identified in selective coding: occupational factors, " study " factors and individual factors. All themes are both a source of well-being and ill-being according to the situations specified in the results. Studying medicine includes positive and negative aspects. Abandonment issues, lack of recognition and insufficient coaching emerge from our study. Screening of suffering at work should be systematic for medical students.

  17. How GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice--a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jette V; Hansen, Helle P; Riisgaard, Helle; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Nexøe, Jørgen; Bro, Flemming; Søndergaard, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Clinical guidelines are considered to be essential for improving quality and safety of health care. However, interventions to promote implementation of guidelines have demonstrated only partial effectiveness and the reasons for this apparent failure are not yet fully understood. To investigate how GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice and how implementation approaches differ between practices. Individual semi-structured open-ended interviews with seven GPs who were purposefully sampled with regard to gender, age and practice form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and then analysed using systematic text condensation. Analysis of the interviews revealed three different approaches to the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice. In some practices the GPs prioritized time and resources on collective implementation activities and organized their everyday practice to support these activities. In other practices GPs discussed guidelines collectively but left the application up to the individual GP whilst others again saw no need for discussion or collective activities depending entirely on the individual GP's decision on whether and how to manage implementation. Approaches to implementation of clinical guidelines vary substantially between practices. Supporting activities should take this into account. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Can mock interviewers' personalities influence their personality ratings of applicants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Thomas; Macan, Therese

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined individual difference and self-regulatory variables to understand how an interviewer rates a candidate's personality. Participants were undergraduate students at a large midwestern university in the United States who completed measures of individual differences, read an employment interview transcript involving a candidate applying for a customer service job, and rated the candidate's personality. Participants' agreeableness, social skills, and communion striving were positively associated with their ratings of the candidate's helpfulness and obedience. The authors provide a foundation for further research on interviewer effectiveness and the processes underlying the employment interview.

  19. Exploring Individual, Social and Organisational Effects on Web 2.0-Based Workplace Learning: A Research Agenda for a Systematic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Kemp, Linzi

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0-based workplace learning is defined in this article as informal learning that takes place in the workplace through connections and collaborations mediated by Web 2.0 technology. Web 2.0-based workplace learning has the potential to enhance organisational learning and development. However, little systematic research has been published that…

  20. Systematic review including re-analyses of 1148 individual data sets of central venous pressure as a predictor of fluid responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, T G; Wetterslev, M; Perner, A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Central venous pressure (CVP) has been shown to have poor predictive value for fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients. We aimed to re-evaluate this in a larger sample subgrouped by baseline CVP values. METHODS: In April 2015, we systematically searched and included all clinical...

  1. Reducing Uncertainties About the Effects of Chemoradiotherapy for Cervical Cancer : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data From 18 Randomized Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vale, Claire; Tierney, Jayne F.; Stewart, Lesley A.; Brady, Mark; Dinshaw, Ketayun; Jakobsen, Anders; Parmar, Mahesh K. B.; Thomas, Gillian; Trimble, Ted; Alberts, David S.; Chen, Hongwei; Cikaric, Slobodan; Eifel, Patricia J.; Garipagaoglu, Melahat; Keys, Henry; Kantardzic, Nermina; Lal, Punita; Lanciano, Rachelle; Leborgne, Felix; Lorvidhaya, Vicharn; Onishi, Hiroshi; Pearcey, Robert G.; Pras, Elizabeth; Roberts, Kenneth; Rose, Peter G.; Thomas, Gillian; Whitney, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Background After a 1999 National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical alert was issued, chemoradiotherapy has become widely used in treating women with cervical cancer. Two subsequent systematic reviews found that interpretation of the benefits was complicated, and some important clinical questions were

  2. Which physical examination tests provide clinicians with the most value when examining the shoulder? Update of a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Goode, Adam P; Cook, Chad E; Michener, Lori; Myer, Cortney A; Myer, Daniel M; Wright, Alexis A

    2012-11-01

    To update our previously published systematic review and meta-analysis by subjecting the literature on shoulder physical examination (ShPE) to careful analysis in order to determine each tests clinical utility. This review is an update of previous work, therefore the terms in the Medline and CINAHL search strategies remained the same with the exception that the search was confined to the dates November, 2006 through to February, 2012. The previous study dates were 1966 - October, 2006. Further, the original search was expanded, without date restrictions, to include two new databases: EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies, version 2 (QUADAS 2) tool was used to critique the quality of each new paper. Where appropriate, data from the prior review and this review were combined to perform meta-analysis using the updated hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and bivariate models. Since the publication of the 2008 review, 32 additional studies were identified and critiqued. For subacromial impingement, the meta-analysis revealed that the pooled sensitivity and specificity for the Neer test was 72% and 60%, respectively, for the Hawkins-Kennedy test was 79% and 59%, respectively, and for the painful arc was 53% and 76%, respectively. Also from the meta-analysis, regarding superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, the test with the best sensitivity (52%) was the relocation test; the test with the best specificity (95%) was Yergason's test; and the test with the best positive likelihood ratio (2.81) was the compression-rotation test. Regarding new (to this series of reviews) ShPE tests, where meta-analysis was not possible because of lack of sufficient studies or heterogeneity between studies, there are some individual tests that warrant further investigation. A highly specific test (specificity >80%, LR+ ≥ 5.0) from a low bias study is the passive distraction test for a SLAP lesion. This test may

  3. Open Science Interview mit PA

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  4. Open Science Interview mit IB

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  5. Modified personal interviews: resurrecting reliable personal interviews for admissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Woods, Nicole N; Fechtig, Lindsey; Anderson, Geoff

    2012-10-01

    Traditional admissions personal interviews provide flexible faculty-student interactions but are plagued by low inter-interview reliability. Axelson and Kreiter (2009) retrospectively showed that multiple independent sampling (MIS) may improve reliability of personal interviews; thus, the authors incorporated MIS into the admissions process for medical students applying to the University of Toronto's Leadership Education and Development Program (LEAD). They examined the reliability and resource demands of this modified personal interview (MPI) format. In 2010-2011, LEAD candidates submitted written applications, which were used to screen for participation in the MPI process. Selected candidates completed four brief (10-12 minutes) independent MPIs each with a different interviewer. The authors blueprinted MPI questions to (i.e., aligned them with) leadership attributes, and interviewers assessed candidates' eligibility on a five-point Likert-type scale. The authors analyzed inter-interview reliability using the generalizability theory. Sixteen candidates submitted applications; 10 proceeded to the MPI stage. Reliability of the written application components was 0.75. The MPI process had overall inter-interview reliability of 0.79. Correlation between the written application and MPI scores was 0.49. A decision study showed acceptable reliability of 0.74 with only three MPIs scored using one global rating. Furthermore, a traditional admissions interview format would take 66% more time than the MPI format. The MPI format, used during the LEAD admissions process, achieved high reliability with minimal faculty resources. The MPI format's reliability and effective resource use were possible through MIS and employment of expert interviewers. MPIs may be useful for other admissions tasks.

  6. Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Depression and Prognosis in Persons With Myocardial Infarction: A MINDMAPS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, F.; McGee, H.; Conroy, R.; Conradi, H.J.; Meijer, E.; Steeds, A; Sato, H.; Stewart, D.; Parakh, K.; Carney, R.; Freedland, F.; Anselmino, M.; Pelletier, R.; Bos, E.; de Jonge, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Using combined individual patient data from prospective studies, we explored sex differences in depression and prognosis post-myocardial infarction (MI) and determined whether disease indices could account for found differences. Methods: Individual patient data analysis of 10,175 MI

  7. Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Depression and Prognosis in Persons With Myocardial Infarction : A MINDMAPS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Frank; Mcgee, Hannah; Conroy, Ronn; Conradi, Henk Jan; Meijer, Anna; Steeds, Richard; Sato, Hiroshi; Stewart, Donna E.; Parakh, Kapil; Carney, Robert; Freedland, Kenneth; Anselmino, Matteo; Pelletier, Roxanne; Bos, Elisabeth H.; de Jonge, Peter

    Objective: Using combined individual patient data from prospective studies, we explored sex differences in depression and prognosis post-myocardial infarction (MI) and determined whether disease indices could account for found differences. Methods: Individual patient data analysis of 10,175 MI

  8. Aikido Politics in Interview Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Phyllis Ghim Lian

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes how less powerful subjects in an unequal encounter, an admission interview in an educational institution, were able to counter the power directed at them by the more powerful subject through "aikido" strategies. In the context of the interview, harmonizing with the ideological discursive formation of the institution in question…

  9. An Interview with Noam Chomsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a transcript of an interview that the author conducted with Noam Chomsky. In this interview, Chomsky talks about language acquisition and his theory of Universal Grammar. He then explains how the USA best exemplifies the individualist national culture. He also cites the challenges researchers should address in intercultural…

  10. Det foto-eliciterede interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Det foto-eliciterede interview fremkalder informationer og fortællinger ud af fotografier, og støtter børn i at ytre sig.......Det foto-eliciterede interview fremkalder informationer og fortællinger ud af fotografier, og støtter børn i at ytre sig....

  11. Current Events. Interview: Nuyorican Dreamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainburn, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    Interviews Robert Torres, a Nuyorican who excelled at school and escaped the ghetto while his family remained, then made a documentary about the situation. This interview examines how poverty affects children; how teachers can help impoverished Hispanic students; how teachers helped him; how educators should be compensated; what making the…

  12. An Interview with Stephen Vitiello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Vitiello is a world-renowned contemporary sound artist whom the author has known as a colleague for several years. This article presents an interview about the overall body of Vitiello's work to date, and his thoughts on teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University. The interview explores the creative and noncreative tensions between…

  13. Applying conversation analysis to foster accurate reporting in the diet history interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, L C; Brenninger, V; Barnard, J

    2000-07-01

    Inaccuracy in reporting dietary intakes is a major problem in managing diet-related disease. There is no single best method of dietary assessment, but the diet history lends itself well to the clinical setting. In many diet histories data are collected orally, so analysis of interviews can provide insights into reporting behaviors. Conversation analysis is a qualitative method that describes the systematic organization of talk between people. Patterns are identified and checked for consistency within and among individual interviews. The aim of this study was to describe consistent ways of reporting diet histories and to identify conversational features of problematic reporting. Diet history interviews from 62 overweight and insulin-resistant adult volunteers (50 women, 12 men) attending an outpatient clinic and 14 healthy volunteers (7 men, 7 women) participating in an energy balance study were audiotaped and transcribed. Conversation analysis identified a remarkably consistent pattern of reporting diet histories and 3 conversational features that indicated problematic reporting: "it depends," denoting variability (least of all at breakfast); "probably," suggesting guesswork (related to portion sizes); and elaborated talk on certain foods, distinguishing sensitive topics (e.g., alcohol, chocolate, butter/margarine, take-out foods) from safe topics. These findings indicate that there are ways in which dietetics practitioners may conduct the diet history interview to foster more accurate reporting.

  14. Interview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozes, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    Programmed for this year, the debate for the Act concerning energy transition comes at a crucial moment in Francois Hollande's five year term of office. What is in store for the programme of renewable energy development? How will France reduce its nuclear energy share? Consultant Stephane Rozes invites elected representatives and State authorities to avoid being dogmatic. (author)

  15. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise; Hessel, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Laura Louise Sarauw har netop forsvaret sin ph.d.-afhandling i Pædagogik ved Københavns Universitet. Hun har undersøgt, hvordan det har påvirket ti humanistiske uddannelser, at deres studieordninger med universitetsreformen i 2003 blev skrevet om, så de fokuserede på de erhvervsmæssige kompetence...

  16. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise; Hollesen, Laika

    2011-01-01

    Det såkaldte humboldtske universitetsideal står i frit fald. Så det burde ikke komme som nogen overraskelse, at det demokratiske fundament slår revner. Det kommer i hvert fald ikke bag på Laura Louise Sarauw fra Københavns Universitet, der i sin ph.d.-afhandling har sat stort spørgsmålstegn ved d...

  17. A Diversity Exit Interview/Survey for the Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knouse, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    The exit interview and survey are means for identifying organizational problems, including diversity issues, through individuals separating from the organization, who are in a unique position to supply candid feedback...

  18. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype : Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parr, Jeremy R.; De Jonge, Maretha V.; Wallace, Simon; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael L.; Le Couteur, Ann S.; van Engeland, Herman; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Mcconachie, Helen; Roge, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Pedersen, Lennart; Isager, Torben; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and

  19. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  20. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics through personal household interviews. The results of NHIS provide data to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives.

  1. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  2. An Interview with Stella Adler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotte, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Details the life of Stella Adler, an actor, director, and teacher who studied with Stanislavsky. Includes an interview (conducted in 1974) which touches on her influences, teachers, theatre groups, and styles of acting. (PM)

  3. Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    Title: Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses: Spirit, Techniques, and Dilemmas in the Prevention of Child Obesity Introduction : School nurses play a central role in school-based, preventive health services in Denmark (National Board of Health, 2011), and they may play an important role...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...... behaviours related to lifestyle diseases in adults (Rubak et al. 2005; Söderlund et al. 2011). The use of motivational interviewing by school nurses for the prevention of child obesity in a family intervention is still new, and evidence on the potentials and problems is scarce (Resnicow, Davis and Rollnick...

  4. [Health behavior change: motivational interviewing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz

    2017-08-01

    Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.

