WorldWideScience

Sample records for individual compensation strategies

  1. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  2. Compensating losses in bridge employment? Examining relations between compensation strategies, health problems, and intention to remain at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreas Müller; Annet de Lange; Caroline Oxfart; Beatrice van der Heijden; Matthias Weigl

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the precursors of bridge employment, this study aimed to investigate whether individual action strategies in terms of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC; Baltes & Baltes, 1990) are able to buffer the well-known negative impact of poor health on the intention

  3. Die Face Engineering based Springback Compensation Strategy and Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Arthur; Lee Wing; He, Jeanne; Xu Jinbo; Liu Kesu; Chen Chinchun

    2005-01-01

    Springback or shape change has been one of the major challenges in sheet metal fabrication, particularly with increase application of high strength steel (HSS) and aluminum alloys in automotive stamping. Springback, an elastic material recovery after the unloading of stamping tools, causes variations and inconsistencies of final part dimensions. Minor or mild springback usually can be corrected in the re-strike process. Excessive springback must be corrected so the part will be produced within the given design tolerance and dimension. The commonly used Spring Forward approaches and shape compensations such as over-crown and over-bending are proven effective to alleviate excessive springback. To enhance these approaches, a new strategy of Die Face Engineering (DFE) based processing is proposed to quickly and easily to achieve the maximum allowable compensation using the under cut (or die lock) as the primary criteria. The implementation of the die face compensation through iterative FEA calculation, automatic surface mapping, projection and manual morphing are crucial to meet production environment requirements in terms of generating NC quality CAD surfaces of the compensated or morphed die face. In this paper, the strategy of the die face compensation with the consideration of the under cut criteria is presented. The implementation of various processes to enable user to perform the die face compensation task in a production environment is also discussed. Finally, two examples are shown to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed springback compensation scheme based on the combined CAE/CAD methodology

  4. A RELATIONAL FAIRNESS PERSPECTIVE ON INDIVIDUALITY AND INDIVIDUALIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO COMPENSATION IN ORGANIZATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Lund

    The primary concern of this thesis is to explore the relations between contemporary compensation systems based on individualization and individuality, the constitution of the fair claim, the causality of blame and the causality of rewarding, and the need to belong and it relation with human...... motivation. More specifically, the primary research question on which this thesis is based is: How is the fair claim constituted in, respec-tively, a compensation system based on individualization and individuality, a social relational perspective; and in which ways might potential differences influence...

  5. Possibilities and Strategies for Simulations and Compensation for Springback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roll, K.; Lemke, T.; Wiegand, K.

    2005-01-01

    Simulating the forming process for sheet metal parts is currently the standard for guaranteeing feasible manufacturing at the time of tool design. In contrast simulating springback and its computer-supported compensation is still under development. The status of the technology for simulating springback will be illustrated and demonstrated using examples. Various strategies related to compensation of shape deviations due to springback will be discussed and explained using examples. The necessary steps for the use of computer-aided simulation and compensation of springback are illustrated for an inner part. The example shows how the simulation of springback can be integrated into the development process of a deep-drawing tool to determine the compensation of the tool surfaces - based on the springback results - before tool production. Another example demonstrates how a new draw die design, that minimizes or eliminates the shape deviation, can be quickly determined from the springback-related shape deviations using special software. The principle of the procedure for compensating for shape deviation and problems that could still occur are explained. The possibilities and limits of the 'springforward' compensation procedure are also discussed

  6. Compensation for unfavorable characteristics of irregular individual shift rotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, Peter; Jung, Detlev; Bopp, Winfried; Gauderer, Patric C; Gissel, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Some employees of TV companies, such as those who produce remote TV programs, have to cope with very irregular rotas and many short-term schedule deviations. Many of these employees complain about the negative effects of such on their wellbeing and private life. Therefore, a working group of employers, council representatives, and researchers developed a so-called bonus system. Based on the criteria of the BESIAK system, the following list of criteria for the ergonomic assessment of irregular shift systems was developed: proportion of night hours worked between 22 : 00 and 01 : 00 h and between 06 : 00 and 07 : 00 h, proportion of night hours worked between 01 : 00 and 06 : 00 h, number of successive night shifts, number of successive working days, number of shifts longer than 9 h, proportion of phase advances, off hours on weekends, work hours between 17 : 00 and 23 : 00 h from Monday to Friday, number of working days with leisure time at remote places, and sudden deviations from the planned shift rota. Each individual rota was evaluated in retrospect. If pre-defined thresholds of criteria were surpassed, bonus points were added to the worker's account. In general, more bonus points add up to more free time. Only in particular cases was monetary compensation possible for some criteria. The bonus point system, which was implemented in the year 2002 for about 850 employees of the TV company, has the advantages of more transparency concerning the unfavorable characteristics of working-time arrangements, incentive for superiors to design "good" rosters that avoid the bonus point thresholds (to reduce costs), positive short-term effects on the employee social life, and expected positive long-term effects on the employee health. In general, the most promising approach to cope with the problems of shift workers in irregular and flexible shift systems seems to be to increase their influence on the arrangement of working times. If this is not possible, bonus point systems

  7. Skills and compensation strategies in adult ADHD - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Carlos; Buadze, Anna; Dube, Anish; Eich, Dominique; Liebrenz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to investigate how adult patients with ADHD coped with their symptoms prior to diagnosis and treatment, what skills and compensation strategies they had developed and what their self-perceptions of these strategies were. We used a qualitative approach to analyze interviews with 32 outpatients of a specialty care unit at a university hospital. Patients reported frequent use of diverse compensatory strategies with varying degrees of effectiveness. These were classified into five categories (organizational, motoric, attentional, social, psychopharmacological). In certain circumstances, ADHD symptoms were even perceived as useful. Before diagnosis and treatment, patients with ADHD may develop a variety of skills to cope with their symptoms. Several of these skills are perceived as helpful. Knowledge of self-generated coping strategies may help better understand patients and their histories and thus facilitate patient cooperation. Moreover, knowing ways in which such patients cope with their symptoms may help elucidate reasons for late or under-diagnosing of the disorder.

  8. Perseverance strategies for enterprising individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to arrive at a conceptual understanding of perseverance processes in the context of enterprising behavior and to outline readily employable perseverance strategies for situations characterized by obstacles, challenges and setbacks. This paper presents a process model of

  9. Motion Estimation and Compensation Strategies in Dynamic Computerized Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Bernadette N.

    2017-12-01

    A main challenge in computerized tomography consists in imaging moving objects. Temporal changes during the measuring process lead to inconsistent data sets, and applying standard reconstruction techniques causes motion artefacts which can severely impose a reliable diagnostics. Therefore, novel reconstruction techniques are required which compensate for the dynamic behavior. This article builds on recent results from a microlocal analysis of the dynamic setting, which enable us to formulate efficient analytic motion compensation algorithms for contour extraction. Since these methods require information about the dynamic behavior, we further introduce a motion estimation approach which determines parameters of affine and certain non-affine deformations directly from measured motion-corrupted Radon-data. Our methods are illustrated with numerical examples for both types of motion.

  10. Potential load reductions on megawatt turbines exposed to wakes using individual-pitch wake compensator and trailing-edge flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Helen; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2011-01-01

    that typically focus on either load or power prediction. As a consequence, the wake affected inflow field generated by the DWM formulation opens for control strategies for the individual turbine. Two different control approaches for load reduction on the individual turbines are implemented in the multi-body aero-servo-elastic...... tool HAWC2, developed at Risø-DTU in Denmark, and their potential load reduction capabilities compared: (1) full-blade ‘individual-pitch controllers’ acting as wake compensators and (2) controllers using trailing-edge flaps. Information on the wake inflow conditions, induced by upstream turbines...... for the loading conditions of the individual turbines in the farm. The dynamic wake meandering model (DWM) is believed to capture the essential physics of the wake problem, and thus, both load and production aspects can be predicted, which is contrary to the traditional engineering wake prediction methods...

  11. New individual tissue compensators for high-energetic photons. Pt. 1. Principle and procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, U; Krause, K [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Radiologisches Zentrum

    1978-05-01

    The inhomogeneity of absorbed dose caused by irregular body surface contour in the treatment port for external photon radiation is a problem. The discussion of the physical fundamentals and technical possibilities of missing tissue compensators leads to a practical solution. A new handy procedure is presented allowing easy and rapid preparing of geometrically minified as well as absorption- and stray radiation corrected individual compensators. The achievable dose homogeneity within the target volume is shown as better than +-5%. Systematical errors are investigated for the different parameters.

  12. Strategies used by individuals to prevent burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Burnout represents a syndrome that is related to demanding job characteristics combined with the absence of resources or motivational job characteristics. The aim of this position study was to present strategies that individuals use to minimize burnout and its unfavourable effects.

  13. Skills and compensation strategies in adult ADHD – A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Canela, Carlos; Buadze, Anna; Dube, Anish; Eich, Dominique; Liebrenz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The primary objectives of this study were to investigate how adult patients with ADHD coped with their symptoms prior to diagnosis and treatment, what skills and compensation strategies they had developed and what their self-perceptions of these strategies were. METHODS We used a qualitative approach to analyze interviews with 32 outpatients of a specialty care unit at a university hospital. RESULTS Patients reported frequent use of diverse compensatory strategie...

