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Sample records for individual large vamp

  1. VAMPS: a website for visualization and analysis of microbial population structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huse, Susan M; Mark Welch, David B; Voorhis, Andy; Shipunova, Anna; Morrison, Hilary G; Eren, A Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2014-02-05

    The advent of next-generation DNA sequencing platforms has revolutionized molecular microbial ecology by making the detailed analysis of complex communities over time and space a tractable research pursuit for small research groups. However, the ability to generate 10⁵-10⁸ reads with relative ease brings with it many downstream complications. Beyond the computational resources and skills needed to process and analyze data, it is difficult to compare datasets in an intuitive and interactive manner that leads to hypothesis generation and testing. We developed the free web service VAMPS (Visualization and Analysis of Microbial Population Structures, http://vamps.mbl.edu) to address these challenges and to facilitate research by individuals or collaborating groups working on projects with large-scale sequencing data. Users can upload marker gene sequences and associated metadata; reads are quality filtered and assigned to both taxonomic structures and to taxonomy-independent clusters. A simple point-and-click interface allows users to select for analysis any combination of their own or their collaborators' private data and data from public projects, filter these by their choice of taxonomic and/or abundance criteria, and then explore these data using a wide range of analytic methods and visualizations. Each result is extensively hyperlinked to other analysis and visualization options, promoting data exploration and leading to a greater understanding of data relationships. VAMPS allows researchers using marker gene sequence data to analyze the diversity of microbial communities and the relationships between communities, to explore these analyses in an intuitive visual context, and to download data, results, and images for publication. VAMPS obviates the need for individual research groups to make the considerable investment in computational infrastructure and bioinformatic support otherwise necessary to process, analyze, and interpret massive amounts of next

  2. Arabidopsis R-SNARE proteins VAMP721 and VAMP722 are required for cell plate formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis is facilitated by SNARE complex-mediated vesicle fusion at the cell-division plane. However, our knowledge regarding R-SNARE components of membrane fusion machinery for cell plate formation remains quite limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the in vivo function of Arabidopsis VAMP721 and VAMP722, two closely sequence-related R-SNAREs, in cell plate formation. Double homozygous vamp721vamp722 mutant seedlings showed lethal dwarf phenotypes and were characterized by rudimentary roots, cotyledons and hypocotyls. Furthermore, cell wall stubs and incomplete cytokinesis were frequently observed in vamp721vamp722 seedlings. Confocal images revealed that green fluorescent protein-tagged VAMP721 and VAMP722 were preferentially localized to the expanding cell plates in dividing cells. Drug treatments and co-localization analyses demonstrated that punctuate organelles labeled with VAMP721 and VAMP722 represented early endosomes overlapped with VHA-a1-labeled TGN, which were distinct from Golgi stacks and prevacuolar compartments. In addition, protein traffic to the plasma membrane, but not to the vacuole, was severely disrupted in vamp721vamp722 seedlings by subcellular localization of marker proteins. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations suggest that VAMP721 and VAMP722 are involved in secretory trafficking to the plasma membrane via TGN/early endosomal compartment, which contributes substantially to cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

  3. Drosophila VAMP7 regulates Wingless intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han; He, Fang; Lin, Xinhua; Wu, Yihui

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila Wingless (Wg) is a morphogen that determines cell fate during development. Previous studies have shown that endocytic pathways regulate Wg trafficking and signaling. Here, we showed that loss of vamp7, a gene required for vesicle fusion, dramatically increased Wg levels and decreased Wg signaling. Interestingly, we found that levels of Dally-like (Dlp), a glypican that can interact with Wg to suppress Wg signaling at the dorsoventral boundary of the Drosophila wing, were also increased in vamp7 mutant cells. Moreover, Wg puncta in Rab4-dependent recycling endosomes were Dlp positive. We hypothesize that VAMP7 is required for Wg intracellular trafficking and the accumulation of Wg in Rab4-dependent recycling endosomes might affect Wg signaling.

  4. Increased activity of the Vesicular Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor TI-VAMP/VAMP7 by Tyrosine Phosphorylation in the Longin Domain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Andrea; Casano, Alessandra M.; Kuster, Aurelia; Arold, Stefan T.; Wang, Guan; Nola, Sébastien; Verraes, Agathe; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Galli, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular (v)- and target (t)-SNAREs play essential roles in intracellular membrane fusion through the formation of cytoplasmic α-helical bundles. Several v-SNAREs have a Longin N-terminal extension that, by promoting a closed conformation, plays an autoinhibitory function and decreases SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion efficiency. The molecular mechanism leading to Longin v-SNARE activation is largely unknown. Here we find that exocytosis mediated by the Longin v-SNARE TI-VAMP/VAMP7 is activated by tonic treatment with insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 but not by depolarization and intracellular calcium rise. In search of a potential downstream mechanism, we found that TI-VAMP is phosphorylated in vitro by c-Src kinase on tyrosine 45 of the Longin domain. Accordingly, a mutation of tyrosine 45 into glutamate, but not phenylalanine, activates both t-SNARE binding and exocytosis. Activation of TI-VAMP-mediated exocytosis thus relies on tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:23471971

  5. VAMP7 modulates ciliary biogenesis in kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Szalinski

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells elaborate specialized domains that have distinct protein and lipid compositions, including the apical and basolateral surfaces and primary cilia. Maintaining the identity of these domains is required for proper cell function, and requires the efficient and selective SNARE-mediated fusion of vesicles containing newly synthesized and recycling proteins with the proper target membrane. Multiple pathways exist to deliver newly synthesized proteins to the apical surface of kidney cells, and the post-Golgi SNAREs, or VAMPs, involved in these distinct pathways have not been identified. VAMP7 has been implicated in apical protein delivery in other cell types, and we hypothesized that this SNARE would have differential effects on the trafficking of apical proteins known to take distinct routes to the apical surface in kidney cells. VAMP7 expressed in polarized Madin Darby canine kidney cells colocalized primarily with LAMP2-positive compartments, and siRNA-mediated knockdown modulated lysosome size, consistent with the known function of VAMP7 in lysosomal delivery. Surprisingly, VAMP7 knockdown had no effect on apical delivery of numerous cargoes tested, but did decrease the length and frequency of primary cilia. Additionally, VAMP7 knockdown disrupted cystogenesis in cells grown in a three-dimensional basement membrane matrix. The effects of VAMP7 depletion on ciliogenesis and cystogenesis are not directly linked to the disruption of lysosomal function, as cilia lengths and cyst morphology were unaffected in an MDCK lysosomal storage disorder model. Together, our data suggest that VAMP7 plays an essential role in ciliogenesis and lumen formation. To our knowledge, this is the first study implicating an R-SNARE in ciliogenesis and cystogenesis.

  6. Large individual differences in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Using single factor ANOVA I show that there are large individual differences in free recall ({\\eta} ranges from 0.09-0.26) including the total recall, the balance between recency and primacy, and the initial recall (subsequent recalls show smaller individual differences). All three memory properties are relatively uncorrelated. The variance in the initial position may be a measure of executive control and is correlated with total recall (the smaller the variation, the larger the recall).

  7. The SNARE VAMP7 Regulates Exocytic Trafficking of Interleukin-12 in Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Chiaruttini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12, produced by dendritic cells in response to activation, is central to pathogen eradication and tumor rejection. The trafficking pathways controlling spatial distribution and intracellular transport of IL-12 vesicles to the cell surface are still unknown. Here, we show that intracellular IL-12 localizes in late endocytic vesicles marked by the SNARE VAMP7. Dendritic cells (DCs from VAMP7-deficient mice are partially impaired in the multidirectional release of IL-12. Upon encounter with antigen-specific T cells, IL-12-containing vesicles rapidly redistribute at the immune synapse and release IL-12 in a process entirely dependent on VAMP7 expression. Consistently, acquisition of effector functions is reduced in T cells stimulated by VAMP7-null DCs. These results provide insights into IL-12 intracellular trafficking pathways and show that VAMP7-mediated release of IL-12 at the immune synapse is a mechanism to transmit innate signals to T cells.

  8. Application of the RESRAD computer code to VAMP scenario S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanapragasam, E.K.; Yu, C.

    1997-03-01

    The RESRAD computer code developed at Argonne National Laboratory was among 11 models from 11 countries participating in the international Scenario S validation of radiological assessment models with Chernobyl fallout data from southern Finland. The validation test was conducted by the Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group of the Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP) program coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. RESRAD was enhanced to provide an output of contaminant concentrations in environmental media and in food products to compare with measured data from southern Finland. Probability distributions for inputs that were judged to be most uncertain were obtained from the literature and from information provided in the scenario description prepared by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The deterministic version of RESRAD was run repeatedly to generate probability distributions for the required predictions. These predictions were used later to verify the probabilistic RESRAD code. The RESRAD predictions of radionuclide concentrations are compared with measured concentrations in selected food products. The radiological doses predicted by RESRAD are also compared with those estimated by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety

  9. Membrane fusion by VAMP3 and plasma membrane t-SNAREs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chuan; Hardee, Deborah; Minnear, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Pairing of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins on vesicles (v-SNAREs) and SNARE proteins on target membranes (t-SNAREs) mediates intracellular membrane fusion. VAMP3/cellubrevin is a v-SNARE that resides in recycling endosomes and endosome-derived transport vesicles. VAMP3 has been implicated in recycling of transferrin receptors, secretion of α-granules in platelets, and membrane trafficking during cell migration. Using a cell fusion assay, we examined membrane fusion capacity of the ternary complexes formed by VAMP3 and plasma membrane t-SNAREs syntaxin1, syntaxin4, SNAP-23 and SNAP-25. VAMP3 forms fusogenic pairing with t-SNARE complexes syntaxin1/SNAP-25, syntaxin1/SNAP-23 and syntaxin4/SNAP-25, but not with syntaxin4/SNAP-23. Deletion of the N-terminal domain of syntaxin4 enhanced membrane fusion more than two fold, indicating that the N-terminal domain negatively regulates membrane fusion. Differential membrane fusion capacities of the ternary v-/t-SNARE complexes suggest that transport vesicles containing VAMP3 have distinct membrane fusion kinetics with domains of the plasma membrane that present different t-SNARE proteins

  10. HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence P. Varodayan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many central synapses are highly sensitive to alcohol, and it is now accepted that short-term alterations in synaptic function may lead to longer term changes in circuit function. The regulation of postsynaptic receptors by alcohol has been well studied, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on the presynaptic terminal are relatively unexplored. To identify a pathway by which alcohol regulates neurotransmitter release, we recently investigated the mechanism by which ethanol induces the Vamp2 gene, but not Vamp1, in mouse primary cortical cultures. These two genes encode isoforms of synaptobrevin, a vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE protein required for synaptic vesicle fusion. We found that alcohol activates the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 to induce Vamp2 gene expression, while Vamp1 mRNA levels remain unaffected. As the Vamp2 gene encodes a SNARE protein, we then investigated whether ethanol exposure and HSF1 transcriptional activity alter neurotransmitter release using electrophysiology. We found that alcohol increased the frequency of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated miniature IPSCs via HSF1, but had no effect on mEPSCs. Overall, these data indicate that alcohol induces HSF1 transcriptional activity to trigger a specific coordinated adaptation in GABAergic presynaptic terminals. This mechanism could explain some of the changes in synaptic function that occur soon after alcohol exposure, and may underlie some of the more enduring effects of chronic alcohol intake on local circuit function.

  11. Endosomal sorting of VAMP3 is regulated by PI4K2A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jovic, M.; Kean, M. J.; Dubánková, Anna; Bouřa, Evžen; Gingras, A. C.; Brill, J. A.; Balla, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 17 (2014), s. 3745-3756 ISSN 0021-9533 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : PI4K2A * VAMP3 * PtdIns4P * vesicle fusion * sorting * SNARE Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.432, year: 2014

  12. The first non Clostridial botulinum-like toxin cleaves VAMP within the juxtamembrane domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornetta, Irene; Azarnia Tehran, Domenico; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Bano, Luca; Leka, Oneda; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Binz, Thomas; Montecucco, Cesare

    2016-07-22

    The genome of Weissella oryzae SG25T was recently sequenced and a botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) like gene was identified by bioinformatics methods. The typical three-domains organization of BoNTs with a N-terminal metalloprotease domain, a translocation and a cell binding domains could be identified. The BoNT family of neurotoxins is rapidly growing, but this was the first indication of the possible expression of a BoNT toxin outside the Clostridium genus. We performed molecular modeling and dynamics simulations showing that the 50 kDa N-terminal domain folds very similarly to the metalloprotease domain of BoNT/B, whilst the binding part is different. However, neither the recombinant metalloprotease nor the binding domains showed cross-reactivity with the standard antisera that define the seven serotypes of BoNTs. We found that the purified Weissella metalloprotease cleaves VAMP at a single site untouched by the other VAMP-specific BoNTs. This site is a unique Trp-Trp peptide bond located within the juxtamembrane segment of VAMP which is essential for neurotransmitter release. Therefore, the present study identifies the first non-Clostridial BoNT-like metalloprotease that cleaves VAMP at a novel and relevant site and we propose to label it BoNT/Wo.

  13. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP-7) is essential for target cell killing in a natural killer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcet-Palacios, Marcelo; Odemuyiwa, Solomon O.; Coughlin, Jason J.; Garofoli, Daniella; Ewen, Catherine; Davidson, Courtney E.; Ghaffari, Mazyar; Kane, Kevin P.; Lacy, Paige; Logan, Michael R.; Befus, A. Dean; Bleackley, R. Chris; Moqbel, Redwan

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer cells recognize and induce apoptosis in foreign, transformed or virus-infected cells through the release of perforin and granzymes from secretory lysosomes. Clinically, NK-cell mediated killing is a major limitation to successful allo- and xenotransplantation. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the fusion of granzyme B-containing secretory lysosomes to the plasma membrane in activated NK cells, prior to target cell killing, are not fully understood. Using the NK cell line YT-Indy as a model, we have investigated the expression of SNAP REceptors (SNAREs), both target (t-) and vesicular (v-) SNAREs, and their function in granzyme B-mediated target cell killing. Our data showed that YT-Indy cells express VAMP-7 and SNAP-23, but not VAMP-2. VAMP-7 was associated with granzyme B-containing lysosomal granules. Using VAMP-7 small interfering RNA (siRNA), we successfully knocked down the expression of VAMP-7 protein in YT-Indy to less than 10% of untreated cells in 24 h. VAMP7-deficient YT-Indy cells activated via co-culture with Jurkat cells released <1 ng/mL of granzyme B, compared to 1.5-2.5 μg/mL from controls. Using Jurkat cells as targets, we showed a 7-fold reduction in NK cell-mediated killing by VAMP-7 deficient YT-Indy cells. Our results show that VAMP-7 is a crucial component of granzyme B release and target cell killing in the NK cell line YT-Indy. Thus, targeting VAMP-7 expression specifically with siRNA, following transplantation, may be a viable strategy for preventing NK cell-mediated transplant rejection, in vivo

  14. Modelling the deposition of airborne radionuclides into the urban environment. First report of the VAMP Urban Working Group. Part of the IAEA/CEC co-ordinated research programme on the validation of environmental model predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    A co-ordinated research programme was begun at the IAEA in 1988 with the short title of Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP). The VAMP Urban Working Group aims to examine, by means of expert review combined with formal validation exercises, modelling for the assessment of the radiation exposure of urban populations through the external irradiation and inhalation pathways. An aim of the studies is to evaluate the lessons learned and to document the improvements in modelling capability as a result of experience gained following the Chernobyl accident. This Technical Document, the first report of the Group, addresses the subject of the deposition of airborne radionuclides into the urban environment. It summarizes not only the present status of modelling in this field, but also the results of a limited validation exercise that was performed under the auspices of VAMP. 42 refs, figs and tabs

  15. Alternative splicing of the human gene SYBL1 modulates protein domain architecture of longin VAMP7/TI-VAMP, showing both non-SNARE and synaptobrevin-like isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Franceschi Nicola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of intracellular vesicle trafficking is an ideal target to weigh the role of alternative splicing in shaping genomes to make cells. Alternative splicing has been reported for several Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment protein REceptors of the vesicle (v-SNAREs or of the target membrane (t-SNARES, which are crucial to intracellular membrane fusion and protein and lipid traffic in Eukaryotes. However, splicing has not yet been investigated in Longins, i.e. the most widespread v-SNAREs. Longins are essential in Eukaryotes and prototyped by VAMP7, Sec22b and Ykt6, sharing a conserved N-terminal Longin domain which regulates membrane fusion and subcellular targeting. Human VAMP7/TI-VAMP, encoded by gene SYBL1, is involved in multiple cell pathways, including control of neurite outgrowth. Results Alternative splicing of SYBL1 by exon skipping events results in the production of a number of VAMP7 isoforms. In-frame or frameshift coding sequence modifications modulate domain architecture of VAMP7 isoforms, which can lack whole domains or domain fragments and show variant or extra domains. Intriguingly, two main types of VAMP7 isoforms either share the inhibitory Longin domain and lack the fusion-promoting SNARE motif, or vice versa. Expression analysis in different tissues and cell lines, quantitative real time RT-PCR and confocal microscopy analysis of fluorescent protein-tagged isoforms demonstrate that VAMP7 variants have different tissue specificities and subcellular localizations. Moreover, design and use of isoform-specific antibodies provided preliminary evidence for the existence of splice variants at the protein level. Conclusions Previous evidence on VAMP7 suggests inhibitory functions for the Longin domain and fusion/growth promoting activity for the Δ-longin molecule. Thus, non-SNARE isoforms with Longin domain and non-longin SNARE isoforms might have somehow opposite regulatory functions

  16. Model description and evaluation of model performance, scenario S. Multiple pathways assessment of the IAEA/CEC co-ordinated research programme on validation of environmental model predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suolanen, V.

    1996-12-01

    A modelling approach was used to predict doses from a large area deposition of 137 Cs over southern and central Finland. The assumed deposition profile and quantity were both similar to those resulting from the Chernobyl accident. In the study, doses via terrestrial and aquatic environments have been analyzed. Additionally, the intermediate results of the study, such as concentrations in various foodstuffs and the resulting body burdents, were presented. The contributions of ingestion, inhalation and external doses to the total dose were estimated in the study. The considered deposition scenario formed a modelling exercise in the IAEA coordinated research programme on Validation of Environmental Model Predictions, the VAMP project. (21 refs.)

  17. Validation of models using Chernobyl fallout data from the Central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic. Scenario CB. First report of the VAMP Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group. Part of the IAEA/CEC Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The VAMP Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group is an international forum for the testing and comparison of model predictions. The emphasis is on evaluating transfer from the environment to human via all pathways which are relevant in the environment being considered. This document is the first report of the Group and contains the results of the first test exercise on the validation of multiple pathways assessment models using Chernobyl fallout data obtained from the Central Bohemia (CB) region of the Czech Republic (Scenario CB). The report includes the following three appendixes: Documentation and evaluation of model validation data used in scenario CB (3 papers), Description of models used in scenario CB (1 paper), Individual evaluations of model predictions for scenario CB (13 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs.

  18. Validation of models using Chernobyl fallout data from the Central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic. Scenario CB. First report of the VAMP Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group. Part of the IAEA/CEC Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The VAMP Multiple Pathways Assessment Working Group is an international forum for the testing and comparison of model predictions. The emphasis is on evaluating transfer from the environment to human via all pathways which are relevant in the environment being considered. This document is the first report of the Group and contains the results of the first test exercise on the validation of multiple pathways assessment models using Chernobyl fallout data obtained from the Central Bohemia (CB) region of the Czech Republic (Scenario CB). The report includes the following three appendixes: Documentation and evaluation of model validation data used in scenario CB (3 papers), Description of models used in scenario CB (1 paper), Individual evaluations of model predictions for scenario CB (13 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. The IAEA/CEC programme on validation of models for radionuclide transfer in terrestrial, aquatic and urban environments (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Templeton, W.L.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the application of radiological assessment models there is a continuous need to provide evidence of the reliability of model predictions. Ideally models should be developed and tested using data on the transfer of the nuclides of interest in the actual environment being modelled. Very often such measurements are not available and, in some cases, they are impossible to obtain. Reliance has usually to be placed on results taken from similar but different environmental conditions or from laboratory studies. Considerable use has been made of the environmental contamination that resulted from the fallout from the nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s for model development and testing. The very special opportunities that exist at the present time in the European parts of the USSR and in Europe generally for the acquisition of data sets appropriate for model testing and for the calibration of radiological assessment models have justified the establishment of an international programme aimed at collating the data from different countries and at co-ordinating work on model testing studies. The VAMP study began in 1988 and currently involves scientists from 23 countries. (VAMP is an acronym for Validation of Model Predictions). This report describes the aims, methods of work and progress of the four VAMP working groups (Terrestrial, Aquatic, Urban and Multiple Pathways)

  20. Exercise-induced increase in glucose transport, GLUT-4, and VAMP-2 in plasma membrane from human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Hargreaves, Mark; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    contractions may induce trafficking of GLUT-4-containing vesicles via a mechanism similar to neurotransmitter release. Our results demonstrate for the first time exercise-induced translocation of GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 to the plasma membrane of human muscle and increased sarcolemmal glucose transport.......A major effect of muscle contractions is an increase in sarcolemmal glucose transport. We have used a recently developed technique to produce sarcolemmal giant vesicles from human muscle biopsy samples obtained before and after exercise. Six men exercised for 10 min at 50% maximal O2 uptake (Vo2max...

  1. Effects of uncertainty in model predictions of individual tree volume on large area volume estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; James A. Westfall

    2014-01-01

    Forest inventory estimates of tree volume for large areas are typically calculated by adding model predictions of volumes for individual trees. However, the uncertainty in the model predictions is generally ignored with the result that the precision of the large area volume estimates is overestimated. The primary study objective was to estimate the effects of model...

  2. Spinal cord compression caused by anaplastic large cell lymphoma in an HIV infected individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Susheel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas occur with an increased frequency in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection. These are usually high-grade immunoblastic lymphomas and primary central nervous system lymphomas. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a distinct type of non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. It is uncommon in HIV infected individuals. We describe here an uncommon presentation of this relatively rare lymphoma in the form of spinal cord compression syndrome in a young HIV infected individual.

  3. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M. Siegford

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds.

  4. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, Janice M; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K; Daigle, Courtney L; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Hernandez, Carlos E; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J

    2016-02-02

    Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds.

  5. Modelling of the transfer of radiocaesium from deposition to lake ecosystems. Report of the VAMP aquatic working group. Part of the IAEA/CEC co-ordinated research programme on the validation of environmental model predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The environmental impact of releases of radionuclides from nuclear installations can be predicted using assessment models. For such assessments information on their reliability must be provided. Ideally models should be developed and tested using actual data on the transfer of the nuclides which are site specific for the environment being modelled. In the past, generic data have often been taken from environmental contamination that resulted from the fallout from the nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s or from laboratory experiments. However, it has always been recognized that there may be differences in the physico-chemical form of the radionuclides from these sources as compared to those that could be released from nuclear installations. Furthermore, weapons fallout was spread over time; it did not provide a single pulse which is generally used in testing models that predict time dependence. On the other hand, the Chernobyl accident resulted in a single pulse, which was detected and measured in a variety of environments throughout Europe. The acquisition of these new data sets justified the establishment of an international programme aimed at collating data from different IAEA Member States and at co-ordinating work on new model testing studies. The IAEA established a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Validation of Environmental Model Predictions' (VAMP). The principal objectives of the VAMP Co-ordinated Research Programme were: (a) To facilitate the validation of assessment models for radionuclide transfer in the terrestrial, aquatic and urban environments. It is envisaged that this will be achieved by acquiring suitable sets of environmental data from the results of the national research and monitoring programmes established following the Chernobyl release. (b) To guide, if necessary, environmental research and monitoring efforts to acquire data for the validation of models used to assess the most significant radiological exposure pathways

  6. Amyloid-β acts as a regulator of neurotransmitter release disrupting the interaction between synaptophysin and VAMP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Russell

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly evident that deficits in the cortex and hippocampus at early stages of dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD are associated with synaptic damage caused by oligomers of the toxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms behind these deficits are not fully understood. Here we provide evidence of a mechanism by which Aβ42 affects synaptic transmission regulating neurotransmitter release.We first showed that application of 50 nM Aβ42 in cultured neurones is followed by its internalisation and translocation to synaptic contacts. Interestingly, our results demonstrate that with time, Aβ42 can be detected at the presynaptic terminals where it interacts with Synaptophysin. Furthermore, data from dissociated hippocampal neurons as well as biochemical data provide evidence that Aβ42 disrupts the complex formed between Synaptophysin and VAMP2 increasing the amount of primed vesicles and exocytosis. Finally, electrophysiology recordings in brain slices confirmed that Aβ42 affects baseline transmission.Our observations provide a necessary and timely insight into cellular mechanisms that underlie the initial pathological events that lead to synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Our results demonstrate a new mechanism by which Aβ42 affects synaptic activity.

  7. Fish habitat selection in a large hydropeaking river: Strong individual and temporal variations revealed by telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Hervé; Plichard, Laura; Bergé, Julien; Pella, Hervé; Ovidio, Michaël; McNeil, Eric; Lamouroux, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Modeling individual fish habitat selection in highly variable environments such as hydropeaking rivers is required for guiding efficient management decisions. We analyzed fish microhabitat selection in the heterogeneous hydraulic and thermal conditions (modeled in two-dimensions) of a reach of the large hydropeaking Rhône River locally warmed by the cooling system of a nuclear power plant. We used modern fixed acoustic telemetry techniques to survey 18 fish individuals (five barbels, six catfishes, seven chubs) signaling their position every 3s over a three-month period. Fish habitat selection depended on combinations of current microhabitat hydraulics (e.g. velocity, depth), past microhabitat hydraulics (e.g. dewatering risk or maximum velocities during the past 15days) and to a lesser extent substrate and temperature. Mixed-effects habitat selection models indicated that individual effects were often stronger than specific effects. In the Rhône, fish individuals appear to memorize spatial and temporal environmental changes and to adopt a "least constraining" habitat selection. Avoiding fast-flowing midstream habitats, fish generally live along the banks in areas where the dewatering risk is high. When discharge decreases, however, they select higher velocities but avoid both dewatering areas and very fast-flowing midstream habitats. Although consistent with the available knowledge on static fish habitat selection, our quantitative results demonstrate temporal variations in habitat selection, depending on individual behavior and environmental history. Their generality could be further tested using comparative experiments in different environmental configurations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Christina M Wennerström

    Full Text Available Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time.A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979-2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA and large (LGA gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort.Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30-3.64 and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60-1.87 in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20-29 years were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99-1.46 in years 1979-1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04-2.51 in years 1989-1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm.Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life.

  9. Prediction of coronary artery calcium progression by FDG uptake of large arteries in asymptomatic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Park, Ki Seong; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gwang-ju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Jabin, Zeenat; Kim, Young Jae; Jeong, Geum-Cheol; Song, Minchul; Min, Jung-Joon; Bom, Hee-Seung [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Hyun Ju [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of the large arteries can predict coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in asymptomatic individuals. Ninety-six asymptomatic individuals who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and CAC scoring on the same day for health screening and follow-up CAC scoring ≥1 year after baseline studies (mean 4.3 years) were included. Vascular FDG uptake was measured and corrected for blood pool activity to obtain peak and average target-to-blood pool ratios (TBRpeak and TBRavg, respectively) for the carotid arteries, and ascending and abdominal aorta. CAC scores at baseline and follow-up of each individual were measured and absolute CAC change (ΔCAC), annual CAC change (ΔCAC/year), and annual CAC change rate (ΔCAC%/year) were calculated. CAC progression was defined as ΔCAC >0 for individuals with negative baseline CAC; ΔCAC/year ≥10 for those with baseline CAC of 0large arteries is

  10. LEGO-NMR spectroscopy: a method to visualize individual subunits in large heteromeric complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mund, Markus; Overbeck, Jan H; Ullmann, Janina; Sprangers, Remco

    2013-10-18

    Seeing the big picture: Asymmetric macromolecular complexes that are NMR active in only a subset of their subunits can be prepared, thus decreasing NMR spectral complexity. For the hetero heptameric LSm1-7 and LSm2-8 rings NMR spectra of the individual subunits of the complete complex are obtained, showing a conserved RNA binding site. This LEGO-NMR technique makes large asymmetric complexes accessible to detailed NMR spectroscopic studies. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of Creative Commons the Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  11. Electrical transport properties of large, individual NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Linfeng; Wu, Limin; Hu, Xinhua; Fang, Xiaosheng [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liao, Meiyong [Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-07

    Understanding the electrical transport properties of individual semiconductor nanostructures is crucial to advancing their practical applications in high-performance nanodevices. Large-sized individual nanostructures with smooth surfaces are preferred because they can be easily made into nanodevices using conventional photolithography procedures rather than having to rely on costly and complex electron-beam lithography techniques. In this study, micrometer-sized NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoplates are successfully prepared from their corresponding hydroxide precursor using a quasi-topotactic transformation. The Co/Ni atomic arrangement shows no changes during the transformation from the rhombohedral LDH precursor (space group R anti 3 m) to the cubic NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel (space group Fd anti 3 m), and the nanoplate retains its initial morphology during the conversion process. In particular, electrical transport within an individual NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoplate is further investigated. The mechanisms of electrical conduction in the low-temperature range (T < 100 K) can be explained in terms of the Mott's variable-range hopping model. At high temperatures (T > 100 K), both the variable-range hopping and nearest-neighbor hopping mechanisms contribute to the electrical transport properties of the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoplate. These initial results will be useful to understanding the fundamental characteristics of these nanoplates and to designing functional nanodevices from NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructures. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Stiffness of the large arteries in individuals with and without Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Rodrigues A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues1,2, Luan Cesar Coelho1, Washington LS Goncalves1,2, Sonia Alves Gouvea2, Maria José Rossi Vasconcellos1, Roberto S Cunha2, Glaucia R Abreu21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilBackground: Down syndrome is known to cause premature aging in several organ systems. However, it remains unclear whether this aging effect also affects the structure and function of the large arterial trunks. In this controlled study, the possibility of changes in the large arteries due to aging was evaluated in patients with Down syndrome.Methods: Eighty-two subjects of both genders were selected. The Down syndrome group had 41 active subjects consisting of 19 males and 22 females (mean age 21 ± 1, range 13–42 years without cardiovascular complications and who did not use vasoactive drugs. The control group consisted of 41 healthy individuals without trisomy 21 of the same gender and age as the Down syndrome group and who did not use vasoactive medication. Carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity was obtained as an index of aortic stiffness using an automatic noninvasive method.Results: Individuals with Down syndrome had significantly lower blood pressure than those in the control group. Systolic blood pressure for the Down syndrome group and control group was 106 ± 2 mmHg vs 117 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.001, respectively; diastolic blood pressure was 66 ± 2 mmHg vs 77 ± 2 mmHg (P <0.001; and mean arterial pressure was 80 ± 1 mmHg vs 90 ± 1 mmHg (P < 0.001. Only age and systolic blood pressure were shown to correlate significantly with pulse wave velocity, but the slopes of the linear regression curves of these two variables showed no significant difference between the two study groups. Pulse wave velocity, which was initially significantly lower in the Down syndrome group (7.51 ± 0.14 m/s vs

  13. Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolezani, Elaine Cristina; Costa-Hong, Valéria, E-mail: hong.valeria@gmail.com; Correia, Gustavo; Mansur, Alfredo José; Drager, Luciano Ferreira; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido [Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior{sup ®} device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01) and triglycerides (p = 0.02); intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01); diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.02); relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01) and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01), while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03). In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic blood pressure related to the carotid functional measure

  14. Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolezani, Elaine Cristina; Costa-Hong, Valéria; Correia, Gustavo; Mansur, Alfredo José; Drager, Luciano Ferreira; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years) with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior ® device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01) and triglycerides (p = 0.02); intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01); diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03) and age (p = 0.02); relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01) and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01), while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03). In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic blood pressure related to the carotid functional measure. The

  15. Determinants of Functional and Structural Properties of Large Arteries in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Tolezani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in the properties of large arteries correlate with higher cardiovascular risk. Recent guidelines have included the assessment of those properties to detect subclinical disease. Establishing reference values for the assessment methods as well as determinants of the arterial parameters and their correlations in healthy individuals is important to stratify patients. Objective: To assess, in healthy adults, the distribution of the values of pulse wave velocity, diameter, intima-media thickness and relative distensibility of the carotid artery, in addition to assessing the demographic and clinical determinants of those parameters and their correlations. Methods: This study evaluated 210 individuals (54% women; mean age, 44 ± 13 years with no evidence of cardiovascular disease. The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was measured with a Complior® device. The functional and structural properties of the carotid artery were assessed by using radiofrequency ultrasound. Results: The means of the following parameters were: pulse wave velocity, 8.7 ± 1.5 m/s; diameter, 6,707.9 ± 861.6 μm; intima-media thickness, 601 ± 131 μm; relative distensibility, 5.3 ± 2.1%. No significant difference related to sex or ethnicity was observed. On multiple linear logistic regression, the factors independently related to the vascular parameters were: pulse wave velocity, to age (p < 0.01 and triglycerides (p = 0.02; intima-media thickness, to age (p < 0.01; diameter, to creatinine (p = 0.03 and age (p = 0.02; relative distensibility, to age (p < 0.01 and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively. Pulse wave velocity showed a positive correlation with intima media thickness (p < 0.01 and with relative distensibility (p < 0.01, while diameter showed a positive correlation with distensibility (p = 0.03. Conclusion: In healthy individuals, age was the major factor related to aortic stiffness, while age and diastolic

  16. Technology and Teaching: Promoting Active Learning Using Individual Response Technology in Large Introductory Psychology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Christopher R.; Feldman, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Individual response technology (IRT), in which students use wireless handsets to communicate real-time responses, permits the recording and display of aggregated student responses during class. In comparison to a traditional class that did not employ IRT, students using IRT performed better on exams and held positive attitudes toward the…

  17. The effects of a stress-management training program in individuals at risk in the community at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, IGH; Emmelkamp, PMG; Sanderman, R

    In this study we examine the effects of a stress-management training program on individuals without serious (mental) health complaints but with an increased chance of developing them as a consequence of stress. Potential subjects were randomly selected from the community at large and, then screened

  18. The Role of Self-Monitoring in Assessing Individual Students' Quantity and Quality of Comments in Large-Class Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, B. A.; Wright, J. M.; Coles, J. T.; McCleary, L. N.; Williams, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a reliable and valid self-monitoring procedure for student use in recording and rating the quality of their individual comments in large college classes. Students used daily record cards immediately to record and rate each comment they made each day. However, a limit was set on the amount of credit students could claim for…

  19. Differences and effects of medium and large adult cuffs on blood pressure readings in individuals with muscular arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Reyes, Salvador; Fajardo-Flores, Ismael; Montes-Casillas, Mayra; Forsyth-Macquarrie, Avril

    2009-08-01

    This study analyzed systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) reading differences in individuals with muscular arms, using medium and large adult cuffs. Resting blood pressures (BPs) were measured in bodybuilders competing at the Mexican National Bodybuilding and Fitness Championship. The means of two bilateral simultaneous arm BP measurements were obtained using two different cuff sizes, 12 cm (medium adult) and 16 cm (large adult). A total of 193 bodybuilders completed the measurements. With an arm circumference greater than 33 cm, the SBP and DBP average taken with the medium adult cuff was higher than that obtained with the large adult cuff, 8.2+/-10.6 and 1.6+/-7.4 mmHg, respectively; however, a significant difference was observed only with the SBP. With the medium adult cuff, 48 of 144 individuals showed SBP at least 140 mmHg, whereas with the large adult cuff there were only 17 of 144 individuals. In those participants with an arm circumference less than 33 cm, the BP was nonsignificantly lower with the large cuff, -4.24+/-9.2 and -2.24+/-5.4 mmHg for the SBP and DBP, respectively. Incorrect cuffing of a muscular arm leads to significant errors in the measurement of SBP and DBP, similar to that observed in miscuffing of nonmuscular arms.

