WorldWideScience

Sample records for individual petroleum producing

  1. Petroleum term markets and OPEC producers countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensarsa, F.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of petroleum producers countries in front of term markets is described. With an economics liberalization, policy configuration changing the energetic balance (increasing of american imports, of asiatic demand and developing countries; decreasing of russian production), a more efficient technology, a right management of energetic resources with energy economy, renewable energies and non polluting energies, it is difficult for producers countries to resist at the pressure of financing tools, more and more modern and efficient as they are term markets

  2. BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM-WASTE BY BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; Kamlesh Jangid, K; Krystyna Lukasik, K; Grzegorz Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Topher Berry, T

    2007-05-16

    The degradation of petroleum waste by mixed bacterial cultures which produce biosurfactants: Ralstonia pickettii SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (1'- 1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1) and Bacillus sp. (T'-1) was investigated. The total petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded substantially (91 %) by the mixed bacterial culture in 30 days (reaching up to 29 % in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3 times after 30 days as compared to raw petroleum waste. Thus, the mixed bacterial strains effectively clean-up the petroleum waste and they can be used in other bioremediation processes.

  3. Foreign activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-ErdgasProduzenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    The contribution under consideration is engaged in the foreign activities of German producers of natural gas and oil: Wintershall Holding AG (Kassel), RWE DEA AG (Hamburg), Petro Canada Germany GmbH (Essen), E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Essen), VNG Norge AG (Leipzig), Bavaria gas GmbH (Munich) and EWE AG (Oldenburg). Data according to the petroleum of petroleum and natural gas abroad are published for the period between 2007 and 2009. Besides this, the activities of these companies in individual countries are specified exactly.

  4. Petroleum producers and Canada's north : an industry moving forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    Efforts were made by northern industries over the last 20 years to reduce their impact on the environment. The minimization of the footprint on the environment was researched and new exploration and production techniques were developed by petroleum companies, so that clean air, clear water, healthy land and abundant wildlife could be maintained in the north. An example of such techniques is provided by directional drilling technology, which enables oil and gas producers to assess reserves under lakes or other sensitive areas without leaving an impact. Everyone in the north benefits from the oil and gas industry as a result of local employment policies, increased government revenues. Job creation is probably the most obvious benefit derived from oil and gas activities in the north. At present, the jobs are mainly concentrated in the seismic field, drilling and support services sector, as the industry is in the exploration stage. As the industry evolves into the development phase, the jobs and business opportunities will also mature. Training programs are being created by the governments of the Northwest Territories and Canada in partnership with the petroleum industry to enable northern residents to take advantage of the new opportunities. The traditional economies of the north will be strengthened by a strong oil and gas industry. Industry and communities must be ready to share their vision of the north to develop a sustainable northern oil and gas industry. Abundant oil and gas resources are located in the Northwest Territories, and numerous challenges make getting the resources and moving them to market difficult. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has a vision of a strong industry in the north employing local people and where the respect of local knowledge and traditions dominates. The members companies are responsible for the production of 95 per cent of the crude oil and natural gas in Canada. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has a

  5. Analysis of petroleum oily sludge producing in petroleum field of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de Souza; Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In exploration and production of petroleum is generated solid waste different and components other. The petroleum oily sludge is a complex mix of components different (water, oil and solid). The petroleum oily sludge generally has other residues and is formed during production and operations, transport, storage and petroleum refining (atmospheric residue, vacuum residue and catalytic cracking residue). However, according to its origin, the compositions can be found quite varied for sludge. Observing the process steps production and refining is possible to locate its main sources and percentage contributions in terms of waste generation. The elemental analysis was performed with oily sludge from region and it showed different composition. For carbon element and hydrogen, small differences was observed, but for was observed greater differences for Oxygen element. The sludge has different inorganic and organic composition. The sludge from oil water separator (OWS) 2 showed a greater amount of oil (94.88%), this may indicate a residue of aggregate high for petroleum industry. In analysis of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA), the sludge from unloading showed amount high of saturates. The inorganic material separated from sludge was characterized and sludge from OWS 2 had high amount sulfur (41.57%). The sludge analyzed showed organic components high values, so it can be treated and reprocessed in process units petroleum industry. The analysis thermal degradation had a better setting for treated oily sludge. (author)

  6. Petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugg, W G

    1967-07-01

    This discussion of the Canadian petroleum industry for the year 1966 includes production statistics and operating procedures, reserve estimates, exploration and development, transportation, refining, and marketing. Most sectors of the Canadian industry had an excellent year in 1966, featured by continued exploration and development successes in the Rainbow Lake-Zama Lake region of northwestern Alberta and a record value of production that exceeded $900 million for all liquid hydrocarbons. Production of crude oil and natural gas liquids exceeded one million bopd. Crude oil producers supplied 58% of the total crude oil requirements for Canadian refineries. Oil reserves increased due primarily to the application of secondary recovery and the discovery of new reserves. Total pipeline construction decreased, and there was a small increase in refinery capacity.

  7. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are briefly summarized 1)the OPEC decisions and their consequences concerning the production of petroleum in the world 2)some news about the petroleum industry in Chad and in Iraq 3)some news about the new pipelines constructed or to be constructed in the world 4)some news about the LPG industry (start of a LPG extraction unit in Argentina, legislation in France for LPG vehicles) 4)and some news about the petroleum distribution in France. (O.M.)

  8. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are gathered the results of the year 1999 concerning the petroleum industry in France ('UFIP' data), the market quotations of crude oil, the prices of fuels in France and in Portugal and some news about the petroleum industry in Algeria (privatization, exploration-offshore, repurchase), in Iraq (exports, contracts with foreign companies), in Russian Federation (petroleum pipelines and oil ports constructions) and in Chad (production sharing, offshore sites discoveries). (O.M.)

  9. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and BTEX Compounds in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Lorri

    2002-04-01

    Petroleum Environmental Technologies, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research and Development agreement with the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center to an in-situ pit treatment demonstration and produced water treatment demonstration. The purpose of the test is to demonstrate the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in soil and aqueous matrices where ECOSAFE is applied to enhance the degradation of these contaminants.

  10. Analysis of the cement clinker produced with incorporation of petroleum sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlamoudi, A.; Kadir, A. Abdul; Khodja, M.; Nuruddin, M. F.

    2018-04-01

    Very limited researches have been conducted on the incorporation of petroleum sludge waste into cement clinker production even though this waste may contain similar components to those of clinker raw materials. In this research, petroleum sludge was integrated into cement plant as raw material to produce the cement clinker. As results, incorporation of 5% of this waste was able to produce an acceptable quality of cement. Despite the use of petroleum sludge has decreased the properties of the produced clinker, but it still fit the requirements.

  11. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  12. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  13. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, S.

    2008-01-01

    While petroleum has become an indispensable product in our everyday life, it is more and more question of an oil shortage. This book makes a status of the real situation. Starting from the industrial revolution and the history of oil exploitation, it explains the main present day stakes: the depletion of reserves, the environmental aspects and the search for alternative energy solutions. (J.S.)

  14. Environmental effects of produced water from offshore petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riksheim, H.; Johnsen, S.

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical models describing the fate and distribution of the discharged produced water are available for both the Statfjord and Gullfaks field. However, the value of these models are very limited if its predicted results cannot be verified by measurements of the actual results. An approach to this problem was made by sampling of water from locations in the vicinity of the discharge points at one of the oil producing platforms at the Statfjord and Gullfaks fields. Samples were collected at levels 5m below surface at locations 10m, 100m and 500m downstream of the discharge points, and at a reference site located midway between the fields. The concentrations of total hydrocarbon content, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols and a number of heavy metals were determined in all samples. Increased levels of several of the analyzed parameters were detected at the innermost locations at both fields, compared to the distant locations and the natural background levels. At the Statfjord field increased levels of phenols and PAH were also observed at the locations 100 m and 500 m away from the discharge point. The results showed that dilution factors of 1:1000 and higher were found for the innermost locations, while the dilution models predicted a primary dilution of 1:30--1:50 within a distance of 100 m away from the platforms

  15. Protocol for Appraisal of Petroleum Producing Properties on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-27

    Petroleum is currently produced on Native American Tribal Lands and has been produced on some of these lands for approximately 100 years. As these properties are abandoned at a production level that is considered the economic limit by the operator, Native American Tribes are considering this an opportunity to assume operator status to keep the properties producing. In addition to operating properties as they are abandoned, Native American Tribes also are assuming liabilities of the former operator(s) and ownership of equipment left upon abandonment. Often, operators are assumed by Native American Tribes without consideration of the liabilities left by the former operators. The purpose of this report is to provide protocols for the appraisal of petroleum producing properties and analysis of the petroleum resource to be produced after assuming operations. The appraisal protocols provide a spreadsheet for analysis of the producing property and a checklist of items to bring along before entering the property for onsite appraisal of the property. The report will provide examples of some environmental flags that may indicate potential liabilities remaining on the property left unaddressed by previous operators. It provides a starting point for appraisal and analysis of a property with a basis to make the decision to assume operations or to pursue remediation and/or closure of the liabilities of previous operators.

  16. Petroleum-related contaminants near a produced water discharge site in the Santa Barbara Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.D.; Witter, A.E.; Higashi, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Offshore oil production generates substantial quantities of waste water that is frequently discharged into marine waters. Contamination of coastal sediments occurs due to other inputs including natural petroleum seeps, and this complicates assessments of the environmental effects of produced water in marine ecosystems. The current study has focused on characterization of contaminants in sediments near produced water discharge site off the coast of Southern California. First, it was important to address the question: ''What contaminants in sediments should be monitored as indicators of produced water effects?'' Dichloromethane extracts of sediments were analyzed for numerous organic constituents using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and selected ion monitoring. Though the phenols and fatty acids were not detected in sediment extracts, normal and branched alkanes and other petroleum hydrocarbon biomarkers were quantified. No relationship was evident that related absolute concentrations of organic compounds to distance from the outfall, but patterns of petroleum hydrocarbons exhibited consistent spatial variations that could be related to distance from the produced water out fall. Analysis of chemical fossil ''biomarkers'' provides potentially useful indices of effects of waste discharges upon microbial biodegradation of organic compounds in sediments

  17. Analysis of Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brashear, Jerry P.; North, Walter B.; Thomas Charles P.; Becker, Alan B.; Faulder, David D.

    2000-01-12

    Petroleum Technology Advances Through Applied Research by Independent Oil Producers is a program of the National Oil Research Program, U.S. Department of Energy. Between 1995 and 1998, the program competitively selected and cost-shared twenty-two projects with small producers. The purpose was to involve small independent producers in testing technologies of interest to them that would advance (directly or indirectly) one or more of four national program objectives: (1) Extend the productive life of reservoirs; (2) Increase production and/or reserves; (3) Improve environmental performance; and (4) Broaden the exchange of technology information.

  18. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of catalytically hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction in petroleum asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, I.; Oishi, T.; Korai, Y.; Fujitsu, H.; Takeshita, K.

    1983-03-01

    A hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction of a feed originally consisting of 66% petroleum asphalt and 34% coal liquid was characterized. The hydrotreatment was carried out over a Co-Mo catalyst in order to upgrade moderately and selectively the coal-derived fraction. The present process was found very effective to depolymerize rather selectively the coal-derived fraction, originally benzene insoluble, to be soluble in benzene in the dominant presence of petroleum asphalt, while 20% of the asphalt was converted to be distillable with ..cap alpha..-methylnaphthalene (the hydrotreatment solvent). Structural analyses of the fractions before and after hydrotreatment were compared to reveal what kinds of chemical reactions had taken place during hydro treatment. The major reactions of the coal derived fraction are hydrodeoxygenation and hydrodealkylation, both of which are effective for depolymerization. No significant hydrogenation on aromatic rings was observed. Hydrotreated liquid was further pyrolyzed to obtain oils and cokes of high quality. (14 refs.)

  20. Isolation of biosurfactant producers, optimization and properties of biosurfactant produced by Acinetobacter sp. from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Huang, P T; Zhang, K Y; Ding, F R

    2012-04-01

    To screen and identify biosurfactant producers from petroleum-contaminated soil; to use response surface methodology (RSM) for medium optimization to enhance biosurfactant production; and to study the properties of the newly obtained biosurfactant towards pH, temperature and salinity. We successfully isolated three biosurfactant producers from petroleum-contaminated soil and identified them through 16S rRNA sequence analysis, which exhibit the highest similarities to Acinetobacter beijerinckii (100%), Kocuria marina (99%) and Kineococcus marinus (99%), respectively. A quadratic response model was constructed through RSM designs, leading to a 57·5% increase of the growth-associated biosurfactant production by Acinetobacter sp. YC-X 2 with an optimized medium: beef extract 3·12 g l(-1) ; peptone 20·87 g l(-1) ; NaCl 1·04 g l(-1); and n-hexadecane 1·86 g l(-1). Biosurfactant produced by Acinetobacter sp. YC-X 2 retained its properties during exposure to a wide range of pH values (5-11), high temperatures (up to 121°C) and high salinities [up to 18% (w/v) Na(+) and Ca(2+) ], which was more sensitive to Ca(2+) than Na(+). Two novel biosurfactant producers were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil. Biosurfactant from Acinetobacter sp. YC-X 2 has good properties to a wide range of pH, high temperature and high salinity, and its production was optimized successfully through RSM. The fact, an increasing demand of high-quality surfactants and the lack of cost-competitive bioprocesses of biosurfactants for commercial utilization, motivates researchers to develop cost-effective strategies for biosurfactant production through isolating new biosurfactant producers with special surface-active properties and optimizing their cultural conditions. Two novel biosurfactant producers in this study will widen our knowledge about this kind of micro-organism. This work is the first application of RSM designs for cultural optimization of biosurfactant produced by Acinetobacter

  1. Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers voluntary challenge action plans - 1996 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) has helped 85 of its' 170 member companies to develop climate change management policies. CAPP believes that participation through a voluntary approach allows for the development of creative, cost-effective solutions without the associated costs of regulatory measures for government and industry. Industry efforts to reduce greenhouse gases have focused primarily on five areas. These were: (1) energy efficiency, (2) methane capture and recovery, (3) acid gas injection, (4) co-generation, (5) and other actions. Petroleum industry accomplishment in 1996 were reported. In terms of future plans, it was asserted that CAPP member companies will continue to broaden and deepen their commitment to the voluntary challenge. Technological enhancements that increase production efficiency, also have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and for this reason, CAPP will undertake assessment of their greenhouse gas emission potential. Further, it was noted that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the upstream petroleum industry will likely increase because overall production is expected to increase through the year 2000. However, much of this increased production will be exported to the United States, and will help them to reduce their carbon and greenhouse gas emissions. Since climate change is a global issue, it requires global solutions, hence increasing production efficiency may be viewed as an appropriate response to the climate change issue. Statistical information regarding Canada's natural gas and crude oil production, and the impact that the VCR program has had on the industry to date, was reviewed. 13 tabs., 7 figs

  2. Total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by hybrid electrobiochemical reactor in oilfield produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Ibrahim E.

    2016-01-01

    The crude oil drilling and extraction operations are aimed to maximize the production may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated produced water (PW). PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The efficiency of suggested hybrid electrobiochemical (EBC) methods for the simultaneous removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and sulfate from PW generated by petroleum industry is studied. Also, the factors that affect the stability of PW quality are investigated. The results indicated that the effect of biological treatment is very important to keep control of the electrochemical by-products and more TPH removal in the EBC system. The maximum TPH and sulfate removal efficiency was achieved 75% and 25.3%, respectively when the detention time was about 5.1 min and the energy consumption was 32.6 mA/cm 2 . However, a slight increasing in total bacterial count was observed when the EBC compact unit worked at a flow rate of average 20 L/h. Pseudo steady state was achieved after 30 min of current application in the solution. Also, the results of the study indicate that when the current intensity was increased above optimum level, no significant results occurred due to the release of gases. - Highlights: • The hybrid electrolytic biological cell was used for degradation of oilfield produced water. • Decomposition of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon with or without the biofilter. • High saline water with the high chloride and sulfate ions content treatment. • The removal of electrochemical by-products is a phase change technique that requires the maintenance the biofilm on the filter media, which is sensitive and a complex operation. • Biofilter is efficient for the degradation of PW bye products, the critical drawback to their utility in full-scale operations is high TDS water content and detention time of treatment.

  3. Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.; Ho, K.T.; Kuhn, A.; McKinney, R.A.; Ryba, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Phototoxicity resulting from photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in the literature for a variety of freshwater organisms. The magnitude of increase in PAH toxicity often exceeds a factor of 100. In the marine environment phototoxicity to marine organisms has not been reported for individual or complex mixtures of PAHs. In this study, larvae and juveniles of the bivalve, Mulinia lateralis, and juveniles of the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, were exposed to individual known phototoxic PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene), as well as the water-accommodated fractions of several petroleum products (Fuel Oil number-sign 2, Arabian Light Crude, Prudhoe Bay Crude, Fuel Oil number-sign 6) containing PAHs. Phototoxicity of individual PAHs was 12 to >50,000 times that of conventional toxicity. Three of the petroleum products demonstrated phototoxicity while the lightest product, Fuel Oil number-sign 2, was not phototoxic at the concentrations tested. The phototoxicity of petroleum products appears to be dependent on the composition and concentrations of phototoxic PAHs present: lighter oils have fewer multiple aromatic ring, phototoxic compounds while heavier oils have higher levels of these types of molecules. This study shows that phototoxicity can occur in marine waters to marine species. Further, the occurrence of oil in marine waters presents the additional risk of phototoxicity not routinely assessed for during oil spills

  4. Isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria from petroleum contaminated sites and their characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida Batool

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are microbial amphiphilic compounds which can reduce surface tension between aqueous and hydrocarbon mixtures. Bacterial strains isolated from petroleum contaminated soil of various motor workshops were characterized morphologically and biochemically. Biosurfactant producing ability of the strains was determined and their emulsification activity was screened against different oils. All the selected bacterial strains showed enhanced biosurfactants production with yeast extract as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source at optimized conditions. These strains also exhibited multiple metal and antibiotics resistance. Isolated biosurfactants of three most promising strains SF-1, SF-4 and SM-1 were extracted by solvent extraction and subjected to TLC technique. The technique indicates the glycolipid nature of the compounds and presence of rhamnose sugar, which was further confirmed by FT-IR analysis. 16srRNA analysis revealed that SF-1 and SM-1 had close resemblance with Pseudomonas sp. while SF-4 showed homology with Enterobacter sp. Isolation and screening of biosurfactant producing strains from petroleum polluted places proved to be a quick and effective means to find bacterial strains with possible industrial uses.

  5. Screening of biosurfactant producers from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sources in cold marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Lin, Weiyun; Cao, Tong

    2014-09-15

    An overview of literature about isolating biosurfactant producers from marine sources indicated no such producers have been reported form North Atlantic Canada. Water and sediment samples were taken from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated coastal and offshore areas in this region. Either n-hexadecane or diesel was used as the sole carbon source for the screening. A modified colony-based oil drop collapsing test was used to cover sessile biosurfactant producers. Fifty-five biosurfactant producers belong to genera of Alcanivorax, Exiguobacterium, Halomonas, Rhodococcus, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Streptomyces were isolated. The first three genera were established after 1980s with interesting characteristics and limited relevant publications. Some of the 55 isolated strains were found with properties such as greatly reducing surface tension, stabilizing emulsion and producing flocculant. Isolates P6-4P and P1-5P were selected to demonstrate the performance of biosurfactant production, and were found to reduce the surface tension of water to as low as 28 dynes/cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant/bioemulsifier-producing bacteria from petroleum contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, S B; Mounteer, A H; Amorim, F R; Tótola, M R

    2006-04-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from terrestrial and marine samples collected in areas contaminated with crude oil or its byproducts. Isolates were screened for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production in different carbon sources (glucose, fructose, sucrose and kerosene) using the qualitative drop-collapse test. Glucose produced the highest number of positive results (17 of 185 isolates). All 17 isolates produced emulsions with kerosene and 12 exhibited high emulsion-stabilizing capacity, maintaining 50% of the original emulsion volume for 48 h. Eight of the 17 isolates reduced the growth medium surface tension below 40 mN m(-1) with 5 exhibiting this capacity in cell-free filtrates. Onset of biosurfactant production differed among the isolates, with some initiating synthesis during the exponential growth phase and others after the stationary phase was reached. Increasing temperature from 25 to 35 degrees C accelerated onset of biosurfactant production in only two isolates while pH (6.5-7.6) had no effect in any isolate tested. Isolation from petroleum contaminated sites using the screening protocol presented proved to be a rapid and effective manner to identify bacterial isolates with potential industrial applications.

  7. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  8. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  9. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  10. Arab petroleum stakes: Big lucks and big risks for producers countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1996-01-01

    Actually, four among ten exported petroleum barrels come from Arab countries, in ten years it will be six among ten barrels which will come from Arab countries. But to be beneficial these export increase must be accompanied by a prices increase. It is not actually the case because of the Usa position which prefer a cheap petroleum, but it would be necessary to put right prices until $28/barrel from here until 2000

  11. Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Gargouri, Bochra; Trabelsi, Souhel Kallel; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm(-2)) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effective bioremediation of a petroleum-polluted saline soil by a surfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria able to produce biosurfactants can use petroleum-based hydrocarbons as a carbon source. Herein, four biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, isolated from oil-contaminated saline soil, were combined to form a bacterial consortium. The inoculation of the consortium to contaminated soil alleviated the adverse effects of salinity on biodegradation and increased the rate of degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon approximately 30% compared to the rate achieved in non-treated soil. In saline condition, treatment of polluted soil with the consortium led to a significant boost in the activity of dehydrogenase (approximately 2-fold. A lettuce seedling bioassay showed that, following the treatment, the soil's level of phytotoxicity was reduced up to 30% compared to non-treated soil. Treatment with an appropriate bacterial consortium can represent an effective means of reducing the adverse effects of salinity on the microbial degradation of petroleum and thus provides enhancement in the efficiency of microbial remediation of oil-contaminated saline soils.

  13. The Association of Petroleum Producers of Africa (APPA): an instrument of cooperation for the development of energy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semassoussi, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The role and contribution of the Association of Petroleum Producers of Africa (APPA) to the cooperative development of energy in Africa were described. APPA was created in Lagos in 1987 by eight founding countries, i.e. Algeria, Gabon, Libya, Nigeria, Angola, Benin, Cameroun and Congo. Since then, the Ivory Coast, Egypt, Zaire and Equatorial Guinea have joined APPA. The objectives of APPA are primarily technical. They are to promote amongst its members commercial strategies, an understanding of the energy needs of Africa, and technical collaboration to improve the national energy needs definition in Africa. Current petroleum and natural gas reserves and crude oil and refined products production for the African continent were also reviewed

  14. How international oil and gas companies respond to local content policies in petroleum-producing developing countries: A narrative enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoasong, Michael Zisuh

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses narrative analysis to critically examine the business practices used by five international oil and gas companies (IOCs) (Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell, BP and Total) to respond to local content policies in petroleum-producing developing countries (Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, Brazil, Indonesia, Yemen and Indonesia) during the period 2000–2012. The business practices include the formulation of local content strategies that are implemented through programmes and initiatives aimed at developing and using host country suppliers and workforce. Such practices and the narratives used to communicate them implicitly reflect the context in which the effectiveness of local content policies on economic development can be assessed. By comparing and contrasting the narratives across the five IOCs in relation to the wider literature, four emergent narrative strategies justifying the business practices of IOCs are identified and discussed. They include: (1) direct engagement to renegotiate local content requirements with governments, (2) legal compliance framework, (3) the business case for local content strategies, and (4) corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The conclusion considers the policy implications of these findings for local content development in petroleum-producing developing countries. - Highlights: • Local content policies define the local context that shape IOCs’ business practices. • Provides a narrative analysis of the business practices of IOCs in developing countries. • IOCs use four narrative strategies to relate their business practices to local content policies. • The business practices of IOCs can determine the effectiveness of local content policies

  15. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil to combat toxicity on Withania somnifera through seed priming with biosurfactant producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amar Jyoti; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Soil contaminated by Petroleum oil cannot be utilized for agricultural purposes due to hydrocarbon toxicity. Oil contaminated soil induces toxicity affecting germination, growth and productivity. Several technologies have been proposed for bioremediation of oil contaminated sites, but remediation through biosurfactant producing plant growth promontory rhizobacteria (PGPR) is considered to be most promising methods. In the present study the efficacy of seed priming on growth and pigment of Withania somnifera under petroleum toxicity is explored. Seeds of W. somnifera were primed with biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas sp. AJ15 with plant growth promoting traits having potentiality to utilized petroleum as carbon source. Results indicates that plant arose from priming seeds under various petroleum concentration expressed high values for all the parameters studied namely germination, shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight and pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) as compared to non primed seed. Hence, the present study signifies that petroleum degrarding biosurfactant producing PGPR could be further used for management and detoxification of petroleum contaminated soils for growing economically important crops. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Marine toxicity and persistence of surfactants used in the petroleum producing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddin, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of marine toxicity and biodegradability data for surfactants used in the petroleum industry. Surfactants are key chemicals in the formulation of products such as emulsifiers, demulsifiers, dispersants and inhibitors. They are also used directly as foaming and defoaming agents. Because they function at low concentrations, below 1%, and have a tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces, their long-term environmental effects are minimal. In applications such as cementing, surfactants cannot migrate into the environment and, thus, have no bioavailability. The possibility of environmental contamination has caused well operators and regulatory agencies to require fish toxicity and persistence data for products used in servicing wells. This data has been organized for nonionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric surfactants. Nonionic surfactants are toxic to fish at concentrations below 10 mg/L to over 2500 mg/L depending on their chemical compositions. Anionic surfactants are toxic to fish at concentrations under 1 mg/L to several hundred mg/L depending on their chemical compositions. cationic and amphoteric surfactants are generally toxic to fish at concentrations below 50 mg/L. Overall efforts are aimed at low toxicity and high biodegradability with the least compromise in product efficiency. This requires the continual testing and environmental evaluation of surfactants summarized herein

  17. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamella Macedo de; Goulart, Fátima Regina de Vasconcelos; Marques, Joana Montezano; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Groposo, Claudia; Sousa, Maíra Paula de; Vólaro, Vanessa; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Seldin, Lucy

    2017-04-19

    Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO) produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium , Geotoga petraea , and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans . EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia , Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus , as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 78 µg/mL) the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral) and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  18. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Macedo de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium, Geotoga petraea, and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans. EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia, Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 78 µg/mL the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  19. Foreign activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas in 2011; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-Erdgas-Produzenten in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-04-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the foreign activities of the German producers of petroleum/natural gas Wintershall Holding GmbH (Kassel), RWE DEA AG (Hamburg), E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Essen), Petro-Canada Germany GmbH (Essen), VNG Verbundnetz Gas Aktiengesellschaft (Leipzig), Bayerngas Norge AS (Oslo, Norway) und EWE Aktiengesellschaft (Oldenburg) in the year 2011. In Norway, Wintershall has more than fourty licences, around twenty of tem self-operated. RWE DEA has the operating lead at five from nine field development projects. At E.ON Ruhrgas AG, the exploration and production are a high-growth segment with good perspectives in the future. In Norway, Bayerngas Norge As promoted nearly 6.3 billion kWh gas equivalent in 2011.

  20. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR. PMID:27872613

  1. Rhamnolipids produced by indigenous Acinetobacter junii from petroleum reservoir and its potential in enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS. The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9 and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  2. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C 26 H 48 O 9 , C 28 H 52 O 9 , and C 32 H 58 O 13 . The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO 3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  3. Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

  4. Influence of NORMs on the natural background radiation level in petroleum-producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) which are found in the Earth's crust, in the form of 226 Ra and 228 Ra and their associated radionuclides, are brought to the surface of the ground as a result of oil production processes, and are known under the name of technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR). These represent a potential hazard of significant scale. 226 Ra, an α emitter, represents a potential internal radiation exposure hazard to both workers and members of the public, arising from the inhalation and ingestion of the dust produced during cleaning operations for the descaling of pipes and separator tanks. In addition to this, a higher than normal background γ exposure rate is to be observed both around and directly at the areas where the mud from the separator tanks and pipe cleaning operations was routinely dumped. Therefore, the aim of this work was to present the data on radiation levels measured in contaminated areas located near to a number of oilfields in Egypt and in Syria. The decontamination processes undertaken and the precautions necessary to ensure elimination of the possible transport mechanisms for contaminated dust into public areas by wind are presented. (orig.)

  5. Bioaccumulation Study of Produced Water Discharges from Southeastern Brazilian Offshore Petroleum Industry Using Feral Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rafael André; Francioni, Eleine; da Silva, Antonio Henrique M F T; Magalhães, Caio Augusto; Gallotta, Fabiana Dias Costa; de Oliveira, Fabio Francisco; de Souza, João Maximino; de Araújo, Leandro Franco Macena; de Araújo, Liliane Pequeno; de Araújo Júnior, Marcus Antonio G; de Fátima Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria; de Souza Bindes Gomes Lopes, Monica Aparecida Ferreira

    2018-04-01

    The main effluent of oil and gas production is the discharge of produced water (PW). Despite the potential environmental impact, the structure of oil and gas platforms can act as artificial reefs. Two species of fish, Caranx crysos and Tylosurus acus, were captured under two discharging platforms at Campos Basin, P19 and P40. A nondischarging platform, P25, was taken as reference. The highest median concentration of PAH in muscle tissue was observed for C. Crysos at P40 (219.38 ng g -1 ) followed by P19 (68.26 ng g -1 ). For T. acus, the highest median concentrations were 40.07 and 42.21 ng g -1 from P19 and P40 respectively. P25 presented the smallest recorded concentrations. The results of PAH in the muscle tissue of C. crysos enabled to distinguish the platforms with PW discharge from the platform without discharge. Trace elements concentrations reflected the background levels and were not influenced by the PW release.