  14. A Unified Voltage Harmonic Control Strategy for Coordinated Compensation with VCM and CCM Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Meng, Lexuan; Xie, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    -controlled mode (VCM) and current-controlled mode (CCM), need to cooperatively provide the compensation function. Aiming at this objective, this paper proposes a unified voltage harmonic mitigation strategy for VCM and CCM converters with high harmonic current sharing accuracy. Another advantage of the proposal......Harmonics have been considered as one of the major issues in modern power grids. Considering the high penetration level of power electronic converter interfaced distributed generators (DGs), it is of interest to provide ancillary services through DG interfacing converters, such as harmonic...... compensation. In case of that, multiple DG interfacing converters are utilized to compensate harmonics, and the compensation effort should be properly shared among these converters. However, it is rarely considered in existing literatures that converters operating in different modes, such as voltage...

  15. Improved reading performance using individualized compensation filters for observers with losses in central vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri B.

    1989-01-01

    A method to improve the reading performance of subjects with losses in central vision is proposed in which the amplitudes of the intermediate spatial frequencies are boosted relative to the lower spatial frequencies. In the method, words are filtered using an image enhancement function which is based on a subject's losses in visual function relative to a normal subject. It was found that 30-70 percent less magnification was necessary, and that reading rates were improved 2-3 times, using the method. The individualized compensation filters improved the clarity and visibility of words. The shape of the enhancement function was shown to be important in determining the optimum compensation filter for improving reading performance.

  16. Optimizing urology group partnerships: collaboration strategies and compensation best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Dana L; Maller, Bruce S; Peltier, Lisa R

    2014-10-01

    Market forces in health care have created substantial regulatory, legislative, and reimbursement changes that have had a significant impact on urology group practices. To maintain viability, many urology groups have merged into larger integrated entities. Although group operations vary considerably, the majority of groups have struggled with the development of a strong culture, effective decision-making, and consensus-building around shared resources, income, and expense. Creating a sustainable business model requires urology group leaders to allocate appropriate time and resources to address these issues in a proactive manner. This article outlines collaboration strategies for creating an effective culture, governance, and leadership, and provides practical suggestions for optimizing the performance of the urology group practice.

  17. Self-Regulatory Strategies in Daily Life: Selection, Optimization, and Compensation and Everyday Memory Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephanie A.; Rickenbach, Elizabeth H.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of self-regulatory strategies, such as selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) requires resources. However, it is theorized that SOC use is most advantageous for those experiencing losses and diminishing resources. The present study explored this seeming paradox within the context of limitations or constraints due to…

  18. Feasibility study and marketing strategy for climate compensated products; Haalbaarheidsonderzoek en marketingstrategie voor klimaatgecompenseerde producten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, H.C.; Van Boetzelaer, J.C.S.

    2000-05-01

    Energy conservation and other options to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases are important aspects in climatic change policy. In order to offer consumers choices for such options the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (VROM) a number of tools and ideas have been developed. In this report the feasibility of so-called climatic change compensation for consumer products is determined and a marketing communication strategy elaborated for two products: 'green' (i.e. environment-friendly) petrol and a 'climate broker', who can help suppliers of consumer products to buy and sell (marketing) climate compensated products. 13 refs.

  19. Optimal strategies for real-time sparse actuator compensation in RFX-mod MHD control operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigatto, L., E-mail: leonardo.pigatto@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Bettini, P. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Bolzonella, T.; Marchiori, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Villone, F. [CREATE, DIEI, Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Cassino (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Sparse missing actuator compensation is solved with a new real-time strategy. • Testing is carried out with a dynamical model to prove feasibility and limits. • Dedicated experiments have been run to validate simulated results. - Abstract: In many devices aiming at magnetic confinement of fusion relevant plasmas, feedback control of MHD instabilities by means of active coils is nowadays mandatory to ensure the robustness of high performance operational scenarios. Actuators involved in the control loop are often coupled in the sensor measurements and an optimal strategy for decoupling can be limited by the need of reducing as much as possible the cycle time of the control loop itself. It is also important to stress the fact that the problem is intrinsically 3D, involving different non-axisymmetric contributions. The baseline situation in RFX-mod is documented, where the identity matrix is chosen to represent the simplest case of mutual coupling matrix. The problem of missing or broken actuators is introduced and tackled with dedicated compensation strategies. A detailed description is given for a possible compensation concept which can be applied in real-time operation thanks to its implementation strategy, yielding very promising results in terms of local field reconstruction.

  20. Quantifying the gantry sag on linear accelerators and introducing an MLC-based compensation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Weiliang; Gao Song; Wang Xiaochun; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Gantry sag is one of the well-known sources of mechanical imperfections that compromise the spatial accuracy of radiation dose delivery. The objectives of this study were to quantify the gantry sag on multiple linear accelerators (linacs), to investigate a multileaf collimator (MLC)-based strategy to compensate for gantry sag, and to verify the gantry sag and its compensation with film measurements. Methods: The authors used the Winston-Lutz method to measure gantry sag on three Varian linacs. A ball bearing phantom was imaged with megavolt radiation fields at 10 deg. gantry angle intervals. The images recorded with an electronic portal imaging device were analyzed to derive the radiation isocenter and the gantry sag, that is, the superior-inferior wobble of the radiation field center, as a function of the gantry angle. The authors then attempted to compensate for the gantry sag by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to the MLC leaf positions. The gantry sag and its compensation were independently verified using film measurements. Results: Gantry sag was reproducible over a six-month measurement period. The maximum gantry sag was found to vary from 0.7 to 1.0 mm, depending on the linac and the collimator angle. The radiation field center moved inferiorly (i.e., away from the gantry) when the gantry was rotated from 0 deg. to 180 deg. After the MLC leaf position compensation was applied at 90 deg. collimator angle, the maximum gantry sag was reduced to <0.2 mm. The film measurements at gantry angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. verified the inferior shift of the radiation fields and the effectiveness of MLC compensation. Conclusions: The results indicate that gantry sag on a linac can be quantitatively measured using a simple phantom and an electronic portal imaging device. Reduction of gantry sag is feasible by applying a gantry angle-specific correction to MLC leaf positions at 90 deg. collimator angle.

  1. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual control strategies. 123.46... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Transfer of Information and Permit Review § 123.46 Individual control strategies. (a..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the State...

  2. Burnout and job performance: the moderating role of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Leiter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to explain why research thus far has found only low to moderate associations between burnout and performance. We argue that employees use adaptive strategies that help them to maintain their performance (i.e., task performance, adaptivity to change) at acceptable levels despite experiencing burnout (i.e., exhaustion, disengagement). We focus on the strategies included in the selective optimization with compensation model. Using a sample of 294 employees and their supervisors, we found that compensation is the most successful strategy in buffering the negative associations of disengagement with supervisor-rated task performance and both disengagement and exhaustion with supervisor-rated adaptivity to change. In contrast, selection exacerbates the negative relationship of exhaustion with supervisor-rated adaptivity to change. In total, 42% of the hypothesized interactions proved to be significant. Our study uncovers successful and unsuccessful strategies that people use to deal with their burnout symptoms in order to achieve satisfactory job performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Skills and compensation strategies in adult ADHD – A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buadze, Anna; Dube, Anish; Eich, Dominique; Liebrenz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objective The primary objectives of this study were to investigate how adult patients with ADHD coped with their symptoms prior to diagnosis and treatment, what skills and compensation strategies they had developed and what their self-perceptions of these strategies were. Methods We used a qualitative approach to analyze interviews with 32 outpatients of a specialty care unit at a university hospital. Results Patients reported frequent use of diverse compensatory strategies with varying degrees of effectiveness. These were classified into five categories (organizational, motoric, attentional, social, psychopharmacological). In certain circumstances, ADHD symptoms were even perceived as useful. Conclusion Before diagnosis and treatment, patients with ADHD may develop a variety of skills to cope with their symptoms. Several of these skills are perceived as helpful. Knowledge of self-generated coping strategies may help better understand patients and their histories and thus facilitate patient cooperation. Moreover, knowing ways in which such patients cope with their symptoms may help elucidate reasons for late or under-diagnosing of the disorder. PMID:28953946

  4. A compound control strategy combining velocity compensation with ADRC of electro-hydraulic position servo control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingwei; Shao, Junpeng; Yang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    In order to enhance the anti-jamming ability of electro-hydraulic position servo control system at the same time improve the control precision of the system, a compound control strategy that combines velocity compensation with Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (ADRC) is proposed, and the working principle of the compound control strategy is given. ADRC controller is designed, and the extended state observer is used for observing internal parameters uncertainties and external disturbances, so that the disturbances of the system are suppressed effectively. Velocity compensation controller is designed and the compensation model is derived to further improve the positioning accuracy of the system and to achieve the velocity compensation without disturbance. The compound control strategy is verified by the simulation and experiment respectively, and the simulation and experimental results show that the electro-hydraulic position servo control system with ADRC controller can effectively inhibit the external disturbances, the precise positioning control is realized after introducing the velocity compensation controller, and verify that the compound control strategy is effective. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Habitat-based conservation strategies cannot compensate for climate-change-induced range loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Johannes; Hülber, Karl; Gattringer, Andreas; Kuttner, Michael; Moser, Dietmar; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Schindler, Stefan; Dullinger, Stefan; Essl, Franz

    2017-11-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation represents a major obstacle to species shifting their range in response to climate change. Conservation measures to increase the (meta-)population capacity and permeability of landscapes may help but the effectiveness of such measures in a warming climate has rarely been evaluated. Here, we simulate range dynamics of 51 species from three taxonomic groups (vascular plants, butterflies and grasshoppers) in Central Europe as driven by twenty-first-century climate scenarios and analyse how three habitat-based conservation strategies (establishing corridors, improving the landscape matrix, and protected area management) modify species' projected range size changes. These simulations suggest that the conservation strategies considered are unable to save species from regional extinction. For those persisting, they reduce the magnitude of range loss in lowland but not in alpine species. Protected area management and corridor establishment are more effective than matrix improvement. However, none of the conservation strategies evaluated could fully compensate the negative impact of climate change for vascular plants, butterflies or grasshoppers in central Europe.