  20. Resection of large invasive pituitary adenomas with individualized approach under neuronavigator guidance:a report of 17 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-min CHENG; Jian-wen GU; Yong-qin KUANG; Wei-qi HE; Xue-min XING; Hai-dong HUANG; Yuan MA; Xun XIA; Tao YANG; Xiu-zhong ZHANG; Lin CHENG; Fan-jun ZENG

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the operative method and therapeutic efficacy of surgical resection of large invasive pituitary adenomas with individualized approach under neuronavigator guidance.Methods Seventeen patients(10 males and 7 females,aged from 22 to 78 years with a mean of 39.2±9.2 years) suffering from large invasive pituitary adenoma of higher than Hardy IV grade hospitalized from 2004 to 2009 were involved in the present study.All procedures were performed with the assistance of neuronavi...

  1. Longitudinal follow-up of individual white matter hyperintensities in a large cohort of elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, Pauline; Crivello, Fabrice; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie [Universite de Caen, Universite Paris Descartes, Centre d' Imagerie-Neurosciences et Applications aux Pathologies, CI-NAPS, UMR6232, CNRS, CEA, GIP Cyceron, Caen (France); Dufouil, Carole; Tzourio, Christophe [INSERM, Neuroepidemiologie U708, Paris (France); Mazoyer, Bernard [Universite de Caen, Universite Paris Descartes, Centre d' Imagerie-Neurosciences et Applications aux Pathologies, CI-NAPS, UMR6232, CNRS, CEA, GIP Cyceron, Caen (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); CHU, GIP Cyceron, Caen (France)

    2009-04-15

    We report on a method for the longitudinal follow-up of individual white matter hypersignals (WMH) and on its application to the study of WMH natural evolution in a cohort of 1,118 elderly over a 4-year period. For each subject, automated WMH detection was performed on T2-weighted MR images acquired both at baseline and at follow-up after registration in a common space. The detection algorithm was designed both to track WMH previously existing at baseline and to identify newly formed WMH. The average annual change in WMH load was found to be 0.25 cm{sup 3}/year, 36% of this change being attributable to newly formed WMH. Quantitative analyses showed that change in WMH was mainly explained by progression of juxtaventricular and periventricular WMH while the load of WMH in the deep white matter zones was found stable over 4 years of the study. Statistical parametric mapping confirmed these spatial WMH change distributions in the juxta- and periventricular zones. High blood pressure was not a significant predictor of the annual change in WMH. This study proposes a new scheme for the longitudinal study of WMH change by dissociating worsening of existent WMH from surfacing of new WMH and may thus contribute to help understanding and characterizing the neurological and etiological bases of these two processes and their potential differences. (orig.)

  2. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A. Andreeva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women, and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men, age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women. The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol was positively associated with BMI (men and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men, and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts.

  3. Assessing the radiological impact of past nuclear activities and events. Part of the IAEA/CEC co-ordinated research programme on the validation of environmental model predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The report is a compilation of papers presented during the July 1993 Special Plenary Session of the VAMP (Validation of Environmental Model Predictions). The papers are grouped in 4 chapters: Assessment in the vicinity of nuclear weapons test sites (4 papers), Assessment in the vicinity of nuclear weapons production facilities (2 papers), Post-Chernobyl dose assessment studies (4 papers) and Assessment in the vicinity of dumped radioactive waste (1 paper). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. The t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 but not v-SNARE VAMP2 are indispensable to tether GLUT4 vesicles at the plasma membrane in adipocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Tamori, Yoshikazu; Kanda, Hajime; Yoshikawa, Mari; Tateya, Sanshiro; Nishino, Naonobu; Kasuga, Masato

    2010-01-01

    SNARE proteins (VAMP2, syntaxin4, and SNAP23) have been thought to play a key role in GLUT4 trafficking by mediating the tethering, docking and subsequent fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane. The precise functions of these proteins have remained elusive, however. We have now shown that depletion of the vesicle SNARE (v-SNARE) VAMP2 by RNA interference in 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibited the fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the plasma membrane but did not affect tethering of the vesicles to the membrane. In contrast, depletion of the target SNAREs (t-SNAREs) syntaxin4 or SNAP23 resulted in impairment of GLUT4 vesicle tethering to the plasma membrane. Our results indicate that the t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 are indispensable for the tethering of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane, whereas the v-SNARE VAMP2 is not required for this step but is essential for the subsequent fusion event.

  5. Development and application of an optogenetic platform for controlling and imaging a large number of individual neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    The understanding and treatment of brain disorders as well as the development of intelligent machines is hampered by the lack of knowledge of how the brain fundamentally functions. Over the past century, we have learned much about how individual neurons and neural networks behave, however new tools are critically needed to interrogate how neural networks give rise to complex brain processes and disease conditions. Recent innovations in molecular techniques, such as optogenetics, have enabled neuroscientists unprecedented precision to excite, inhibit and record defined neurons. The impressive sensitivity of currently available optogenetic sensors and actuators has now enabled the possibility of analyzing a large number of individual neurons in the brains of behaving animals. To promote the use of these optogenetic tools, this thesis integrates cutting edge optogenetic molecular sensors which is ultrasensitive for imaging neuronal activity with custom wide field optical microscope to analyze a large number of individual neurons in living brains. Wide-field microscopy provides a large field of view and better spatial resolution approaching the Abbe diffraction limit of fluorescent microscope. To demonstrate the advantages of this optical platform, we imaged a deep brain structure, the Hippocampus, and tracked hundreds of neurons over time while mouse was performing a memory task to investigate how those individual neurons related to behavior. In addition, we tested our optical platform in investigating transient neural network changes upon mechanical perturbation related to blast injuries. In this experiment, all blasted mice show a consistent change in neural network. A small portion of neurons showed a sustained calcium increase for an extended period of time, whereas the majority lost their activities. Finally, using optogenetic silencer to control selective motor cortex neurons, we examined their contributions to the network pathology of basal ganglia related to

  6. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2015-07-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual's general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals' life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual's life satisfaction. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Resection of large invasive pituitary adenomas with individualized approach under neuronavigator guidance:a report of 17 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-min CHENG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the operative method and therapeutic efficacy of surgical resection of large invasive pituitary adenomas with individualized approach under neuronavigator guidance.Methods Seventeen patients(10 males and 7 females,aged from 22 to 78 years with a mean of 39.2±9.2 years suffering from large invasive pituitary adenoma of higher than Hardy IV grade hospitalized from 2004 to 2009 were involved in the present study.All procedures were performed with the assistance of neuronavigator via individualized pterion approach,subfrontal extradural approach,trans-sphenoidal approach,or combined approach.The dispersedly invasive pituitary adenomas were resected under the guidance of neuronavigator by fully utilizing the natural anatomical cleavages.All the patients received follow-up CT scanning 3 days after operation,MRI scanning 1 to 3 months after operation,and clinical follow-up ranged from 6 to 72 months.The resection extent and outcome were assessed by imaging examination and clinical results.Results Total tumor removal was achieved in 15 cases,subtotal removal in 1 case,and extensive partial removal in 1 case.The visual impairment and headache were ameliorated in most cases,but in 1 patient they were worsened.Transient diabetes insipidus occurred in 8 cases,electrolyte disturbances were observed in 2 cases,leakage of cerebrospinal fluid appeared in 2 cases,hyposmia in 2 cases,visual impairment aggravated in 1 case,oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve paralysis on the operative side in 1 case,epidural hematoma in occipital and parietal regions in 1 case.No patient died during the follow-up period.Conclusions Individualized surgical approach designed according to the growth direction of tumor under neuronavigator guidance is helpful for the operators to identify the vessels and nerves in the operative field distinctly during the operation,thus the total removal rate is improved,safely of the operation to remove large invasive pituitary

  8. Using the IGCRA (individual, group, classroom reflective action technique to enhance teaching and learning in large accountancy classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Poyatos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available First year accounting has generally been perceived as one of the more challenging first year business courses for university students. Various Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs have been proposed to attempt to enrich and enhance student learning, with these studies generally positioning students as learners alone. This paper uses an educational case study approach and examines the implementation of the IGCRA (individual, group, classroom reflective action technique, a Classroom Assessment Technique, on first year accounting students’ learning performance. Building on theoretical frameworks in the areas of cognitive learning, social development, and dialogical learning, the technique uses reports to promote reflection on both learning and teaching. IGCRA was found to promote feedback on the effectiveness of student, as well as teacher satisfaction. Moreover, the results indicated formative feedback can assist to improve the learning and learning environment for a large group of first year accounting students. Clear guidelines for its implementation are provided in the paper.

  9. Individual differences influence two-digit number processing, but not their analog magnitude processing: a large-scale online study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Soltanlou, Mojtaba

    2017-12-23

    Symbolic magnitude comparison is one of the most well-studied cognitive processes in research on numerical cognition. However, while the cognitive mechanisms of symbolic magnitude processing have been intensively studied, previous studies have paid less attention to individual differences influencing symbolic magnitude comparison. Employing a two-digit number comparison task in an online setting, we replicated previous effects, including the distance effect, the unit-decade compatibility effect, and the effect of cognitive control on the adaptation to filler items, in a large-scale study in 452 adults. Additionally, we observed that the most influential individual differences were participants' first language, time spent playing computer games and gender, followed by reported alcohol consumption, age and mathematical ability. Participants who used a first language with a left-to-right reading/writing direction were faster than those who read and wrote in the right-to-left direction. Reported playing time for computer games was correlated with faster reaction times. Female participants showed slower reaction times and a larger unit-decade compatibility effect than male participants. Participants who reported never consuming alcohol showed overall slower response times than others. Older participants were slower, but more accurate. Finally, higher grades in mathematics were associated with faster reaction times. We conclude that typical experiments on numerical cognition that employ a keyboard as an input device can also be run in an online setting. Moreover, while individual differences have no influence on domain-specific magnitude processing-apart from age, which increases the decade distance effect-they generally influence performance on a two-digit number comparison task.

  10. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large "generalist" apex predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E; Nifong, James C; Heithaus, Michael R; Mazzotti, Frank J; Cherkiss, Michael S; Jeffery, Brian M; Elsey, Ruth M; Decker, Rachel A; Silliman, Brian R; Guillette, Louis J; Lowers, Russell H; Larson, Justin C

    2015-05-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  11. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large “generalist” apex predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Nifong, James C.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Elsey, Ruth M.; Decker, Rachel A.; Silliman, Brian R.; Guillette, Louis J.; Lowers, Russell H.; Larson, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  12. Large variation in lipid content, ΣPCB and δ13C within individual Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Maria E.; Larsson, Per; Holmqvist, Niklas; Stenroth, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    Many studies that investigate pollutant levels, or use stable isotope ratios to define trophic level or animal origin, use different standard ways of sampling (dorsal, whole filet or whole body samples). This study shows that lipid content, ΣPCB and δ 13 C display large differences within muscle samples taken from a single Atlantic salmon. Lipid- and PCB-content was lowest in tail muscles, intermediate in anterior-dorsal muscles and highest in the stomach (abdominal) muscle area. Stable isotopes of carbon (δ 13 C) showed a lipid accumulation in the stomach muscle area and a depletion in tail muscles. We conclude that it is important to choose an appropriate sample location within an animal based on what processes are to be studied. Care should be taken when attributing persistent pollutant levels or stable isotope data to specific environmental processes before controlling for within-animal variation in these variables. - Lipid content, ΣPCB and δ 13 C vary to a large extent within Atlantic salmon, therefore, the sample technique for individual fish is of outmost importance for proper interpretation of data

  13. On the role of individualized Regge poles in forming refractive structures in light and heavy ion scattering at large angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznichenko, A.V.; Onyshchenko, G.M.; Pilipenko, V.V.; Burtebaev, N.; Zhurunbayeva, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of the refraction structures in cross sections of nuclear scattering is a well-known method of probing the interior parts of the interaction region of colliding nuclei and attracts much attention. During recent years essential success was achieved in the experimental studies of scattering of light and heavy ions in wide scattering angle range. The studies were carried out not only in the energy region with standard nuclear rainbow behavior but also at energies near and below the critical energy of nuclear rainbow E cr which revealed well pronounced refractive structures in the angular distributions of the processes studied including rainbow-like maximums and anomalous large angle scattering. To analyze evolution of the refraction effects with energy a new S-matrix model, which can supplement the results of the analyses on the basis of commonly used optical potential approach. The S-matrix model takes into account of some Regge poles near the real axis ('individualized' poles), which addresses the case of energies near and below E cr . Basing on developed model a number a scattering patterns for system α+A, 16 O+ 16 O and 16 O+ 12 C at different energy values have been analyzed. The comparison with results of optical model analyses have been made. The studies were complemented by the analysis on basis of the modified Fuller procedure of decomposition of cross sections into near and far components with removing unphysical contributions. The results of analysis performed suggest the conclusion that the observed refractive structures at large angles (both the rainbow-like ones and ALAS) at E≤E cr are strongly affected by the above mentioned individualized Regge poles. Strictly saying, the scattering in this energy region is not a pure rainbow one, but is of transition character. The arising Regge poles can be considered as a quantum analog for the transition to the orbiting regime in the case of classical scattering. The notch test of the sensitivity

  14. Brief report: large individual variation in outcomes of autistic children receiving low-intensity behavioral interventions in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Yoko; Haraguchi, Hideyuki; Miyake, Atsuko; Hiraiwa, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread awareness of the necessity of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), evidence is still limited, in part, due to the complex nature of ASDs. This exploratory study aimed to examine the change across time in young children with autism and their mothers, who received less intensive early interventions with and without applied behavior analysis (ABA) methods in community settings in Japan. Eighteen children with autism (mean age: 45.7 months; range: 28-64 months) received ABA-based treatment (a median of 3.5 hours per week; an interquartile range of 2-5.6 hours per week) and/or eclectic treatment-as-usual (TAU) (a median of 3.1 hours per week; an interquartile range of 2-5.6 hours per week). Children's outcomes were the severity of autistic symptoms, cognitive functioning, internalizing and externalizing behavior after 6 months (a median of 192 days; an interquartile range of 178-206 days). In addition, maternal parenting stress at 6-month follow-up, and maternal depression at 1.5-year follow-up (a median of 512 days; an interquartile range of 358-545 days) were also examined. Large individual variations were observed for a broad range of children's and mothers' outcomes. Neither ABA nor TAU hours per week were significantly associated with an improvement in core autistic symptoms. A significant improvement was observed only for internalizing problems, irrespective of the type, intensity or monthly cost of treatment received. Higher ABA cost per month (a median of 1,188 USD; an interquartile range of 538-1,888 USD) was associated with less improvement in language-social DQ (a median of 9; an interquartile range of -6.75-23.75). To determine an optimal program for each child with ASD in areas with poor ASD resources, further controlled studies are needed that assess a broad range of predictive and outcome variables focusing on both individual characteristics and treatment components.

  15. Heterozygosity in an isolated population of a large mammal founded by four individuals is predicted by an individual-based genetic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Kekkonen

    Full Text Available Within-population genetic diversity is expected to be dramatically reduced if a population is founded by a low number of individuals. Three females and one male white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, a North American species, were successfully introduced in Finland in 1934 and the population has since been growing rapidly, but remained in complete isolation from other populations.Based on 14 microsatellite loci, the expected heterozygosity H was 0.692 with a mean allelic richness (AR of 5.36, which was significantly lower than what was found in Oklahoma, U.S.A. (H = 0.742; AR = 9.07, demonstrating that a bottleneck occurred. Observed H was in line with predictions from an individual-based model where the genealogy of the males and females in the population were tracked and the population's demography was included.Our findings provide a rare within-population empirical test of the founder effect and suggest that founding a population by a small number of individuals need not have a dramatic impact on heterozygosity in an iteroparous species.

  16. Self-administered structured food record for measuring individual energy and nutrient intake in large cohorts: Design and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Silvia M; González, Claudio; Rucci, Enzo; Ambrosino, Cintia; Vidal, Julia; Fantuzzi, Gabriel; Prestes, Mariana; Kronsbein, Peter

    2018-06-05

    Several instruments developed to assess dietary intake of groups or populations have strengths and weaknesses that affect their specific application. No self-administered, closed-ended dietary survey was previously used in Argentina to assess current food and nutrient intake on a daily basis. To design and validate a self-administered, structured food record (NutriQuid, NQ) representative of the adult Argentine population's food consumption pattern to measure individual energy and nutrient intake. Records were loaded onto a database using software that checks a regional nutrition information system (SARA program), automatically quantifying energy and nutrient intake. NQ validation included two phases: (1) NQ construct validity comparing records kept simultaneously by healthy volunteers (45-75 years) and a nutritionist who provided meals (reference), and (2) verification of whether NQ reflected target population consumption (calories and nutrients), week consumption differences, respondent acceptability, and ease of data entry/analysis. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient, nonparametric regression, and cross-classification into quintiles. The first validation (study group vs. reference) showed an underestimation (10%) of carbohydrate, fat, and energy intake. Second validation: 109 volunteers (91% response) completed the NQ for seven consecutive days. Record completion took about 9min/day, and data entry 3-6min. Mean calorie intake was 2240±119kcal/day (42% carbohydrates, 17% protein, and 41% fat). Intake significantly increased in the weekend. NQ is a simple and efficient tool to assess dietary intake in large samples. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects of Individual versus Group Incentive Systems on Student Learning and Attitudes in a Large Lecture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Sya Azmeela Binti

    2012-01-01

    Promoting active learning among students may result in greater learning and more positive attitudes in university-level large lecture classes. One way of promoting active learning in large lecture classes is via the use of a think-pair-share instructional strategy, which combines student participation in class discussions via clicker technology…

  18. Endovascular thrombectomy after large-vessel ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from five randomised trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goyal, Mayank; Menon, Bijoy K.; van Zwam, Wim H.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Mitchell, Peter J.; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Dávalos, Antoni; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; van der Lugt, Aad; de Miquel, Maria A.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Bonafe, Alain; Jahan, Reza; Diener, Hans-Christoph; van den Berg, Lucie A.; Levy, Elad I.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Rempel, Jeremy; Millán, Mònica; Davis, Stephen M.; Roy, Daniel; Thornton, John; Román, Luis San; Ribó, Marc; Beumer, Debbie; Stouch, Bruce; Brown, Scott; Campbell, Bruce C. V.; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Hill, Michael D.; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, five randomised trials showed efficacy of endovascular thrombectomy over standard medical care in patients with acute ischaemic stroke caused by occlusion of arteries of the proximal anterior circulation. In this meta-analysis we, the trial investigators, aimed to pool individual patient

  19. Reconciling the Log-Linear and Non-Log-Linear Nature of the TSH-Free T4 Relationship: Intra-Individual Analysis of a Large Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Karen M; Brown, Suzanne J; Hadlow, Narelle C; Wardrop, Robert; Walsh, John P

    2016-03-01

    The TSH-T4 relationship was thought to be inverse log-linear, but recent cross-sectional studies report a complex, nonlinear relationship; large, intra-individual studies are lacking. Our objective was to analyze the TSH-free T4 relationship within individuals. We analyzed data from 13 379 patients, each with six or more TSH/free T4 measurements and at least a 5-fold difference between individual median TSH and minimum or maximum TSH. Linear and nonlinear regression models of log TSH on free T4 were fitted to data from individuals and goodness of fit compared by likelihood ratio testing. Comparing all models, the linear model achieved best fit in 31% of individuals, followed by quartic (27%), cubic (15%), null (12%), and quadratic (11%) models. After eliminating least favored models (with individuals reassigned to best fitting, available models), the linear model fit best in 42% of participants, quartic in 43%, and null model in 15%. As the number of observations per individual increased, so did the proportion of individuals in whom the linear model achieved best fit, to 66% in those with more than 20 observations. When linear models were applied to all individuals and averaged according to individual median free T4 values, variations in slope and intercept indicated a nonlinear log TSH-free T4 relationship across the population. The log TSH-free T4 relationship appears linear in some individuals and nonlinear in others, but is predominantly linear in those with the largest number of observations. A log-linear relationship within individuals can be reconciled with a non-log-linear relationship in a population.

  20. Individual variation in ontogenetic niche shifts in habitat use and movement patterns of a large estuarine predator (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matich, Philip; Heithaus, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Ontogenetic niche shifts are common among animals, yet most studies only investigate niche shifts at the population level, which may overlook considerable differences among individuals in the timing and dynamics of these shifts. Such divergent behaviors within size-/age-classes have important implications for the roles a population-and specific age-classes-play in their respective ecosystem(s). Using acoustic telemetry, we tracked the movements of juvenile bull sharks in the Shark River Estuary of Everglades National Park, Florida, and found that sharks increased their use of marine microhabitats with age to take advantage of more abundant resources, but continued to use freshwater and estuarine microhabitats as refuges from marine predators. Within this population-level ontogenetic niche shift, however, movement patterns varied among individual sharks, with 47 % of sharks exhibiting condition-dependent habitat use and 53 % appearing risk-averse regardless of body condition. Among sharks older than age 0, fifty percent made regular movements between adjacent regions of the estuary, while the other half made less predictable movements that often featured long-term residence in specific regions. Individual differences were apparently shaped by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including individual responses to food-risk trade-offs and body condition. These differences appear to develop early in the lives of bull sharks, and persist throughout their residencies in nursery habitats. The widespread occurrence of intraspecific variation in behavior among mobile taxa suggests it is important in shaping population dynamics of at least some species, and elucidating the contexts and timing in which it develops and persists is important for understanding its role within communities.

  1. Improving Large Cetacean Implantable Satellite Tag Designs to Maximize Tag Robustness and Minimize Health Effects to Individual Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    to Maximize Tag Robustness and Minimize Health Effects to Individual Animals Alexandre N. Zerbini Cascadia Research Collective 218 ½ 4 th Ave W...penetrating devices (Moore et al. 2013) will be evaluated through experiments on cetacean carcasses . These experiments along with existing information on tag...Objective (1) during laboratory experiments and in cetacean carcasses ; 3) Examine structural tissue damage in the blubber, sub-dermal sheath and muscle

  2. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries' severity (P accidents' severity in large construction industries.

  3. The Contribution of International Large-Scale Assessments to Educational Research: Combining Individual and Institutional Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strietholt, Rolf; Scherer, Ronny

    2018-01-01

    The present paper aims to discuss how data from international large-scale assessments (ILSAs) can be utilized and combined, even with other existing data sources, in order to monitor educational outcomes and study the effectiveness of educational systems. We consider different purposes of linking data, namely, extending outcomes measures,…

  4. Gaussian mixture modeling of hemispheric lateralization for language in a large sample of healthy individuals balanced for handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, Bernard; Zago, Laure; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Perchey, Guy; Mellet, Emmanuel; Petit, Laurent; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Hemispheric lateralization for language production and its relationships with manual preference and manual preference strength were studied in a sample of 297 subjects, including 153 left-handers (LH). A hemispheric functional lateralization index (HFLI) for language was derived from fMRI acquired during a covert sentence generation task as compared with a covert word list recitation. The multimodal HFLI distribution was optimally modeled using a mixture of 3 and 4 Gaussian functions in right-handers (RH) and LH, respectively. Gaussian function parameters helped to define 3 types of language hemispheric lateralization, namely "Typical" (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI values, 88% of RH, 78% of LH), "Ambilateral" (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0, 12% of RH, 15% of LH) and "Strongly-atypical" (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values, 7% of LH). Concordance between dominant hemispheres for hand and for language did not exceed chance level, and most of the association between handedness and language lateralization was explained by the fact that all Strongly-atypical individuals were left-handed. Similarly, most of the relationship between language lateralization and manual preference strength was explained by the fact that Strongly-atypical individuals exhibited a strong preference for their left hand. These results indicate that concordance of hemispheric dominance for hand and for language occurs barely above the chance level, except in a group of rare individuals (less than 1% in the general population) who exhibit strong right hemisphere dominance for both language and their preferred hand. They call for a revisit of models hypothesizing common determinants for handedness and for language dominance.

  5. Gaussian mixture modeling of hemispheric lateralization for language in a large sample of healthy individuals balanced for handedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Mazoyer

    Full Text Available Hemispheric lateralization for language production and its relationships with manual preference and manual preference strength were studied in a sample of 297 subjects, including 153 left-handers (LH. A hemispheric functional lateralization index (HFLI for language was derived from fMRI acquired during a covert sentence generation task as compared with a covert word list recitation. The multimodal HFLI distribution was optimally modeled using a mixture of 3 and 4 Gaussian functions in right-handers (RH and LH, respectively. Gaussian function parameters helped to define 3 types of language hemispheric lateralization, namely "Typical" (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI values, 88% of RH, 78% of LH, "Ambilateral" (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0, 12% of RH, 15% of LH and "Strongly-atypical" (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values, 7% of LH. Concordance between dominant hemispheres for hand and for language did not exceed chance level, and most of the association between handedness and language lateralization was explained by the fact that all Strongly-atypical individuals were left-handed. Similarly, most of the relationship between language lateralization and manual preference strength was explained by the fact that Strongly-atypical individuals exhibited a strong preference for their left hand. These results indicate that concordance of hemispheric dominance for hand and for language occurs barely above the chance level, except in a group of rare individuals (less than 1% in the general population who exhibit strong right hemisphere dominance for both language and their preferred hand. They call for a revisit of models hypothesizing common determinants for handedness and for language dominance.

  6. Booster: Development of a Toolbox for Triage of a Large Group of Individuals Exposed to Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepff, V.; Carrel, F.; Gmar, M.; Lemaire, H.; Carvajal, F.; Perez-Llopis, I.; Gaboriau, D.-C.; Morrison, C.-G.; Almasi, I.; Szabo, S.; Kovacs, A; Szeles, E.; Amgarou, K.; Menaa, N.; Morat, L.; Testard, I.; Ugolin, N.; Viau, M.; Becker, F.; Raskob, W.; Trybushnyi, D.; Vincze, A.

    2013-06-01

    The effective management of an event involving the exposure of a large number of people to radioactive material requires a mechanism for fast triage of exposed people. BOOSTER is a project founded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme, addressing this requirement. It is a capability project designed to provide an integrated system which could easily be deployed and used. For this purpose, the BOOSTER consortium, relying on the expertise of seven members, researches and develops new approaches to allow an effective and fast management of most kind of nuclear threats. BOOSTER System was designed to help first responders mitigating the crisis by providing the necessary information to quickly assess the radiological situation, to support triage staff in performing an efficient and fast categorization of the potentially affected victims, and to give medical staff crucial information for further treatment at medium or long term post-accident. (authors)

  7. Adult siblings of individuals with Down syndrome versus with autism: findings from a large-scale US survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, R M; Urbano, R C

    2007-12-01

    As adults with Down syndrome live increasingly longer lives, their adult siblings will most likely assume caregiving responsibilities. Yet little is known about either the sibling relationship or the general functioning of these adult siblings. Using a national, web-based survey, this study compared adult siblings of individuals with Down syndrome to siblings of individuals with autism in terms of a potential 'Down syndrome advantage' and changes across age of the brother/sister with disabilities. Two groups were examined, siblings of persons with Down syndrome (n = 284) and with autism (n = 176). The Adult Sibling Questionnaire measured the number and length of contacts between siblings and their brothers/sisters with disabilities; the warmth, closeness and positiveness of the sibling relationship; and the sibling's overall levels of perceived health, depression and rewards of being a sibling. Compared with siblings of brothers/sisters with autism, siblings of brothers/sisters with Down syndrome showed closer, warmer sibling relationships, along with slightly better health, lower levels of depressive symptoms and more contacts. Across age groups of the brother/sister with disabilities, both groups showed lessened contacts, with less close sibling relationships occurring when brothers/sisters with disabilities were aged 30-44 years and 45 years and older (in Down syndrome) and 45 years and older (in autism). Within both groups, closer sibling relationships were associated with more frequent and lengthy contacts, brothers/sisters with disabilities who were better at maintaining friendships and had lower levels of behavioural/emotional problems, and siblings who felt themselves more rewarded by being a sibling to a brother/sister with disabilities. In line with earlier work on families of children with disabilities, this study shows an advantage for siblings of adults with Down syndrome, in terms of both sibling relationships and of slightly better health and

  8. The energy efficiency behaviour of individuals in large organisations: A case study of a major UK infrastructure operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zierler, Rupert; Wehrmeyer, Walter; Murphy, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Energy consumption behaviours are gradually becoming better-understood. However, there is still a deficit in terms of knowledge of individuals’ energy-use behaviours in organisations, despite a variety of available theories. This paper addresses this need in three main stages, based on a survey among mid-level managers at a major infrastructure operator in Great Britain. Firstly, a principal components analysis is performed to identify key determinant constructs driving energy-efficient behaviours in organisations, revealing the importance of perceived benefit to the organisation and flexibility of existing performance goals and targets. Secondly, cluster analysis is undertaken, in an effort to identify differences in behavioural influences between demographic groups. These clusters highlight the heterogeneity of employee populations’ energy behaviours, demonstrating that assumptions cannot be made about these based on single responses to cross-industry surveys. Finally, a structural equation model of individuals’ energy use intentions and behaviours using the newly-identified constructs is developed, revealing some similarities with existing behavioural frameworks such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991). Implications for policymakers are then discussed, in terms of encouraging individual employees’ curtailment of energy consumption in organisations through tailored engagement programmes. - Highlights: • Individuals’ attitudes to energy use are observed in a rail infrastructure operator. • Principal components analysis identified 10 antecedent factors driving behaviour. • Cluster analysis identified 5 groups of staff with similar characteristics. • A new framework for understanding energy behaviours is proposed. • Employee engagement on energy issues should take a market segmentation approach.

  9. [Individual linkage of primary data with secondary and registry data within large cohort studies - capabilities and procedural proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmann, C; Ahrens, W; Kaaks, R; Pigeot, I; Swart, E; Jacobs, S

    2015-02-01

    Some German cohort studies have already linked secondary and registry data with primary data from interviews and medical examinations. This offers the opportunity to obtain more valid information by taking advantage of the strengths of these data synergistically and overcome their individual weaknesses at the same time. The potential and the requirements for linking secondary and registry data with primary data from cohort studies is described generally and illustrated by the example of the "German National Cohort" (GNC). The transfer and usage of secondary and registry data require that administrative and logistic efforts be made over the whole study period. In addition, rigid data protection regulations for using social data have to be observed. The particular strengths of secondary and registry data, namely their objectivity and independence from recall bias, add to the strengths of newly collected primary data and improve the assessment of morbidity endpoints, exposure history and need of patient care. Moreover, new insights on quality and on the added value of linking different data sources may be obtained. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying

    2015-01-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual’s general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals’ life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual’s life satisfaction. PMID:25406366

  11. The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Saeid; Rezaei, Hamid-Reza; Pompanon, François; Blum, Michael G. B.; Negrini, Riccardo; Naghash, Hamid-Reza; Balkız, Özge; Mashkour, Marjan; Gaggiotti, Oscar E.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Kence, Aykut; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Taberlet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of farming during the Neolithic transition, including the domestication of livestock, was a critical point in the evolution of human kind. The goat (Capra hircus) was one of the first domesticated ungulates. In this study, we compared the genetic diversity of domestic goats to that of the modern representatives of their wild ancestor, the bezoar, by analyzing 473 samples collected over the whole distribution range of the latter species. This partly confirms and significantly clarifies the goat domestication scenario already proposed by archaeological evidence. All of the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups found in current domestic goats have also been found in the bezoar. The geographic distribution of these haplogroups in the wild ancestor allowed the localization of the main domestication centers. We found no haplotype that could have been domesticated in the eastern half of the Iranian Plateau, nor further to the east. A signature of population expansion in bezoars of the C haplogroup suggests an early domestication center on the Central Iranian Plateau (Yazd and Kerman Provinces) and in the Southern Zagros (Fars Province), possibly corresponding to the management of wild flocks. However, the contribution of this center to the current domestic goat population is rather low (1.4%). We also found a second domestication center covering a large area in Eastern Anatolia, and possibly in Northern and Central Zagros. This last domestication center is the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today. This finding is consistent with archaeological data identifying Eastern Anatolia as an important domestication center. PMID:19004765

  12. Exploration of large, rare copy number variants associated with psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in individuals with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Szatkiewicz, Jin P; Crowley, James J; Ancalade, NaEshia; Brandys, Marek K; van Elburg, Annemarie; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Adan, Roger A H; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Gratacos, Monica; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Escaramis, Georgia; Gonzalez, Juan R; Estivill, Xavier; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sullivan, Patrick F; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious and heritable psychiatric disorder. To date, studies of copy number variants (CNVs) have been limited and inconclusive because of small sample sizes. We conducted a case-only genome-wide CNV survey in 1983 female AN cases included in the Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa. Following stringent quality control procedures, we investigated whether pathogenic CNVs in regions previously implicated in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders were present in AN cases. We observed two instances of the well-established pathogenic CNVs in AN cases. In addition, one case had a deletion in the 13q12 region, overlapping with a deletion reported previously in two AN cases. As a secondary aim, we also examined our sample for CNVs over 1 Mbp in size. Out of the 40 instances of such large CNVs that were not implicated previously for AN or neuropsychiatric phenotypes, two of them contained genes with previous neuropsychiatric associations, and only five of them had no associated reports in public CNV databases. Although ours is the largest study of its kind in AN, larger datasets are needed to comprehensively assess the role of CNVs in the etiology of AN.