  6. Oil and natural gas strategies for North American energy markets: a submission by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This proposal by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) focuses on improving North American energy markets and addressing the challenges involved in meeting continental energy requirements by urging a renewed policy effort to enhance the current market-based policies of free trade and competition that have already proven to respond to market changes better than command-control government policies. The proposal urges new strategies to support development of the oil and natural gas resources of North America, and the development of additional infrastructure to bring oil and natural gas supplies to market. The new strategy should be based on the success of free trade to increase non-discriminatory treatment of energy investment and trade in energy commodities, recognize resource development in North America as a policy priority, and reform regulatory practices to facilitate responsible, market-driven resource activity. The new strategy should also ensure competitive tax and royalty regimes as well as consistent and compatible environmental policies that eliminate layering and duplication and are competitive among the various jurisdictions. It should also recognize the continental and global nature of energy supply and the increasing interdependence of the partner nations' economies, encourage research and development, and ensure co-ordinated action on frontier natural gas development within a framework of inter-jurisdictional cooperation. Overall, the document is a thorough, credible presentation of the first principles of the oil and gas markets and an important first step towards influencing energy policy on a continental scale. 2 maps, 5 figs

  7. Individually and Synergistic Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirarsalan Kavyanifard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing worldwide contamination with hydrocarbons has urged environmental remediation using biological agents such as bacteria. Our goal here was to study the phylogenetic relationship of two crude oil degrader bacteria and investigation of their ability to degrade hydrocarbons. Materials and Methods: Phylogenetic relationship of isolates was determined using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Optimum conditions of each isolate for crude oil degradation were investigated using one factor in time method. The rate of crude oil degradation by individual and consortium bacteria was assayed via Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Biosurfactant production was measured by Du Noüy ring method using Krüss-K6 tensiometer. Results: The isolates were identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 and Dietzia cinnamea AP and clustered separately, while both are closely related to each other and with other isolates of Dietzia cinnamea. The optimal conditions for D. cinnamea KA1 were 35°C, pH9.0, 510 mM NaCl, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2PO4. In the case of D. cinnamea AP, the values were 30°C, pH8.0, 170 mM NaCl, and minimal requirement of 55.8 mM NH4Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2PO4, respectively. Gas chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS analysis showed that both isolates were able to utilize various crude oil compounds, but D. cinnamea KA1 was more efficient individually and consortium of isolates was the most. The isolates were able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil and optimization of MSM conditions lead to increase in biosurfactant production. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of synergistic relationship between two strains of D. cinnamea in biodegradation of crude oil components, including poisonous and carcinogenic compound in a short time.

  8. Underwater sound produced by individual drop impacts and rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Crum, L. A.; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study of the underwater sound produced by water drop impacts on the surface is described. It is found that sound may be produced in two ways: first when the drop strikes the surface and, second, when a bubble is created in the water. The first process occurs for every drop...

  9. Mental distress among shift workers in Norwegian offshore petroleum industry--relative influence of individual and psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Tyssen, Reidar; Lau, Bjørn

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between individual and psychosocial work factors and mental distress among offshore shift workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry. All 2406 employees of a large Norwegian oil and gas company, who worked offshore during a two-week period in August 2006, were invited to participate in the web-based survey. Completed questionnaires were received from 1336 employees (56% response rate). The outcome variable was mental distress, assessed with a shortened version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-5). The following individual factors were adjusted for: age, gender, marital status, and shift work locus of control. Psychosocial work factors included: night work, demands, control and support, and shift work-home interference. The level of mental distress was higher among men than women. In the adjusted regression model, the following were associated with mental distress: (i) high scores on quantitative demands, (ii) low level of support, and (iii) high level of shift work-home interference. Psychosocial work factors explained 76% of the total explained variance (adjusted R (²)=0.21) in the final adjusted model. Psychosocial work factors, such as quantitative demands, support, and shift work-home interference were independently associated with mental distress. Shift schedules were only univariately associated with mental distress.

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, C.J.V.

    1994-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  13. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  14. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  15. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  16. Curiosity Search: Producing Generalists by Encouraging Individuals to Continually Explore and Acquire Skills throughout Their Lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Christopher; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Natural animals are renowned for their ability to acquire a diverse and general skill set over the course of their lifetime. However, research in artificial intelligence has yet to produce agents that acquire all or even most of the available skills in non-trivial environments. One candidate algorithm for encouraging the production of such individuals is Novelty Search, which pressures organisms to exhibit different behaviors from other individuals. However, we hypothesized that Novelty Search would produce sub-populations of specialists, in which each individual possesses a subset of skills, but no one organism acquires all or most of the skills. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called Curiosity Search, which is designed to produce individuals that acquire as many skills as possible during their lifetime. We show that in a multiple-skill maze environment, Curiosity Search does produce individuals that explore their entire domain, while a traditional implementation of Novelty Search produces specialists. However, we reveal that when modified to encourage intra-life behavioral diversity, Novelty Search can produce organisms that explore almost as much of their environment as Curiosity Search, although Curiosity Search retains a significant performance edge. Finally, we show that Curiosity Search is a useful helper objective when combined with Novelty Search, producing individuals that acquire significantly more skills than either algorithm alone.

  17. Environmental aspects of produced-water salt releases in onshore and coastal petroleum-producing areas of the conterminous U.S. - a bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects associated with the production of oil and gas have been reported since the first oil wells were drilled in the Appalachian Basin in Pennsylvania and Kentucky in the early to mid-1800s. The most significant of these effects are the degradation of soils, ground water, surface water, and ecosystems they support by releases of suspended and dissolved hydrocarbons and co-produced saline water. Produced water salts are less likely than hydrocarbons to be adsorbed by mineral phases in the soil and sediment and are not subject to degradation by biologic processes. Sodium is a major dissolved constituent in most produced waters and it causes substantial degradation of soils through altering of clays and soil textures and subsequent erosion. Produced water salts seem to have the most wide-ranging effects on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Trace elements, including boron, lithium, bromine, fluorine, and radium, also occur in elevated concentrations in some produced waters. Many trace elements are phytotoxic and are adsorbed and may remain in soils after the saline water has been flushed away. Radium-bearing scale and sludge found in oilfield equipment and discarded on soils pose additional hazards to human health and ecosystems. This bibliography includes studies from across the oil- and natural-gas-producing areas of the conterminous United States that were published in the last 80 yrs. The studies describe the effects of produced water salts on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Also included are reports that describe (1) the inorganic chemistry of produced waters included in studies of formation waters for various purposes, (2) other sources of salt affecting water quality that may be mistaken for produced water effects, (3) geochemical and geophysical techniques that allow discrimination of salt sources, (4) remediation technologies designed to repair damage caused to soils and ground water by produced water salts, and (5) contamination by

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  19. Feasibility of Technologies to Produce Coal-Based Fuels with Equal or Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions than Petroleum Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-22

    in operating pipeline compressors), and a negligible amount from coal; just under five percent was produced from biomass—mostly in the form of corn ...as is commonly reported for soy- and corn -based biofuels), and/or if biofuel production results in land use change causing deforestation (as has...produced via F-T synthesis are already approved for incorporation into commercial and military fuels, but other pathways (e.g., pyrolysis ) would

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  4. Characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading and biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain as a potential tool for bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna Anna; Poliwoda, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas sp. P-1 strain, isolated from heavily petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was investigated for its capability to degrade hydrocarbons and produce a biosurfactant. The strain degraded crude oil, fractions A5 and P3 of crude oil, and hexadecane (27, 39, 27 and 13% of hydrocarbons added to culture medium were degraded, respectively) but had no ability to degrade phenanthrene. Additionally, the presence of gene-encoding enzymes responsible for the degradation of alkanes and naphthalene in the genome of the P-1 strain was reported. Positive results of blood agar and methylene blue agar tests, as well as the presence of gene rhl, involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnolipid, confirmed the ability of P-1 for synthesis of glycolipid biosurfactant. 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and mass spectrum analyses indicated that the extracted biosurfactant was affiliated with rhamnolipid. The results of this study indicate that the P-1 and/or biosurfactant produced by this strain have the potential to be used in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  5. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Feng; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed. PMID:25741767

  6. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed.

  7. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  8. Focus on adsorptive equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic components of petroleum produced water biocoagulation using novel Tympanotonos Fuscatus extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Menkiti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorptive component of produced water (PW coagulation using Tympanotonos Fuscatus coagulant (TFC was studied. Influence of the following parameters: pH, coagulant dose, settling time, and temperature were investigated. The functional group, crystalline nature, morphological observation and thermal characteristics of the sample were evaluated. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Frumkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R adsorption isotherms. The kinetics data were fitted to reversible first order, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, elovich, intra-particle diffusion and Boyd kinetic models. Adsorption Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy were evaluated. Equilibrium data best fitted the Langmuir isotherm (R2 > 0.99; X2 < 1.6; SSE < 1.6. Reversible first order model correlated best to the kinetics data. The values of process average Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy were 30.35, 27.88 and 0.1891 kJ/mol, respectively. The process was spontaneous, feasible and endothermic in nature. The maximum efficiency of 83.1% was favored at pH 2.0. This study indicated significant adsorptive component, while using Tympanotonos Fuscatus extract as readily available, renewable, ecofriendly bio – coagulant for efficient treatments of PW.

  9. Fossil fuel reform in developing states: The case of Trinidad and Tobago, a petroleum producing small Island developing State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scobie, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago is an oil exporting small island developing state (SIDS) with a 0.12% contribution to global emissions and with important socio-economic challenges. It has producer, electricity and transport fuel subsidies. It is at an interesting juncture in subsidy reform: the government faces the embeddedness of distributive justice norms that are contested by fiscal prudence and environmental stewardship norms. The value of the paper is twofold. First it develops a subsidy intractability framework to explain reform global narratives that highlights: the power of agents, the nature of contested economic, justice and environmental norms and the availability of mechanisms for reform. Second, this framework is used to explain reform narratives and trajectories in Trinidad and Tobago using data from public documents and from a unique elite survey of former and present heads of state, politicians, policy makers and stakeholders. Even in conditions of falling oil prices and national revenue and pressures to reduce emissions, where redistributive justice arguments are heavily embedded in public discourses, those aspects of the subsidy that have developmental or distributive justice goals are more intractable. The results of the study have implications for carbon emission reduction strategies in developing states with fossil fuel reserves. - Highlights: • A subsidy intractability framework is used to analyse fuel subsidy reform. • A sense of entitlement to resources contributes to subsidy intractability. • Global environmental stewardship norms matter less for fuel subsidy reform in SIDS. • Policy space is most determined by international economic conditions in SIDS.

  10. Analysis of prototypical narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Silveira

    Full Text Available Aphasia can globally or selectively affect comprehension and production of verbal and written language. Discourse analysis can aid language assessment and diagnosis.Objective:[1] To explore narratives that produce a number of valid indicators for diagnosing aphasia in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. [2] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of normal individuals. [3] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of aphasic individuals.Methods:The macrostructural aspects of three narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects were analyzed.Results:A total of 30 volunteers were examined comprising 10 aphasic individuals (AG and 20 healthy controls (CG. The CG included 5 males. The CG had a mean age of 38.9 years (SD=15.61 and mean schooling of 13 years (SD=2.67 whereas the AG had a mean age of 51.7 years (SD=17.3 and mean schooling of 9.1 years (SD=3.69. Participants were asked to narrate three fairy tales as a basis for analyzing the macrostructure of discourse. Comparison of the three narratives revealed no statistically significant difference in number of propositions produced by the groups. A significant negative correlation was found between age and number of propositions produced. Also, statistically significant differences were observed in the number of propositions produced by the individuals in the CG and the AG for the three tales.Conclusion:It was concluded that the three tales are applicable for discourse assessment, containing a similar number of propositions and differentiating aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects based on analysis of the macrostructure of discourse.

  11. Individual and combined effects of organic, toxic, and hydraulic shocks on sequencing batch reactor in treating petroleum refinery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizzouri, Nashwan Sh., E-mail: nashwan_mizzouri@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Duhok, Kurdistan (Iraq); Shaaban, Md Ghazaly [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► This research focuses on the combined impact of shock loads on the PRWW treatment. ► System failure resulted when combined shock of organic and hydraulic was applied. ► Recovery was achieved by replacing glucose with PRWW and OLR was decreased to half. ► Worst COD removals were 68.9, and 57.8% for organic, and combined shocks. -- Abstract: This study analyzes the effects of toxic, hydraulic, and organic shocks on the performance of a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a capacity of 5 L. Petroleum refinery wastewater (PRWW) was treated with an organic loading rate (OLR) of approximately 0.3 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/kg MLSS d at 12.8 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). A considerable variation in the COD was observed for organic, toxic, hydraulic, and combined shocks, and the worst values observed were 68.9, 77.1, 70.2, and 57.8%, respectively. Improved control of toxic shock loads of 10 and 20 mg/L of chromium (VI) was identified. The system was adversely affected by the organic shock when a shock load thrice the normal value was used, and this behavior was repeated when the hydraulic shock was 4.8 h HRT. The empirical recovery period was greater than the theoretical period because of the inhibitory effects of phenols, sulfides, high oil, and grease in the PRWW. The system recovery rates from the shocks were in the following order: toxic, organic, hydraulic, and combined shocks. System failure occurred when the combined shocks of organic and hydraulic were applied. The system was resumed by replacing the PRWW with glucose, and the OLR was reduced to half its initial value.

  12. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability

  13. The hidden face of the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, E.

    2006-02-01

    For the first time, a book reveals what that was hidden to the public opinions: why the petroleum crisis of 1973 what only a manipulation, an arrangement between the OPEC and the petroleum companies, why the data concerning the petroleum reserves are wrong and increased by the producers countries, how Washington used the Saudi petroleum weapon to create the Soviet Union fall, and why from march 2001 maps of the Iraq (where were drawn the future petroleum explorations) were working documents for the vice President Cheney and petroleum managers for the ''secret society''. (A.L.B.)

  14. Individually identifiable body odors are produced by the gorilla and discriminated by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepper, Peter G; Wells, Deborah L

    2010-05-01

    Many species produce odor cues that enable them to be identified individually, as well as providing other socially relevant information. Study of the role of odor cues in the social behavior of great apes is noticeable by its absence. Olfaction has been viewed as having little role in guiding behavior in these species. This study examined whether Western lowland gorillas produce an individually identifiable odor. Odor samples were obtained by placing cloths in the gorilla's den. A delayed matching to sample task was used with human participants (n = 100) to see if they were able to correctly match a target odor sample to a choice of either: 2 odors (the target sample and another, Experiment 1) and 6 odors (the target sample and 5 others, Experiment 2). Participants were correctly able to identify the target odor when given either 2 or 6 matches. Subjects made fewest errors when matching the odor of the silverback, whereas matching the odors of the young gorillas produced most errors. The results indicate that gorillas do produce individually identifiable body odors and introduce the possibility that odor cues may play a role in gorilla social behavior.

  15. Study of technical and financial pre-feasibility for the handling and sale, as fuel in cement industries, of petroleum coke produced at a petroleum refinery located in Moin, Limon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrales Suarez, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    A study of the technical and financial pre-feasibility is realized for the handling, conditioning and sale as fuel in cement industries of petroleum coke, that is produced in the project of extension and modernization of the refinery of RECOPE in Moin, Limon. Daily production has been of 570 metric tons. The market study has determined a demand of approximately 120 000 metric tons in the country and in the region. The total production of coke has been possible place it at national and regional level, due to lack of another producer. The coke is recommended to crush it to decrease the size of the particles for the conditioning, handling and to facilitate their manipulation. Conveyor belts are used for handling on the inside of the refinery. The coke is transported in trucks type tanker on the exterior of the refinery. The moisture content is reduced by dryer vibratory of fluidized bed to 5% of moisture to guarantee a product better quality. The product is stored under roof in ventilated facilities and with appropriate systems of security to minimize the risk of an accident. The fixed capital investment to develop the project has been of USD 3,1 millions and working capital of USD 14,4 millions. The financial evaluation is realized considering two financing models of 70% and without financing. The net present value (NPV) has been of USD -13,0 millions and the desirability index of -6,6 for the model with financing. The model without financing has obtained a NPV of USD -1,9 millions and a desirability index of -1,2. The financial profitability of the project has been very sensitive to the sales price of the coke, to the coke volume of production, to the growth percentage of the sale price and the cost of the raw material for the two models considered. The financial risk analysis is realized by the Monte Carlo method, whereupon is obtained a probability of approximately 34% in that the internal rate of return (IRR) has been higher than the cut rate and of 36% in that

  16. Neutron activation analysis for the determination of arsenic and mercury in petroleum and petroleum distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnizky, Sara M.

    1999-01-01

    A radiochemical separation procedure to determine As and Hg in petroleum and petroleum distillates is described. The procedure uses the formation of HgS to co-precipitate the As and Hg activities produced during the irradiation. (author)

  17. The new challenges of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernelle, E.

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum in in the center of our civilization: abundant, easy to use and energy powerful, it is used almost everywhere: transports, lighting, space heating, plastics, fertilizers, cloth industry etc. The 'black-gold' is the object of all stakes, from richness to power. However, petroleum is also at the origin of many evils: pollution, corruption, violence. Today, petroleum is a source of worries: how long will it last? How long will we be able to stand its impacts on environment? This book shades light on all these questions and supplies some concrete elements about this energy source. Content: technological challenges of petroleum; producers: powers and risks; consumers' dependence; to learn more about petroleum. (J.S.)

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  19. The reliability paradox: Why robust cognitive tasks do not produce reliable individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Craig; Powell, Georgina; Sumner, Petroc

    2017-07-19

    Individual differences in cognitive paradigms are increasingly employed to relate cognition to brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, such efforts are often unfruitful, even with the most well established tasks. Here we offer an explanation for failures in the application of robust cognitive paradigms to the study of individual differences. Experimental effects become well established - and thus those tasks become popular - when between-subject variability is low. However, low between-subject variability causes low reliability for individual differences, destroying replicable correlations with other factors and potentially undermining published conclusions drawn from correlational relationships. Though these statistical issues have a long history in psychology, they are widely overlooked in cognitive psychology and neuroscience today. In three studies, we assessed test-retest reliability of seven classic tasks: Eriksen Flanker, Stroop, stop-signal, go/no-go, Posner cueing, Navon, and Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Code (SNARC). Reliabilities ranged from 0 to .82, being surprisingly low for most tasks given their common use. As we predicted, this emerged from low variance between individuals rather than high measurement variance. In other words, the very reason such tasks produce robust and easily replicable experimental effects - low between-participant variability - makes their use as correlational tools problematic. We demonstrate that taking such reliability estimates into account has the potential to qualitatively change theoretical conclusions. The implications of our findings are that well-established approaches in experimental psychology and neuropsychology may not directly translate to the study of individual differences in brain structure, chemistry, and function, and alternative metrics may be required.

  20. Optimal Petroleum Taxation Subject to Mobility and Information Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-10-01

    Two recent noticeable international developments in the petroleum industry have been mergers and acquisitions, and the opening of new oil producing provinces for transnational oil companies. Both factors contribute to sharpening the international competition between various petroleum provinces in attracting the most competent companies. In addition, we have experienced that the transnational companies have changed their strategies. To an increasing extent they seem to choose a focusing strategy. Many functions are outsourced and one tries to concentrate the activity to a limited number of core countries, and even particular geological structures within the individual countries. The article discusses the implications of the new setting for optimal tax and regulatory design. (author)

  1. Petroleum apocalypse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.

    2005-09-01

    Oil prices are increasing while current explanations for this phenomenon are no longer satisfactory. The cheap petroleum era is ending and this problem can seriously convulse our lifestyles. Transports, agriculture, plastics, clothes, medicines: petroleum is everywhere. This is why the rise of hydrocarbons price will not be a simple economic shock but the end of the world like the one we know. However, it is still possible to postpone this event to a later date and to limit its effects by the implementation of a new oil sobriety era. This implies to already organize the decay of materials and energy consumption, together with keeping solidarity, democracy and peace up. In this condition only the transition will be less painful. (J.S.)

  2. Petroleum. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    An introductory chapter of world wide petroleum history is followed by a comprehensive record of the petroliferous basins of Venezuela. Exploration, productivity, production statistics, reserves, geologic structures, and the distribution of oil and gas fields are described separately for the Maracaibo-Falcon basin, Apure-Barinas basin, E. Venezuela basin, and Tuy-Cariaco basin. The descriptions include geographic distribution, geomorphologic outline of the basins, lithology and thickness of sediments, structural development, present structural conditions in which oil and gas fields occur, and their distribution in the basins. Economic factors are discussed in an appendix. 145 references.

  3. Microbial dynamics in petroleum oilfields and their relationship with physiological properties of petroleum oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2017-12-01

    Petroleum is produced by thermal decay of buried organic material over millions of years. Petroleum oilfield ecosystems represent resource of reduced carbon which favours microbial growth. Therefore, it is obvious that many microorganisms have adapted to harsh environmental conditions of these ecosystems specifically temperature, oxygen availability and pressure. Knowledge of microorganisms present in ecosystems of petroleum oil reservoirs; their physiological and biological properties help in successful exploration of petroleum. Understanding microbiology of petroleum oilfield(s) can be used to enhance oil recovery, as microorganisms in oil reservoirs produce various metabolites viz. gases, acids, solvents, biopolymers and biosurfactants. The aim of this review is to discuss characteristics of petroleum oil reservoirs. This review also provides an updated literature on microbial ecology of these extreme ecosystems including microbial origin as well as various types of microorganisms such as methanogens; iron, nitrate and sulphate reducing bacteria, and fermentative microbes present in petroleum oilfield ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  5. Trace elements determination in high salinity petroleum produced formation water by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after matrix separation using Chelex-100 Registered-Sign resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Aline Soares [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-150 (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, 21941-909 (Brazil); Santelli, Ricardo Erthal, E-mail: santelli@iq.ufrj.br [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-150 (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, 21941-909 (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    This study describes a procedure used for the determination of trace metals (Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) in high salinity petroleum produced formation water (PFW) employing high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for detection and Chelex-100 Registered-Sign resin for matrix elimination and analytes preconcentration. Using 15.0 mL of PFW for the separation/preconcentration, detection limits of 0.006, 0.07, 0.03, 0.08 and 0.02 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing three seawater certified reference materials and by recovery tests, and the data indicate that the methodology can be successfully applied to this kind of samples. The precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (% RSD, n = 10) for 2.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, were found to be 3.5, 4.0, 9.0, 5.3 and 5.9 for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied for the determination of these metals in medium and high salinity PFW samples obtained from Brazilian offshore petroleum exploration platforms. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petroleum-produced formation water were analyzed for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In batch analyte preconcentration/matrix separation using Chelex-100 Registered-Sign was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection limits between 0.006 and 0.08 {mu}g L{sup -1} were found by using HR-CS-GFAAS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace elements characterization is possible using the developed method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum trace element concentrations found could support future Brazilian directives.

  6. Does low-dose CCK-8 injection produce abdominal pain in 'truly normal' individuals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, S.; Webb, B.; Hille, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The development of abdominal pain following cholecystokinin (CCK) injection is not specific for biliary disease. Patients can develop abdominal pain with CCK during hepatobiliary studies and have normal gallbladder function. Does this non-biliary pain indicate pathology? High doses of CCK induce pain in functional bowel syndromes, but may also produce pain in normals. Pain is less common at lower CCK doses, and hence may be more significant. This study aimed to determine the rate at which the low dose of CCK used in hepatobiliary scans causes abdominal pain and other side-effects in 'truly normal' individuals. Some preliminary results of CCK-induced pain in gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) patients are also discussed. Six 'truly normal' subjects were studied. 'Truly normal' was defined as: no current history of abdominal pain; no biliary or gallbladder disease; no significant GIT pathology; not currently on medication designed to be pharmacologically active in the GIT. Each patient was given an intravenous dose of 0.01 μg-kg -1 of CCK8 over 3 min, and side-effects were recorded for 30 min. No subject had abdominal pain. Two developed nausea, 1 moderate and 1 mild. An identical dose of CCK was given to 2 patients with endoscopically proven GOR. Anti-reflux medication had been ceased for 12 h. After CCK, 1 patient developed typical 'reflux' pain and 1 was asymptomatic. In conclusion, none of our 'truly normal' patients had abdominal pain with low-dose CCK. This suggests that patients developing pain following injection of this dose of CCK are indeed abnormal. The literature infers these patients may have irritable bowel syndrome; however, this hypothesis is complicated by our preliminary results indicating that CCK can reproduce pain in some patients with GOR

  7. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  8. Petroleum market instability and enterprise rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca', S.; Citterio, G.; Pesce, P.

    2000-01-01

    Special importance is given to some producer country (Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, United Arab Emirate, Venezuela) that determine the trend of petroleum price. These countries have about the 70% of world petroleum reserves against the 3% of world population [it

  9. Strain diversity of CTX-M-producing Enterobacteriaceae in individual pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Bortolaia, Valeria; Damborg, Peter Panduro

    2014-01-01

    of CTX-M-2/97-producing Proteus mirabilis or Providencia rettgeri was observed in two sows and two offspring. At least two genetically unrelated CTX-M-producing E. coli strains were isolated from approximately one fourth of the samples with remarkable differences between isolates obtained by enrichment...

  10. Petroleum 2006. Statistical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This document gathers in 5 parts, the main existing statistical data about petroleum industry in France and in the rest of the world, together with an insight on other energy sources: 1 - petroleum in the French economy (petroleum and other energies, petroleum and transports, petroleum and energy in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors, environment: 42 pages); 2 - the French petroleum industry (exploration, production, foreign trade, transports, refining, storage, petrochemistry: 66 pages); 3 - the French market of petroleum products (evolution of sales by product and detail by region for the past year: 38 pages); 4 - prices and taxes of petroleum products (world prices and rates for crude and refined products, evolution of fret rates, retail prices and French taxes: 28 pages); 5 - petroleum in the world (world energy production and consumption, detailed petroleum activity by main areas and for the main countries: 112 pages). (J.S.)

  11. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Figures on petroleum 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This table taken out from the 1981 annual report 1981 contains an introductory remark on the reorganization of mineral oil statistics up to January 82. It is followed by the tables ranged as follows: refinery capacity and production, crude oil supply, GDR-coverings, import of petroleum products, petroleum consumption, export of petroleum products, transport, oil storage tanks, motor vehicle stock, taxes and tariffs, petroleum export trade, energy consumption and world petroleum numbers. In parts the tables contain comparative figures back to 1950.

  14. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Annual petroleum report. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The comprehensive appraisal of the Mexican Petroleum industry was completed in July 1991. Some of the topics concerning the Mexican petroleum industry covered in the Annual Petroleum Report include: exploration efforts, oil reserves, pipelines, refining, finances, transportation, alternative energy sources, and others. The report also contains lists of petrochemicals produced in Mexico and extensive statistics on oil production and export prices

  15. Biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons from acidic sludge produced by re-refinery industries of waste oil using in-vessel composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Dehghani, Mohammad Hadi; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    In Iran, re-refinery industry has been developed many years ago based on the acid-clay treatment. Acidic sludge with high concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) is the final products of some facilities. In this study removal of TPH by aerated in-vessel composting was investigated. In order to microorganisms seeding and nutrient providing, urban immature compost was added as an amendment to acidic sludge. The ratios of acidic sludge (AS) to compost were, 1:0 (as control), 1:5, 1:8, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50, 1:75 and 1:100 (as dry basis) at a C: N: P ratio of 100:5:1 and 45-65% moisture content for 70 days. The removal efficiency in all reactors was more than 48%. The highest and lowest TPH removal was observed in 1:5 (71.56%) and 1:100 (48.53%) mixing ratios, respectively. The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. Experimental data was fitted second order kinetic model ( R 2  > 0.8006). Degradation of TPH in 1:5 mixing ratio (k 2  = 0.0038 gmg -1 d -1 ; half-life = 3.08d) was nearly three times faster than 1:100 mixing ratio (k 2  = 0.0238; half-life = 8.96d). The results of the control reactors showed that biological treatment was the main mechanism for TPH removal. The results of this study revealed in-vessel composting with immature urban compost as the amendment maybe recommended as an effective method for TPH remediation.

  16. Necessities and constraints of petroleum exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetah, M.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the petroleum low prices, persisting since 1986, many developing countries, non-producing petroleum, are facing growing energy problems: fall of petroleum exploration activities, quasi stoppage of projects for energy substitute development, consecutively to the lowering of the crude oil prices. This communication shows the necessity for these countries to resume petroleum exploration and proposes solutions in order to release constraints: international cooperation, fiscal incentives, access to the financial market, etc. Morocco is taken as an example

  17. What Produces Television Attention and Attention Style? Genre, Situation, and Individual Differences as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert P.; Pingree, Suzanne; Hitchon, Jacqueline; Radler, Barry; Gorham, Bradley W.; Kahlor, Leeann; Gilligan, Eileen; Serlin, Ronald C.; Schmidt, Toni; Kannaovakun, Prathana; Kolbeins, Gudbjorg Hildur

    2005-01-01

    Individual looks at television vary enormously in length, and this has previously indicated differences in ongoing cognitive processes. Furthermore, the relative frequency of looks of different lengths may indicate styles of attention to television. This article compares visual attention of 152 subjects across a variety of genres and examines…

  18. Everyday listeners' impressions of speech produced by individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Kathleen F; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) have reported that unfamiliar communication partners appear to judge them as sneaky, nervous or not intelligent, apparently based on the quality of their speech; however, there is minimal research into the actual everyday perspective of listening to ADSD speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impressions of listeners hearing ADSD speech for the first time using a mixed-methods design. Everyday listeners were interviewed following sessions in which they made ratings of ADSD speech. A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Three major themes emerged: (1) everyday listeners make judgments about speakers with ADSD; (2) ADSD speech does not sound normal to everyday listeners; and (3) rating overall severity is difficult for everyday listeners. Participants described ADSD speech similarly to existing literature; however, some listeners inaccurately extrapolated speaker attributes based solely on speech samples. Listeners may draw erroneous conclusions about individuals with ADSD and these biases may affect the communicative success of these individuals. Results have implications for counseling individuals with ADSD, as well as the need for education and awareness about ADSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY IN COOPERATIVE LEARNING: MORE OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE SPOKEN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of cooperative learning (CL in promoting second and foreign language learning has been widely acknowledged. Little scholarly attention, however, has been given to revealing how this teaching method works and promotes learners’ improved communicative competence. This qualitative case study explores the important role that individual accountability in CL plays in giving English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners in Indonesia the opportunity to use the target language of English. While individual accountability is a principle of and one of the activities in CL, it is currently under studied, thus little is known about how it enhances EFL learning. This study aims to address this gap by conducting a constructivist grounded theory analysis on participant observation, in-depth interview, and document analysis data drawn from two secondary school EFL teachers, 77 students in the observed classrooms, and four focal students. The analysis shows that through individual accountability in CL, the EFL learners had opportunities to use the target language, which may have contributed to the attainment of communicative competence—the goal of the EFL instruction. More specifically, compared to the use of conventional group work in the observed classrooms, through the activities of individual accountability in CL, i.e., performances and peer interaction, the EFL learners had more opportunities to use spoken English. The present study recommends that teachers, especially those new to CL, follow the preset procedure of selected CL instructional strategies or structures in order to recognize the activities within individual accountability in CL and understand how these activities benefit students.

  20. Individual differences in relational motives interact with the political context to produce terrorism and terrorism-support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Obaidi, Milan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Kteily, Nour; Sidanius, Jim

    2014-08-01

    The psychology of suicide terrorism involves more than simply the psychology of suicide. Individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) interact with the socio-structural, political context to produce support for group-based dominance among members of both dominant and subordinate groups. This may help explain why, in one specific context, some people commit and endorse terrorism, whereas others do not.