  6. Can Planning Time Compensate for Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Katharine B.

    2014-01-01

    Language learners with high working memory capacity have an advantage, all other factors being equal, during the second language acquisition (SLA) process; therefore, identifying a pedagogical intervention that can compensate for low working memory capacity would be advantageous to language learners and instructors. Extensive research on the…

  7. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-04-04

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.

  8. Interdependency control : compensation strategies for the inherent vulnerability of critical infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, D.; Sotoodeh, M.; Monu, K.; Marti, J.R.; Srivastava, K.D.

    2009-01-01

    Today's increasingly interacting national critical infrastructures (NCIs) can tolerate most stochastic local disturbances. However, they are extremely fragile under global disturbances, as the latter may either push the whole system into a critical state or reveal many unexpected hidden interdependencies, inducing or triggering cascading failures among all possible layers. This robust yet fragile duality is an inherent vulnerability of modern infrastructures. It is therefore expected that weather-related disasters will be more frequent under a changing climate. This paper proposed an interdependency control strategy (ICS) that would maintain the survival of the most critical services, and compensate for this inherent vulnerability during emergency states. The paper also proposed a generalized adjacency matrix (GAM) to represent the physical interdependencies intra/inter of various infrastructure networks. The vulnerable section in the network can be identified, based on computed results of GAM, number of islands in the network, and influence domain(s) of each component. These features render ICS more effective and convincing. Last, the paper proposed a survivability index for isolated sub-networks and described relevant measures for improving this index during the four phases of emergency management. It was concluded that the proposed strategy is an effective means to reduce the inherent vulnerability and increase the resiliency of these critical infrastructures networks. 20 refs., 5 figs

  9. The moderating effects of job control and selection, optimization, and compensation strategies on the age-work ability relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigl, Matthias; Mueller, Andreas; Hornung, Severin; Zacher, Hannes; Angerer, Peter

    Work ability describes employees' capability to carry out their work with respect to physical and psychological job demands. This study investigated direct and interactive effects of age, job control, and the use of successful aging strategies called selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC)

  10. Hedging Strategies and the Financing of the 1992 International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund.

    OpenAIRE

    André SCHMITT; Sandrine SPAETER

    2005-01-01

    The maritime oil transport is regulated by the 1992 Civil Liability Convention for Oil Damage and the 1992 Oil Pollution Compensation Fund. In this compensation regime, contributions of oil firms are based on the aggregate risk of the Fund and are assessed each time an oil spill is registered. In this paper, we present the main characteristics of such a compensation regime and we explain why oil firms would benefit from a reorga- nization of the financing of the Fund by introducing appropriat...

  11. Improved control strategy for PI-R current of DFIG considering voltage and current harmonics compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S. Y.; Liu, Q. H.; Zhao, Y. N.; Liu, S. Y.

    2016-08-01

    With the rapid development of wind power generation, the related research of wind power control and integration issues has attracted much attention, and the focus of the research are shifting away from the ideal power grid environment to the actual power grid environment. As the main stream wind turbine generator, a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is connected to the power grid directly by its stator, so it is particularly sensitive to the power grid. This paper studies the improvement of DFIG control technology in the power grid harmonic environment. Based on the DFIG dynamic model considering the power grid harmonic environment, this paper introduces the shortcomings of the common control strategy of DFIG, and puts forward the enhanced method. The decoupling control of the system is realized by compensating the coupling between the rotor harmonic voltage and harmonic current, improving the control performance. In addition, the simulation experiments on PSCAD/EMTDC are carried out to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the improved scheme.

  12. 20 CFR 628.520 - Individual service strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... demands within the labor market. (2) Decisions concerning appropriate services shall be customer-centered... the ISS and may not reference other documents. (h) The ISS is a customer-centered case management tool... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual service strategy. 628.520 Section...

  13. Novel synthesis strategy for the preparation of individual phytosterol oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junlan; Yue, Qiulin; Ji, Yishun; Cheng, Beijiu; Zhang, Xin

    2013-01-30

    Sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols) are important structural components of cell membranes and major constituents of lipid metabolism. Research on their oxides, such as the factors affecting oxidation, oxides' structures, and qualitative and quantitative analysis, aroused more attention in this decade. However, the biological roles of individual phytosterol oxides are still unclear because no commercial individual phytosterol oxide standards are available. Different from the traditional chemical synthesis, in the present study, chemical synthesis from a starting phytosterol mixture followed with a semipreparative HPLC separation produced individual oxides. TLC and analytical HPLC were used here to not only monitor the reaction process but also specifically analyze the synthetic intermediates and oxides. The chromatographic results exhibited strict rules and similar characteristics. Finally, for the first time, four individual phytosterol oxides were successfully separated and collected by a semipreparative HPLC system, thus providing a novel strategy for the preparation of individual phytosterol oxides.

  14. Development of Individualized Anti-Metastasis Strategies by Engineering Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qianjun; Guo, Shengrong; Qian, Zhiyong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is deadly and also tough to treat as it is much more complicated than the primary tumour. Anti-metastasis approaches available so far are far from being optimal. A variety of nanomedicine formulas provide a plethora of opportunities for developing new strategies and means for tackling metastasis. It should be noted that individualized anti-metastatic nanomedicines are different from common anti-cancer nanomedicines as they specifically target different populations of malignant cells. This review briefly introduces the features of the metastatic cascade, and proposes a series of nanomedicine-based anti-metastasis strategies aiming to block each metastatic step. Moreover, we also concisely introduce the advantages of several promising nanoparticle platforms and their potential for constructing state-of-the-art individualized anti-metastatic nanomedicines. PMID:26056688

  15. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits.

  16. Donations and dependence: Individual contributor strategies in house elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwig, Jennifer A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the importance of individual contributors to financing federal candidates, past work has largely neglected this crucial financial constituency in favor of research on corporate and trade political action committees (PACs). By contrast, in this study I offer the first analysis of aggregate contributions from the population of individual contributors to House candidates. Using an original big dataset constructed from over fifteen million Federal Election Commission (FEC) disclosure records, I identify individual contributors (rather than contributions) and trace the variation in their strategies across types of House candidates. I distinguish between frequent donors, who are theorized to have more contact with members of Congress, versus infrequent donors in these elections. I find evidence that the character of aggregate donations from repeat donors is more access-oriented even while controlling for other salient candidate characteristics. Funds from infrequent donors, in contrast, appear more ideologically motivated. By also examining the percentage of funds that House candidates receive from repeat donors, I show that the fundraising coalitions of candidates may reproduce reliance on more access-oriented, repeat donors despite the influx of dollars from infrequent donors. I suggest that my findings provide a persuasive case for re-evaluating the diversity of roles individual contributors play in the campaign finance system, and for systematically analyzing variation in contributor strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Voltage Feedback Based Harmonic Compensation Strategy for Current-Controlled Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Meng, Lexuan; Xie, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    Harmonics have been considered as one of the major issues in future power grids. With the increasing demand in advanced control functions, power electronic converter interfaced distributed generators (DGs) are expected to perform harmonic compensation when necessary. It has been demonstrated in a...

  18. Compensatory strategies during manual wheelchair propulsion in response to weakness in individual muscle groups: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Jonathan S; McNitt-Gray, Jill L; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-03-01

    The considerable physical demand placed on the upper extremity during manual wheelchair propulsion is distributed among individual muscles. The strategy used to distribute the workload is likely influenced by the relative force-generating capacities of individual muscles, and some strategies may be associated with a higher injury risk than others. The objective of this study was to use forward dynamics simulations of manual wheelchair propulsion to identify compensatory strategies that can be used to overcome weakness in individual muscle groups and identify specific strategies that may increase injury risk. Identifying these strategies can provide rationale for the design of targeted rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing the development of pain and injury in manual wheelchair users. Muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of manual wheelchair propulsion were analyzed to identify compensatory strategies in response to individual muscle group weakness using individual muscle mechanical power and stress as measures of upper extremity demand. The simulation analyses found the upper extremity to be robust to weakness in any single muscle group as the remaining groups were able to compensate and restore normal propulsion mechanics. The rotator cuff muscles experienced relatively high muscle stress levels and exhibited compensatory relationships with the deltoid muscles. These results underline the importance of strengthening the rotator cuff muscles and supporting muscles whose contributions do not increase the potential for impingement (i.e., the thoracohumeral depressors) and minimize the risk of upper extremity injury in manual wheelchair users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Forensic Evaluation of Deaf Individuals: Challenges and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Robert Q; Berlinski, Brian T

    2017-01-01

    Forensic evaluation of deaf individuals presents unique challenges due to many examinees' fund of information deficits, potential for language deprivation, and examiners' frequent lack of creativity regarding communication methods. This article describes challenges most frequently encountered in competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility evaluations and offers strategies for overcoming them. The value of employing multiple communication methods, especially the use of illustrations, is emphasized. Suggestions also are offered regarding preparing evaluation reports and effectively communicating "key deaf fundamentals" to legal personnel. Encouragement is offered for qualified, sign-fluent professionals to engage in forensic work.