  13. Anxiety can significantly explain bolus perception in the context of hypotensive esophageal motility: Results of a large multicenter study in asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, D; Scheerens, C; Omari, T; Monrroy, H; Hani, A; Leguizamo, A; Bilder, C; Ditaranto, A; Ruiz de León, A; Pérez de la Serna, J; Valdovinos, M A; Coello, R; Abrahao, L; Remes-Troche, J; Meixueiro, A; Zavala, M A; Marin, I; Serra, J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have not been able to correlate manometry findings with bolus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlation of different variables, including traditional manometric variables (at diagnostic and extreme thresholds), esophageal shortening, bolus transit, automated impedance manometry (AIM) metrics and mood with bolus passage perception in a large cohort of asymptomatic individuals. High resolution manometry (HRM) was performed in healthy individuals from nine centers. Perception was evaluated using a 5-point Likert scale. Anxiety was evaluated using Hospitalized Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). Subgroup analysis was also performed classifying studies into normal, hypotensive, vigorous, and obstructive patterns. One hundred fifteen studies were analyzed (69 using HRM and 46 using high resolution impedance manometry (HRIM); 3.5% swallows in 9.6% of volunteers were perceived. There was no correlation of any of the traditional HRM variables, esophageal shortening, AIM metrics nor bolus transit with perception scores. There was no HRM variable showing difference in perception when comparing normal vs extreme values (percentile 1 or 99). Anxiety but not depression was correlated with perception. Among hypotensive pattern, anxiety was a strong predictor of variance in perception (R 2 up to .70). Bolus perception is less common than abnormal motility among healthy individuals. Neither esophageal motor function nor bolus dynamics evaluated with several techniques seems to explain differences in bolus perception. Different mechanisms seem to be relevant in different manometric patterns. Anxiety is a significant predictor of bolus perception in the context of hypotensive motility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [The HIV infection - the limits of prevention concepts. Consideration with respect to responsibilities incumbent on the infected individual, politics and society at large].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennin, R H; Doese, D; Theobald, W; Lafrenz, M

    2007-04-01

    Despite the introduction of campaigns to prevent the continued spread of HIV/AIDS in Germany, the number of annual firsttime HIV-diagnoses is continuing steadily. The concepts behind the current campaigns are largely based on models of New Public Health, of which social learning strategies are an essential element. The established personal and individual rights should be unimpeachable but the right not to know the status of HIV infection should be questioned for those people who spread their HIV infection intentionally and wilfully. Confronted with more than 10,000 people in Germany unconscious of their HIV infection, easy access to HIV testing and access of opportune therapy should be offered with the goal of reducing the number of new infections. Expanded strategies on the responsibility to one's personal health and that of the partner, understandable and adapted to special groups of the society, should be established and maintained at a high level of awareness. All measures must be performed voluntarily.

  15. Assessing the general safety and tolerability of vildagliptin: value of pooled analyses from a large safety database versus evaluation of individual studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Anja; Dejager, Sylvie; Foley, James E; Kothny, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Analyzing safety aspects of a drug from individual studies can lead to difficult-to-interpret results. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess the general safety and tolerability, including incidences of the most common adverse events (AEs), of vildagliptin based on a large pooled database of Phase II and III clinical trials. Methods: Safety data were pooled from 38 studies of ≥12 to ≥104 weeks’ duration. AE profiles of vildagliptin (50 mg bid; N = 6116) were evaluated relative to a pool of comparators (placebo and active comparators; N = 6210). Absolute incidence rates were calculated for all AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), discontinuations due to AEs, and deaths. Results: Overall AEs, SAEs, discontinuations due to AEs, and deaths were all reported with a similar frequency in patients receiving vildagliptin (69.1%, 8.9%, 5.7%, and 0.4%, respectively) and patients receiving comparators (69.0%, 9.0%, 6.4%, and 0.4%, respectively), whereas drug-related AEs were seen with a lower frequency in vildagliptin-treated patients (15.7% vs 21.7% with comparators). The incidences of the most commonly reported specific AEs were also similar between vildagliptin and comparators, except for increased incidences of hypoglycemia, tremor, and hyperhidrosis in the comparator group related to the use of sulfonylureas. Conclusions: The present pooled analysis shows that vildagliptin was overall well tolerated in clinical trials of up to >2 years in duration. The data further emphasize the value of a pooled analysis from a large safety database versus assessing safety and tolerability from individual studies. PMID:21415917

  16. Assessing the general safety and tolerability of vildagliptin: value of pooled analyses from a large safety database versus evaluation of individual studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweizer A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anja Schweizer1, Sylvie Dejager2, James E Foley3, Wolfgang Kothny31Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 2Novartis Pharma SAS, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USAAim: Analyzing safety aspects of a drug from individual studies can lead to difficult-to-interpret results. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess the general safety and tolerability, including incidences of the most common adverse events (AEs, of vildagliptin based on a large pooled database of Phase II and III clinical trials.Methods: Safety data were pooled from 38 studies of ≥12 to ≥104 weeks' duration. AE profiles of vildagliptin (50 mg bid; N = 6116 were evaluated relative to a pool of comparators (placebo and active comparators; N = 6210. Absolute incidence rates were calculated for all AEs, serious AEs (SAEs, discontinuations due to AEs, and deaths.Results: Overall AEs, SAEs, discontinuations due to AEs, and deaths were all reported with a similar frequency in patients receiving vildagliptin (69.1%, 8.9%, 5.7%, and 0.4%, respectively and patients receiving comparators (69.0%, 9.0%, 6.4%, and 0.4%, respectively, whereas drug-related AEs were seen with a lower frequency in vildagliptin-treated patients (15.7% vs 21.7% with comparators. The incidences of the most commonly reported specific AEs were also similar between vildagliptin and comparators, except for increased incidences of hypoglycemia, tremor, and hyperhidrosis in the comparator group related to the use of sulfonylureas.Conclusions: The present pooled analysis shows that vildagliptin was overall well tolerated in clinical trials of up to >2 years in duration. The data further emphasize the value of a pooled analysis from a large safety database versus assessing safety and tolerability from individual studies.Keywords: type 2 diabetes, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, edema, safety, vildagliptin

  17. [ACG model can predict large consumers of health care. Health care resources can be used more wisely, individuals at risk can receive better care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Martin; Edenström, Marcus; Lundahl, Anneth; Björkman, Lars

    2015-03-17

    We describe a method, which uses already existent administrative data to identify individuals with a high risk of a large need of healthcare in the coming year. The model is based on the ACG (Adjusted Clinical Groups) system to identify the high-risk patients. We have set up a model where we combine the ACG system stratification analysis tool RUB (Resource Utilization Band) and Probability High Total Cost >0.5. We tested the method with historical data, using 2 endpoints, either >19 physical visits anywhere in the healthcare system in the coming 12 months or more than 2 hospital admissions in the coming 12 months. In the region of Västra Götaland with 1.6 million inhabitants, 5.6% of the population had >19 physical visits during a 12 month period and 1.2% more than 2 hospital admissions. Our model identified approximately 24,000 individuals of whom 25.7% had >19 physical visits and 11.6% had more than 2 hospital admissions in the coming 12 months. We now plan a small test in ten primary care centers to evaluate if the model should be introduced in the entire Västra Götaland region.

  18. The Human Salivary Microbiome Is Shaped by Shared Environment Rather than Genetics: Evidence from a Large Family of Closely Related Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Liam; Ribeiro, Andre L R; Levine, Adam P; Pontikos, Nikolas; Balloux, Francois; Segal, Anthony W; Roberts, Adam P; Smith, Andrew M

    2017-09-12

    The human microbiome is affected by multiple factors, including the environment and host genetics. In this study, we analyzed the salivary microbiomes of an extended family of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals living in several cities and investigated associations with both shared household and host genetic similarities. We found that environmental effects dominated over genetic effects. While there was weak evidence of geographical structuring at the level of cities, we observed a large and significant effect of shared household on microbiome composition, supporting the role of the immediate shared environment in dictating the presence or absence of taxa. This effect was also seen when including adults who had grown up in the same household but moved out prior to the time of sampling, suggesting that the establishment of the salivary microbiome earlier in life may affect its long-term composition. We found weak associations between host genetic relatedness and microbiome dissimilarity when using family pedigrees as proxies for genetic similarity. However, this association disappeared when using more-accurate measures of kinship based on genome-wide genetic markers, indicating that the environment rather than host genetics is the dominant factor affecting the composition of the salivary microbiome in closely related individuals. Our results support the concept that there is a consistent core microbiome conserved across global scales but that small-scale effects due to a shared living environment significantly affect microbial community composition. IMPORTANCE Previous research shows that the salivary microbiomes of relatives are more similar than those of nonrelatives, but it remains difficult to distinguish the effects of relatedness and shared household environment. Furthermore, pedigree measures may not accurately measure host genetic similarity. In this study, we include genetic relatedness based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rather than

  19. Individualized prevention against hypertension based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution Theory: A large community-based retrospective, STROBE-compliant study among Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Xin; Yin, Lu; Guo, Cheng-Xian; Liu, Chang; He, Yong-Mei; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution (TCMC) theory states that individuals with a biased TCMC are more likely to suffer from specific diseases. However, little is known regarding the influence of TCMC on susceptibility to hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the possible relationship between TCMC and hypertension. Retrospective evaluation and observation were performed using the STROBE guidelines checklist. A large community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2013 in Changsha, China. TCMC was assessed using a questionnaire that included 68 items. TCMC distributions and the associations of different TCMCs with hypertension risk were analyzed. In total, 144,439 subjects underwent evaluations of TCMC and blood pressure (BP). There were significant differences in the hypertension prevalence among the various TCMC groups (P medicine criteria; for example, phlegm wetness with hypertension was similar to obesity-related hypertension. Our results suggest that phlegm wetness, yin deficiency, blood stasis, and qi deficiency have different effects on the prevalence of hypertension. More attention should be paid to TCMCs associated with susceptibility to hypertension, and corresponding preventive and therapeutic treatments should be developed according to different TCMCs.

  20. Sensitivity of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography for advanced colorectal neoplasms: a large-scale analysis of 7505 asymptomatic screening individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Masau; Kakugawa, Yasuo; Terauchi, Takashi; Matsumoto, Minori; Saito, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yukio; Saito, Yutaka; Matsuda, Takahisa

    2016-12-01

    The sensitivity of 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for advanced colorectal neoplasms among healthy subjects is not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to clarify the sensitivity by analyzing large-scale data from an asymptomatic screening population. A total of 7505 asymptomatic screenees who underwent both FDG-PET and colonoscopy at our Cancer Screening Division between February 2004 and March 2013 were analyzed. FDG-PET and colonoscopy were performed on consecutive days, and each examination was interpreted in a blinded fashion. The results of the two examinations were compared for each of the divided six colonic segments, with those from colonoscopy being set as the reference. The relationships between the sensitivity of FDG-PET and clinicopathological features of advanced neoplasms were also evaluated. Two hundred ninety-one advanced neoplasms, including 24 invasive cancers, were detected in 262 individuals. Thirteen advanced neoplasms (advanced adenomas) were excluded from the analysis because of the coexistence of lesions in the same colonic segment. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of FDG-PET for advanced neoplasms were 16.9 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 12.7-21.8 %], 99.3 % (95 % CI 99.2-99.4 %), 13.5 % (95 % CI 10.1-17.6 %), and 99.4 % (95 % CI 99.3-99.5 %), respectively. The sensitivity was lower for lesions with less advanced histological grade, of smaller size, and flat-type morphology, and for those located in the proximal part of the colon. FDG-PET is believed to be difficult to use as a primary screening tool in population-based colorectal cancer screening because of its low sensitivity for advanced neoplasms. Even when it is used in opportunistic cancer screening, the limit of its sensitivity should be considered.

  1. CD4-dependent characteristics of coreceptor use and HIV type 1 V3 sequence in a large population of therapy-naive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Andrew J; Marchant, David; Brumme, Chanson J; Brumme, Zabrina L; Dong, Winnie; Sing, Tobias; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Gill, Vikram; Cheung, Peter K; Harrigan, P Richard

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the associations between coreceptor use, V3 loop sequence, and CD4 count in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort of chronically HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients. HIV coreceptor usage was determined in the last pretherapy plasma sample for 977 individuals initiating HAART in British Columbia, Canada using the Monogram Trofile Tropism assay. Relative light unit (RLU) readouts from the Trofile assay, as well as HIV V3 loop sequence data, were examined as a function of baseline CD4 cell count for 953 (97%) samples with both phenotype and genotype data available. Median CCR5 RLUs were high for both R5 and X4-capable samples, while CXCR4 RLUs were orders of magnitude lower for X4 samples (p < 0.001). CCR5 RLUs in R5 samples (N = 799) increased with decreasing CD4 count (p < 0.001), but did not vary with plasma viral load (pVL) (p = 0.74). In X4 samples (N = 178), CCR5 RLUs decreased with decreasing CD4 count (p = 0.046) and decreasing pVL (p = 0.097), while CXCR4 RLUs increased with decreasing pVL (p = 0.0008) but did not vary with CD4 (p = 0.96). RLUs varied with the presence of substitutions at V3 loop positions 11, 25, and 6-8. The prevalence and impact of substitutions at codons 25 and 6-8 were CD4 dependent as was the presence of amino acid mixtures in the V3; substitutions at position 11 were CD4 independent. Assay RLU measures predictably vary with both immunological and virological parameters. The ability to predict X4 virus using genotypic determinants at positions 25 and 6-8 of the V3 loop is CD4 dependent, while position 11 appears to be CD4 independent.

  2. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  3. An algorithm for identification and classification of individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a large primary care database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Manuj Sharma,1 Irene Petersen,1,2 Irwin Nazareth,1 Sonia J Coton,1 1Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Research into diabetes mellitus (DM often requires a reproducible method for identifying and distinguishing individuals with type 1 DM (T1DM and type 2 DM (T2DM.  Objectives: To develop a method to identify individuals with T1DM and T2DM using UK primary care electronic health records.  Methods: Using data from The Health Improvement Network primary care database, we developed a two-step algorithm. The first algorithm step identified individuals with potential T1DM or T2DM based on diagnostic records, treatment, and clinical test results. We excluded individuals with records for rarer DM subtypes only. For individuals to be considered diabetic, they needed to have at least two records indicative of DM; one of which was required to be a diagnostic record. We then classified individuals with T1DM and T2DM using the second algorithm step. A combination of diagnostic codes, medication prescribed, age at diagnosis, and whether the case was incident or prevalent were used in this process. We internally validated this classification algorithm through comparison against an independent clinical examination of The Health Improvement Network electronic health records for a random sample of 500 DM individuals.  Results: Out of 9,161,866 individuals aged 0–99 years from 2000 to 2014, we classified 37,693 individuals with T1DM and 418,433 with T2DM, while 1,792 individuals remained unclassified. A small proportion were classified with some uncertainty (1,155 [3.1%] of all individuals with T1DM and 6,139 [1.5%] with T2DM due to unclear health records. During validation, manual assignment of DM type based on clinical assessment of the entire electronic record and algorithmic assignment led to equivalent classification

  4. Psychological resilience after Hurricane Sandy: the influence of individual- and community-level factors on mental health after a large-scale natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Sampson, Laura; Gruebner, Oliver; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Several individual-level factors are known to promote psychological resilience in the aftermath of disasters. Far less is known about the role of community-level factors in shaping postdisaster mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of both individual- and community-level factors on resilience after Hurricane Sandy. A representative sample of household residents (N = 418) from 293 New York City census tracts that were most heavily affected by the storm completed telephone interviews approximately 13-16 months postdisaster. Multilevel multivariable models explored the independent and interactive contributions of individual- and community-level factors to posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms. At the individual-level, having experienced or witnessed any lifetime traumatic event was significantly associated with higher depression and posttraumatic stress, whereas demographic characteristics (e.g., older age, non-Hispanic Black race) and more disaster-related stressors were significantly associated with higher posttraumatic stress only. At the community-level, living in an area with higher social capital was significantly associated with higher posttraumatic stress. Additionally, higher community economic development was associated with lower risk of depression only among participants who did not experience any disaster-related stressors. These results provide evidence that individual- and community-level resources and exposure operate in tandem to shape postdisaster resilience.

  5. Clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility among overweight and obese individuals with diarrhea: observed at a large diarrheal disease hospital, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumon Kumar Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and etiology of overweight and obese (OO individuals with diarrhea attending an urban Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research (icddr,b, Bangladesh. METHODS: Total of 508 under-5 children, 96 individuals of 5-19 years and 1331 of >19 years were identified as OO from the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System (DDSS between 1993-2011. Two comparison groups such as well-nourished and malnourished individuals from respective age stratums were selected. RESULTS: Isolation rate of rotavirus was higher among OO under-5 children compared to malnourished group (46% vs. 28%. Rotavirus infection among OO individuals aged 5-19 years (9% vs. 3% (9% vs. 3% and >19 years (6% vs. 4% (6% vs. 3% was higher compared to well-nourished and malnourished children. Conversely, Vibrio cholerae was lower among all OO age groups compared to well-nourished and malnourished ones. Shigella (4% vs. 6% (4% vs. 8%, and Campylobacter (3% vs. 5% (3% vs. 5% were lower only among OO in >19 years individuals compared to their counterparts of the same age stratum. Salmonella was similarly isolated in all age strata and nutritional groups. In multinomial logistic regression among under-5 children, significant association was observed only with use of antimicrobials at home [OR-1.97] and duration of hospital stay [OR-0.68]. For individuals aged 5-19 years, use of antimicrobials at home (OR-1.83, some or severe dehydration (OR-3.12, having received intravenous saline (OR-0.46 and rotavirus diarrhea (OR-2.96 were found to be associated with OO respectively. Moreover, significant associations were also found for duration of diarrhea before coming to hospital (>24 hours (OR-1.24, Shigella (OR-0.46, and Campylobacter (OR-0.58 among >19 years OO individuals along with other associated co-variates in 5-19 years group (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Higher proportion of OO were

  6. Large-scale international validation of the ADO index in subjects with COPD: an individual subject data analysis of 10 cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhan, Milo A; Hansel, Nadia N; Sobradillo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little evidence on the validity of simple and widely applicable tools to predict mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists.Objective: To conduct a large international study to validate the ADO index that uses age, dyspnoea and FEV1 to predict 3-yea...

  7. Report on a workshop on the application of thermoluminescence dosimetry to large scale individual monitoring, Ispra, 11-13 September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthe, J.R.; Christensen, P.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Marshall, T.O.; Harvey, J.R.; Julius, H.W.; Marshall, M.; Oberhoffer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The workshop was held for the benefit of those actually involved in the operation of large scale automatic thermoluminescence dosimetry systems. It was organised around three overall themes subdivided into 13 subject headings: External constraints: User requirements, Quantities and Units, Legal requirements, Testing, Intercomparisons; Dosimetry systems: Materials, Dosemeter design, Reading systems, Annealing procedures, Rogue readings; Management: Distribution and organisation, Reporting and record keeping, Financial aspects. (author)

  8. Science teachers’ individual and social learning related to IBSE in the frames of a large-scale, long-term, collaborative TPD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Sillasen, Martin

    of collaborative inquiries locally. A major theme in the first year has been Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE) recommended as a focus to improve science education internationally. The research presented focuses on the participating teachers’ intertwined levels of individual and social learning. Data from...... repeated surveys and case studies reveal a positive attitude towards trying IBSE in the own classroom, however with the main part of the reflections focused on students’ hands-on experiences and fewer including students manipulating science ideas, like posing hypotheses. Teachers’ reflections indicate......It is acknowledged internationally that teachers’ Professional Development (TPD) is crucial for reforming science teaching. The Danish QUEST project (“Qualifying in-service Education of Science Teachers”) is designed using widely agreed criteria for effective TPD: content focus, active learning...

  9. Individual variation of sap-flow rate in large pine and spruce trees and stand transpiration: a pilot study at the central NOPEX site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čermák, J.; Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Lindroth, A.; Bednářová, E.

    1995-06-01

    Transpiration in a mixed old stand of sub-boreal forest in the Norunda region (central Sweden) was estimated on the basis of direct measurement of sap flow rate in 24 large Scots pine and Norway spruce trees in July and August 1993. Sap flow rate was measured using the trunk tissue heat balance method based on internal (electric) heating and sensing of temperature. Transpiration was only 0.7 mm day -1 in a relatively dry period in July (i.e. about 20% of potential evaporation) and substantially higher after a rainy period in August. The error of the estimates of transpiration was higher during a dry period (about 13% and 22% in pine and spruce, respectively) and significantly lower (about 9% in both species) during a period of sufficient water supply. Shallow-rooted spruce trees responded much faster to precipitation than deeply rooted pines.

  10. [Transciptome among Mexicans: a large scale methodology to analyze the genetics expression profile of simultaneous samples in muscle, adipose tissue and lymphocytes obtained from the same individual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastarrachea, Raúl A; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Kent, Jack W; Laviada-Molina, Hugo A; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Torres-Salazar, Amada; Torres-Salazar, Amanda; Nava-González, Edna J; Solis-Pérez, Elizabeth; Gallegos-Cabrales, Esther C; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2008-01-01

    We describe the methodology used to analyze multiple transcripts using microarray techniques in simultaneous biopsies of muscle, adipose tissue and lymphocytes obtained from the same individual as part of the standard protocol of the Genetics of Metabolic Diseases in Mexico: GEMM Family Study. We recruited 4 healthy male subjects with BM1 20-41, who signed an informed consent letter. Subjects participated in a clinical examination that included anthropometric and body composition measurements, muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) subcutaneous fat biopsies anda blood draw. All samples provided sufficient amplified RNA for microarray analysis. Total RNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and amplified for analysis. Of the 48,687 transcript targets queried, 39.4% were detectable in a least one of the studied tissues. Leptin was not detectable in lymphocytes, weakly expressed in muscle, but overexpressed and highly correlated with BMI in subcutaneous fat. Another example was GLUT4, which was detectable only in muscle and not correlated with BMI. Expression level concordance was 0.7 (p< 0.001) for the three tissues studied. We demonstrated the feasibility of carrying out simultaneous analysis of gene expression in multiple tissues, concordance of genetic expression in different tissues, and obtained confidence that this method corroborates the expected biological relationships among LEPand GLUT4. TheGEMM study will provide a broad and valuable overview on metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used together with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manual to provide adequate training, instruction or information on individual monitoring for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiations. Sources of ionizing radiation have a large number of applications in the workplace. The exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with individual monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Manual can only be provided by qualified experts

  12. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  13. Individual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  14. Individualizing Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  15. Collective individualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    at a construction site. An ethnographic fieldwork, in which the researcher worked as an apprentice, will provide detailed and experiencenear insights into the complexity of these processes. Findings show that individualist and collectivist preferences influence the amount of risk the individual worker will assume...

  16. Individualized Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, R.

    2000-08-29

    The recent focus of microelectromechanical-systems (MEMS) based instrumentation has largely dealt with increasing the throughput of established processes, including drug screening/drug discovery/combinatorial chemistry, or the miniaturization of accepted bench-top instruments. The miniaturization and automation of procedures that were previously performed manually are included in these activities. We suggest that BioMEMS instrumentation will adopt an additional direction, that of providing information and capabilities to the physician that are not available, today.

  17. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  18. Comment on “An algorithm for identification and classification of individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a large primary care database”, written by Sharma et al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocquet V

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Valéry Bocquet Competence Center for Methodology and Statistics, Luxembourg Institute of Health, LuxembourgDiabetes is a disease whose global prevalence has been rising year after year, and by 2014 more than 400 million individuals were diagnosed with diabetes.1 As a consequence, screening of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes has become important, both to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and to treat affected individuals. For that purpose, a two-step algorithm suggested by Sharma et al2 was recently published, whose aims were to identify type 1 or type 2 individuals from a primary care database. The first step of the algorithm was based on the diagnostic records, treatment given, and results obtained from clinical tests. The second part was based on the combination of diagnostic codes, prescribed medications, age at the time of diagnosis, and finally whether the case was prevalent or incident.View original paper by Sharma et al

  19. Individually Controlled Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and inhaled air quality in buildings to which occupants are exposed has an effect on their health, comfort, performance and productivity. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform environment. However, large...... individual differences in physiological and psychological response, clothing insulation, activity, preference for air temperature and movement, etc., exist between people. Environmental conditions acceptable for most of the occupants in buildings may be achieved by providing each occupant...

  20. Individual Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Santurette

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR, held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium.

  1. Measures for instantaneous voltage drop and UPS market (activities of individual companies). Technology development of large-capacity UPS system; Shunji den`atsu teika taisaku to UPS shijo. Daiyoryo UPS system no gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoki, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes development of large-capacity UPS (uninterruptive power source) for large-capacity computer systems by Fuji Electric. This UPS is composed of a rectifier, inverter, transformer, and ac filter. The rectifier and inverter are composed of the same IGBT power modules. The IGBT power module has an integrated structure consisting of IGBT, gate driving circuit, snubber circuit, electrolytic capacitor, cooling fin, and fuse. Downsizing of snubber circuit and improvement of mounting efficiency were realized by developing a large current substrate with small wiring inductance. Advanced input/output performance and control characteristics of USP were realized by the digital control using RISC and DSP of high-speed processor. For the inverter control algorithm, PWM pulse can be calculated using parameters derived from the state equation of the main circuit constants. The output voltage distortion factor less than 5% was realized at the nonlinear load of 100%. The UPS systems in the out-sourcing business and large-scale business center are illustrated as examples. 6 figs.

  2. Unsafe sex in regular partnerships among heterosexual persons living with HIV: evidence from a large representative sample of individuals attending outpatients services in France (ANRS-EN12-VESPA Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Préau, Marie; Lert, France; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Schiltz, Marie-Ange; Obadia, Yolande; Spire, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour remains frequent among people living with HIV. We analysed factors associated with unsafe sex within serodiscordant couples among heterosexual individuals living with HIV in France. In 2003, a face-to-face survey was conducted among individuals selected in a random stratified sample of 102 French hospital departments delivering HIV care. This analysis included adults heterosexual participants in a regular partnership for at least 12 months with a seronegative/unknown serostatus partner, HIV-diagnosed for at least 12 months. Unsafe sex was defined as reporting inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Among men and women, participants who reported unsafe sex were compared with those who did not. 663 heterosexual adults reported being in a serodiscordant regular partnership. Women accounted for 41% of participants and 26% of the sample were immigrants. Unsafe sex with the steady partner was reported by 26% of men and 34% of women (p=0.024). For men, factors independently associated with unsafe sex were being in a relationship for more than 10 years, being in a difficult financial situation and reporting regular consumption of alcohol to excess. Among women, having a history of drug use, not being aware of partner's serostatus, and reporting a difficult financial situation were independently associated with unsafe sex. In addition, immigrant women were associated with safer sex. A high number of serodiscordant couples continue to report risky sexual behaviour, and related factors are gender-specific. Couple-level interventions are essential in order to prevent HIV-transmission and to encourage negotiation within couples.

  3. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  4. Individualization of poverty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2015-01-01

    The German Sociologist Ulrich Beck is best known for his book “Risk Society” which has been discussed extensively; however Beck’s claims about modern poverty have not received the same attention among poverty researchers. The individualization perspective views poverty as a relatively transient...... phenomenon and the democratization perspective views the risk of poverty as spread equally in the population. Both perspectives challenge the mainstream tradition of class analysis, and therefore both view poverty as largely independent of traditional stratification factors. In this article, I argue...

  5. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  6. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  7. The Local Bias of Individual Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Zhu

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates individual investors' bias towards nearby companies. Using data from a large U.S. discount brokerage, we find that individual investors tend to invest in companies closer to them relative to the market portfolio. Unlike Coval and Moskowitz's (1999) findings on institutional investors, however, we find that advantageous information cannot explain individual investors' local bias. Accounting numbers and information asymmetry matter less to individual investors' local bia...

  8. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  9. Individual Search and Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Goyal; Stephanie Rosenkranz; Utz Weitzel; Vincent Buskens

    2014-01-01

    The explosion in online social networks motivates an enquiry into their structure and their welfare effects. A central feature of these networks is information sharing: online social networks lower the cost of getting information from others. These lower costs affect the attractiveness of individual search vis-a-vis a reliance on social networks. The paper reports the findings of an experiment on these effects. Our experiment shows that online networks can have large effects. Information acqu...

  10. Individual Recognition in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Personal relationships are the cornerstone of vertebrate societies, but insect societies are either too large for individual recognition, or their members were assumed to lack the necessary cognitive abilities 1 and 2 . This paradigm has been challenged by the recent discovery that paper wasps...... recognize each other's unique facial color patterns [3] . Individual recognition is advantageous when dominance hierarchies control the partitioning of work and reproduction 2 and 4 . Here, we show that unrelated founding queens of the ant Pachycondyla villosa use chemical cues to recognize each other...... individually. Aggression was significantly lower in pairs of queens that had previously interacted than in pairs with similar social history but no experience with one another. Moreover, subordinates discriminated familiar and unfamiliar dominants in choice experiments in which physical contact, but not odor...

  11. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  12. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  13. The neurobiology of individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  14. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    expressed effects, such as turbidity and water quality, zooplankton density and size composition, or fish growth rates and assemblage composition, are the upshot of large-scale factors operating outside reservoirs and not under the direct control of reservoir managers. Realistically, abiotic and biotic conditions in reservoirs are shaped by factors working inside and outside reservoirs, with the relative importance of external factors differing among reservoirs. With this perspective, large reservoirs are viewed from a habitat standpoint within the framework of a conceptual model in which individual reservoir characteristics are influenced by both local- and landscape-scale factors (Figure 17.1). In the sections that follow, how each element of this hierarchical model influences habitat and fish assemblages in reservoirs is considered. Important in-reservoir habitat issues and reservoirs as part of larger systems, where reservoir management requires looking for real solutions outside individual reservoirs are described.

  15. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  16. Annotating individual human genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A; Topol, Eric J; Schork, Nicholas J

    2011-10-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to rapidly, accurately and affordably sequence entire individual human genomes. As impressive as this ability seems, however, it will not likely amount to much if one cannot extract meaningful information from individual sequence data. Annotating variations within individual genomes and providing information about their biological or phenotypic impact will thus be crucially important in moving individual sequencing projects forward, especially in the context of the clinical use of sequence information. In this paper we consider the various ways in which one might annotate individual sequence variations and point out limitations in the available methods for doing so. It is arguable that, in the foreseeable future, DNA sequencing of individual genomes will become routine for clinical, research, forensic, and personal purposes. We therefore also consider directions and areas for further research in annotating genomic variants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ANNOTATING INDIVIDUAL HUMAN GENOMES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamani, Ali; Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; Topol, Eric J.; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to rapidly, accurately and affordably sequence entire individual human genomes. As impressive as this ability seems, however, it will not likely to amount to much if one cannot extract meaningful information from individual sequence data. Annotating variations within individual genomes and providing information about their biological or phenotypic impact will thus be crucially important in moving individual sequencing projects forward, especially in the context of the clinical use of sequence information. In this paper we consider the various ways in which one might annotate individual sequence variations and point out limitations in the available methods for doing so. It is arguable that, in the foreseeable future, DNA sequencing of individual genomes will become routine for clinical, research, forensic, and personal purposes. We therefore also consider directions and areas for further research in annotating genomic variants. PMID:21839162

  18. Bankruptcy of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionina M. B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the bankruptcy of individuals under the Federal Law "On Insolvency (Bankruptcy", the Federal Law "On Amendments to the Federal Law "On Insolvency (Bankruptcy" and some legislative acts of the Russian Federation regarding regulation of rehabilitation procedures applicable to an individual debtor. The author analyzes the main ways to address the issue of the bankruptcy of an individual, identifies risks for both a bankrupt and credit institutions

  19. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  20. Protection of large capacitor banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.C.; Lovell, T.W.

    1982-06-01

    Large capacitor banks, as used in many pulsed plasma experiments, are subject to catastrophic failure in the event of a short in the output or in an individual capacitor. Methods are described for protecting such banks to minimize the damage and down-time caused by such a failure

  1. Global Increases in Individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Henri C; Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Individualism appears to have increased over the past several decades, yet most research documenting this shift has been limited to the study of a handful of highly developed countries. Is the world becoming more individualist as a whole? If so, why? To answer these questions, we examined 51 years of data on individualist practices and values across 78 countries. Our findings suggest that individualism is indeed rising in most of the societies we tested. Despite dramatic shifts toward greater individualism around the world, however, cultural differences remain sizable. Moreover, cultural differences are primarily linked to changes in socioeconomic development, and to a lesser extent to shifts in pathogen prevalence and disaster frequency.

  2. On American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谷雨

    2016-01-01

    Among those American symbols like multiculturalism, hi-tech and its powerful status in the world, an important representative one is its individualism. This paper will briefly discuss it based on daily matters.

  3. Individual titanium zygomatic implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhoroshev, M. V.; Ryabov, K. N.; Avdeev, E. V.

    2018-03-01

    Custom individual implants for the reconstruction of craniofacial defects have gained importance due to better qualitative characteristics over their generic counterparts – plates, which should be bent according to patient needs. The Additive Manufacturing of individual implants allows reducing cost and improving quality of implants. In this paper, the authors describe design of zygomatic implant models based on computed tomography (CT) data. The fabrication of the implants will be carried out with 3D printing by selective laser melting machine SLM 280HL.

  4. Individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1987-01-01

    The most important concepts and development in individual neutron dosimetry are presented, especially the dosimetric properties of the albedo technique. The main problem in albedo dosimetry is to calibrate the dosemeter in the environs of each neutron source. Some of the most used calibration techniques are discussed. The IRD albedo dosemeter used in the routine neutron individual monitoring is described in detail. Its dosimetric properties and calibration methods are discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. Individual Dosimetry for High Energy Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of individuals on board aircraft increased interest in individual dosimetry in high energy radiation fields. These fields, both in the case of cosmic rays as primary radiation and at high energy particle accelerators are complex, with a large diversity of particle types, their energies, and linear energy transfer (LET). Several already existing individual dosemeters have been tested in such fields. For the component with high LET (mostly neutrons) etched track detectors were tested with and without fissile radiators, nuclear emulsions, bubble detectors for both types available and an albedo dosemeter. Individual dosimetry for the low LET component has been performed with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), photographic film dosemeters and two types of electronic individual dosemeters. It was found that individual dosimetry for the low LET component was satisfactory with the dosemeters tested. As far as the high LET component is concerned, there are problems with both the sensitivity and the energy response. (author)

  6. Individual versus Peer Grit: Influence on Later Individual Literacy Achievement of Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Colleen R.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine individual versus classroom peer effects of grit on later individual literacy achievement in elementary school. The dual language learner, largely Latina/o sample included students from the 3rd through the 5th grades. Participants completed a literacy achievement performance task…

  7. INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana NIKOLIKJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion, as a process of enrolling of children with disability in regular schools, demands obligation for adequate preparing regular schools, teachers, pupils and their parents for accepting those children. It, also, means that special services must be prepared to help teachers and children with disability too, in an adequate way. The first and most important step is developing of Individualized education programs (IEP.The purpose of IEP is to provide a disabled child with specialized or individualized assistance in school. In order an IEP to be developed for a child, it is necessary to evaluate a child, and than to determine goals of individual achievements for every pupil with disability.The aim of this paper is to show one of many ways for construction IEP. The paper will give some examples of IEP recommendation (general and special, goals and steps to determine programs and types of services.