  1. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  2. The petroleum industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  3. Long-term effects of discharges of produced water the marine environment from petroleum-related activities at Sonda de Campeche, Gulf of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, I; González-Macías, C; Salazar-Coria, L; Sánchez-Reyna, G; González-Lozano, C

    2015-11-01

    Produced water from offshore oil platforms is a major source of oil and related chemicals into the sea. The large volume and high salinity of produced water could pose severe environmental impacts upon inadequate disposal. This study is based on direct field sampling of effluents released into the ocean in the years 2003 and 2013 at the Sonda de Campeche located in the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Metals and hydrocarbons were characterized in water, sediments, and fish tissues at the discharge site and compared with those obtained at two reference sites. Chemicals that exceeded risk-based concentrations in the discharge included the metals As, Pb, Cd, and Cr, and a variety of compounds polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), including naphthalene, fluorenes, and low molecular weight PAHs. The values of low to high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), and carbon preference index indicate that hydrocarbons in sediments of the discharge zone are originated from the produced water and combustion sources. Fish tissues at the discharge zone and reference site are contaminated with PAHs, dominated by 2- and 3-rings; 4-ring accounted for less than 1% of total PAHs (TPAHs) in 2003, but increased to 7% in 2013. Results suggest that, from 2003 to 2013, discharges of produced water have had a non-negligible impact on ecosystems at a regional level, so the possibility of subtle, cumulative effects from operational discharges should not be ignored.

  4. Influence of Genotype on Warfarin Maintenance Dose Predictions Produced Using a Bayesian Dose Individualization Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffian, Shamin M; Duffull, Stephen B; Roberts, Rebecca L; Tait, Robert C; Black, Leanne; Lund, Kirstin A; Thomson, Alison H; Wright, Daniel F B

    2016-12-01

    A previously established Bayesian dosing tool for warfarin was found to produce biased maintenance dose predictions. In this study, we aimed (1) to determine whether the biased warfarin dose predictions previously observed could be replicated in a new cohort of patients from 2 different clinical settings, (2) to explore the influence of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype on predictive performance of the Bayesian dosing tool, and (3) to determine whether the previous population used to develop the kinetic-pharmacodynamic model underpinning the Bayesian dosing tool was sufficiently different from the test (posterior) population to account for the biased dose predictions. The warfarin maintenance doses for 140 patients were predicted using the dosing tool and compared with the observed maintenance dose. The impact of genotype was assessed by predicting maintenance doses with prior parameter values known to be altered by genetic variability (eg, EC50 for VKORC1 genotype). The prior population was evaluated by fitting the published kinetic-pharmacodynamic model, which underpins the Bayesian tool, to the observed data using NONMEM and comparing the model parameter estimates with published values. The Bayesian tool produced positively biased dose predictions in the new cohort of patients (mean prediction error [95% confidence interval]; 0.32 mg/d [0.14-0.5]). The bias was only observed in patients requiring ≥7 mg/d. The direction and magnitude of the observed bias was not influenced by genotype. The prior model provided a good fit to our data, which suggests that the bias was not caused by different prior and posterior populations. Maintenance doses for patients requiring ≥7 mg/d were overpredicted. The bias was not due to the influence of genotype nor was it related to differences between the prior and posterior populations. There is a need for a more mechanistic model that captures warfarin dose-response relationship at higher warfarin doses.

  5. The world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a global vision of the petroleum industry, a precise and well argued state of the art of the petroleum markets. It defines the strategical challenges which the petroleum companies are exposed and allows to anticipate the sector evolutions. It details the key acts of the last three years, the financial performances of the companies. (A.L.B.)

  6. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  7. TRANSACTION COSTS WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL AND COOPERATIVE APPLE PRODUCERS IN PRESPA REGION, THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra ANGELOSKA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the Republic of Macedonia is an important sector that highly contributes to theeconomy in terms of employment and income, especially for the small farmers in Prespa Region. Despitecooperatives’ efforts and governmental support to attract members through the provision of inputs,technical advices and other incentives to farmers, membership adherence is low and slow. The TransactionCost Economics Theory (TCE provided the basis for this study where the choice is conditioned by relativecomparative advantage in terms of lower transaction costs. Based on the research, following conclusions are underlined: a. from the perspective of farmers andthe cooperatives there are factors that positively influence the choice of cooperative membership; b. fromthe cooperative’s side, some of the positive influences are its regular flow of price information, constanttechnical advices and secured market; c for farmers who aim at increasing production and improving theirincomes, membership to cooperative signifies security of accessing cheaper inputs especially chemicalfertiliser, security of market for the produced apples and higher frequency of transaction cost. Farmers’choices are not exclusive to one type of structure or the other. Farmers can transact with the cooperative andtrader at the same time, influenced by the differences in the price among the “Idared” and “varieties”. Bothof them, members and non-members are limited connected to the “middlemen” in choice of transactions.

  8. Individuating Faces and Common Objects Produces Equal Responses in Putative Face Processing Areas in the Ventral Occipitotemporal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Haist

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the proposal that specific human cortical regions in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, commonly called the fusiform face area (FFA and occipital face area (OFA, are specialized for face processing. Here, we present findings from a fMRI study of identity discrimination of faces and objects that demonstrates the FFA and OFA are equally responsive to processing stimuli at the level of individuals (i.e., individuation, be they human faces or non-face objects. The FFA and OFA were defined via a passive viewing task as regions that produced greater activation to faces relative to non-face stimuli within the middle fusiform gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus. In the individuation task, participants judged whether sequentially presented images of faces, diverse objects, or wristwatches depicted the identical or a different exemplar. All three stimulus types produced equivalent BOLD activation within the FFA and OFA; that is, there was no face-specific or face-preferential processing. Critically, individuation processing did not eliminate an object superiority effect relative to faces within a region more closely linked to object processing in the lateral occipital complex (LOC, suggesting that individuation processes are reasonably specific to the FFA and OFA. Taken together, these findings challenge the prevailing view that the FFA and OFA are face-specific processing regions, demonstrating instead that they function to individuate -- i.e., identify specific individuals -- within a category. These findings have significant implications for understanding the function of a brain region widely believed to play an important role in social cognition.

  9. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and extents of desulfurization. Bacterial processes are being commercialized for removal of H2S and sulfoxides from petrochemical waste streams. Microbes also have potential for use in removal of nitrogen from crude oil leading to reduced nitric oxide emissions provided that technical problems similar to those experienced in biodesulfurization can be solved. Enzymes are being exploited to produce added-value products from petroleum substrates, and

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  11. Petroleum fiscality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)

  12. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  13. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  14. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  15. 1992 petroleum software directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed especially for the petroleum industry. Each program listing includes a description of the function, language and memory requirements, operating systems, special accessories required, compatibles and pricing information. A separate section lists the more than 600 companies that produce and sell the programs. Companies are listed alphabetically and include address, phone, fax and telex numbers as well as contact names for each location. Many company listings also include distributors. This book includes information on Accounting/Statistics, Design/Construction/Engineering Graphics, Drilling Engineering and Equipment, Economics/Financial Analysis, Engineering, Exploration, Land and Leasing, Maintenance and Repair/Quality Control/Monitoring, Manufacturing, Maps, Marketing, Pipelines/Shipping/Storage, Production Engineering and Recovery Methods, Synthetic/Alternate Resources and Fuels

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shay, T.A.; Hoddinott, K.

    1994-01-01

    This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  18. The petroleum industry in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  19. The petroleum industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    A review is presented of China's petroleum industry. In recent years China has ranked as the world's fifth or sixth largest oil producer, providing ca 20% of China's energy needs and generating US $45 billion in exports during 1988-89. However, domestic oil consumption is rapidly outpacing growth in production, and China may become a net oil importer as early as March 1994 if trends continue. In order to slow declining production rates, China must: introduce modern management techniques, equipment and technology; accelerate exploration to find new reserves; employ the latest equipment and technology, consulting services and foreign training to develop new reserves as quickly as possible; and improve the efficiency with which petroleum is used and traded. Key players including the China National Petroleum Corporation, China National Oil Development Corporation, China National United Oil Company, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation are described. Current Chinese petroleum industry priorities are discussed, together with Canadian capabilities relevant to these activities, and recent bilateral agreements in the sector

  20. Estimating strategic interactions in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    When individual petroleum-producing firms make their exploration decisions, information externalities and extraction externalities may lead them to interact strategically with their neighbors. If they do occur, strategic interactions in exploration would lead to a loss in both firm profit and government royalty revenue. Since these strategic interactions would be inefficient, changes in the government offshore leasing policy would need to be considered. The possibility of strategic interactions thus poses a concern to policy-makers and affects the optimal government policy. This paper examines whether these inefficient strategic interactions take place in U.S. federal lands in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular, it analyzes whether a firm's exploration decisions depend on the decisions of firms owning neighboring tracts of land. A discrete response model of a firm's exploration timing decision that uses variables based on the timing of a neighbor's lease term as instruments for the neighbor's decision is employed. The results suggest that strategic interactions do not actually take place, at least not in exploration, and therefore that the current parameters of the government offshore leasing policy do not lead to inefficient petroleum exploration. (author)

  1. Post petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urry, John

    2014-01-01

    In this original book-object, John Urry describes a world conditioned by an all-oil system. Our movement, possessions, and even our social relationships are entirely dependent on this rapidly-depleting energy source. He shows that the 20. century created the illusion of a future that, today, proves untenable, even in the medium term. While everyone's attention is still focused on just how long this reprieve will last, John Urry shifts the debate, asking the much more fundamental question: 'What happens next?' What would a world without oil look like? How would our lives as producers and consumers play out in a world deprived of this resource? In spite of growing awareness of the depletion of oil reserves, these questions remain unanswered. That is why the author alerts us to the need to prepare for post-oil now, and asks: without political awareness, how can our societies radically reinvent their relationship to energy and movement? John Urry thus imagines what will become of 'disconnected' societies in the form of four 'post-oil' scenarios, and calls us to action. His work is of particular importance to the Mobile Lives Forum, which aims to imagine good mobile lives for the future and prepare for the mobility transition. This text is transcript of a lecture given by John Urry to the Mobile Lives Forum's Scientific Steering Committee. Table of contents: 1 - Illusion: Understanding the energization of a social phenomenon; The birth of a new socio-technical system; United states: founders of an all-energy society; The emergence of an oil-based civilisation; Increasing difficulties in the use of oil; The role of oil in the current economic crisis; Can oil-dependency be deleted?; 2 - 4 scenarios: The Magic bullet future; digital lives; Unplugging: a post-car society; Warlordism in a world of shortages; 3 - Conclusion

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  5. Energy and public health: the challenge of peak petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Vindigni, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum is a unique and essential energy source, used as the principal fuel for transportation, in producing many chemicals, and for numerous other purposes. Global petroleum production is expected to reach a maximum in the near future and to decline thereafter, a phenomenon known as "peak petroleum." This article reviews petroleum geology and uses, describes the phenomenon of peak petroleum, and reviews the scientific literature on the timing of this transition. It then discusses how peak petroleum may affect public health and health care, by reference to four areas: medical supplies and equipment, transportation, energy generation, and food production. Finally, it suggests strategies for anticipating and preparing for peak petroleum, both general public health preparedness strategies and actions specific to the four expected health system impacts.

  6. Petroleum industry in CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillaud, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on petroleum and natural gas industry in USSR and in Eastern Europe: crude oil and gas production, petroleum and natural gas deposits, exports, fuel consumption, pipelines network (total length, compressor or pump stations), petroleum refineries. This paper describes also air pollution (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide) and Environmental effects of coal and lignite using in fossil power plants in Eastern Europe. 17 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  8. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  9. Petroleum and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigneau, P.

    2004-01-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela

  10. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... separation of the asphaltene constituents as a separate phase. Indeed, the absence of the resin fraction (produced by a variety of methods) from the maltenes influences the ability of the de-resined maltenes to accommodate the asphaltenes either in solution or as a stable part of a colloidal system. In spite....... Suggestions are also made regarding current thoughts of the role of these constituents on the structure and stability of petroleum....

  11. New contractual trends in world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzu, M.; Clerici, C.

    1992-01-01

    Oil industry contractual practices have gone through a rapid evolution starting from the 1970's, mainly determined by a change in the relationship between producer and consumer countries. Current steady price trends have led to a new equilibrium causing the petroleum companies and producer countries to re-examine their contractual strategies. This article highlights the new contractual trends in the petroleum industry by tracing the evolution of international business relationships and by comparing the main types of contractual schemes, e.g., concession, production sharing, services and services support, adopted today by the key hydrocarbon producing countries of the world

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1996 (with data for January 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-04

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1995 with data for July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly - with data for May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. This document contains a glossary.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-25

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly with data from April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  17. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the suppiy and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics

  18. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  19. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  20. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues.

  1. Environment 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the governments goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of ''oil and fish - common sea''. Both the petroleum and fishing industries depend on the waters off Norway. Ever since petroleum activities began on the Norwegian continental shelf more than 30 years ago, the authorities have been keen to ensure that these two sectors can work in the same sea areas. What challenges and opportunities face the petroleum industry over discharges to the sea and living marine resources? How can the authorities ensure that this sector is able to coexist with the fisheries? These and similar questions about the relationship between the petroleum and fishing industries in their shared seas are covered in section two of this publication. Environment 2002 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions/discharges, environmental impacts and measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities. The MPE hopes that a publication of this kind can enhance basic knowledge about petroleum activities and environmental issues

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  3. Facts 2006. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokka, Ane; Midttun, Oeyvind

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum sector is extremely important to Norway. The industry is responsible for one fourth of all value creation in the country and more than one fourth of the state's revenues. It is currently Norway's largest industry, and the spillover effects to other industries are substantial. Norway ranks as the world's third largest exporter of oil and the eighth largest oil producer. Less than one third of the estimated petroleum reserves Norway has have been produced. The level of activity on the Norwegian continental shelf was very high in 2005. The number of producing fields was 50, and these fields produced 3 million barrels of oil (including NGL and condensate) per day and 85 billion standard cubic metres (scm) gas, for a total production saleable petroleum of 257 million scm of oil equivalents. Resource management is conducted through the models of cooperation and competition. Annual licensing rounds are held by the authorities where companies are given access to new exploration areas. The interest in the 19th licensing round in 2005 was considerable, indicating a continuous high interest in the Norwegian continental shelf. The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate estimates for the future a gradual increase in the petroleum production up until 2011, and a gradual fall thereafter. Gas production is expected to increase until 2013. Gas production represents 35 percent of the total production in 2006. It is expected that by 2013 it will represent 50 percent of the total. Other aspects accounted for include government petroleum revenues, environmental considerations, petroleum resources and overviews of fields in production, fields where production has ceased and fields under development

  4. Individual motivation and threat indicators of collaboration readiness in scientific knowledge producing teams: a scoping review and domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano R. Lotrecchiano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies a gap in the team science literature that considers intrapersonal indicators of collaboration as motivations and threats to participating in collaborative knowledge producing teams (KPTs. Through a scoping review process, over 150 resources were consulted to organize 6 domains of motivation and threat to collaboration in KPTs: Resource Acquisition, Advancing Science, Building Relationships, Knowledge Transfer, Recognition and Reward, and Maintenance of Beliefs. Findings show how domains vary in their presentation of depth and diversity of motivation and threat indicators as well as their relationship with each other within and across domains. The findings of 51 indicators resulting from the review provide a psychosocial framework for which to establish a hierarchy of collaborative reasoning for individual engagement in KPTs thus allowing for further research into the mechanism of collaborative engagement. The indicators serve as a preliminary step in establishing a protocol for testing of the psychometric properties of intrapersonal measures of collaboration readiness.

  5. Concerning problems of petroleum refining facilities. ; Promote international lateral work sharing, and strengthening of infrastructures in petroleum industry. Sekiyu seisei setsubi mondai ni tsuite. ; Kokusei suihei bungyo no suishin to sekiyu sangyo no kiban kyoka wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-05

    This paper discusses how to promote international lateral work sharing and how to strengthen infrastructures in the petroleum industry, as a problem prevailing over the petroleum refining facilities in Japan. Excess distillation facilities have been applied with the disposition policy. However, in view of the supply and demand situation in petroleum products for medium to long term span in the world with the pan-Pacific region as the main concern, that applicable to Japan, and that experienced during the Persian Gulf crisis, the excess facility disposition policy was revised, particularly on white kerosene, of which supply and demand tightness is concerned about, so that production capacities may be increased as required. Japan, a large presence in the international economics, is required to work more positively on petroleum refining facilities located in the oil producing countries and intermediate locations to promote the international lateral work sharing. On the one hand, in order to strengthen the infrastructures in the Japanese petroleum industry, it is necessary to promote rationalization and use at higher efficiency of the oil supply system, and convergence of the the petroleum industry, including joint investments for projects exceeding capabilities of individual enterprises. 3 tabs.

  6. Petroleum question. Die Oelfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommer, B

    1983-01-01

    The author analyses the development of the world petroleum market and its pricing factors to the present on the basis of the theory of ground rent, in which the part played by absolute ground rent, differential rent, and free and national state property in the capitalist mode of production is determined. His investigation of economic policy traces the absorbing history of the petroleum production and policy of the United States of America, which for so long governed the world market, the development of Venezuela into a petroleum country (whose true history is here revealed for the first time), the penetration of the middle East by the international petroleum leaseholders' capital and their cartel, the formation of the OPEC, and finally the 'victory' of the lather over the petroleum combines in the international petroleum crisis of 1970-1973. The book closes with a survey at the start of the 80s and an outlook into the foreseeable future. What is really hidden behind the quarrels about prices, profit, taxes, royalties, franchise agreements, production quotas, nationalization and so forth and behind the economic, political, and even moral arguments of the parties concerned turns out to be the fight of the petroleum ground proprietors for the ground rent - but to win a victory in this fight means ultimately to face its limitations, too. Blindness to the economic and political importance of ground rent, right from the theoretical approach, also created a major cause of the false diagnoses and forecasts on the petroleum market western economic scientists were misled into, and thus of the surprise effect that came in the form of the petroleum crisis of the early 1970s.

  7. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  8. Petroleum investment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no specific petroleum legislation as such in place in Kazakhstan and tax legislation is unsophisticated. Regulation of operations is subject to generally applicable legislation. A brief account of the difficulties which exist for both sides in renegotiating a contract is given. Since the competence to enter into contracts with foreign companies has not been fully defined, the first problem when applying for petroleum rights is the identification of a negotiating partner. A summary of terms and conditions and a list of the main laws applicable to petroleum operations are included. (UK)

  9. Petroleum: the new deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, St.; Kan, E.

    2008-01-01

    The drop of oil prices imposes a revision of development and investment strategies of petroleum and para-petroleum companies, while technologies under study try to optimize the exploration and production costs. Following the financial and economical crises, the petroleum industry is preparing its restructuring: new profitability threshold of projects, slowing down of the activity, expected surge of mergers. Despite the crisis, the R and D for the exploitation of tar sands still goes on while on the offshore side, R and D has never been so active to take up the challenge of extreme deep sea conditions. (J.S.)

  10. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  11. Petroleum refining and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the methods which may be developed in petroleum refineries or during petroleum products using for air pollution abatement: petroleum products desulfurization, lead elimination in gasoline and catalytic converters to reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. Investments and costs estimation to adapt petroleum refineries for environment protection is also given. 1 ref., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Figures of the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The statistic tables give informations about: Reserves and production of petroleum and natural gas, supply of crude petroleum in the Federal Republic of Germany, pipelines, tanker ships, petroleum refineries, petroleum consumption, storage and distribution, automobiles, prices, taxis and energy consumption. The data compilations are primarily given for the Federal Republic of Germany.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  15. Apparatus for extracting petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coogan, J

    1921-01-18

    An apparatus for extracting petroleum from petroleum bearing sand or shale is described comprising a container for liquids, the container being divided into a plurality of compartments, an agitator mounted within the container and below the liquid level and having its forward end opening into one of the compartments, means for delivering sand or shale to the forward end of the agitator, means for subjecting the sand or shale to the action of a solvent for the petroleum while the sand or shale is being agitated and is submerged, the first-mentioned compartment being adapted to receive the extracted petroleum and means for removing the treated sand or shale from adjacent the rear end of the agitator.

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  17. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  18. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  19. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  20. Photolysis of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.

    1992-05-01

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical and physical changes that occur in oils as a result of photooxidation. A literature review of recent studies in petroleum photochemistry revealed reported effects of photo-induced reactions in petroleum, including changes in color, polymerization, solidification, increases in solubility and toxicity, and changes in interfacial properties. A list of products reported as a result of photolysis of petroleum is presented, including such compounds as aldehydes, ketones, esters, and lactones. The photoreactivity of various petroleum components is discussed and mechanisms of photooxidation of petroleum are suggested. In the experimental portion of the study, a variety of crude oils and petroleum products were used to determine how different oils are affected by photolysis, and to examine the importance of photolysis as a weathering process. Photooxidation products from several oils were isolated and identified, including aliphatic and aromatic acids, alcohols, and phenols. Some physical manifestations attributed to photolysis included yellowing, formation of precipitates or crusts, increases in density and viscosity with time, increases of asphaltene content in some oils, changes in pH of the surrounding water, and emulsification. 51 refs., 38 figs., 18 tabs

  1. Prospective study on cranioplasty with individual carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) implants produced by means of stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Gabriele; Tomancok, Berndt; Holl, Kurt; Trenkler, Johannes

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cranial implants produced by means of 3-dimensional (3D) stereolithography (SL) and template modeling for reconstructions of complex or extensive cranial defects. A series of 41 cranioplasties with individual CFRP implants was performed in 37 patients between April 1996 and November 2002. Only patients with complex and/or large cranial defects were included, most of them having extended scarring or dural calcification and poor quality of the overlying soft-tissue cover after infection or multiple preceding operations. Involvement of frontal sinus, a known risk factor for complications after cranioplasty, was the case in 21 patients (51.2%). A computer-based 3D model of the skull with the bony defect was generated by means of stereolithography after acquisition, evaluation and transfer of the patient's helical computed tomography (CT) data. A wax template of the defect that was used to design the individual prosthesis-shape was invested in dental stone. Then, the cranial implant was fabricated out of CFRP by loosen mold. Reconstruction of defects measuring up to 17 x 9 cm was performed. The intra-operative fit of the implants was excellent in 36 (87.8%), good in 1 (2.4%), and fair in 4 (9.8%) of the cases. Problems of implant fit occurred because of extended scarring and poor quality of soft-tissue cover. Adverse reactions were observed in 5 patients (1 subdural, 1 subcutaneous hematoma, 2 infections, 1 allergic reaction). Excellent contours and a solid stable reconstruction have been maintained in 30 out of 35 remaining plates (mean follow-up 3.6 years). No adverse effects concerning postoperative imaging, the accuracy of electroencephalograms and radiation therapy have been observed. The authors believe that this relatively new technique represents an advance in the management of complex and large cranial defects, but seems less suitable for simple defects because of cost

  2. European Community in new international petroleum order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the chances that the European Community (EC) has of enhancing its position in the international petroleum order. Its identity should become stronger than it is in the current feeble state of Europe as a world presence for four reasons: greater convergence in the ideas and interests of the Member Countries; the bolstering of Community institutions; thanks to new treaties, more balanced petro-political relations; and the geographical advantage of being within reach of Russia's enormous hydrocarbon resources. In its producer-consumer relations, the EC has a certain amount of upfront legitimacy over the actions of the individual member countries, insofar as multilateral actions in this field are more efficient than are bilateral relations. The EC is acquiring a certain autonomy of action from the AIH. It is already helping to build up new relations through informal dialogue and free-trade agreements with the producing countries, and is helping Russia to emerge as a major competitor for the Gulf countries

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1999, with data for May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The Detail Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and District of Columbia), 5 PAD Districts and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. Flotation of agent for breach of emulsion oil/water aiming treatment of water produced for the industry petroleum; Agente de flotacao (Tanfloc) para quebra de emulsao oleo/agua visando tratamento de aguas produzidas pela industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.C. de; Andrade, J.M. de; Melo, M.A.A.; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work was studied the action of an agent of flotation TanFloc broken emulsion in oil / water when its concentration varies and salinity. This material is used by Petroleum brazilian for removal of turbidity in the water from the petroleum industry. For the test set up a bench in the laboratory of the Environmental Technology UFRN for simulation of tests made on the field. To do so, was studied the concentration of TanFloc and it was found that the best concentration for removal of turbidity was 11ppm such material. It was found that the level of salinity affects particularly the results of turbidity therefore this was also one of the parameters studied. (author)

  6. 34. annual conference Ontario Petroleum Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A total of 18 papers, dealing with a variety of issues relevant to the petroleum industry, such as marketing strategies, feasibility studies and exploration technologies, were combined in this volume of proceedings of the 34th annual conference of the Ontario Petroleum Institute. Some of the papers presented case studies of hydrocarbon reserves in North America, along with their depositional histories. Oil yields and resource potential of fractured reservoirs was the subject of some presentations. Studies of cores from drilling sites and complete stratigraphic columns of some oil fields were also presented. (Papers are paged individually). refs., tabs., figs

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  8. Petroleum product scarcity: a review of the supply and distribution of petroleum products in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpoghomeh, Osi S.; Badejo, Dele

    2006-01-01

    Nigeria ranks high among the comity of oil producers both at the world level and among the OPEC eleven. It is, therefore, paradoxical that the supply of all petroleum products is erratic and has declined sharply in the recent past. This paper thus reviews the petroleum product supply and distribution systems in the country to ascertain the extent to which the system may have contributed to the present product scarcity in Nigeria and, by extension, identify the causes of the present regime of petroleum product scarcity. The paper observes that the network density and connectivity of petroleum product distribution pipelines are low and both indicators consequently show the inadequacy/deficiency of the network in ensuring an efficient distribution system. The supply mode, on the other hand, has, over the years, demonstrated its inability to guarantee adequate supply due to factors including sabotage, vandalism, banditry and poorly maintained infrastructure. Further, the federal government and the major and independent marketers could not sustain the importation of petroleum products because of the shortfall between the landed cost of imported products and their selling prices in Nigeria, which made the business unprofitable. Finally, the paper examines the withdrawal by the federal government of subsidies on the price of petroleum products consumed locally. All the above factors together occasioned increases in the cost of products. In conclusion, this paper supports the call for the privatization of refineries and the depot/pipeline system as a viable option to end the supply problems. (Author)

  9. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  10. The business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Business of Petroleum Exploration. The following topics are included: Petroleum business; Economic aspects of the business; Managing business; and Legal, Political, Ethical and environment aspects of the business

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Isotope analysis in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.

    1982-01-01

    The study about isotopic analysis in petroleum exploration performed at Petrobras Research Center is showed. The results of the petroleum recuperation in same Brazilian basin and shelves are comented. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  16. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  17. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  18. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  19. Environmental pollution by petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, T

    1974-06-01

    Pollution causes, cases, and remedies at various stages of petroleum production and usage are reviewed. Petroleum extraction (off-shore drilling and Arctic drilling) can be accompanied by mishaps. In 1971, IMCO (an international safety committee) proposed the partitioning of oil tanker holds into smaller compartments to minimize spillage in case of disaster. Although the solubility of oil in waste water from refineries is reckoned by ppM, the total amount dissolved is not negligible. Petroleum storage and transport on land is complicated by problems of safety in terms of population density as well as by pollution problems. Petroleum end-products such as plastic trash and automobile exhausts contribute to pollution. The role of aldehydes and peroxides in photochemical smog formation must be investigated further. Proper treatment of pollution at each specific point of occurrence, rather than at the end of a production line is recommended. Pollutant concentration for treatment, rather than pollutant dilution for dispersal, should be considered. Technology for pollution abatement is available, but not always economically feasible.

  20. Petroleum industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book analyses the major facts and the numbers of 1992, in France and in foreign countries. Its purpose is to be as complete as possible and to present especially all the aspects on a national level: supply, domestic market, prices, exploration, production, stocks, petroleum refining, transports, retailing, financial data

  1. Petroleum: Price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  2. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  3. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  4. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration

  5. Psychophysical scaling of circular vection (CV) produced by optokinetic (OKN) motion: individual differences and effects of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R S; Hettinger, L J; Harm, D L; Ordy, J M; Dunlap, W P

    1996-01-01

    Vection (V) refers to the compelling visual illusion of self-motion experienced by stationary individuals when viewing moving visual surrounds. The phenomenon is of theoretical interest because of its relevance for understanding the neural basis of ordinary self-motion perception, and of practical importance because it is the experience that makes simulation, virtual reality displays, and entertainment devices more vicarious. This experiment was performed to address whether an optokinetically induced vection illusion exhibits monotonic and stable psychometric properties and whether individuals differ reliably in these (V) perceptions. Subjects were exposed to varying velocities of the circular vection (CV) display in an optokinetic (OKN) drum 2 meters in diameter in 5 one-hour daily sessions extending over a 1 week period. For grouped data, psychophysical scalings of velocity estimates showed that exponents in a Stevens' type power function were essentially linear (slope = 0.95) and largely stable over sessions. Latencies were slightly longer for the slowest and fastest induction stimuli, and the trend over sessions for average latency was longer as a function of practice implying time course adaptation effects. Test-retest reliabilities for individual slope and intercept measures were moderately strong (r = 0.45) and showed no evidence of superdiagonal form. This implies stability of the individual circularvection (CV) sensitivities. Because the individual CV scores were stable, reliabilities were improved by averaging 4 sessions in order to provide a stronger retest reliability (r = 0.80). Individual latency responses were highly reliable (r = 0.80). Mean CV latency and motion sickness symptoms were greater in males than in females. These individual differences in CV could be predictive of other outcomes, such as susceptibility to disorientation or motion sickness, and for CNS localization of visual-vestibular interactions in the experience of self-motion.