  20. Compensation strategy to reduce geometry and mechanics mismatches in porous biomaterials built with Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; Melancon, David; Liu, Lu; Johnston, R Burnett; Pasini, Damiano

    2017-06-01

    The accuracy of Additive Manufacturing processes in fabricating porous biomaterials is currently limited by their capacity to render pore morphology that precisely matches its design. In a porous biomaterial, a geometric mismatch can result in pore occlusion and strut thinning, drawbacks that can inherently compromise bone ingrowth and severely impact mechanical performance. This paper focuses on Selective Laser Melting of porous microarchitecture and proposes a compensation scheme that reduces the morphology mismatch between as-designed and as-manufactured geometry, in particular that of the pore. A spider web analog is introduced, built out of Ti-6Al-4V powder via SLM, and morphologically characterized. Results from error analysis of strut thickness are used to generate thickness compensation relations expressed as a function of the angle each strut formed with the build plane. The scheme is applied to fabricate a set of three-dimensional porous biomaterials, which are morphologically and mechanically characterized via micro Computed Tomography, mechanically tested and numerically analyzed. For strut thickness, the results show the largest mismatch (60% from the design) occurring for horizontal members, reduces to 3.1% upon application of the compensation. Similar improvement is observed also for the mechanical properties, a factor that further corroborates the merit of the design-oriented scheme here introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seniors in Society. Strategies to Retain Individual Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The research project on "Seniors in Society. Strategies to Retain Individual Autonomy" (2002 - 2004 is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic. It's importance is empha-sized by the relevance of social and economic aspects of demographic ageing of the popula-tion and that of fundamental changes associated with the transformation of Czech society. The objectives of the research are (1 to find out seniors' material and social resources sup-porting their relative autonomy in everyday life, (2 to record their personal expectations from state, community, or formal and informal support and aid institutions, respectively, and (3 to uncover their engagement in social interaction and individual experiencing of the integration into social groups. The data acquired become the base for (4 identifying the typologies corre-sponding to the levels of seniors' social integration (i.e. groups of relatives, friends, neighbours, special-interest and professional groups. By applying qualitative methods, we explore (5 strategies of everyday life and coping with life cycle events and crisis within par-ticular types. Special attention is paid to the family background of the seniors, including rela-tives in the vertical line. Specifically, we focus on (6 conditions under which family is capa-ble and willing to help or actually is helping it's oldest members, as well as on their interpre-tation within (7 identified types of the relatives supportive systems.

  2. Constant DC-Capacitor Voltage-Control-Based Harmonics Compensation Strategy of Smart Charger for Electric Vehicles in Single-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Ikeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses harmonic current compensation of the constant DC-capacitor voltage-control (CDCVC-based strategy of smart chargers for electric vehicles (EVs in single-phase three-wire distribution feeders (SPTWDFs under nonlinear load conditions. The basic principle of the CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy under nonlinear load conditions is discussed in detail. The instantaneous power flowing into the three-leg pulse-width modulated (PWM rectifier, which performs as a smart charger, shows that the CDCVC-based strategy achieves balanced and sinusoidal source currents with a unity power factor. The CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy does not require any calculation blocks of fundamental reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents. Thus, the authors propose a simplified algorithm to compensate for reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents. A digital computer simulation is implemented to confirm the validity and high practicability of the CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy using PSIM software. Simulation results demonstrate that balanced and sinusoidal source currents with a unity power factor in SPTWDFs are obtained on the secondary side of the pole-mounted distribution transformer (PMDT during both the battery-charging and discharging operations in EVs, compensating for the reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents.

  3. Research on Acceleration Compensation Strategy of Electric Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wei, Zhicheng

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the driving technology of electric vehicle is developing rapidly. There are many kinds of methods in driving performance control technology. The paper studies the acceleration performance of electric vehicle. Under the premise of energy management, an acceleration power compensation method by fuzzy control theory based on driver intention recognition is proposed, which can meet the driver’s subjective feelings better. It avoids the problem that the pedal opening and power output are single correspondence when the traditional vehicle accelerates. Through the simulation test, this method can significantly improve the performance of acceleration and output torque smoothly in non-emergency acceleration to ensure vehicle comfortable and stable.

  4. Protected areas and territorial exclusion of traditional communities: analyzing the social impacts of environmental compensation strategies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisa C. Anaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the protected areas (PAs of restricted use dominates conservation policies throughout the world and reflects the western idea of separation between pristine nature and human-modified habitats. However, this conservation strategy has caused the proliferation of environmental conflicts involving territorial rights of traditional peoples and local communities throughout the world. Our study aims to analyze the impacts of the creation of a system of PAs of restricted use on the livelihoods and well-being of traditional communities in the north of Minas Gerais State, in Brazil. We analyzed the conflicts emerging in the study region from the perspective of the environmental justice paradigm. We used the extended-case method, conducting fieldwork to observe and register the movements of social resistance of traditional communities, and interviews with key stakeholders. Between 1970-1990, the Jaíba irrigation project was implemented in the north of Minas Gerais and, to compensate for the huge environmental impact of the project, several PAs of restricted use were created, disregarding the traditional peoples that inhabited the region. As a consequence, these populations were expelled from their territories without compensation or resettlement, causing severe restrictions to their traditional livelihoods and well-being, including access to natural resources such as water, fisheries and timber, and nontimber products, jeopardizing their food security, cultural identity, and social integrity. They initiated the "Movement of the People Cornered by Parks," lately evolving to "Vazanteiros in Movement," incorporating elements of the environmental arena to politically dispute alternative conservation projects. Sustainable development policies that incorporate the "economy of repair," expressed as environmental compensation strategies, are intrinsically contradictory and inappropriate from the perspective of environmental justice. Inclusive

  5. Argumentative Strategies in the Action of Compensation for Moral Damages: a Study of an Initial Petition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana de Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Guided by the semiolinguistics theory, this work intended to investigate initial petition involving a claim for compensation for moral damages in consumer relations, verifying how the dimensions of the features of logos and pathos were used by lawyers to persuade the judge that the claim for compensation was valid. This study also aimed to investigate which socio-discursive imaginaries were expressed in these speeches. We came to the conclusion that the notion of communication contract is very striking and guiding in these speeches. It was also found a predominance of the dimension of logos and a regularity in the use of techniques from this dimension. We also found that the patêmica order arguments also had a great importance in the argumentation, as being the moral damage connected directly to the emotional shock of the applicant for the violation of his rights, the argument based only on the logos would be somewhat consistent. It was clear that the lawyer’s voice comes from the collectivity with which he shares values and principles.

  6. Individual foraging strategies reveal niche overlap between endangered galapagos pinnipeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Villegas-Amtmann

    Full Text Available Most competition studies between species are conducted from a population-level approach. Few studies have examined inter-specific competition in conjunction with intra-specific competition, with an individual-based approach. To our knowledge, none has been conducted on marine top predators. Sympatric Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki share similar geographic habitats and potentially compete. We studied their foraging niche overlap at Cabo Douglas, Fernandina Island from simultaneously collected dive and movement data to examine spatial and temporal inter- and intra-specific competition. Sea lions exhibited 3 foraging strategies (shallow, intermediate and deep indicating intra-specific competition. Fur seals exhibited one foraging strategy, diving predominantly at night, between 0-80 m depth and mostly at 19-22 h. Most sea lion dives also occurred at night (63%, between 0-40 m, within fur seals' diving depth range. 34% of sea lions night dives occurred at 19-22 h, when fur seals dived the most, but most of them occurred at dawn and dusk, when fur seals exhibited the least amount of dives. Fur seals and sea lions foraging behavior overlapped at 19 and 21 h between 0-30 m depths. Sea lions from the deep diving strategy exhibited the greatest foraging overlap with fur seals, in time (19 h, depth during overlapping time (21-24 m, and foraging range (37.7%. Fur seals foraging range was larger. Cabo Douglas northwest coastal area, region of highest diving density, is a foraging "hot spot" for both species. Fur seals and sea lions foraging niche overlap occurred, but segregation also occurred; fur seals primarily dived at night, while sea lions exhibited night and day diving. Both species exploited depths and areas exclusive to their species. Niche breadth generally increases with environmental uncertainty and decreased productivity. Potential competition between these species could be greater during

  7. Creating beauty: creativity compensates for low physical attractiveness when individuals assess the attractiveness of social and romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Christopher D

    2017-04-01

    Although creativity is attractive in a potential mate, it is unclear (i) whether the effects of creativity on attractiveness generalize to other social contexts and (ii) whether creativity has equivalent effects on men's and women's attractiveness. As social knowledge of creativity may either enhance or 'offset' the appeal of social partners who differ in physical attractiveness, three repeated measures experiments were conducted to directly address these issues. Here, participants rated a series of face-text pairs for attractiveness on trials that differed in one of four combinations of facial attractiveness (attractive and less attractive) and creativity (creative and less creative), rating story-tellers in two experiments (short interpretations of an identical painting) and creative ideas in a further experiment (alternative uses for an everyday object). Regardless of the sex of the judge, creativity and facial attractiveness had independent effects on men's overall attractiveness (initial experiment) and, in further experiments, more substantial effects on the attractiveness of men with less attractive faces than men with attractive faces (when using a different measure of creativity) and specific effects on the attractiveness of individuals with less attractive faces (when using different face stimuli). Collectively, across three experiments, these findings suggest that creativity may compensate for putative cues to lower biological 'quality' and that the benefits of creativity to social groups more generally enhance attraction to creative men (in two experiments) and creative men and women (one experiment). More broadly, the data suggest that species can integrate knowledge of cognitive intelligence with visual cues to biological 'quality' to facilitate mate and/or ally choice.