  8. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual DosimetryWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MAY/JUNE will be available from their usual dispatchers on Tuesday 2 May.Please have your films changed before the 12 May.The colour of the dosimeter valid in is MAY/JUNE is YELLOW.Individual Dosimetry Service will be closed on Friday 28 April.

  9. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C

    2010-01-01

    and environmental cues such as temperature and echolocation. We hypothesize that by limiting these cues, blind individuals will lose their advantage compared with controls in spatial navigation tasks. We therefore evaluated the performance of blind and sighted individuals in small-scale, tactile multiple T mazes....... Our results show that blindfolded sighted controls outperformed blind participants in the route-learning tasks. This suggests that, contrary to indoor large-scale spaces, navigational skills inside small-scale spaces benefit from visual experience....

  10. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  11. Individual cybercrime offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weulen Kranenbarg, Marleen; van der Laan, André; de Poot, C.J.; Verhoeven, Maite; van der Wagen, Wytske; Weijters, Gijs; Leukfeldt, Rutger

    2017-01-01

    Weulen Kranenbarg, M., Laan, A. van der, Poot, C. de, Verhoeven, M., Wagen, W. van der, Weijters, G. (2017). Individual Cybercrime Offenders. In E.R. Leukfeldt (Ed.), Research Agenda: The Human Factor in Cybercrime and Cybersecurity. Den Haag: Eleven International Publishing.

  12. Cognitive Style: Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1989-01-01

    A literature review describes several dimensions of cognitive styles in an effort to illustrate individual stylistic differences. Discusses the field dependence-independence dimension, taking into account age, sex, and cultural differences. Suggests that cognitive style theory needs to be structured in a broader theoretical framework. (NH)

  13. Mourning as individual chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motives for preparing this paper, are personal and professional, there is mutual interference. Ending of the paper is considered as synchronicity, in author s personal mourning. A mourning, as hard experience, but also as a chance for development, integration of somebody s own capacities, embodied in relationship with another, is close connected with individuation, that is represented as spontaneous, unconcious process of self development of personality with the aim of searching unity and wholesness of personality, following number of compensations toward balance and wholesness as final aim, but also is considered as ideal. In close conection with individuation is transcedental function that integrates conscious and unconcsious attitude, overcomes struggle of consiousness and unconsciousness. In paper, there are examples of two myths, myth about Demetra and Persefona, and Orpheus and Euridica, that show possible individuation directions throughout mourning process. Individation is, there, put in the context of death and Under World. Beside individual, there is consideration of colective mourning, although that approach is restricted for some reasons. There is question of capacity of society for mourning.

  14. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  15. Large-group psychodynamics and massive violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamik D. Volkan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Freud, psychoanalytic theories concerning large groups have mainly focused on individuals' perceptions of what their large groups psychologically mean to them. This chapter examines some aspects of large-group psychology in its own right and studies psychodynamics of ethnic, national, religious or ideological groups, the membership of which originates in childhood. I will compare the mourning process in individuals with the mourning process in large groups to illustrate why we need to study large-group psychology as a subject in itself. As part of this discussion I will also describe signs and symptoms of large-group regression. When there is a threat against a large-group's identity, massive violence may be initiated and this violence in turn, has an obvious impact on public health.

  16. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  17. INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    ILICH-STOSHOVIКЈ Danijela; NIKOLIКЈ Snezhana

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion, as a process of enrolling of children with disability in regular schools, demands obligation for adequate preparing regular schools, teachers, pupils and their parents for accepting those children. It, also, means that special services must be prepared to help teachers and children with disability too, in an adequate way. The first and most important step is developing of Individualized education programs (IEP).The purpose of IEP is to provide a disabled child with specialized or i...

  18. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JANUARY/FEBRUARY will be available from their usual dispatchers on Monday the third of January 2000.Please have your films changed:before the 12 January.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JANUARY/FEBRUARY is WHITE.

  19. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact the Individual Dosimetry Service.We inform all staff and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period MARCH/APRIL will be available from their usual dispatchers on the third of March 2000.Please have your films changed before the 13th of March.The colour of the dosimeter valid in MARCH/APRIL is BLUE.

  20. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  2. Individual heat stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 5 experiments, heterogeneous subject groups (large variations in _VO2 max, regular daily activity level, mass, body surface area (AD), % body fat, and AD/mass ratio) were tested for their physiological response while exercising on a cycle ergometer at a relative (45% _VO2 max; REL) or an absolute

  3. Individual Perceptions of Local Crime Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a

  4. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Nielsen, M.

    1996-01-01

    In 1995 both the Individual Dosimetry and Calibration Sections worked under the condition of a status quo and concentrated fully on the routine part of their work. Nevertheless, the machine for printing the bar code which will be glued onto the film holder and hence identify the people when entering into high radiation areas was put into operation and most of the holders were equipped with the new identification. As far as the Calibration Section is concerned the project of the new source control system that is realized by the Technical Support Section was somewhat accelerated

  5. INDIVIDUAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Personnel in the distribution groups Aleph, Delphi, L3, Opal who also work for other experiments than at LEP, should contact their dispatchers to explain their activities for the future, after LEP dismantling in order to be maintained on the regular distribution list at Individual Dosimetry ServiceWe inform all staffs and users under regular dosimetric control that the dosimeters for the monitoring period JULY/AUGUST are available from their usual dispatchers.Please have your films changed before the 10th of July.The colour of the dosimeter valid in JULY/AUGUST is PINK.

  6. Instantons and Large N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Marcos

    2015-09-01

    Preface; Part I. Instantons: 1. Instantons in quantum mechanics; 2. Unstable vacua in quantum field theory; 3. Large order behavior and Borel summability; 4. Non-perturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theories; 5. Instantons and fermions; Part II. Large N: 6. Sigma models at large N; 7. The 1=N expansion in QCD; 8. Matrix models and matrix quantum mechanics at large N; 9. Large N QCD in two dimensions; 10. Instantons at large N; Appendix A. Harmonic analysis on S3; Appendix B. Heat kernel and zeta functions; Appendix C. Effective action for large N sigma models; References; Author index; Subject index.

  7. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 and Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: (a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and (b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  8. Individual Property Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Finke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews household property risk management and estimates normatively optimal choice under theoretical assumptions. Although risk retention limits are common in the financial planning industry, estimates of optimal risk retention that include both financial and human wealth far exceed limits commonly recommended. Households appear to frame property losses differently from other wealth losses leading to wealth-reducing, excess risk transfer. Possible theoretical explanations for excess sensitivity to loss are reviewed. Differences between observed and optimal risk management imply a large potential gain from improved choice.

  9. Individuals and Their Masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Altuna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay works on the opposition between face and mask, where ‘face’ is understood as that which makes every human being singular, and makes visible her or his unique worth, while ‘mask’ is understood as whatever hides that singularity, and refers to a category, stereotype or cliché. The etymological history that relates face and mask to the concept of person, and the history of modern portrait painting, which alternates representations of face and mask, both lead to a discussion with authors who diagnose a contemporary “defeat of the face” as a result of the crisis of humanism and of ethical individualism, which give meaning and dignity to that face.

  10. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...

  11. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Cripps

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine if the patterns of within-person responses on a 12 trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999. ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability, which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiralling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of within-person processes at the individual level, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques.

  12. An evolutionary ecology of individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

  13. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  14. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  15. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is divided into four parts: a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year

  16. Individual dosimetry and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the Dosimetry and Calibration Section was, as in previous years, mainly engaged in routine tasks: the distribution of over 6000 dosimeters (with a total of more than 10,000 films) every two months and the calibration of about 900 fixed and mobile instruments used in the radiation survey sections of RP group. These tasks were, thanks to an experienced team, well mastered. Special efforts had to be made in a number of areas to modernize the service or to keep it in line with new prescriptions. The Individual Dosimetry Service had to assure that CERN's contracting firms comply with the prescriptions in the Radiation Safety Manual (1996) that had been inspired by the Swiss Ordinance of 1994: Companies must file for authorizations with the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health requiring that in every company an 'Expert in Radiation Protection' be nominated and subsequently trained. CERN's Individual Dosimetry Service is accredited by the Swiss Federal Authorities and works closely together with other, similar services on a rigorous quality assurance programme. Within this framework, CERN was mandated to organize this year the annual Swiss 'Intercomparison of Dosimeters'. All ten accredited dosimetry services - among others those of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen and of the four Swiss nuclear power stations - sent dosimeters to CERN, where they were irradiated in CERN's calibration facility with precise photon doses. After return to their origin they were processed and evaluated. The results were communicated to CERN and were compared with the originally given doses. A report on the results was subsequently prepared and submitted to the Swiss 'Group of Experts on Personal Dosimetry'. Reference monitors for photon and neutron radiation were brought to standard laboratories to assure the traceability of CERN's calibration service to the fundamental quantities. For photon radiation, a set of ionization chambers was calibrated in the reference field

  17. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( Psea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  18. Individual Consequences of Internal Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi Remus Ionut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of the concept of internal marketing in the literature there have been almost 40 years. This period was marked by a constant increase of the concerns in the internal marketing area, these efforts being evidenced by the publication of a consistent number of articles (conceptual and empirical which analyze this subject. Considering the previous empirical studies, most of them have focused on studying the relationship between internal marketing and employee satisfaction and / or organizational commitment. However, the relationship between internal marketing and its consequences has been less analyzed in the context of emergent economies. In this paper we aimed to analyze the individual consequences of the internal marketing in the Romanian economy context, focusing our attention on three constructs: employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. The research was conducted on a sample of 83 medium and large companies in various sectors of the Romanian economy. In order to proceed with the statistical data analyses we followed these steps: verifying the scales reliability, determining factor loadings and research hypotheses testing. Our research results are consistent with results of previous studies showing that the adoption of internal marketing practice has a positive effect on employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

  19. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  20. Individual health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German statutory health insurance (GKV reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK, individual health services (IGeL are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. Research questions: The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL? What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? For two of the most common IGeL, the screening for glaucoma and the screening for ovarian and endometrial cancer by vaginal ultrasound (VUS, the following questions are addressed: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness? Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? Methods: The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. Results: 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by

  1. Individual health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Hunger, Theresa; Hintringer, Katharina; Schwarzer, Ruth; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin Regina; Gothe, Holger; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The German statutory health insurance (GKV) reimburses all health care services that are deemed sufficient, appropriate, and efficient. According to the German Medical Association (BÄK), individual health services (IGeL) are services that are not under liability of the GKV, medically necessary or recommendable or at least justifiable. They have to be explicitly requested by the patient and have to be paid out of pocket. The following questions regarding IGeL in the outpatient health care of GKV insurants are addressed in the present report: What is the empirical evidence regarding offers, utilization, practice, acceptance, and the relation between physician and patient, as well as the economic relevance of IGeL?What ethical, social, and legal aspects are related to IGeL? FOR TWO OF THE MOST COMMON IGEL, THE SCREENING FOR GLAUCOMA AND THE SCREENING FOR OVARIAN AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER BY VAGINAL ULTRASOUND (VUS), THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE ADDRESSED: What is the evidence for the clinical effectiveness?Are there sub-populations for whom screening might be beneficial? The evaluation is divided into two parts. For the first part a systematic literature review of primary studies and publications concerning ethical, social and legal aspects is performed. In the second part, rapid assessments of the clinical effectiveness for the two examples, glaucoma and VUS screening, are prepared. Therefore, in a first step, HTA-reports and systematic reviews are searched, followed by a search for original studies published after the end of the research period of the most recent HTA-report included. 29 studies were included for the first question. Between 19 and 53% of GKV members receive IGeL offers, of which three-quarters are realised. 16 to 19% of the insurants ask actively for IGeL. Intraocular tension measurement is the most common single IGeL service, accounting for up to 40% of the offers. It is followed by ultrasound assessments with up to 25% of the offers. Cancer screening

  2. The Science of the Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to establish a science of the individual, grounded in dynamic systems, and focused on the analysis of individual variability. Our argument is that individuals behave, learn, and develop in distinctive ways, showing patterns of variability that are not captured by models based on statistical averages. As such, any meaningful attempt to…

  3. Large N Scalars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct effective Lagrangians, and corresponding counting schemes, valid to describe the dynamics of the lowest lying large N stable massive composite state emerging in strongly coupled theories. The large N counting rules can now be employed when computing quantum corrections via an effective...

  4. Large bowel resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blockage in the intestine due to scar tissue Colon cancer Diverticular disease (disease of the large bowel) Other reasons for bowel resection are: Familial polyposis (polyps are growths on the lining of the colon or rectum) Injuries that damage the large bowel ...

  5. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  6. ERP inside Large Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Daniel AVRAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many large companies in Romania are still functioning without an ERP system. Instead they are using traditional application systems built around the strong boundaries of specific functions: finance, selling, HR, production. An ERP will offer lots of advantages among which the integration of functionalities and support for top management decisions. Although the total cost of ownership is not small and there are some risks when implementing an ERP inside large and very large organizations, having such a system is mandatory. Choosing the right product and vendor and using a correct risk management strategy, will ensure a successful implementation.

  7. Red junglefowl have individual body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds.

  8. Individualism, Collectivism, and Delinquency in Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N.; Stockdale, Gary D.

    2005-01-01

    Although the study of delinquency has previously focused on identifying individual, family, peer, and social risk and protective factors, little empirical research has studied cultural factors and their relations to delinquency. In a large community sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Laotian/Mien, and Vietnamese youths, individualism was positively…

  9. Individual variation in the (patho)physiology of energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Benthem, Lambertus; van Dijk, Gertjan; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2011-01-01

    There are large individual differences in the susceptibility for metabolic disorders such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, most animal studies in this field ignore the importance of individual variation which limits the face validity of these studies for

  10. Competitors' Perceptions of Questions in Individual Events Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Daniel; Pettus, Ann Burnett

    A study investigated student competitors' opinions of the practice of judges asking questions of competitors at the conclusion of speeches in the individual events competiton at forensic tournaments. Surveys were completed by 52 final round student competitors at a large midwestern university individual events invitational tournament. Results…

  11. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  12. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccot, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  13. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  14. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  15. Large transverse momentum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-09-01

    It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references

  16. Large Retailers’ Financial Services

    OpenAIRE

    Risso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, large retailers offering financial services have considerably grown in the financial services sector. Retailers are increasing the wideness and complexity of their offer of financial services. Large retail companies provide financial services to their customers following different strategic ways. The provision of financial services in the retailers offer is implemented in several different ways related to the strategies, the structures and the degree of financial know...

  17. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  18. Social Security Individual Accounts in China: Toward Sustainability in Individual Account Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available China has both mandatory and voluntary individual account pensions that are provided through the government. The experience of China makes a particularly interesting case study concerning the functioning of individual accounts in that its mandatory individual accounts have been defunded to pay for benefits in the associated pay-as-you-go system, while its voluntary individual accounts are fully funded. This paper examines three questions. First, it analyses why the mandatory individual accounts have become defunded and converted largely to notional accounts generally holding little in financial assets, while the voluntary accounts have been fully funded. Second, it examines the merits of funding versus pay-as-you-go financing of pensions in the context of China’s economic and demographic situation. Third, it discusses a policy change to insure the sustainability of financing for the defunded individual accounts. The experience of China, with its two types of individual accounts, and with different outcomes for those accounts, may provide lessons for other countries.

  19. Categorical apparatus of individual marketing

    OpenAIRE

    I.L. Reshetnikova; Yu.A. Eremenko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the essence of individual marketing and its interconnection with relationship marketing, CRM, direct marketing and database marketing based on a study of the marketing genesis and the evolution of the process of individual communication between buyer and seller. We consider relationship marketing as the most general notion that involves individual marketing, CRM, direct marketing and database marketing. Relationship marketing is to ...

  20. KEDUDUKAN INDIVIDU DALAM HUKUM INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heribertus Jaka Triyana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking of the role of person or individuals in international law has become more significant due to the development of branches of international law; the international criminal law, international human rights law and international humanitarian law. This essay focuses on issue of law enforcement of individuals responsibility toward international wrongful acts, mechanisms and their futher development. Historical development is used as a point of view in this essay to reach conclusion of the role of individuals in international law.

  1. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  2. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  3. Individual modulation of pain sensitivity under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tatyana; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2013-05-01

    Stress has a strong influence on pain sensitivity. However, the direction of this influence is unclear. Recent studies reported both decreased and increased pain sensitivities under stress, and one hypothesis is that interindividual differences account for these differences. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of stress on individual pain sensitivity in a relatively large female sample. Eighty female participants were included. Pain thresholds and temporal summation of pain were tested before and after stress, which was induced by the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test. In an independent sample of 20 women, correlation coefficients between 0.45 and 0.89 indicated relatively high test-retest reliability for pain measurements. On average, there were significant differences between pain thresholds under non-stress and stress conditions, indicating an increased sensitivity to pain under stress. No significant differences between non-stress and stress conditions were found for temporal summation of pain. On an individual basis, both decreased and increased pain sensitivities under stress conditions based on Jacobson's criteria for reliable change were observed. Furthermore, we found significant negative associations between pain sensitivity under non-stress conditions and individual change of pain sensitivity under stress. Participants with relatively high pain sensitivity under non-stress conditions became less sensitive under stress and vice versa. These findings support the view that pain sensitivity under stress shows large interindividual variability, and point to a possible dichotomy of altered pain sensitivity under stress. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  5. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators

  6. Large field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanasek, J.; Chvojka, Z.; Zouhar, M.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations may prove that irradiation procedures, commonly used in radiotherapy and represented by large-capacity irradiation techniques, do not exceed certain limits of integral doses with favourable radiobiological action on the organism. On the other hand integral doses in supralethal whole-body irradiation, used in the therapy of acute leukemia, represent radiobiological values which without extreme and exceptional further interventions and teamwork are not compatible with life, and the radiotherapeutist cannot use such high doses without the backing of a large team. (author)

  7. Developing Large Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loudon, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    How do you create a mission-critical site that provides exceptional performance while remaining flexible, adaptable, and reliable 24/7? Written by the manager of a UI group at Yahoo!, Developing Large Web Applications offers practical steps for building rock-solid applications that remain effective even as you add features, functions, and users. You'll learn how to develop large web applications with the extreme precision required for other types of software. Avoid common coding and maintenance headaches as small websites add more pages, more code, and more programmersGet comprehensive soluti

  8. Choice of large projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R

    1978-08-01

    Conventional cost/benefit or project analysis has generally not taken into account circumstances in which the project under consideration is large enough that its introduction to the economy would have significant general equilibrium effects. In this paper, rules are examined that would indicate whether such large projects should be accepted or rejected. The rules utilize information yielded by before-project and after-project equilibrium prices and production data. Rules are developed for the undistorted ''first-best'' case, the case in which the fixed costs of the project are covered by distortionary taxation, and for the case of projects producing public goods. 34 references.

  9. Readability of Individualized Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lusa

    2014-01-01

    An individualized education program is a legal document that details information regarding the special education program of a student with a disability. For parents to determine whether they agree with the individualized education program that is proposed by the school, they must first be able to read and comprehend the document. This study aimed…

  10. Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornell, John G.

    1980-01-01

    Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

  11. Individual protection of NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshcheev, V.S.; Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Chetverikova, Z.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features of NPP personnel individual protection are considered, mainly with respect to maintenance and repair works on various type reactors. The major concern is given to the selection and application reglamentations of the individual protection system (IPS), employment of sanitary locks, the organization of individual protection under the conditions of a heating microclimate. The ways are specified to the development and introduction of the most effective IPS and improvement of the entire NPP personnel individual protection system with respect to providing the necessary protection effect for maintaining high working capability of the personnel and minimizing the IPS impact on human organism functional systems. The accumulated experience in the personnel individual protection can be applied during construction and operation of NPP's in CMEA member-countries [ru

  12. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  13. Urbanization and the more-individuals hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Claudia; Dinetti, Marco; Licciardello, Cinzia; Licitra, Gaetano; Pautasso, Marco

    2010-03-01

    1. Urbanization is a landscape process affecting biodiversity world-wide. Despite many urban-rural studies of bird assemblages, it is still unclear whether more species-rich communities have more individuals, regardless of the level of urbanization. The more-individuals hypothesis assumes that species-rich communities have larger populations, thus reducing the chance of local extinctions. 2. Using newly collated avian distribution data for 1 km(2) grid cells across Florence, Italy, we show a significantly positive relationship between species richness and assemblage abundance for the whole urban area. This richness-abundance relationship persists for the 1 km(2) grid cells with less than 50% of urbanized territory, as well as for the remaining grid cells, with no significant difference in the slope of the relationship. These results support the more-individuals hypothesis as an explanation of patterns in species richness, also in human modified and fragmented habitats. 3. However, the intercept of the species richness-abundance relationship is significantly lower for highly urbanized grid cells. Our study confirms that urban communities have lower species richness but counters the common notion that assemblages in densely urbanized ecosystems have more individuals. In Florence, highly inhabited areas show fewer species and lower assemblage abundance. 4. Urbanized ecosystems are an ongoing large-scale natural experiment which can be used to test ecological theories empirically.

  14. The evolution of individuality revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzvilavicius, Arunas L; Blackstone, Neil W

    2018-03-25

    Evolutionary theory is formulated in terms of individuals that carry heritable information and are subject to selective pressures. However, individuality itself is a trait that had to evolve - an individual is not an indivisible entity, but a result of evolutionary processes that necessarily begin at the lower level of hierarchical organisation. Traditional approaches to biological individuality focus on cooperation and relatedness within a group, division of labour, policing mechanisms and strong selection at the higher level. Nevertheless, despite considerable theoretical progress in these areas, a full dynamical first-principles account of how new types of individuals arise is missing. To the extent that individuality is an emergent trait, the problem can be approached by recognising the importance of individuating mechanisms that are present from the very beginning of the transition, when only lower-level selection is acting. Here we review some of the most influential theoretical work on the role of individuating mechanisms in these transitions, and demonstrate how a lower-level, bottom-up evolutionary framework can be used to understand biological complexity involved in the origin of cellular life, early eukaryotic evolution, sexual life cycles and multicellular development. Some of these mechanisms inevitably stem from environmental constraints, population structure and ancestral life cycles. Others are unique to specific transitions - features of the natural history and biochemistry that are co-opted into conflict mediation. Identifying mechanisms of individuation that provide a coarse-grained description of the system's evolutionary dynamics is an important step towards understanding how biological complexity and hierarchical organisation evolves. In this way, individuality can be reconceptualised as an approximate model that with varying degrees of precision applies to a wide range of biological systems. © 2018 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    OF SELECTED EXISTING BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND COPENHAGEN COVERED WITH MOSAIC TILES, UNGLAZED OR GLAZED CLAY TILES. ITS BUILDINGS WHICH HAVE QUALITIES THAT I WOULD LIKE APPLIED, PERHAPS TRANSFORMED OR MOST PREFERABLY, INTERPRETED ANEW, FOR THE LARGE GLAZED CONCRETE PANELS I AM DEVELOPING. KEYWORDS: COLOR, LIGHT...

  16. Large hydropower generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document presents the Brazilian experience with the design, fabrication, construction, commissioning and operation of large scale and generation capacity unities. The experience had been acquired with the implementation of Itumbiara, Paulo Afonso IV, Tucurui, Itaipu and Xingo power plants, which are among the largest world unities.

  17. Large Data Set Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, I.B.; Broomhall, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Digital emotion research has yet to make history. Until now large data set mining has not been a very active field of research in early modern emotion studies. This is indeed surprising since first, the early modern field has such rich, copyright-free, digitized data sets and second, emotion studies

  18. Representing Large Virtual Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kol, T.R.

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquity of large virtual worlds and their growing complexity in computer graphics require efficient representations. This means that we need smart solutions for the underlying storage of these complex environments, but also for their visualization. How the virtual world is best stored and how

  19. The large hadron computer

    CERN Multimedia

    Hirstius, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Plans for dealing with the torrent of data from the Large Hadron Collider's detectors have made the CERN particle-phycis lab, yet again, a pioneer in computing as well as physics. The author describes the challenges of processing and storing data in the age of petabyt science. (4 pages)

  20. LARGE BUILDING HVAC SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the monitoring and collection of data relating to indoor pressures and radon concentrations under several test conditions in a large school building in Bartow, Florida. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) used an integrated computational software, FSEC 3.0...

  1. Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "In the spring 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine at CERN (the European Particle Physics laboratory) will be switched on for the first time. The huge machine is housed in a circular tunnel, 27 km long, excavated deep under the French-Swiss border near Geneva." (1,5 page)

  2. Efficient individualization of hearing aid processed sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Due to the large amount of options offered by the vast number of adjustable parameters in modern digital hearing aids, it is becoming increasingly daunting—even for a fine-tuning professional—to perform parameter fine tuning to satisfactorily meet the preference of the hearing aid user. In addition......, the communication between the fine-tuning professional and the hearing aid user might muddle the task. In the present paper, an interactive system is proposed to ease and speed up fine tuning of hearing aids to suit the preference of the individual user. The system simultaneously makes the user conscious of his own...... preferences while the system itself learns the user’s preference. Since the learning is based on probabilistic modeling concepts, the system handles inconsistent user feedback efficiently. Experiments with hearing impaired subjects show that the system quickly discovers individual preferred hearing...

  3. Information retrieval and individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents individual differences, which are found in studies of information retrieval with emphasis on models of personality traits, cognitive and learning styles. It pays special attention to those models which are most often included in studies of information behaviour,information seeking,perceptions of IR systems, etc., but also brings forward some models which have not yet been included in such studies. Additionally, the relationship between different individual characteristics and individual’s chosen profession or academic area is discussed. In this context,the paper presents how investigation of individual differences can be useful in the design of IR systems.

  4. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test...... a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively....

  5. Metabolite Biometrics for the Differentiation of Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Mindy E; Mathis, Adrianna I; Brunelle, Erica K; Halámková, Lenka; Halámek, Jan

    2018-04-17

    Sweat is a biological fluid present on the skin surface of every individual and is known to contain amino acids as well as other low molecular weight compounds. (1) Each individual is inherently different from one another based on certain factors including, but not limited to, his/her genetic makeup, environment, and lifestyle. As such, the biochemical composition of each person greatly differs. The concentrations of the biochemical content within an individual's sweat are largely controlled by metabolic processes within the body that fluctuate regularly based on attributes such as age, sex, and activity level. Therefore, the concentrations of these sweat components are person-specific and can be exploited, as presented here, to differentiate individuals based on trace amounts of sweat. For this concept, we analyzed three model compounds-lactate, urea, and glutamate. The average absorbance change from each compound in sweat was determined using three separate bioaffinity-based systems: lactate oxidase coupled with horseradish peroxidase (LOx-HRP), urease coupled with glutamate dehydrogenase (UR-GlDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase alone (GlDH). After optimization of a linear dependence for each assay to its respective analyte, analysis was performed on 50 mimicked sweat samples. Additionally, a collection and extraction method was developed and optimized by our group to evaluate authentic sweat samples from the skin surface of 25 individuals. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test was performed to demonstrate that these three single-analyte enzymatic assays were effectively used to identify each person in both sample sets. This novel sweat analysis approach is capable of differentiating individuals, without the use of DNA, based on the collective responses from the chosen metabolic compounds in sweat. Applications for this newly developed, noninvasive analysis can include the field of forensic science in order to differentiate between individuals as well

  6. Large Hadron Collider manual

    CERN Document Server

    Lavender, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    What is the universe made of? How did it start? This Manual tells the story of how physicists are seeking answers to these questions using the world’s largest particle smasher – the Large Hadron Collider – at the CERN laboratory on the Franco-Swiss border. Beginning with the first tentative steps taken to build the machine, the digestible text, supported by color photographs of the hardware involved, along with annotated schematic diagrams of the physics experiments, covers the particle accelerator’s greatest discoveries – from both the perspective of the writer and the scientists who work there. The Large Hadron Collider Manual is a full, comprehensive guide to the most famous, record-breaking physics experiment in the world, which continues to capture the public imagination as it provides new insight into the fundamental laws of nature.

  7. [Large benign prostatic hiperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Fernández, Guillermo René; Jungfermann-Guzman, José René; Lomelín-Ramos, José Pedro; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Rosas-Nava, Jesús Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    the term prostatic hyperplasia is most frequently used to describe the benign prostatic growth, this being a widely prevalent disorder associated with age that affects most men as they age. The association between prostate growth and urinary obstruction in older adults is well documented. large benign prostatic hyperplasia is rare and few cases have been published and should be taken into account during the study of tumors of the pelvic cavity. we report the case of an 81-year-old who had significant symptoms relating to storage and bladder emptying, with no significant elevation of prostate specific antigen. this is a rare condition but it is still important to diagnose and treat as it may be related to severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure. In our institution, cases of large prostatic hyperplasia that are solved by suprapubic adenomectomy are less than 3%.

  8. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  9. Large tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of tandem accelerators designed to operate at maximum terminal potentials in the range 14 to 30 MV. In addition, a number of older tandem accelerators are now being significantly upgraded to improve their heavy ion performance. Both of these developments have reemphasized the importance of negative heavy ion sources. The new large tandem accelerators are described, and the requirements placed on negative heavy ion source technology by these and other tandem accelerators used for the acceleration of heavy ions are discussed. First, a brief description is given of the large tandem accelerators which have been completed recently, are under construction, or are funded for construction, second, the motivation for construction of these accelerators is discussed, and last, criteria for negative ion sources for use with these accelerators are presented

  10. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  11. Large mass storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Arnold M.

    1978-08-01

    This is the final report of a study group organized to investigate questions surrounding the acquisition of a large mass storage facility. The programatic justification for such a system at Brookhaven is reviewed. Several candidate commercial products are identified and discussed. A draft of a procurement specification is developed. Some thoughts on possible new directions for computing at Brookhaven are also offered, although this topic was addressed outside of the context of the group's deliberations. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  12. The Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Juettner Fernandes, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    What really happened during the Big Bang? Why did matter form? Why do particles have mass? To answer these questions, scientists and engineers have worked together to build the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world: the Large Hadron Collider. Includes glossary, websites, and bibliography for further reading. Perfect for STEM connections. Aligns to the Common Core State Standards for Language Arts. Teachers' Notes available online.

  13. Theme: Serving Individuals with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Marty; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Reviewing Commitment to Individuals with Disabilities" (Frick); "Modifying Laboratory Equipment" (Silletto); "Equine Facilitated Therapy" (Hoover et al.); "Horticultural Therapy" (Rees, Iverson); "How Accessible Is Your Agriculture Program? (Delks, Sillery); "Agricultural Education for…

  14. Dance for Individuals With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapum, Jennifer L; Bar, Rachel J

    2016-03-01

    The movement and music associated with dance plays an important role in many individuals' lives and can become imprinted upon the body and mind. Dance is thus closely associated with memory because of these deep connections. Without conscious thought, dance has the potential to be initiated as individuals age. In the current article, the authors share narrative reflections about their experiences with, and the potential of, dance as an intervention for aging populations diagnosed with dementia-related diseases. They draw upon their experiences in working with the aging population and a dance program currently being developed by Canada's National Ballet School and Baycrest Health Sciences for individuals with dementia-related diseases in long-term care. The current article is structured as dialogue between the authors because it mimics dance as a dialogical encounter between movement and music, and/or between individuals. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Moral individualism and elective death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate Change and Individual Duties

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin Fragnière

    2016-01-01

    Tackling climate change has often been considered the responsibility of national governments. But do individuals also have a duty to act in the face of this problem? In particular do they have a duty to adopt a greener lifestyle or to press their government to act? This review critically examines the arguments provided for and against such duties in the relevant philosophic literature. It first discusses the problem of causal inefficacy—namely the fact that individual greenhouse gas emissions...

  17. Individual differences in change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Katharina Verena

    2016-01-01

    The present work shows the existence of systematic individual differences in change blindness. It can be concluded that the sensitivity for changes is a trait. That is, persons differ in their ability to detect changes, independent from the situation or the measurement method. Moreover, there are two explanations for individual differences in change blindness: a) capacity differences in visual selective attention that may be influenced by top-down activated attention helping to focus attentio...

  18. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballet, Jerome [C3ED Centre of Economics and Ethics for Environment and Development, UVSQ, University of Versailles, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Bazin, Damien [EMAFI Macroeconomics and International Finance Research Centre at University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28, avenue Valrose, BP 2135, 06103 Nice (France); Lioui, Abraham [Department of Economics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Touahri, David [LEST Institute of Labor Econmics and Industrial Sociology and Mediterranean University Aix-Marseille II, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  19. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, Jerome; Bazin, Damien; Lioui, Abraham; Touahri, David

    2007-01-01

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  20. Benefits of transactive memory systems in large-scale development

    OpenAIRE

    Aivars, Sablis

    2016-01-01

    Context. Large-scale software development projects are those consisting of a large number of teams, maybe even spread across multiple locations, and working on large and complex software tasks. That means that neither a team member individually nor an entire team holds all the knowledge about the software being developed and teams have to communicate and coordinate their knowledge. Therefore, teams and team members in large-scale software development projects must acquire and manage expertise...

  1. Individual differences in metacontrast masking regarding sensitivity and response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Thorsten; Mattler, Uwe

    2012-09-01

    In metacontrast masking target visibility is modulated by the time until a masking stimulus appears. The effect of this temporal delay differs across participants in such a way that individual human observers' performance shows distinguishable types of masking functions which remain largely unchanged for months. Here we examined whether individual differences in masking functions depend on different response criteria in addition to differences in discrimination sensitivity. To this end we reanalyzed previously published data and conducted a new experiment for further data analyses. Our analyses demonstrate that a distinction of masking functions based on the type of masking stimulus is superior to a distinction based on the target-mask congruency. Individually different masking functions are based on individual differences in discrimination sensitivities and in response criteria. Results suggest that individual differences in metacontrast masking result from individually different criterion contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. TERNIRBU: Description of model and individual evaluation of model performance for scenario S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyar, B.; Fueloep, N.