  5. What interventions can improve quality of life or psychosocial factors of individuals with knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review with meta-analysis of primary outcomes from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Ferreira, Amanda Schenatto; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Pappas, Evangelos; De Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de

    2018-03-16

    To systematically review evidence of primary outcomes from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of treatment strategies on quality of life (QoL) or psychosocial factors in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Systematic review with meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Web of Science were searched from inception to November 2017. We included RCTs investigating the effect of conservative interventions on QoL or psychosocial factors in individuals with knee OA. Only RCTs considering these outcomes as primary were included. Pooled data supported the use of exercise therapy compared with controls for improving health-related and knee-related QoL. There was limited evidence that a combined treatment of yoga, transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound may be effective in improving QoL. Limited evidence supported the use of cognitive behavioural therapies (with or without being combined with exercise therapy) for improving psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy, depression and psychological distress. Exercise therapy (with or without being combined with other interventions) seems to be effective in improving health-related and knee-related QoL or psychosocial factors of individuals with knee OA. In addition, evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioural therapies (with or without exercise therapy) for improving psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy, depression and psychological distress in individuals with knee OA. CRD42016047602. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Interviewee Perceptions of Employment Screening Interviews: Relationships among Perceptions of Communication Satisfaction, Interviewer Credibility and Trust, Interviewing Experience, and Interview Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablin, Fredric M.; And Others

    A study examined employment screening interviews to determine the relationships between an interviewee's perceptions of interview communication satisfaction, interviewer credibility and trust, previous interviewing experiences, and a number of interview outcomes, including expectation of a second interview. Data were collected from 69 students…

  7. Systematic Avocating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Green

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeling obliged to undertake complex research tasks outside core working hours is a common occurrence in academia. Detailed and timely research projects are expected; the creation and defence of sufficient intervals within a crowded working schedule is one concern explored in this short version paper. Merely working longer hours fails to provide a satisfactory solution for individuals experiencing concerns of this nature. Personal effort and drive are utilised and requires the application of mental mustering and systematic procedures. The attitude to research work is treating the task as a hobby conceptualised as avocating. Whilst this provides a personal solution through immersion in the task, this approach should raise concerns for employers. The flexibility of grounded theory is evident and the freedom to draw on various bodies of knowledge provides fresh insight into a problem that occurs in organizations in many sectors experiencing multiple priorities. The application of the core category, systematic avocating, may prove beneficial.

  8. Sickness absence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychological treatments for individuals on sick leave due to common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsson, Sigrid; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2018-01-30

    Sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMDs) increase rapidly and present a major societal challenge. The overall effect of psychological interventions to reduce sick leave and symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated and there is a need for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the field. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to calculate the effect size of psychological interventions for CMDs on sick leave and psychiatric symptoms based on all published randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality, the risk of bias and publication bias were also assessed. The literature searches gave 2240 hits and 45 studies were included. The psychological interventions were more effective than care as usual on both reduced sick leave (g = 0.15) and symptoms (g = 0.21). There was no significant difference in effect between work focused interventions, problem-solving therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy or collaborative care. We conclude that psychological interventions are more effective than care as usual to reduce sick leave and symptoms but the effect sizes are small. More research is needed on psychological interventions that evaluate effects on sick leave. Consensual measures of sick leave should be established and quality of psychotherapy for patients on sick leave should be improved.

  9. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  10. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Document Server

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  11. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy R; De Jonge, Maretha V; Wallace, Simon; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael L; Le Couteur, Ann S; van Engeland, Herman; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; McConachie, Helen; Roge, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Pedersen, Lennart; Isager, Torben; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and describe the development strategy and findings from the interviews. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium data were collected from families containing at least two individuals with autism. Comparison of the informant and self-report interviews was restricted to samples in which the interviews were undertaken by different researchers from that site (251 UK informants, 119 from the Netherlands). Researchers produced vignettes that were rated blind by others. Retest reliability was assessed in 45 participants. Agreement between live scoring and vignette ratings was very high. Retest stability for the interviews was high. Factor analysis indicated a first factor comprising social-communication items and rigidity (but not other repetitive domain items), and a second factor comprised mainly of reading and spelling impairments. Whole scale Cronbach's alphas were high for both interviews. The correlation between interviews for factor 1 was moderate (adult items 0.50; childhood items 0.43); Kappa values for between-interview agreement on individual items were mainly low. The correlations between individual items and total score were moderate. The inclusion of several factor 2 items lowered the overall Cronbach's alpha for the total set. Both interview measures showed good reliability and substantial stability over time, but the findings were better for factor 1 than factor 2. We recommend factor 1 scores be used for characterising the BAP. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  12. Implementation of the Individual Placement and Support approach for people with mental illness – a systematic review of facilitators and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Inge Storgaard; Hansen, Henrik; Stentoft Dalum, Helle

    2015-01-01

    /evaluations and reviews included in the review. Results: Factors influencing the implementation process exist on the contextual, local organizational, cooperation/team and individual level. There is an inherent interdependency between various factors. Key element is the use of fidelity scale and skilled local leadership...... and IPS specialist. A general awareness towards how attitudes, values and institutional logics influence the implementation process is needed to change the systems logic from a “caring perspective” towards a” rehabilitation approach”. Conclusion: Existing research points to how multiple factors influence...

  13. Current evidence of anti-tumor necrosis factor α treatment efficacy in childhood chronic uveitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis approach of individual drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonini, Gabriele; Druce, Katie; Cimaz, Rolando; Macfarlane, Gary J; Jones, Gareth T

    2014-07-01

    To summarize evidence regarding the effectiveness of anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) treatments in childhood autoimmune chronic uveitis (ACU), refractory to previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A systematic search between January 2000 and October 2012 was conducted using EMBase, Ovid Medline, Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Reviews: American College of Physicians Journal Club, Cochrane libraries, and EBM Reviews. Studies investigating the efficacy of anti-TNFα therapy, in children ages ≤16 years, as the first treatment with a biologic agent for ACU, refractory to topical and/or systemic steroid therapy and at least 1 DMARD, were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of intraocular inflammation, as defined by the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group criteria. We determined a combined estimate of the proportion of children responding to anti-TNFα treatment, including etanercept (ETA), infliximab (INF), or adalimumab (ADA). We initially identified 989 articles, of which 148 were potentially eligible. In total, 22 retrospective chart reviews and 1 randomized clinical trial were deemed eligible, thus including 229 children (ADA: n = 31, ETA: n = 54, and INF: n = 144). On pooled analysis of observational studies, the proportion of responding children was 87% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 75-98%) for ADA, 72% (95% CI 64-79%) for INF, and 33% (95% CI 19-47%) for ETA. There was no difference in the proportion of responders between ADA and INF (χ(2) = 3.06, P = 0.08), although both showed superior efficacy compared with ETA (ADA versus ETA: χ(2) = 20.9, P < 0.001 and INF versus ETA: χ(2) = 20.9, P < 0.001). Although randomized controlled trials are needed, the available evidence suggests that INF and ADA provide proven similar benefits in the treatment of childhood ACU, and they are both superior to ETA. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Boost first, eliminate systematic error, and individualize CTV to PTV margin when treating lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Peter J.; Schreibmann, Eduard; Jani, Ashesh B.; Master, Viraj A.; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to evaluate the movement of the planning target volume (PTV) in relation to the pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) during treatment of high-risk prostate cancer. Patients and methods: We reviewed the daily treatment course of ten consecutively treated patients with high-risk prostate cancer. PLNs were included in the initial PTV for each patient. Daily on-board imaging of gold fiducial markers implanted in the prostate was used; daily couch shifts were made as needed and recorded. We analyzed how the daily couch shifts impacted the dose delivered to the PLN. Results: A PLN clinical target volume was identified in each man using CT-based treatment planning. At treatment planning, median minimum planned dose to the PLN was 95%, maximum 101%, and mean 97%. Daily couch shifting to prostate markers degraded the dose slightly; median minimum dose to the PLN was 92%, maximum, 101%, and mean delivered, 96%. We found two cases, where daily systematic shifts resulted in an underdosing of the PLN by 9% and 29%, respectively. In other cases, daily shifts were random and led to a mean 2.2% degradation of planned to delivered PLN dose. Conclusions: We demonstrated degradation of the delivered dose to PLN PTV, which may occur if daily alignment only to the prostate is considered. To improve PLN PTV, it maybe preferable to deliver the prostate/boost treatment first, and adapt the PTV of the pelvic/nodal treatment to uncertainties documented during prostate/boost treatment

  15. Turning the spotlight: Looking at the interviewers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Randi Skovbjerg

    questions with quantitative, qualitative, and C A inspired analyses: How do two interviewers behave in the sociolinguistic interviews which they themselves classify as good or bad interviews? And how does this relate to their own ideals for the sociolinguistic interview? How is it possible to approach...... interviews. For instance, the interviewers tend to take more of the initiatives to change the topic and ask more questions in their bad interviews than in their good interviews. Further studies of the female interviewer's best and worst interview show that rapport is achieved in her best but spoiled in her...... to questions. The studies make it clear that success and failure is not just one thing. The studies reveal great complexity and confirm that there are differences between the interviewers' best and worst interviews as well as between the two interviewers. Studying four interviews of each of the two...

  16. Neuropsychology and emotion processing in violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia: The same or different? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Ottilie; Young, Susan; Baumeister, David; Greer, Ben; Das, Mrigendra; Kumari, Veena

    2017-12-01

    To assess whether there are shared or divergent (a) cognitive and (b) emotion processing characteristics among violent individuals with antisocial personality disorder and/or schizophrenia, diagnoses which are commonly encountered at the interface of mental disorder and violence. Cognition and emotion processing are incorporated into models of violence, and thus an understanding of these characteristics within and between disorder groups may help inform future models and therapeutic targets. Relevant databases (OVID, Embase, PsycINFO) were searched to identify suitable literature. Meta-analyses comparing cognitive function in violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder to healthy controls were conducted. Neuropsychological studies not comparing these groups to healthy controls, and emotion processing studies, were evaluated qualitatively. Meta-analyses indicated lower IQ, memory and executive function in both violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder groups compared to healthy controls. The degree of deficit was consistently larger in violent schizophrenia. Both antisocial personality disorder and violent schizophrenia groups had difficulties in aspects of facial affect recognition, although theory of mind results were less conclusive. Psychopathic traits related positively to experiential emotion deficits across the two disorders. Very few studies explored comorbid violent schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder despite this being common in clinical practice. There are qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, neuropsychological and emotion processing deficits in violent individuals with schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder which could be developed into transdiagnostic treatment targets for violent behaviour. Future research should aim to characterise specific subgroups of violent offenders, including those with comorbid diagnoses.

  17. Ralph Mero: An Omega Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents interview with Ralph Mero, Executive Director of Compassion in Dying, Seattle (Washington)-based organization that has brought new voice to controversial issue of physician-assisted rational suicide. Mero explains how his years as minister watching people suffer with cancer or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome led him to work for…

  18. Aluminium and energy. An interview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, E R

    1978-06-01

    The interview between METALL and the president of Aluswuisse refers mainly to aspects of energy and deals more closely with the questions whether western Europe in view of relatively high prices for electricity is still competitive and which part can be played by aluminium in overcoming the energy crisis.

  19. Zum Interview mit Arthur Schnitzler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkert, Ernst-Ullrich

    2015-01-01

    Kommentar til et interview med Schnitzler, som dagbladet Politiken publicerede i 1923 og som E.U.Pinkert oversatte til tysk. Oversættelsen udkom den 28.11.2015 i Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung med titlen "Eine Gefahr für die Jugend?"...

  20. Interviews with Selectively Mute Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omdal, Heidi; Galloway, David

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of selective mutism usually takes place in a clinic, where the child often refuses to speak to the therapist. The challenge when trying to understand the child's own perspective is to find a medium for communication. Three selectively mute children were interviewed using Raven's Controlled Projection for Children (RCPC). The…

  1. Mathematical people profiles and interviews

    CERN Document Server

    Albers, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This unique collection contains extensive and in-depth interviews with mathematicians who have shaped the field of mathematics in the twentieth century. Collected by two mathematicians respected in the community for their skill in communicating mathematical topics to a broader audience, the book is also rich with photographs and includes an introduction by Philip J. Davis.

  2. An Interview with Lance Olsen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Segal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With over twenty books to his name, as editor or author, Lance Olsen is a cultural force unto himself. His latest book with Trevor Dodge, Architectures of Possibility (Raw Dog Screaming Press, is a writer's guide against transparent language, and predictable patterned literary convention. In this interview Olsen discusses radical pedagogy and experimental narrative theory and its practice.

  3. Interview with Mike Parker Pearson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. T. Williams

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mike Parker Pearson is the Institute of Archaeology’s newly appointed Professor of British Later Prehistory. In this interview he reflects on his experience at the birth of post-processualism, current problems and opportunities in modern archaeology, and the subject for which he is best known: Stonehenge.

  4. Primary Science Interview: Science Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…

  5. Ian Stevenson: An Omega Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Presents interview with Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Division of Personality Studies, in Department of Psychiatric Medicine at University of Virginia (Charlottesville). Discusses one controversial topic in area of death studies, cases suggestive of reincarnation. Describes first case he investigated, method of inquiry used to investigate…

  6. Dependent Interviewing and Sub-Optimal Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Eggs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.

  7. An interview with Angela Nieto. Interviewed by Eva Amsen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Angela

    2012-04-01

    Angela Nieto is Full Professor at the Instituto de Neurociencias (CSIC-UMH) in Alicante, Spain, and Head of the institute's Developmental Neurobiology Unit. She is also the current president of the Spanish Society for Developmental Biology (Sociedad Española de Biología del Desarollo, SEBD). We interviewed her to talk about the plans of the SEBD for the coming years.