  8. Neurorehabilitation strategies for poststroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: from compensation to the recovery of swallowing function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabib, Christopher; Ortega, Omar; Kumru, Hatice; Palomeras, Ernest; Vilardell, Natalia; Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Muriana, Desirée; Rofes, Laia; Terré, Rosa; Mearin, Fermín; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is very prevalent among poststroke patients, causing severe complications but lacking specific neurorehabilitation treatment. This review covers advances in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and physiologically based neurorehabilitation strategies for poststroke OD. The pathophysiology of oropharyngeal biomechanics can be assessed by videofluoroscopy, as delayed laryngeal vestibule closure is closely associated with aspiration. Stroke may affect afferent or efferent neuronal circuits participating in deglutition. The integrity of oropharyngeal-cortical afferent pathways can be assessed by electroencephalography through sensory-evoked potentials by pharyngeal electrical stimulation, while corticopharyngeal efferent pathways can be characterized by electromyography through motor-evoked potentials by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Dysfunction in both cortico-mediated evoked responses is associated with delayed swallow response and aspiration. Studies have reported hemispherical asymmetry on motor control of swallowing and the relevance of impaired oropharyngeal sensitivity on aspiration. Advances in treatment include improvements in compensatory strategies but are mainly focused on (1) peripheral stimulation strategies and (2) central, noninvasive stimulation strategies with evidence of their clinical benefits. Characterization of poststroke OD is evolving from the assessment of impaired biomechanics to the sensorimotor integration processes involved in deglutition. Treatment is also changing from compensatory strategies to promoting brain plasticity, both to recover swallow function and to improve brain-related swallowing dysfunction. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Optimizing individual iron deficiency prevention strategies in physiological pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramarskiy V.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sideropenia by the end of pregnancy takes place in all mothers without exception. Moreover, the selective administration of iron preparations, in contrast to the routine, makes it possible to avoid hemochromatosis, frequency of which in the general population makes from 0.5 to 13 %. The aim of the study was to optimize the individual strategy for the prevention of iron deficiency in physiological pregnancy. A prospective pre-experimental study was conducted, the criterion of inclusion in which was the mother’s extragenital and obstetrical pathology during the first half of pregnancy, a burdened obstetric and gynecological anamnesis. The study group of 98 women with a physiological pregnancy in the period of 20 to 24 weeks was recruited by simple ran- dom selection. Serum ferritin, hemoglobin, and serum iron were used to estimate iron deficiency. In the latent stage of iron deficiency against a background of monthly correction with Fenules ® in a dose of 90 mg of elemental iron per day, there was a significant increase in ferritin and iron in the blood rotor. In healthy mothers, during the gestational period of 20–24 weeks, a regularity arises in the replenishment of iron status, especially in the case of repeated pregnancy, which is successfully satisfied during the month of Fenules ® intake in doses of 45 mg or 90 mg per day with a serum ferritin level of, respectively, 30 up to 70 μg/l or less than 30 μg/l.

  10. Compensation Still Matters: Language Learning Strategies in Third Millennium ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakarami, Alireza; Hajhashemi, Karim; Caltabiano, Nerina J.

    2017-01-01

    Digital media play enormous roles in much of the learning, communication, socializing, and ways of working for "Net-Generation" learners who are growing up in a wired world. Living in this digital era may require different ways of communicating, thinking, approaching learning, prioritizing strategies, interpersonally communicating, and…

  11. A High Efficiency Charging Strategy for a Supercapacitor Using a Wireless Power Transfer System Based on Inductor/Capacitor/Capacitor (LCC Compensation Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the application of rail transit vehicles, when using typical wireless power transfer (WPT systems with series–series (SS compensation supply power for supercapacitors, the output current is in an approximately inverse relationship with the duty cycle in a wide range. This renders the typical buck circuit control inappropriate. In order to help resolve the above issues, this paper designs inductor/capacitor/capacitor (LCC compensation with new compensation parameters, which can achieve an adjustable quasi-constant voltage from the input of the inverter to the output of the rectifier. In addition, the two-port network method is used to analyze the resonant compensation circuit. The analysis shows that LCC compensation is more suitable for the WPT system using the supercapacitor as the energy storage device. In the case of LCC compensation topology combined with the charging characteristics of the supercapacitor, an efficient charging strategy is designed, namely first constant current charging, followed by constant power charging. Based on the analysis of LCC compensation, the system has an optimal load, by which the system works at the maximum efficiency point. Combined with the characteristics of the constant voltage output, the system can maintain high efficiency in the constant power stage by making constant output power the same as the optimal power point. Finally, the above design is verified through experiments.

  12. A measurement strategy and an error-compensation model for the on-machine laser measurement of large-scale free-form surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Li, Feng; Liu, Hongqi; Cai, Hui; Mao, Xinyong; Peng, Fangyu

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a novel measurement strategy and an error-compensation model for the measurement of large-scale free-form surfaces in on-machine laser measurement systems. To improve the measurement accuracy, the effects of the scan depth, surface roughness, incident angle and azimuth angle on the measurement results were investigated experimentally, and a practical measurement strategy considering the position and orientation of the sensor is presented. Also, a semi-quantitative model based on geometrical optics is proposed to compensate for the measurement error associated with the incident angle. The normal vector of the measurement point is determined using a cross-curve method from the acquired surface data. Then, the azimuth angle and incident angle are calculated to inform the measurement strategy and error-compensation model, respectively. The measurement strategy and error-compensation model are verified through the measurement of a large propeller blade on a heavy machine tool in a factory environment. The results demonstrate that the strategy and the model are effective in increasing the measurement accuracy. (paper)

  13. Individual coping characteristics, aggressiveness and fighting strategies in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual pigs, Sus scrofa, differ considerably in how aggressive they are during encounters with unfamiliar conspecifics. We examined whether individual coping characteristics of pigs were predictive of aggression during social encounters and the resulting social status. Piglets were subjected to

  14. Strategies for compensating for higher costs of geothermal electricity with environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, H.; Niitsuma, Hiroaki

    1999-01-01

    After very high growth in the 1980s, geothermal electricity production has slowed in the mid- and late-1990s. While Japanese, Indonesian and Philippine geothermal growth has remained high as a consequence of supportive government policies, geothermal electricity production has been flat or reduced in much of Europe and North America. Low prices for coal and natural gas, combined with deregulation, means that in much of the world electricity from new fuel-burning electricity plants can be provided at half the cost of new geothermal electricity. Cost-cutting must be pursued, but is unlikely to close the price gap by itself. Geothermal production is widely perceived as being environmentally clean, but this is not unambiguously true, and requires reinjection to be fully realized. Strategies for monetizing the environmental advantages of geothermal, including the carbon tax, are discussed. (author)

  15. Effects of emotion regulation strategies on music-elicited emotions: An experimental study explaining individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.M.; Hanser, Waldie; Vingerhoets, Ad

    This experimental study examined if emotional experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy during music listening and if individual differences in effects of strategies can be explained by person characteristics. Adults (N = 466) completed questionnaires and rated

  16. Effects of emotion regulation strategies on music elicited emotions : An experimental study explaining individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.M.; Hanser, W.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study examined if emotional experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy during music listening and if individual differences in effects of strategies can be explained by person characteristics. Adults (N = 466) completed questionnaires and rated

  17. Individual Differences in Strategy Choices: Good Students, Not-So-Good Students, and Perfectionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Issues include consistent individual differences in children's strategy choices, interpretation of differences within a framework, and the relation of differences to standardized test performance. (RJC)

  18. HERITABLE VARIATION FOR AGGRESSION AS A REFLECTION OF INDIVIDUAL COPING STRATEGIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BENUS, RF; BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; VANOORTMERSSEN, GA

    1991-01-01

    Evidence is presented in rodents, that individual differences in aggression reflect heritable, fundamentally different, but equally valuable alternative strategies to cope with environmental demands. Generally, aggressive individuals show an active response to aversive situations. In a social

  19. Rehabilitation Strategies for the Athletic Individual with Early Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Ihm, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in the United States. The condition has most commonly been associated with elderly sedentary individuals; however, it also can affect those who participate in regular athletic activities. The diagnosis and management of these individuals can be challenging because of both their higher level of physical activity and their overall athletic goals. Treatment requires an appropriate exercise regimen, rehabilitation program, and education of both the athlete and the coach. The focus of our article is to provide an up-to-date overview of the evaluation and management of the athletic individual who presents with symptomatic early knee OA, in particular, the nonsurgical rehabilitation treatment options available to the practitioner and the evidence to support these recommendations.

  20. Essays on Product Strategies through Consideration of Individual Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Hagit

    2016-01-01

    Marketing literature and practitioners are in agreement that it is essential for brands in competitive markets to identify segments that should be targeted and to build rational product strategies that target these segments. It is essential because most markets include consumers with heterogeneous preferences and precise segmentation and targeting creates product differentiation, which prevents direct competition and allow the market to reach an optimal profit optimization equilibrium. In thi...