    1996-01-01

    The compartmental model used is realized as a procedure of the general purpose code TAMDYN for simulation, sensitivity and uncertainty calculations of dynamic models. More details of the model structure and parameters are given in the description of the VAMP MP Scenario CB. The difference between the climate in Finland and Central Bohemia was taken into consideration by shifting the seasonality function with 12 days' according to the weekly average temperature. The lake system and the contamination of fishes was simulated by the model SIRATEC used and validated in the BIOMOVS Scenario A5. The model was extended to two fish-compartments for roach and pike ones as a catanary system. For simulations the code TAMDYN was used. The doses were estimated from the time integrated concentrations of the proper components multiplied by the dose conversion factor. 4 figs

  3. Large Right Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rowe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: An 83-year-old male with a distant history of tuberculosis status post treatment and resection approximately fifty years prior presented with two days of worsening shortness of breath. He denied any chest pain, and reported his shortness of breath was worse with exertion and lying flat. Significant findings: Chest x-ray and bedside ultrasound revealed a large right pleural effusion, estimated to be greater than two and a half liters in size. Discussion: The incidence of pleural effusion is estimated to be at least 1.5 million cases annually in the United States.1 Erect posteroanterior and lateral chest radiography remains the mainstay for diagnosis of a pleural effusion; on upright chest radiography small effusions (>400cc will blunt the costophrenic angles, and as the size of an effusion grows it will begin to obscure the hemidiphragm.1 Large effusions will cause mediastinal shift away from the affected side (seen in effusions >1000cc.1 Lateral decubitus chest radiography can detect effusions greater than 50cc.1 Ultrasonography can help differentiate large pulmonary masses from effusions and can be instrumental in guiding thoracentesis.1 The patient above was comfortable at rest and was admitted for a non-emergent thoracentesis. The pulmonology team removed 2500cc of fluid, and unfortunately the patient subsequently developed re-expansion pulmonary edema and pneumothorax ex-vacuo. It is generally recommended that no more than 1500cc be removed to minimize the risk of re-expansion pulmonary edema.2

  4. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....

  5. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  6. Large coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, L.W.; Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Final design of the facility is nearing completion, and 20% of the construction has been accomplished. A large vacuum chamber, houses the test assembly which is coupled to appropriate cryogenic, electrical, instrumentation, diagnostc systems. Adequate assembly/disassembly areas, shop space, test control center, offices, and test support laboratories are located in the same building. Assembly and installation operations are accomplished with an overhead crane. The major subsystems are the vacuum system, the test stand assembly, the cryogenic system, the experimental electric power system, the instrumentation and control system, and the data aquisition system

  7. An experiment on individual 'parochial altruism' revealing no connection between individual 'altruism' and individual 'parochialism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P; Seger, Charles R; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism.

  8. Learning about individuals' health from aggregate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbaugh, Rich; Glass, Kristin

    2017-07-01

    There is growing awareness that user-generated social media content contains valuable health-related information and is more convenient to collect than typical health data. For example, Twitter has been employed to predict aggregate-level outcomes, such as regional rates of diabetes and child poverty, and to identify individual cases of depression and food poisoning. Models which make aggregate-level inferences can be induced from aggregate data, and consequently are straightforward to build. In contrast, learning models that produce individual-level (IL) predictions, which are more informative, usually requires a large number of difficult-to-acquire labeled IL examples. This paper presents a new machine learning method which achieves the best of both worlds, enabling IL models to be learned from aggregate labels. The algorithm makes predictions by combining unsupervised feature extraction, aggregate-based modeling, and optimal integration of aggregate-level and IL information. Two case studies illustrate how to learn health-relevant IL prediction models using only aggregate labels, and show that these models perform as well as state-of-the-art models trained on hundreds or thousands of labeled individuals.

  9. Diffusion of individual birds in starling flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, A.; Queirós, S. M. Duarte; Giardina, I.; Stefanini, F.; Viale, M.

    2013-01-01

    Flocking is a paradigmatic example of collective animal behaviour, where global order emerges out of self-organization. Each individual has a tendency to align its flight direction with those of neighbours, and such a simple form of interaction produces a state of collective motion of the group. When compared with other cases of collective ordering, a crucial feature of animal groups is that the interaction network is not fixed in time, as each individual moves and continuously changes its neighbours. The possibility to exchange neighbours strongly enhances the stability of global ordering and the way information is propagated through the group. Here, we assess the relevance of this mechanism in large flocks of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We find that birds move faster than Brownian walkers both with respect to the centre of mass of the flock, and with respect to each other. Moreover, this behaviour is strongly anisotropic with respect to the direction of motion of the flock. We also measure the amount of neighbours reshuffling and find that neighbours change in time exclusively as a consequence of the random fluctuations in the individual motion, so that no specific mechanism to keep one's neighbours seems to be enforced. On the contrary, our findings suggest that a more complex dynamical process occurs at the border of the flock. PMID:23407827

  10. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Motivational Antecedents of Individual Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picci, Patrizia; Battistelli, Adalgisa

    The current work seeks to focus on the innovative work behavior and, in particular, on the stage of idea generation. An important factor that stimulates the individual to carry out the various emergent processes of change and innovation within the organization is known as intrinsic motivation, but under certain conditions, the presence of different forms of extrinsic motivation, as external regulation, introjection, identification and integration, positively influences innovative behavior at work, specifically the creative stage of the process. Starting from this evidence, the organizational environment could be capable of stimulating or indeed inhibiting potential creativity and innovation of individuals. About 100 individuals employees of a local government health department in Central Italy were given an explicit questionnaire. The results show that among external factors that effect the individual such as control, rewards and recognition for work well done, controlled motivation influences overall innovative behavior whereas autonomous motivation plays a significant role in the specific behavior of idea generation. At the same time, it must also be acknowledged that a clearly articulated task which allows an individual to identify with said task, seems to favor overall innovative behavior, whilst a task which allows a fair degree of autonomy influences the behavior of generating ideas.

  12. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  13. Spectral fingerprints of large-scale neuronal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, M.; Donner, T.H.; Engel, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cognition results from interactions among functionally specialized but widely distributed brain regions; however, neuroscience has so far largely focused on characterizing the function of individual brain regions and neurons therein. Here we discuss recent studies that have instead investigated the

  14. Magnitude determination for large underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Lawrence D [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    A method is presented for determining the local magnitudes for large underground nuclear explosions. The Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is applied to the peak amplitudes for 24 large underground nuclear explosions that took place in Nevada. The amplitudes were measured at 18 California Wood-Anderson stations located 150-810 km from the explosion epicenter. The variation of the individual station magnitudes and magnitude corrections and the variation of the average and rms error estimates in the magnitude determinations are examined with respect to distance, azimuth, and event location. The magnitude prediction capability of the Gutenberg-Richter nomograph is examined on the basis of these two criteria, and certain corrections are suggested. The azimuthal dependence of the individual station magnitudes is investigated, and corrections for the California stations are calculated. Statistical weighting schemes for two-component data are employed, and the assumptions and limitations in the use of peak amplitudes are discussed. (author)

  15. IASM: Individualized activity space modeler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Researchers from various disciplines have long been interested in analyzing and describing human mobility patterns. Activity space (AS), defined as an area encapsulating daily human mobility and activities, has been at the center of this interest. However, given the applied nature of research in this field and the complexity that advanced geographical modeling can pose to its users, the proposed models remain simplistic and inaccurate in many cases. Individualized Activity Space Modeler (IASM) is a geographic information system (GIS) toolbox, written in Python programming language using ESRI's Arcpy module, comprising four tools aiming to facilitate the use of advanced activity space models in empirical research. IASM provides individual-based and context-sensitive tools to estimate home range distances, delineate activity spaces, and model place exposures using individualized geographical data. In this paper, we describe the design and functionality of IASM, and provide an example of how it performs on a spatial dataset collected through an online map-based survey.

  16. Individual Profiling Using Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0011 Individual Profiling using Text Analysis 140333 Mark Stevenson UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY Final...REPORT TYPE      Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      15 Sep 2014 to 14 Sep 2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Individual Profiling using Text Analysis ...consisted of collections of tweets for a number of Twitter users whose gender, age and personality scores are known. The task was to construct some system

  17. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Védrine, P.

    2014-07-17

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb$_{3}$Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  19. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  20. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Védrine, P [Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb3Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  1. Hazard personality profiles and individual differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.; Breakwell, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the dominance of the 'psychometric paradigm' and the consequent emphasis on identifying the qualities related to a hazard's perceived risk has resulted in little attention being given to individual variations in the acceptance of such 'personality profiles' of hazards. Attempts to locate sources of variability have largely focused on social, cultural and institutional factors (Turner and Wynne, 1992; Sjoeberg, 1995). Less attention has been paid to the role of intra-individual differences (Myers, Henderson-King, and Henderson-King, 1997). To address this, a questionnaire study (n = 172) explored the relationships between anxiety, experience and risk perceptions in relation to 16 risk activities. Different patterns of relationships for voluntary and involuntary activities were expected. Measures of experience included assessments of impact and outcome valence as well as frequency. Proclivity for, and likelihood of, future risk experiences were also assessed. The results revealed a number of relationships between individual difference variables and risk perceptions relating to the voluntariness of the activities. For involuntary risk activities, there were associations between the experience variables and risk ratings, e.g. previous experience of positive outcomes of involuntary risk activities is associated with perceptions of them affecting few people, with not being fatal and with known risk levels. This would suggest that taking into account people's previous experience of risks is likely to affect reactions to, and mediate the effectiveness of risk communications relating to involuntary risk activities. In contrast for voluntary activities it is the two 'future' oriented variables that are associated with risk perceptions. The relationship between anxiety and risk perceptions also varied in relation to the voluntariness of risk activities. The importance of incorporating a consideration of individual differences within

  2. Large scale cross hole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.K.; Black, J.H.; Doe, T.

    1991-05-01

    As part of the Site Characterisation and Validation programme the results of the large scale cross hole testing have been used to document hydraulic connections across the SCV block, to test conceptual models of fracture zones and obtain hydrogeological properties of the major hydrogeological features. The SCV block is highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity is not smoothed out even over scales of hundreds of meters. Results of the interpretation validate the hypothesis of the major fracture zones, A, B and H; not much evidence of minor fracture zones is found. The uncertainty in the flow path, through the fractured rock, causes sever problems in interpretation. Derived values of hydraulic conductivity were found to be in a narrow range of two to three orders of magnitude. Test design did not allow fracture zones to be tested individually. This could be improved by testing the high hydraulic conductivity regions specifically. The Piezomac and single hole equipment worked well. Few, if any, of the tests ran long enough to approach equilibrium. Many observation boreholes showed no response. This could either be because there is no hydraulic connection, or there is a connection but a response is not seen within the time scale of the pumping test. The fractional dimension analysis yielded credible results, and the sinusoidal testing procedure provided an effective means of identifying the dominant hydraulic connections. (10 refs.) (au)

  3. Measurement of individual social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, Martin Pieter Johannes van der

    2005-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen the idea of social capital blossoming as a popular and promising new look at phenomena in the social sciences. Essentially a theory that explains how and why relational networks are important for the production of outcomes at the individual and collective level,

  4. The Individual's Right to Choose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2008-01-01

    in collective agrements. This kind of innovation has been highly controversial in the union movement, but in 2007, the bargaining parties in manufacturing decided to take something of a leap ahead with respect to opportunities of individual choice by employees. The paper will describe the novel employee rights...

  5. Malay Childhood, Temperament and Individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Ellen

    This study of children in a Malay community assesses the cross-cultural validity of one conceptualization of temperament, identifies cultural differences in child rearing practices and beliefs, and explores parents' recognition of individual differences emerging in early childhood. The community studied consisted of three villages located about 20…

  6. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives: A Physicist's Perspective on Ecology. Vishwesha Guttal. Series Article Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 368-375. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Goal Theory and Individual Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter J.

    The paper provides a review of goal theory as articulated by Edwin Locke. The theory is evaluated in terms of laboratory and field research and its practical usefulnes is explored as a means to improving individual productivity in "real world" organizations Research findings provide support for some goal theory propositions but suggest also the…

  8. Dissecting large and complex genomes: flow sorting and BAC cloning of individual chromosomes from bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafář, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Janda, Jaroslav; Bellec, A.; Kubaláková, Marie; Valárik, Miroslav; Pateyron, S.; Weiserová, Jitka; Tušková, Radka; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Vrána, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Faivre-Rampant, P.; Sourdille, P.; Caboche, M.; Bernard, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Chalhoub, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2004), s. 960-968 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0354; GA ČR GA521/04/0607; GA MZe QC1336 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : wheat * flow sorting * DNA library Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.367, year: 2004

  9. Individual and group-level job resources and their relationships with individual work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllemann, Désirée; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Bauer, Georg F

    2016-06-16

    This study adds a multilevel perspective to the well-researched individual-level relationship between job resources and work engagement. In addition, we explored whether individual job resources cluster within work groups because of a shared psychosocial environment and investigated whether a resource-rich psychosocial work group environment is beneficial for employee engagement over and above the beneficial effect of individual job resources and independent of their variability within groups. Data of 1,219 employees nested in 103 work groups were obtained from a baseline employee survey of a large stress management intervention project implemented in six medium and large-sized organizations in diverse sectors. A variety of important job resources were assessed and grouped to an overall job resource factor with three subfactors (manager behavior, peer behavior, and task-related resources). Data were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling. The results indicated that job resources cluster within work groups and can be aggregated to a group-level job resources construct. However, a resource-rich environment, indicated by high group-level job resources, did not additionally benefit employee work engagement but on the contrary, was negatively related to it. On the basis of this unexpected result, replication studies are encouraged and suggestions for future studies on possible underlying within-group processes are discussed. The study supports the presumed value of integrating work group as a relevant psychosocial environment into the motivational process and indicates a need to further investigate emergent processes involved in aggregation procedures across levels.

  10. Individualism, collectivism, and delinquency in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary D

    2005-12-01

    Although the study of delinquency has previously focused on identifying individual, family, peer, and social risk and protective factors, little empirical research has studied cultural factors and their relations to delinquency. In a large community sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Laotian/Mien, and Vietnamese youths, individualism was positively related to, and collectivism negatively related to, self-reported delinquency, with partial mediation through peer delinquency (PD). Although the percentage of variance in delinquency attributable to individualism-collectivism was small compared to PD, it cannot be discounted as trivial. The results also supported the measurement and structural invariance of these associations across the 4 ethnic groups.

  11. Large forging manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamboo, Samuel V.; Yang, Ling

    2002-01-01

    A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

  12. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Joshua Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melgaard, David Kennett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zollweg, Joshua David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Dylan Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nandy, Prabal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitlow, Gary L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  13. The large binocular telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  14. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  15. Functional connectome fingerprinting: identifying individuals using patterns of brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Emily S; Shen, Xilin; Scheinost, Dustin; Rosenberg, Monica D; Huang, Jessica; Chun, Marvin M; Papademetris, Xenophon; Constable, R Todd

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies typically collapse data from many subjects, but brain functional organization varies between individuals. Here we establish that this individual variability is both robust and reliable, using data from the Human Connectome Project to demonstrate that functional connectivity profiles act as a 'fingerprint' that can accurately identify subjects from a large group. Identification was successful across scan sessions and even between task and rest conditions, indicating that an individual's connectivity profile is intrinsic, and can be used to distinguish that individual regardless of how the brain is engaged during imaging. Characteristic connectivity patterns were distributed throughout the brain, but the frontoparietal network emerged as most distinctive. Furthermore, we show that connectivity profiles predict levels of fluid intelligence: the same networks that were most discriminating of individuals were also most predictive of cognitive behavior. Results indicate the potential to draw inferences about single subjects on the basis of functional connectivity fMRI.

  16. The stranded individualizer under compressed modernity: South Korean women in individualization without individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung-Sup, Chang; Min-Young, Song

    2010-09-01

    South Korean families have functioned as a highly effective receptacle for the country's highly compressed conditions of modernity and late modernity. It is as much due to the success of South Korean families as an engine of compressed modernity as due to their failure that they have become functionally overloaded and socially risk-ridden. Such familial burdens and risks are particularly onerous to South Korean women because of the fundamentally gender-based structure of family relations and duties that has in part been recycled from the Confucian past and in part manufactured under industrial capitalism. Under these complicated conditions, South Korean women have had to dramatically restructure their family relations and duties as well as their individual life choices. Furthermore, under the most recent condition of what Beck calls second modernity, other institutions of modernity, such as the state, industrial economy, firms, unions, schools, and welfare systems, have become increasingly ineffective in helping to alleviate such (gender-based) familial burdens and dilemmas. As a result South Korean women have experienced dramatic changes in marriage patterns, fertility, family relations, etc. South Korean women's individualization has thereby taken place primarily as a matter of practicality rather than ideational change. A brief analysis of the situation in the neighbouring societies of Japan and Taiwan reinforces the conclusion that individualization without individualism, particularly among women, is a region-wide phenomenon in East Asia. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2010.

  17. Large Ventral Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryl Abrams, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old female presented to the emergency department (ED with diffuse abdominal pain and three days of poor oral intake associated with non-bilious, non-bloody vomiting. Initial vital signs consisted of a mild resting tachycardia of 111 with a temperature of 38.0 degrees Celsius (°C. On examination, the patient had a large pannus extending to the knees, which contained a hernia. She was tender in this region on examination. Laboratory values included normal serum chemistries and mild leukocytosis of 12.2. The patient reports that her abdomen had been enlarging over the previous 8 years but had not been painful until 3 days prior to presentation. The patient had no associated fever, chills, diarrhea, constipation, chest pain or shortness of breath. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT scan with intravenous (IV contrast of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large pannus containing a ventral hernia with abdominal contents extending below the knees (white circle, elongation of mesenteric vessels to accommodate abdominal contents outside of the abdomen (white arrow and air fluid levels (white arrow indicating a small bowel obstruction. Discussion: Hernias are a common chief complaint seen in the emergency department. The estimated lifetime risk of a spontaneous abdominal hernia is 5%.1 The most common type of hernia is inguinal while the next most common type of hernia is femoral, which are more common in women.1 Ventral hernias can be epigastric, incisional, or primary abdominal. An asymptomatic, reducible hernia can be followed up as outpatient with a general surgeon for elective repair.2 Hernias become problematic when they are either incarcerated or strangulated. A hernia is incarcerated when the hernia is irreducible and strangulated when its blood supply is compromised. A complicated hernia, especially strangulated, can have a mortality of greater than 50%.1 It is key to perform a thorough history

  18. INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES AND LIFELONG LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new and emerging technologies in education, learning environments and methods that have to satisfy lifelong learning, from school age to retirement, on the basis of the psychophysiological model of the cognitive abilities formation. It covers such topics as: evaluation of a human (accounting schoolchildren, youth and adults features abilities and individual propensities, individual trajectory of learning, adaptive learning strategy and design, recommendation on curriculum design, day-to-day support for individual’s learning, assessment of a human learning environment and performance, recommendation regards vocational retraining and/or further carrier etc.. The specific goal is to facilitate a broader understanding of the promise and pitfalls of these technologies and working (learning/teaching environments in global education/development settings, with special regard to the human as subject in the system and to the collaboration of humans and technical, didactic and organizational subsystems.

  19. Measuring Older Adults’ Individual Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that maintaining high individual modernity level can enable the shaping of positive self-image and boost life satisfaction for older people along with better adaptation to the process of societal modernization. This study examined the factorial structure and evaluated the psychometric properties of the adapted Multidimensional Scale of Chinese Individual Modernity (MS-CIM in a sample of 445 elders (the finalized version is named “MS-CIME” and added a self-constructed nine-item behavioral modernity domain. Principal component analysis suggested a conceptually meaningful seven-factor model, which was further supported by the results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The final 25-item MS-CIME indicated an acceptable level of reliability. The convergent validity was demonstrated by its associations with socio-economic status, participation in daily activities, self-image, and life satisfaction in expected directions.

  20. Individual breakdown of pension rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    You should have recently received, via email, your “Individual breakdown of pension rights”.   Please note that: the calculation was based on data as at 1st July 2016, as at 1st September 2016, CERN will introduce a new career structure; the salary position will now be expressed as a percentage of a midpoint of a grade.   We would like to draw your attention to the fact that your pension rights will remain unchanged. Benefits Service CERN Pension Fund

  1. Ukrainian culture: individualism or collectivism?

    OpenAIRE

    Borysenko, Leonid; Borysenko, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    This short review deals with the problem of individualistic/collectivistic orientation in the Ukrainian population. It is thought that individualism is a striking feature of the Ukrainian national character. This was repeatedly stressed by some distinguished Ukrainian thinkers. Many interesting examples of individualistic behavior can also be found in Ukrainian proverbs and sayings. At the same time, some authors argued for deep collectivistic roots of the Ukrainian culture. Researches that h...

  2. A Study on Individualized Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin YAŞAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare KR-20 reliability levels of “Paper and Pencil Test” developed according to Classical Test Theory and “Individualized Test” developed according to Item Response Theory (Two-Parameter Logistic Model, and the correlation levels of skill measurements obtained via these two methods in a group of students. Individualized test developed in accordance with the Two-Parameter Logistic Model was applied by means of a question pool consisting of 61 multiple-choice items which can be answered in 13 steps. On the other hand, a paper and pencil test of 47 multiple-choice items was applied to the sample student group. After the test developed according to these two methods was applied to the same group, KR-20 reliability coefficient was calculated as 0.67 for the individualized test and as 0.75 for the paper and pencil test prepared according to Classical test theory. Calculated KR-20 reliability coefficients obtained from the study were converted into Fisher Z and tested at the significance level of 0.05. No meaningful difference was detected at the 0.05 significant difference level between the two KR-20 reliability coefficients obtained from the two methods. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was calculated as 0.36 between the points of the individualized test and the measurement results of the paper and pencil test. A positive yet low correlation was observed between the measurement results obtained from the tests developed according to both methods. Consequently, it was seen that at the 0.05 significance level there was no statistically significant difference between KR-20 reliability coefficients of the tests developed according to the two methods and that there was a low correlation between the skill measurements of the students in both tests, but there was no significant correlation at the 0.05 significance level between the skill measurements obtained from both tests.

  3. Individual dose control of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keverling Buisman, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This publication has the character of a set of recommendations towards in practice working radiation protection specialists who are involved within their company or institute with the organization and performance of measurements in order to control the individual radiation burden caused by external exposition and internal contamination in applying radioactive materials and radiation apparatus. This publication gives information about the practical performance of personnel dosimetry at external exposure with a personnel dosimeter, which is carried on the body. The individual control of internal contamination is a much more complicated task. This publication assumes, with regard to this part, that people who are involved with it have been schooled as a radiation specialist level-3. For this part this publication contains numerical information needed for assessing of the individual effective follow-dose equivalence in occurring cases. A list with data of much used radionuclides is included. Also dosimetric data are presented which may be useful in case of contamination of skin and wounds. (author). 14 refs.; 2 figs.; 17 tabs

  4. Imparting Individuality to Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Kshirsagar, V.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated method of linking personality and emotion with the response generation and expression synthesis of Virtual Humans. The characters are powered by a dialogue system that consists of a large set of basic interactions between user and computer. These

  5. Individual Determinants of Inventor Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin

    patent data. In addition, it adds inventor characteristics that have been largely neglected in existing studies on inventor productivity, such as the breadth of work experience, divergent thinking skills, cognitive problem-solving skills, the use of knowledge sourced from networks within and outside...

  6. Individual ball possession in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Link

    Full Text Available This paper describes models for detecting individual and team ball possession in soccer based on position data. The types of ball possession are classified as Individual Ball Possession (IBC, Individual Ball Action (IBA, Individual Ball Control (IBC, Team Ball Possession (TBP, Team Ball Control (TBC und Team Playmaking (TPM according to different starting points and endpoints and the type of ball control involved. The machine learning approach used is able to determine how long the ball spends in the sphere of influence of a player based on the distance between the players and the ball together with their direction of motion, speed and the acceleration of the ball. The degree of ball control exhibited during this phase is classified based on the spatio-temporal configuration of the player controlling the ball, the ball itself and opposing players using a Bayesian network. The evaluation and application of this approach uses data from 60 matches in the German Bundesliga season of 2013/14, including 69,667 IBA intervals. The identification rate was F = .88 for IBA and F = .83 for IBP, and the classification rate for IBC was κ = .67. Match analysis showed the following mean values per match: TBP 56:04 ± 5:12 min, TPM 50:01 ± 7:05 min and TBC 17:49 ± 8:13 min. There were 836 ± 424 IBC intervals per match and their number was significantly reduced by -5.1% from the 1st to 2nd half. The analysis of ball possession at the player level indicates shortest accumulated IBC times for the central forwards (0:49 ± 0:43 min and the longest for goalkeepers (1:38 ± 0:58 min, central defenders (1:38 ± 1:09 min and central midfielders (1:27 ± 1:08 min. The results could improve performance analysis in soccer, help to detect match events automatically, and allow discernment of higher value tactical structures, which is based on individual ball possession.

  7. Note on the stability of large cartels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postlewaite, A; Roberts, J

    1977-11-01

    Professor L. Johansen (Econometrica, 45: 1651-(1977)) made a valuable point in raising the issue of the stability of competitive behavior and outcomes, even in large economies composed of many small agents, when these agents can collude in attempting to manipulate price formation. The authors formerly argued that, in most situations involving a large number of small agents, the ability of any individual to manipulate prices by altering his offers to buy and sell from their competitive values would go to zero as the number of agents increases. Correspondingly, the gain he could realize by such non-competitive behavior would vanish asymptotically. Thus, if there are any differential costs involved in such manipulation, there would be no incentive in large economies for agents individually to depart from competitive behavior. Professor Johansen suggests that this argument does not apply if agents collude, and certainly one would expect that usually some group would find forming a cartel to its advantage. However, cartels would seem to present a serious threat to the competitive system in the long run only if they are themselves stable against individuals breaking from the cartel and readopting competitive behavior. The purpose of this note is to show how a minor adaptation of the authors analysis in a former paper, ''Incentives for Price-Taking Behavior in Large Exchange Economies'' (Econometrica, 44: 115(1976)) indicates that instability of this type is pervasive for the case of cartels composed of many small agents. It is believed this serves to highlight the nature of the oligopoly problem.

  8. [Precision Nursing: Individual-Based Knowledge Translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Su, Sui-Lung

    2016-12-01

    U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine. Nursing science should follow and keep pace with this trend in order to develop empirical knowledge and expertise in the area of personalized nursing care. Nursing scientists must encourage, examine, and put into practice innovative research on precision nursing in order to provide evidence-based guidance to clinical practice. The applications in personalized precision nursing care include: explanations of personalized information such as the results of genetic testing; patient advocacy and support; anticipation of results and treatment; ongoing chronic monitoring; and support for shared decision-making throughout the disease trajectory. Further, attention must focus on the family and the ethical implications of taking a personalized approach to care. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision nursing and work collaboratively across disciplines to provide the optimal personalized care to patients. If realized, the full potential of precision nursing will provide the best chance for good health for all.

  9. Spatial navigation by congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinazi, Victor R; Thrash, Tyler; Chebat, Daniel-Robert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial navigation in the absence of vision has been investigated from a variety of perspectives and disciplines. These different approaches have progressed our understanding of spatial knowledge acquisition by blind individuals, including their abilities, strategies, and corresponding mental representations. In this review, we propose a framework for investigating differences in spatial knowledge acquisition by blind and sighted people consisting of three longitudinal models (i.e., convergent, cumulative, and persistent). Recent advances in neuroscience and technological devices have provided novel insights into the different neural mechanisms underlying spatial navigation by blind and sighted people and the potential for functional reorganization. Despite these advances, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which locomotion and wayfinding depend on amodal spatial representations. This challenge largely stems from methodological limitations such as heterogeneity in the blind population and terminological ambiguity related to the concept of cognitive maps. Coupled with an over-reliance on potential technological solutions, the field has diffused into theoretical and applied branches that do not always communicate. Here, we review research on navigation by congenitally blind individuals with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroscientific evidence, as well as the potential of technological assistance. Throughout the article, we emphasize the need to disentangle strategy choice and performance when discussing the navigation abilities of the blind population. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-06-21

    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  11. Effectiveness of Group Supervision versus Combined Group and Individual Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee; Altekruse, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of different types of supervision (large group, small group, combined group, individual supervision) with counseling students (N=64). Analyses revealed that all supervision formats resulted in similar progress in counselor effectiveness and counselor development. Participants voiced a preference for individual…

  12. Irrational Diversification; An Examination of Individual Portfolio Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe study individual portfolio choice in a laboratory experiment and find strong evidence for heuristic behavior. The subjects tend to focus on the marginal distribution of an asset, while largely ignoring its diversification benefits. They follow a conditional 1/n diversification

  13. Learning at Work: Organisational Affordances and Individual Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Jane; Pajo, Karl; Ward, Robyn; Mallon, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organisational affordances for the development of individuals' capability, and the engagement of workers at various levels with those opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of a large New Zealand wine company, using in-depth interviews. Interviews were…

  14. Individuality in harp seal, Phoca groenlandica, pup vocalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Opzeeland, IC; Van Parijs, SM

    In gregarious breeders, parents often use individually stereotyped vocalizations as a cue to relocate offspring. Harp seals aggregate in large colonies on pack ice during the whelping season. During the 11-day lactation period, females alternate between periods at sea and attending their pup. If

  15. Assessing Soldier Individual Differences to Enable Tailored Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    upon effective and efficient training. However, there is ample evidence that learning-related individual differences exist ( Thorndike , 1985; Jensen...in both civilian and military settings (Schmidt, Hunter, & Outerbridge, 1986; Thorndike , 1985). Prior knowledge or knowledge of facts and...predictive power ( Thorndike , 1985; Jensen, 1998). Further, there is a good deal of evidence that general mental ability impacts performance largely

  16. Defending the hive: social mechanisms complement individual immunity in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees live in large colonies (~50,000 individuals), but sociality has both costs and benefits. In some ways, social life enables individuals within colonies to better fend off pathogens and parasites than if they were solitary. However, an environment with many genetically related individuals i...

  17. 40 CFR 35.918 - Individual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual systems. 35.918 Section 35... Individual systems. (a) For references to individual systems, the following definitions apply: (1) Individual... a function of individual systems where cost-effective. (2) Principal residence. Normally the voting...

  18. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H; van de Ven, Anne L; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O; Smid, Christine A; Buchanan, Rachel M; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-08-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of 'losing sight of the forest for the trees'. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of "-omic" technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon "-omic" technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology "snapshot" of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to "self-correct" in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  20. Review on individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal, M.

    1983-01-01

    Up to now, nuclear energy workers in relation to neutron radiations were few. Fast development of nuclear energy lead us to study, for future, individual dosimetry techniques which are autonomous, more accurate and cheaper. The future dosemeter will be a couple: fast neutron dosemeter and slow neutron dosemeter. The different current studies concerning this ''composite'' dosemeter are described. In 1984-1985, operation of a ''non-homogeneous, composite'' dosemeter is foreseen; later on, an ''homogeneous composite'' dosemeter that is to say a dosemeter which needs same basis techniques [fr

  1. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...... aversion with respect to travel time and money, and find significant loss aversion in both dimensions. The degree of loss aversion in the time dimension is larger than in the money dimension, and depends on age and education. Subjects tend to be more loss averse when the reference is well established....

  2. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader...... day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  3. Individualism-collectivism and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, H C

    2001-12-01

    This paper provides a review of the main findings concerning the relationship between the cultural syndromes of individualism and collectivism and personality. People in collectivist cultures, compared to people in individualist cultures, are likely to define themselves as aspects of groups, to give priority to in-group goals, to focus on context more than the content in making attributions and in communicating, to pay less attention to internal than to external processes as determinants of social behavior, to define most relationships with ingroup members as communal, to make more situational attributions, and tend to be self-effacing.

  4. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... of the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each vehicle...

  5. Unification, small and large

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-04-15

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for galaxy formation. A

  6. Unification, small and large

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Fruitful exchanges between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology have become a common feature in the last decade. In January, Coral Gables near Miami was the stage for a 'Unified Symmetry in the Small and the Large' meeting. Coral Gables is a famous physics venue. In January 1964, the year that the quark model of hadrons emerged, Behram Kursunoglu initiated a series of particle physics meetings that continued for 20 years and formed a regular focus for this development. The final such meeting was in 1983, coinciding with both the 80th birthday of field theory pioneer Paul Dirac, who worked in Florida towards the end of his career, and the discovery of the W bosons at CERN. The resurrected Coral Gables meeting began with historical accounts of the emergence of Big Bang cosmology, by Robert Ralph and Herman Alpher, while Andrei Linde proposed our expanding universe as a small part of a stationary system, infinite both in space and in time. The observational status of Big Bang cosmology was reviewed by Bruce Partridge, John Mather and Martin Harwit, emphasizing the cosmic background radiation, where temperature is now measured by the COBE satellite detectors to 2.726 ± 0.01 OK. The tiny fluctuations observed by COBE pose problems for standard cold dark matter models. Edward ('Rocky') Kolb reported on new studies on the electroweak phase transition, based on an analogy with the physics of liquid crystals. Richard Holman discussed the fate of global symmetries at energies near the Planck (grand unification) energy, and Paul Steinhardt talked about tensorial and scalar metric fluctuations in the light of the COBE results. Anthony Tyson gave an impressive description of dark matter studies using gravitational lensing, now emerging as a unique tool for indirectly observing intervening dark matter. A neutrino mass of 10 electronvolts could account for observed dark matter distributions, but fails to provide the necessary seeds for

  7. Normative Judgments and Individual Essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Tobia, Kevin P; Newman, George E; Knobe, Joshua

    2017-04-01

    A growing body of research has examined how people judge the persistence of identity over time-that is, how they decide that a particular individual is the same entity from one time to the next. While a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the types of features that people typically consider when making such judgments, to date, existing work has not explored how these judgments may be shaped by normative considerations. The present studies demonstrate that normative beliefs do appear to play an important role in people's beliefs about persistence. Specifically, people are more likely to judge that the identity of a given entity (e.g., a hypothetical nation) remains the same when its features improve (e.g., the nation becomes more egalitarian) than when its features deteriorate (e.g., the nation becomes more discriminatory). Study 1 provides a basic demonstration of this effect. Study 2 shows that this effect is moderated by individual differences in normative beliefs. Study 3 examines the underlying mechanism, which is the belief that, in general, various entities are essentially good. Study 4 directly manipulates beliefs about essence to show that the positivity bias regarding essences is causally responsible for the effect. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Individuality and epigenetics in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campión, J; Milagro, F I; Martínez, J A

    2009-07-01

    Excessive weight gain arises from the interactions among environmental factors, genetic predisposition and the individual behavior. However, it is becoming evident that interindividual differences in obesity susceptibility depend also on epigenetic factors. Epigenetics studies the heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence. These processes include DNA methylation, covalent histone modifications, chromatin folding and, more recently described, the regulatory action of miRNAs and polycomb group complexes. In this review, we focus on experimental evidences concerning dietary factors influencing obesity development by epigenetic mechanisms, reporting treatment doses and durations. Moreover, we present a bioinformatic analysis of promoter regions for the search of future epigenetic biomarkers of obesity, including methylation pattern analyses of several obesity-related genes (epiobesigenes), such as FGF2, PTEN, CDKN1A and ESR1, implicated in adipogenesis, SOCS1/SOCS3, in inflammation, and COX7A1 LPL, CAV1, and IGFBP3, in intermediate metabolism and insulin signalling. The identification of those individuals that at an early age could present changes in the methylation profiles of specific genes could help to predict their susceptibility to later develop obesity, which may allow to prevent and follow-up its progress, as well as to research and develop newer therapeutic approaches.