  8. Refining a brief decision aid in stable CAD: cognitive interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Blake, Karen; Clark, Stacie; Dontje, Katherine; Olomu, Adesuwa; Henry, Rebecca C; Rovner, David R; Rothert, Marilyn L; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret

    2014-02-13

    We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the "Making Choices©" Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the "think aloud" interview technique to assess the clarity, usefulness, and design of each page of the DA. Participants identified three main messages: 1) patients have multiple options based on stress tests and they should be discussed with a physician, 2) take care of yourself, 3) the stress test is the gold standard for determining the severity of your heart disease. Revisions corrected the inaccurate assumption of item number three. Cognitive interviews proved critical for engaging patients in the development process and highlighted the necessity of clear message development and use of design principles that make decision materials easy to read and easy to use. Cognitive interviews appear to contribute critical information from the patient perspective to the overall systematic development process for designing decision aids.

  9. The effects of resistance training on muscle strength, joint pain, and hand function in individuals with hand osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Nicoló Edoardo; McNair, Peter John; Rice, David Andrew

    2017-06-13

    Hand osteoarthritis is a common condition characterised by joint pain and muscle weakness. These factors are thought to contribute to ongoing disability. Some evidence exists that resistance training decreases pain, improves muscle strength, and enhances function in people with knee and hip osteoarthritis. However, there is currently a lack of consensus regarding its effectiveness in people with hand osteoarthritis. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish whether resistance training in people with hand osteoarthritis increases grip strength, decreases joint pain, and improves hand function. Seven databases were searched from 1975 until July 1, 2016. Randomised controlled trials were included. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess studies' methodological quality. The Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system was adopted to rate overall quality of evidence. Suitable studies were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Five studies were included with a total of 350 participants. The majority of the training programs did not meet recommended intensity, frequency, or progression criteria for muscle strengthening. There was moderate-quality evidence that resistance training does not improve grip strength (mean difference = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.84, 3.54; I 2  = 50%; p = 0.23 ). Low-quality evidence showed significant improvements in joint pain (standardised mean difference (SMD) = -0.23; 95% CI = -0.42, -0.04; I 2  = 0%; p = 0.02) which were not clinically relevant. Low-quality evidence demonstrated no improvements in hand function following resistance training (SMD = -0.1; 95% CI = -0.33, 0.13; I 2  = 28%; p = 0.39). There is no evidence that resistance training has a significant effect on grip strength or hand function in people with hand osteoarthritis. Low-quality evidence suggests it has a small, clinically

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 130,000 individuals shows smoking does not modify the association of APOE genotype on risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Melis, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    events in 130,004 individuals of European descent were identified. The odds ratio (OR) for CHD risk from APOE genotype (ε4 carriers versus non-carriers) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.12) and for smoking (present vs. past/never smokers) was OR 2.05 (95%CI: 1.95, 2.14). When...... the association between APOE genotype and CHD was stratified by smoking status, compared to non-ε4 carriers, ε4 carriers had an OR of 1.11 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.21) in 28,789 present smokers and an OR of 1.04 (95%CI 0.98, 1.10) in 101,215 previous/never smokers, with no evidence of effect modification (P...

  11. Healthcare professionals experience with motivational interviewing in their encounter with obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Hansen, Helle Puggård

    2014-01-01

    healthcare professionals. Sample(size?): Eleven healthcare professionals. Methods: A qualitative descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional’s experiences were recorded during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed......Aim: To explore how healthcare professionals experience motivational interviewing as a useful? technique when working with pregnant women with obesity. Design: A qualitative, descriptive study based on interviews with eleven healthcare professionals. Setting: Face to face interviews with obstetric...

  12. Analysing the significance of silence in qualitative interviewing: questioning and shifting power relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Fynbo, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In this article we analyse the significance of silence in qualitative interviews with 36 individuals interviewed about high-risk, illegal activities. We describe how silence expresses a dynamic power relationship between interviewer and interviewee. In the analysis, we focus on two different types...... significant data. We conclude that silence constitutes possibilities for interviewees and interviewers to handle the complex power at play in qualitative interviewing either by maintaining or by losing control of the situation....

  13. Economic, Labor, and Regulatory Moderators of the Effect of Individual Placement and Support Among People With Severe Mental Illness: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Justin D; Drake, Robert E; Bond, Gary R

    2018-01-13

    As Individual Placement and Support (IPS) has become the international standard for vocational rehabilitation of adults with serious mental illness, researchers must consider the relationship between IPS and local environments. This meta-analysis used mixed-effects meta-regressions to assess the impact of site-level moderators on the likelihood that IPS recipients, compared with recipients of alternative vocational services, achieved competitive employment. Potential moderators included change in gross domestic product (GDP), local unemployment and unionization rates, and indices describing employment protection regulations, level of disability benefits compensation, and efforts to integrate people with disabilities into the workforce. Regulatory moderators represent facilitators and barriers to employment that may reinforce or detract from the effectiveness of IPS. Across 30 sites drawn from 21 randomized controlled trials in 12 countries (33% in the United States), IPS recipients were 2.31 (95% CI 1.99-2.69) times more likely to find competitive employment than recipients of alternative vocational rehabilitation services. The significant competitive-employment rate advantage of IPS over control services increased in the presence of weaker employment protection legislation and integration efforts, and less generous disability benefits. Policy makers should recognize and account for the fact that labor and disability regulations can create an arrangement of incentives that reduces the relative efficacy of supported employment. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Stackwalker: Interviews: 2008-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newby, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    , occupancy, and mobility) and forms of communal organisation that have developed within these communities. These are set against processes of archiving and documentation in terms of historical and legal practices. The book collates the transcribed interviews and provides an introductory essay setting them...... in context.This artist's book follows the exhibition, Fields, Factories and Workshops at the Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow, 7 August – 18 September 2010.English language text with Gaelic, Polish, Russian, Latvian and Lithuanian sections....

  15. Comparative safety and effectiveness of cognitive enhancers for Alzheimer's dementia: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Straus, Sharon E; Ashoor, Huda M; Hamid, Jemila S; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Majumdar, Sumit R; McAuley, Glenn; Tricco, Andrea C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and several organisations, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, suggest that management of patients with AD should be tailored to their needs. To date, little research has been conducted on the treatment effect in different subgroups of patients with AD. The aim of this study is to examine the comparative effectiveness and safety of cognitive enhancers for different patient characteristics. Methods and analysis We will update our previous literature search from January 2015 forward, using the same terms and electronic databases (eg, MEDLINE) from our previous review. We will additionally search grey literature and scan the reference lists of the included studies. Randomised clinical trials of any duration conducted at any time comparing cognitive enhancers alone or in any combination against other cognitive enhancers, or placebo in adults with AD will be eligible. The outcomes of interest are cognition according to the Mini-Mental State Examination, and overall serious adverse events. For each outcome and treatment comparison, we will perform a Bayesian hierarchical random-effects meta-analysis combining the individual patient data (IPD) from each eligible study. If the identified treatment comparisons form a connected network diagram, we will perform an IPD network meta-analysis (NMA) to estimate subgroup effects for patients with different characteristics, such as AD severity and sex. We will combine aggregated data from studies that we will not be able to obtain IPD, with the IPD provided by the original authors, in a single model. We will use the PRISMA-IPD and PRISMA-NMA statements to report our findings. Ethics and dissemination The findings of this study will be of interest to stakeholders, including decision makers, guideline developers, clinicians, methodologists and patients, and they will help to improve guidelines for the management of patients with AD

  16. Interviewing Ghanaian Educational Elites: Strategies for Access, Commitment, and Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Hope Pius Nudzor

    2013-01-01

    A review of the research methodology literature suggests that owing to the difficulty of gaining access to and obtaining commitments from elites, social scientists less frequently use them as research respondents, opting instead to investigate those over whom power is exercised. This article provides insights into some intricacies of elite interviewing. It recounts the experience of a novice researcher in his quest to gain access to and interview elite individuals within the Ghanaian educatio...

  17. The Next Generation of Psychological Autopsy Studies: Part 2. Interview Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brent, David A.; Conwell, Yeates; Phillips, Michael R.; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The psychological autopsy (PA) is a systematic method of assessing the psychological and contextual circumstances preceding suicide. The method requires interviews with one or more proxy respondents (i.e., informants) of suicide decedents. Procedural challenges that need to be addressed to conduct PA interviews are described in this article and…

  18. An Interview with Steven Millhauser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Février

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Etienne Février : I would like to begin this interview with a question about architecture. Images of architecture appear frequently in your fiction, from Martin Dressler to more recent collections like Dangerous Laughter. In that collection’s “thirteen stories,” we find a tower reaching all the way to heaven, a life-size replica of a town so precise that even the “levels of salt in the saltshakers” match those of the original town, and a series of outwardly expanding domes—covering a house, f...

  19. Interview with Dr Anna Matamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-09-01

    In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.

  20. Interview with Dr Anna Matamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.

  1. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  2. Enhancing motivational interviewing training in a family medicine clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltman, Stacey; WinklerPrins, Vincent; Serrano, Adriana; Talisman, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of unhealthy behaviors among patients in the healthcare system, traditional medical training involves little or no exposure to effective behavior change techniques such as Motivational Interviewing. An online learning community for enhanced training in Motivational Interviewing was developed for 3rd-year medical students. The website included educational materials about Motivational Interviewing as well as problematic health behaviors, a repository of exemplar videos and student videos with feedback, and a discussion board. Student participants were given the opportunity to record an encounter with a patient and to receive feedback on their use of Motivational Interviewing from a faculty member. Student volunteers in the Family Medicine Clerkship at Georgetown University School of Medicine were randomized to enhanced training, which included the online learning community, or training as usual. All student volunteers completed a questionnaire assessing self-efficacy initially and at the end of the clerkship. Students also participated in an Observed Structured Clinical Exam, which was subsequently coded by a blinded rater for behavioral counts of Motivational Interviewing techniques, key steps in Motivational Interviewing, and overall Motivational Interviewing style. Students in the enhanced training arm were rated as having significantly higher scores in Motivational Interviewing style in the Observed Structured Clinical Exam than training as usual students. A significant increase in self-efficacy from pre- to posttest in the overall sample was observed but between-group differences were not significant. Student feedback was particularly positive regarding video recorded practice sessions with patients and individualized feedback. The results of this study as well as student feedback suggest that future work should include patient practice sessions and individualized feedback in developing Motivational Interviewing curricula.

  3. 8 CFR 245.6 - Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interview. 245.6 Section 245.6 Aliens and... ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.6 Interview. Each applicant for adjustment of status under this part shall be interviewed by an immigration officer. This interview may be waived in the case of a child...

  4. 8 CFR 1245.6 - Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interview. 1245.6 Section 1245.6 Aliens and... OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSON ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 1245.6 Interview. Each applicant for adjustment of status under this part shall be interviewed by an immigration officer. This interview may be...

  5. 49 CFR 1018.22 - Personal interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal interviews. 1018.22 Section 1018.22... § 1018.22 Personal interviews. (a) The Board may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the... grant an interview with a debtor upon the debtor's request. The Board will not reimburse a debtor's...

  6. Use of interviews in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary

    2015-06-24

    Conducting interviews is one of the most common ways of collecting data in healthcare research. In particular, interviews are associated with qualitative research, where researchers seek to understand participants' experiences through their own words and perspectives. This article will help healthcare researchers prepare to carry out interviews as part of their research. It will also emphasise important skills to consider during the interview process. Consideration will also be given to remedying interviews that do not go according to plan, as well as identifying appropriate debriefing processes post-interview. With this knowledge, healthcare researchers are more likely to conduct effective interviews that will yield better quality data and protect the participant.

  7. Managing and Creating an Image in the Interview: The Role of Interviewee Initial Impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Brian W.; Barrick, Murray R.; Harris, T. Brad; Stoverink, Adam C.

    2011-01-01

    In employment interviews, individuals use impression management tactics to present themselves as suitable candidates to interviewers. However, not all impression management tactics, or the interviewees who employ them, are effective at positively influencing interview scores. Results of this study indicate that the relationship between impression…

  8. Perception of the Capabilities and Personality of a Blind Interviewer by Hong Kong Chinese Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Brian; Mei, Lan Au

    1986-01-01

    Presents the results of a study which examined the attitudes of 46 experienced teachers toward a blind Cantonese speaking interviewer. Experimental group teachers (n=23) were led to believe the interviewer was blind. Results showed that the blind interviewer was perceived more positively than the sighted individual. (JDH)

  9. Interviewing: Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 12

    OpenAIRE

    Bronwen McDonald; Patricia Rogers

    2014-01-01

    Interviews are easy to do badly and hard to do well - good planning, adequate time and appropriate skills are required. The type of interview should be carefully chosen to suit the situation rather than choosing a type of interview (such as focus groups) simply because it is commonly used. Interviews with children raise particular ethical issues that need to be carefully considered and fully addressed. This brief outlines key issues to consider in planning interviews for impact evaluation, ta...

  10. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Yurchikhin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A preflight interview with mission specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin is presented. He worked for a long time in Energia in the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC). Yurchikhin discusses the main goal of the STS-112 flight, which is to install the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss) on the International Space Station. He also talks about the three space walks required to install the S1. After the installation of S1, work with the bolts and cameras are performed. Yurchikhin is involved in working with nitrogen and ammonia jumpers. He expresses the complexity of his work, but says that he and the other crew members are ready for the challenge.