  6. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  7. Carriage of Escherichia coli Producing CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in Healthy Vietnamese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Mai Huong; Hirai, Itaru; Ueda, Shuhei; Bui, Thi Kim Ngan; Hamamoto, Kouta; Toyosato, Takehiko; Le, Danh Tuyen; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-10-01

    Healthy carriage of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was examined by thrice collecting fecal samples from the same 199 healthy Vietnamese subjects every 6 months. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), identical PFGE patterns throughout the three samplings were not observed, although prevalence of E. coli in the subjects was around 50% in the three samplings. Our results suggested a short carriage period of the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing E. coli in healthy Vietnamese subjects. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  9. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  10. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholt, Lars; Glomsroed, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas markets. The data on undiscovered resources for the Arctic is based on the estimates by USGS. Sensitivity studies are carried out for two alternative price scenarios and for a 50 per cent reduction of arctic undiscovered resources compared with the USGS 2008 resource estimate. Although a major part of the undiscovered arctic petroleum resources is natural gas, our results show that the relative importance of the Arctic as a world gas supplier will decline, while its importance as a global oil producer may be maintained. We also show that less than full access to undiscovered oil resources will have minor effect on total arctic oil production and a marginal effect on arctic gas extraction. The reason is that Arctic Russia is an important petroleum producer with a sufficiently large stock of already discovered resources to support their petroleum production before 2050. (Author)

  11. Phillips Petroleum -- Capitalizing on technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Phillips Petroleum Co., one of the largest international oil companies and the largest producer of natural gas liquids in the US, recently reported that first half 1996 net income was $916 million, up from $224 million for the same period the year before. During the past 5 years, reserves have increased 11% and production by 8%. Exploration expenses are down 32% and production costs per boe are down 24%. Compared to other majors involved in worldwide E and P, Phillips has the second highest 5-year percentage of reserves replacement--117%--and the second lowest finding and development cost/boe--$3.46--in the industry. How did the company do this while decreasing headcount by 5,300? The paper discusses focused growth, paring down assets, E and P projects, research and development, and electronic document management

  12. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  13. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  14. Geopolitics of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille-Lopez, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The unexpected rise of oil prices since 2004 reveals some structural weaknesses of oil markets in front of the evolution of demand. It conceals considerable stakes, more political than strategic, like the securing of oil and petroleum product supplies of big consumers like the USA and China. This demand generates deep changes in the relations between the different actors, from Venezuela to Russia, from the Caspian sea to the Arab-Persian gulf, from the Mediterranean sea to the gulf of Guinea. Terrorists, who try to destabilize markets using threats on petroleum infrastructures, add-up a risk dimension to the uncertainties. The author proposes a world tour of the main production areas, along the 'oil roads' where the main strategic manoeuvres take place. He shades light on the main power stakes: pressure, tensions, threats and deals, alliances, ruptures and potential conflicts. The complex and multiple motivations are explained. (J.S.)

  15. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  16. Deodorizing petroleum oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, A

    1906-06-14

    A process of purifying and deodorizing petroleum oils, gasolines, ethers, benzines, shale oils, resins, and similar products, consisting essentially in passing the vapors of the liquids with a current of hydrogen or of gases high in hydrogen over divided metals, such as nickel, copper, cobalt, iron, platinum, etc., heated to a temperature between 100/sup 0/C and 350/sup 0/C, the vapors passing before entering the apparatus through a column of copper heated to above 350/sup 0/C.

  17. Material-balance assessment of the New Albany-Chesterian petroleum system of the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M.D.; Henry, M.E.; Higley, D.K.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2002-01-01

    The New Albany-Chesterian petroleum system of the Illinois basin is a well-constrained system from which petroleum charges and losses were quantified through a material-balance assessment. This petroleum system has nearly 90,000 wells penetrating the Chesterian section, a single New Albany Shale source rock accounting for more than 99% of the produced oil, well-established stratigraphic and structural frameworks, and accessible source rock samples at various maturity levels. A hydrogen index (HI) map based on Rock-Eval analyses of source rock samples of New Albany Shale defines the pod of active source rock and extent of oil generation. Based on a buoyancy-drive model, the system was divided into seven secondary-migration catchments. Each catchment contains a part of the active pod of source rock from which it derives a petroleum charge, and this charge is confined to carrier beds and reservoirs within these catchments as accountable petroleum, petroleum losses, or undiscovered petroleum. A well-constrained catchment with no apparent erosional or leakage losses is used to determine an actual petroleum charge from accountable petroleum and residual migration losses. This actual petroleum charge is used to calibrate the other catchments in which erosional petroleum losses have occurred. Petroleum charges determined by laboratory pyrolysis are exaggerated relative to the actual petroleum charge. Rock-Eval charges are exaggerated by a factor of 4-14, and hydrouspyrolysis charges are exaggerated by a factor of 1.7. The actual petroleum charge provides a more meaningful material balance and more realistic estimates of petroleum losses and remaining undiscovered petroleum. The total petroleum charge determined for the New Albany-Chesterian system is 78 billion bbl, of which 11.4 billion bbl occur as a accountable in place petroleum, 9 billion bbl occur as residual migration losses, and 57.6 billion bbl occur as erosional losses. Of the erosional losses, 40 billion bbl

  18. Knowledge Management in the Petroleum Industry of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Khodabakhshzadeh; Taghi Khodabakhshzadeh; Soodeh Khodabakhshzadeh; Iman Tahamtan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge managements (KM) increases the capability of organisations and companies in today's competitive environment. It is important that managers in petroleum companies proactively prepare their organisations and its members as they begin to implement KM systems. Then, as the first step, they should assess their organisations' readiness for KM implementation. Therefore, in this paper, we chose Iran as one of the main petroleum producers in the world to study the readiness of National Irani...

  19. The combustion heat of power producing shale based on individual deliveries for the years 1968 to 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yyspuu, L M; Rayur, K W; Sits, Kh I

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of a retrospective study of the specific combustion heat of power producing shale relative to the geological and mining technological conditions for nine mines and four open pits of the Baltic Sea Basin. In 1981 the maximal mean annual combustion heatQsigma-c of 12.44 megajoules per kilogram was held by the shales from the Tammiku mine, while the minimum of 10.12 megajoules per kilogram was held by the shales from the Leningradskaya mine. The results are used in a predictive evaluation of the heat creativity of the total fuel of the Baltic Sea region and the Estonian state regional electric power plants (GRES) for the coming years.

  20. The ability of left- and right-hemisphere damaged individuals to produce prosodic cues to disambiguate Korean idiomatic sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yun Yang

    2014-05-01

    Three speech language pathologists with training in phonetics participated as raters for vocal qualities. Nasality was significantly salient vocal quality of idiomatic utterances. Conclusion The findings support that (1 LHD negatively affected the production of durational cues and RHD negatively affected the production of fundamental frequency cues in idiomatic-literal contrasts; (2 healthy listeners successfully identified idiomatic and literal versions of ambiguous sentences produced by healthy speakers but not by RHD speakers; (3 Productions in brain-damaged participants approximated HC’s measures in the repetition tasks, but not in the elicitation tasks; (4 Nasal voice quality was judged to be associated with idiomatic utterances in all groups of participants. Findings agree with previous studies indicating HC’s abilities to discriminate literal versus idiomatic meanings in ditropically ambiguous idioms, as well as deficient processing of pitch production and impaired pragmatic ability in RHD.

  1. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  3. 2005 yearly days of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant, R.; Susbielles, G.

    2005-01-01

    14 articles are gathered in this data sheet; they deal with the opening address of the 2005 petroleum days; the hydrocarbons: the evolutive resource; the para-petroleum engineers and the Europe; the speech of Mr Francois Loos; the Shell global scenarios to 2025; the evolution of the gas resource and its uses; the French para-petroleum industry; Bernard Bensaid, Corinne Sagary, Armelle Saniere, economic studies, IFP; the contribution of the innovation and of the technology in the diversification of the hydrocarbons supply; innovation and diversification of the petroleum resource: the point of view of Total; research, development and diversification of the petroleum resource; innovation in services companies; innovation in study and development and engineering; the closing address of the 2005 petroleum days. (O.M.)

  4. [Compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in contaminated soil of the oilfields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Li, Chuan; Dong, Qian-Qian; Li, Li-Ming; Li, Guang-He

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the compositions and residual properties of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil, as well as to identify the source and weathering degree of the pollution. A total of 5 producing wells in Gudao and Hekou oil producing region of Shengli oilfields were analyzed. More than 50 individual target compounds including straight-and branched-chain alkanes( n-alkanes, pristine and phytane) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil samples and crude oil were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percentages of chain alkanes and PAHs in total solvent extractable matters(TSEM) of soil samples were both much lower than those in the crude oil samples. The compositions of petroleum hydrocarbon in soil samples differed from those in crude oil, which indicated the n-alkanes with carbon numbers contaminated soils, the relationship between the index and petroleum hydrocarbon compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the n-alkanes with carbon numbers > 33 and the PAHs with rings between 3 and 5 were much harder to degrade. PCA of 4 indexes for source identification revealed more than 50% of the soil samples were polluted by crude oil, which needs more attention during remediation.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-05

    This publication provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. It presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include domestic first purchase price, f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude, and refiners` acquisition cost of crude. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  6. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesjoe, Bjarne; Stiksrud, Helge

    2004-01-01

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  7. Indicators on the world petroleum markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents tendencies of the petroleum industry market. It analyses the petroleum demand and supply, the prices elaboration, the petroleum market and the OPEC objective, the third petroleum crisis of the year 2000 and gives some data concerning the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  8. Environmental hazard and risk characterisation of petroleum substances: a guided "walking tour" of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, Johan; Geerts, Lieve

    2014-05-01

    " through the chemical space of petroleum substances. We show that the PETROTOX and PETRORISK predictions reflect changes in mass distribution introduced to selected HBs by affecting hazard and risk estimates in correspondence with what is expected based on physical-chemical properties of individual constituents in the corresponding HBs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  10. Reference data about petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains the different taxes existing in France for the petroleum products (domestic tax on petroleum products, added-value tax), the share of taxes in the retail price, the differences with other European countries, the French Government fiscal receipts and budget. Some information forms are attached to this document and concern: the formation of fuel prices (upstream, refining and transport-distribution margins), the evolution of annual average transport-distribution margins, some reference data about world petroleum markets (supply and demand, prices, market data), and some reference data about the role of oil companies on the petroleum market. (J.S.)

  11. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  12. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross (domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  13. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  14. Individual Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners Produce Tissue- and Gene-Specific Effects on Thyroid Hormone Signaling during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giera, Stefanie; Bansal, Ruby; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa M.; Taub, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are industrial chemicals linked to developmental deficits that may be caused in part by disrupting thyroid hormone (TH) action by either reducing serum TH or interacting directly with the TH receptor (TR). Individual PCB congeners can activate the TR in vitro when the metabolic enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is induced, suggesting that specific PCB metabolites act as TR agonists. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we compared two combinations of PCB congeners that either activate the TR (PCB 105 and 118) or not (PCB 138 and 153) in the presence or absence of a PCB congener (PCB 126) that induces CYP1A1 in vitro. Aroclor 1254 was used as a positive control, and a group treated with propylthiouracil was included to characterize the effects of low serum TH. We monitored the effects on TH signaling in several peripheral tissues by measuring the mRNA expression of well-known TH-response genes in these tissues. Aroclor 1254 and its component PCB 105/118/126 reduced total T4 to the same extent as that of propylthiouracil but increased the expression of some TH target genes in liver. This effect was strongly correlated with CYP1A1 expression supporting the hypothesis that metabolism is necessary. Effects were gene and tissue specific, indicating that tissue-specific metabolism is an important component of PCB disruption of TH action and that PCB metabolites interact in complex ways with the TR. These are essential mechanisms to consider when evaluating the health risks of contaminant exposures, for both PCB and other polycyclic compounds known to interact with nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:21540284

  15. Environment 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy produces an annual environmental review in cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The purpose of this publication is threefold: (1) to increase knowledge about the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) to take a more detailed look at a specific topic which particularly concerns both the industry and the authorities, and identify the challenges and options faced, (3) to emphasise the government's goal of ensuring that Norway reconciles its role as a large energy producer with a pioneering position on environmental issues. This year's edition focuses on the topic of produced water treatment techniques. It demonstrates that new Norwegian technology helps to limit the risk of environmental harm. New treatment techniques have been developed and adopted, but it can be difficult to understand why a specific solution is not applicable to every field. Through the thematic section in part 2, we endeavour to explain why the choice of solution will vary from field to field, and how that reflects such considerations as technical reservoir conditions and costs. The strong focus on the environmental aspects of Norwegian oil and gas production has undoubtedly helped to make the Norwegian petroleum sector a leader in this area. That reflects both the way the authorities have incorporated environmental considerations extensively into the industry's frame conditions, and from the commitment made by the industry itself. Environment 2004 also incorporates a factual section, which covers the status of emissions discharges, environmental impacts, measures to reduce discharges to the sea and emissions to the air from petroleum activities.

  16. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  17. Petroleum abundance until when

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1996-01-01

    The petroleum demand goes on to increase. In front of this demand the non Opec supply increases because of new positive explorations, new technologies and a reduction of exploration-production prices. With 10% of worldwide reserves, OECD insures 30% of worldwide production. With 18% of reserves, the non-Opec world insures 48% of worldwide needs. But a return on Middle East where are 65% of reserves is inescapable but it can be all the more brutal since non Opec world consumes its own resources more quickly. 7 figs

  18. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  20. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  1. Canadian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, J.H.

    1969-12-01

    This study covers the following Canadian petroleum industry categories: (1) a brief history; (2) the demand for Alberta crude; (3) U.S. oil policies; (4) overseas exploration; (5) the national oil policy; (6) the Montreal pipeline and its targets; (7) a continental oil policy; and (8) the impact of Arctic reserves. It is noted that large potential benefits will improve from the Manhattan navigating the Northwest Passage. Without prejudging the analysis now applied to the information gathered on this voyage, the Manhattan has greatly contributed to the solution of the problem of access to the Arctic islands. The picture for natural gas is less fraught with uncertainties. Unlike oil, where domestic and international considerations may weigh in U.S. policy decision, Canadian natural gas is likely to be allowed to enjoy its full economic potential in bridging the foreseeable U.S. supply gap and, inasmuch as this potential is ultimately tied with that for crude oil markets, the anticipated U.S. needs for Canadian natural gas may be expected to enhance U.S. interest in the overall well-being of the Canadian petroleum industry.

  2. The future petroleum geologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in July 1985, AAPG President William L. Fisher appointed a select committee to determine the capabilities that will be required of petroleum geologists in the future. His charge to the committee was based on the profound changes and uncertainties that were beginning to be felt in the industry and would surely affect the employment of geologists and their professional practice. These changes are well known: the supply of oil had exceeded demand, the price of oil was unstable, many companies were threatened by debt and buy-outs, and corporate restructuring was underway to meet changing economic conditions. All contributed to great uncertainty about the need and requirements of geological employment and practice. Specifically, President Fisher charged the committee to distinguish those elements of recent times that are cyclic and those that are long-term in their effects; to characterize the state of the industry for the next 25 years; to predict the capabilities that the future petroleum geologist should posses to meet the challenges of the future; and most importantly, the define the role of AAPG and its commitments to the membership under these changing conditions

  3. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the western part of the Kunsan Basin: Palynomorphs including spores, pollen and organic-walled microfossils and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods were studied for the biostratigraphic work of Kachi-1 and IIH-1Xa wells. Based on available well data, the rifting probably began in the Cretaceous time had continued until Paleocene. It is considered that compressional force immediately after rifting event deformed sedimentary sections. During the period of Paleocene to middle Miocene, the sediments were deposited in stable environment without particular tectonic event. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (II): The Nakdong and Jinju formations contain abundant black shales, and thermal maturity of the organic matter reached at the final stage of dry gas generation. These formations also contain thick sandstones which can act as a petroleum reservoir. However, reservoir quality of the sandstones is poor (porosity: < 5%; permeability: < 0.001 md). In these sandstones, secondary pores such as dissolution pores and micropores can act as a tight gas reservoir. (author). 56 refs., 24 tabs., 68 figs.

  4. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  5. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  6. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  7. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  8. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  9. The para-petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The para-petroleum industry includes societies that realize studies and installations for the deposits exploitation. This document presents the situation of the para-petroleum industry in 2001, the world investment growth of the activity, the french societies financial results and an inventory of the main operations in the amalgamation domain. (A.L.B.)

  10. Petroleum Biotechnology. Developments and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R.; Quintero-Ramirez, R.

    2004-01-01

    This book deals with the field of petroleum biorefining and biological upgrade of petroleum; it presents a critical review as well as an integrated overview of the potential biochemical processes, bridging the gap between academia and industry. It addresses today's demanding production challenges, taking into account energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes, and also looks at the future possibility of implementing new refinery systems

  11. Petroleum: An energy profile, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report prepared by the Energy Information Administration covers the following topics: petroleum production and end-use sectors; resources and reserves; exploration and production; LPG sources and processing; motor gasoline octane enhancement; constructing pipelines; the strategic petroleum reserve; imports and exports; marketing; district descriptions and maps; and refinery processes and facilities. 33 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  13. Shale oil. I. Genesis of oil shales and its relation to petroleum and other fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil-shale kerogen originated from resinous vegetation residues of past eras, whereas well petroleum was formed from oil shales by pressure and mild heat. Petroleum migrated to its present reservoir from neighboring oil-shale deposits, leaving a residue of black bituminous shales. The high carbon dioxide content of gases present in petroleum wells originated from kerogen, as it gives off carbon dioxide gas before producing soluble oil or bitumen.

  14. Petroleum software profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A profile of twenty-two software packages designed for petroleum exploration and production was provided. Some focussed on the oil and gas engineering industry, and others on mapping systems containing well history files and well data summaries. Still other programs provided accounting systems designed to address the complexities of the oil and gas industry. The software packages reviewed were developed by some of the best-known groups involved in software development for the oil and gas industry, including among others, Geoquest, the Can Tek Group, Applied Terravision Systems Inc., Neotechnology Consultants Ltd., (12) OGCI Software Inc., Oracle Energy, Production Revenue Information Systems Management, Virtual Computing Services Ltd., and geoLogic Systems Ltd

  15. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  16. Norwegian petroleum technology. A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In many ways, the Norwegian petroleum industry is an economic and technological fairy tale. In the course of a little more than 30 years Norway has developed a petroleum industry with world class products and solutions. This book highlights some of the stories behind this Norwegian success. A strong Norwegian home market has helped Norwegian industries to develop technologies in the absolute forefront. In some important areas, like the subsea market, the Norwegian 'oil cluster' became world leaders through companies like Vetco, Aker Kvaerner and FMC Technologies. Advanced products for the domestic market, with cost effective and flexible solutions, are also sought after in the international market place. Norwegian companies are now involved in some of the world's foremost projects, from Sakhalin in the east to Brazil in the west and Angola in the south. Norway, with its 4.5 million inhabitants, is a very small country indeed. As an energy supplier, however, Norway will play an increasingly important role. This will require an even stronger emphasis on research, competence and technology development. Today some 75.000 highly qualified people are working directly in the Norwegian petroleum industry, where the domestic market is still strong with large field developments like Snoehvit and Ormen Lange. Norway has established a unique Petroleum Fund, which currently is passing $ 160 billion, and political leaders in resource rich oil countries are looking to Norway for inspiration and guidance. This book describes some of the best technology stories that have emerged from Norwegian research institutions. Financial support, text and illustrations from the companies and institutions presented in the book have made its publication possible and are gratefully acknowledged. An editorial committee has been responsible for producing the book under the chairmanship of Research Director Ole Lindefjeld of ConocoPhillips, who once demonstrated a multiplier effect of at least 15

  17. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  18. Environmental protection: Streamlining petroleum exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum industry is inherently subject to a tremendous degree of volatility through fluctuation in world market prices and vagaries of world politics. A more recent stressful demand on the existing domestic petroleum exploration and production system has been the burgeoning number of environmental regulations imposed on this segment of the industry. Prudent and acceptable oil-field practices must now include agency-regulated environmental protection measures. Many independent producers are unfamiliar not only with the regulatory agencies, but also with the jargon and ambiguities, of regulations that very widely from state to state. Whereas some companies perceive only the restrictions and added cost of regulatory compliance, other companies have sought to optimize benefits while minimizing financial burdens by approaching this modern necessity more creatively, thereby discovering numerous means to become even more competitive. The domestic oil field of the 1990s will be increasingly affected by environmental regulation and public opinion. A number of companies have taken a proactive position on environmental issues. Industry examples include Louisiana Land and Exploration Company's history of wetlands conservation and Chevron's SMART (Save Money and Reduce Toxics). The future of the quality of life of this nation, and indeed the planet as a whole, lies in our capability to deal concurrently with the issues of a petroleum-based economy while protecting the natural environment that sustains life

  19. Toxicity of vapor phase petroleum contaminants to microbial degrader communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.C.; Davey, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum products constitute the largest quantity of synthetic organic chemical products produced in the US. They are comprised of mostly hydrocarbon constituents from many different chemical classes including alkenes, cycloalkanes, aromatic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Many petroleum constituents are classified as volatile organic compounds or VOCs. Petroleum products also constitute a major portion of environmental pollution. One emerging technology, with promise for applications to VOCs in subsurface soil environments, is bioventing coupled with soil vapor extraction. These technologies involve volatilization of contaminants into the soil gas phase by injection and withdrawal of air. This air movement causes enhancement of the aerobic microbial degradation of the mobilized vapors by the indigenous populations. This study investigated the effects of exposure of mixed, subsurface microbial communities to vapor phase petroleum constituents or vapors of petroleum mixtures. Soil slurries were prepared and plated onto mineral salts agar plates and exposed to vapor phase contaminants at equilibrium with pure product. Representative n-alkane, branched alkane, cycloalkane, and aromatic compounds were tested as well as petroleum product mixtures. Vapor exposure altered the numbers and morphologies of the colonies enumerated when compared to controls. However, even at high, equilibrium vapor concentrations, microbial degrader populations were not completely inhibited

  20. Comparative acute toxicity of shale and petroleum derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M A; Dennis, M W; Craig, D K

    1989-12-01

    In anticipation of the commercialization of its shale oil retorting and upgrading process, Unocal Corp. conducted a testing program aimed at better defining potential health impacts of a shale industry. Acute toxicity studies using rats and rabbits compared the effects of naphtha, Jet-A, JP-4, diesel and "residual" distillate fractions of both petroleum derived crude oils and hydrotreated shale oil. No differences in the acute oral (greater than 5 g/kg LD50) and dermal (greater than 2 g/kg LD50) toxicities were noted between the shale and petroleum derived distillates and none of the samples were more than mildly irritating to the eyes. Shale and petroleum products caused similar degrees of mild to moderate skin irritation. None of the materials produced sensitization reactions. The LC50 after acute inhalation exposure to Jet-A, shale naphtha, (greater than 5 mg/L) and JP-4 distillate fractions of petroleum and shale oils was greater than 5 mg/L. The LC50 of petroleum naphtha (greater than 4.8 mg/L) and raw shale oil (greater than 3.95 mg/L) also indicated low toxicity. Results demonstrate that shale oil products are of low acute toxicity, mild to moderately irritating and similar to their petroleum counterparts. The results further demonstrate that hydrotreatment reduces the irritancy of raw shale oil.

  1. Future demand of petroleum products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run equilibrium relationship between total petroleum products consumption and economic growth in India for the period 1970-1971 to 2001-2002 using cointegration and error-correction modeling approach. Augmented Dickey-Fuller tests reveal that both the series, after logarithmic transformation, are non-stationary and individually integrated of order one. The empirical results suggest that the series are cointegrated. The 'long-term demand elasticity for petroleum products' has been estimated. Furthermore, as a special case, similar sort of exercise between the consumption of middle-distillates and economic growth in India using annual data for the time span 1974-1975 to 2001-2002 has been carried out, which also confirms the existence of cointegration. In-sample forecasts fitted well against actual numbers. Finally, the paper forecasts total petroleum products and middle-distillates demands till 2011-2012 and provide an idea about the investment required in refinery sector in India till 2011-2012

  2. Risk analysis associated with petroleum hydrocarbons: is everything running smoothly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum products represent one of the main sources of environmental contamination, and these products are complex, composed of several hundred individual hydrocarbons. The evaluation of the risks associated with petroleum products is often limited by certain specific parameters such as benzene. The petroleum hydrocarbons running from C(10) to C(50) are not often integrated in an analysis of the toxological risks since the toxological characterization of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons is difficult to carry out. There exist in the United States two approaches that were developed recently that allow the integration of various hydrocarbons comprising a mixture. In this presentation, two of these approaches are described and compared. An overview of these approaches related to Canadian regulatory bodies is included, and a case study completes the account. The two approaches that are most well known in this area are: 1) that of the Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Protection, and 2) that of the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group. The integration of petroleum hydrocarbons in a quantitative evaluation of their toxological risk is possible by present methods. This integration allows a reduction in the uncertainty associated with the use of an integrating parameter in the case of these petroleum hydrocarbons in the C(10) to the C(50) range

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Lasers and petroleum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Costa, G.; Guerri, G.; Calatroni, J. (Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Lab. de Optica Cuantica)

    1978-06-01

    The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons is one reason why conventional drilling methods are insufficient for petroleum extraction in Venezuela at a depth of 1000 m. The Quantum Optics Laboratory of Simon Bolivar University in Caracas is conducting a search for novel perforation and heating tools for petroleum extraction. Basic research is being carried out using a 10 MW TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser is not only a research tool but a matter of national interests, as petroleum is Venezuela's main export article.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase prices, the f.o b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Problems of radiation safety of petroleum and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Oil and gas production is the basis of economy of the Azerbaijan Republic and its cause in ecological and radioecology problems. One form this problem is the pollution by radionuclides of environment at the time of gas and petroleum production. At the time of petroleum and gas production the three-phase radionuclides are emitted in atmosphere: Emissions consisted from solid U-238, Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 discharged to atmosphere at the time of production, exploring and exploitation of petroleum and gas. They are presented in compounds of sand, clay, and petroleum residues; During the drilling and production the gross quantities of water flows out and collects. These water areas consist of radium, uranium, Th and K-40 dissolved in water salts; There are the radionuclides being in 902 condition emitted in atmosphere at the places of petroleum and gas production. The radon and its isotopes are emitted at this time; At the places of petroleum and gas production it is observed at local pollution areas polluted by solid emissions that at this territories the doze of exposition power variable 100 - 1000 micro/hour. The radioactivity at this system according to 2-1000 year/k consists from Ra, K-40, and U. At this areas the value of total background changes 5 - 1000 micro R/hour. The total radioactivity of water polls formed at the places of petroleum and gas production consisted 50 -150 Bq/L. In the case of gas the separated radionuclides are mainly consisted from Radon and its isotopes. In the compound of produced gas the concentration of radon varied 20 - 1700 Bq/m 3 . Thus, at the places of petroleum and gas production radioactive pollutants emitted to atmosphere, forms the polluted environment for working and living people at the same territory. This problem's status haven't been investigated thoroughly, the sources of pollution hasn't been uncovered concretely, the cleaning technology for polluted areas is unknown

  14. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries and in Congo, Iran, Namibia, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco has developed exploration program near Djeddah and has made a call up supply for the development of Haradh and Ghawar oil fields. In Iran, petroleum production will reach 4.5 Millions barrel per day in 1999. A new oil field has been discovered near Darkhavin and the new petroleum refinery of Ark has been inaugurated. In Yemen, Masila oil field will produce 120000 barrels per day. A new export project of liquefied natural gas is developed and will reached 5 millions of tons per year

  15. The choice of individual dose criterion at which to restrict agricultural produce following an unplanned release of radioactive material to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionian, J.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1985-06-01

    In the event of an accidental release of radioactive material to atmosphere, the introduction of emergency countermeasures will be based on the need to limit the risk to individuals. However, it has been suggested that a form of cost-benefit analysis may be used as an input to decisions on the withdrawal of countermeasures, although it is recognised that these decisions may be influenced by factors other than those directly related to radiological protection. In this study, a method based on cost-benefit analysis is illustrated for assessing the optimum level of individual dose at which restrictions on agricultural production may be considered. This requires monetary values to be assigned to both the lost food production and to the health detriment, expressed as the collective effective dose equivalent commitment. It has been assumed in this analysis that food-supply restrictions are both introduced and withdrawn at the same projected level of annual individual dose. The effect on the optimum dose level of the following parameters is examined: the type of produce restricted; the size of the release; the site and direction of the release; the weather conditions; and the cost assigned to unit collective dose. It is shown that the optimum dose criterion, based on the effective dose equivalent received by an individual from a years intake of food, varies over practically the whole range of individual dose considered, i.e., 0.1 to 50 mSv. However, it is concluded that 5 mSv would represent the optimum dose criterion in a substantial number of cases. (author)

  16. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  17. Petroleum coke as energy source: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, G.

    2008-01-01

    A previous review presented a critical evaluation of the use of petroleum coke as energy source. After some years, with reference to increased petroleum coke production, that paper is revised. In particular, the attention is now focused on world petroleum coke market trends and, in regard to petroleum coke used as fuel, on new Italian environment laws. [it

  18. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a...

  19. Ex-USSR: petroleum activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on economy and petroleum industry in ex-USSR: Primary energy production and consumption (coal, petroleum, natural gas, primary power), petroleum and natural gas reserves, drilling activity, exports and imports of petroleum products, refining capacity. 2 figs., 14 tabs

  20. effect of petroleum waste water on new calabar river and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Petroleum waste water is the water produced from oil during or after drilling. During drilling the ensuing fluid is a water-oil-gas mixture since oil and gas reservoirs have a natural water layer which is petroleum waste water, which lies under the hydrocarbons. In some cases, additional water is usually injected into the.

  1. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  2. Geopolitics of petroleum. A new market. New risks. New worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestrange, C. de; Paillard, Ch.A.; Zelenko, P.

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this book is to shade light on a complex world in complete evolution, the stakes of which for today's societies being proportional to the energy and economical importance of petroleum. The big petroleum fear of consuming countries and the reactions linked with oil shocks are now old stories. The producing countries are today at least as vulnerable to price variations and fluxes restrictions as the consumers of developed countries. Two countries, USA and Saudi Arabia, and one organisation, the OPEC, play a key role in the regulation of this system, the equilibrium of which is now threatened by the reinforcement of preoccupations like environment and human rights protection. New challenges occur: the increase of demand, the concentration of offer, some technological changes that would limit the petroleum needs in the future, and the increasing insecurity of key oil-producing regions. At a shorter term, the geopolitical context of Middle-East is the most worrying. (J.S.)

  3. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2004: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. (A.L.B.)

  4. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  5. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  6. Petroleum investment conditions in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Schreck, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report focuses on the current petroleum investment conditions in Peru, and Peru's hydrocarbon potential. Investment conditions are examined, and political risk, internal security, the economic environment, and the legal framework for investment are considered. (UK)

  7. Petroleum and Water Logistics Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-19

    petroleum office ( SAPO ). The combatant commander JPO coordinates all agree- ments concerning bulk fuel support between com- ponent commands and HNs. For the...commander of the unified command through the JPO. The uni- fied command may also establish SAPOs at the subunified command level to provide in-country or...gency situations. PWRS are usually stored in theater and are monitored by the appropriate combatant commander JPO/ SAPO . MEF Petroleum War Reserve

  8. Colombian petroleum - A good business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    A great interest exists for Colombia, a country in which the statistics of petroleum and gas production, have been shot to volumes record; where 15 new contracts are signed every year, arriving in December from 1997 to an effective figure record of 107, a country that see grow their exports of raw; a country that every time has more facilities of transport and commercialization of hydrocarbons and it receives to more companies interested in sharing the risk in petroleum search

  9. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  10. Canadian retail petroleum markets study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    A retail petroleum market study was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the competitiveness of the downstream petroleum industry in Canada and to set a foundation for effective policy development. The downstream petroleum industry, which includes the petroleum refining and marketing sectors, faces a poor public image, competitive pressures from U.S. and offshore refiners, and a broad range of environmental challenges. In this study, 19 markets representing a wide range of conditions were chosen for a detailed review of outlet economics. A market-by-market and regional comparisons of key competitiveness indicators was made in order to identify market and regional competitive differences as potential issues or opportunities within the industry. The study also included a pump price/margin model and provided a general overview of the retail gasoline sub-sector in terms of infrastructure. A review of prices, margins and demand patterns over the past several years was also undertaken to show the relationship between consumer demand patterns and pump price fluctuations. The study presented 22 findings which led to several conclusions and recommendations regarding the competitiveness of Canada's petroleum marketing sector. Two of the key conclusions were that taxation is a significant factor in the price of retail gasoline (about 50 per cent) and that government intervention into petroleum marketing is likely to be a poor alternative to market-based regulation. 18 tabs., 37 figs

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.