  9. Examination of Individual Differences in Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Formal and Informal Individual Auditory Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L.; Saunders, Gabrielle H.; Chisolm, Theresa H.; Frederick, Melissa; Bailey, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if patient characteristics or clinical variables could predict who benefits from individual auditory training. Method: A retrospective series of analyses were performed using a data set from a large, multisite, randomized controlled clinical trial that compared the treatment effects of at-home…

  10. 38 CFR 48.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 48.655...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  11. Laboratory for Large Data Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Laboratory for Large Data Research (LDR) addresses a critical need to rapidly prototype shared, unified access to large amounts of data across both the...

  12. Large-D gravity and low-D strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Grumiller, Daniel; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2013-06-21

    We show that in the limit of a large number of dimensions a wide class of nonextremal neutral black holes has a universal near-horizon limit. The limiting geometry is the two-dimensional black hole of string theory with a two-dimensional target space. Its conformal symmetry explains the properties of massless scalars found recently in the large-D limit. For black branes with string charges, the near-horizon geometry is that of the three-dimensional black strings of Horne and Horowitz. The analogies between the α' expansion in string theory and the large-D expansion in gravity suggest a possible effective string description of the large-D limit of black holes. We comment on applications to several subjects, in particular to the problem of critical collapse.

  13. Quenches in large superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Green, M.A.; Lecomte, P.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Vuillemin, V.

    1977-08-01

    The development of large high current density superconducting magnets requires an understanding of the quench process by which the magnet goes normal. A theory which describes the quench process in large superconducting magnets is presented and compared with experimental measurements. The use of a quench theory to improve the design of large high current density superconducting magnets is discussed

  14. FEMA Individual Assistance Open Disaster Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Individual Assistance (IA) is provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to individuals and families who have sustained losses due to disasters. Homeowners,...

  15. Driving safety in elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marottoli, R A

    1993-05-01

    Driving safety in elderly individuals is becoming an increasingly important issue in geriatrics and in medical practice. The number of elderly drivers is increasing as the population ages, and especially as current generations of female drivers age. Concern is raised about their safe operation of motor vehicles because of the increasing likelihood with advancing age of developing conditions that may adversely affect the visual, cognitive, and motor abilities integral to driving. But this issue is not only a medical one, since there are social and political components as well. This discussion will describe the background of this issue, focus on the changes that may occur with aging and their potential relationship to driving ability, and, finally, will outline an approach that physicians may employ in their practice.

  16. INDIVIDUAL AGENCY AND LIFE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO TRUJILLO GARCÍA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the project Interpretación desde la Psicología de la calidad de vida y sus dimensiones en adultos mayores de losmunicipios de Soacha y Sibaté (Cundinamarca, Colombia [Interpretation from the psychology of the Quality of Life and itsdimensions in old age adults from the Soacha and Sibaté municipalities (Cundinamarca, Colombia] which had a theoretical modelcomposed for three axels (epistemological, ecological and temporal, emerged some tensions which constitute thequality of life dimensions of the elderly. In the present article one of those tensions is discussed: the one shaped bythe contradictions among the possibilities of the individual agency exercise and the precarious life conditions whichhad characterized the context of development of the old age participants.

  17. Individual differences in imagination inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, C; Nash, M

    1999-06-01

    Garry, Manning, Loftus, and Sherman (1996) found that when adult subjects imagined childhood events, these events were subsequentlyjudged as more likely to have occurred than were not-imagined events. The authors termed this effect imagination inflation. We replicated the effect, using a novel set of Life Events Inventory events. Further, we tested whether the effect is related to four subject characteristics possibly associated with false memory creation. The extent to which subjects inflated judged likelihood following imagined events was associated with indices of hypnotic suggestibility and dissociativity, but not with vividness of imagery or interrogative suggestibility. Results suggest that imagination plays a role in subsequent likelihood judgments regarding childhood events, and that some individuals are more likely than others to experience imagination inflation.

  18. The Art of Managing Individuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    , where all the forms tend to oppress essential aspects of individuality. Kasper Holten integrates the symbolic forms of art and science, which makes him capable of binding to the individual’s life-world. Implications – When analysing Kasper Holten’s views on management, we find features and structures...... by a successful manager and artist. Methodology/Approach – The theoretical starting point of this article is Cassirer’s (1923, 25, 27, 62) philosophy on symbolic forms. The article analyses the symbolic forms embedded in the management discourse practice of art in the way that the concept is unfolded by Kasper...... Holten, the highly successful Artistic Director of the Royal Danish Opera. Findings – The analysis shows that conventional management control models are rooted in the symbolic form of science, but in risk of getting caught in assumptions of the form gliding into the symbolic form of religion and myth...

  19. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners' ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns.

  20. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka eKoren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 seconds excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which twenty musicians and twenty non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and 9 non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non‐musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note

  1. Developmental dyslexia: predicting individual risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul A; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Gooch, Debbie; Hayiou-Thomas, Emma; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-09-01

    Causal theories of dyslexia suggest that it is a heritable disorder, which is the outcome of multiple risk factors. However, whether early screening for dyslexia is viable is not yet known. The study followed children at high risk of dyslexia from preschool through the early primary years assessing them from age 3 years and 6 months (T1) at approximately annual intervals on tasks tapping cognitive, language, and executive-motor skills. The children were recruited to three groups: children at family risk of dyslexia, children with concerns regarding speech, and language development at 3;06 years and controls considered to be typically developing. At 8 years, children were classified as 'dyslexic' or not. Logistic regression models were used to predict the individual risk of dyslexia and to investigate how risk factors accumulate to predict poor literacy outcomes. Family-risk status was a stronger predictor of dyslexia at 8 years than low language in preschool. Additional predictors in the preschool years include letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and executive skills. At the time of school entry, language skills become significant predictors, and motor skills add a small but significant increase to the prediction probability. We present classification accuracy using different probability cutoffs for logistic regression models and ROC curves to highlight the accumulation of risk factors at the individual level. Dyslexia is the outcome of multiple risk factors and children with language difficulties at school entry are at high risk. Family history of dyslexia is a predictor of literacy outcome from the preschool years. However, screening does not reach an acceptable clinical level until close to school entry when letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and RAN, rather than family risk, together provide good sensitivity and specificity as a screening battery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by

  2. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns. PMID:24605104

  3. Individualized management of follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Huang, Hui-Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common indolent non-hodgkin lymphoma. Most patients with FL are diagnosed with advanced disease and are considered incurable. The classical prognostic index in FL is the FL international prognostic index (FLIPI). The management of FL is mainly determined by histologic grading, clinical stage, and tumor burden. For patients with stage I and II disease, an involved-site radiation therapy (ISRT) is recommended and may be potentially curative approach with 60% to 80% of 10-year overall survival (OS) rates, while patients with stage III and IV should be treated with systemic therapy. The watchful waiting is still an option for patients without symptoms or/and low tumor burden. Induction of immuno-chemotherapy combined with consolidation of rituximab maintenance (MR) is standard care for patients with symptomatic disease or with high tumor burden when treatment indicated. The major indication for systemic therapy is including candidate for clinical trials, threatened end organ function, cytopenia secondary to lymphoma bulky disease and steady progress etc. at present time. Routine baseline and regular hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) testing is strongly recommended for all patients before the initiation of immuno-chemotherapy in order to minimize the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation which has been observed approximately 20% to 50% of patients with positive HBsAg and 3% to 45% of patients with positive HBcAb. Prophylactic antiviral treatment in patients who are HBsAg-positive or HBcAb-positive is indicated before immuno-chemotherapy. The management for elderly patients should be carefully selected to avoid overtreatment and severe toxicities. Individualized dose adjustment for chemotherapy and an adequate supportive treatment are essential for this special population. Novel agents such as lenalidomide, ibrutinib and idelalisib are promising. In conclusion, individualized management

  4. Health impacts of large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerer, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects

  5. Large deviations and idempotent probability

    CERN Document Server

    Puhalskii, Anatolii

    2001-01-01

    In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...

  6. The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Toshinori; Abramowicz, Halina; Adamus, Marek; Adeva, Bernardo; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alabau Pons, Carmen; Albrecht, Hartwig; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Aplin, Steve J.; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Masaki; Attie, David; Attree, Derek J.; Burger, Jochen; Bailey, David; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Ball, Markus; Ballin, James; Barbi, Mauricio; Barlow, Roger; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassignana, Daniela; Bates, Richard; Baudot, Jerome; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Jeannine; Beckmann, Moritz; Bedjidian, Marc; Behnke, Ties; Belkadhi, Khaled; Bellerive, Alain; Bentvelsen, Stan; Bergauer, Thomas; Berggren, C.Mikael U.; Bergholz, Matthias; Bernreuther, Werner; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhuyan, Bipul; Biebel, Otmar; Bilki, Burak; Blair, Grahame; Blumlein, Johannes; Bo, Li; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boos, Eduard; Boudry, Vincent; Bouquet, Bernard; Bouvier, Joel; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brogna, Andrea; Buchholz, Peter; Buesser, Karsten; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Buzulutskov, A.F.; Caccia, Massimo; Caiazza, Stefano; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caldwell, Allen; Callier, Stephane L.C.; Calvo Alamillo, Enrique; Campbell, Michael; Campbell, Alan J.; Cappellini, Chiara; Carloganu, Cristina; Castro, Nuno; Castro Carballo, Maria Elena; Chadeeva, Marina; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chang, Paoti; Charpy, Alexandre; Chen, Xun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Hongfang; Cheon, Byunggu; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, B.C.; Christen, Sandra; Ciborowski, Jacek; Ciobanu, Catalin; Claus, Gilles; Clerc, Catherine; Coca, Cornelia; Colas, Paul; Colijn, Auke; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Cornat, Remi; Cornebise, Patrick; Corriveau, Francois; Cvach, Jaroslav; Czakon, Michal; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Da Silva, Wilfrid; Dadoun, Olivier; Dam, Mogens; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daubard, Guillaume; David, Dorte; David, Jacques; De Boer, Wim; De Groot, Nicolo; De Jong, Sijbrand; De Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De Masi, Rita; De Roeck, Albert; Decotigny, David; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Deng, Zhi; Desch, Klaus; Dieguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dima, Mihai-Octavian; Dissertori, Gunther; Dixit, Madhu S.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris A.; Dollan, Ralph; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doublet, Philippe; Doyle, Tony; Doziere, Guy; Dragicevic, Marko; Drasal, Zbynek; Drugakov, Vladimir; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Dulucq, Frederic; Dumitru, Laurentiu Alexandru; Dzahini, Daniel; Eberl, Helmut; Eckerlin, Guenter; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eigen, Gerald; Eklund, Lars; Elsen, Eckhard; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Engels, Jan; Evrard, Christophe; Fabbri, Riccardo; Faber, Gerard; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Feege, Nils; Feng, Cunfeng; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Garcia, Marcos; Filthaut, Frank; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien L.; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Fouz, Mary-Cruz; Frank, Sebastian; Frey, Ariane; Frotin, Mickael; Fujii, Hirofumi; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fujita, Yowichi; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gaddi, Andrea; Gaede, Frank; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallas, Abraham; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gamba, Diego; Gao, Yuanning; Garrido Beltran, Lluis; Garutti, Erika; Gastaldi, Franck; Gaur, Bakul; Gay, Pascal; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerwig, Hubert; Gibbons, Lawrence; Ginina, Elena; Giraud, Julien; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Gladilin, Leonid; Goldstein, Joel; Gonzalez Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Gournaris, Filimon; Greenshaw, Tim; Greenwood, Z.D.; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Philippe; Grondin, Denis; Grunewald, Martin; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gurtu, Atul; Haas, Tobias; Haensel, Stephan; Hajdu, Csaba; Hallermann, Lea; Han, Liang; Hansen, Peter H.; Hara, Takanori; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harz, Martin; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hauschild, Michael; He, Qing; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heinze, Isa; Helebrant, Christian; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hertenberger, Ralf; Herve, Alain; Higuchi, Takeo; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hironori, Kazurayama; Hlucha, Hana; Hommels, Bart; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Wei-Shu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huang, Xingtao; Huppert, Jean Francois; Ide, Yasuhiro; Idzik, Marek; Iglesias Escudero, Carmen; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Igonkina, Olga; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Ikuno, Toshinori; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Imhoff, Marc; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Eiji; Ioannis, Giomataris; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Itagaki, Kennosuke; Ito, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hideo; Iwabuchi, Masaya; Iwai, Go; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki; Jacosalem, Editha P.; Jaramillo Echeverria, Richard; Jeans, Daniel T D.; Jing, Fanfan; Jing, Ge; Jokic, Stevan; Jonsson, Leif; Jore, Matthieu; Jovin, Tatjana; Kafer, Daniela; Kajino, Fumiyoshi; Kamai, Yusuke; Kaminski, Jochen; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kaplan, Alexander; Kapusta, Frederic; Kar, Deepak; Karlen, Dean; Katayama, Nobu; Kato, Eriko; Kato, Yukihiro; Kaukher, Alexander; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawahara, Hiroki; Kawai, Masanori; Kawasaki, Takeo; Khan, Sameen Ahmed; Kieffer, Robert; Kielar, Eryk; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Kiesling, Christian M.; Killenberg, Martin; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Choong Sun; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hong Joo; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hyunok; Kim, Shinhong; Kircher, Francois; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kleinwort, Claus; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kluge, Hanna; Kluit, Peter Martin; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kobel, Michael; Kodama, Hideyo; Kodys, Peter; Koetz, U.; Koffeman, Els; Kohriki, Takashi; Komamiya, Sachio; Kondou, Yoshinari; Korbel, Volker; Kotera, Katsushige; Krucker, Dirk; Kraml, Sabine; Krammer, Manfred; Krastev, Kaloyan; Krause, Bernward; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Kschioneck, Kirsten; Kuang, Yu-Ping; Kuhlmann, Jan; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Kusano, Tomonori; Kvasnicka, Peter; Lacasta Llacer, Carlos; Lagorio, Eric; Laktineh, Imad; Lange, Wolfgang; Lebrun, Patrice; Lee, Jik; Lehner, Frank; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Levy, Aharon; Li, Bo; Li, Ting; Li, Yulan; Li, Hengne; Liang, Zuotang; Lima, Guilherme; Linde, Frank; Linssen, Lucie; Linzmaier, Diana; List, Benno; List, Jenny; Liu, Bo; Llopart Cudie, Xavier; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Shaojun; Lucaci-Timoce, Angela Isabela; Lumb, Nick; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lutz, Pierre; Lutz, Benjamin; Lux, Thorsten; Luzniak, Pawel; Lyapin, Alexey; Ma, Wengan; Maczewski, Lukasz; Mader, Wolfgang F.; Maity, Manas; Majumdar, Nayana; Majumder, Gobinda; Maki, Akihiro; Makida, Yasuhiro; Mamuzic, Judita; Marc, Dhellot; Marchesini, Ivan; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marias, Carlos; Marshall, John; Martens, Cornelius; Martin, Victoria J.; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin-Chassard, Gisele; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Mathez, Herve; Mathieu, Antoine; Matsuda, Takeshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mcdonald, Kirk T.; Mereu, Paolo; Merk, Marcel; Merkin, Mikhail M.; Meyer, Niels; Meyners, Norbert; Mihara, Satoshi; Miller, David J.; Miller, Owen; Mitaroff, Winfried A.; Miyamoto, Akiya; Miyata, Hitoshi; Mjornmark, Ulf; Mnich, Joachim; Monig, Klaus; Moll, Andreas; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Mora De Freitas, Paulo; Morel, Frederic; Moretti, Stefano; Morgunov, Vasily; Mori, Toshinori; Mori, Takashi; Morin, Laurent; Morozov, Sergey; Moser, Hans-Gunther; Moser, Fabian; Moya, David; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Murakami, Takeshi; Musa, Luciano; Musat, Gabriel; Nagamine, Tadashi; Nakamura, Isamu; Nakano, Eiichi; Nakashima, Kenichi; Nakayoshi, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Nam, Shinwoo; Nam, Jiwoo; Nemecek, Stanislav; Niebuhr, Carsten; Niechciol, Marcus; Niezurawski, Piotr; Nishida, Shohei; Nishiyama, Miho; Nitoh, Osamu; Norbeck, Ed; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; O'Shea, Val; Ohlerich, Martin; Okada, Nobuchika; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivier, Bob; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Omori, Tsunehiko; Onel, Yasar; Ono, Hiroaki; Ono, Yoshimasa; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Ootani, Wataru; Orava, Risto; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Oskarsson, Anders; Osland, Per; Ossetski, Dmitri; Osterman, Lennart; Padilla, Cristobal; Pandurovic, Mila; Park, Il Hung; Park, Hwanbae; Parkes, Chris; Patrick, Ghislain; Patterson, J.Ritchie; Pawlik, Bogdan; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pellegrino, Antonio; Peterson, Daniel; Petrov, Alexander; Pham, Thanh Hung; Piccolo, Marcello; Poeschl, Roman; Polak, Ivo; Popova, Elena; Postranecky, Martin; Prahl, Volker; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Puerta-Pelayo, Jesus; Qian, Wenbin; Quadt, Arnulf; Rarbi, Fatah-Ellah; Raspereza, Alexei; Ratti, Lodovico; Raux, Ludovic; Raven, Gerhard; Re, Valerio; Regler, Meinhard; Reinhard, Marcel; Renz, Uwe; Repain, Philippe; Repond, Jose; Richard, Francois; Riemann, Sabine; Riemann, Tord; Riera-Babures, Jordi; Riu, Imma; Robert, Kieffer; Robson, Aidan; Roloff, Philipp; Rosca, Aura; Rosemann, Christoph; Rosiek, Janusz; Rossmanith, Robert; Roth, Stefan; Royon, Christophe; Ruan, Manqi; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Rusinov, Vladimir; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryzhikov, Dmitri; Saborido, Juan J.; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Saito, Masatoshi; Sakuma, Takayuki; Sanami, Toshiya; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Sarkar, Sandip; Sasaki, Rei; Sato, Yutaro; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, Lee; Schafer, Oliver; Schalicke, Andreas; Schuler, K.Peter; Schade, Peter; Schaffran, Joern; Scheirich, Jan; Schlatter, Dieter; Schmidt, Ringo Sebastian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneekloth, Uwe; Schreiber, Heinz Juergen; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce A.; Schuwalow, Sergej; Schwierz, Rainer; Sefkow, Felix; Sefri, Rachid; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Seidel, Katja; Sekaric, Jadranka; Sendai, Hiroshi; Settles, Ronald Dean; Shao, Ming; Shechtman, L.I.; Shimazaki, Shoichi; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Sicho, Petr; Simon, Frank; Sinram, Klaus; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smiljkovic, Nebojsa; Smolik, Jan; Sobloher, Blanka; Soldner, Christian; Song, Kezhu; Sopczak, Andre; Speckmayer, Peter; Stenlund, Evert; Stockinger, Dominik; Stoeck, Holger; Strohmer, Raimund; Straessner, Arno; Stromhagen, Richard; Sudo, Yuji; Suehara, Taikan; Suekane, Fumihiko; Suetsugu, Yusuke; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Sumisawa, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Shiro; Swientek, Krzysztof; Tabassam, Hajrah; Takahashi, Tohru; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Tanabe, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Manobu; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarkovsky, Evgueny I.; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Tauchi, Kazuya; Telnov, Valery I.; Teodorescu, Eliza; Thomson, Mark; Tian, Junping; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maxim P.; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tozuka, Shunsuke; Tsuboyama, Toru; Ueno, Koji; Ullan, Miguel; Uozumi, Satoru; Urakawa, Junji; Ushakov, Andriy; Ushiroda, Yutaka; Valentan, Manfred; Valin, Isabelle; Van Der Graaf, Harry; Van Doren, Brian; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Verzocchi, Marco; Vescovi, Christophe; Videau, Henri L.; Vila, Ivan; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vogel, Adrian; Volkenborn, Robert; Vos, Marcel; Voutsinas, Yorgos; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Walsh, Roberval; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wang, Min-Zu; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Qun; Wang, Meng; Ward, David R.; Warren, Matthew; Watanabe, Minori; Watanabe, Takashi; Watson, Nigel K.; Wattimena, Nanda; Wendt, Oliver; Wermes, Norbert; Weuste, Lars; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wienemann, Peter; Wierba, Wojciech; Wilson, Graham W.; Wilson, John A.; Wing, Matthew; Winter, Marc; Wobisch, Markus; Worek, Malgorzata; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Zizong; Yamaguchi, Akira; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Satoru; Yamauchi, M.; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yamouni, Mahfoud; Yan, Wenbiao; Yanagida, Koji; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Jongmann; Yang, Jin Min; Yang, Zhenwei; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yonamine, Ryo; Yoshida, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yoshioka, Tamaki; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Intae; Yue, Qian; Zacek, Josef; Zalesak, Jaroslav; Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zerwas, Dirk; Zeuner, Wolfram; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Ziping; Zhang, Renyou; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zheng, Baojun; Zhong, Liang; Zhou, Yongzhao; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhu, Chengguang; Zomer, Fabian; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision measurements. To take full advantage of the physics potential of ILC places great demands on the detector performance. The design of ILD is driven by these requirements. Excellent calorimetry and tracking are combined to obtain the best possible overall event reconstruction, including the capability to reconstruct individual particles within jets for particle ow calorimetry. This requires excellent spatial resolution for all detector systems. A highly granular calorimeter system is combined with a central tracker which st...

  7. Smooth individual level covariates adjustment in disease mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huque, Md Hamidul; Anderson, Craig; Walton, Richard; Woolford, Samuel; Ryan, Louise

    2018-05-01

    Spatial models for disease mapping should ideally account for covariates measured both at individual and area levels. The newly available "indiCAR" model fits the popular conditional autoregresssive (CAR) model by accommodating both individual and group level covariates while adjusting for spatial correlation in the disease rates. This algorithm has been shown to be effective but assumes log-linear associations between individual level covariates and outcome. In many studies, the relationship between individual level covariates and the outcome may be non-log-linear, and methods to track such nonlinearity between individual level covariate and outcome in spatial regression modeling are not well developed. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm, smooth-indiCAR, to fit an extension to the popular conditional autoregresssive model that can accommodate both linear and nonlinear individual level covariate effects while adjusting for group level covariates and spatial correlation in the disease rates. In this formulation, the effect of a continuous individual level covariate is accommodated via penalized splines. We describe a two-step estimation procedure to obtain reliable estimates of individual and group level covariate effects where both individual and group level covariate effects are estimated separately. This distributed computing framework enhances its application in the Big Data domain with a large number of individual/group level covariates. We evaluate the performance of smooth-indiCAR through simulation. Our results indicate that the smooth-indiCAR method provides reliable estimates of all regression and random effect parameters. We illustrate our proposed methodology with an analysis of data on neutropenia admissions in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Population characteristics may reduce the levels of individual call identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Delgado

    Full Text Available Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo, we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1 similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2 high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other's vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network.

  9. Sharpening Precision Medicine by a Thorough Interrogation of Metabolic Individuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Beebe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision medicine is an active component of medical practice today, but aspirations are to both broaden its reach to a greater diversity of individuals and improve its “precision” by enhancing the ability to define even more disease states in combination with associated treatments. Given complexity of human phenotypes, much work is required. In this review, we deconstruct this challenge at a high level to define what is needed to move closer toward these aspirations. In the context of the variables that influence the diverse array of phenotypes across human health and disease – genetics, epigenetics, environmental influences, and the microbiome – we detail the factors behind why an individual's biochemical (metabolite composition is increasingly regarded as a key element to precisely defining phenotypes. Although an individual's biochemical (metabolite composition is generally regarded, and frequently shown, to be a surrogate to the phenotypic state, we review how metabolites (and therefore an individual's metabolic profile are also functionally related to the myriad of phenotypic influencers like genetics and the microbiota. We describe how using the technology to comprehensively measure an individual's biochemical profile – metabolomics – is integrative to defining individual phenotypes and how it is currently being deployed in efforts to continue to elaborate on human health and disease in large population studies. Finally, we summarize instances where metabolomics is being used to assess individual health in instances where signatures (i.e. biomarkers have been defined.

  10. The spectacular human nose: an amplifier of individual quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åse Kristine Rognmo Mikalsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier. For an amplifier to evolve, the average fitness benefit to the high quality individuals should be higher than the average cost for the low quality individuals. The human nose is, compared to the nose of most other primates, extraordinary large, fragile and easily broken—especially in male–male interactions. May it have evolved as an amplifier among high quality individuals, allowing easy assessment of individual quality and influencing the perception of attractiveness? We tested the latter by manipulating the position of the nose tip or, as a control, the mouth in facial pictures and had the pictures rated for attractiveness. Our results show that facial attractiveness failed to be influenced by mouth manipulations. Yet, facial attractiveness increased when the nose tip was artificially centered according to other facial features. Conversely, attractiveness decreased when the nose tip was displaced away from its central position. Our results suggest that our evaluation of attractiveness is clearly sensitive to the centering of the nose tip, possibly because it affects our perception of the face’s symmetry and/or averageness. However, whether such centering is related to individual quality remains unclear.

  11. Control problems in very large accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.

    1985-06-01

    There is no fundamental difference of kind in the control requirements between a small and a large accelerator since they are built of the same types of components, which individually have similar control inputs and outputs. The main difference is one of scale; the large machine has many more components of each type, and the distances involved are much greater. Both of these factors must be taken into account in determining the optimum way of carrying out the control functions. Small machines should use standard equipment and software for control as much as possible, as special developments for small quantities cannot normally be justified if all costs are taken into account. On the other hand, the very great number of devices needed for a large machine means that, if special developments can result in simplification, they may make possible an appreciable reduction in the control equipment costs. It is the purpose of this report to look at the special control problems of large accelerators, which the author shall arbitarily define as those with a length of circumference in excess of 10 km, and point out where special developments, or the adoption of developments from outside the accelerator control field, can be of assistance in minimizing the cost of the control system. Most of the first part of this report was presented as a paper to the 1985 Particle Accelerator Conference. It has now been extended to include a discussion on the special case of the controls for the SSC

  12. Proceedings of conferences on large data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, Yutaka

    2004-03-01

    This report consists of 14 contributed papers in conferences on Large Data Management, which were held at the JAERI in Kyoto. The papers are proceedings of the Open Workshop of Large Data Management at the ITBL building on January 29-30, 2003, and the Conference of Advanced Photon-Matter Interaction Research with Large-Scale Simulation on January 31, 2003. The aim of the workshop and the conference is for researchers to report on the lastest research and technology. The contents of the workshop are speeches and laboratory, supercomputers and photon science museum tours. There were three private sector speeches and ten university and research organization speeches. There were thirteen speeches in total. A total of 107 people participated including 93 participants from other than JAERI. In the conference, there were three university speeches. 30 people participated including 27 participants from other than JAERI. The conferences showed the present condition and view of large data management technology which is important for computer science, advanced photon research and became a valuable forum from the stand point as an indicator for future research. The 14 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. 48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 801... Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when an...

  14. 19 CFR 113.35 - Individual sureties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual sureties. 113.35 Section 113.35 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.35 Individual sureties. (a) Number required. If individuals...) Qualifications to act as surety—(1) Residency and citizenship. Each individual surety on a Customs bond must be...

  15. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302... Individual qualifications. Agency heads are delegated authority to approve the qualifications of individuals appointed to SL and ST positions. The agency head must determine that the individual meets the...

  16. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual monitoring. 835.402 Section 835.402 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...

  17. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001... Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be authorized... deviations clearly in the best interest of the Government. Individual deviations must be authorized in...

  18. 48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501... Individual deviations. (a) An individual deviation affects only one contract action. (1) The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant an...

  19. Individual identification via electrocardiogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Antonio; Sansone, Mario; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario

    2015-08-14

    During last decade the use of ECG recordings in biometric recognition studies has increased. ECG characteristics made it suitable for subject identification: it is unique, present in all living individuals, and hard to forge. However, in spite of the great number of approaches found in literature, no agreement exists on the most appropriate methodology. This study aimed at providing a survey of the techniques used so far in ECG-based human identification. Specifically, a pattern recognition perspective is here proposed providing a unifying framework to appreciate previous studies and, hopefully, guide future research. We searched for papers on the subject from the earliest available date using relevant electronic databases (Medline, IEEEXplore, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge). The following terms were used in different combinations: electrocardiogram, ECG, human identification, biometric, authentication and individual variability. The electronic sources were last searched on 1st March 2015. In our selection we included published research on peer-reviewed journals, books chapters and conferences proceedings. The search was performed for English language documents. 100 pertinent papers were found. Number of subjects involved in the journal studies ranges from 10 to 502, age from 16 to 86, male and female subjects are generally present. Number of analysed leads varies as well as the recording conditions. Identification performance differs widely as well as verification rate. Many studies refer to publicly available databases (Physionet ECG databases repository) while others rely on proprietary recordings making difficult them to compare. As a measure of overall accuracy we computed a weighted average of the identification rate and equal error rate in authentication scenarios. Identification rate resulted equal to 94.95 % while the equal error rate equal to 0.92 %. Biometric recognition is a mature field of research. Nevertheless, the use of physiological signals

  20. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Zoe C; Alibhai, Sky K; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-05-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN(1). It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor(2). Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,905(3) to 13,520(4). The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique(5) is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify

  1. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Zoe C.; Alibhai, Sky K.; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN1. It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor2. Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,9053 to 13,5204. The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique5 is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify free

  2. Inferring relationships between pairs of individuals from locus heterozygosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinetti Isabella

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional exact method for inferring relationships between individuals from genetic data is not easily applicable in all situations that may be encountered in several fields of applied genetics. This study describes an approach that gives affordable results and is easily applicable; it is based on the probabilities that two individuals share 0, 1 or both alleles at a locus identical by state. Results We show that these probabilities (zi depend on locus heterozygosity (H, and are scarcely affected by variation of the distribution of allele frequencies. This allows us to obtain empirical curves relating zi's to H for a series of common relationships, so that the likelihood ratio of a pair of relationships between any two individuals, given their genotypes at a locus, is a function of a single parameter, H. Application to large samples of mother-child and full-sib pairs shows that the statistical power of this method to infer the correct relationship is not much lower than the exact method. Analysis of a large database of STR data proves that locus heterozygosity does not vary significantly among Caucasian populations, apart from special cases, so that the likelihood ratio of the more common relationships between pairs of individuals may be obtained by looking at tabulated zi values. Conclusions A simple method is provided, which may be used by any scientist with the help of a calculator or a spreadsheet to compute the likelihood ratios of common alternative relationships between pairs of individuals.

  3. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  4. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country.

  5. Lighting preferences in individual offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Gomes de Faria

    Full Text Available Abstract Workplaces with good daylighting offer visual comfort to users, give them a series of physiological and psychological benefits and allow good performance of visual activities, besides saving energy. However, this solution is not always adopted: lighting type preferences involve many variables besides the availability of daylight. This paper explores a case study through the analysis of questionnaire answers and computer simulations of a series of metrics related to quality of lighting with the aim of finding explanations for the lighting preferences of individual office users. The results show that, although the offices present good daylighting conditions and no glare potential, and users are satisfied with daylighting, these parameters are not sufficient to explain the predominant lighting preferences. The findings have also shown that there is no consensus about which parameters potentially cause visual comfort, while the parameters that cause discomfort are clearly identified. In addition, in this study, 49% of the preference for mixed lighting (daylight plus electrical light can be explained by the fact that mixed lighting produces better modeling than daylighting alone.

  6. Individual mobility: issues and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, D [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Problems relating to mobility will intensify in developing countries due to explosive growth in motorization. In the Western countries, individual travel needs will change as a result of demographics (e.g. an increase in the elderly population, working women and single person households), and new information and communication technology. Increased congestion and global warming are the principal concerns that impact mobility. To respond to these concerns, significant mobility improvements can be realized by replicating successful mobility strategies that have been implemented in some cities throughout the world. However, a more fundamental reappraisal will be necessary that considers mobility in an overall sustainability context. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) may provide a framework for a new mobility infrastructure that enables implementation of a dynamic transportation system. Such a system can adapt on a real-time basis to customer needs and social concerns. ITS enables pricing and control strategies to be more easily utilized on an episodic basis. Development of a rational approach to sustainable mobility requires the public and private sectors as well as various stakeholders to develop a shared vision of the future, since mobility goes beyond national and competitive interests. (author) 3 figs.

  7. Individual monitoring dosimetry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the various types of individual monitoring systems presently in use within the European community and neutron dosimetry research being coordinated by the EURADOS working group. Research is currently being conducted on nuclear track dosimeters, primarily with CR-39 (TM), and TLD-albedo dosimeters. Studies are being conducted on the energy and angular response of each type of dosimeter. Because the response of dosimeters depends on the energy of the neutrons, it is necessary to have spectral information to accurately assess the dose. Neutron energy spectrum measurements are being performed in typical work place environments. Work is also progressing on development of calibration sources which will be representative of the neutron energy spectrum found in typical neutron exposure situations. This work utilizes 14 MeV neutrons incident on a uranium block with various other filters. Research is also continuing on neutron dosimetry using tissue equivalent proportional counters and microdosimetric techniques. The results of intercomparisons between several different instruments are discussed. In addition to personnel dosimetry, these systems are being used to record the dose to passengers and flight crews aboard commercial aircraft

  8. Intra- and inter-individual variation in flight direction in a migratory butterfly co-vary with individual mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Nicolas; Baguette, Michel; Calvez, Olivier; Trochet, Audrey; Ducatez, Simon; Legrand, Delphine

    2013-08-15

    Flight direction is a major component of an animal's migratory success. However, few studies have focused on variation in flight direction both between and within individuals, which is likely to be correlated with other traits implied in migration processes. We report patterns of intra- and inter-individual variation in flight direction in the large white butterfly Pieris brassicae. The presence of inter-individual variation in flight direction for individuals tested in the same conditions suggests that this trait is inherited in P. brassicae and we propose that a rapid loss of migratory skills may exist in the absence of selection for migration. The magnitude of intra-individual variation was negatively correlated to two surrogates of the potential for migration: mobility and wing length. Highly mobile and longed-winged individuals within the same family were found to fly in similar directions, whereas less mobile and short-winged individuals displayed divergent flight direction compared with the average direction of their kin. There was also a negative correlation between the variance to the mean flight direction of a family and its average mobility, but no correlation with wing length. We discuss these issues in terms of the evolution of traits potentially implied in both migration and dispersal in P. brassicae.