  11. Leaning in to "muddy" interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, qualitative research has been acknowledged as a peopled practice in which subjectivities come into play. The main argument presented in this article is that qualitative research involves “muddy,” troublesome, interactional passages, because of a complex interplay between...... situated identities among the participants cross each other. We emphasize the value of daring to lean in to the muddiness of peopled research, use it as an analytical tool and present it in its imperfect form. This approach contributes to transparency in qualitative research, opens up the data in a new way...... subjectivities, situated identities, emotions, and conversational genres. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish Vocational Educational Training College, we introduce the concept of “leaning in” to provide an analytical grasp of the “muddy” interactional tension field in an interview situation, in which...

  12. An Interview with Ralph Clare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Gonzalez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fictions Inc., and this interview, offers detailed readings of a diverse body of texts that, in one way or another, push readers to think about the role of the corporation in 20th and 21st century America. Using a complex set of critical tools—historicizing the rise in the pharmaceutical industry in the 1980s to read White Noise; drawing on Slavoj Žižek and Louis Althusser to explain the model of resistance that appears in Crying of Lot 49; looking at 1980s gentrification policies and government outsourcing while discussing Ghostbusters—Clare generates a series of insights about the fears and the desires embodied in the corporation. What he finds is that older avenues of resistance to consumer capitalism have closed, but the desire to imagine new ones, and maybe create them, remains open.

  13. Contextualising eating problems in individual diet counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Tange; Køster, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Health professionals consider diet to be a vital component in managing weight, chronic diseases and the overall promotion of health. This article takes the position that the complexity and contextual nature of individual eating problems needs to be addressed in a more systematic and nuanced way...... than is usually the case in diet counselling, motivational interviewing and health coaching. We suggest the use of narrative practice as a critical and context-sensitive counselling approach to eating problems. Principles of externalisation and co-researching are combined within a counselling framework...... sessions, exploration of the complex structures of food and eating with the client can provide agency by helping them navigate within the context of the problem. We also exemplify why a reflexive and critical approach to the way health is perceived by clients should be an integrated part of diet...

  14. Protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of prognostic factors of foot ulceration in people with diabetes: the international research collaboration for the prediction of diabetic foot ulcerations (PODUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Fay; Anandan, Chantelle; Chappell, Francesca M; Murray, Gordon D; Price, Jacqueline F; Sheikh, Aziz; Simpson, Colin R; Maxwell, Martin; Stansby, Gerard P; Young, Matthew J; Abbott, Caroline A; Boulton, Andrew J M; Boyko, Edward J; Kastenbauer, Thomas; Leese, Graham P; Monami, Matteo; Monteiro-Soares, Matilde; Rith-Najarian, Stephen J; Veves, Aristidis; Coates, Nikki; Jeffcoate, William J; Leech, Nicola; Fahey, Tom; Tierney, Jayne

    2013-02-15

    Diabetes-related lower limb amputations are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality and are usually preceded by foot ulceration. The available systematic reviews of aggregate data are compromised because the primary studies report both adjusted and unadjusted estimates. As adjusted meta-analyses of aggregate data can be challenging, the best way to standardise the analytical approach is to conduct a meta-analysis based on individual patient data (IPD).There are however many challenges and fundamental methodological omissions are common; protocols are rare and the assessment of the risk of bias arising from the conduct of individual studies is frequently not performed, largely because of the absence of widely agreed criteria for assessing the risk of bias in this type of review. In this protocol we propose key methodological approaches to underpin our IPD systematic review of prognostic factors of foot ulceration in diabetes.Review questions;1. What are the most highly prognostic factors for foot ulceration (i.e. symptoms, signs, diagnostic tests) in people with diabetes?2. Can the data from each study be adjusted for a consistent set of adjustment factors?3. Does the model accuracy change when patient populations are stratified according to demographic and/or clinical characteristics? MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from their inception until early 2012 were searched and the corresponding authors of all eligible primary studies invited to contribute their raw data. We developed relevant quality assurance items likely to identify occasions when study validity may have been compromised from several sources. A confidentiality agreement, arrangements for communication and reporting as well as ethical and governance considerations are explained.We have agreement from the corresponding authors of all studies which meet the eligibility criteria and they collectively possess data from more than 17000 patients. We propose, as a provisional analysis plan, to use a

  15. Subgrouping and TargetEd Exercise pRogrammes for knee and hip OsteoArthritis (STEER OA): a systematic review update and individual participant data meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Melanie A; Burke, Danielle L; Runhaar, Jos; van Der Windt, Danielle; Riley, Richard D; Dziedzic, Krysia; Legha, Amardeep; Evans, Amy L; Abbott, J Haxby; Baker, Kristin; Brown, Jenny; Bennell, Kim L; Bossen, Daniël; Brosseau, Lucie; Chaipinyo, Kanda; Christensen, Robin; Cochrane, Tom; de Rooij, Mariette; Doherty, Michael; French, Helen P; Hickson, Sheila; Hinman, Rana S; Hopman-Rock, Marijke; Hurley, Michael V; Ingram, Carol; Knoop, Jesper; Krauss, Inga; McCarthy, Chris; Messier, Stephen P; Patrick, Donald L; Sahin, Nilay; Talbot, Laura A; Taylor, Robert; Teirlinck, Carolien H; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Walker, Christine; Foster, Nadine E

    2017-12-22

    Knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Therapeutic exercise is a recommended core treatment for people with knee and hip OA, however, the observed effect sizes for reducing pain and improving physical function are small to moderate. This may be due to insufficient targeting of exercise to subgroups of people who are most likely to respond and/or suboptimal content of exercise programmes. This study aims to identify: (1) subgroups of people with knee and hip OA that do/do not respond to therapeutic exercise and to different types of exercise and (2) mediators of the effect of therapeutic exercise for reducing pain and improving physical function. This will enable optimal targeting and refining the content of future exercise interventions. Systematic review and individual participant data meta-analyses. A previous comprehensive systematic review will be updated to identify randomised controlled trials that compare the effects of therapeutic exercise for people with knee and hip OA on pain and physical function to a non-exercise control. Lead authors of eligible trials will be invited to share individual participant data. Trial-level and participant-level characteristics (for baseline variables and outcomes) of included studies will be summarised. Meta-analyses will use a two-stage approach, where effect estimates are obtained for each trial and then synthesised using a random effects model (to account for heterogeneity). All analyses will be on an intention-to-treat principle and all summary meta-analysis estimates will be reported as standardised mean differences with 95% CI. Research ethical or governance approval is exempt as no new data are being collected and no identifiable participant information will be shared. Findings will be disseminated via national and international conferences, publication in peer-reviewed journals and summaries posted on websites accessed by the public and clinicians. CRD42017054049. © Article

  16. Interview: William and Barbara Christopher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Exceptional Children, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Asserting that the biggest mistake educators can make is to set themselves up as experts vis-a-vis parents as amateurs, Barbara and William Christopher emphasize the importance of continued education for the autistic individual and relate their experiences with the educational community as they sought help for their autistic son. (JC)

  17. Profile Interview: Dr. Sufia Dadabhai

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV in the community and it was driving fear and anxiety, leading to violence. .... HIV-infected individuals but also nearly eliminate the risk .... This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This is an ...

  18. Interviewing Ghanaian Educational Elites: Strategies for Access, Commitment, and Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Pius Nudzor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A review of the research methodology literature suggests that owing to the difficulty of gaining access to and obtaining commitments from elites, social scientists less frequently use them as research respondents, opting instead to investigate those over whom power is exercised. This article provides insights into some intricacies of elite interviewing. It recounts the experience of a novice researcher in his quest to gain access to and interview elite individuals within the Ghanaian educational system for his PhD thesis. In the process, the article sheds light on strategies and techniques (related to interviewee identification, scheduling, and researcher preparation for the interview, as well as rapport establishment with potential interviewees that are helpful as toolkits in ensuring that elite interview processes are not unduly derailed. The article argues that the strategies discussed are useful for circumventing formalised and “public relations” responses, which elites tend to communicate with the press and public.

  19. The impact of using peer interviewers in a study of patient empowerment amongst people in cancer follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Clara R; Eskildsen, Nanna B; Thomsen, Thora G

    2018-01-01

    their experiences. RESULTS: Differences were identified between the academic researcher and the peer interviewers in the types of questions they asked and the degree to which personal narrative was used in the interview. Peer interviewers varied significantly in their approach. Research participants were positive......BACKGROUND: A range of benefits have been reported from engaging peer interviewers in qualitative interviews, but little systematic evaluation exists to assess their impact on both process and outcomes of qualitative interviews in health research. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of involving...... patient representatives as peer interviewers in a research project on patient empowerment. DESIGN: 18 interviews were carried out as part of the wider study, seven by the academic researcher alone and eleven jointly with a peer interviewer. The interviews were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively...

  20. Interview with James Bradner. Interviewed by Hannah Coaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, James E

    2013-08-01

    James E Bradner is an Assistant Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School (MA, USA) as well as a Staff Physician in the Division of Hematologic Malignancies at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (MA, USA). The present research focus of the Bradner laboratory concerns the discovery and optimization of prototype drugs targeting cancer gene regulation. The clinical objective of the Bradner group is to deliver novel therapeutics for human clinical investigation in hematologic diseases. Bradner's awards and honors include the Damon Runyon-Rachleff Innovation Award, the Smith Family Award for Excellence in Biomedical Research, the Dunkin' Donuts Rising Star Award and the HMS Distinguished Excellence in Teaching Award. He is a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the American Society of Hematology, the American Chemical Society and the American Association of Cancer Research. His recent research has been published in Nature, Cell, Nature Chemical Biology and the Journal of the American Chemical Society. He has authored more than 20 US Patent applications, licensed to five pharmaceutical companies, and is a scientific founder of Acetylon Pharmaceuticals, SHAPE Pharmaceuticals, Tensha Therapeutics and Syros Pharmaceuticals. Bradner received his AB from Harvard University, his MD from the University of Chicago (IL, USA) and a MMS from Harvard Medical School. He completed his postgraduate training in Internal Medicine at Brigham & Women's Hospital (MA, USA), followed by a fellowship in Medical Oncology and Hematology at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Following additional post-doctoral training in Chemistry at Harvard University and the Broad Institute (MA, USA) with Professor Stuart Schreiber, Bradner joined the research faculty of Dana-Farber in 2008. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.

  1. Protocol for a prospective collaborative systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials of vasoactive drugs in acute stroke: The Blood pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration, stage-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandset, Else Charlotte; Sanossian, Nerses; Woodhouse, Lisa J; Anderson, Craig; Berge, Eivind; Lees, Kennedy R; Potter, John F; Robinson, Thompson G; Sprigg, Nikola; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bath, Philip M

    2018-01-01

    Rationale Despite several large clinical trials assessing blood pressure lowering in acute stroke, equipoise remains particularly for ischemic stroke. The "Blood pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration" commenced in the mid-1990s focussing on systematic reviews and meta-analysis of blood pressure lowering in acute stroke. From the start, Blood pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration planned to assess safety and efficacy of blood pressure lowering in acute stroke using individual patient data. Aims To determine the optimal management of blood pressure in patients with acute stroke, including both intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. Secondary aims are to assess which clinical and therapeutic factors may alter the optimal management of high blood pressure in patients with acute stroke and to assess the effect of vasoactive treatments on hemodynamic variables. Methods and design Individual patient data from randomized controlled trials of blood pressure management in participants with ischemic stroke and/or intracerebral hemorrhage enrolled during the ultra-acute (pre-hospital), hyper-acute (<6 h), acute (<48 h), and sub-acute (<168 h) phases of stroke. Study outcomes The primary effect variable will be functional outcome defined by the ordinal distribution of the modified Rankin Scale; analyses will also be carried out in pre-specified subgroups to assess the modifying effects of stroke-related and pre-stroke patient characteristics. Key secondary variables will include clinical, hemodynamic and neuroradiological variables; safety variables will comprise death and serious adverse events. Discussion Study questions will be addressed in stages, according to the protocol, before integrating these into a final overreaching analysis. We invite eligible trials to join the collaboration.