  12. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  14. Iran's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebneyousef, M.H.; Bogart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that during the past several years Iran's potentials have been forgotten or ignored by the outside world mainly due to misconceptions, fears, and political concerns attributed to the religious overtone. The intention of the authors is to introduction to the new realities of regional, as well as global geopolitics and the main political and economic aspects of Iran's huge and growing petroleum industry. The fact of the matter is that in the rapidly changing world order the need for a true stability in the region and a global cooperation has been recognized by Iran. The country, with a population of 60 million, is now preparing itself for the major political and economic role thrust upon the nation by the socio-economic changes in the integrating Europe; the outcome of the Iran-Iraq and the Persian Gulf wars, including the likely instability of the autocratic governments of Arab states of the region; the breakup of the former Soviet Union; and market changes in the Far East

  15. Sable Offshore Energy Inc.: Response to 'The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board Benefits Plan Decision Report' Condition No. 3: Employment and Training Plan; Condition No. 4: Research and Development Plan; Condition No. 6: Disadvantaged Individual or Groups; Condition No. 7: Technology Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Decisions of the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board, regarding the responses of Sable Offshore Energy Inc (SOEI) to conditions imposed by the Board in the Sable Offshore Energy Project Canada-Nova Scotia Benefit Plan Decision Report, have been announced. According to the press release (copy attached), the Board accepted the responses of SOEI regarding the establishment and staffing of an office in Nova Scotia for the implementation and project management and training of project personnel, the level of expenditures for research and development to be undertaken in Nova Scotia, proposed initiatives for employment and training opportunities for disadvantaged individuals and groups, and a technology transfer plan that will facilitate succession planning and create joint venturing opportunities for Nova Scotian and Canadian industry. tabs., figs

  16. [Antimicrobial Activity of Substances Produced by Trichoderma citrinoviride Strain VKPM F-1228: Optimization of Cultivation and Assessment of Spectrum of Individual Peptaibols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykova, V S; Kurakov, A V; Korshun, V A; Rogozhin, E A; Gromovykh, T I; Kuvarina, A E; Baranova, A A

    2015-01-01

    The Trichoderma citrinoviride VKPM F-1228 strain produces a complex of peptide-based antibiotics with antibacterial and antimycotic action. Synthesis of peptaibols is closely related to the conidiogenesis in the culture. The optimal procedure of the strain cultivation for production of peptaibols is stationary growing for 14 days at a temperature of 28 degrees C and pH 7.5 followed by formation of a dense mycelium film on the modified Saburo medium containing 30 gr/l of glucose and 12.5 gr/l of peptone. Eight individual peptaibols were extracted. The spectrum of their activity was estimated with the use of opportunistic bacteria and micromycetes as well as pathogenic clinical aspergilli. Compounds 9, 13, 14, 15 and 16 were shown active against opportunistic fungi and bacteria including methicillin resistant S. aureus, whereas compounds 9, 13 and 14 in addition showed antimycotic activity against clinical aspergilli.

  17. Tekna's produced water conference 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The conference has 22 presentations discussing topics on discharge reduction, produced water quality, produced water re-injection, chemicals particularly environmentally friendly ones, separation technology, reservoir souring, total water management systems, pollution, oil in water problems and platform operation. Various field tests and experiences particularly from the offshore petroleum sector are presented (tk)

  18. Petroleum product deparaffination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, A.G.; Dorodnova, V.S.; Korzhov, Yu.A.

    1980-12-23

    In the process for deparaffination of petroleum products (NP) by treatment of them with carbamide (KA) in the presence of an activator (AK) and solvent with subsequent separation of the forming paraffin-carbamide complex (PKC) the NP is mixed with the AK at a temperature of 5-40/sup 0/ in an NP:AK ratio of 1:0.01-0.03 with subsequent addition of portions of KA at a temperature of 5-20/sup 0/. The advantages of the process in comparison with the known one consists in the fact that the process of complex formation is realized practically without an induction period, and paraffin yield is increased by 27% on the potential with a simultaneous decrease in reagent consumption: KA by 20% and MeOH by 35%. Example -- 100 g of diesel fuel (a 200-360/sup 0/ fraction) is mixed with MeOH (1.3% on the feedstock), which in the obtained mixture is found in a liquid droplet state. To the mixture 40 g KA is added (2/3 of the total amount of KA to be added). The complex formation temperature is held at 35/sup 0/. To the PKC practically forming at once 260 g of solvent (an 85-120/sup 0/ gasoline fraction) and then 20 g KA are added. The temperature is held at 20/sup 0/. The forming suspension of the complex is distinguished by uniformity and the absence of coarse conglomerates. The paraffin yield amounts to 11.8% on the feedstock or 74% on the potential. The melting point of the paraffin is 22/sup 0/. In the described deparaffination scheme according to the proposed process complex formation is carried out in two steps; in a third step the suspension of KA and centrifuged paraffin is separated; the KA is returned to the complex formation reactor, and the centrifuged paraffin --- for solvent regeneration.

  19. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    On the basis of diverse microfossils such as foraminifers, ostracods, micromulluscs, fossil spores and pollen and calcareous nannofossils derived from 14 drill holes, the sediments are divided into two part, the upper marine part and the lower nonmarine one. Marine part is subdivided into 4 foraminiferal zones and 3 nannofossil zones of Plio-Pleistocene age. In the lower part ranging from Oligocene to Late Miocene 4 palynomoph assemblages are established, which reflect climatic changes fluctuating between subtropical and cool temperate. Some fine sediments occurring in the South Sea continental shelf are rich in organic matter to be hydrocarbon source rock. The organic matter is mainly compared to type 3. However, lower part of the Geobuk-1 and Okdom-1 shows more oil prone geochemical characteristics than other wells. The kerosene is mixture type 1 and type 3 organic matter. The main oil generation zone located between 2,500 m and 3,000 m and gas generation zone from 3,500 m to 4,000 m approximately. Hydrocarbon accumulation could be expected in the trap formed in the period earlier than 10 Ma. as the hydrocarbon started to be expelled at 10 Ma. according to the modeling. Approximately 13,000 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 14 wells and gravity and magnetic data were analyzed to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of southern part of offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan-Sinzi Uplift Belt separates the area into two regions with different tectonic features, northwestern and southwestern regions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, tilted fault block, fault, unconformity, and rollover structure exist. This project is consisted of two main subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment on the continental shelf basin of the south sea. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Taegu area (1). (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Petroleum resources assessment (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Kunsan Basin : Kunsan Basin is mainly filled with Cretaceous and Tertiary clastic sediments, and divided into Southwest Sub-basin, Central Sub-basin and Northeast Sub-basin by uplifts and faults developed in the basin. Microfossils were studied for the biostratigraphic works of drill wells in the Kunsan Basin. The microfossils include organic-walled microfossils such as spores, pollen and nonmarine dinoflagellates and calcareous microfossils such as ostracods, charophytes and gastropods. The fossil assemblages of the Kunsan Basin reveal nonmarine environments ranging from alluvial fan to shallow lacustrine and climatic variation between subtropical and cool temperate temperature in the arid/humid alternating conditions. According to the paleontological data, the Kunsan Basin was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and expanded during Paleogene followed by regional erosion at the closing time of Paleogene on which Neogene sediments have been accumulated. The Paleogene strata show laterally irregular thickness in each Epoch due to migrating depocenter. 2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Hapcheon area (I) : The Cretaceous Gyeongsang Supergroup consists of more than 9 Km sequences of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in Hapcheon-Changyong-Euiryong-Haman area and occupies the middle part of the Milyang subbasin. The Supergroup can be divided into three group; Sindong, Hayang and Yuchon groups in ascending order. Based on rock color, the Sindong Group can be subdivided into Nakdong, Hasandong and Jinju Formations. The Hayang Group can be subdivided into Chilgok, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong Formations. The Chilgok Formation includes basaltic lava and tuffs in the upper part. The Haman Formation has Kusandong tuff (keybed) in the uppermost part in the Changyong area, whereas the tuff is intercalated below the vocaniclastics in the Haman area. (author). 60 refs., 22 tabs., 61 figs.

  1. Heavy metal extraction from produced water in the petroleum industry utilizing vegetal oil derivatives as the extractant; Extracao de metais pesados a partir de aguas produzidas na industria do petroleo utilizando derivados de oleo vegetal como extratante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Dulcineia de Castro [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Goias (CEFET/GO), Goiania (Brazil). Coordenacao de Mineracao], e-mail: dcs@cefetgo.br, e-mail: dcs@eq.ufrn.br; Paulo, Joao Bosco de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: jbosco@eq.ufrn.br; Lima, Raquel Franco de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: raquel@geologia.ufrn.br; Brandao, Paulo Roberto Gomes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], e-mail: pbrandao@demin.ufmg.br; Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [PETROBRAS, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao do Rio Grande do Norte e Ceara. Gerencia de Desenvolvimento da Producao], e-mail: wilaci@petrobras.com.br

    2007-12-15

    It is well known today that, although being a renewable resource, potable water could also be finite. In the environmental context, very often due to operational costs, the development of new water recycling techniques become significant when faced with the simple adaptation of effluent treatment before final disposal. Produced water comes from exploration operations and/or the production of oil and gas and is generally treated. Following the treatment, part of the produced water is recycled in secondary re-injection operations or steam generation. The remainder, which is the biggest amount, is expelled into the sea through underwater outlets. Millions of liters of water are expelled per day, containing heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in low concentrations. Some of this volume could be recycled for use in the irrigation of oleaginous cultures after this water has been given a suitable post-treatment. This treatment being specified in agreement with Class 3, of CONAMA Resolution No 357 (Brazil, 2005), which establishes the contents as <0,033 mg/L for Pb, <0,01 mg/L for Cd and <0,025 mg/L for Ni. Liquid-liquid extraction is a well known technology for the recovery of metals in aqueous mediums. This work studies the extraction of Pb, Cd, and Ni from a synthetic solution, using QAV solvent (aviation kerosene); and vegetal oil derivatives as the extractant. It is well known that vegetal oil derivatives have a strong complexation power on metals. A bench test basic investigation was made with the objective of studying the selectivity of coconut oil derivatives in the extraction of metals from synthetic solutions. The determination of the heavy metal concentrations in a complex matrix was made by using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique (AAS). The results of the preliminary experiments were promising. (author)

  2. Dynamic monitoring of water petroleum substance using HJ-1/CCD remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Miaofen; Xing, Xufeng; Zhao, Zulong; Li, Zhanqiang

    2014-01-01

    The experiment data used in this paper include CDOM(Chromophoric dissolved organic matter) absorption coefficient, water apparent optical properties and petroleum pollution concentration, which were obtained in May 2008, August 2009 and June 2010 respectively at Liaohe Oilfield in Panjin city, Liaoning province of China. A model between CDOM absorption coefficient and petroleum pollution concentration was developed, and then was applied to eight HJ-1CCD remote sense images obtained from 2009 to 2011, to produce multi-period temporal and spatial distribution maps of petroleum concentration in costal waters. Based on these thematic maps, the dynamic monitoring of petroleum pollution concentration distribution was done. The results showed that (1)There was a decreasing trend of petroleum concentration from costal waters to open sea, which manifest itself as an approximately zonal distribution;(2) due to low precipitation in May and June every year, the concentration of petroleum keeps in a relatively high value state; (3) in September, the concentration of petroleum decreases dramatically as pre increases, most of the area below 0.29 mg/L; (4) compared with that in the same period, the concentration of petroleum in April 2010 is apparently higher than in April 2011, and among the images in September from 2009 to 2011,the highest concentration of petroleum appears in 2010, and the lowest in 2009

  3. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Composition of natural gas and crude oil produced from 10 wells in the Lower Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone, Trumbull County, Ohio: Chapter G.7 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, Robert A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gases and associated crude oils in the “Clinton” sandstone, Medina Group sandstones, and equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone in the northern Appalachian basin are part of a regional, continuous-type or basin-centered accumulation. The origin of the hydrocarbon charge to regional continuoustype accumulations is poorly understood. We have analyzed the molecular and stable isotopic composition of gases and oils produced from 10 wells in the “Clinton” sandstone in Trumbull County, Ohio, in an initial attempt to identify the characteristics of the accumulated fluids. The analyses show that the fluids have remarkably uniform compositions that are similar to previously published analyses of oils (Cole and others, 1987) and gases (Laughrey and Baldasarre, 1998) in Early Silurian reservoirs elsewhere in Ohio; however, geochemical parameters in the oils and gases suggest that the fluids have experienced higher levels of thermal stress than the present-day burial conditions of the reservoir rocks. The crude oils have an unusual geochemical characteristic: they do not contain detectable levels of sterane and triterpane biomarkers. The origin of these absences is unknown.

  7. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A compilation of data regarding the crude petroleum and natural gas industry was presented. This industry includes establishments engaged in exploration for, or production of petroleum or natural gas from wells or tar sands. Data presented in this publication include: the supply and disposition of crude oil and natural gas, operating and capital expenditures of approximately 500 companies of the oil and natural gas industry, drilling completions, and crude oil and natural gas reserves. Data about the oil sands industry is reported in another volume. Much of the data was obtained from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Overall, in 1995 Canadian natural gas production rose 6.7%; exports of crude oil rose 7.7%. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  8. 17th International Conference on Petroleum Phase Behavior and Fouling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Yan, Wei; Andersen, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This special section of Energy & Fuels contains contributedpapers from the 17th International Conference on PetroleumPhase Behavior and Fouling (Petrophase 2016). Petrophase 2016 was organized by the Technical University of Denmark and Schlumberger and took place in Elsinore (Helsingør) Denmark...... from June 19th to 23rd at the Beach Hotel Marienlyst. Petrophase is an international conference aimed at researchers in industry and academia dedicated to the study of the properties and chemistry of petroleum fluids and their effect on producing, processing, and refining in the upstream, midstream......, and downstream industries. The conference started in 1999 as “The International Conference on Petroleum Phase Behavior & Fouling” and has since evolved into an annual event taking place in countries all around the world. Petrophase has been fortunate to have enjoyed financial and organizational support from many...

  9. Nuclear techniques in the prospecting and exploitation of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Castellanos, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The apatite is a mineral that is found in the perforation nucleus of petroleum exploration whose natural content of Uranium is of around 10 ppm. This uranium is spontaneously fissioned producing fission traces whose number it is proportional to the age of the apatite and whose longitudes remained stable to temperatures smaller than 60 C, they decreased partially in the temperature range of 60 to 120 C and they faded totally if the nucleus of perforation was to temperatures bigger than 120 C. This agreement in the call 'thermal formation window' of the petroleum among 60 and 120 C and the partial erased of the longitudes of fission traces in the apatite, it allows to use this to determine not only the age of the petroleum field, but also their geologic thermal history (paleo temperature), it also allows to model the formation of the petroleum field and to contribute to outline to PEMEX on exploitation and exploration strategies. In this work it is presented: the visualization of the fission traces in the apatite of Cerro de Mercado, Durango, considered as an international standard of dating; the basic principles of this nuclear technique that allow to determine the age of the apatite; the formation of horizontal fission traces inside the apatite, by irradiation with fission fragments; and as the analysis of the thermal instability of the lengths of the fission traces it provides information of the paleo temperature of the petroleum basin. (Author)

  10. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Geologic framework and petroleum systems of Cook Inlet basin, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, R.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Shellenbaum, D.P.; Stone, D.M.; Hite, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonics, and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet basin, an important oil- and gas-producing region in south-central Alaska.

  12. Ireland unveils petroleum tax measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ireland's government has introduced detailed petroleum tax legislation designed to boost offshore exploration and development. The petroleum tax measures, published last week and included in the government's omnibus finance bill for 1992, will provide Ireland for the first time a comprehensive petroleum tax regime. They include elements which, in tax terms, will make Ireland a most attractive location for oil and gas exploration and development, the Irish Energy Minister Robert Molloy. He the, Exploration companies will now have the benefit of the certainty of a detailed tax framework and attractive tax rates. Debate on the finance bill has begun in the Irish Dail (parliament). Under Ireland's constitution, the budget bill must be approved and signed by the president by the end of May. Failure to approve a budget bill within that time would mean the current government's collapse

  13. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  14. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  15. Petroleum industry opportunities in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The investment opportunities that Guatemala has to offer in the petroleum sector are discussed, highlighting aspects of legislation as well as investment recovery. The increase in seismic and geological information that Guatemala has recently accumulated allows for an increased level of success in petroleum exploration, which coupled with an increase in basic infrastructure and the experience acquired in the administration of the hydrocarbons law, make it more attractive for foreign investment. An overview is presented of the sedimentary basins present, exploratory activity, surface reconnaissance permits, production sharing contracts, prices, taxation, royalties, and options. 7 figs

  16. The petroleum dilemma of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubinski, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Russia is confronted with major choices in the research of an optimum petroleum strategy. Now the first world exporter, Russia takes advantage of the Usa policy, first importer, which aim to diversify their supply sources since the 11 september 2001, to decrease their dependence from the Saudi Arabia and more generally from the instable Middle East. In another hand, Moscow wants to minimize the dependence of the petroleum benefit and the oils prices fluctuations, by a diversification of its economy structure. These choices define a part of the russian policy in the context of the presidential elections of march 2004. (A.L.B.)

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-14

    This document designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and for the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  18. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-10

    This publication is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  20. Applied Geophysics Opportunities in the Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgaard, D. L.; Tikku, A.; Roberts, J. C.; Martinez, A.

    2012-12-01

    Meeting the increasing global demand for energy over the next several decades presents daunting challenges to engineers and scientists, including geoscientists of all disciplines. Many opportunities exist for geophysicists to find and produce oil and gas in a safe, environmentally responsible and affordable manner. Successful oil and gas exploration involves a 'Plates to Pores' approach that integrates multi-scale data from satellites, marine and land seismic and non-seismic field surveys, lab experiments, and even electron microscopy. The petroleum industry is at the forefront of using high performance computing to develop innovative methods to process and analyze large volumes of seismic data and perform realistic numerical modeling, such as finite element fluid flow and rock deformation simulations. Challenging and rewarding jobs in exploration, production and research exist for students with BS/BA, MS and PhD degrees. Geophysics students interested in careers in the petroleum industry should have a broad foundation in science, math and fundamental geosciences at the BS/BA level, as well as mastery of the scientific method, usually gained through thesis work at MS and PhD levels. Field geology or geophysics experience is also valuable. Other personal attributes typical for geoscientists to be successful in industry include a passion for solving complex geoscience problems, the flexibility to work on a variety of assignments throughout a career and skills such as teamwork, communication, integration and leadership. In this presentation we will give examples of research, exploration and production opportunities for geophysicists in petroleum companies and compare and contrast careers in academia vs. industry.

  1. Ethics in the business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoelhof, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is intended to emphasize the importance of high standards of conduct to individuals and companies in the business of petroleum exploration. The questions to be addressed include: What are ethics and how do they relate to professionalism? What are the bases for ethical behavior?; and What are some typical ethical issues in the exploration business? Ethics comprise a set of standards that control and measure relationships between individuals and companies in social and business interactions. These standards apply to questions of whether folks have done the moral right by the other person, whatever the nature of their interaction might be. The means of granting rights to others are included in the mores of society. These are the unwritten, yet valid, rules that dictate, for example, how bargaining is conducted between buyer and seller or how properly to greet people of different social stature. Mores constitute the protocol and etiquette of personal and business interaction

  2. Towards the end of full-petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The experts agree on the petroleum reserves exhausting. Even if some disagreements subsist on the term, the years 2020 seem to be decisive. This paper takes stock on the governments policy facing the petroleum reserves decrease. (A.L.B.)

  3. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  4. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted ... an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil ..... 12) Jackson, M.L. Soil chemical analysis. ... biological assay. 3 rd.

  5. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  6. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  7. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E [ed.

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a day in 2003, while gas

  8. Fact 2004. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooderham, Rolf E. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas sector is Norway's largest industry by value creation and has been a key driving force in Norwegian economic development for several decades. Developments in the petroleum industry are crucial for the future progress of Norwegian society and will remain so. While the petroleum sector has so far been characterised by growth, we can now see the beginning of a gradual reduction in the level of activity. This will have significant spin-offs for other industries and consequences for the Norwegian economy as a whole. Thus, it is important to ensure that profitable petroleum activities are pursued in order to moderate the pace of decline. This publication provides a broad picture of Norway's petroleum activities, and covers most aspects of the industry. It presents useful information and statistics on the sector both for those already familiar with this business and for readers who know less about it. Since petroleum production began on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) in 1971, a total of 3.8 bn standard cubic metres of oil equivalent (scm oe) has been produced. This corresponds to just under 30 per cent of the original recoverable reserves, and so substantial oil and gas resources remain. The government's Report no 38 (2001-2002) to the Storting (the Norwegian Parliament) described a long-term scenario for the NCS in which estimates for recoverable reserves from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate are recovered. It is very important to ensure that the long-term scenario is achieved based on due consideration of environmental and safety issues. Norway's role as a major energy producer must be reconciled with the ambition to be a pioneer in the environmental area. This goal has always characterized government policy towards the petroleum industry. The strong focus on the environment has created a positive trend in safeguarding environmental concerns on the NCS. Production of oil and natural gas liquids averaged 3.3 mill barrels a

  9. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Detection of Generic and Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli among Indigenous Individuals in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Shuan Ju Teh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully developed a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay that could specifically detect generic Escherichia coli (E. coli. This assay was tested on 85 bacterial strains and successfully identified 54 E. coli strains (average threshold time, Tt = 21.26. The sensitivity of this assay was evaluated on serial dilutions of bacterial cultures and spiked faeces. The assay could detect 102 CFU/mL for bacterial culture with Tt = 33.30 while the detection limit for spiked faeces was 103 CFU/mL (Tt = 31.12. We have also detected 46 generic E. coli from 50 faecal samples obtained from indigenous individuals with 16% of the positive samples being verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC positive. VT1/VT2 allele was present in one faecal sample while the ratio of VT1 to VT2 was 6 : 1. Overall, our study had demonstrated high risk of VTEC infection among the indigenous community and most of the asymptomatic infection occurred among those aged below 15 years. The role of asymptomatic human carriers as a source of dissemination should not be underestimated. Large scale screening of the VTEC infection among indigenous populations and the potential contamination sources will be possible and easy with the aid of this newly developed rapid and simple LAMP assay.

  10. The Main Concept Analysis: Validation and sensitivity in differentiating discourse produced by unimpaired English speakers from individuals with aphasia and dementia of Alzheimer type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Whiteside, Janet; Bargmann, Peggy

    2016-10-01

    Discourse from speakers with dementia and aphasia is associated with comparable but not identical deficits, necessitating appropriate methods to differentiate them. The current study aims to validate the Main Concept Analysis (MCA) to be used for eliciting and quantifying discourse among native typical English speakers and to establish its norm, and investigate the validity and sensitivity of the MCA to compare discourse produced by individuals with fluent aphasia, non-fluent aphasia, or dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT), and unimpaired elderly. Discourse elicited through a sequential picture description task was collected from 60 unimpaired participants to determine the MCA scoring criteria; 12 speakers with fluent aphasia, 12 with non-fluent aphasia, 13 with DAT, and 20 elderly participants from the healthy group were compared on the finalized MCA. Results of MANOVA revealed significant univariate omnibus effects of speaker group as an independent variable on each main concept index. MCA profiles differed significantly between all participant groups except dementia versus fluent aphasia. Correlations between the MCA performances and the Western Aphasia Battery and Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test were found to be statistically significant among the clinical groups. The MCA was appropriate to be used among native speakers of English. The results also provided further empirical evidence of discourse deficits in aphasia and dementia. Practitioners can use the MCA to evaluate discourse production systemically and objectively.

  11. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  12. The role of the national petroleum company in petroleum development market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B J [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The present century started with the creation of national petroleum companies, and it ends with those national petroleum companies exerting various types of efforts to increase the efficiency of their management. Especially, the efforts of these national petroleum companies are ever intensifying to adapt to new trends in the world petroleum market such as intensified competition, ever-deepening price unstableness, separation of structure between upstream and downstream portions, rapid development of petroleum development technologies, change of political systems and the demise of national borders, ever-increasing consciousness of environmental preservation, etc. Korea cannot be exempt from management rationalization efforts of national petroleum companies. Especially, Korea established its own national petroleum company in order to actively deal with these as its supply system is very weak. Therefore, the national petroleum company should create as many successful petroleum development businesses by actively carrying out petroleum development businesses domestically and overseas in order to establish a stable supply system of petroleum and to support the petroleum development businesses of civilian enterprises more effectively. The national petroleum company must, first of all, replace the bureaucracy with entrepreneurship. Esp., in order to enhance the efficiency of management, short- term outcome should not be emphasized over long-term tenure of petroleum development businesses, and excessive interference of government on the national petroleum company should be excluded. The entrepreneurship of the national petroleum company should be pursued in Positive-sum way, and its public image should be actively promoted through this. 35 refs., 11 figs., 32 tabs.

  13. 77 FR 56421 - Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... Parts 9 and 60 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum...-9672-3] RIN 2060-AN72 Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries; Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 14, 2007...

  14. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and...

  15. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  16. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  18. The petroleum industry in 1999 (editorial)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document deals with the petroleum activity in 1999. It provides three economic analysis. The first one concerns the petroleum industry activity in 1999 and the corresponding french energy policy. The second one presents the petroleum activity in the world. The third one presents the hydrocarbons market supplying in France. (A.L.B.)

  19. 78 FR 40131 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of... Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public... Administrative Matters Discussion of Any Other Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council...

  20. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  1. 77 FR 42297 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil... National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that... Matters Discussion of Any Other Business Properly Brought Before the National Petroleum Council...

  2. 76 FR 53889 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil... Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public... Properly Brought Before the National, Petroleum Council, Adjournment. Public Participation: The meeting is...

  3. Oil atlas: National Petroleum Technology Office activities across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A.

    1998-03-01

    Petroleum imports account for the largest share of the US trade deficit. Over one-third of the 1996 merchandise trade deficit is attributed to imported oil. The good news is that substantial domestic oil resources, both existing and yet-to-be-discovered, can be recovered using advanced petroleum technologies. The Energy Information Agency estimates that advanced technologies can yield 10 billion additional barrels, equal to $240 billion in import offsets. The US Department of Energy`s National Petroleum Technology Office works with industry to develop advanced petroleum technologies and to transfer successful technologies to domestic oil producers. This publication shows the locations of these important technology development efforts and lists DOE`s partners in this critical venture. The National Petroleum Technology Office has 369 active technology development projects grouped into six product lines: Advanced Diagnostics and Imaging Systems; Advanced Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation; Reservoir Life Extension and Management; Emerging Processing Technology Applications; Effective Environmental Protection; and Crosscutting Program Areas.

  4. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries and in Angola, Gabon, Iran, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations about petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Saudi Arabia, the debate about the price reduction of butane used to produce methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is responsible of the cancellation of joint venture project between Mobil and Arabian Chemical Investment Corp. In Algeria, Japan brings its support to the development of Liquefied Petroleum Gases industry and has signed two exports contracts. New petroleum discoveries have been made in Oman, near Suneinah and in Egypt near Belayim offshore oil field. Petroleum production has reached 3.6 millions barrels per day in Iran, 0.35 millions barrels per day in Gabon and 0.177 millions barrels per day in Nigeria

  5. Panorama of the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This document provides tables and charts of statistical data concerning the petroleum industry activity in 2002: supply and demand, prices, consumption, service station number and the market. A second part is devoted to the fuel quality and air quality: the constant improvement of the fuels and the investments refining/distribution. (A.L.B.)

  6. A Computerized Petroleum Geology Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Louise E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a package of computer programs developed to implement an oil exploration game that gives undergraduate students practical experience in applying theoretical principles of petroleum geology. The programs facilitate management of the game by the instructor and enhance the learning experience. (Author/MBR)

  7. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  8. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  9. Petroleum business of high risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the economic risk and of the geologic risk that assist the industry of the petroleum; an analysis of these types of risk, possibilities of success and investments to carry out in the search of hydrocarbons are made

  10. Tumaco the other Petroleum face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    The Tumaco City (Colombia), it is one of the exit points of the Colombian and Ecuadorian petroleum. To Tumaco port arrives 80.000 daily barrels coming from the south of Colombia and Ecuador on the average. Tumaco and Covenas (shipment Port for the Caribbean Sea) they conform the points of shipment of the international trade of hydrocarbons in the country

  11. Petroleum exploration and development opportunities in Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Martiniuk, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    The productive areas of Manitoba are located along the northeastern flank of the Williston basin. Rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age form a basin-ward thickening wedge of sedimentary strata that reach a total thickness of 2,300 m in the southwest corner of the province. A brief description is presented of the geology and reservoir characteristics of petroleum producing horizons in Manitoba. Manitoba's Crown land tenure system of leases and exploitation reservations is described and an overview of Manitoba's petroleum royalty and tax structure and incentive programs is presented. Exploration and development opportunities in Manitoba are outlined. There are numerous development drilling opportunities along the poorly defined edges of existing pools. Exploration opportunities exist in the Mississippian in the sparsely explored areas outside existing field boundaries. Deeper Devonian and Ordovician horizons, productive elsewhere in the Williston basin, remain relatively untested in Manitoba. An attractive, stable investment climate is created by: availability of land at comparatively low cost; a stable and competitive fiscal regime; incentive programs designed to enhance pay-out; low drilling density; relatively untested deep potential below the Mississippian; low drilling and completion costs; easy access to market; and competitive oil prices. 12 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Petroleum exploration and development opportunities in Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Martiniuk, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    The productive areas of Manitoba are located along the northeastern flank of the Williston basin. Rocks of paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age form a basin-ward thickening wedge of sedimentary strata that reach a total thickness of 2,300 m in the southwest corner of the province. A brief description is presented of the geology and reservoir characteristics of petroleum producing horizons in Manitoba. Manitoba's Crown land tenure system of leases and exploitation reservations is described and an overview of Manitoba's petroleum royalty and tax structure and incentive programs is presented. Exploration and development opportunities in Manitoba are outlined. There are numerous development drilling opportunities along the poorly defined edges of existing pools. Exploration opportunities exist in the Mississippian in the sparsely explored areas outside existing field boundaries. Deeper Devonian and Ordovician horizons, productive elsewhere in the Williston basin, remain relatively untested in Manitoba. An attractive, stable investment climate is created by: availability of land at comparatively low cost; a stable and competitive fiscal regime; incentive programs designed to enhance pay-out; low drilling density; relatively untested deep potential below the Mississippian; low drilling and completion costs; easy access to market; and competitive oil prices. 12 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Offshore petroleum engineering task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelokke, M.