  1. Individual Learning Accounts: A Strategy for Lifelong Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Since the end of the previous century social partners in different branches of industry have laid down measures to stimulate individual learning and competence development of workers in collective labour agreements. Special attention is given to stimulating learning demand among traditional non-participants to lifelong learning, such as…

  2. Strategies for Organizational Change from Group Homes to Individualized Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to…

  3. Communicative strategies used by spouses of individuals with communication disorders related to stroke-induced aphasia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2014-11-01

    A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative disabilities, nor what factors contribute to the development of a particular approach by communication partners. To develop a set of categories to describe the strategies used by communication partners of adults who have problems expressing themselves due to neurogenic communicative disabilities. The reliability of assessment was a particular focus. The material explored consisted of 21 video-recorded everyday conversations involving seven couples where one spouse had a communicative disability. Three of the dyads included a person with dysarthria and anomia related to later stages of Parkinson's disease, while four of them included a person with stroke-induced aphasia involving anomia. First a qualitative interaction analysis was performed to explore the strategies used by the communication partners when their spouses had problems expressing themselves. The strategies were then categorized, the reliability of the categorizations was explored and the relative frequency of the various strategies was examined. The analysis of the conversational interactions resulted in a set of nine different strategies used by the communication partners without a communicative disability. Each of these categories belonged to one of three overall themes: No participation in repair; Request for clarification or modification; and Providing candidate solutions. The reliability of the categorization was satisfactory. There were no statistically significant differences between diagnoses in the frequency of use of strategies, but the spouses of the persons with Parkinson's disease tended to use open-class initiations of repair more often than the spouses of the persons

  4. Individual-based and group-based occupational exposure assessment: some equations to evaluate different strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Kupper, L.L.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Houba, R.

    1998-01-01

    Basically, two strategies can be considered for the analysis of hazardous pollutants in the work environment: group-based and individual-based strategies. This paper provides existing and recently derived equations for both strategies describing the influence of several factors on attenuation and on

  5. Individual Differences in Strategy Use on Division Problems: Mental versus Written Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickendorff, Marian; van Putten, Cornelis M.; Verhelst, Norman D.; Heiser, Willem J.

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in strategy use (choice and accuracy) were analyzed. A sample of 362 Grade 6 students solved complex division problems under 2 different conditions. In the choice condition students were allowed to use either a mental or a written strategy. In the subsequent no-choice condition, they were required to use a written strategy.…

  6. Use of listening strategies for the speech of individuals with dysarthria and cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustad, Katherine C; Dardis, Caitlin M; Kramper, Amy J

    2011-03-01

    This study examined listeners' endorsement of cognitive, linguistic, segmental, and suprasegmental strategies employed when listening to speakers with dysarthria. The study also examined whether strategy endorsement differed between listeners who earned the highest and lowest intelligibility scores. Speakers were eight individuals with dysarthria and cerebral palsy. Listeners were 80 individuals who transcribed speech stimuli and rated their use of each of 24 listening strategies on a 4-point scale. Results showed that cognitive and linguistic strategies were most highly endorsed. Use of listening strategies did not differ between listeners with the highest and lowest intelligibility scores. Results suggest that there may be a core of strategies common to listeners of speakers with dysarthria that may be supplemented by additional strategies, based on characteristics of the speaker and speech signal.

  7. A novel respiratory motion compensation strategy combining gated beam delivery and mean target position concept - A compromise between small safety margins and long duty cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Kavanagh, Anthony; Webb, Steve; Brada, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel respiratory motion compensation strategy combining gated beam delivery with the mean target position (MTP) concept for pulmonary stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Materials and methods: Four motion compensation strategies were compared for 10 targets with motion amplitudes between 6 mm and 31 mm: the internal target volume concept (plan ITV ); the MTP concept where safety margins were adapted based on 4D dose accumulation (plan MTP ); gated beam delivery without margins for motion compensation (plan gated ); a novel approach combining gating and the MTP concept (plan gated and MTP ). Results: For 5/10 targets with an average motion amplitude of 9 mm, the differences in the mean lung dose (MLD) between plan gated and plan MTP were gated and MTP . Despite significantly shorter duty cycles, plan gated reduced the MLD by gated and MTP . The MLD was increased by 18% in plan MTP compared to that of plan gated and MTP . Conclusions: For pulmonary targets with motion amplitudes >10-15 mm, the combination of gating and the MTP concept allowed small safety margins with simultaneous long duty cycles.

  8. Dysfunctional Attitudes and Coping Strategies in Substance Dependent and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A'zami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: From the psychological point of view, coping strategies and attitudes have considerable effects on people’s tendency towards risky behavior, including opioid substance abuse. Dysfunctional attitudes are attitudes and beliefs that predispose the individual toward depression and psychological disorder, generally speaking. Usually, people use three types of coping strategies when confronting stressful situations problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidance strategies. This study therefore aimed to compare dysfunctional attitudes and coping strategies in substance-dependent & healthy individuals. Methods: A causal-comparative study was conducted. The population under study consisted of 100 addicts attending Robat-Karim’s addiction rehabilitation centers who were selected through simple random sampling. Another 100 ordinary individuals were matched with the addicts. The dysfunctional attitudes scale and the coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Results: The two groups differed significantly in their dysfunctional attitudes and problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. Substance-dependent individuals applied emotion-focused coping more and had greater dysfunctional attitudes than the healthy ones, and the latter applied problem-focused strategies more. Discussion: Based on our results, addicts have greater dysfunctional attitudes than non-addicts. Therefore, better treatment and rehabilitation results may be obtained by preparing grounds for appropriate psychological interventions and coping strategies in substance-dependent individuals.

  9. Video Self-Modeling as an Intervention Strategy for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Anderson, Candace; McCarthy, Scott; Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling demonstrates promise as an intervention strategy to improve outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. This article summarizes the empirical evidence supporting the use of video self-modeling with individuals with autism spectrum disorders to increase language and communication, increase social skills, modify…

  10. Creative compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, D.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs

  11. Does Cognitive Strategy Training on Word Problems Compensate for Working Memory Capacity in Children with Math Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive strategies are important tools for children with math difficulties (MD) in learning to solve word problems. The effectiveness of strategy training, however, depends on working memory capacity (WMC). Thus, children with MD but with relatively higher WMC are more likely to benefit from strategy training, whereas children with lower WMC may…

  12. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Hojilla, J; Koester, Kimberly A; Cohen, Stephanie E; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was 'seasonal' and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts.

  13. When push comes to shove: Compensating and opportunistic strategies in a collective-risk household energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya eSkatova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems like climate change, every little push counts. Community energy schemes are a popular policy targeted to reduce a country’s carbon emissions but the effect they have on energy use depends on whether people can work together as a community. We often find ourselves caught in a dilemma: if others are not doing their bit, why should I? In our experiment participants (N = 118 were matched in groups of 10 to play in a collective-risk game framed as a community energy purchase scheme. They made only one decision about energy use for their virtual household a day, whilst a full round of the game lasted one week in real time. All decisions were entered via personal phone or a home computer. If in the end of the week the group exceeded a pre-paid threshold of energy use, all group members would share a fine. Each day participants received feedback about decisions of their group partners, and in some groups the feedback was manipulated as high (unfair condition or low (fair condition use. High average group use created individual risk for participants to be penalized in the end of the week, even if they did not use much themselves. We found that under the risk of having to pay a fine, participants stayed significantly below the fair-share threshold regardless of unfair behaviour of others. On the contrary, they significantly decreased their consumption towards the end of the game. Seeing that others are doing their bit – using a fair-share – encouraged people to take advantage of the situation: those who played against fair confederates did not follow the normative behaviour but conversely, increased their consumption over the course of the game. These opportunistic strategies were demonstrated by impulsive participants who were also low in punishment sensitivity. We discuss the findings in the light of policy research as well as literature on cooperation and prosocial behaviour.

  14. When Push Comes to Shove: Compensating and Opportunistic Strategies in a Collective-Risk Household Energy Dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skatova, Anya, E-mail: anya.skatova@gmail.com [Horizon Digital Economy Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Bedwell, Benjamin [Horizon Digital Economy Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Kuper-Smith, Benjamin [Horizon Digital Economy Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Institute of Neurology, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-14

    To solve problems such as climate change, every little push counts. Community energy schemes are a popular policy targeted to reduce a country’s carbon emissions but the effect they have on energy use depends on whether people can work together as a community. We often find ourselves caught in a dilemma: if others are not doing their bit, why should I? In our experiment, participants (N = 118) were matched in groups of 10 to play in a collective-risk game framed as a community energy purchase scheme. They made only one decision about energy use for their virtual household a day, while a full round of the game lasted 1 week in real time. All decisions were entered via personal phone or a home computer. If in the end of the week the group exceeded a pre-paid threshold of energy use all group members would share a fine. Each day participants received feedback about decisions of their group partners, and in some groups the feedback was manipulated as high (unfair condition) or low (fair condition) use. High average group use created individual risk for participants to be penalized in the end of the week, even if they did not use much themselves. We found that under the risk of having to pay a fine, participants stayed significantly below the fair-share threshold regardless of unfair behavior of others. On the contrary, they significantly decreased their consumption toward the end of the game. Seeing that others are doing their bit – using a fair-share – encouraged people to take advantage of the situation: those who played against fair confederates did not follow the normative behavior but conversely, increased their consumption over the course of the game. These opportunistic strategies were demonstrated by impulsive participants who were also low in punishment sensitivity. We discuss the findings in the light of policy research as well as literature on cooperation and prosocial behavior.