  2. An examination of the association between interviewer question type and story-grammar detail in child witness interviews about abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltis, Brooke B; Powell, Martine B; Snow, Pamela C; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H

    2010-06-01

    This study compared the effects of open-ended versus specific questions, and various types of open-ended questions, in eliciting story-grammar detail in child abuse interviews. The sample included 34 police interviews with child witnesses aged 5-15 years (M age=9 years, 9 months). The interviewers' questions and their relative sub-types were classified according to definitions reported in the child interview training literature. The children's responses were classified according to the proportion of story grammar and the prevalence of individual story grammar elements as defined by Stein and Glenn (1979). Open-ended questions were more effective at eliciting story grammar than specific questions. This finding was revealed across three age groups, two interview phases and irrespective of how question effectiveness was measured. However, not all types of open-ended questions were equally effective. Open-ended questions that encouraged a broad response, or asked the child to elaborate on a part of their account, elicited more story-grammar detail compared to open-ended questions that requested clarification of concepts or descriptions of the next (or another) activity or detail within a sequence. This study demonstrates that children's ability to provide story-grammar detail is maximised when there is minimal prompting from the interviewer. Given the association between story grammar production and victim credibility, greater guidance is warranted in interviewer training programs in relation to the effects and administration of different types of open-ended questions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving Success in Developmental Mathematics: An Interview with Paul Nolting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Hunter R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Paul Nolting, a national expert in assessing individual math learning problems, developing effective student learning strategies, and assessing institutional variables that affect math success. Since his dissertation in 1986 on improving math success with study skills Dr. Nolting has consulted with over…

  4. Technology to Support Motivational Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Ford, Loretta C; Aldrich, Heather; Oetzel, Keri Bolton; Cook, Paul; Schmiege, Sarah; Wold, Mary

    This paper reports the findings of motivational interviewing (MI) training with and without technology support on school-based health center (SBHC) providers' satisfaction with MI training, providers' self-report of behavioral counseling related to childhood overweight/obesity, and parents' perception of care after training. The effects of training and technology on MI is part of a larger comparative effectiveness, cluster randomized trial. Twenty-four SBHCs in six states received virtual training on MI. Half the sites received HeartSmartKids™, a bilingual (English/Spanish), decision-support technology. The technology generated tailored patient education materials. Standard growth charts were plotted and health risks were highlighted to support MI counseling. The results of the MI training included provider satisfaction with MI training and parent assessment of the components of MI in their child's care. Providers and parents were surveyed at baseline, after training, and six months after training. Providers were satisfied with training and reported improvements in counseling proficiency (ptechnology group reported significant improvement in provider support for healthy eating (p=0.04). Virtual training has the potential of preparing providers to use MI to address childhood obesity. Technology improved parent support for healthy eating. Future research should evaluate the impact of technology to support MI on patient outcomes. Childhood obesity guidelines emphasize that MI should be used to promote healthy weight in children. Training providers on MI may help more providers incorporate obesity guidelines in their practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Video interview with Michael Dell

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Michael Dell, founder and presently Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Office of the DELL computer company visited CERN on Tuesday 26th January 2010. The Bulletin and the Video productions team had the opportunity to meet him. The video interview is transcribed for your convenience.   Michael S. Dell with CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. What motivated you to come and visit CERN? I obviously heard about the great science and research has going on here, and DELL is very pleased to be a partner and providing a lot of the computers to analyse the data and I really wanted to see for myself in person, some of the great science that is going on here. What is your view on fundamental research in IT, and in general? I think if you look at the field of science in the last hundred years, we have been able to solve a lot of problems, but there are still lots of unsolved problems and unsolved mysteries. And it is only through basic fundamental research that we will address these probl...

  6. An Interview Study of Young Adults Born to Mothers with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ida; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    A group of 10 young adults from a population-based series in Sweden, of originally 42 individuals, born to mothers with mild intellectual disability (ID), were interviewed with regard to their experiences during childhood, adolescence, and their current situation. The interview revealed that 6 of the 10 individuals had been removed from their…

  7. Reliability and Validity of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Japanese Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Matsumoto, Kaori; Yagi, Atsuko; Inada, Naoko; Kuroda, Miho; Inokuchi, Eiko; Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sakai, Saeko; Mohri, Ikuko; Taniike, Masako; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Ogasahara, Kei; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakajima, Shunji; Tani, Iori; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Inoue, Masahiko; Nomura, Kazuyo; Hagiwara, Taku; Uchiyama, Tokio; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Shuji; Miyamoto, Ken; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Takei, Nori

    2013-01-01

    To examine the inter-rater reliability of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Japanese Version (ADI-R-JV), the authors recruited 51 individuals aged 3-19 years, interviewed by two independent raters. Subsequently, to assess the discriminant and diagnostic validity of ADI-R-JV, the authors investigated 317 individuals aged 2-19 years, who were…

  8. Interview with Abel Prize Recipient Lennart Carleson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Lennart Carleson was the recipient of the 2006 Abel Prize. On May 22, 2006, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Carleson was interviewed. The interview was later shown on Norwegian television.......Lennart Carleson was the recipient of the 2006 Abel Prize. On May 22, 2006, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Carleson was interviewed. The interview was later shown on Norwegian television....

  9. Medical School Applicant Characteristics Associated With Performance in Multiple Mini-Interviews Versus Traditional Interviews: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Mark C; Kelly, Carolyn J; Griffin, Erin; Hall, Theodore R; Jerant, Anthony; Peterson, Ellena M; Rainwater, Julie A; Sousa, Francis J; Wofsy, David; Franks, Peter

    2017-10-31

    To examine applicant characteristics associated with multi mini-interview (MMI) or traditional interview (TI) performance at five California public medical schools. Of the five California Longitudinal Evaluation of Admissions Practices (CA-LEAP) consortium schools, three used TIs and two used MMIs. Schools provided the following retrospective data on all 2011-2013 admissions cycle interviewees: age, gender, race/ethnicity (under-represented in medicine [UIM] or not), self-identified disadvantaged (DA) status, undergraduate GPA, Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) score, and interview score (standardized as z-score, mean = 0, SD = 1). Adjusted linear regression analyses, stratified by interview type, examined associations with interview performance. The 4,993 applicants who completed 7,516 interviews included 931 (18.6%) UIM and 962 (19.3%) DA individuals; 3,226 (64.6%) had one interview. Mean age was 24.4 (SD = 2.7); mean GPA and MCAT score were 3.72 (SD = 0.22) and 33.6 (SD = 3.7), respectively. Older age, female gender, and number of prior interviews were associated with better performance on both MMIs and TIs. Higher GPA was associated with lower MMI scores (z-score, per unit GPA = -0.26, 95% CI [-0.45, -0.06]), but unrelated to TI scores. DA applicants had higher TI scores (z-score = 0.17, 95% CI [0.07, 0.28]), but lower MMI scores (z-score = -0.18, 95% CI [-0.28, -.08]) than non-DA applicants. Neither UIM status nor MCAT score were associated with interview performance. These findings have potentially important workforce implications, particularly regarding DA applicants, and illustrate the need for other multi-institutional studies of medical school admissions processes.

  10. Interpersonal Stance in Conflict Conversation: Police Interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn

    2013-01-01

    In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the

  11. The Critical Incident Interview and Ethnoracial Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Frank F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the critical-incident interview, a cross-cultural training technique that helps social work students assess clients' ethnic- and racial-identity development. Uses examples from student interviews to present the steps involved in teaching the technique. Includes guidelines for selecting and interviewing informants, and gives three scales…

  12. 10 CFR 15.25 - Personal interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal interviews. 15.25 Section 15.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Administrative Collection of Claims § 15.25 Personal interviews. (a) The NRC may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the NRC when— (1) A matter...

  13. 28 CFR 540.63 - Personal interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal interviews. 540.63 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.63 Personal interviews. (a) An inmate may... or a representative of the news media may initiate a request for a personal interview at an...

  14. An Interview with Joe McMann: His Life Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: His Life Lessons" on May 23, 2011. With over 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. Many have been interested in his biography, progression of work at NASA, impact on the U.S. spacesuit, and career accomplishments. This interview highlighted the influences and decision-making methods that impacted his technical and management contributions to the space program. McMann shared information about the accomplishments and technical advances that committed individuals can make.

  15. Eyewitness performance in cognitive and structured interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, A; Wark, L; Holley, A; Bull, R; Koehnken, G

    1997-09-01

    This paper addresses two methodological and theoretical questions relating to the Cognitive Interview (CI), which previous research has found to increase witness recall in interviews. (1) What are the effects of the CI mnemonic techniques when communication techniques are held constant? (2) How do trained interviewers compare with untrained interviewers? In this study, witnesses (college students) viewed a short film clip of a shooting and were questioned by interviewers (research assistants) trained in conducting the CI or a Structured Interview (SI)--similar to the CI except for the "cognitive" components--or by untrained interviewers (UI). The CI and SI groups recalled significantly more correct information compared to the UI group. However they also reported more errors and confabulated details. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed in terms of precisely identifying the CI facilitatory effects and consequent good practice in the forensic setting.

  16. Transitioning from Clinical to Qualitative Research Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Hunt BSc (PT, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one aspect of the transition that must be made by experienced clinicians who become involved in conducting qualitative health research is examined, specifically, the differences between clinical and research interviewing. A clinician who is skillful and comfortable carrying out a clinical interview may not initially apprehend the important differences between these categories and contexts of interviewing. This situation can lead to difficulties and diminished quality of data collection because the purpose, techniques and orientation of a qualitative research interview are distinct from those of the clinical interview. Appreciation of these differences between interview contexts and genres, and strategies for addressing challenges associated with these differences, can help clinician researchers to become successful qualitative interviewers.

  17. Vascular risk levels affect the predictive value of platelet reactivity for the occurrence of MACE in patients on clopidogrel. Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reny, Jean-Luc; Fontana, Pierre; Hochholzer, Willibald; Neumann, Franz Josef; Ten Berg, Jurriën; Janssen, Paul W; Geisler, Tobias; Gawaz, Meinrad; Marcucci, Rossella; Gori, Anna-Maria; Cuisset, Thomas; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Berdagué, Philippe; Gurbel, Paul A; Yong, Gerald; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Aradi, Dániel; Beigel, Roy; Campo, Gianluca; Combescure, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Prior studies have shown an association between high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (PR) and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). However, large intervention trials on PR-tailored treatments have been neutral. The role and usefulness of PR with regard to levels of cardiovascular risk are unclear. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data on MACE outcomes (acute coronary syndromes (ACS), ischaemic strokes, and vascular deaths) in relation to PR and its interaction with cardiovascular risk levels. PR was determined using ADP-induced light transmission aggregometry with a primary concentration of 20 µM ADP. Thirteen prospective studies totaled 6,478 clopidogrel-treated patients who experienced 421 MACE (6.5 %) during a median follow-up of 12 months. The strength of the association between the risk of MACE and PR increased significantly (p=0.04) with the number of risk factors present (age> 75 years, ACS at inclusion, diabetes, and hypertension). No association was detected in patients with no risk factor (p=0.48). In patients presenting one risk factor, only high-PR was associated with an increased risk of MACE (HR 3.2, p=0.001). In patients presenting ≥ 2 risk factors, the increase of risk started from medium-PR (medium-PR: HR=2.9, p=0.0004; high-PR: HR=3.7, p=0.0003). PR allowed the reclassification of 44 % of the total population to a different risk level for the outcome of MACE, mostly in intermediate or high risk patients. In conclusion, the magnitude of the association between PR and MACE risk is strongly dependent on the level of cardiovascular risk faced by patients on clopidogrel.

  18. STRIDER: Sildenafil Therapy In Dismal prognosis Early-onset intrauterine growth Restriction--a protocol for a systematic review with individual participant data and aggregate data meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzevoort, Wessel; Alfirevic, Zarko; von Dadelszen, Peter; Kenny, Louise; Papageorghiou, Aris; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Gluud, Christian; Mol, Ben Willem; Baker, Philip N

    2014-03-11

    In pregnancies complicated by early-onset extreme fetal growth restriction, there is a high risk of preterm birth and an overall dismal fetal prognosis. Sildenafil has been suggested to improve this prognosis. The first aim of this review is to assess whether sildenafil benefits or harms these babies. The second aim is to analyse if these effects are modified in a clinically meaningful way by factors related to the women or the trial protocol. The STRIDER (Sildenafil Therapy In Dismal prognosis Early-onset intrauterine growth Restriction) Individual Participant Data (IPD) Study Group will conduct a prospective IPD and aggregate data systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. The STRIDER IPD Study Group started trial planning and funding applications in 2012. Three trials will be launched in 2014, recruiting for three years. Further trials are planned to commence in 2015.The primary outcome for babies is being alive at term gestation without evidence of serious adverse neonatal outcome. The latter is defined as severe central nervous system injury (severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grade 3 and 4) or cystic periventricular leukomalacia, demonstrated by ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging) or other severe morbidity (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity requiring treatment, or necrotising enterocolitis requiring surgery). The secondary outcomes are improved fetal growth velocity assessed by ultrasound abdominal circumference measurements, gestational age and birth weight (centile) at delivery, and age-adequate performance on the two-year Bayley scales of infant and toddler development-III (composite cognitive score and composite motor score). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses in the IPD meta-analysis include assessment of the influence of several patient characteristics: an abnormal or normal serum level of placental growth factor, absent/reversed umbilical arterial end diastolic flow at commencement of treatment

  19. The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliott, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited. To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour among MSM after a negative HIV infection test. To identify effective components within interventions in reducing HIV risk-related behaviours and develop a candidate intervention. To host expert events addressing the implementation and optimisation of a candidate intervention. All major electronic databases (British Education Index, BioMed Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Educational Resource Index and Abstracts, Health and Medical Complete, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed and Social Science Citation Index) were searched between January 2000 and December 2014. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions was conducted. Interventions were examined using the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy, theory coding assessment, mode of delivery and proximity to HIV infection testing. Data were summarised in narrative review and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was carried out. Supplemental analyses for the development of the candidate intervention focused on post hoc realist review method, the assessment of the sequential delivery and content of intervention components, and the social and historical context of primary studies. Expert panels reviewed the candidate intervention for issues of implementation and optimisation. Overall, trials included in this review ( n  = 10) demonstrated that individual-level behaviour change interventions are effective in reducing key HIV infection risk

  20. Rethinking Democracy: an Interview with Zygmunt Bauman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ordóñez Roig

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 91 503 UNIVERSIDAD JAUME I 4 1 593 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-TRAD JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Zygmunt Bauman, professor of Sociology at the University of Leeds and, since 1990, emeritus professor, has developed key concepts for the understanding of fundamental issues of today’s world, such as liquid modernity, time, space and disorder, individualism versus community, globalization and consumer’s culture, love and identity, etc. His analyses of the links between modernity, Holocaust, democracy and social politics were the principal subject of the following interview, which was conducted by Vicente Ordóñez and Vicent Sanz on the occasion of Zygmunt Bauman’s recent visit to Spain. 