    1999-05-01

    The Offshore Petroleum Engineering Task Force was established in July 1998 in response to concerns about Newfoundland and Labrador's share of offshore petroleum engineering activity, with the aim of determining the current capability of the local sector, the demand for such companies and individuals until the year 2010, their capability to grow over that time-frame, and requirements in order to achieve that growth. The report summarizes the analysis undertaken by the Task Force as well as the conclusions it reached and associated recommendations. Section two provides an overview of the offshore engineering activity, including its origins, structure, and key success factors, and its also provides a profile of the industry, internationally, in Canada and in Newfoundland. Section three presents an analysis of the future demand for offshore engineering in Newfoundland until 2010, based on three development scenarios. Section four based on a Consulting Engineers of Newfoundland and Labrador (CENL) survey, establishes the present offshore engineering capacity and capabilities within the province. Section five examines current education and training programs and their ability to respond to future demands. Section six summarizes the conclusions of the analysis and presents recommendations designed to facilitate and promote the development of the local offshore engineering industry. 6 figs

  14. Petroleum Services Association of Canada 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) is the national trade association of the Canadian oilfield service, supply and manufacturing industry. The Association's mandate is to protect and promote the interests of its members. This annual review for 1996 details the activities undertaken by the Board of Directors on behalf of the membership. Achievements in the area of health, safety and the environment included the Safety Statistics Program, the establishment of the Petroleum Safety Council, the Voluntary Incentive Plan designed to reduce workers' compensation claims, and the updating of the Drilling Fluids Manual and Emergency Response Plan. Alberta Labour's Oilwell Servicing Regulation and the B.C. Oil and Gas Regulations Review were the highlights in the area of regulatory and government relations. The strategic alliances signed between the PSAC and the Newfoundland Ocean Industries Association and the PSAC and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers demonstrated the new era of partnership and communication between petroleum producers and their suppliers. A list of PSAC publications, including special reports, was also included

  15. Consumption of Honey, Sucrose, and High-Fructose Corn Syrup Produces Similar Metabolic Effects in Glucose-Tolerant and -Intolerant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Public health recommendations call for a reduction in added sugars; however, controversy exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. The objective was to compare the effects of the chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners [honey, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose (HFCS55)] on circulating glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; body weight; and blood pressure in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (GT) and those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In a crossover design, participants consumed daily, in random order, 50 g carbohydrate from assigned sweeteners for 2 wk with a 2- to 4-wk washout period between treatments. Participants included 28 GT and 27 IGT volunteers with a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.6 y and 52.1 ± 2.7 y, respectively, and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 ± 0.8 and 31.5 ± 1.0, respectively. Body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum inflammatory markers, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, and oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs) were completed pre- and post-treatment. The OGTT incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose and insulin were determined and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the IGT group than in the GT group at baseline. Glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and the OGTT iAUC for glucose or insulin did not differ by treatment, but all responses were significantly higher in the IGT group compared with the GT group. Body weight was unchanged by treatment. Systolic BP was unchanged, whereas diastolic BP was significantly lower in response to sugar intake across all treatments. An increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was observed in the IGT group in response to all sugars. No treatment effect was observed for interleukin 6. HDL cholesterol did not

  16. Effects of foreign disasters on the petroleum industry in Japan: A financial market perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanabusa, Kunihiro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how certain foreign disasters - the September 11 terrorist attacks, Iraq War, and Hurricane Katrina - affected the stock prices of the Japanese petroleum industry. Using the market model with and without heteroskedasticity, we analyze and estimate the extent to which these disasters impacted the stock prices from two perspectives: (1) the influence of these disastrous incidents on the entire petroleum industry and (2) the effect on individual firms. The empirical results reveal that an increase in the stock prices of individual firms caused an increase in the stock prices of the entire Japanese petroleum industry after the September 11 terrorist attacks. However, the Iraq War and Hurricane Katrina had both negative and positive influences on the expected profits of individual firms and did not have a significant effect on the stock prices of the Japanese petroleum industry. (author)

  17. Structural segregation of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon regions in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, K.M.; Huseynov, A.N.; Hajiyev, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Structural segregation allows identify the earth crust blocks according to their geological setting and structural history conductive for hydrocarbon generation and their entrapment in the sedimentary fill reservoirs. Since then there has been a need to design a new tectonic map of petroleum and hydrocarbons potential systems in Azerbaijan embracing both on- and offshore areas. Map's legend designed upon above mentioned concepts and principles has made it possible to evaluate the role of individual stratigraphic units in hydrocarbon generation and its entrapment, as well as in recognition of regional structural criteria of the hydrocarbon bearing potential of different structural patterns. Tectonic map of petroleum and prospective hydrocarbon bearing on and offshore areas in Azerbaijan for the first time contained a wide range of information related to structural criteria of hydrocarbon bearing potential, sedimentary fill's structural architecture, its thickness, both timing of their formation stages and basement consolidation, its subsidence depth, as well as hydrocarbon deposit areal and vertical distribution across individual regions. This map was considered to be of important implication both for the petroleum geoscience and petroleum industry endeavors.

  18. Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 financial statements September 30, 1997 and 1996 (with independent auditors` report thereon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. As required by the 1996 National Defense Authorization Act, the Department of Energy offered NPR-1 for sale during FY 1997. DOE structured the sale so as to offer two types of ownership segments: one operatorship segment, consisting of 74% of the US interest in NPR-1, and 13 nonoperating segments, each consisting of 2% of the US interest. Potential purchasers could bid on one, some, or all of the segments. If a single purchaser wanted to buy all of the Government`s interest, then its bid would have to exceed the total of the highest bids for all of the individual segments. Bids were due October 1, 1997, at which time DOE received 22 bids from 15 parties acting alone or in concert. The report and management letter present the results of the independent certified public accountants` audits of the Department of Energy`s Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1) financial statements as of, and for the years ended, September 30, 1997 and 1996.

  19. Boom times : Canada's crude petroleum industry : analysis in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document examined the trends in crude oil prices, the production and exports of Canada's crude petroleum industry, and Canada's imports of crude petroleum. As an exporter and importer of crude oil, Canada's petroleum industry is currently experiencing economic prosperity as a result of high oil prices combined with high global demand for oil. This document reviewed industry activity for 2005 and addressed the reasons for the first decline in Canadian crude oil production in 6 years. A quick review of soaring crude oil prices, supply and shortages was also presented. A review of exports revealed that since 1995, the United States has received 99 per cent of Canadian exports. Although production activity is occurring in 7 provinces, the biggest participant is Alberta, followed by Saskatchewan. In 2005, Canada produced 136.4 million cubic metres of crude petroleum, of which two-thirds came from Alberta. Saskatchewan contributed 18 per cent of total Canadian crude oil production, while offshore oil rigs in Newfoundland and Labrador contributed 13 per cent. The vast oil sands resource accounted for 42 per cent of the province's total production. Alberta oil export is piped entirely into the United States. In 2005, even with a slight drop in exports, Canadian oil exporters received $30 billion for their products, up from $25 billion the year before. Canada also supplied nearly 10 per cent of the American crude oil needs. According to the National Energy Board, Canadian refineries are approaching capacity. Canada's 19 refineries, which have a capacity of 320,000 cubic metres per day, operated at 92 per cent of capacity in 2005 to meet the needs of the domestic market. More imported petroleum was refined than Canadian sourced petroleum. In 2005, the gas and oil industry saw historically high profits, taxes paid and investments. 6 refs., 5 figs

  20. British Columbia Petroleum Corporation annual report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The British Columbia Petroleum Corporation is a provincial Crown agency whose principal mandate is to facilitate and monitor the sale of natural gas, and to act as a central source of information specific to the natural gas industry for the benefit of all industry participants. The Corporation's activities for the year ending March 31, 1993 are summarized. With the devolution of the Corporation's marketing functions in 1990 to CanWest Gas Supply Inc. and the deregulation of the natural gas market, the Corporation no longer markets natural gas and byproducts, but performs a number of administrative functions on behalf of the province. These include issuing acquisition orders and determining the respective netback prices for the purpose of calculating royalties; collection of a production-related levy; collection of data regarding all sale transactions; monitoring of all production, sales and marketing costs; and information gathering for all sectors of the industry. In 1992/93, a total of 27 companies remained with the Corporation, representing 111 individual gas purchase agreements for a combined deliverability of 1,769,300 m 3 /d. At fiscal year end, a total of 713 acquisition orders were being monitored and 20 findings of producer support were issued in response to netback sales applications. Industry volume throughputs increased 8.7% over the previous year and the average netback price rose to $44.87 per 1,000 m 3 . Financial statements are included. 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Catalysts for petroleum desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.; Diemann, E.; Baumann, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    In order to obtain marketable products from low-quality oils, efficient hydrogenation processes are required for removing sulfur (hydrodesulfurization, HDS), nitrogen (hydrodenitrification, HDN), and oxygen (hydrodeoxygenation, HDO), which would poison the noble metal catalysts of the downstream petrochemical processes. Hydrogenation will produce low-sulfur, low-nitrogen fuels and thus contribute to the reduction of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions which is long overdue from the ecological point of view (forest decline, acidification of surface bodies of water, etc.).

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  5. Petroleum service projects in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Worgu, Kenneth Chukwumeka

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this record of study is to examine the major facets involved in managing several petroleum service projects located in three different countries in the Gulf of Guinea simultaneously, while effectively engaging in business development activities for the Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS). This work also furnishes adequate background on related subject matters to enable understanding of the projects presented. The petroleum services sector is the back bone of the oil and gas industry. Services companies are vital to the success of all petroleum and energy producers in the USA, the Gulf of Guinea and the world. There is a need and demand for these service companies because they play various roles such as logistics, drilling, construction, dredging, pipe laying, procurement, food supply, human resource supply, etc. The Gulf of Guinea comprises of countries from west and central Africa. This project was limited to Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. This area holds the largest petroleum reserves in Africa and plays a vital role in the global supply of petroleum. The Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS), plans to establish herself as one of the leading petroleum service companies in this gulf. To manage this expansion, I have taken the role of Gulf of Guinea manager to apply my background as a petroleum engineer as well as my business skills to build a successful division of the company. This work provides a record of study of the management of services, projects and contracts carried out by the OIS group in the gulf of Guinea. The following are the specific projects in the Gulf of Guinea that I participated in: Managing delivering, maintenance and marketing of offshore vessels, Offshore pipe laying project, Integrated pipeline maintenance project, Development a petroleum technical training facilities, Agbami pipe insulation project, Engineering lift project and Capital budgeting analysis for potential investments. The details of the specific

  6. Petroleum exploration in Africa from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianinetto, Marco; Frassy, Federico; Aiello, Martina; Rota Nodari, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    Hydrocarbons are nonrenewable resources but today they are the cheaper and easier energy we have access and will remain the main source of energy for this century. Nevertheless, their exploration is extremely high-risk, very expensive and time consuming. In this context, satellite technologies for Earth observation can play a fundamental role by making hydrocarbon exploration more efficient, economical and much more eco-friendly. Complementary to traditional geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetic (gravmag) surveys, satellite remote sensing can be used to detect onshore long-term biochemical and geochemical alterations on the environment produced by invisible small fluxes of light hydrocarbons migrating from the underground deposits to the surface, known as microseepage effect. This paper describes two case studies: one in South Sudan and another in Mozambique. Results show how remote sensing is a powerful technology for detecting active petroleum systems, thus supporting hydrocarbon exploration in remote or hardly accessible areas and without the need of any exploration license.

  7. PEMEX: The Mexican state petroleum agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    An overview is presented of the Mexican state petroleum company PEMEX. The Mexican government created PEMEX through the expropriation of the largely foreign-dominated industry. Mexico is the world's fifth largest crude oil producer, and in 1992 PEMEX had proven reserves of 65.5 billion bbl, crude production of 2.668 million bbl/d, gas production of 3.6 billion cubic feet per day, refined product production of 1.57 million bbl/d and 18 million tonnes of petrochemical production per year. A background is presented of Mexico's economy, followed by discussion of PEMEX's market, the best sales prospects for foreign suppliers, a company profile, financial structure, exploration and production, refining, gas and basic petrochemicals, petrochemicals, transportation and distribution, research and development, recent activities, planned future activities, procurement, and market access. Extensive appendices supply relevant contacts and information. 30 tabs

  8. Thermal and catalytic decomposition behavior of PVC mixed plastic waste with petroleum residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mohammad Farhat; Siddiqui, Mohammad Nahid [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-08-15

    The pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of PVC mixed plastic waste alone and with petroleum residue was carried out at 150 and 350{sup o}C under N{sub 2} gas and at 430{sup o}C under 6.5MPa H{sub 2} gas pressure. The behavior of plastic waste during thermal and catalytic decomposition has also been studied in single- and two-stage reaction processes. In the individual pyrolysis process, both the petroleum residue and polystyrene (PS) undergo more than 90% conversion to liquid and gaseous products, whereas low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) yielded lower conversions products, and polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) afforded somewhere a moderate to high conversion products. In a single-stage pyrolysis reaction, PVC was processed with petroleum residue at 150 and 430{sup o}C, under N{sub 2} gas for 1h at each temperature in a glass reactor. The model PVC and waste PVC showed slight variations in the products distribution obtained from the glass reactor. In two-stage process, model PVC, vacuum gas oil (VGO) and a number of different catalysts were used in a stainless steel autoclave micro tubular reactor at 350{sup o}C under the stream of N{sub 2} gas for 1h and at 430{sup o}C under 950psi (6.5MPa) H{sub 2} pressure for the duration of 2h. Significantly, different products distributions were obtained. Among the catalysts used, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and hydrocracking catalysts (HC-1) were most effective in producing liquid fuel (hexane soluble) materials. The study shows that the catalytic coprocessing of PVC with VGO is a feasible process by which PVC and VGO materials can be converted into transportation fuels.

  9. Restructuring of privatisation? - state petroleum enterprises and the global economic adjustment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndi, G.K.; Moller, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    The restructuring, and to a lesser extent the privatisation, of state petroleum enterprises in many oil-producing countries has been seen as a means of addressing the shortcomings of previous state regulation. Recent developments in the petroleum industry within the general context of the current privatisation process are examined in this chapter. Political, economic and social reasons are sought for restructuring being the preferred alternative to the privatisation of state petroleum enterprises in developing countries. The benefits, problems and obstacles to privatisation are analysed. (UK)

  10. Undergraduate and graduate petroleum engineering education in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Gonten, W.D.; Whiting, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum Engineering educational programs produce graduates primarily for the upstream sector of the petroleum industry. This paper presents a summary of both the undergraduate and graduate petroleum engineering programs in the United States. The undergraduate portion of the paper will address the curriculum, accreditation, enrollments, student recruitment, faculty, jobs, starting salaries, and a historical perspective. The graduate section will address both master and doctoral level programs including the number and size of programs, curriculum, admission requirements, program administration, jobs, salaries, and a historical perspective

  11. Petroleum products. LPG-c is taking off; Produits petroliers. Le decollage du GPL-c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A strong tax reduction and other financial incentives for liquefied petroleum gas, have stimulated LPG consumption in France, with a 60 pc increase between 1995 and 1996. LPG fuels allow for an important reduction in polluting emissions. Other news are presented, which concern the French Petroleum Institute strategy and financing, European regulations on fuel quality, the issue of the decreasing number of service stations in France, new production sites for bio-fuels, issues with petroleum investment international embargoes, the privatization of Elf-Aquitaine, the 1996 truck driver strike, and the Goa international conference between energy producer and user countries

  12. Petroleum products. LPG-c is taking off; Produits petroliers. Le decollage du GPL-c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A strong tax reduction and other financial incentives for liquefied petroleum gas, have stimulated LPG consumption in France, with a 60 pc increase between 1995 and 1996. LPG fuels allow for an important reduction in polluting emissions. Other news are presented, which concern the French Petroleum Institute strategy and financing, European regulations on fuel quality, the issue of the decreasing number of service stations in France, new production sites for bio-fuels, issues with petroleum investment international embargoes, the privatization of Elf-Aquitaine, the 1996 truck driver strike, and the Goa international conference between energy producer and user countries

  13. Environmental protection and petroleum business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    This report is a summary of panel discussion concerning environmental protection and petroleum business. Summarized here are country presentations from Iraq, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela, comments by two Japanese panelists from petroleum companies, questions, answers, and discussions, and summary by the session moderator. The country presentation centered on pollution problems and environmental protection policies in each country, national policy regarding environmental problems, and comprehensive planning for environmental protection in specific industrial areas. The panelists' reports mainly concerned the legal framework for environmental protection in Japan and the importance of investment for environmental protection. Questions and answers clarified the problems. The moderator, when summarizing the panel discussion, stressed that environmental problems should be addressed on a global level and that early preventive measures should be taken, and also emphasized the polluter pays principle.

  14. Association models for petroleum applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics plays an important role in many applications in the petroleum industry, both upstream and downstream, ranging from flow assurance, (enhanced) oil recovery and control of chemicals to meet production and environmental regulations. There are many different applications in the oil & gas...... industry, thus thermodynamic data (phase behaviour, densities, speed of sound, etc) are needed to study a very diverse range of compounds in addition to the petroleum ones (CO2, H2S, water, alcohols, glycols, mercaptans, mercury, asphaltenes, waxes, polymers, electrolytes, biofuels, etc) within a very....... Such association models have been, especially over the last 20 years, proved to be very successful in predicting many thermodynamic properties in the oil & gas industry. They have not so far replaced cubic equations of state, but the results obtained by using these models are very impressive in many cases, e...

  15. Types of international petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on history and development of International Petroleum Contracts. The emphasis in petroleum exploration has steadily shifted away from the domestic oil patch and toward the international arena. Today an estimated 577.3 billion bbl, or approximately 83% of the world's proven oil reserves, lie outside the western hemisphere. The distribution of these proven oil reserves can be broken down into three major socioeconomic categories - developed market economies, centrally planned economies, and developing countries - indicating that fully 76.7% of the world's proven oil reserves occur in developing countries. As multinational oil companies come into contact with the various host countries around the world, their course of action, and the course of the host country's reaction to them, are unfortunately colored by events that proceeded the initial contact

  16. Bolivian petroleum privatization taking shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Bolivia is boldly embracing a free market philosophy that extends to liberalization of the country's petroleum sector. Although petroleum industry privatization is being considered by several South American countries, only Argentina has so far completely opened its oil sector and fully privatized its state oil company. The Bolivian government's own version of privatization, capitalization, is a groundbreaking attempt to attract massive investment from the private sector without leaving the government open to accusations of stripping the country's assets for short term electoral gain. The paper discusses the government's strategy to sell the state owned company either as a single unit or to split it into upstream and downstream units. Questions still to be resolved, international interest in the move, bolivian potential, and the gas supply infrastructure are also discussed

  17. Petroleum refining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The oil refining industry in China has faced rapid growth in oil imports of increasingly sour grades of crude with which to satisfy growing domestic demand for a slate of lighter and cleaner finished products sold at subsidized prices. At the same time, the world petroleum refining industry has been moving from one that serves primarily local and regional markets to one that serves global markets for finished products, as world refining capacity utilization has increased. Globally, refined product markets are likely to experience continued globalization until refining investments significantly expand capacity in key demand regions. We survey the oil refining industry in China in the context of the world market for heterogeneous crude oils and growing world trade in refined petroleum products. (author)

  18. Overview of soil and groundwater research activities of the American Petroleum Institute (API)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, B.

    1992-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) is a trade association for the domestic petroleum industry in the USA, with over 2000 corporate and 5000 individual members. Subsurface research activities are managed by the API soil/groundwater technical task force, a committee made up of over 25 member company engineers, hydrologists, soil scientists, and chemists representing both the research and operations sectors of the petroleum industry. The research areas of the group have been divided into five principle areas: biodegradation processes, fate and transport, remediation, decision making tools for remediation, and detection/analytical methods. A summary of each of the current projects in these subject areas is presented

  19. Petroleum tax and financial decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.

    1993-03-01

    The work presented in this report focuses on tax motivated financial incentives in the Norwegian petroleum tax system. Of particular concern is the effects of the reserve fund requirement in the Joint Stock Companies Act. Our prime concern is the Norwegian petroleum tax system as applicable from January 1992, but for the sake of comparison, we have also examined the ''old'' Norwegian petroleum tax system. The findings presented in this report can be divided in two parts. Based on an overview over the development in debt and equity for the major part of companies operating on the Norwegian continental shelf it seems reasonable to divide the companies in three groups. The first group is companies which is not in a tax paying position, both ''foreign'' and domestic. These companies seem to use debt as their most important capital source. The second group is Norwegian companies in a tax paying position. These companies also seem to use debt as the most important capital source. The last group is ''foreign'' companies in a tax paying position. This is a group of companies that mainly use equity to finance their investments in the offshore sector. The second part of the report tries to explain these observations. In the report we compare the incentive effects in the new petroleum tax system to the old tax system. The incentives to finance investments with debt is stronger in the new tax system. Several explanations emerge. Firstly, in the old tax system the investor got an effective tax deduction of 12.8% for dividends. This is removed in the new system. Secondly, in the new system 78% tax is included in the financial statements after tax profit calculation and the maximum dividend calculation, while in the old tax system the withholding tax was excluded. 31 refs., 13 figs. 2 tabs

  20. Canadian petroleum industry review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feick, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    A wide ranging discussion about the factors that have influenced oil and natural gas prices, the differences of the Canadian market from international markets, the differences between eastern and western Canadian markets, and shareholders' perspectives on recent commodity price developments was presented. Developments in the OPEC countries were reviewed, noting that current OPEC production of 25 mmbbls is about 60 per cent higher than it was in 1985. It is expected that OPEC countries will continue to expand capacity to meet expected demand growth and the continuing need created by the UN embargo on Iraqi oil sales. Demand for natural gas is also likely to continue to rise especially in view of the deregulation of the electricity industry where natural gas may well become the favored fuel for incremental thermal generation capacity. Prices of both crude oil and natural gas are expected to hold owing to unusually low storage levels of both fuels. The inadequacy of infrastructure, particularly pipeline capacity as a key factor in the Canadian market was noted, along with the dynamic that will emerge in the next several years that may have potential consequences for Canadian production - namely the reversal of the Sarnia to Montreal pipeline. With regard to shareholders' expectations the main issues are (1) whether international markets reach back to the wellhead, hence the producer's positioning with respect to transportation capacity and contract portfolios, and (2) whether the proceeds from increased prices are invested in projects that are yielding more than the cost of capital. 28 figs

  1. Philippine petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Milagros V.

    1997-01-01

    Of all energy sources, liquid hydrocarbon, a form of fossil fuel, occupies the biggest portion of the Philippine energy mix, largely because of its tremendous varied and efficient utility. It is singularly the most important component of a nation's economic structure, so that the exploration and development of one's indigenous source of crude oil is always a primary undertaking in any country. The Philippine consumption of crude oil is 325,000 bbls per day valued at 172 million pesos. What exactly is crude oil and what is the prospect of the Philippines as a producer. In the Philippines, oil exploration began nearly 100 years ago, but it was only in 1975, under a newly introduced service contract system, when the first significant oil find was made. With full government support, two other oil fields were subsequently put on stream, which, at its peak supplied 20% of the national daily crude requirement. In 1995, however, the country's oil production dwindled to a dismal 800 bbls per day, equivalent only to 0.2% of our daily needs. Several factors contributed to the current poor performance of the oil sector, foremost among which is the drop in financial support from the capital market. Only sustained investment in this capital intensive business can lead to the discovery and development of new oil fields. (author)

  2. Petroleum refining and the national priorities list: The preemption of CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum refining industry has preempted aspects of the implementation of CERCLA through a clause in the original legislation that makes the listing of petroleum refining sites on the NPL more difficult than it would be otherwise. The NPL, which was mandated in CERCLA, is a list of sites open-quotes where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, placed, or otherwise come to be located. The petroleum exclusion clause, Section 101(14)(F) of CERCLA, states that the term hazardous substance open-quotes does not include petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as a hazardous substance.close quotes This clause has been interpreted to mean that a site where petroleum products are found may not be listed on the NPL on the basis of the petroleum products; a hazardous substance that is not a normal constituent of petroleum products also must be found at the site. Regression analysis shows that the petroleum refining industry is significantly positively correlated with discovered sites (where a possibility exists that hazardous substances may be present) and significantly negatively correlated with sites that are proposed to the NPL. These, findings suggest that sites that meet the technical criteria for NPL listing are not proposed because of the petroleum exclusion clause. Although the chemical industry also produces substances that are considered hazardous, it is significantly correlated only with proposed sites, and that correlation is positive. The purpose of this paper is to present evidence suggesting that this clause was a response by Congress to an organized interest-the petroleum refining industry, which possessed a political power not available to the less-focused chemical industry

  3. Shell petroleum handbook. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The present edition has been completely updated and revised, reflecting the very great changes which have come about in the oil industry over the last 18 years, since the last edition appeared. The expressed aim of the Handbook is to combine explanations of the processes of today's petroleum industry, from crude oil exploration to product end-use, with some historical background and explanation of the economic context in which the oil, gas and petrochemical industries operate. It is therefore intended as a technical reference manual, although it will be of interest both to specialists in search of information outside their expertise and to the more general reader. Chapter 3, entitled Exploration and Production, is concerned with structural geology, exploration methods and theory, and reservoir engineering, although the economic and financial aspects of drilling, project management and communication logistics are also considered. Other chapters are devoted to the distribution, consumption and end use of natural gas and NGL, the chemistry of petroleum, the manufacture of oil products, marketing, supply and trading, petrochemicals, synfuels, R and D, environmental conservation, and introduction to the world petroleum industry, and a review of oil and gas in the centrally planned economies, although only the Soviet Union is considered in any detail.

  4. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about the province of Newfoundland, its size (405,720 sq.km), capital (St. John's), population (543.800 in 1998) major industries (petroleum and mining, manufacturing, fishing, logging and forestry, electricity and tourism), and revenue from natural resources ($ 175 million in 1998/1999, primarily in the form of expenditure commitments relating to exploration leases offshore and onshore). Also included are some facts about the petroleum industry in Newfoundland, (exploration and pre-production work in the offshore Terra Nova field, construction and development of the Hibernia project with production beginning in 1998, employment, etc.), and upstream industry expenditures in the province (about $ 1.15 billion in 1998). It is expected that by 2004 when the Terra Nova and White Rose projects are fully on stream, Newfoundland will produce one-third of Canada's conventional light crude oil output. map, pie-chart, figs

  6. The petroleum refining industry and the implications for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraiva, Gerardo Jose de Pontes

    2000-01-01

    The petroleum refining industry is basically concerned with the production of oil, lubricants and intermediate petrochemical products, utilizing crude oil as its main raw material. Petroleum refining, a distillation process that breaks hydrocarbons into fractions, eliminating undesired impurities, generates irreducible residues. Until the industrial revolution, the residues were essentially organic, susceptible to the attack of agents of destruction and transformation (bacterium, fungi, etc). Suddenly, due to the intensification of human activities of modern man, nature scattered across the planet more resistant products, many of them with long life times, that produce a deeper impact in the environment. Almost entirely marine is the pollution that results from increasing quantity of hydrocarbons dumped into the sea, a problem that is aggravated by the development of manufacturing and transportation of petroleum products. The expansion of the petroleum commerce, using essentially maritime transportation, has increased considerably the probability of accidents increasing the risks of environment pollution. This work presents suggestions and possible solutions to minimize the problem of environment pollution, caused by refining and transportation of this combustible, essential to present time industry. (author)

  7. Transformed Territories of Gendered Care Work in Ecuador's Petroleum Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cielo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the transformation of indigenous women's care work in the Ecuadorian Amazon, as their communities are increasingly integrated into petroleum industry activities. Care work activities–not only for social reproduction, but also to sustain cycles of fertility, growth and waste interdependent with nature–constitute affective ecologies. In development sites of Ecuador's petroleum circuit, such activities are domesticated and devalued, and the territories produced by women's care work are progressively delimited. Once aimed at social and natural reproduction, their care practices now focus on household and familial reproduction. This article is based on two years of ethnographic and qualitative research in indigenous communities of the Amazonian provinces of Sucumbíos and Pastaza. We bring feminist economic approaches to the study of affective ecologies to show how fundamental changes in inhabitants' historically shaped relationships to, and conservation of, nature both depend on and produce gendered ecological and socioeconomic relations.

  8. Environmental control technology in petroleum drilling and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental control technology (ECT) is process integrated and relates mainly to pollution prevention and risk assessment. Mechanisms of environmental impact in petroleum drilling, well completion and production, include the generation of waste, induction of toxicity or the creation of pathways for pollutant migration. The identification and evaluation of these mechanisms constitute two parts of the scope of ECT. A third part is the development of new techniques to comply with environmental requirements without prejudicing productivity. The basic concepts of the ECT approach are presented in this chapter. The approach is then used to analyse oilfield drilling and production processes. Environmental control components developed in these technologies are described. These include: the control of the volume and toxicity of drilling fluids; source separation technology in produced water cleaning; subsurface injection of oilfield waste slurries; containment technology in the integrity of petroleum wells; subsurface reduction of produced water; oilfield pit closure technology. (37 figures; 26 tables; 227 references) (UK)

  9. Modification of Aliphatic Petroleum Resin by Peracetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bondaletov, Vladimir Grigoryevich; Bondaletova, Lyudmila Ivanovna; Hamlenko, A.; Bondaletov, Oleg Vladimirovich; Starovoit, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining modified aliphatic resin (PRC5) by means of petroleum resin oxidation by peracetic acid. We have experimentally determined oxidation conditions that lead to producing resin with maximum epoxy and acid numbers. Ratio of "oxidative system: PRC5" is 0.5:1, process duration is 2 hours. The modified resin structure is determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Spectrofluorimetric study of the aromatic carbohydrates of Noriisk petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, T.A.; Lekveishvili, E.G.; Melikadze, L.D.; Teplitskaia, T.A.; Tevdorashvili, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Investigation was made of the specimens of aromatic hydrocarbons which were produced by photochemical decomposition of the products of photocondensation with maleicanhydride of narrow aromatic fractions separated by a system of methods from a high temperature part of Noriisk petroleum. Use was made of a standard spectrofluorimeter of low resolution. A series of aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, benzofluorene, phenantrene, chrizene, pyrene, tetraphene, and 3,4-benzophenantrene were installed in the machine.