  9. Are Teams Less Inequality Averse than Individuals?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haoran; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in team decision-making becau...

  10. Large-scale grid management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Eggen, Arnt Ove

    2003-01-01

    The network companies in the Norwegian electricity industry now have to establish a large-scale network management, a concept essentially characterized by (1) broader focus (Broad Band, Multi Utility,...) and (2) bigger units with large networks and more customers. Research done by SINTEF Energy Research shows so far that the approaches within large-scale network management may be structured according to three main challenges: centralization, decentralization and out sourcing. The article is part of a planned series

  11. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  12. Entry control system for large populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merillat, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    An Entry Control System has been developed which is appropriate for use at an installation with a large population requiring access over a large area. This is accomplished by centralizing the data base management and enrollment functions and decentralizing the guard-assisted, positive personnel identification and access functions. Current information pertaining to all enrollees is maintained through user-friendly enrollment stations. These stations may be used to enroll individuals, alter their area access authorizations, change expiration dates, and other similar functions. An audit trail of data base alterations is provided to the System Manager. Decentrailized systems exist at each area to which access is controlled. The central system provides these systems with the necessary entry control information to allow them to operate microprocessor-driven entry control devices. The system is comprised of commercially available entry control components and is structured such that it will be able to incorporate improved devices as technology porogresses. Currently, access is granted to individuals who possess a valid credential, have current access authorization, can supply a memorized personal identification number, and whose physical hand dimensions match their profile obtained during enrollment. The entry control devices report misuses as security violations to a Guard Alarm Display and Assessment System

  13. Industrial Physics Careers: A Large Company Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollner, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    Statistical data from the American Institute of Physics and the National Science Foundation show that only about a third of physics graduates get permanent jobs in academia. A few work in government labs and hospitals. The majority of physics Ph.D.s, however, find employment in the private sector (industry). This trend has been increasing, i.e., recent Ph.D.s are even more likely to start careers in industry. Industrial physicists work in small, medium or large companies in a broad range of fields, including aerospace, semiconductors, automotive, energy, information technology, contract research, medical, chemical, optics, etc. They are also represented in fields outside of physics, such as finance. Even the ``inventor'' of the Powerball lottery game is a Ph.D. physicist. In my talk, I will describe pathways to success for an industrial physicist, from the perspective of employment in three different large corporations. Based on the NIST Baldridge criteria of Performance Excellence, I will discuss how to achieve and measure organizational success through focus on products and customers. Individual performance is linked to the goals of the organization. Performance has two components: Goals and behaviors. Both are key to success as an individual contributor or manager.[4pt] References: [0pt] http://www.aip.org/statistics/trends/emptrends.html [0pt] http://www.aps.org/about/governance/committees/commemb/index.cfm [0pt] http://www.quality.nist.gov/

  14. Individualizing management of aggressive fibromatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, Matthew A.; Jennings, L. Candace; Mankin, Henry J.; Spiro, Ira J.; Springfield, Dempsy S.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Efird, James T.; Suit, Herman D.

    1998-01-01

    the individual patient, dependent on tumor characteristics and location, as well as patient characteristics and preferences

  15. Physics with large extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub- ... strongly coupled heterotic theory with one large dimension is described by a weakly ..... one additional U(1) factor corresponding to an extra 'U(1)' D-brane is ...

  16. MPQS with three large primes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyland, P.; Lenstra, A.K.; Dodson, B.; Muffett, A.; Wagstaff, S.; Fieker, C.; Kohel, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We report the factorization of a 135-digit integer by the triple-large-prime variation of the multiple polynomial quadratic sieve. Previous workers [6][10] had suggested that using more than two large primes would be counterproductive, because of the greatly increased number of false reports from

  17. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  18. Development of large components for the fusion reactor vacuum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinic, D.; Lorrain, C.

    1986-06-01

    The Commission of the European Communities appointed in mid-1983 the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH to investigate whether large vacuum components for use in the fusion machine can be built. The following individual targets have been defined for studies under this project: - Elaboration of technical specifications for large components. - Investigation of the feasibility. - Specification of the tests required and planning of a testing facility. The plasma chamber pumping system is essentially concerned

  19. Mobility and powering of large detectors. Moving large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is considered of moving large lepton detectors at ISABELLE for readying new experiments, detector modifications, and detector repair. A large annex (approximately 25 m x 25 m) would be built adjacent to the Lepton Hall separated from the Lepton Hall by a wall of concrete 11 m high x 12 m wide (for clearance of the detector) and approximately 3 m thick (for radiation shielding). A large pad would support the detector, the door, the cryogenic support system and the counting house. In removing the detector from the beam hall, one would push the pad into the annex, add a dummy beam pipe, bake out the beam pipe, and restack and position the wall on a small pad at the door. The beam could then operate again while experimenters could work on the large detector in the annex. A consideration and rough price estimate of various questions and proposed solutions are given

  20. The Regression Analysis of Individual Financial Performance: Evidence from Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Bahovec, Vlasta; Barbić, Dajana; Palić, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Background: A large body of empirical literature indicates that gender and financial literacy are significant determinants of individual financial performance. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to recognize the impact of the variable financial literacy and the variable gender on the variation of the financial performance using the regression analysis. Methods/Approach: The survey was conducted using the systematically chosen random sample of Croatian financial consumers. The cross sect...

  1. Aggregate Social Discount Rate Derived from Individual Discount Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth F. Reinschmidt

    2002-01-01

    In the economic evaluation of large public-sector projects, an aggregate social discount rate may be used in present worth comparison of alternatives. This paper uses the assumptions that individual discount rates are constant over time and approximately Normally distributed across the affected population, with mean \\mu and variance \\sigma 2 , to derive an aggregate discount function that is exponential in form but with time-dependent aggregate discount rate \\rho (t) = \\mu - \\sigma 2 t/2, whe...

  2. Culture Matters: Individualism vs. Collectivism in Conflict Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca LeFebvre; Volker Franke

    2013-01-01

    Does culture matter in decision-making? Existing literature largely assumes that the cognitive processes that inform decision-making are universally applicable, while only very few studies indicate that cultural norms and values shape cognitive processes. Using survey based quasi-experimental design, this research shows that subjects with higher levels of individualism tend to be more rational in their decision processing, while those with higher levels of collectivism tend to be more depende...

  3. Neighborhood, Family and Individual Influences on School Physical Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Few studies on the correlates of school violence include school and neighborhood influences. We use ecological systems theory and social disorganization theory to simultaneously incorporate neighborhood (e.g., concentrated poverty, residential instability, and immigrant concentration), school, family, and individual predictors of physical school victimization longitudinally among a large socio-economically and ethnically diverse (49% Hispanic; 34% African American) sample of 6 and 9 year olds...

  4. Pair creation at large inherent angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e + e - pairs created during the collision of high-energy e + e - beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter Υ lies approximately in the range 0.6 approx-lt Υ approx-lt 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, the authors notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. In this paper they reinvestigate the problem, following essentially the same equivalent photon approach, but with changes in specific details including the virtual photon spectrum. In addition, various assumptions are made more explicit. The formulas derived are then applied to the collider parameters designed by Palmer

  5. Performance analysis of the TNO TLD individual monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, J.W.E. van; Julius, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the performance and to establish the lowest detectable occupational dose (LDOD) of the TNO TL dosemeter, in use for large scale routine individual monitoring since 1983. The TNO individual monitoring service uses three TLD reader systems and over 45000 TL dosemeters, designed to measure H s (0.07) and H p (10). Each reader system is normalised daily and each individual dosemeter is calibrated every ten readout cycles. The performance of the service is monitored by a double blind experimental set-up. A series of 10 routine dosemeters is issued every fortnight, mailed, exposed by staff not involved in the monitoring service, sent back and evaluated. The conclusion of this study is that the lowest detectable occupational dose is less than 0.04 mSv and that the integrated dose at the level of the annual dose limit is measured within 2%. (author)

  6. Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E W; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E

    2010-04-06

    We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences.

  7. Financial Advice and Individual Investor Portfolio Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether financial advisers add value to individual investors portfolio decisions by comparing portfolios of advised and self-directed (execution-only) Dutch individual investors. The results indicate significant differences in characteristics and portfolios between these

  8. Responsiveness of the individual work performance questionnaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Coffeng, J.K.; Bernaards, C.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed.

  9. Training Exit Survey (TES) Individual Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The TES Individual dataset contains information at the individual-level about the persons who attend a GLS funded training event. This dataset includes variables...

  10. Responsiveness of the individual work performance questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Coffeng, J.K.; Bernaards, C.M.; Boot, C.R.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed.

  11. Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge, behavioural ... we argue that individual risk perception is shaped by social network influences. ... to show that the importance of AIDS related knowledge and behavioural factors risks ...

  12. An ontogenetic perspective on individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senner, N.R.; Conklin, J.R.; Piersma, T.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals can arise during any stage of life. Although several distinct processes underlying individual differences have been defined and studied (e.g. parental effects, senescence), we lack an explicit, unified perspective for understanding how these processes

  13. American individualism rises and falls with the economy: Cross-temporal evidence that individualism declines when the economy falters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Emily C

    2016-10-01

    Past work has shown that economic growth often engenders greater individualism. Yet much of this work charts changes in wealth and individualism over long periods of time, making it unclear whether rising individualism is primarily driven by wealth or by the social and generational changes that often accompany large-scale economic transformations. This article explores whether individualism is sensitive to more transient macroeconomic fluctuations, even in the absence of transformative social changes or generational turnover. Six studies found that individualism swelled during prosperous times and fell during recessionary times. In good economic times, Americans were more likely to give newborns uncommon names (Study 1), champion autonomy in children (Study 2), aspire to look different from others (Study 3), and favor music with self-focused language (Study 4). Conversely, when the economy was floundering, Americans were more likely to socialize children to attend to the needs of others (Study 2) and favor music with other-oriented language (Study 4). Subsequent studies found that recessions engendered uncertainty (Study 5) which in turn tempered individualism and fostered interdependence (Study 6). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Characterization of Large Structural Genetic Mosaicism in Human Autosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Sampson, Joshua N.; Dean, Michael C.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Black, Amanda; Brinton, Louise A.; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; De Vivo, Immaculata; Doherty, Jennifer; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartge, Patricia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Jessop, Lea; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Robert; Kraft, Peter; Lan, Qing; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Rastogi, Radhai; Risch, Harvey A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Seow, Adeline; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; VanDen Berg, David; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Yi-Long; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Abnet, Christian C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Carreón, Tania; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Michael B.; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; Ding, Ti; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Freedman, Neal D.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Greene, Mark H.; Hallmans, Goran; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hu, Nan; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Landgren, Annelie; Landi, Maria Teresa; Li, Donghui; Liao, Linda M.; Malats, Nuria; McGlynn, Katherine A.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark; Qiao, You-Lin; Rabe, Kari G.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Severi, Gianluca; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Viswanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wu, Xifeng; Wunder, Jay S.; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Ziegler, Regina G.; de Andrade, Mariza; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Beaty, Terri H.; Bierut, Laura J.; Desch, Karl C.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Ginsburg, David; Heit, John A.; Kang, Jae H.; Laurie, Cecilia A.; Li, Jun Z.; Lowe, William L.; Marazita, Mary L.; Melbye, Mads; Mirel, Daniel B.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelson, Sarah C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Rice, Kenneth; Wiggs, Janey L.; Wise, Anastasia; Tucker, Margaret; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have revealed that detectable genetic mosaicism involving large (>2 Mb) structural autosomal alterations occurs in a fraction of individuals. We present results for a set of 24,849 genotyped individuals (total GWAS set II [TGSII]) in whom 341 large autosomal abnormalities were observed in 168 (0.68%) individuals. Merging data from the new TGSII set with data from two prior reports (the Gene-Environment Association Studies and the total GWAS set I) generated a large dataset of 127,179 individuals; we then conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the patterns of detectable autosomal mosaicism (n = 1,315 events in 925 [0.73%] individuals). Restricting to events >2 Mb in size, we observed an increase in event frequency as event size decreased. The combined results underscore that the rate of detectable mosaicism increases with age (p value = 5.5 × 10−31) and is higher in men (p value = 0.002) but lower in participants of African ancestry (p value = 0.003). In a subset of 47 individuals from whom serial samples were collected up to 6 years apart, complex changes were noted over time and showed an overall increase in the proportion of mosaic cells as age increased. Our large combined sample allowed for a unique ability to characterize detectable genetic mosaicism involving large structural events and strengthens the emerging evidence of non-random erosion of the genome in the aging population. PMID:25748358

  15. Individual radiosensitivity and its relevance to health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnarr, K.; Dayes, I.; Sathya, J.; Boreham, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the radiation protection industry, dose limits are developed to keep the workers safe. These limits assume that people have equal responses to ionizing radiation and that there is no variation in radiation risk. In radiotherapy, where patients receive large doses of radiation to their tumours and the surrounding tissue volume, 5-10% of individuals are sensitive to the treatment (adverse reactions). A radiation sensitive individual may have increased toxicity in the tissue around the tumour. This can result in necrosis, loss of organ function or even death. The cause of this sensitivity is only speculative. We postulate that this variation is due to the individual's intrinsic cellular response to radiation. Therefore, this systemic predisposition results in a lack of ability for damaged cells to be eliminated properly or repaired and consequently causes an adverse reaction. Understanding this phenomenon is crucial for radiation protection practices, since these radiosensitive individuals may also be at increased risk to high occupational or medical exposures. We have investigated individual radiosensitivity using a number of different biological endpoints. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, was measured in human lymphocytes after receiving in vitro doses of 0, 2, 4, and 8Gy. At high doses (8Gy), radiation induced apoptosis showed a wide range of responses (mean = 34% apoptosis, o = 8.2) with z-scores ranging from -1.5 to 2.4. Low dose responses (mGy range) were also studied measuring apoptosis, DNA double strand break induction and repair in human lymphocytes exposed in vivo when patients a whole body radiation dose during diagnostic PET scans. The results showed varied individual responses and indicates that individuals may be at increased risk due to differences in DNA repair capabilities. Being able to measure radiation sensitivity would allow the radiation protection industry to tailor dose limits to an individual, reducing risk to the worker

  16. Measuring happiness in large population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenas, Annabelle; Sjahputri, Smita; Takwin, Bagus; Primaldhi, Alfindra; Muhamad, Roby

    2016-01-01

    The ability to know emotional states for large number of people is important, for example, to ensure the effectiveness of public policies. In this study, we propose a measure of happiness that can be used in large scale population that is based on the analysis of Indonesian language lexicons. Here, we incorporate human assessment of Indonesian words, then quantify happiness on large-scale of texts gathered from twitter conversations. We used two psychological constructs to measure happiness: valence and arousal. We found that Indonesian words have tendency towards positive emotions. We also identified several happiness patterns during days of the week, hours of the day, and selected conversation topics.

  17. Road pricing and its consequences for individual travel patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Axhausen, Kay W.; Schönfelder, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    While mobility pricing is discussed as a suitable tool for tackling urban traffic problems, its impact on the travel pattern of individuals is largely unexplored. Individual responses to pricing emerge as a number of different changes. As an example, it involves the reduction in actual trip-makin...... the choice of destinations and the size and structure of activity spaces (employing measures developed for longitudinal travel data by Schönfelder and Axhausen).......While mobility pricing is discussed as a suitable tool for tackling urban traffic problems, its impact on the travel pattern of individuals is largely unexplored. Individual responses to pricing emerge as a number of different changes. As an example, it involves the reduction in actual trip...... used to simulate road pricing by displaying cost information for every trip driven. The experiment showed significant demand effects with a decrease in daily kilometres travelled between 0 and 40 per cent depending on the location and the pricing scheme; however, the deeper impacts on personal mobility...

  18. 48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 201.403 Section 201.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Individual deviations. (1) Individual deviations, except those described in 201.402(1) and paragraph (2) of...

  19. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An individual...

  20. 48 CFR 1.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1.403 Section 1.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.403 Individual deviations. Individual...

  1. 48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM 1301.70. ...

  2. 48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting activities shall prepare requests for individual deviations to either the FAR or HHSAR in accordance with 301.470. ...

  3. 13 CFR 147.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 147.655 Section 147.655 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  4. 12 CFR 268.105 - Individual complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual complaints. 268.105 Section 268.105... RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Board Program To Promote Equal Opportunity § 268.105 Individual... individual and the Board and to describe generally the action(s) or practice(s) that form the basis of the...

  5. 48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... from the FAR and HSAR 3001.403 Individual deviations. Unless precluded by law, executive order, or other regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48...

  6. 22 CFR 133.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 133.655 Section 133.655 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  7. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101... Customers of Sipc Members § 300.101 Individual accounts. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these rules... deemed his individual accounts, shall be combined so as to constitute a single account of a separate...

  8. 42 CFR 406.21 - Individual enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual enrollment. 406.21 Section 406.21 Public... HOSPITAL INSURANCE ELIGIBILITY AND ENTITLEMENT Premium Hospital Insurance § 406.21 Individual enrollment. (a) Basic provision. An individual who meets the requirements of § 406.20 (b) or (c) may enroll for...

  9. 22 CFR 1008.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 1008.655 Section 1008.655 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  10. 22 CFR 210.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 210.655 Section 210.655 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  11. 40 CFR 36.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 36.655 Section 36.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  12. 24 CFR 21.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 21.655 Section 21.655 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  13. 29 CFR 1614.106 - Individual complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual complaints. 1614.106 Section 1614.106 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Agency Program To Promote Equal Employment Opportunity § 1614.106 Individual... individual and the agency and to describe generally the action(s) or practice(s) that form the basis of the...

  14. 7 CFR 3021.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 3021.655 Section 3021.655 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  15. 22 CFR 312.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 312.655 Section 312.655 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  16. 22 CFR 1509.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Individual. 1509.655 Section 1509.655 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  17. 10 CFR 607.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 607.655 Section 607.655 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  18. 48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the...

  19. 49 CFR 32.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual. 32.655 Section 32.655 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  20. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a natural...

  1. 21 CFR 1405.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 1405.655 Section 1405.655 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  2. 15 CFR 29.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 29.655 Section 29.655 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  3. 43 CFR 43.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual. 43.655 Section 43.655 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  4. 14 CFR 1267.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 1267.655 Section 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  5. 48 CFR 1201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.403 Individual deviations... Executive Service (SES) official or that of a Flag Officer, may authorize individual deviations (unless (FAR...

  6. 20 CFR 439.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 439.655 Section 439.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  7. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 401... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to effect...

  8. 25 CFR 115.101 - Individual accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 115.101 Section 115.101 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.101 Individual accounts. Except as otherwise provided in this part...

  9. 31 CFR 306.75 - Individual fiduciaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual fiduciaries. 306.75.... SECURITIES Assignments by or in Behalf of Trustees and Similar Fiduciaries § 306.75 Individual fiduciaries. (a) General. Securities registered in, or assigned to, the names and titles of individual fiduciaries...

  10. 29 CFR 1472.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 1472.655 Section 1472.655 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  11. 28 CFR 83.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 83.655 Section 83.655 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  12. 36 CFR 1212.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 1212.655 Section... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  13. 48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL... Individual deviations. Deviations from the IAAR or the FAR in individual cases shall be authorized by the...

  14. 32 CFR 26.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 26.655 Section 26.655 National... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  15. 48 CFR 2401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2401... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 2401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, proposed deviations from the FAR or HUDAR shall be submitted to the Senior Procurement...

  16. 45 CFR 1155.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual. 1155.655 Section 1155.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  17. 2 CFR 182.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 182.655 Section 182.655 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  18. 45 CFR 1173.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual. 1173.655 Section 1173.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  19. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations. Individual...

  20. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a natural...

  1. 29 CFR 94.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Individual. 94.655 Section 94.655 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. ...

  2. 34 CFR 84.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 84.655 Section 84.655 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person. (Authority: E.O.s 12549 and...

  3. 48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2801... OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.403 Individual deviations. Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the contracting...

  4. Linking Individual Creativity to Organizational Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Robert C.; Ford, Cameron M.; Gentry, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We draw on 146 employee-co-worker-supervisor triads from 146 organizations to examine the role of individual perspective-taking and team creative environment in the association between individual creativity and organizational innovation. Adopting an interactionist perspective, we find that the link between individual creativity and organizational…

  5. Individual differences in visual perception and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial variation in perception and memory in humans. There are individuals who cannot see red at all, and there are individuals who hear colors and taste words. What determines the differences and similarities between individuals' perception and memory? Can we characterize the neural

  6. The definition of the individual dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Margarete

    1986-01-01

    A brief note examines the choice of the present definition of the individual dose equivalent, the new operational dosimetry quantity for external exposure. The consequences of the use of the individual dose equivalent and the danger facing the individual dose equivalent, as currently defined, are briefly discussed. (UK)

  7. Manual for Preparing Individualized Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Terrill D.

    Presented are guidelines for developing an individualized program and services plan, an individual implementation plan, and daily activity and strategy plans for handicapped students. Instructions are outlined for utilizing forms related to planning and implementation of individualized education programs. Appended are sample forms. (SBH)

  8. Development of an Individual Work Performance Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; van Buuren, S.; van der Beek, A.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to develop a generic and short questionnaire to measure work performance at the individual level – the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). The IWPQ was based on a four-dimensional conceptual framework, in which individual work performance consisted

  9. Improving Training at School and Work: Lessons From RAND Research on Army Individual Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winkler, John

    1995-01-01

    Individual training, which prepares soldiers to perform a military occupation and which occurs in classrooms, on job sites, and through self-development, is a large and costly part of Army operations...

  10. Multistate models for clustered duration data - An application to workplace effects on individual sickness absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Maarten; Kerkhofs, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    Sickness absenteeism figures show a relatively large amount of variation across firms and organizations, indicating substantial within-firm correlations between absenteeism records of individual workers. To study the role of firm-specific circumstances and workforce composition, we specify

  11. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  12. Phenomenology of large Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, we demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . We then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when 'large' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions. (author)

  13. Phenomenology of large Nc QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Lebed

    1998-01-01

    These lectures are designed to introduce the methods and results of large N c QCD in a presentation intended for nuclear and particle physicists alike. Beginning with definitions and motivations of the approach, they demonstrate that all quark and gluon Feynman diagrams are organized into classes based on powers of 1/N c . They then show that this result can be translated into definite statements about mesons and baryons containing arbitrary numbers of constituents. In the mesons, numerous well-known phenomenological properties follow as immediate consequences of simply counting powers of N c , while for the baryons, quantitative large N c analyses of masses and other properties are seen to agree with experiment, even when ''large'' N c is set equal to its observed value of 3. Large N c reasoning is also used to explain some simple features of nuclear interactions

  14. Community Detection for Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin; Kolda, Tamara G.; Pinar, Ali; Zhang, Zhihua; Keyes, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Many real world networks have inherent community structures, including social networks, transportation networks, biological networks, etc. For large scale networks with millions or billions of nodes in real-world applications, accelerating current

  15. Physics with large extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 62; Issue 2 ... The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as ... by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub-millimeter region.

  16. Utility unbundling : large consumer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, C.

    1997-01-01

    The perspectives of Sunoco as a large user of electric power on utility unbundling were presented. Sunoco's Sarnia refinery runs up an energy bill of over $60 million per year for electricity, natural gas (used both as a feedstock as well as a fuel), natural gas liquids and steam. As a large customer Sunoco advocates unbundling of all services, leaving only the 'pipes and wires' as true monopolies. In their view, regulation distorts the market place and prevents the lower prices that would result from competition as has been seen in the airline and telephone industries. Sunoco's expectation is that in the post-deregulated environment large and small consumers will have a choice of energy supplier, and large consumers will increasingly turn to co-generation as the most desirable way of meeting their power needs

  17. LSD: Large Survey Database framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The Large Survey Database (LSD) is a Python framework and DBMS for distributed storage, cross-matching and querying of large survey catalogs (>10^9 rows, >1 TB). The primary driver behind its development is the analysis of Pan-STARRS PS1 data. It is specifically optimized for fast queries and parallel sweeps of positionally and temporally indexed datasets. It transparently scales to more than >10^2 nodes, and can be made to function in "shared nothing" architectures.

  18. Large-scale solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  19. Optimization theory for large systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lasdon, Leon S

    2002-01-01

    Important text examines most significant algorithms for optimizing large systems and clarifying relations between optimization procedures. Much data appear as charts and graphs and will be highly valuable to readers in selecting a method and estimating computer time and cost in problem-solving. Initial chapter on linear and nonlinear programming presents all necessary background for subjects covered in rest of book. Second chapter illustrates how large-scale mathematical programs arise from real-world problems. Appendixes. List of Symbols.

  20. Hidden supersymmetry and large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method to deal with the leading order in the large-N expansion of a quantum field theory. The method uses explicitly the hidden supersymmetry that is present in the path-integral formulation of a stochastic process. In addition to this we derive a new relation that is valid in the leading order of the large-N expansion of the hermitian-matrix model for any spacetime dimension. (orig.)

  1. Synchronous meningioma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, Chaim B; Rayes, Mahmoud; Kupsky, William J; Guthikonda, Murali

    2010-06-01

    Synchronous primary brain tumors are exceedingly rare. When they occur, most cases are associated with metastatic disease. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of an atypical meningioma infiltrated by a T-cell-primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), specifically anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). We present a novel, unifying, plausible mechanism for its origin based on theories in the current literature. A 65-year-old man with a history of near-total resection of atypical meningioma presented with a complaint of progressive headaches. Imaging revealed recurrent tumor. Left frontal-temporal craniotomy with near-total tumor resection followed by radiation was performed. Recurrent symptomatic tumor led to repeat left frontotemporal craniotomy with tumor resection and partial anterior temporal lobectomy. Part of the specimen showed predominantly fibrotic neoplasm composed of nests and whorls of meningothelial cells, highlighted by epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) staining. The remainder of the specimen consisted of densely cellular neoplasm centered in connective tissue, including areas involved by meningioma. This tumor was composed of moderately large lymphoid cells with large nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and amphophilic cytoplasm. These cells were strongly immunoreactive for CD3 and CD30 but remained unstained with EMA, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1), CD15 or cytotoxic associated antigen TIA-1. Smaller mature lymphocytes, chiefly T-cells, were intermixed. The morphologic and immunohistochemical features were considered typical of anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma. The pathogenesis of this association may have been due to radiation-mediated breakdown of the blood-brain barrier with subsequent T-cell infiltration and proliferation. We advocate aggressive resection and long-term surveillance for individuals with metastasis, especially higher-grade neoplasms that receive radiotherapy.

  2. Modelling individual difference in visual categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianhong; Palmeri, Thomas J

    Recent years has seen growing interest in understanding, characterizing, and explaining individual differences in visual cognition. We focus here on individual differences in visual categorization. Categorization is the fundamental visual ability to group different objects together as the same kind of thing. Research on visual categorization and category learning has been significantly informed by computational modeling, so our review will focus both on how formal models of visual categorization have captured individual differences and how individual difference have informed the development of formal models. We first examine the potential sources of individual differences in leading models of visual categorization, providing a brief review of a range of different models. We then describe several examples of how computational models have captured individual differences in visual categorization. This review also provides a bit of an historical perspective, starting with models that predicted no individual differences, to those that captured group differences, to those that predict true individual differences, and to more recent hierarchical approaches that can simultaneously capture both group and individual differences in visual categorization. Via this selective review, we see how considerations of individual differences can lead to important theoretical insights into how people visually categorize objects in the world around them. We also consider new directions for work examining individual differences in visual categorization.

  3. Modelling of resuspension, seasonality and losses during food processing. First report of the VAMP terrestrial working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This is the first report of the Terrestrial Working Group of the Coordinated Research Programme. ''The validation of models for the transfer of radionuclides in terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments and the acquisition of data for that purpose''. The programme seeks to use information on the environmental behaviour of radionuclides available after the Chernobyl accident to test the reliability of assessment models. The models themselves are useful for assessing the radiological impact of all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. This report contains reviews of three topics: resuspension of radioactive particles; removal of radionuclides during food processing; and seasonality of radioactive contamination of food. The three reviews have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Using Technology to Facilitate Grading Consistency in Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Abby; Neale, Larry

    2012-01-01

    University classes in marketing are often large and therefore require teams of teachers to cover all of the necessary activities. A major problem with teaching teams is the inconsistency that results from myriad individuals offering subjective opinions (Preston 1997). This innovation uses the latest moderation techniques along with Audience…

  5. Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is not clear from this literature, however, is the relative contribution of different dimensions of these factors to research output as a measure of individual job performance in the South African academic context. This research seeks to address this lack of knowledge. A large South African university was comprehensively ...

  6. Social inclusion of individuals with intellectual disabilities in the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shirli; Hochman, Yael

    2017-06-01

    Despite policies advocating the social inclusion of persons with disabilities in all settings that are a part of everyday life within society, individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are usually excluded from service in the military. This study examined the meaning of service in the military for individuals with ID from the perspective of various stakeholder groups. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 individuals with ID, 36 relatives, and 28 commanders. The recent model for social inclusion developed by Simplican et al. (2015) served as the basis for analyses. Findings suggest a successful social inclusion process for individuals with ID, which resulted in them feeling as an integral part and as contributing members of the military unit and of society at large. Social inclusion in the military was described with reference to two overlapping and interacting domains of interpersonal relationships and community participation. The interaction between interpersonal relationships within the military and community participation has led to positive outcomes for soldiers with ID. Recommendations are provided for the continued inclusion of individuals with ID in the military and in other everyday settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PHYSICAL AND SPORT ACTIVITIES OF INTELLECTUALLY DISABLED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Stanišić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The low level of physical fitness of intellectually disabled individuals is most often the result of a sedentary lifestyle and the lack of the possibility for these individuals to take part in various forms of physical activity, and as a consequence these individuals are often unable to take part in any form of planned physical activities, are unable to adequately perform everyday activities and have limited abilities for performing workrelated duties. Regular physical activity can have a preventive effect, can reduce health risks and prevent the onset of various illnesses, as well as to promote an active lifestyle and increase physical and work capacities among the members of this particular population. Sport can play an important role in the life of individuals with intellectual disability as it represents a good basis for the development of physical and cognitive abilities. Team sports, which include interaction among a large number of people, a decision-making processes in a variety of situations and the understanding of the game itself in its constituent parts can be used as an effective and practical treatment of individuals with intellectual disability.

  8. Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ePamir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3,298 animals. We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response in learners, and the high stability of the conditioned response during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.

  9. Rapid learning dynamics in individual honeybees during classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamir, Evren; Szyszka, Paul; Scheiner, Ricarda; Nawrot, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Associative learning in insects has been studied extensively by a multitude of classical conditioning protocols. However, so far little emphasis has been put on the dynamics of learning in individuals. The honeybee is a well-established animal model for learning and memory. We here studied associative learning as expressed in individual behavior based on a large collection of data on olfactory classical conditioning (25 datasets, 3298 animals). We show that the group-averaged learning curve and memory retention score confound three attributes of individual learning: the ability or inability to learn a given task, the generally fast acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) in learners, and the high stability of the CR during consecutive training and memory retention trials. We reassessed the prevailing view that more training results in better memory performance and found that 24 h memory retention can be indistinguishable after single-trial and multiple-trial conditioning in individuals. We explain how inter-individual differences in learning can be accommodated within the Rescorla-Wagner theory of associative learning. In both data-analysis and modeling we demonstrate how the conflict between population-level and single-animal perspectives on learning and memory can be disentangled.

  10. Standing Postural Control in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi Huey; Partridge, Katie; Girdler, Sonya; Morris, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in postural control affect the development of motor and social skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review compared the effect of different sensory conditions on static standing postural control between ASD and neurotypical individuals. Results from 19 studies indicated a large difference in postural control…

  11. Income and the use of prescription drugs for near retirement individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren; Skipper, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate how demand for prescription drugs varies with income for a sample of near retirement individuals. The analysis is based on a novel panel data set with information about the purchase of prescription drugs for a large number of Danish individuals over the period 1995...

  12. Messages of invasive Perccottus glenii individuals eaten by an Esox lucius from the Danube Delta

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie Cătălin Telcean; Alfred-Stefan Cicort-Lucaciu

    2016-01-01

    In the stomach of a pike from the Danube Delta we have found seven Perccottus glenii individuals. Their message indicated that in the Danube Delta P. glenii has already large population. Also, it proves that in its habitats, the pike can consume numerous individuals of this invasive species. Their gut contents prove that P. glenii hunted near the shores, ingesting numerous terrestrial preys.

  13. Individual Differences in Kindergarten Math Achievement: The Integrative Roles of Approximation Skills and Working Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xenidou-Dervou, I.; De Smedt, B.; van der Schoot, M.; van Lieshout, E.C.D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Kindergarteners can conduct basic computations with large nonsymbolic (e.g. dots, objects) and symbolic (i.e. Arabic numbers) numerosities in an approximate manner. These abilities are related to individual differences in mathematics achievement. At the same time, these individual differences are

  14. The Behavioural Phenotype of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome: A Study of 56 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Emanuele; Villa, L.; Selicorni, A.; Molteni, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated functional and behavioural variables of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) in a large sample of individuals. The aim of this study is to provide greater insight into the clinical, behavioural and cognitive characteristics that are associated with CdLS. Methods: In total, 56 individuals with CdLS…

  15. Oscillation of large air bubble cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Y.Y.; Kim, H.Y.; Park, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The behavior of a large air bubble cloud, which is generated by the air discharged from a perforated sparger, is analyzed by solving Rayleigh-Plesset equation, energy equations and energy balance equation. The equations are solved by Runge-Kutta integration and MacCormack finite difference method. Initial conditions such as driving pressure, air volume, and void fraction strongly affect the bubble pressure amplitude and oscillation frequency. The pool temperature has a strong effect on the oscillation frequency and a negligible effect on the pressure amplitude. The polytropic constant during the compression and expansion processes of individual bubbles ranges from 1.0 to 1.4, which may be attributed to the fact that small bubbles oscillated in frequencies different from their resonance. The temperature of the bubble cloud rapidly approaches the ambient temperature, as is expected from the polytropic constants being between 1.0 and 1.4. (authors)

  16. Large-scale digitizer system, analog converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, R.F.; Lee, K.L.; Kirsten, F.A.; Wagner, L.J.