  1. Interviewing to develop Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) measures for clinical research: eliciting patients’ experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures must provide evidence that their development followed a rigorous process for ensuring their content validity. To this end, the collection of data is performed through qualitative interviews that allow for the elicitation of in-depth spontaneous reports of the patients’ experiences with their condition and/or its treatment. This paper provides a review of qualitative research applied to PRO measure development. A clear definition of what is a qualitative research interview is given as well as information about the form and content of qualitative interviews required for developing PRO measures. Particular attention is paid to the description of interviewing approaches (e.g., semi-structured and in-depth interviews, individual vs. focus group interviews). Information about how to get prepared for a qualitative interview is provided with the description of how to develop discussion guides for exploratory or cognitive interviews. Interviewing patients to obtain knowledge regarding their illness experience requires interpersonal and communication skills to facilitate patients’ expression. Those skills are described in details, as well as the skills needed to facilitate focus groups and to interview children, adolescents and the elderly. Special attention is also given to quality assurance and interview training. The paper ends on ethical considerations since interviewing for the development of PROs is performed in a context of illness and vulnerability. Therefore, it is all the more important that, in addition to soliciting informed consent, respectful interactions be ensured throughout the interview process. PMID:24499454

  2. [Current evidence on the motivational interview in the approach to health care problems in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bóveda Fontán, Julia; Pérula de Torres, Luis Ángel; Campiñez Navarro, Manuel; Bosch Fontcuberta, Josep M; Barragán Brun, Nieves; Prados Castillejo, Jose Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The motivational interview has been widely used as a clinical method to promote behavioural changes in patients, helping them to resolve their ambivalence to obtain their own motivations. In the present article, a review is made of the main meta-analyses and systematic and narrative reviews on the efficacy of the motivational interview in the primary health care environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Open Science Interview mit Christian Heise

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  4. Open Science Interview mit Daniel Mietchen

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  5. Open Science Interview with Christobal Cobo

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  6. Open Science Interview with Jon Crowcroft

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381

  7. The effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine-based lifestyle interventions on biomedical, psychosocial, and behavioral outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingfeng; Chau, Janita P C; Huo, Lanting

    2018-04-01

    Integrative diabetes care, which combines conventional diabetes therapy with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-based interventions, has gained popularity worldwide. Numerous TCM-based lifestyle modification approaches have been proposed for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). To synthesize and present the best available evidence on the effectiveness of TCM-based lifestyle interventions in individuals with T2DM. We undertook a systematic review of randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials. Six English and four Chinese electronic databases were searched from their inceptions to December 2016. Trials investigating the effectiveness of various TCM-based lifestyle interventions among adults with T2DM were reviewed. Studies were excluded if TCM-based lifestyle interventions were only part of the intervention regimen. Two reviewers independently selected studies according to pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria and appraised the risk of bias of the included studies. One reviewer extracted details of the included studies and the second reviewer checked the extracted data critically. When feasible, data were statistically pooled for meta-analysis. Otherwise, narrative summaries were used. Twenty-four studies were included. The pooled analysis of the eight studies on tai chi showed tai chi practice for at least 150 min per week was beneficial in lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (mean difference, -1.48%; 95%CI, -2.58% to -0.39%; p < 0.001). Tai chi was effective in reducing fasting blood glucose (mean difference, -1.14 mmol/L; 95%CI, -1.78 to -0.50 mmol/L; p < 0.001) and body mass index (mean difference, -0.62; 95%CI, -1.14 to -0.11; p = 0.02), and improving quality of life. The effects of tai chi on blood pressure and waist circumference were inconclusive due to the limited number of studies. The meta-analysis of the 12 studies on ba duan jin demonstrated beneficial effects on glycosylated hemoglobin (mean difference, -0

  8. Working through Challenges in Doing Interview Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Roulston PhD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent methodological work that draws on a ‘constructionist’ approach to interviewing - conceptualizes the interview as a socially-situated encounter in which both interviewer and interviewee play active roles. This approach takes the construction of interview data as a topic of examination. This article adopts the view that close examination of how particular interactions are accomplished provides additional insights into not only the topics discussed, but also how research design and methods might be modified to meet the needs of projects. Focus is specifically given to investigation of sequences observed as puzzling or challenging during interviews, or via interview data that emerged as problematic in the analysis process. How might close analyses of these sorts of sequences be used to inform research design and interview methods? The article explores (1 how problematic interactions identified in the analysis of focus group data can lead to modifications in research design, (2 an approach to dealing with reported data in representations of findings, and (3 how data analysis can inform question formulation in successive rounds of data generation. Findings from these types of examinations of interview data generation and analysis are valuable for informing both interview practice as well as research design in further research.

  9. Qualitative interviewing: methodological challenges in Arab settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawamdeh, Sana; Raigangar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    To explore some of the main methodological challenges faced by interviewers in Arab settings, particularly during interviews with psychiatric nurses. Interviews are a tool used commonly in qualitative research. However, the cultural norms and practices of interviewees must be considered to ensure that an appropriate interviewing style is used, a good interviewee-interviewer relationship formed and consent for participation obtained sensitively. A study to explore the nature of psychiatric nurses' practices that used unstructured interviews. This is a methodology paper that discusses a personal experience of addressing many challenges that are specific to qualitative interviewing in Arab settings, supported by literature on the topic. Suggestions for improving the interview process to make it more culturally sensitive are provided and recommendations for future research are made. Openness, flexibility and a reflexive approach by the researcher can help manage challenges in Arab settings. Researchers should allow themselves to understand the cultural elements of a population to adapt interviewing methods with the aim of generating high quality qualitative research.

  10. Criteria for Evaluating Oral History Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsino, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for establishing criteria for evaluating oral history interviews. Presents seven evaluation categories relating to oral history tapes and three categories relating to typescripts. (CK)

  11. Systematic Review Workshop (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal for this workshop is to receive scientific input regarding approaches for different steps within a systematic review, such as evaluating individual studies, synthesizing evidence within a particular discipline, etc.

  12. The perils of straying from protocol: sampling bias and interviewer effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie J Ngongo

    Full Text Available Fidelity to research protocol is critical. In a contingent valuation study in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya, participants responded differently to the three trained interviewers. Interviewer effects were present during the survey pilot, then magnified at the start of the main survey after a seemingly slight adaptation of the survey sampling protocol allowed interviewers to speak with the "closest neighbor" in the event that no one was home at a selected household. This slight degree of interviewer choice led to inferred sampling bias. Multinomial logistic regression and post-estimation tests revealed that the three interviewers' samples differed significantly from one another according to six demographic characteristics. The two female interviewers were 2.8 and 7.7 times less likely to talk with respondents of low socio-economic status than the male interviewer. Systematic error renders it impossible to determine which of the survey responses might be "correct." This experience demonstrates why researchers must take care to strictly follow sampling protocols, consistently train interviewers, and monitor responses by interview to ensure similarity between interviewers' groups and produce unbiased estimates of the parameters of interest.

  13. Motivational interviewing in general dental practice: A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, E J; Vascott, D; Hocking, A; Nield, H

    2016-12-16

    Objectives The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence regarding the use of motivational interviewing in the context of general dental practice, in order that practitioners can decide whether it might be an important skill to develop within their practices.Data sources The results reported in this study form part of a larger systematic review which sought to identify whether oral health promotion within dental practice is effective and how its effects can be optimised. Here, we focus on the papers describing motivational interviewing in dental practice published since 1994. The systematic review included searches of 20 online resources (including Ovid Medline and Embase).Data selection Papers which were not about oral health promotion and did not apply the behavioural and psychological theories, which underpin motivational interviewing, were excluded.Data synthesis This review included eight papers all of which were considered to be of robust quality, in terms of their research methods and seven of which were considered to offer externally valid findings. Five described randomised controlled trials and all of these RCTs demonstrated that interventions including motivational interviewing had a positive effect on oral health and health behaviour.Conclusions This review shows that the motivational interviewing technique, which is based on the concept of autonomy support, has potential for helping patients with poor oral health. Training in motivational interviewing for dental personnel could be a very useful addition to the skill set of practitioners and dental teams.

  14. Acceptance of a structured diagnostic interview in children, parents, and interviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuschwander, Murielle; In-Albon, Tina; Meyer, Andrea H; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the satisfaction and acceptance of a structured diagnostic interview in clinical practice and in a research setting. Using the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Kinder-DIPS), 28 certified interviewers conducted 202 interviews (115 with parents, 87 with children). After each interview, children, parents, and interviewers completed a questionnaire assessing the overall satisfaction (0 = not at all satisfied to 100 = totally satisfied) and acceptance (0 = completely disagree to 3 = completely agree) with the interview. Satisfaction ratings were highly positive, all means >82. The mean of the overall acceptance for children was 2.43 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.41), 2.54 (SD = 0.33) of the parents, 2.30 (SD = 0.43) of the children's interviewers, and 2.46 (SD = 0.32) of the parents' interviewers. Using separate univariate regression models, significant predictors for higher satisfaction and acceptance with the interview are higher children's Global Assessment of Functioning, fewer number of children's diagnoses, shorter duration of the interview, a research setting, female sex of the interviewer, and older age of the interviewer. Results indicate that structured diagnostic interviews are highly accepted by children, parents, and interviewers. Importantly, this is true for different treatment settings. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W; van Dalen, Elvira C; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2009-12-01

    To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. We identified eligible systematic reviews through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological quality of systematic reviews was low for all ten items, but the quality of Cochrane systematic reviews was significantly higher than systematic reviews published in regular journals. On a 1-7 scale, the median overall quality score for all systematic reviews was 2 (range 1-7), with a score of 1 (range 1-7) for systematic reviews in regular journals compared to 6 (range 3-7) in Cochrane systematic reviews (pmethodological flaws leading to a high risk of bias. While Cochrane systematic reviews were of higher methodological quality than systematic reviews in regular journals, some of them also had methodological problems. Therefore, the methodology of each individual systematic review should be scrutinized before accepting its results.

  16. Intake Interview Skills for Rehabilitation Counselors: A Typescript Manual. Advanced Facilitative Case Management Series, Training Package I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stanford E.; Farley, Roy C.

    This guide is the case study manual for the first in a series of instructor-assisted training modules for rehabilitation counselors, supervisors, and graduate students. This typescript manual for the first module focuses on basic intake interviewing skills consisting of: (1) systematic interview programming including attracting, planning and…

  17. The impact of using peer interviewers in a study of patient empowerment amongst people in cancer follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Clara R; Eskildsen, Nanna B; Thomsen, Thora G; Nielsen, Inger D; Johnsen, Anna T

    2017-12-05

    A range of benefits have been reported from engaging peer interviewers in qualitative interviews, but little systematic evaluation exists to assess their impact on both process and outcomes of qualitative interviews in health research. To investigate the impact of involving patient representatives as peer interviewers in a research project on patient empowerment. 18 interviews were carried out as part of the wider study, seven by the academic researcher alone and eleven jointly with a peer interviewer. The interviews were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to explore potential differences between interviews conducted by the researcher alone and interviews conducted jointly by the researcher and the peer interviewers. A phone evaluation of the peer interviews was carried out with the research participants, and notes were thematically analysed to understand their experiences. Differences were identified between the academic researcher and the peer interviewers in the types of questions they asked and the degree to which personal narrative was used in the interview. Peer interviewers varied significantly in their approach. Research participants were positive about the experience of being interviewed by a peer interviewer. No firm conclusions could be made about impact on outcomes. The uniqueness and complexity of qualitative interviews made it difficult to provide any firm conclusions about the impact of having peer interviewers on the research outcomes, and the benefits identified from the analysis mostly related to the process of the interviews. Benefits from using peer interviewers need to be considered alongside relevant ethical considerations, and available resources for training and support. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Det gående interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Det gående interview understøtter børns aktive deltagelse, og giver indblik i den materielle og kulturelle kontekst......Det gående interview understøtter børns aktive deltagelse, og giver indblik i den materielle og kulturelle kontekst...

  19. Interview with Abel Prize recipient Lennart Carleson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006  prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV.......The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006  prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV....

  20. Interview with Abel Prize recipient Lennart Carleson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV.......The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV....

  1. 14 CFR 1213.105 - Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND... regarding NASA policy, programmatic, and budget issues. (b) In response to media interview requests, NASA... American public. However, journalists may have access to the NASA officials they seek to interview...

  2. Reading an Interviewer Like a Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Ellen

    1988-01-01

    Describes how to psychologically evaluate and take advantage of the four basic personality types that are encountered in job interviews. Discusses each personality type and makes generalizations about their dress, office, thinking patterns, and preferences. Summarizes how each might react to a woman in an interview situation. (CW)

  3. Interpersonal stance in police interviews: content analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bruijnes, Merijn; Peters, R.M.; Krikke, T.

    2013-01-01

    A serious game for learning the social skills required for effective police interviewing is a challenging idea. Building artificial conversational characters that play the role of a suspect in a police interrogation game requires computational models of police interviews as well as of the internal

  4. Exploring the handshake in employment interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg L; Dustin, Susan L; Barrick, Murray R; Darnold, Todd C

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined how an applicant's handshake influences hiring recommendations formed during the employment interview. A sample of 98 undergraduate students provided personality measures and participated in mock interviews during which the students received ratings of employment suitability. Five trained raters independently evaluated the quality of the handshake for each participant. Quality of handshake was related to interviewer hiring recommendations. Path analysis supported the handshake as mediating the effect of applicant extraversion on interviewer hiring recommendations, even after controlling for differences in candidate physical appearance and dress. Although women received lower ratings for the handshake, they did not on average receive lower assessments of employment suitability. Exploratory analysis suggested that the relationship between a firm handshake and interview ratings may be stronger for women than for men.