  15. When Push Comes to Shove: Compensating and Opportunistic Strategies in a Collective-Risk Household Energy Dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skatova, Anya; Bedwell, Benjamin; Kuper-Smith, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    To solve problems such as climate change, every little push counts. Community energy schemes are a popular policy targeted to reduce a country’s carbon emissions but the effect they have on energy use depends on whether people can work together as a community. We often find ourselves caught in a dilemma: if others are not doing their bit, why should I? In our experiment, participants (N = 118) were matched in groups of 10 to play in a collective-risk game framed as a community energy purchase scheme. They made only one decision about energy use for their virtual household a day, while a full round of the game lasted 1 week in real time. All decisions were entered via personal phone or a home computer. If in the end of the week the group exceeded a pre-paid threshold of energy use all group members would share a fine. Each day participants received feedback about decisions of their group partners, and in some groups the feedback was manipulated as high (unfair condition) or low (fair condition) use. High average group use created individual risk for participants to be penalized in the end of the week, even if they did not use much themselves. We found that under the risk of having to pay a fine, participants stayed significantly below the fair-share threshold regardless of unfair behavior of others. On the contrary, they significantly decreased their consumption toward the end of the game. Seeing that others are doing their bit – using a fair-share – encouraged people to take advantage of the situation: those who played against fair confederates did not follow the normative behavior but conversely, increased their consumption over the course of the game. These opportunistic strategies were demonstrated by impulsive participants who were also low in punishment sensitivity. We discuss the findings in the light of policy research as well as literature on cooperation and prosocial behavior.

  16. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Solution strategies as possible explanations of individual and sex differences in a dynamic spatial task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Daniel; Contreras, María José; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, José

    2008-05-01

    When individuals perform spatial tasks, individual differences emerge in accuracy and speed as well as in the response patterns used to cope with the task. The purpose of this study is to identify, through empirical criteria, the different response patterns or strategies used by individuals when performing the dynamic spatial task presented in the Spatial Orientation Dynamic Test-Revised (SODT-R). Results show that participants can be classified according to their response patterns. Three different ways of solving a task are described, and their relation to (a) performance factors (response latency, response frequency, and invested time) and (b) ability tests (analytical reasoning, verbal reasoning, and spatial estimation) are investigated. Sex differences in response patterns and performance are also analyzed. It is found that the frequency with which men and women employ each one of the strategies described here, is different and statistically significant. Thus, employed strategy plays an important role when interpreting sex differences on dynamic spatial tasks.

  18. Development of master-slave energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic hysteresis state machine and differential power processing compensation for a PEMFC-LIB-SC hybrid tramway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Fei; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, Zhixiang; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Donghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A power system model for the PEMFC based commercial hybrid tramway was established. •An energy management strategy based on master FuHSM and slave DPPC was proposed. •The optimal OER operation of PEMFC subsystem was achieved. •The real-time EMS based HCM optimization was achieved. •The influence on system fuel economy and PEMFC performance degradation was verified. -- Abstract: A hybrid power system configuration based on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), lion-lithium battery (LIB) and supercapacitor (SC) was designed without grid connection for the hybrid tramway. To adapt to the rapid load power change and achieve higher fuel efficiency and optimal oxygen excess ratio (OER) operation of the PEMFC power subsystem, a master-slave energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic hysteresis state machine (FuHSM) and differential power processing compensation (DPPC) was proposed for the hybrid tramway, effectively taking into consideration of the dynamic response and optimum OER tracing of the integrated PEMFC subsystem. The master FuHSM controller was utilized to grantee the optimal power coordination of the multiple power sources and the slave DPPC controller was responsible for further compensating the load power demand to enhance the dynamic performance and bus voltage stability. Furthermore, the equivalent H 2 consumption minimization optimization considering characteristics of the proposed energy management strategy was realized by means of EIA-PSO algorithm to further improve the fuel economy of the overall hybrid power system. The results demonstrate that the proposed energy management strategy can guarantee the stability of the hybrid power system throughout the driving cycle. In addition, more efficient power coordination dynamics among the PEMFC, LIB and SC subsystems could be achieved without additional performance degradation of the integrated PEMFC subsystem, and the results of the comparisons with other control strategies

  19. [A new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies: coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Yang, Ming; Han, Xue; Lin, Jun-zhi; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-08-01

    The stable and controllable quality of decoction pieces is an important factor to ensure the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the dilemma that the existing standardization of processing mode cannot effectively eliminate the variability of quality raw ingredients, and ensure the stability between different batches, we first propose a new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies that coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics. In order to explain this thinking, an individual study case about different grades aconite is provided. We hope this strategy could better serve for clinical medicine, and promote the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing skills and theories.

  20. International trade shows: Structure, strategy and performance of exhibitors at individual booths vs. joint booths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines differences in exhibitors who participate at international trade shows at joint booths and those who participate at individual booths. The structure, strategy, and trade show performance of exhibitors at joint booths and those at individual booths are analysed. The analysis...... implications for exhibitors at interna-tional trade shows and export marketing programmes and other marketing programmes offering services to international trade show exhibitors....... of exhibitors at the international food shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne) showed several significant differences with regard to structure and strategy. However, no significant differences in the performance assessments between the two partici-pation modes were found. The findings have important...

  1. Flute Teachers’ One-to-One Instructional Strategies at Individual Teaching Stages in Music School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kavčič Pucihar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one-to-one studio based instrumental instruction in music schools. Some novelties in the music school woodwind curricula are presented within various contexts. Teacher – student relationship, their interactions, and knowledge transfer are essential in individual instrumental instruction. The learning process is systematically structured within six teaching stages, ranging from new content presentation to learning reviews. We examined music school flute teachers’ beliefs (N=78 about teaching stages in individual studio based instruction. We researched their new content teaching strategies, guided practice and reinforcement, feedback, homework monitoring strategies, formative review and assessment within music studio academic year.

  2. PENGEMBANGAN PAKET PELATIHAN KEMANDIRIAN BELAJAR DENGAN STRATEGI INDIVIDUAL LEARNING PLAN UNTUK SISWA SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Cahyono

    2016-12-01

    Pengelolaan belajar yang dilakukan secara mandiri, memungkinkan siswa untuk belajar sesuai minat dan tanpa paksaan dari pihak lain sehingga akan berdampak positif terhadap prestasi belajar yang diraihnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan paket pelatihan kemandirian belajar dengan menggunakan strategi individual learning plan untuk siswa SMP. Pengembangan paket pelatihan ini menggunakan model penelitian pengembangan Borg & Gall (1983. Berdasarkan hasil penilaian ahli dan pengguna, paket pelatihan kemandirian belajar dengan menggunakan strategi individual learning plan untuk siswa SMP telah memenuhi kriteria kelayakan dan keberterimaan. Uji efektivitas kepada berbagai subjek yang berbeda perlu dilakukan pada penelitian selanjutnya sehingga kekurangan paket pelatihan yang dikembangkan dalam pelatihan ini bisa disempurnakan.

  3. Losses compensation; Compensation des pertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One mission of RTE (Electric Power Transportation), is to watch over the losses compensation resulting from the power transport on the electric power network. Since january 2001, RTE makes good the electric losses by the purchase of energy. To choose the marketers, a consultation has been realized by RTE. This document presents the rules concerning these losses compensation. (A.L.B.)

  4. Economic Evaluation of Individual School Closure Strategies: The Hong Kong 2009 H1N1 Pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoie Shui-Yee Wong

    Full Text Available School closures as a means of containing the spread of disease have received considerable attention from the public health community. Although they have been implemented during previous pandemics, the epidemiological and economic effects of the closure of individual schools remain unclear.This study used data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong to develop a simulation model of an influenza pandemic with a localised population structure to provide scientific justifications for and economic evaluations of individual-level school closure strategies.The estimated cost of the study's baseline scenario was USD330 million. We found that the individual school closure strategies that involved all types of schools and those that used a lower threshold to trigger school closures had the best performance. The best scenario resulted in an 80% decrease in the number of cases (i.e., prevention of about 830,000 cases, and the cost per case prevented by this intervention was USD1,145; thus, the total cost was USD1.28 billion.This study predicts the effects of individual school closure strategies on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. Further research could determine optimal strategies that combine various system-wide and district-wide school closures with individual school triggers across types of schools. The effects of different closure triggers at different phases of a pandemic should also be examined.

  5. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those hours...

  6. Energy compensation and nutrient displacement following regular consumption of hazelnuts and other energy-dense snack foods in non-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Katherine R; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2017-04-01

    Regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease risk, partly from improvements to dietary quality. Examining how individuals make dietary changes when consuming nuts may reveal key behavioural eating patterns beneficial for the development of dietary interventions. We examined the effects of nuts in comparison with other energy-dense snacks on energy compensation, nutrient displacement, and food group patterns. This was a 12-week randomised, controlled, parallel study with four arms: ~1100 kJ/day for each of hazelnuts (42 g), chocolate (50 g), potato crisps (50 g), or no added snack food. Diet records, body composition, and physical activity were measured at baseline and week 12, in 102 non-obese participants. Significant improvements in diet quality were observed in the hazelnut group, particularly when consumed as snacks. Intakes of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and vitamin E were significantly higher (all P snacks in this non-obese population. Regular nut consumption significantly improves nutrient profiles compared to other snacks with changes occurring at the snack level.

  7. By the numbers: Structure-seeking individuals prefer quantitative over qualitative representations of personal value to compensate for the threat of unclear performance contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Zachary K; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    What combination of dispositional and situational factors leads people to represent their personal value in quantitative terms (e.g., salary) rather than qualitative terms (e.g., virtue)? Integrating research on quantitative information seeking, dispositional epistemic motivation, and learned helplessness, the current article hypothesized that individuals high, but not low, in uncertainty avoidance (measured with the Personal Need for Structure Scale [PNS]) would prefer quantitative (over qualitative) value representations to compensate for the diminished self-esteem certainty caused by exposure to unclear performance contingencies. Accordingly, in Study 1 high-PNS participants exposed to unclear (vs. clear) performance contingencies in one domain (visual intelligence) preferred a quantitative value representation in another domain (verbal intelligence). Study 2 showed that this effect is mediated by self-esteem certainty, not self-esteem level. Study 3 included a failure feedback condition to further isolate the role of epistemic motivation, as distinct from self-enhancement motivation, in driving the tendency to quantify personal value.