    1976-10-01

    Analog to digital converter circuits that are based on the sharing of common resources, including those which are critical to the linearity and stability of the individual channels, are described. Simplicity of circuit composition is valued over other more costly approaches. These are intended to be applied in a large-scale processing and digitizing system for use with high-energy physics detectors such as drift-chambers or phototube-scintillator arrays. Signal distribution techniques are of paramount importance in maintaining adequate signal-to-noise ratio. Noise in both amplitude and time-jitter senses is held sufficiently low so that conversions with 10-bit charge resolution and 12-bit time resolution are achieved

  17. Oscillation of large air bubble cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Y.Y.; Kim, H.Y.; Park, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of a large air bubble cloud, which is generated by the air discharged from a perforated sparger, is analyzed by solving Rayleigh-Plesset equation, energy equations and energy balance equation. The equations are solved by Runge-Kutta integration and MacCormack finite difference method. Initial conditions such as driving pressure, air volume, and void fraction strongly affect the bubble pressure amplitude and oscillation frequency. The pool temperature has a strong effect on the oscillation frequency and a negligible effect on the pressure amplitude. The polytropic constant during the compression and expansion processes of individual bubbles ranges from 1.0 to 1.4, which may be attributed to the fact that small bubbles oscillated in frequencies different from their resonance. The temperature of the bubble cloud rapidly approaches the ambient temperature, as is expected from the polytropic constants being between 1.0 and 1.4. (authors)

  18. Interaction Between Flow Elements in Large Enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    and if this influences the overall air flow pattern in the enclosure. The main emphasis has been put on the pathways of chilled free air jets and whether the convective flows from both distributed and concentrated heat sources affect the pathway of the jet and the air flow pattern in the enclosure as a function......In this paper experiments in a scale model are used as a first attempt to investigate how different flow elements such as supply air jets, thermal plumes and free convection flows interact with each other in a large enclosure, if the path of each individual flow element changes...... of the location of the heat source and as a function of the heat supplied by the source....

  19. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  20. Application of DNA fingerprints for cell-line individualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D A; Reid, Y A; Gail, M H; Pee, D; White, C; Hay, R J; O'Brien, S J

    1990-09-01

    DNA fingerprints of 46 human cell lines were derived using minisatellite probes for hypervariable genetic loci. The incidence of 121 HaeIII DNA fragments among 33 cell lines derived from unrelated individuals was used to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies for each fragment and for composite individual DNA fingerprints. We present a quantitative estimate of the extent of genetic difference between individuals, an estimate based on the percentage of restriction fragments at which they differ. The average percent difference (APD) among pairwise combinations from the population of 33 unrelated cell lines was 76.9%, compared with the APD in band sharing among cell lines derived from the same individual (less than or equal to 1.2%). Included in this survey were nine additional cell lines previously implicated as HeLa cell derivatives, and these lines were clearly confirmed as such by DNA fingerprints (APD less than or equal to 0.6%). On the basis of fragment frequencies in the tested cell line population, a simple genetic model was developed to estimate the frequencies of each DNA fingerprint in the population. The median incidence was 2.9 X 10(-17), and the range was 2.4 X 10(-21) to 6.6 X 10(-15). This value approximates the probability that a second cell line selected at random from unrelated individuals will match a given DNA fingerprint. Related calculations address the chance that any two DNA fingerprints would be identical among a large group of cell lines. This estimate is still very slight; for example, the chance of two or more common DNA fingerprints among 1 million distinct individuals is less than .001. The procedure provides a straightforward, easily interpreted, and statistically robust method for identification and individualization of human cells.

  1. Individualization as driving force of clustering phenomena in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mäs

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing dynamics in biological systems is the emergence of clustering, in the sense that individuals self-organize into separate agglomerations in physical or behavioral space. Several theories have been developed to explain clustering in, for instance, multi-cellular organisms, ant colonies, bee hives, flocks of birds, schools of fish, and animal herds. A persistent puzzle, however, is the clustering of opinions in human populations, particularly when opinions vary continuously, such as the degree to which citizens are in favor of or against a vaccination program. Existing continuous opinion formation models predict "monoculture" in the long run, unless subsets of the population are perfectly separated from each other. Yet, social diversity is a robust empirical phenomenon, although perfect separation is hardly possible in an increasingly connected world. Considering randomness has not overcome the theoretical shortcomings so far. Small perturbations of individual opinions trigger social influence cascades that inevitably lead to monoculture, while larger noise disrupts opinion clusters and results in rampant individualism without any social structure. Our solution to the puzzle builds on recent empirical research, combining the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualization. A key element of the new computational model is an adaptive kind of noise. We conduct computer simulation experiments demonstrating that with this kind of noise a third phase besides individualism and monoculture becomes possible, characterized by the formation of metastable clusters with diversity between and consensus within clusters. When clusters are small, individualization tendencies are too weak to prohibit a fusion of clusters. When clusters grow too large, however, individualization increases in strength, which promotes their splitting. In summary, the new model can explain cultural clustering in

  2. Lifespan and reproduction of isoclonal individual E.coli in different environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    Lifespan and reproduction are key fitness components, both of which are influences by genetics and the environment. Tracking large numbers of genotypically known individuals throughout their lives in known environments has been challenging. Here we show for isogenic individual E. coli bacteria...... under controlled environments how demographic parameters and distributions in reproduction and survival change across environments. We achieve this by using a microfluidic device that traps thousands of individual E. coli cells and tracks their division (reproduction) over their lifespan. Our results...

  3. Large transverse momentum hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, P.

    1977-01-01

    The possible relations between deep inelastic leptoproduction and large transverse momentum (psub(t)) processes in hadronic collisions are usually considered in the framework of the quark-parton picture. Experiments observing the structure of the final state in proton-proton collisions producing at least one large transverse momentum particle have led to the following conclusions: a large fraction of produced particles are uneffected by the large psub(t) process. The other products are correlated to the large psub(t) particle. Depending upon the sign of scalar product they can be separated into two groups of ''towards-movers'' and ''away-movers''. The experimental evidence are reviewed favouring such a picture and the properties are discussed of each of three groups (underlying normal event, towards-movers and away-movers). Some phenomenological interpretations are presented. The exact nature of away- and towards-movers must be further investigated. Their apparent jet structure has to be confirmed. Angular correlations between leading away and towards movers are very informative. Quantum number flow, both within the set of away and towards-movers, and between it and the underlying normal event, are predicted to behave very differently in different models

  4. The large-s field-reversed configuration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Carey, L.N.; Crawford, E.A.; Harding, D.G.; DeHart, T.E.; McDonald, K.F.; McNeil, J.L.; Milroy, R.D.; Slough, J.T.; Maqueda, R.; Wurden, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Large-s Experiment (LSX) was built to study the formation and equilibrium properties of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) as the scale size increases. The dynamic, field-reversed theta-pinch method of FRC creation produces axial and azimuthal deformations and makes formation difficult, especially in large devices with large s (number of internal gyroradii) where it is difficult to achieve initial plasma uniformity. However, with the proper technique, these formation distortions can be minimized and are then observed to decay with time. This suggests that the basic stability and robustness of FRCs formed, and in some cases translated, in smaller devices may also characterize larger FRCs. Elaborate formation controls were included on LSX to provide the initial uniformity and symmetry necessary to minimize formation disturbances, and stable FRCs could be formed up to the design goal of s = 8. For x ≤ 4, the formation distortions decayed away completely, resulting in symmetric equilibrium FRCs with record confinement times up to 0.5 ms, agreeing with previous empirical scaling laws (τ∝sR). Above s = 4, reasonably long-lived (up to 0.3 ms) configurations could still be formed, but the initial formation distortions were so large that they never completely decayed away, and the equilibrium confinement was degraded from the empirical expectations. The LSX was only operational for 1 yr, and it is not known whether s = 4 represents a fundamental limit for good confinement in simple (no ion beam stabilization) FRCs or whether it simply reflects a limit of present formation technology. Ideally, s could be increased through flux buildup from neutral beams. Since the addition of kinetic or beam ions will probably be desirable for heating, sustainment, and further stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic modes at reactor-level s values, neutral beam injection is the next logical step in FRC development. 24 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Large aperture optical switching devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs

  6. Assembling large, complex environmental metagenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, A. C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences; Jansson, J. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Malfatti, S. A. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tringe, S. G. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tiedje, J. M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences; Brown, C. T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Computer Science and Engineering

    2012-12-28

    The large volumes of sequencing data required to sample complex environments deeply pose new challenges to sequence analysis approaches. De novo metagenomic assembly effectively reduces the total amount of data to be analyzed but requires significant computational resources. We apply two pre-assembly filtering approaches, digital normalization and partitioning, to make large metagenome assemblies more computationaly tractable. Using a human gut mock community dataset, we demonstrate that these methods result in assemblies nearly identical to assemblies from unprocessed data. We then assemble two large soil metagenomes from matched Iowa corn and native prairie soils. The predicted functional content and phylogenetic origin of the assembled contigs indicate significant taxonomic differences despite similar function. The assembly strategies presented are generic and can be extended to any metagenome; full source code is freely available under a BSD license.

  7. Large scale structure and baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.P.; Chizhov, M.V.

    2001-08-01

    We discuss a possible connection between the large scale structure formation and the baryogenesis in the universe. An update review of the observational indications for the presence of a very large scale 120h -1 Mpc in the distribution of the visible matter of the universe is provided. The possibility to generate a periodic distribution with the characteristic scale 120h -1 Mpc through a mechanism producing quasi-periodic baryon density perturbations during inflationary stage, is discussed. The evolution of the baryon charge density distribution is explored in the framework of a low temperature boson condensate baryogenesis scenario. Both the observed very large scale of a the visible matter distribution in the universe and the observed baryon asymmetry value could naturally appear as a result of the evolution of a complex scalar field condensate, formed at the inflationary stage. Moreover, for some model's parameters a natural separation of matter superclusters from antimatter ones can be achieved. (author)

  8. Achieving online consent to participation in large-scale gene-environment studies: a tangible destination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, F.; Kowalczuk, J.; Elwyn, G.; Mitchell, C.; Gallacher, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population based genetics studies are dependent on large numbers of individuals in the pursuit of small effect sizes. Recruiting and consenting a large number of participants is both costly and time consuming. We explored whether an online consent process for large-scale genetics studies

  9. Large ceramics for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, W.E.; Stoddard, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Prominent ceramic raw materials and products manufacturers were surveyed to determine the state of the art for alumina ceramic fabrication. This survey emphasized current capabilities and limitations for fabrication of large, high-density, high-purity, complex shapes. Some directions are suggested for future needs and development. Ceramic-to-ceramic sealing has applications for several technologies that require large and/or complex vacuum-tight ceramic shapes. Information is provided concerning the assembly of complex monolithic ceramic shapes by bonding of subassemblies at temperatures ranging from 450 to 1500 0 C. Future applications and fabrication techniques for various materials are presented

  10. Dijets at large rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, B G

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive diet production at large pseudorapidity intervals ( Delta eta ) between the two jets has been suggested as a regime for observing BFKL dynamics. We have measured the dijet cross section for large Delta eta in pp collisions at square root s = 1800 and 630 GeV using the DOE detector. The partonic cross section increases strongly with the size of Delta eta . The observed growth is even stronger than expected on the basis of BFKL resummation in the leading logarithmic approximation. The growth of the partonic cross section can be accommodated with an effective BFKL intercept of alpha /sub BFKL/(20 GeV) = 1.65 +or- 0.07.

  11. Effects of departing individuals on collective behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yuta; Okuda, Shoma; Migita, Masao; Murakami, Hisashi; Tomaru, Takenori

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing living organisms' abilities is an effective approach to realize flexible and unconventional computing. One possible bio-inspired computer might be developed from animal collective research by clarifying collective behaviors. Therefore, it is important to reveal how collective animal behaviors emerge. In many studies, individuals departing from the other individualsare generally ignored. Is it not possible that such departing individuals contribute to the organization of such collectives? To investigate the effects of individuals departing from a collective against collective behaviors, we observed and analyzed the behaviors of 40 soldier crabs in four types of experimental arenas. The recorded behaviors demonstrate a temporally changing pattern and the existence of departing individuals. We analyzed the relationship between global activity and cohesion levels and verified the features of departing individuals. The results imply that departing individuals contribute to collective behaviors.

  12. Individual differences in cognition among teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    Individual differences in cognitive abilities have been thoroughly investigated in humans and to a lesser extent in other mammals. Despite the growing interest in studying cognition in other taxonomic groups, data on individual differences are scarce for non-mammalian species. Here, we review the literature on individual differences in cognitive abilities in teleost fishes. Relatively few studies have directly addressed this topic and have provided evidence of consistent and heritable individual variation in cognitive abilities in fish. We found much more evidence of individual cognitive differences in other research areas, namely sex differences, personality differences, cerebral lateralisation and comparison between populations. Altogether, these studies suggest that individual differences in cognition are as common in fish as in warm-blooded vertebrates. Based on the example of research on mammals, we suggest directions for future investigation in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Soft skills, hard skills, and individual innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendarman, Achmad Fajar; Cantner, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    of Indonesian firms from different industries are used from an online survey on manager and worker perceptions related to individual innovation performance on the one hand and individual skills on the other hand. The results show that soft skills and hard skills are significantly and positively associated...... with individual level innovativeness. However, no complementarity (positive interaction effect) is found between soft skills and hard skills....

  14. Individual monitoring: A tool for active ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.

    1989-01-01

    The system of individual monitoring at CERN is presented. Following the substantial decrease of individual doses over the last decade, emphasis is now placed on monitoring rather than on dosimetric aspects. Future developments have to face a possible decrease of dose limits that are difficult to control in view of the lower detection limits for the detectors presently used. One possible solution to the problem is the increase in the wearing time for individual dosemeters. (author)

  15. Therapeutic cloning in individual parkinsonian mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabar, Viviane; Tomishima, Mark; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Wakayama, Sayaka; Menon, Jayanthi; Chan, Bill; Mizutani, Eiji; Al-Shamy, George; Ohta, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Studer, Lorenz

    2009-01-01

    Cell transplantation with embryonic stem (ES) cell progeny requires immunological compatibility with host tissue. ‘Therapeutic cloning’ is a strategy to overcome this limitation by generating nuclear transfer (nt)ES cells that are genetically matched to an individual. Here we establish the feasibility of treating individual mice via therapeutic cloning. Derivation of 187 ntES cell lines from 24 parkinsonian mice, dopaminergic differentiation, and transplantation into individually matched host mice showed therapeutic efficacy and lack of immunological response. PMID:18376409

  16. Individual savings accounts for social insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Hansen, Martin Ino; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2008-01-01

    Using Danish data, we find that about three-fourths of the taxes levied to finance public transfers actually finance benefits that redistribute income over the life cycle of individual taxpayers rather than redistribute resources across people. This finding and similar results for other countries...... provide a rationale for financing part of social insurance via mandatory individual savings accounts. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mandatory individual savings accounts for social insurance and survey some recent alternative proposals for such accounts...

  17. Individual and societal consequences of hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dømgaard, Mikala; Bagger, Malene; Rhee, Nicolai Alexander

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia and fear of hypoglycemia threaten individuals' ability to work and drive. We studied the effect of hypoglycemia on the individual and society, with a focus on possible implications of new European union legislation on patients' continued ability to drive. METHODS: A cross......-sectional survey of Danish Diabetes Association members was conducted to investigate individual and societal consequences of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 3117/9951 individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) (32.2%) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (67.8%) completed the survey. The calculated incidence rates of self...

  18. Individual based population inference using tagging data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Baktoft, Henrik

    A hierarchical framework for simultaneous analysis of multiple related individual datasets is presented. The approach is very similar to mixed effects modelling as known from statistical theory. The model used at the individual level is, in principle, irrelevant as long as a maximum likelihood...... estimate and its uncertainty (Hessian) can be computed. The individual model used in this text is a hidden Markov model. A simulation study concerning a two-dimensional biased random walk is examined to verify the consistency of the hierarchical estimation framework. In addition, a study based on acoustic...... telemetry data from pike illustrates how the framework can identify individuals that deviate from the remaining population....

  19. Personalized medicine for individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B

    2011-01-01

    As the cost of whole genome analysis decreases, we have the opportunity to explore the interactions of various gene changes in an individual that lead to their particular phenotype. This will provide the ability to move from the epidemiologic study of groups, in which, the individuals are treated collectively and homogenously, to personalized medicine, and a model in which the individual is recognized and treated as a distinct entity. We will be applying personalized medicine to individuals with Down syndrome in order to understand and develop biomarkers for increased risk of co-morbidities. Personalized medicine will change the "culture of intractability" of Down syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assembly and control of large microtubule complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill; Ishihara, Keisuke; Mitchison, Timothy

    Motility, division, and other cellular processes require rapid assembly and disassembly of microtubule structures. We report a new mechanism for the formation of asters, radial microtubule complexes found in very large cells. The standard model of aster growth assumes elongation of a fixed number of microtubules originating from the centrosomes. However, aster morphology in this model does not scale with cell size, and we found evidence for microtubule nucleation away from centrosomes. By combining polymerization dynamics and auto-catalytic nucleation of microtubules, we developed a new biophysical model of aster growth. The model predicts an explosive transition from an aster with a steady-state radius to one that expands as a travelling wave. At the transition, microtubule density increases continuously, but aster growth rate discontinuously jumps to a nonzero value. We tested our model with biochemical perturbations in egg extract and confirmed main theoretical predictions including the jump in the growth rate. Our results show that asters can grow even though individual microtubules are short and unstable. The dynamic balance between microtubule collapse and nucleation could be a general framework for the assembly and control of large microtubule complexes. NIH GM39565; Simons Foundation 409704; Honjo International 486 Scholarship Foundation.

  1. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol.1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol.2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol.3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  2. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LHC workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentaiton and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  3. Large granular lymphocytic leukaemia pathogenesis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Claire

    2011-02-01

    The WHO classification recognises three distinct disorders of large granular lymphocytes: T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia (T-LGL), chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK-cells (CLPD-NK) and agressive NK-cell leukaemia. Despite the different cell of origin, there is considerable overlap between T-LGL and CLPD-NK in terms of clinical presentation and therapy. Many patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. Therapy, with immunosuppressant agents such as low dose methotrexate or ciclosporin, is usually indicated to correct cytopenias. In contrast, aggressive NK-cell leukaemia and the rare CD56(+) aggressive T-LGL leukaemia follow a fulminant clinical course, affect younger individuals and require more intensive combination chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplant in eligible patients. The relative rarity of these disorders means that there have been few clinical trials to inform management. However, there is now considerable interest in the pathogenesis of the chronic LGL leukaemias and this has stimulated early trials to evaluate novel agents which target the dysregulated apoptotic pathways characteristic of this disease. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Large hadron collider workshop. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, G.; Rein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the LCH workshop at Aachen was to discuss the 'discovery potential' of a high-luminosity hadron collider (the Large Hadron Collider) and to define the requirements of the detectors. Of central interest was whether a Higgs particle with mass below 1 TeV could be seen using detectors potentially available within a few years from now. Other topics included supersymmetry, heavy quarks, excited gauge bosons, and exotica in proton-proton collisions, as well as physics to be observed in electron-proton and heavy-ion collisions. A large part of the workshop was devoted to the discussion of instrumental and detector concepts, including simulation, signal processing, data acquisition, tracking, calorimetry, lepton identification and radiation hardness. The workshop began with parallel sessions of working groups on physics and instrumentation and continued, in the second half, with plenary talks giving overviews of the LHC project and the SSC, RHIC, and HERA programmes, summaries of the working groups, presentations from industry, and conclusions. Vol. 1 of these proceedings contains the papers presented at the plenary sessions, Vol. 2 the individual contributions to the physics sessions, and Vol. 3 those to the instrumentation sessions. (orig.)

  5. The Analysis of the Impact of Individual Weighting Factor on Individual Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap

    2006-01-01

    In this study, category-based self and peer assessment were applied twice in a semester in an Elementary Science Teaching Methods course in order to assess individual contributions of group members to group projects as well as to analyze the impact of Individual Weighting Factors (IWF) on individual scores and individual grades. IWF were…

  6. Large Eddy Simulation of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poullet, P.; Sancandi, M.

    1994-12-01

    Results of Large Eddy Simulation of 3D isotropic homogeneous turbulent flows are presented. A computer code developed on Connexion Machine (CM5) has allowed to compare two turbulent viscosity models (Smagorinsky and structure function). The numerical scheme influence on the energy density spectrum is also studied [fr

  7. The Large Vector Multiplet Action

    OpenAIRE

    Ryb, Itai

    2007-01-01

    We discuss possible actions for the d=2, N=(2,2) large vector multiplet that gauges isometries of generalized Kahler geometries. We explore two scenarios that allow us to write kinetic and superpotential terms for the scalar field-strengths, and write kinetic terms for the spinor invariants that can introduce topological terms for the connections.

  8. Qatar - large capital investment planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    1996-01-01

    Large capital investments are planned throughout Qatar's energy industry over the next five years totalling $25 billion. This article describes the successful commissioning of Qatar's first liquefied natural gas (LNG) project on time and within budget. The second LNG plant is well underway and plans for a third are under negotiation. (UK)

  9. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  10. Inconsistency in large pharmacogenomic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; El-Hachem, Nehme; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul

    2013-01-01

    Two large-scale pharmacogenomic studies were published recently in this journal. Genomic data are well correlated between studies; however, the measured drug response data are highly discordant. Although the source of inconsistencies remains uncertain, it has potential implications for using...

  11. Strategic Management of Large Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYingluo; LiuYi; LiYuan

    2004-01-01

    The strategic management of large projects is both theoretically and practically important. Some scholars have advanced flexible strategy theory in China. The difference of strategic flexibility and flexible strategy is pointed out. The supporting system and characteristics of flexible strategy are analyzed. The changes of flexible strategy and integration of strategic management are discussed.

  12. Mass spectrometry of large molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchetti, S.

    1985-01-01

    The lectures in this volume were given at a course on mass spectrometry of large molecules, organized within the framework of the Training and Education programme of the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities. Although first presented in 1983, most of the lectures have since been updated by their authors. (orig.)

  13. Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mother Other risk factors for having large-for-gestational-age newborns include Maternal obesity Having had previous LGA babies Genetic abnormalities or syndromes (for example, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or Sotos syndrome) Excessive weight gain during pregnancy (the fetus gets more calories as ...

  14. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  15. Active Learning in Large Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    teaching large classes (more than 50 students), and describe how we successfully have in a second semester course in the Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) and Bachelor of Science Engineering (BSc Eng) program at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Approximately 200 students is attending...

  16. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  17. CERN's Large Hadron Collider project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Tom A.

    1997-03-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. After an outline of the physics motivation, we describe the LHC machine, interaction rates, experimental challenges, and some important physics channels to be studied. Finally we discuss the four experiments planned at the LHC: ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHC-B.

  18. CERN's Large Hadron Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, Tom A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. After an outline of the physics motivation, we describe the LHC machine, interaction rates, experimental challenges, and some important physics channels to be studied. Finally we discuss the four experiments planned at the LHC: ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHC-B

  19. Large area CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchetta, R; Guerrini, N; Sedgwick, I

    2011-01-01

    CMOS image sensors, also known as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) or Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), are today the dominant imaging devices. They are omnipresent in our daily life, as image sensors in cellular phones, web cams, digital cameras, ... In these applications, the pixels can be very small, in the micron range, and the sensors themselves tend to be limited in size. However, many scientific applications, like particle or X-ray detection, require large format, often with large pixels, as well as other specific performance, like low noise, radiation hardness or very fast readout. The sensors are also required to be sensitive to a broad spectrum of radiation: photons from the silicon cut-off in the IR down to UV and X- and gamma-rays through the visible spectrum as well as charged particles. This requirement calls for modifications to the substrate to be introduced to provide optimized sensitivity. This paper will review existing CMOS image sensors, whose size can be as large as a single CMOS wafer, and analyse the technical requirements and specific challenges of large format CMOS image sensors.

  20. Living in large experiments - ECFA report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) plays an important role in shaping the physics programme in Europe, especially around major facilities which attract increasingly large numbers of users. How happy are physicists working in these scientific Towers of Babel? Apart from making physics discoveries, what are their requirements? Following a suggestion of CERN Director General Chris Llewellyn Smith, to provide an updated answer to these questions ECFA Chairman Gunter Flügge initiated a survey on the sociology of large experiments. It fell to Bjarne Stugu of Bergen, as the youngest member of ECFA, to lead an ECFA subcommittee to carry it out. A similar ECFA survey, carried out back in 1979/80, was influential in preparing infrastructure and thinking for the LEP experimental programme. In the past 20 years, high energy physics collaborations have grown from typically 20 persons at fixed target experiments to around 500 for current major detectors at large colliding beam facilities. The high complexity and cost of the two general-purpose experiments for the LHC require even larger collaborations, approaching 1500. With these two experiments alone - ATLAS and CMS - absorbing a considerable fraction of the entire high energy physics community, it is timely to review the organizational and sociological aspects of large experiments. ECFA recently sent a questionnaire to research groups involved in large collaborations in LEP (CERN), HERA (DESY) and the LHC (CERN). Each group leader was asked to reply, but to get a balanced view, a younger member of the group was also requested to return the form. The replies were anonymous. The questionnaire was distributed to as many groups as possible, and 182 forms were returned. 90 replies from people working at LEP, where the four experiments include 159 groups, corresponds to a response rate of 28.3% with two forms returned. Similarly, 48 replies from the 87 institutions participating in the two main HERA experiments

  1. The concept of individual approach in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : prove the concept of individual approach to sports training. Develop a common scheme ways individualization process of training athletes. Material: the study involved 149 athletes: 38 volleyball players and 111 players. Was carried out comprehensive testing athletes for 33 pedagogical, psycho-physiological, biochemical parameters. Also conducted an analysis of indicators of competitive activity. Results : we propose the following areas of the individualization process of preparation of athletes: 1 - systematization of mathematical indicators of preparedness and condition of the athlete in a single point in time; 2 - regression analysis of the dynamics of individual game performance athletes; 3 - the use of universal methods of individualization of various aspects of the training process. It is established that the individual characteristics of players in basketball and volleyball are connected not only with the anthropometric data, but also depend on the physiological and psychophysiological indicators. In this aspect there is provided use of cluster and factor analysis for the construction of individual training programs for players. It was found that the dynamics of the gaming performance is described by quadratic, cubic and sinusoidal functions. In the case of sinusoidal oscillation period of regression models in girls is 25-30 days, 31-38 days in boys. This allows to determine the most preferred times of increasing and reducing the efficiency of competitive. Conclusions : the concept of individual approach in sport involves the separation of a wide range of indicators leading factors in the individual structure of athletes, in the analysis and prediction of individual dynamics of competitive performance, to develop universal methods of individualization with the activation of awareness of various aspects of the training process.

  2. Implementation of standards for individual monitoring in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantuzzi, E.; Alves, J. G.; Ambrosi, P.; Janzekovic, H.; Vartiainen, E.

    2004-01-01

    A large number of standards are available for radiation protection and individual monitoring purposes. They are published by various organisations, international and national. Moreover, the increasing policy of 'Quality' applied to individual monitoring requires the implementation of standards on Quality Assurance (QA) both in technical and management aspects of a dosimetric service. Implementation of standards is not mandatory; therefore, varying degrees of implementation can be found in different European countries. However, for a number of good reasons, a degree of harmonisation within the European Union (EU) of the requirements and procedures for individual monitoring would be desirable. Harmonisation as applied to dosimetric services does not mean that they should all follow exactly the same procedures, but that they should aim to meet the same general requirements, and their results should be comparable. This article aims to compile information on the use of all standards applied within individual monitoring practices, be it on the calibration of dosemeters or on the QA procedures to be applied to the overall dose evaluation process. Both 'technical standards' and 'quality standards' will be discussed. A list of documents of relevance to subjects such as recommendations and requirements in the field of individual monitoring, whose application could help in the harmonisation of procedures, will also be given. As it is agreed that implementation of quality standards is a relevant framework within which harmonisation can be achieved, guidance on the implementation of quality standards in a dosimetric service is given. Accreditation and approval of dosimetric services will be of relevance in the process of harmonisation of individual monitoring within the EU. In this article, a discussion of various procedures and the meaning of both forms of recognition is also provided. Although most of the text applies to the monitoring of internal and external exposure to

  3. The Influence of Load and Speed on Individuals' Movement Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Because individuals' movement patterns have been linked to their risk of future injury, movement evaluations have become a topic of interest. However, if individuals adapt their movement behavior in response to the demands of a task, the utility of evaluations comprising only low-demand activities could have limited application with regard to the prediction of future injury. This investigation examined the impact of load and speed on individuals' movement behavior. Fifty-two firefighters performed 5 low-demand (i.e., light load, low movement speed) whole-body tasks (i.e., lift, squat, lunge, push, and pull). Each task was then modified by increasing the speed, external load, or speed and load. Select measures of motion were used to characterize the performance of each task, and comparisons were made between conditions. The participants adapted their movement behavior in response to the external demands of a task (64 and 70% of all the variables were influenced [p ≤ 0.05] by changing the load and speed, respectively), but in a manner unique to the task and type of demand. The participants exhibited greater spine and frontal plane knee motion in response to an increase in speed when compared with increasing loads. However, there were a large number of movement strategies exhibited by individual firefighters that differed from the group's response. The data obtained here imply that individuals may not be physically prepared to perform safely or effectively when a task's demands are elevated simply because they exhibit the ability to perform a low-demand activity with competence. Therefore, movement screens comprising only low-demand activities may not adequately reflect an individual's capacity, or their risk of injury, and could adversely affect any recommendations that are made for training or job performance.

  4. Attitudes towards "disorders of sex development" nomenclature among affected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emilie K; Rosoklija, Ilina; Finlayson, Courtney; Chen, Diane; Yerkes, Elizabeth B; Madonna, Mary Beth; Holl, Jane L; Baratz, Arlene B; Davis, Georgiann; Cheng, Earl Y

    2017-12-01

    studies that demonstrated negative perceptions of DSD nomenclature. This study adds to previous findings by surveying a large group of affected individuals with a range of diagnoses, and by exploring emotional impact and healthcare utilization. Several possible alternative terms were also defined. The study was limited by inclusion of only members of AIS-DSDSG, a convenience sample where complete AIS is over-represented, and whose views may not represent the opinion of all individuals with DSD conditions. A group of affected individuals and parents have negative views about the DSD terminology commonly used by medical professionals. Use of certain terms may affect the choice of healthcare provider/institution. Evaluation of DSD terminology in other affected individuals, and re-evaluation of current nomenclature, in collaboration with advocates, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The large hadron collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiani, L.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter has greatly advanced, over the last decades. The standard theory of fundamental interactions presents us with a theoretically sound picture, which describes with great accuracy known physical phenomena on most diverse energy and distance scales. These range from 10 -16 cm, inside the nucleons, up to large-scale astrophysical bodies, including the early Universe at some nanosecond after the Big-Bang and temperatures of the order of 10 2 GeV. The picture is not yet completed, however, as we lack the observation of the Higgs boson, predicted in the 100-500 GeV range - a particle associated with the generation of particle masses and with the quantum fluctuations in the primordial Universe. In addition, the standard theory is expected to undergo a change of regime in the 10 3 GeV region, with the appearance of new families of particles, most likely associated with the onset of a new symmetry (supersymmetry). In 1994, the CERN Council approved the construction of the large hadron collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider of a new design to be installed in the existing LEP tunnel, with an energy of 7 TeV per beam and extremely large luminosity, of ∝10 34 cm -2 s -1 . Construction was started in 1996, with the additional support of the US, Japan, Russia, Canada and other European countries, making the LHC a really global project, the first one in particle physics. After a short review of the physics scenario, I report on the present status of the LHC construction. Special attention is given to technological problems such as the realization of the super-conducting dipoles, following an extensive R and D program with European industries. The construction of the large LHC detectors has required a vast R and D program by a large international community, to overcome the problems posed by the complexity of the collisions and by the large luminosity of the machine. (orig.)

  6. Disturbance of sleep by noise: Individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The literature on the effects of noise on sleep is searched for evidence on individual differences along the dimensions of age, sex, occupation, personality, neuroticism, and mental health. With the exception of age, little firm evidence is found. Thus there remains a need to establish at better than the anecdotal level whether or not real individual differences exist.

  7. Individualized Marriage and the Integration of Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Sean R.; Yodanis, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In individualized marriages, spouses maintain independence in their relationship. In individualized marriages, do married couples manage their money in pooled accounts or do they keep separate accounts? We answer this question with the 2002 International Social Survey Programme (N = 18,587;31 country contexts) and examine how variation in the…

  8. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  9. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  10. 48 CFR 1401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1401.403 Section 1401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.403 Individual...

  11. 48 CFR 601.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 601.403 Section 601.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 601.403 Individual deviations. The...

  12. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.508 Individual...

  13. From class society to the individualized society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasborg, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    change and social reproduction in the form of an attempt to think the differentiated (stratified) forms of individualization in reflexive modernity. The assumption is that there is adifferentiation in reflexive modern people’s ability to deal with the requirements of individualization, depending...

  14. Methodological Individualism, Educational Administration, and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Colin W.; Lakomski, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    There are two major categories of explanation for organisational performance: structural and individual. With the shift away from systems-theoretic accounts that occurred in the 1980s, structural explanations have been replaced increasingly by the individualism of leadership and leader-centric explanations, especially when it comes to schools. In…

  15. A Quasi Actuarial Prospect for Individual Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William A.

    A conceptual model of individual assessment through the use of biodata responses with minimal input information is outlined. The process is considered especially applicable to industrial psychology. A scored autobiographical data form, which measures the individual's past behavior and experiences, provides for assignment to a specific subgroup…

  16. Bivalves: From individual to population modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saraiva, S.; van der Meer, J.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    An individual based population model for bivalves was designed, built and tested in a 0D approach, to simulate the population dynamics of a mussel bed located in an intertidal area. The processes at the individual level were simulated following the dynamic energy budget theory, whereas initial egg

  17. Individual Learning Accounts: Honourable Intentions, Ignoble Utility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursfield, Denise; Smith, Vikki; Holden, Rick; Hamblett, John

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of the implementation of Individual Learning Accounts in Britain revealed five themes that may explain the program's lack of success: individualistic approach to adult education, conflict of individualism with partnership, ineffective targeting of low-skilled populations, lack of linkage with a lifelong commitment to learning, and…

  18. 41 CFR 105-74.655 - Individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 105-74.655 Section 105-74.655 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.655 Individual...

  19. Neighborhood social capital and individual health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual's health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual's self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  20. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...