  5. Effects of systematic mental intervention on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-zhen WANG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effects of systematic mental intervention, with combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, on mental health, personality and coping style in recruits, and explore an optimal intervention model for recruits' mental health. Methods  Two thousand and sixteen recruits in one unit were involved in the present study, among them 1064 were allocated to study group, and the remaining 952 to control group. Recruits in study group received centralized teaching with battalion as a unit, and received group interview in squad or platoon as a unit, and meanwhile individual interview was conducted. Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ were filled one month after they were enlisted in the army and 3 days before the training ended. Recruits in control group undertook the same tests mentioned above only 3 days before the training ended. Results  The total score and factor scores except hostility in SCL-90 test were significantly lower after than before systematic mental intervention (P0.05. The total score and factor scores except paranoia in SCL-90 test were significantly lower in study group than in control group after intervention (P0.05, the score of active coping was significantly higher (P<0.001, and of negative coping was significantly lower (P<0.001 after than before intervention. The ratio of the score over 2 and above declined obviously (P<0.05 in neurosis, SCL-90 abnormality, SCL-90 total scores, number of positive items, somatization, obsession, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia, paranoid, and psychotic factor after than before intervention in recruits. Conclusion  Systematic mental intervention, which consisted of combined centralized teaching, group interview and individual consulting, may promote the mental health, personality and coping style in recruits.

  6. Individual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  7. Comparing Lay Community and Academic Survey Center Interviewers in Conducting Household Interviews in Latino Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Glik, Deborah C; Prelip, Michael L; Belin, Thomas R; Brookmeyer, Ron; Santos, Robert; Chen, Jie; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The employment of professional interviewers from academic survey centers to conduct surveys has been standard practice. Because one goal of community-engaged research is to provide professional skills to community residents, this paper considers whether employing locally trained lay interviewers from within the community may be as effective as employing interviewers from an academic survey center with regard to unit and item nonresponse rates and cost. To study a nutrition-focused intervention, 1035 in-person household interviews were conducted in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, 503 of which were completed by lay community interviewers. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in unit nonresponse rates between professional and community interviewers and Welch's t tests were used to assess differences in item nonresponse rates. A cost comparison analysis between the two interviewer groups was also conducted. Interviewers from the academic survey center had lower unit nonresponse rates than the lay community interviewers (16.2% vs. 23.3%; p < 0.01). However, the item nonresponse rates were lower for the community interviewers than the professional interviewers (1.4% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.01). Community interviewers cost approximately $415.38 per survey whereas professional interviewers cost approximately $537.29 per survey. With a lower cost per completed survey and lower item nonresponse rates, lay community interviewers are a viable alternative to professional interviewers for fieldwork in community-based research. Additional research is needed to assess other important aspects of data quality interviewer such as interviewer effects and response error.

  8. Contextualising eating problems in individual diet counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Søren T; Køster, Allan

    2014-05-01

    Health professionals consider diet to be a vital component in managing weight, chronic diseases and the overall promotion of health. This article takes the position that the complexity and contextual nature of individual eating problems needs to be addressed in a more systematic and nuanced way than is usually the case in diet counselling, motivational interviewing and health coaching. We suggest the use of narrative practice as a critical and context-sensitive counselling approach to eating problems. Principles of externalisation and co-researching are combined within a counselling framework that employs logistic, social and discursive eating problems as analytic categories. Using cases from a health clinic situated at the Metropolitan University College in Copenhagen, we show that even if the structural conditions associated with eating problems may not be solvable through individual counselling sessions, exploration of the complex structures of food and eating with the client can provide agency by helping them navigate within the context of the problem. We also exemplify why a reflexive and critical approach to the way health is perceived by clients should be an integrated part of diet counselling.

  9. Evaluation of an interview process for admission into a school of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsch, Michael P; Friesner, Daniel L

    2012-03-12

    To evaluate the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) admissions interview process at North Dakota State University (NDSU). Faculty pairs interviewed candidates using a standardized grading rubric to evaluate qualitative parameters or attributes such as ethics, relevant life and work experience, emotional maturity, commitment to patient care, leadership, and understanding of the pharmacy profession. Total interview scores, individual attribute domain scores, and the consistency and reliability of the interviewers were assessed. The total mean interview score for the candidate pool was 17.4 of 25 points. Mean scores for individual domains ranged from 2.3 to 3.0 on a Likert-scale of 0-4. Nine of the 11 faculty pairs showed no mean differences from their interview partner in total interview scores given. Evaluations by 8 of the 11 faculty pairs produced high interrater reliability. The current interview process is generally consistent and reliable; however, future improvements such as additional interviewer training and adoption of a multiple mini-interview format could be made.

  10. Motivational interviewing interactions and the primary health care challenges presented by smokers with low motivation to stop smoking: a conversation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codern-Bové, Núria; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Pla, Margarida; González-Bonilla, Javier; Granollers, Silvia; Ballvé, José L; Fanlo, Gemma; Cabezas, Carmen

    2014-11-26

    Research indicates that one third of smokers have low motivation to stop smoking. The purpose of the study was to use Conversational Analysis to enhance understanding of the process in Motivational Interviewing sessions carried out by primary care doctors and nurses to motivate their patients to quit smoking. The present study is a substudy of the Systematic Intervention on Smoking Habits in Primary Health Care Project (Spanish acronym: ISTAPS). Motivational interviewing sessions with a subset of nine participants (two interview sessions were conducted with two of the nine) in the ISTAPS study who were current smokers and scored fewer than 5 points on the Richmond test that measures motivation to quit smoking were videotaped and transcribed. A total of 11 interviews conducted by five primary health care professionals in Barcelona, Spain, were analysed. Qualitative Content Analysis was used to develop an analytical guide for coding transcriptions. Conversation Analysis allowed detailed study of the exchange of words during the interaction. Motivational Interviewing sessions had three phases: assessment, reflection on readiness to change, and summary. The interaction was constructed during an office visit, where interactional dilemmas arise and can be resolved in various ways. Some actions by professionals (use of reiterations, declarations, open-ended questions) helped to construct a framework of shared relationship; others inhibited this relationship (focusing on risks of smoking, clinging to the protocol, and prematurely emphasizing change). Some professionals tended to resolve interactional dilemmas (e.g., resistance) through a confrontational or directive style. Interactions that did not follow Motivational Interviewing principles predominated in seven of the interviews analysed. Conversational analysis showed that the complexity of the intervention increases when a health professional encounters individuals with low motivation for change, and interactional

  11. Online interviewing with interpreters in humanitarian contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumento, Anna; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Method: Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented.  Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country.  Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. Results: A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples.  Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure.  Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Conclusions: Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice.  These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing. PMID:29532739

  12. Online interviewing with interpreters in humanitarian contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumento, Anna; Machin, Laura; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy

    2018-12-01

    Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented.  Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country.  Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples.  Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure.  Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice.  These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing.

  13. Elements of programming interviews the insider's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, Adnan; Prakash, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This is a larger-format version of Elements of Programming Interviews. The language is C++. Specifically, the font size is larger, and the page size is 7"x10" (the regular format uses 6"x9"). The content is identical. Have you ever... Wanted to work at an exciting futuristic company? Struggled with an interview problem that could have been solved in 15 minutes? Wished you could study real-world computing problems? If so, you need to read Elements of Programming Interviews (EPI). EPI is your comprehensive guide to interviewing for software development roles. The core of EPI is a collection of over 250 problems with detailed solutions. The problems are representative of interview questions asked at leading software companies. The problems are illustrated with 200 figures, 300 tested programs, and 150 additional variants. The book begins with a summary of the nontechnical aspects of interviewing, such as strategies for a great interview, common mistakes, perspectives from the other side of the table,...

  14. 41 CFR 301-75.1 - What is the purpose of the allowance for pre-employment interview travel expenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the allowance for pre-employment interview travel expenses? 301-75.1 Section 301-75.1 Public Contracts... RESPONSIBILITIES 75-PRE-EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW TRAVEL General Rules § 301-75.1 What is the purpose of the allowance for pre-employment interview travel expenses? To help you recruit highly qualified individuals. ...

  15. STS-106 Crew Interviews: Scott D. Altman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Scott D. Altman is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Altman became a pilot, the events that led to his interest, his career path through the Navy, and then finally, his selection by NASA as an astronaut. Other interesting information discussed in this one-on-one interview was his work on the movie set of "Top Gun," the highlights of his Navy career, and possible shorter time frame turnarounds for missions. Altman also mentions the scheduled docking with the new International Space Station (ISS) after the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module.

  16. STS-103 Crew Interviews: Scott Kelly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Scott J. Kelly is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Kelly became an astronaut, the events that led to his interest, any role models that he had, and his inspiration. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is an explanation of the why this required mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope must take place at such an early date, replacement of the gyroscopes, transistors, and computers. Also discussed are the Chandra X Ray Astrophysics Facility, and a brief touch on Kelly's responsibility during any of the given four space walks scheduled for this mission.

  17. Prepare for an SpR interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J P; Heppell, P S J

    2003-03-01

    By the time you attend an interview for a military SpR number you should have no real problems but it pays to be prepared. Begin preparations early, reading widely and talk to as many people as possible. Your consultants will have a useful viewpoint on the proceedings and may be able to help you refine your answers to the common questions. Arrive at your interview in a smart and timely fashion and answer questions with confidence and common sense. Avoid confrontation and bluff and be courteous at all times, whatever you may be feeling inside and thank the interview panel as you leave.

  18. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Delwyn; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber P.; Williams, Karen; Patten, Christi; Resnicow, Ken; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Lee, Hyoung S.; Moreno, Jose L.; Grobe, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite limitations in evidence, the current Clinical Practice Guideline advocates Motivational Interviewing for smokers not ready to quit. This study evaluated the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI) for inducing cessation-related behaviors among smokers with low motivation to quit. Design Randomized clinical trial. Setting/participants Two-hundred fifty-five daily smokers reporting low desire to quit smoking were recruited from an urban community during 2010–2011 and randomly assigned to Motivational Interviewing, health education, or brief advice using a 2:2:1 allocation. Data were analyzed from 2012 to 2014. Intervention Four sessions of Motivational Interviewing utilized a patient-centered communication style that explored patients’ own reasons for change. Four sessions of health education provided education related to smoking cessation while excluding elements characteristic of Motivational Interviewing. A single session of brief advice consisted of brief, personalized advice to quit. Main outcomes measures Self-reported quit attempts, smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), use of cessation pharmacotherapies, motivation, and confidence to quit were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Results Unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between groups in the proportion who made a quit attempt by 6-month follow-up (Motivational Interviewing, 52.0%; health education, 60.8%; brief advice, 45.1%; p=0.157). Health education had significantly higher biochemically verified abstinence rates at 6 months (7.8%) than brief advice (0.0%) (8% difference, 95% CI=3%, 13%, p=0.003), with the Motivational Interviewing group falling in between (2.9% abstinent, 3% risk difference, 95% CI=0%, 6%, p=0.079). Both Motivational Interviewing and health education groups showed greater increases in cessation medication use, motivation, and confidence to quit relative to brief advice (all pmotivation relative to Motivational Interviewing

  19. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing in influencing smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum disadvantaged women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Catherine B

    2013-05-01

    Systematic assessments of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in smoking behavior have been rare to date. This study aimed to determine whether an integrated approach, involving staff training in MI techniques, was sufficient to affect change in smoking status or intensity in low-income pregnant and postpartum women.

  20. The Next Generation of Psychological Autopsy Studies: Part I. Interview Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brent, David A.; Conwell, Yeates; Phillips, Michael R.; Schneider, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The psychological autopsy (PA) is a systematic method to understand the psychological and contextual circumstances preceding suicide. The method requires interviews with one or more proxy respondents (i.e., informants) of decedents. The methodological challenges that need to be addressed when determining the content of these research interviews…

  1. [Initial contact in clinical interview with patients suffering from chronic insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, J M

    1994-01-01

    One of the most controversial issue concerning chronic insomnia is its association with psychopathology. Many patients tend to present their sleep disturbances as isolated, whereas others admit that they have difficulties in other sectors of their life too. If psychopathology exists in chronic insomnia, it should manifest itself in the form of defensive mechanisms which can be clinically observed. In order to have information concerning this problem, the initial interview of patients with chronic insomnia has been analysed in every details, in order to detect behavioural features and characteristics of verbal expression, indicating that defense mechanisms are working. A group of 100 patients from the specialized consultation for sleep disorders has been studied They were referred by their physicians. The patients with a somatic disease or a psychiatric condition corresponding to a diagnostic on axis I of DSM III-R were not included. The patients with a form of insomnia corresponding to psychophysiological insomnia, idiopathic insomnia or sleep state misperception of the international classification were included in this sample. For all patients except 2 of them, the initial interview was audiovisually recorded. This interview aimed at establishing the clinical features of the disturbance, the psychiatric and somatic condition as well as the history of the trouble and the treatment taken at the time or attempted in the past. After an initial open query: "what seems to be the problem?", a semi-structured interview was conducted to obtain information about nocturnal sleep, daytime condition, dream and parasomnia, the history of the disturbance and the treatment. Anxiety and depression, as well as other psychiatric conditions were systematically investigated. Under these conditions, the patients showed from the very beginning of the interview, noticeable characteristics in their behaviour and verbal expression. Therefore, it is essentially the first 10 minutes of the