  11. Estimating the whole-body exposure annual dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yizong; Gao Jianzheng; Liu Wenhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: By imitating experiment of radioactive sources being installed, to estimate the annual whole-body exposure dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells; Methods: To compre the values of the theory, imitating experiment and γ individual dose monitor calculations. Results: The three values measured above tally with one anather. Conclusion: The annual whole-body exposure doses of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells are no more than 5 mSv. (authors)

  12. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.; Ozyoruk, B.

    2007-01-01

    and Europe. Therefore, Turkey is widely called as 'The Energy Bridge between the East and the West'. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; hard coal, lignite, asphaltite, oil, natural gas, hydro, geothermal, wood, animal and plant wastes, solar and secondary energy resources such as coke and briquettes are produced and consumed. Although Turkey's oil and natural gas reserves are limited, coal reserves are quite abundant. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Turkey has a large LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) consumption, which ranks third in Europe and within the top ten in the world. Turkey's LPG market structure depends largely on imports. At the end of 2005, the LPG consumption was around 3.7 billion tonnes and about 80 % of this, which amounts to 2.8 billion tonnes, has been provided through imports.(author)

  13. Abundant and cheap petroleum until what date?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Here is an economic analysis about the petroleum market. With the increasing demand in petroleum and the limited possibilities of supply, it should be obvious to increase the petroleum prices and to make investments in research and development to find new reserves or to increase the production capacities, without these options the demand could exceed the supply and strong tensions could appear in some years. (N.C.)

  14. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  15. The three R's of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum exploration comprises a many-faceted activity. It is a complex mix of science and technology, operating in a complex economic and political matrix. In this paper, the authors will review some of the basic aspects of petroleum geology, economics and politics which influence this world-wide activity. The authors hope that such a review may be of some value to some of you, especially in viewing exploration in the context of changing world supplies and demands for petroleum

  16. Petroleum Prices, Taxation and Subsidies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The current Indian system of effectively subsidised petroleum product prices has significant implications for the emergence of India as a major global energy consumer, for the integrity of India's Central Government budget and for investment in India's growing oil and petroleum sector. This paper is part one of a broader study that looks at the current system of petroleum pricing and the macroeconomic, microeconomic, regional and global effects of this system.

  17. Environmental issues of petroleum exploration and production: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Dorsey, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is the lifeblood of our planet Earth, an essential commod- ity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the increasing world population, and this dominance is expected to continue for several more decades (Edwards, 1997; Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2004). In the United States, petroleum production started in 1859 when Drake's well was drilled near Titusville, Pennsylvania, and oil and natural gas currently supply approximately 63% of the energy consumption; forecasts indicate that by 2025, their use will increase by about 40% to 28.3 million bbl/day and to 31.4 tcf/yr (EIA, 2004). The clear benefits of petroleum consumption, however, can carry major environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, in- cluding air pollution, global climate change, and oil spills. This vol- ume of Environmental Geosciences, covering environmental impacts of petroleum exploration and production, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global warming are issues related primarily to petroleum and coal uses, and major oil spills are generally attributed to marine petroleum transportation, such as the Exxon Valdez's 1989 spill of 260,000 bbl of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exploration for and production of petroleum, however, have caused local detrimental impacts to soils, surface and groundwa- ters, and ecosystems in the 36 producing states in the United States (Richter and Kreitler, 1993; Kharaka and Hanor, 2003). These im- pacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of some of the large volumes (presently estimated at 20 billion bbl/yr total pro- duced) of saline water produced with oil and gas, from accidental hydrocarbon and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphaned or not correctly plugged (Kharaka et al., 1995; Veil et al., 2004). Impacts and ground-surface disturbances, in the order

  18. PGPR enhanced phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and rhizosphere microbial community response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinyu; Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Qingling; Luo, Yongming; Franks, Ashley E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate petroleum phytoremediation enhancement by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), specifically the correlation between petroleum hydrocarbon fractions and bacterial community structure affected by remediation and PGPR inocula. Aged petroleum contaminated soil was remediated by tall fescue (Testuca arundinacea L.) inoculated with two PGPR strains. Hydrocarbon degradation was measured by GC-MS (Gas-chromatography Mass-spectrometer) based on carbon fraction numbers (C8-C34). Changes in bacterial community structure were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA. PGPR inoculation increased tall fescue biomass and petroleum hydrocarbons were removed in all the treatments. Maximum hydrocarbon removal, particular high molecular weight (C21-C34) aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was observed in tall fescue inoculated with PGPR. The relative abundance of phyla γ-proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased after different treatments compared with controls. Moreover, a bacterial guild mainly comprising the genera Lysobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Planctomyces, Nocardioides, Hydrogenophaga, Ohtaekwangia was found to be positively correlated with C21-C34 petroleum hydrocarbons fractions removal by RDA analysis, implying that petroleum degradation was unrelated to bacterial community diversity but positively correlated with specific petroleum degraders and biosurfactant producers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of the petroleum tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.; Tennfjord, B.S.

    1992-04-01

    The report evaluates the effects of the petroleum taxation in Norway. In connection with the general reform of the Norwegian industry taxation, changes are proposed in the petroleum tax law. The report gives a survey of the development in the Norwegian petroleum taxation, and analyses the effects of changing the tax revenue both for the Government and for the companies concerned. The effects of incentives caused by changing the taxation are looked upon. In the appendix the depreciation rules in connection with petroleum taxation are discussed. 18 refs., 17 figs

  20. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1992: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them

  3. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs

  4. Bioremediation potential of microorganisms derived from petroleum reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellagnezze, Bruna Martins; Vasconcelos de Sousa, Gabriel; Lopes Martins, Laercio; Ferreira Domingos, Daniela; Limache, Elmer E.G.; Pantaroto de Vasconcellos, Suzan; Feitosa da Cruz, Georgiana; Oliveira, Valéria Maia de

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metagenomic clones could degrade saturated hydrocarbons up to 47% in petroleum. • Metagenomic clones consumed more than 90% of some aromatic portion after 21 days. • Isolated strains could degrade n-alkanes with rates up to 99% after 21 days. • Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones showed high petroleum degradation potential. - Abstract: Bacterial strains and metagenomic clones, both obtained from petroleum reservoirs, were evaluated for petroleum degradation abilities either individually or in pools using seawater microcosms for 21 days. Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC–FID) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses were carried out to evaluate crude oil degradation. The results showed that metagenomic clones 1A and 2B were able to biodegrade n-alkanes (C14 to C33) and isoprenoids (phytane and pristane), with rates ranging from 31% to 47%, respectively. The bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 showed higher rates reaching 99% after 21 days. The metagenomic clone pool biodegraded these compounds at rates ranging from 11% to 45%. Regarding aromatic compound biodegradation, metagenomic clones 2B and 10A were able to biodegrade up to 94% of phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 55% to 70% after 21 days, while the bacteria Dietzia maris CBMAI 705 and Micrococcus sp. CBMAI 636 were able to biodegrade 63% and up to 99% of phenanthrene, respectively, and methylphenanthrenes (3-MP, 2-MP, 9-MP and 1-MP) with rates ranging from 23% to 99% after 21 days. In this work, isolated strains as well as metagenomic clones were capable of degrading several petroleum compounds, revealing an innovative strategy and a great potential for further biotechnological and bioremediation applications

  5. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2002. Norsk petroleumsvirksomhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  6. Environmental impact of petroleum products in the soil. Part II: Petroleum products composition and key properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil depends on the chemical-physic properties of each hydrocarbon, as well as on the soil characteristics. The mean composition of various petroleum products, the key chemical compounds and their characteristics are focused in order to outline the environmental behaviour of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil [it

  7. Energy use in petroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.O.

    1976-09-01

    Refining petroleum accounts for about 4 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States and about 15 percent of all industrial consumption. The kinds of energy used and the manner in which energy is used are discussed on a process-by-process basis. Emphasis is placed on existing processes to identify and quantify process and equipment substitutions which might significantly conserve energy. General industry and process information is given and estimates of potential savings are made. A few research and development opportunities are identified and nontechnical factors are discussed. Nearly one-half the energy consumed by refineries is obtained from by-product refinery gas and coke, and about one-third is supplied by natural gas. On a regional basis, refineries were found to vary by a factor of two in the amount of energy used to refine a unit of crude oil. Refineries in regions traditionally abundant in inexpensive natural gas were found to use relatively more natural gas and energy. About 36 percent of the energy used by petroleum refineries is consumed in the distillation units to separate the refinery streams into their basic components. Including energy for manufacturing hydrogen, about 24 percent of the total is used for cracking of the heavier components. Most of the remainder is used for reforming, hydrogen treating, and alkylation, distributed about 11, 17, and 6 percent respectively. Potential energy savings discussed in this report total 61 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/yr based on 1974 capacities, a figure which represents about 20 percent of the energy consumed to refine petroleum.

  8. Total petroleum systems of the Paleozoic and Jurassic, Greater Ghawar Uplift and adjoining provinces of central Saudi Arabia and northern Arabian-Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    The greater Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems of the Arabian Peninsula form two of the most prolific petroleum-producing systems in the world. Source rocks of these systems extend throughout the eastern Arabian Peninsula and Arabian-Persian Gulf. Primary elements of these Paleozoic and Jurassic petroleum systems - source, reservoir, and seal rocks - are of great areal extent and exceptional quality. The combination of these regionally extensive, exceptional petroleum-system elements, and the formation of large subtle structural closures prior to, or coincident with, peak oil generation and migration, have produced oil and gas fields with reserve volumes second to none.

  9. Surfactants from petroleum paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.; Hussein, M.H.; El Sayed, A.S.

    Paraffin wax from Egyptian petroleum was purified and then oxidized to fatty acids which were esterified to form their methyl esters, fractionated and then hydrolysed. The obtained fatty acids were converted into the corresponding primary amines which were converted with ethylene oxide to form nonionic surfactants. The prepared primary amines were also converted into tertiary amines and then converted into cationic surfactants through condensation with benzyl chloride or 1-chloromethylnaphthalene. Also, amine oxide surfactants were prepared by oxidation of the tertiary amines with hydrogen peroxide. The surface active properties of all the prepared surfactants were determined, and the effect of their chemical structure on the surfactant properties are discussed in this paper.

  10. Petroleum degradation by endophytic Streptomyces spp. isolated from plants grown in contaminated soil of southern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoune, Hafida; Ould El Hadj-Khelil, Aminata; Pucci, Graciela; Sineli, Pedro; Loucif, Lotfi; Polti, Marta Alejandra

    2018-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are well known by their high toxicity and recalcitrant properties. Their increasing utilization around worldwide led to environmental contamination. Phytoremediation using plant-associated microbe is an interesting approach for petroleum degradation and actinobacteria have a great potential for that. For this purpose, our study aimed to isolate, characterize, and assess the ability of endophytic actinobacteria to degrade crude petroleum, as well as to produce plant growth promoting traits. Seventeen endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from roots of plants grown naturally in sandy contaminated soil. Among them, six isolates were selected on the basis of their tolerance to petroleum on solid minimal medium and characterized by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. All petroleum-tolerant isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus. Determination by crude oil degradation by gas chromatorgraph-flame ionization detector revealed that five strains could use petroleum as sole carbon and energy source and the petroleum removal achieved up to 98% after 7 days of incubation. These isolates displayed an important role in the degradation of the n-alkanes (C 6 -C 30 ), aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. All strains showed a wide range of plant growth promoting features such as siderophores, phosphate solubilization, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, nitrogen fixation and indole-3-acetic acid production as well as biosurfactant production. This is the first study highlighting the petroleum degradation ability and plant growth promoting attributes of endophytic Streptomyces. The finding suggests that the endophytic actinobacteria isolated are promising candidates for improving phytoremediation efficiency of petroleum contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion

  12. Domestic demand for petroleum products in MENA countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon [CEPMLP, Dundee University, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the domestic demand for petroleum products in the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries employing a recent data series (1982-2005). Understanding the domestic demand of oil producing countries is important due to the existence of subsidised supply, loss of foreign exchange income and the environmental effects of oil use. The paper analyses the evolution of petroleum product demand in MENA and presents an econometric analysis of demand using a simple log-linear specification for four petroleum products, namely gasoline, diesel, kerosene and fuel oil. The study covers seven MENA countries, namely Algeria, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Qatar. The results show that demand has grown quite fast in these countries probably because the fuel price has been kept very low while income has risen fast and thus demand has grown fast. The gasoline demand model has performed better than other models in terms of producing expected signs for the parameters. The results for the kerosene model was the least satisfactory as most of the coefficients were found to be statistically insignificant. However, in terms of numerical results, this study compares well with other similar studies of the past. (author)

  13. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: cscobie@ualberta.ca, email: tiw@ualberta.ca, email: bayne@ualberta.ca

    2011-07-01

    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  14. Domestic demand for petroleum products in MENA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Blake, Andon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the domestic demand for petroleum products in the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries employing a recent data series (1982-2005). Understanding the domestic demand of oil producing countries is important due to the existence of subsidised supply, loss of foreign exchange income and the environmental effects of oil use. The paper analyses the evolution of petroleum product demand in MENA and presents an econometric analysis of demand using a simple log-linear specification for four petroleum products, namely gasoline, diesel, kerosene and fuel oil. The study covers seven MENA countries, namely Algeria, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Qatar. The results show that demand has grown quite fast in these countries probably because the fuel price has been kept very low while income has risen fast and thus demand has grown fast. The gasoline demand model has performed better than other models in terms of producing expected signs for the parameters. The results for the kerosene model was the least satisfactory as most of the coefficients were found to be statistically insignificant. However, in terms of numerical results, this study compares well with other similar studies of the past. (author)

  15. Mission improbable: Does petroleum-related aid address the resource curse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne; Williams, Aled

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum-related aid programmes and projects are a key part of donor activities in oil-rich developing countries. This paper critically assesses petroleum-related aid activities, using the Norwegian Oil for Development programme as a main case. Recent research suggests that institutions, or governance, are essential in averting a resource curse. While governance issues are beginning to receive more attention in these types of programmes, they still form a minor part of programme activities. The narrow sector focus that characterizes petroleum-related aid makes it unlikely that it will produce the higher order institutional changes needed to lift the resource curse. Petroleum-related aid activities address the issue of corruption only to a limited extent. Given the commercial and political interests of donor countries, questions about the integrity and credibility of these types of programmes can be raised

  16. Bio-paraffins: alternative products to petroleum paraffins; Bioparafinas: produtos alternativos as parafinas de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Anie Daniela Medeiros [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Hidrorrefino e Processos Especiais; Oliveira, Claudia Cristina Cardoso Calvano de; Carvalho, Ivone de Freitas; Silva, Danilo do Carmo Santos; Cruz, Valeria Senra da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Lubrificantes e Produtos Especiais]. E-mails: anie.lima, claudiacristina, ivone, danilosilva, vsenra@petrobras.com.br

    2007-04-15

    Market trends and social and environmental issues encouraged the vegetal wax presence in the world-wide paraffin market. This work presents the most commercialized vegetal waxes, soy and pal, comparing their physicochemical characteristics and their applicability with the paraffins obtained from petroleum. It also presents a characterization of the carnauba wax, produced exclusively in Brazil and a comparison with paraffins from petroleum. The carnauba wax is an alternative product, with good applicability as a substitute for waxes from petroleum or a petroleum/vegetal mixture. The characteristics of palm and soy waxes show the possible application in candles, cosmetics, foods and others industries. Brazil, having a great agricultural potential, represents a source of vegetal wax that could be use to meet the market demands. (author)

  17. The integrated network model of pipeline, sea and road distribution of petroleum product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Öztürkoğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria ranks high among the community of oil producers both in the world. It is, therefore, paradoxical that Nigeria, with such profile in Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC statistics finds it difficult to optimize its supply distribution while spending so much money on transportation and distribution. This paper thus reviews the petroleum product supply and distribution systems in the country. Thus, we develop a single period, single product deterministic mathematical model to effectively distribute the product to the end user through the most effective channel to the interest of the economy of the country. In our model, we first consider a perfect condition in the petroleum industry irrespective of the production crises and conflicts like pipeline vandalism, communal instability. We then consider different scnearios that presumes several breakdown cases in pipeline connection to anaylze the survivability of the network of petroleum distribution.

  18. International offshore petroleum contracts: Towards the compatibility of energy need and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhiguo.

    1993-01-01

    The legal and commercial relationships between petroleum producing countries and foreign oil companies have been defined by traditional oil concession agreements before the 1950s, and since then by modern petroleum contracts. The development policies behind the evolution of various arrangements for offshore petroleum exploration are scrutinized. By studying examples of contracts in four developing countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Brazil, and China), the issues of mutuality of interests and environmental sustainability that are reflected in both the structure and substance of modern petroleum contracts are examined. Major findings are that modern petroleum contracts are generally able to achieve and maintain a necessary balance of rights, interests and benefits between the contracting parties, but have failed to produce any balance between the extraction of resources and environmental sustainability. The existing contractual systems have failed in principle to provide adequate environmental regulation and have not addressed the issue of sustainable development at all. Arrangements focusing on economic interests are inappropriate for future energy developments, but through the proper use of contract terms that contain elements favouring sustainable development, economic and environmental interests can nevertheless be accomodated and served at the same time. Future petroleum agreements should recognize explicitly the inherent independence and coexistence between commerciality and sustainable development. 288 refs., 1 fig., 24 tabs

  19. Industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants in cormorants wintering near the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; Stafford, C.J.; Cain, B.W.; Mueller, A.J.; Hall, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus ) collected in the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA, in November shortly after their fall migration contained residues of several industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants including polychlorinated styrenes (PCS's), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), DDE, and petroleum hydrocarbons. PCS concentrations in over-wintering birds collected in late February were three times higher than those in birds collected in November. PCB and petroleum concentrations remained at about the same level throughout the 3-month winter period. Petroleum hydrocarbons were present in all cormorants and residues in some individuals exceeded 25 ppm (wet weight). Mean DDE residues in samples collected in November and February were less than 1 ppm. Low concentrations of five other organochlorine compounds, not detected in cormorants collected in November, were recovered in birds collected in February.

  20. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Ellis, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  2. Ranking environmental liabilities at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new computer model is available to allow the management of a petroleum refinery to prioritize environmental action and construct a holistic approach to remediation. A large refinery may have numerous solid waste management units regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as well as process units that emit hazardous chemicals into the environment. These sources can impact several environmental media, potentially including the air, the soil, the groundwater, the unsaturated zone water, and surface water. The number of chemicals of concern may be large. The new model is able to rank the sources by considering the impact of each chemical in each medium from each source in terms of concentration, release rate, and a weighted index based on toxicity. In addition to environmental impact, the sources can be ranked in three other ways: (1) by cost to remediate, (2) by environmental risk reduction caused by the remediation in terms of the decreases in release rate, concentration, and weighted index, and (3) by cost-benefit, which is the environmental risk reduction for each source divided by the cost of the remedy. Ranking each unit in the refinery allows management to use its limited environmental resources in a pro-active strategic manner that produces long-term results, rather than in reactive, narrowly focused, costly, regulatory-driven campaigns that produce only short-term results

  3. Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Financial information from Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. and a review of their 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. The company's core oil and gas business activities include exploration, development, production and marketing of crude oil and natural gas. The company produces oil and gas in Canada, Yemen, the Gulf of Mexico and Nigeria. Canadian Occidental also owns a 7.23 per cent share in the Syncrude joint venture. The company is developing new production in Hay, British Columbia, offshore west Africa and offshore northwest Australia. They are also one of North America's top three manufacturers of sodium chlorate. The report presents a summary of operations, a thorough management discussion and analysis of results and provides the customary consolidated financial statements and notes. Overall, 1998 was described as a difficult year financially, due to falling commodity prices. On the operations side, the company experienced its best results to date, producing more oil and gas than ever before. The company also invested over $ 950 million in new projects and opportunities. Some of the Company's most promising projects are located offshore Nigeria, offshore northwest Australia, in the Gulf of Mexico and in western Canada. These projects are expected to add 40,000 BOE of production by early 2000, with promise of attractive returns even at current low oil prices. tabs., figs

  4. Facts 2011 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2011 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-15

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  5. Facts 2010 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2010 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Content; Foreword; The petroleum sector - Norway's largest industry; Organisation of Norwegian petroleum activity; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology and industrial development; Environmental considerations in the Norwegian petroleum sector; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  6. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  7. Production and refining. Increase of Chinese petroleum imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    China produced 156.5 Mt of petroleum in 1996, from which 56 Mt were extracted from the Daqing oil field, exploited since 1960. About 10% of the crude oil comes from offshore fields. Over the 100 Mt refined in 1996, 20 Mt were imported. The Chinese petroleum products demand should increase to 200 Mt/y by the end of the century with respect to 150 Mt/y in 1997. The Dalian refinery, the first Chinese-foreign joint venture, started to work in November 1996 and should reached its full capacity of 100000 b/day in the first quarter of 1997. The Chinese refining activity has now an excess capacity of 206 Mt/y. Several other joint venture projects in petrochemistry are planned in China. Short paper. (J.S.)

  8. The Petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This resource report provides a survey of petroleum resources on the NCS. Content: Resource account; Unconventional oil and gas resources; Future oil and gas production; Challenges for producing fields; Discoveries; Undiscovered resources; Curbing greenhouse gas emissions; Technology and talent; Exploration and new areas; How undiscovered resources are calculated; The NPD's project database; Play analysis; Changes to and reductions in estimated undiscovered resources; Unconventional petroleum resources; Many wells, Increased exploration, Every little helps; Varied discovery success; Sub-basalt in the Norwegian Sea; High exploration costs; Profitable exploration; Unopened areas - mostly in the far north; Resource base; Small discoveries; Location; Development solutions, Profitability of discoveries; Things may take time; Area perspective; Development of production; Remaining reserves and resources in fields; Target for reserve growth; Existing technology; Water and gas injection; Drilling and wells; Infrastructure challenges; New methods and technology; Challenges for pilot projects; Long-term thinking and creativity. (eb)

  9. Petroleum investments in the ex-USSR republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walde, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The ex-USSR is still the world's largest oil and gas producer. Oil was developed in the 19th Century in the Baku region, much through nascent international oil companies and finance houses, such as Rothschild's of Paris. Current oil production is hampered by technological backwardness in some areas, inefficient exploitation of existing fields and the general collapse of the organisational, managerial, infrastructural, commercial and financial foundation for the oil industry accompanying the demise of the Soviet Empire. A recent international conference organised jointly by the Centre for Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy at the University of Dundee and Petroconsultants brought together international oil companies, merchant banks and representatives of the state petroleum agencies in Eastern Europe and in particular the ex-USSR to discuss the current status and the perspectives for international oil and gas investment in the ex-USSR. (author)

  10. The choice of individual dose criterion at which to restrict agricultural produce following an unplanned release of radioactive material to atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Dionian, J

    1985-01-01

    In the event of an accidental release of radioactive material to atmosphere, the introduction of emergency countermeasures will be based on the need to limit the risk to individuals. However, it has been suggested that a form of cost-benefit analysis may be used as an input to decisions on the withdrawal of countermeasures, although it is recognised that these decisions may be influenced by factors other than those directly related to radiological protection. In this study, a method based on cost-benefit analysis is illustrated for assessing the optimum level of individual dose at which restrictions on agricultural production may be considered. This requires monetary values to be assigned to both the lost food production and to the health detriment, expressed as the collective effective dose equivalent commitment. It has been assumed in this analysis that food-supply restrictions are both introduced and withdrawn at the same projected level of annual individual dose. The effect on the optimum dose level of th...

  11. A new biodegradation prediction model specific to petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Philip; Meylan, William; Aronson, Dallas; Stiteler, William; Tunkel, Jay; Comber, Michael; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2005-08-01

    A new predictive model for determining quantitative primary biodegradation half-lives of individual petroleum hydrocarbons has been developed. This model uses a fragment-based approach similar to that of several other biodegradation models, such as those within the Biodegradation Probability Program (BIOWIN) estimation program. In the present study, a half-life in days is estimated using multiple linear regression against counts of 31 distinct molecular fragments. The model was developed using a data set consisting of 175 compounds with environmentally relevant experimental data that was divided into training and validation sets. The original fragments from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry BIOWIN model were used initially as structural descriptors and additional fragments were then added to better describe the ring systems found in petroleum hydrocarbons and to adjust for nonlinearity within the experimental data. The training and validation sets had r2 values of 0.91 and 0.81, respectively.

  12. Toxicity of oils and petroleum hydrocarbons to estuarine crustaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E. (Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS); Cox, B.A.; Anderson, J.W.

    1978-04-01

    Bioassay experiments with various life stages of three estuarine shrimp and soluble petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) revealed residual Bunker C oil and refined No. 2 fuel oil to be more toxic than two crude oils tested. Larvae of Palaemonetes pugio were slightly more sensitive to the PH than adults, while young penaeid shrimp were shown to be more resistant than older, larger individuals. Shrimp exposed to PH in conjunction with temperature and salinity changes were more susceptible to the PH. Some common aromatic and diaromatic PH, including three naphthalene compounds, were utilized in bioassays. Naphthalenes were highly toxic. The toxicity of petroleum products is closely related to aromatic hydrocarbon content, especially the naphthalenes and related hydrocarbons.

  13. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  14. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capability of these isolates to degrade petroleum was performed by measuring the optical density, colony forming unit counts (CFU/ml) and concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Degradation of Isomerate by these isolates was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID). Results ...

  15. Metals distribution in Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaeva, Z.G.; Nadirov, A.N.; Ajdarbaev, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Metals content in samples of Kumkol deposit petroleum is determined by the method of X-ray diffraction and neutron activation analysis. Specific consideration was devoted to nickel and vanadium. It is possible, that sources of these metals are various petroleum formation as well as both the absorbed or the got in stratum microelements. (author)

  16. The Suez Canal and the petroleum harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Suez Canal is the second longest channel in the world and allows to save 60% of the travel time between the petroleum harbors of the Arabic peninsula and Europe. This short paper gives a summary of the main petroleum harbors activity along the channel from the Red sea to the Mediterranean sea. (J.S.)

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This publication contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993.

  18. Petroleum and Political Change in Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    and exploitation of our petroleum resources." The argument continued that "private entrepreneurs are disposed to work in this area under the control of...membership was designed to jar the non-petroleum export sector into a more competitive posture, thereby incresing exports from that sector and diminishing

  19. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  20. 77 FR 2714 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A) of the Federal Advisory... Services Administration, notice is hereby given that the National Petroleum Council has been renewed for a...

  1. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  2. 75 FR 48320 - National Petroleum Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the National Petroleum Council. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public...

  3. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  4. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data on the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-16

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption.

  7. Petroleum R and D collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.

    1995-01-01

    Conditions for collaboration in research and development (R and D) were developed based on a decision-tree analysis. A key requirement for effective R and D collaboration was stated to be the company's ability to internalize a significant portion of the benefits. This was seen as the principal factor that determined good collaborators and good industries for collaboration. It was noted that collaboration benefits can also be improved through R and D exchanges in collaborative associations. Simple decision-tree analysis tended to understate the advantages of collaboration. Portfolio risk reduction and inter-project synergies were significant additional advantages. Collaborative R and D was said to be the preferred route for the development of a broad base of petroleum-related technologies. 5 tabs., 2 figs

  8. The southern cone petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisani, W.

    1992-01-01

    The Argentine oil sector has been moving strongly toward complete deregulation since 1989. Price controls on byproducts has been lifted, old petroleum contracts became into concessions, and the state oil company, YPF, is under process of privatization. In this context, the international companies scouting for opportunities can find an important menu of potential investments But here remain some problems connected with this deregulation, too. The lack of a reference crude and product market price is one of them. This paper focuses how to overcome this trouble with the establishment of an institutional market for crude and products, not only for Argentina but also for the entire Southern Cone Region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay), inquiring into the benefits of its creation

  9. Biotechnology in petroleum recovery. The microbial EOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2008-12-15

    Biotechnology has played a significant role in enhancing crude oil recovery from the depleted oil reservoirs to solve stagnant petroleum production, after a three-stage recovery process employing mechanical, physical and chemical methods. Biotechnologically enhanced oil recovery processes, known as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), involve stimulating indigenous reservoir microbes or injecting specially selected consortia of natural bacteria into the reservoir to produce specific metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. This also involves flooding with oil recovery agents produced ex situ by industrial or pilot scale fermentation. This paper essentially reviews the operating mechanisms and the progress made in enhanced oil recovery through the use of microbes and their metabolic products. Improvement in oil recovery by injecting solvents and gases or by energizing the reservoir microflora to produce them in situ for carbonate rock dissolution and reservoir re-pressurization has been enunciated. The role of biosurfactants in oil mobilization through emulsification and that of biopolymers for selective plugging of oil-depleted zones and for biofilm formation have been delineated. The spoil sport played by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in MEOR has also been briefly reviewed. The importance of mathematical models used in predicting the applicability of an MEOR strategy and the microbial growth and transport has been qualitatively discussed. The results of some laboratory studies and worldwide field trials applying ex situ and in situ MEOR technologies were compiled and interpreted. However, the potential of the MEOR technologies has not been fully realized due to poor yield of the useful microbial metabolic products, growth inhibition by accumulated toxic metabolites and longer time of incubation. A complete evaluation and assessment of MEOR from an engineering standpoint based on economics, applicability and performance is required to further

  10. International questions. 2, petroleum: worldwide order or confusion; Questions internationales. 2, le petrole: ordre ou desordre mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The sensibility of the world economy with respect to petroleum prices remains and will remain high. The supply and demand problems leads to necessarily consider the production capacities, the effective and potential reserves, the level of strategic stockpiles, the general economical perspectives and their implications on the oil and gas demand. The regulating power of the OPEC and its relations with non-OPEC producers (Russia, Mexico, Norway..) will play a more and more significant role in the world petroleum equilibrium. This book analyses 7 topics about petroleum and geopolitics: the petroleum and the international relations since 1945 (H. L'Huillier); the petroleum in the world economy (J.M. Chevalier); the USA and petroleum: from Rockefeller to the Gulf war (P. Noel); petroleum profits, geopolitics and conflicts (P. Copinschi); reasonable supply costs but fluctuating prices (J.P. Favennec, S. Raki-Rechignac); from the Caspian sea to the Arabo-Persian gulf: a new Russia-USA petro-strategy (F. Encel); the international transportation of petroleum and natural gas: a major economical stake (J. Percebois). (J.S.)