  2. Writing Interview Protocols and Conducting Interviews: Tips for Students New to the Field of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Stacy A.; Furgerson, S. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Students new to doing qualitative research in the ethnographic and oral traditions, often have difficulty creating successful interview protocols. This article offers practical suggestions for students new to qualitative research for both writing interview protocol that elicit useful data and for conducting the interview. This piece was originally…

  3. The Effect of Intra- Versus Post-Interview Feedback during Simulated Practice Interviews about Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Fisher, Ronald P.; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two types of instructor feedback (relative to no feedback) on investigative interviewers' ability to adhere to open-ended questions in simulated practice interviews about child abuse. Method: In one condition, feedback was provided at the end of each practice interview. In the other, the…

  4. Comparing appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to phone interviews in qualitative research on reproductive decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen

    2017-10-01

    Despite an increasing use of qualitative email interviews by nurse researchers, there is little understanding about the appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to other qualitative data collection methods, especially on sensitive topics research. The purpose is to describe our procedures for completing asynchronous, email interviews and to evaluate the appropriateness and equivalency of email interviews to phone interviews in two qualitative research studies that examined reproductive decisions. Content analysis guided the methodological appraisal of appropriateness and equivalency of in-depth, asynchronous email interviews to single phone interviews. Appropriateness was determined by: (a) participants' willingness to engage in email or phone interviews, (b) completing data collection in a timely period, and (c) participants' satisfaction with the interview. Equivalency was evaluated by: (a) completeness of the interview data, and (b) insight obtained from the data. Of the combined sample in the two studies (N=71), 31% of participants chose to participate via an email interview over a phone interview. The time needed to complete the email interviews averaged 27 to 28days and the number of investigator probe-participant response interchanges was 4 to 5cycles on average. In contrast, the phone interviews averaged 59 to 61min in duration. Most participants in both the email and phone interviews reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their ability to express their true feelings throughout the interview. Regarding equivalence, 100% of the email and phone interviews provided insight into decision processes. Although insightful, two of the email and one phone interview had short answers or, at times, underdeveloped responses. Participants' quotes and behaviors cited within four published articles, a novel evaluation of equivalency, revealed that 20% to 37.5% of the citations about decision processes were from email participants, which is

  5. Computer-assisted self interviewing in sexual health clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, Christopher K; Sze, Jun Kit; Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Chen, Marcus Y

    2010-11-01

    This review describes the published information on what constitutes the elements of a core sexual history and the use of computer-assisted self interviewing (CASI) within sexually transmitted disease clinics. We searched OVID Medline from 1990 to February 2010 using the terms "computer assisted interviewing" and "sex," and to identify published articles on a core sexual history, we used the term "core sexual history." Since 1990, 3 published articles used a combination of expert consensus, formal clinician surveys, and the Delphi technique to decide on what questions form a core sexual health history. Sexual health histories from 4 countries mostly ask about the sex of the partners, the number of partners (although the time period varies), the types of sex (oral, anal, and vaginal) and condom use, pregnancy intent, and contraceptive methods. Five published studies in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom compared CASI with in person interviews in sexually transmitted disease clinics. In general, CASI identified higher risk behavior more commonly than clinician interviews, although there were substantial differences between studies. CASI was found to be highly acceptable and individuals felt it allowed more honest reporting. Currently, there are insufficient data to determine whether CASI results in differences in sexually transmitted infection testing, diagnosis, or treatment or if CASI improves the quality of sexual health care or its efficiency. The potential public health advantages of the widespread use of CASI are discussed.

  6. Combining interviewing and modeling for end-user energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldblatt, David L.; Hartmann, Christoph; Duerrenberger, Gregor

    2005-01-01

    Studying energy consumption through the lens of households is an increasingly popular research avenue. This paper focuses on residential end-user energy conservation. It describes an approach that combines energy modeling and in-depth interviews for communicating about energy use and revealing consumer preferences for change at different levels and intervention points. Expert knowledge was embodied in a computer model for householders that calculates an individual's current energy consumption and helps assess personal savings potentials, while also bringing in socio-technical and economic elements beyond the user's direct control. The paper gives a detailed account of this computer information tool developed for interviewing purposes. It then describes the interview guidelines, data analysis, and main results. In general, interview subjects overestimated the environmental friendliness of their lifestyles. After experience with the program, they tended to rate external (technological, societal) factors as somewhat stronger determinants of their consumption levels than personal (behavioral and household investment) factors, with the notable exception of mobility. Concerning long-term energy perspectives, the majority of subjects felt that society has the ability to make a collective choice towards significantly lower energy consumption levels. Interviewees confirmed that the software and interactive sessions helped them think more holistically about the personal, social, and technological dimensions of energy conservation. Lessons can be applied to the development of future energy communication tools

  7. Implementation of Motivational Interviewing in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Louise Rasmussen, Line

    Implementation of Motivational Interviewing in practice Background In 2012 at Department of Nephrology an investigation among patients showed, that the patient’s did not experience acknowledgement during admission, though the nurses was educated in 'Motivational Interviewing'. Objectives To improve...... patient satisfaction during admission To maintain and improve the nurses competencies in patient-centred communication. Methods Literature study Breakthrough series method and Plan Do Study Act circles. Training by Mooney and Brinkerhoff (development of nurses competences) Pre - focus group interviews...... with the nurses. Implementation process in 3 phases - Preparation - Implementation (4 selected keypersons) - Follow-up Result The four selected keypersons aroused curiosity and motivation for a patient-centred admission interview. The nurses experienced the interaction with the patient became more dynamic. Data...

  8. Preventing foetal alcohol syndrome with motivational interviewing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-14

    Oct 14, 2012 ... Alcohol is widely established as a teratogenic drug that is capable of ... interviewing (MI) with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) practice, borrowed from health ... certain families, heritability, linked to genetically determined.

  9. People Interview: The science behind the 'magic'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    INTERVIEW The science behind the 'magic' Grand Illusions is a website dedicated to science-based phenomena, fun and games, and optical illusions. David Smith speaks to two of its key members—Hendrik Ball and Tim Rowett.

  10. An Interview with Dorry M. Kenyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Nathan; Vongumivitch, Viphavee

    2001-01-01

    Includes an interview with a noted figure in the field of language assessment. Focuses on a range of test development projects, including several related to the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) scale. (Author/VWL)

  11. Training in motivational interviewing in obstetrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Mogensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    -adherent interventions). Furthermore, the participants asked fewer closed and more open questions before training in motivational interview. In the assessment of proficiency and competency, most of the participants scored higher after the training in motivational interviewing. CONCLUSIONS: Training in motivational......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a three day training course in motivational interviewing which is an approach to helping people to change could improve the communication skills of obstetric healthcare professionals in their interaction with obese pregnant women. DESIGN: Intervention study. SETTING......: The Region of Southern Denmark. METHODS: Eleven obstetric healthcare professionals working with obese pregnant women underwent a three day course in motivational interviewing techniques and were assessed before- and after training to measure the impact on their overall performance as well as the effect...

  12. Interview with Abel Prize Recipient Srinivasa Varadhan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    His Majesty King Harald presented the Abel Prize for 2007 to Srinivasa Varadhan at an award ceremony in the University Aula in Oslo on the 22nd May, 2007. The interview was conducted the day before the ceremony.......His Majesty King Harald presented the Abel Prize for 2007 to Srinivasa Varadhan at an award ceremony in the University Aula in Oslo on the 22nd May, 2007. The interview was conducted the day before the ceremony....

  13. Motivational interviewing for improving recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daobin; Qu, Zhanli; Huang, Jianyi; Xiao, Yousheng; Luo, Hongye; Wang, Jin

    2015-06-03

    Psychological problems are common complications following stroke that can cause stroke survivors to lack the motivation to take part in activities of daily living. Motivational interviewing provides a specific way for enhancing intrinsic motivation, which may help to improve activities of daily living for stroke survivors. To investigate the effect of motivational interviewing for improving activities of daily living after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1948 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2015), PsycBITE (March 2015) and four Chinese databases. In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials, we searched ongoing trials registers and conference proceedings, checked reference lists, and contacted authors of relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing motivational interviewing with no intervention, sham motivational interviewing or other psychological therapy for people with stroke were eligible. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted eligible data and assessed risk of bias. Outcome measures included activities of daily living, mood and death. One study involving a total of 411 participants, which compared motivational interviewing with usual care, met our inclusion criteria. The results of this review did not show significant differences between groups receiving motivational interviewing or usual stroke care for participants who were not dependent on others for activities of daily living, nor on the death rate after three-month and 12-month follow-up, but participants receiving motivational interviewing were more likely to have a normal mood than those who received usual care at three-months and 12-months follow-up. There is insufficient evidence to support

  14. Interview at the level of the signifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2012-01-01

    The research strategy interview at the level of the signifier was developed in relation to a qualitative interview project into cross-cultural encounters temporarily and spatially framed by academic organizational settings. The research interest is gender and ethnicity. However, neither happens all...... the time, nor is it present in all encounters. Therefore, gender and ethnicity are de-centered. Crucial for the research strategy is the focus on the ‘interplay-of-practices’....

  15. [Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Michael; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients Alcohol-dependent patients do not need to be motivated from the outside. They are mostly ambivalent, and the inner voice, which already speaks for change (change talk), is heard through motivational interviewing, carefully strengthened and developed together with the patient. The practitioner has to deal with the human spirit of motivational interviewing and should be able to communicate with empathy, respect, congruence, and openness. The patient's autonomy should always be maintained. Advice is only given upon request. The conversation style is directive-guiding instead of authoritariansteering. OARS and the EPE principle are the motivational interviewing basics, which are consistently applied over 4 processes of motivational interviewing: engaging, focusing, evocing, and planning. The likelihood of change talk increases as soon as discrepancies between life goals and alcohol consumption emerge. An increased rate of change talk makes a change in behavior more likely. If a patient argues against change (sustain talk), one should not confront, but should consistently work with reflections, reframing, and an emphasis on autonomy. Motivational interviewing can be applied in different settings and populations, should be learned by the entire team (best professional guidance) in teamwork, and be subjected to a critical and constant evaluation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Being a quantitative interviewer: qualitatively exploring interviewers' experiences in a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrett Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of health outcomes rely on data collected by interviewers administering highly-structured (quantitative questionnaires to participants. Little appears to be known about the experiences of such interviewers. This paper explores interviewer experiences of working on a longitudinal study in New Zealand (the Prospective Outcomes of injury Study - POIS. Interviewers administer highly-structured questionnaires to participants, usually by telephone, and enter data into a secure computer program. The research team had expectations of interviewers including: consistent questionnaire administration, timeliness, proportions of potential participants recruited and an empathetic communication style. This paper presents results of a focus group to qualitatively explore with the team of interviewers their experiences, problems encountered, strategies, support systems used and training. Methods A focus group with interviewers involved in the POIS interviews was held; it was audio-recorded and transcribed. The analytical method was thematic, with output intended to be descriptive and interpretive. Results Nine interviewers participated in the focus group (average time in interviewer role was 31 months. Key themes were: 1 the positive aspects of the quantitative interviewer role (i.e. relationships and resilience, insights gained, and participants' feedback, 2 difficulties interviewers encountered and solutions identified (i.e. stories lost or incomplete, forgotten appointments, telling the stories, acknowledging distress, stories reflected and debriefing and support, and 3 meeting POIS researcher expectations (i.e. performance standards, time-keeping, dealing exclusively with the participant and maintaining privacy. Conclusions Interviewers demonstrated great skill in the way they negotiated research team expectations whilst managing the relationships with participants. Interviewers found it helpful to have a research protocol in

  17. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...

  18. Impact of time to maternal interview on interview responses in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Sarah C; Gibbs, Cassandra; Strickland, Matthew J; Devine, Owen J; Crider, Krista S; Werler, Martha M; Anderka, Marlene T; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal exposures often are assessed using retrospective interviews. Time from exposure to interview may influence data accuracy. We investigated the association of time to interview (TTI) with aspects of interview responses in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study of birth defects in 10 US states. Mothers completed a computer-assisted telephone interview 1.5-24 months after their estimated date of delivery. Proxy metrics for interview quality were whether certain exposures were reported, whether the start month of reported medication use or illness was reported, or whether responses were missing. Interaction by case status was assessed. Interviews were completed with 30,542 mothers (22,366 cases and 8,176 controls) who gave birth between 1997 and 2007. Mothers of cases were interviewed later than were mothers of controls (11.7 months vs. 9.5 months, respectively). In adjusted analyses, having a TTI that was greater than 6 months was associated with only a few aspects of interview responses (e.g., start month of pseudoephedrine use). Interaction by case-control status was observed for some exposures; mothers of controls had a greater reduction in interview quality with increased TTI in these instances (e.g., report of morning sickness, start month of acetaminophen use and ibuprofen use). The results suggest that TTI might impact interview responses; however, the impact may be minimal and specific to the type of exposure.

  19. Individualizing Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  20. Narrative interviews: an important resource in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylaert, Camila Junqueira; Sarubbi, Vicente; Gallo, Paulo Rogério; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim

    2014-12-01

    Objetives This methodological study explain and emphasize the extent and fertility of the narrative interview in qualitative research. Methods To describe the narrative method within the qualitative research. Results The qualitative research method is characterized by addressing issues related to the singularities of the field and individuals investigated, being the narrative interviews a powerful method for use by researchers who aggregate it. They allow the deepening of research, the combination of life stories with socio-historical contexts, making the understanding of the senses that produce changes in the beliefs and values that motivate and justify the actions of possible informants. Conclusion The use of narrative is an advantageous investigative resource in qualitative research, in which the narrative is a traditional form of communication whose purpose is to serve content from which the subjective experiences can be transmitted.