  11. PETRORISK: a risk assessment framework for petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron D; Parkerton, Thomas F; Comber, Mike H I; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Eadsforth, Charles V; Dmytrasz, Bhodan; King, Duncan; Warren, Christopher S; den Haan, Klaas; Djemel, Nadia

    2014-07-01

    PETRORISK is a modeling framework used to evaluate environmental risk of petroleum substances and human exposure through these routes due to emissions under typical use conditions as required by the European regulation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Petroleum substances are often complex substances comprised of hundreds to thousands of individual hydrocarbons. The physicochemical, fate, and effects properties of the individual constituents within a petroleum substance can vary over several orders of magnitude, complicating risk assessment. PETRORISK combines the risk assessment strategies used on single chemicals with the hydrocarbon block approach to model complex substances. Blocks are usually defined by available analytical characterization data on substances that are expressed in terms of mass fractions for different structural chemical classes that are specified as a function of C number or boiling point range. The physicochemical and degradation properties of the blocks are determined by the properties of representative constituents in that block. Emissions and predicted exposure concentrations (PEC) are then modeled using mass-weighted individual representative constituents. Overall risk for various environmental compartments at the regional and local level is evaluated by comparing the PECs for individual representative constituents to corresponding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) derived using the Target Lipid Model. Risks to human health are evaluated using the overall predicted human dose resulting from multimedia environmental exposure to a substance-specific derived no-effect level (DNEL). A case study is provided to illustrate how this modeling approach has been applied to assess the risks of kerosene manufacture and use as a fuel. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. Igneous-sedimentary petroleum systems; Sistemas petroliferos igneo-sedimentares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiras, Jaime Fernandes [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil)]. E-mail: eiras@ufpa.br; Wanderley Filho, Joaquim Ribeiro [PETROBRAS S.A., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios-BSOL]. E-mail: jwand@petrobras.com.br

    2003-07-01

    Igneous-sedimentary petroleum systems are mixed systems in which one or more essential elements or processes are related to magmatic events. Many examples worldwide are presented to show the importance of igneous rocks in the exploratory activities, as well as in the petroleum occurrence. Volcanic ash layers are of great importance in stratigraphic correlation and elucidation of structures, particularly when they occur in thick nonfossiliferous strata. They are also good indicators of turbidite deposition where turbidity currents are related to earthquakes generated by magmatic events. Unconventional reservoirs can be created by volcanic eruptions or intrusions, crystallization, reworking, and fracturing. Unaltered igneous rocks can seal vertically and laterally conventional reservoirs due to its excellent cap capacity. Abnormal thermal effect of igneous rocks can compensate the lack of overburden in shallow basins. Structural or combined traps can be formed due to intrusions, such as folded, faulted, and unconformity traps. Porosity can be either primary or secondary, or both. Primary porosity mainly consists of cavities produced by gas volatilization during eruption and cooling. Secondary porosity refers to those pores that result from hydrothermal alteration, recrystallization, and dissolution by groundwater, and tectonic stress. It includes intercrystalline pores formed by crystallization of various secondary minerals, dissolution pores, and tectonic fractures. New technologies of petroleum development and production are encouraging to search for oil and gas within igneous rocks, and new discoveries are expected. (author)

  13. PETROMAKS - Examples from petroleum research in Norway 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    PETROMAKS is the umbrella for most of the petroleum-oriented research supported by the Research Council of Norway. The programme covers both long-term basic research and applied research, resulting in the development of new competence as well as innovation.This is the largest single programme run by the RCN. Insofar as possible, the programme will implement the strategy drawn up by the Norwegian petroleum industry's strategic body OG21 (Oil and Gas in the 21st Century). Large-scale programmes are an important tool at the Research Council towards realisation of prioritised central research policy. They shall provide enhanced knowledge in the long-term national sense, with an eye towards stimulated innovation and increased added-value or generate knowledge that contribute to solving prioritised social challenges. Content of the pamphlet: PETROMAKS - A Large-scale Programme for optimal management of petroleum resources; At the bottom of the sea; Robots at Alnabru; Seismic giant founded on research and innovation; Supplying electricity under water; The researcher who never gave up; Infrared eyes keeping watch in the north; Company on the offensive with research as its weapon; Long-term oil research produced new exploration technology; PETROMAKS - Summary of 2008. (AG)

  14. Environment 2002. The petroleum sector in Norway; Miljoe 2002. Petroleumssektoren i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    In cooperation with the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy each year publishes an environmental publication. The publication has a three-fold purpose: (1) To increase the knowledge about the environmental aspects of the Norwegian oil and gas activities, (2) To look closer at main theme that engages both the authorities and the industry and (3) To emphasize the goal of the government that Norway should both be a major energy producing country and lead the way in environmental issues. The main focus of the present issue is the theme ''Oil and fish - a common sea''. The petroleum industry and the fishing industry both depend on the Norwegian waters, and all the time since the beginning of the offshore petroleum industry the authorities have insisted on the two industries operating in the same areas. This publication discusses the challenges and possibilities faced by the petroleum industry with respect to emission to sea and the live marine resources and it also deals with how the authorities secure the co-existence between the two industries. The publication also has a facts part which discusses the status on emissions, environmental effects and measures to reduce the emissions to sea and air from the petroleum activities.

  15. On the problem of activation determination of nitrogen in petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botvina, A.Ya.; Kazachevskij, I.V.; Sokol'skij, V.V.

    1974-01-01

    The determination of nitrogen in individual hydrocarbon feedstocks and petroleums by irradiation with fast neutrons was discussed, and the N content of 12 Kazakh petroleums was determined by this method, ranging from 0.062% in Martyshi petroleum to 0.173% in Kumsai P 1 petroelum. The amount of 13 N formed in secondary reactions with protons, designated ''false'' N, was shown to depend linearly on Wsub(C)Wsub(H)Rsub(p), where Wsub(H) and Wsub(C) are the relative weight contents of H and C in a given substance respectively, and Rsub(p) is the proton path. The amounts of ''false'' N were determined by the method of A. Botvina et al (1971), and were tabulated along with values of Rsub(p) and Wsub(C)Wsub(H)Rsub(p) for 5 materials. The simultaneous determination of C, N, and O, proposed by T. Blankova and V. Rusyaev (1971) was not considered worthwhile because C and H could be determined only within 10-15% by the method

  16. Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission has the responsibility of selling the Crown's royalty share of Alberta's crude and synthetic oil production; similar services are provided for natural gas. The Commission also markets crude oil on behalf of producers to North American and offshore consumers. The Commission's position as the largest crude oil marketeer in Canada enables it to provide analyses of industry pricing and marketing trends to the Alberta government. 1992 marked the end of chronically depressed natural gas prices and a significant reduction in natural gas surpluses. A brief overview is presented of crude oil markets in Canada and the USA. The Commission's receipts of light and medium royalty oil totalled 45.3 million bbl, unchanged from 1991, and receipts of heavy crude were 6.3 million bbl, up 4% from 1991. Revenue from crude oil sales was $1.1 billion, down from $1.64 billion in 1991. The Commission's natural gas activities in 1992 included price determination and information collection. 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission has the responsibility of selling the Crown's royalty share of Alberta's crude and synthetic oil production; similar services are provided for natural gas. The Commission also markets crude oil on behalf of producers to North American and offshore consumers. The Commission's position as the largest crude oil marketeer in Canada enables it to provide analyses of industry pricing and marketing trends to the Alberta government. In 1991, the middle east crisis caused prices to spike at the commencement of the Gulf war, but these quickly stabilized. The Commission's receipts of light and medium royalty oil totalled 45.3 million bbl, down 1.5% from 1990, and receipts of heavy crude were 6.1 million bbl, up 5% from 1990. Revenue from crude oil sales was $1,642,244,000, down from $2,078,197,000 in 1990. Loss of the Montreal market through pipeline closure led to increased pressure on prices, particularly on heavy crudes. The Commission's natural gas activities in 1991 included price determination and information collection. 9 figs., 1 tab

  18. Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission annual report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission has the responsibility of selling the Crown's royalty share of Alberta's crude and synthetic oil production; similar services are provided for natural gas. The Commission also markets crude oil on behalf of producers to North American and offshore consumers. The Commission's position as the largest crude oil marketer in Canada enables it to provide analyses of industry pricing and marketing trends to the Alberta government. 1993 marked the last full year of the Commission operating as Alberta's representative in the energy regulatory arena in Canada and the USA; due to restructuring, these functions will be transferred to the Ministry of Energy in early 1994. A brief overview is presented of crude oil markets in Canada and the USA. The Commission's receipts of light and medium royalty oil totalled 40.2 million bbl, down 11% from 1992, and receipts of heavy crude were 3.7 million bbl, down 42% from 1992. Revenue from crude oil sales was $800 million, down 25% from 1992. The Commission's natural gas activities in 1993 included price determination and information collection. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. How if petroleum still had a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the oil spill that hits the Gulf of Mexico since April 2010, oil firms are still going on with their technological quest to postpone the hydrocarbons exhaustion. The goal is to increase the reserves by exploiting the less accessible resources. Giving a precise estimation of oil reserves is practically impossible as the capacities announced by the main producers are extremely disputed. They are in general ranging from 960 to 1060 billions of barrels, i.e. 32 to 35 years of actual consumption (deep offshore and heavy oil reserves not included). On the contrary, gas reserves are well known. They are estimated to 175 Tm 3 , which corresponds to 60 years of actual consumption. Additional non-conventional gas reserves represent 900 Tm 3 , from which 4% are accessible today. Before starting to develop new fields, companies try to fully exploit the existing fields using enhanced recovery technologies. In 2009 the petroleum investments have weakened in all sectors except in offshore exploitation. However, the recent accident of the Deepwater Horizon platform in the Gulf of Mexico has brought the safety question to the forefront. (J.S.)

  20. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The ''Petroleum Supply Annual'' (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs

  3. Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1996-01-01

    The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 53 tabs.

  5. Petroleum Marketing Monthly, January 1991. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 55 tabs.

  6. Status of the petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botello, Alfonso V; Villanueva F, Susana [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia

    1996-07-01

    In 1976, the IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region and noted that petroleum pollution was of region-wide concern and recommended to initiate a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. Actually, the Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas; USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are: production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading operations and accidental spills. About 5 million of barrels are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 millions barrels/year. The results of the CARIPOL Regional Programme conducted between 1980-1987 pointed out that a significant levels of petroleum pollution exists throughout the Wider Caribbean and include serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major currents system and very high levels of dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major effects of this petroleum pollution include: high tar level on many beaches that either prevent recreational use or require very expensive clean-up operations, distress and death to marine life and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of important economic species have been reported with its potential carcinogenic effects. (author)

  7. Status of the petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, Alfonso V.; Villanueva F, Susana

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region and noted that petroleum pollution was of region-wide concern and recommended to initiate a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. Actually, the Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas; USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are: production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading operations and accidental spills. About 5 million of barrels are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 millions barrels/year. The results of the CARIPOL Regional Programme conducted between 1980-1987 pointed out that a significant levels of petroleum pollution exists throughout the Wider Caribbean and include serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major currents system and very high levels of dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major effects of this petroleum pollution include: high tar level on many beaches that either prevent recreational use or require very expensive clean-up operations, distress and death to marine life and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of important economic species have been reported with its potential carcinogenic effects. (author)

  8. Petroleum and Health Care: Evaluating and Managing Health Care's Vulnerability to Petroleum Supply Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Daniel; Bae, Jaeyong; Pierce, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is used widely in health care—primarily as a transport fuel and feedstock for pharmaceuticals, plastics, and medical supplies—and few substitutes for it are available. This dependence theoretically makes health care vulnerable to petroleum supply shifts, but this vulnerability has not been empirically assessed. We quantify key aspects of petroleum use in health care and explore historical associations between petroleum supply shocks and health care prices. These analyses confirm that petroleum products are intrinsic to modern health care and that petroleum supply shifts can affect health care prices. In anticipation of future supply contractions lasting longer than previous shifts and potentially disrupting health care delivery, we propose an adaptive management approach and outline its application to the example of emergency medical services. PMID:21778473

  9. Taxation of petroleum products: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Mahler, W.

    1995-01-01

    The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by economic theory alone. This paper surveys different considerations advanced for taxing petroleum and presents petroleum tax rate data in 120countries. (author)

  10. Facts 2009 - The Norwegian petroleum sector; Fakta 2009 - norsk petroleumsverksemd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The publication provides a general overview of information regarding the petroleum activities on the Norwegian continental shelf. Contents: Foreword; The petroleum sector; Norwegian resource management; Government petroleum revenues; Exploration activities; Development and operations; Norwegian gas exports; Decommissioning; Research, technology; Environmental considerations; Petroleum resources; Fields in production; Fields under development; Future developments; Fields where production has ceased; Pipelines and onshore facilities. (AG)

  11. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  12. Assessment of information needs: Production phase of the petroleum industry for an evaluaton of International Energy Agency Energy Technology Data Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B.

    1989-09-01

    This survey was conducted to determine needs of the petroleum industry for information and data on petroleum production technology, including subjects of most interest and most difficult to obtain, and sources being used to acquire such information. Results of the survey will be used in evaluating the Energy Technology Data Exchange and Department of Energy common data base. A selected sample of world petroleum production specialists and petroleum information specialists and other related personnel were surveyed to learn about their problems in retrieving information and data on petroleum production. They were asked what topics and kinds of information are of current interest, what sources they are using to help resolve their technological problems, what petroleum-producing countries are of interest to them, and other related questions.

  13. The 1999 MWV petroleum consumption forecast: Petroleum still in the lead in the German energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Petroleum consumption in Germany has been stagnant over the last few years. Since in 1998 the decline in light heating oil sales was balanced out by an increase in fuel consumption and petroleum sales to the petrochemical industry, total domestic supplies of petroleum products amounted to 127.4 million tonnes and thus remained at last year's level. According to the latest forecast of the Mineraloelwirtschaftsverband e.V., extending to the year 2010, stagnation will continue for some years, but petroleum consumption is expected to then take a clear downward trend and fall off by 11 million tonnes (or 9%) until 2010. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs

  15. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  16. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1994, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs

  20. Petroleum and geopolitics; Petrole et geopolitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaigneau, P. [Centre d' etudes diplomatiques et strategiques de Paris, 75 (France)

    2004-04-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela.

  1. PETROLEUM-COLLECTING AND DISPERSING CHEMICALS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Films of petroleum origin reflecting sunlight rays hinder absorption of energy by water necessary for life ... Dispersing chemicals like mechanical clean-up methods have their own place in fighting oil spills. They are ... yellow color, and filtered.

  2. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  3. Petroleum supply annual 1998. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs

  4. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  5. Revised DTI Guidelines for Petroleum Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.; Philip, L.N.

    1997-07-01

    The DTI's guidelines on petroleum measurement have been extensively revised and enlarged. The new guidelines cover a much wider scope of measurement situations than before. Included in the new issue is guidance on allocation measurement, well testing, multiphase flow measurement, new technology acceptance procedures and operating procedures for different types of measurement systems. Significant changes have taken place in recent years both in the way the oil and gas industry conducts its business and in the fiscal regime operated by the UK government. New developments in flow measurement have progressed to such an extent that they have now been adopted by the industry or are close to being adopted as beneficial methods of the measurement of hydrocarbons in whatever form they present themselves for measurement. The rapid pace of development has left the standards-making bodies behind and in some cases there is insufficient quality data to enable the standards makers to produce guidance of the generic type appropriate for national or international standards. The case-by-case approach of the DTI in approving methods of measurement lends itself better to consideration of new technology where there may be no existing standards. These, amongst other considerations, make it appropriate for the DTI to extend the scope of its guidance into these new areas. The policy developments behind the changes in the new guidelines are not static and this new document has been produced in response to an evolutionary process which is still continuing but it is right to collate and make defining statements from time to time to put on record the current status of measurement requirements for the purpose of attaining DTI approval. (author)

  6. Joint production and corporate pricing: An empirical analysis of joint products in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimnejad, H.

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the pricing mechanism of joint products in large multi-plant and multi-product corporations. The primary objective of this dissertation is to show the consistency of classical theories of production with corporate pricing of joint products. This dissertation has two major parts. Part One provides a theoretical framework for joint production and corporate pricing. In this part, joint production is defined and its historical treatment by classical and contemporary economists is analyzed. Part Two conducts an empirical analysis of joint products in the US petroleum industry. Methods of cost allocation are used in the pricing of each individual petroleum product. Three methods are employed to distribute joint production costs to individual petroleum products. These methods are, the sales value method, the barrel gravity method and the average unit cost method. The empirical findings of dissertation provide useful guidelines for pricing policies of large multi-product corporations

  7. International petroleum enviromental conference (IPEC) offers opportunity for exchange of ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Spiric, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Oil and gas are produced in many parts of the world. Persons working in the petroleum industry can learn much by communicating with colleagues in other countries, but the opportunities for engineers and scientists to come together and discuss petroleum environmental control practices, technologies, and regulations with representatives of other countries are limited. This paper describes the very useful International Petroleum Environmental Conference (IPEC) which completed its seventh meeting in November 2000 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The 7th IPEC attracted 350 participants, including 26 participants from countries other than the United States. The 7th IPEC emphasized international issues and included more than 20 papers by international authors or on international topics. The conference covered all aspects of petroleum environmental issues and featured speakers from many disciplines. The conference included technical sessions on the following topics: Legal and Regulatory Issues in the Oil and Gas Industry; Pollution Prevention, Waste Management, and Waste Minimization; Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons; Characterization and Remediation of Brine-Impacted Soils; Biotreatment and Bioremediation; International Issues in the Oil and Gas Industry; Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons; Treatment and Management of Produced Water; Forensic Geochemistry and Site Characterization/Technology Transfer; Environmentall Acceptable Endpoints; Desulfurization of Fuels and Waste Streams; Control of Air Emissions; MTBE/Phytoremediation and Natural Attenuation; and Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. The last day of the conference was devoted to a special symposium on 'Innovative Technologies for Subsurface Characterization and Remediation.' The authors recommend this conference as a forum for industry, government, and academia to freely exchange ideas and information

  8. Petroleum development offers way out of poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollet, P.

    1996-01-01

    The North African states of Algeria, Libya, Tunisia and Egypt are starting to explore the possibility of fuelling their economic development using their petroleum reserves which have not, as yet, been exploited. Poverty and Islamic extremism is widespread, leading to political difficulties domestically and a reluctance on the part of international oil companies to reinvest in the region. Despite these problems, growth in the local petroleum industry may yet offer a path to economic growth. (UK)

  9. Guam Transportation Petroleum-Use Reduction Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-04-01

    The island of Guam has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 20% by 2020. Because transportation is responsible for one-third of on-island petroleum use, the Guam Energy Task Force (GETF), a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and numerous Guam-based agencies and organizations, devised a specific plan by which to meet the 20% goal within the transportation sector. This report lays out GETF's plan.

  10. The petroleum economy of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualbert-Brice Massengo, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    The author aims to explain the petroleum phenomena in Congo as a contribution to the truth. The Congo petroleum experience can be seen as a lesson for the next generations and for the other african countries. The Congo Brazzaville, a little country by its population and well equipped in natural and human resources, is become meanwhile a non security area for its inhabitants because of a decreasing economy and a continuous political crisis. (A.L.B.)

  11. Rare and expensive petroleum: impact on careers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.; Krasowski, T.; Kerdraon, Y.; Drevet, R.; Andreis, D.; Pouille, J.P.; Villoslada Prado, P.; Sigaud, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Oil peak, reserves depletion, greenhouse effect, pollution, uncertain future and international insecurity could be negative arguments to discourage candidates to start up a career in the petroleum industry. This press kit presents testimonies of young professionals who explain their motivations for committing themselves in this way. Testimonies are chosen in various domains of the petroleum industry: geophysics, exploration, processes, refining, and engines technology. (J.S.)

  12. Natural analogs in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the use of natural analogues in petroleum exploration and includes numerous geologic model descriptions which have historically been used in the prediction of geometries and location of oil and gas accumulations. These geologic models have been passed down to and used by succeeding generations of petroleum geologists. Some examples of these geologic models include the Allan fault-plane model, porosity prediction, basin modelling, prediction of basin compartmentalization, and diagenesis

  13. Ideas: the column of: about the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Two energy problems will modify the economical and geopolitical future the next ten years: the petroleum supply insecurity from the Middle East and the climatic change. In this context the energy future depends on many solutions: the exploration and the development of new petroleum sources (without the Middle East), a better energy efficiency, the development of renewable energies sources and the use of fossil fuels respectful of the environment. (A.L.B.)

  14. Petroleum as a raw material resource for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.I.

    1996-01-01

    Author notes that for economic and social region development it is necessary has been created large petroleum chemical plants near by Atyrau city (initial raw material - Tengiz, Korolev and other petroleum deposits of this region) and Aktau (Mangistau and Bazuchin petroleum). Realization of projects for structure changes of petroleum and gas region demands a great investments. It is noted that growing scales of petroleum and gas resources mastering calls already a considerable environmental complications because of Caspian Sea's level marking rise

  15. FASP, an analytic resource appraisal program for petroleum play analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented in a FORTRAN program termed FASP. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An established geologic model considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The program FASP produces resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and many laws of expectation and variance. ?? 1986.

  16. Price elasticity of petroleum products in selected African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, S.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a fundamental understanding of the economic impact which is directly related to the price elasticity of petroleum products in six selected African countries is obtained by using the Jorgorson-Lian model for shares. Each kind of fuel price has a different impact on the share of oil products for the different countries. The price increase of one kind of fuel may increase or decrease the share of another fuel in the total oil products. In the oil importing African countries, the price of one product is relatively inelastic, whereas in the oil producing African countries, the price is elastic. (Author)

  17. Petroleum prospects and the need for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, C.

    1991-01-01

    A review of the world energy situation prior to the Persian Gulf War of 1990-91 shows that periods of oil price instability have distorted the decision-making process. During periods of high prices, investments were made in uneconomic energy sources and in periods of low prices few investments were made at all. To create a rational investment climate, international cooperation between consumers and producers of petroleum is essential. Such cooperation in the form of a forum could help to stabilize prices and assure that the economic decisions needed to meet future demand would be made in a secure framework. (author). 3 refs

  18. Petroleum industry of Korea seen from industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.P. [SK Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The domestic petroleum industry faced with outward opening and exchange crisis is put under the most difficult period so far, and costs reduction and securing international competitive power in software field are emerging as important assignments on which the life and death of national key industries depends not only as a restructuring issue of each petroleum company. Required strategy of petroleum industry to solve this effectively this year must be the thorough revamping through restructuring and reform of management standards not the survival exercise through price competition. For this, each petroleum company and distributor should open a new petroleum industry in which fair rules of the game are developed as well as costs reduction through joint efforts and value creation in overall industry. For this, government should support the domestic petroleum industry to stand up straight as a keeper of domestic energy industry by helping it to arm with international competitive power within a short period of time through overall needed system and legal scheme. It is because nobody can deny that energy industry is the key industry on which national existence is at stake.

  19. Petroleum industry: Development strategies to year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcio, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the last two years, the petroleum industry has undergone a period of modest demand increase on the international market, normal consumption rates by consuming countries and, faced with a growing supply base, a progressive per barrel unit price depreciation. In the refinery sector, margins have been reduced due to strong petroleum products price reductions. New anti-pollution laws have necessitated substantial investment in the development of cleaner fuels and pollution control technologies. The reorganization of the former USSR petroleum and gas sector should give rise to technology transfer opportunities for Western nations and spur gradual production increases especially in natural gas. Petroleum and gas demand increases are expected due to the modernization of China's industries. While it is clear that for the next decade their won't be any shortages in supply, forecasting petroleum prices to the year 2000 will remain clouded with uncertainty until such time as the national European petroleum industries decide to go ahead with their long awaited privatization and adjustments are made to current government and private sector energy strategies

  20. Bioremediation and reclamation of soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons by exogenously seeded bacterial consortium: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Bordoloi, Naba K

    2011-03-01

    Spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons causes significant environmental pollution. Bioremediation is an effective process to remediate petroleum oil contaminant from the ecosystem. The aim of the present study was to reclaim a petroleum oil-contaminated soil which was unsuitable for the cultivation of crop plants by using petroleum oil hydrocarbon-degrading microbial consortium. Bacterial consortium consisting of Bacillus subtilis DM-04 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa M and NM strains were seeded to 20% (v/w) petroleum oil-contaminated soil, and bioremediation experiment was carried out for 180 days under laboratory condition. The kinetics of hydrocarbon degradation was analyzed using biochemical and gas chromatographic (GC) techniques. The ecotoxicity of the elutriates obtained from petroleum oil-contaminated soil before and post-treatment with microbial consortium was tested on germination and growth of Bengal gram (Cicer aretinum) and green gram (Phaseolus mungo) seeds. Bacterial consortium showed a significant reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbon level in contaminated soil (76% degradation) as compared to the control soil (3.6% degradation) 180 days post-inoculation. The GC analysis confirmed that bacterial consortium was more effective in degrading the alkane fraction compared to aromatic fraction of crude petroleum oil hydrocarbons in soil. The nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen compounds fraction was least degraded. The reclaimed soil supported the germination and growth of crop plants (C. aretinum and P. mungo). In contrast, seeds could not be germinated in petroleum oil-contaminated soil. The present study reinforces the application of bacterial consortium rather than individual bacterium for the effective bioremediation and reclamation of soil contaminated with petroleum oil.

  1. Risk behavior in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author uses the term risk aversion, which weighs the magnitude of investment against four factors: size of available budget, potential gain, potential loss, and probabilities of each outcome. Modern petroleum exploration consists of a series of investment decisions on whether to acquire additional technical data (geological, geophysical, engineering, drilling, or economic) and/or additional mineral interests. Each decision should allow a progressively clearer perception of project risk versus reward and should support timely management action concerning the inferred accumulation. Companies searching for oil and natural gas make hundreds of such exploration decisions each year. So the problem in serial exploration decision making is twofold: to be consistent in the way we deal with risk and uncertainty and to perceive risk and uncertainty accurately and reduce them where possible. Risk aversion is not just a hypothetical nuisance. It causes explorationists to make inconsistent investment decisions, and it costs exploration companies millions of dollars annually in lost opportunities, bad choices, and wasted investment dollars

  2. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  3. Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability in a marine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, M.; Tjeerdema, R.

    1995-01-01

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, may alter the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface marine organisms. Further, the dispersing agent may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes, To date, little information exists on the sub-lethal effects of dispersants and factors modifying their role in the bioavailability and disposition of PH in marine food chains. The objective of the current research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability to primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, deputation, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, 14 C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for dispersed Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) vs. undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities (22 and 34 ppt) employing Isochrysis galbana, a primary producer, and Brachionus plicatilis, a primary consumer. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations. However, short term (eight hour) and long term (two week) static exposure studies indicate the uptake of 14 C-naphthalene from WAF preparations is inhibited by up to 50% from dispersed oil preparations. Results of comparative static and flow-through chamber exposure studies will be presented

  4. Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, M.; Tjeerdema, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, may alter the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface marine organisms. Further, the dispersing agent may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes, To date, little information exists on the sub-lethal effects of dispersants and factors modifying their role in the bioavailability and disposition of PH in marine food chains. The objective of the current research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability to primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, deputation, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, {sup 14}C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for dispersed Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) vs. undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities (22 and 34 ppt) employing Isochrysis galbana, a primary producer, and Brachionus plicatilis, a primary consumer. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations. However, short term (eight hour) and long term (two week) static exposure studies indicate the uptake of{sup 14}C-naphthalene from WAF preparations is inhibited by up to 50% from dispersed oil preparations. Results of comparative static and flow-through chamber exposure studies will be presented.

  5. How to prepare water accommodated fractions from petroleum hydrocarbons for use in aquatic toxicity testing - the basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.; Boileau, P.; Kyle, D.; Sergy, G.; Fingas, M.

    1996-01-01

    A method to prepare water accommodated fractions (WAFs) from petroleum products for use in toxicity testing, was introduced. In order to develop a repeatable protocol, a systematic study of a range of experimental variables was conducted. One semi-solid oil and six liquid oils were exposed to artificial seawater. Studies were also performed on three liquid oils exposed to freshwater. Low energy mixing and fluorinated Nalgene carboys was used to produce the WAFs. The mixing time depended on the oil type and loading rate. Individual loading rates were prepared for each concentration, because WAF composition is influenced by loading rate rather than serial dilution. An overview of the basic concepts of WAF preparation was described. A draft protocol for preparing WAFs from liquid and semi-solid oil was also described and results were summarized. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  6. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum resources will not last for ever. It is therefore important for Norway to look ahead so as to be prepared for the changes that will come. In this report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate presents the current status of the petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. This is the basis on which the authorities can lay plans for the future. Since no-one can predict the future with certainty, on this occasion the Directorate is presenting four alternative scenarios for the future of Norwegian petroleum activities if the basic scenario proves incorrect. This will enable us to prepare ourselves for changes that may come, and to view the consequences of the various choices we can make. In this report, the Directorate also describes the various plays on the continental shelf, and explains the techniques used and the evaluations made when it estimates the undiscovered resources. This information is important for exploration work, particularly for new companies which need to get acquainted with the geology and the possibilities for finding oil and gas in Norway. Significant volumes remain to be produced and found on the Norwegian continental shelf. Only a third of the total resources have so far been produced, and a quarter of them have still not been discovered. Oil and gas prices are high at the moment, giving the industry and society in general good incentives to produce at a maximum rate. Oil production reached its peak a couple of years ago, but gas production is still increasing. However, the industry is finding less than it produces, which places demands on both it and the authorities. The industry must actively explore the acreage it has been allocated. The Petroleum Directorate believes that substantial resources can still be discovered in areas where production licences have been awarded. At the same time, the industry must gain access to new areas for exploration. The authorities must find an appropriate balance between concern for the

  7. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 754 - Petroleum and Petroleum Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fuel (including tractor fuel and stationary turbine fuel). 2710.00.2000 Kerosene derived from petroleum... medicinal grade derived from petroleum, shale oil or both. 3819.00.0000 Hydraulic fluids, including... lubricating oil. 2710.00.3030 Turbine lubricating oil, including marine. 2710.00.3040 Automotive gear oils...

  8. High paraffin Kumkol petroleum processing under fuel and lubricant petroleum scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Konaev, Eh.N.

    1997-01-01

    Technological opportunity of high paraffin Kumkol petroleum processing under the fuel and lubricant scheme with production of lubricant materials in short supply, combustible materials and technical paraffin is shown. Mini petroleum block putting into operation on Kumkol deposit is reasonable economically and raises profitableness of hydrocarbon raw material production. (author)

  9. Characterization of biosurfactant produced from submerged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    interfacial tension. This work was designed to produce biosurfactants from the fermentation of .... The cashew apples were collected from. Ubogidi cashew ... and manually crushed to remove the juice using a pestle and mortar. The bagasse was ..... degradation by yeast species Trichosporon asahii isolated from petroleum ...

  10. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, Dusan; Gorter, de Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been

  11. 76 FR 80553 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Petroleum and Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... permeability gas, shale gas, coal seam, or other tight reservoir rock. For example, wells producing coal bed... separation means one or more of the following processes: forced extraction of natural gas liquids, sulfur and... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems...

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides Information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1998 with data for April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly: August 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  17. Petroleum marketing monthly, December 1998 with data for September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: Initial Estimates; Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1999 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly in five sections: initial estimates; summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 70 tabs.