  8. The Relation between Navigation Strategy and Associative Memory: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi T.; Weisberg, Steven M.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the hippocampus is implicated in both spatial navigation and associative memory, very little is known about whether individual differences in the 2 domains covary. People who prefer to navigate using a hippocampal-dependent place strategy may show better performance on associative memory tasks than those who prefer a caudate-dependent…

  9. Expanding Third Graders' Vocabulary Using a Data Base, Individual Thesauri and Brainstorming Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffuri, Ann

    A practicum was developed to expand written vocabulary for third graders through training in using a data base and brainstorming strategies. Individual thesauri were written and published to demonstrate the results of collecting vocabulary and applying it to specific topics. Daily process writing became an integral part of the curriculum. Class…

  10. KONTRIBUTOR KINERJA PEMASARAN DARI ASPEK REWARD, INDIVIDU DAN KREATIFITAS STRATEGI PEMASARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Tanoko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis dan membuktikan secara empiris tentang pengaruh reward, pengaruh kinerja individu, dan kreatifitas strategi pemasaran terhadap kinerja pemasaran KJKS BMT BUS Lasem Kabupaten Rembang. Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap karyawan pemasaran disemua cabang KJKS BMT Bina Ummat Sejahtera. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan kuesioner dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 170 responden yang 78 responden wanita dan 92 responden pria. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah dengan Structural Equation Model (SEM dengan menggunakan program AMOS karena memungkinkan kombinasi antara analisis faktor dan analisis regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel reward dan kinerja individu berpengaruh secara signifkan terhadap kreatifitas strategi pemasaran dan kinerja pemasaran. The aim of this study are to analyze and to prove empirically the influence of reward, individual, and creative marketing strategies toward marketing performance KJKS BMT BUS Lasem Rembang District. The research was conducted on marketing employees in all branches of Ummah Welfare Bina KJKS BMT. Data was collected through a questionnaire with a sample of 170 respondents which there were 78 female respondents and 92 male respondents. Structural Equation Model (SEM is used  as data analysis technique with the combination of factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the variables and the reward of individual performance are significantly influential toward the creativity of the marketing strategy and marketing performance.

  11. The Influence of Individual and Situational Factors on Children's Choice of a Conflict Management Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Anni; Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of individual and situational factors on nursery school children's conflict management strategies. This observational study of triadic interaction was carried out among 69 children whose mean age was 48 months. The video-recorded data were coded for the type of…

  12. Creative compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll, D

    1994-09-19

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs.

  13. Age-Related Differences of Individuals' Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  14. Individual differences in attention strategies during detection, fine discrimination, and coarse discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Elizabeth A.; Serences, John T.; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Interacting with the environment requires the ability to flexibly direct attention to relevant features. We examined the degree to which individuals attend to visual features within and across Detection, Fine Discrimination, and Coarse Discrimination tasks. Electroencephalographic (EEG) responses were measured to an unattended peripheral flickering (4 or 6 Hz) grating while individuals (n = 33) attended to orientations that were offset by 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 90° from the orientation of the unattended flicker. These unattended responses may be sensitive to attentional gain at the attended spatial location, since attention to features enhances early visual responses throughout the visual field. We found no significant differences in tuning curves across the three tasks in part due to individual differences in strategies. We sought to characterize individual attention strategies using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, which grouped individuals into families of curves that reflect attention to the physical target orientation (“on-channel”) or away from the target orientation (“off-channel”) or a uniform distribution of attention. The different curves were related to behavioral performance; individuals with “on-channel” curves had lower thresholds than individuals with uniform curves. Individuals with “off-channel” curves during Fine Discrimination additionally had lower thresholds than those assigned to uniform curves, highlighting the perceptual benefits of attending away from the physical target orientation during fine discriminations. Finally, we showed that a subset of individuals with optimal curves (“on-channel”) during Detection also demonstrated optimal curves (“off-channel”) during Fine Discrimination, indicating that a subset of individuals can modulate tuning optimally for detection and discrimination. PMID:23678013

  15. Development of Digital Hysteresis Current Control with PLL Loop Gain Compensation Strategy for PWM Inverters with Constant Switching Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Belhaouchet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis current control is one of the simplest techniques used to control the magnitude and phase angle of motor current for motor drives systems. However, this technique presents several disadvantages such as operation at variable switching frequency which can reveal problems of filtering, interference between the phases in the case of the three-phase systems with insulated neutral connection or delta connection, and irregularity of the modulation pulses which especially causes an acoustic noise on the level of the machine for the high power drive. In this paper, a new technique is proposed for a variable-hysteresis-band controller based on dead beat control applied to three phase voltage source PWM inverters feeding AC motors. Its main aim is firstly ensure a constant switching frequency and secondly the synchronization of modulation pulses using the phase-locked-loop with loop gain compensation in order to ensure a better stability. The behavior of the proposed technique is verified by simulation.

  16. Beyond labelling: what strategies do nut allergic individuals employ to make food choices? A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Barnett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Food labelling is an important tool that assists people with peanut and tree nut allergies to avoid allergens. Nonetheless, other strategies are also developed and used in food choice decision making. In this paper, we examined the strategies that nut allergic individuals deploy to make safe food choices in addition to a reliance on food labelling. METHODS: THREE QUALITATIVE METHODS: an accompanied shop, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and the product choice reasoning task - were used with 32 patients that had a clinical history of reactions to peanuts and/or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated food allergy. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed data. RESULTS: Three main strategies were identified that informed the risk assessments and food choice practices of nut allergic individuals. These pertained to: (1 qualities of product such as the product category or the country of origin, (2 past experience of consuming a food product, and (3 sensory appreciation of risk. Risk reasoning and risk management behaviours were often contingent on the context and other physiological and socio-psychological needs which often competed with risk considerations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and taking into account the complexity of strategies and the influences of contextual factors will allow healthcare practitioners, allergy nutritionists, and caregivers to advise and educate patients more effectively in choosing foods safely. Governmental bodies and policy makers could also benefit from an understanding of these food choice strategies when risk management policies are designed and developed.

  17. Strategy for recruitment and factors associated with motivation and satisfaction in a randomized trial with 210 healthy volunteers without financial compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzurier, Quentin; Damm, Cédric; Lion, Fabien; Daniel, Carine; Pellerin, Lucille; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-05

    The aim was to describe a strategy for recruitment of healthy volunteers (HV) to a randomized trial that assessed the efficacy of different telephone techniques to assist HV in performing cardiac massage for vital emergency. Participation in the randomized trial was not financially compensated, however HV were offered emergency first-aid training. We also studied factors associated with HV motivation and satisfaction regarding participation in the trial. Strategy for recruitment of 210 HV aged 18 to 60 years was based on: (1) the updated records of all telephone number since January 2000 of HV registered in the Rouen Clinical Investigation Centre HV database, (2) a communication campaign for the general public focussing on posters and media advertisements. Data on the recruitment, socio-demographics, motivation and satisfaction of the 210 HV were collected by anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Of the 210 HV included, 63.3% (n = 133) were recruited from the HV database and 36.7% (n = 77) by the communication campaign. On the one hand, the HV database enabled screening of 1315 HV, 54.8% (n = 721) of whom were reached by phone, 55.2% (n = 398) of these latter accepted to participate in the study and 10.1% of the initial screening (n = 133) were finally included. One the other hand, for the 77 HV not recruited from the HV database, word-of-mouth (56.1%) was the main means of recruitment. The male/female ratio of the 210 HV was 0.5 and mean age 43.5 years (Standard Deviation = 12.4). The main motivations given for participating in the trial were to support research (87.6%) and receive emergency first-aid training (85.7%). Overall satisfaction with the welcome process was significantly higher for older HV (46-60 years) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.44; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.48-7.99), and for HV in management jobs (AOR: 4.26; 95% CI: 1.22-14.87). Satisfaction with protocol management was higher for women (AOR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1

  18. An Innovative Strategy for Accurate Thermal Compensation of Gyro Bias in Inertial Units by Exploiting a Novel Augmented Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Fontanella

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative model for integrating thermal compensation of gyro bias error into an augmented state Kalman filter. The developed model is applied in the Zero Velocity Update filter for inertial units manufactured by exploiting Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS gyros. It is used to remove residual bias at startup. It is a more effective alternative to traditional approach that is realized by cascading bias thermal correction by calibration and traditional Kalman filtering for bias tracking. This function is very useful when adopted gyros are manufactured using MEMS technology. These systems have significant limitations in terms of sensitivity to environmental conditions. They are characterized by a strong correlation of the systematic error with temperature variations. The traditional process is divided into two separated algorithms, i.e., calibration and filtering, and this aspect reduces system accuracy, reliability, and maintainability. This paper proposes an innovative Zero Velocity Update filter that just requires raw uncalibrated gyro data as input. It unifies in a single algorithm the two steps from the traditional approach. Therefore, it saves time and economic resources, simplifying the management of thermal correction process. In the paper, traditional and innovative Zero Velocity Update filters are described in detail, as well as the experimental data set used to test both methods. The performance of the two filters is compared both in nominal conditions and in the typical case of a residual initial alignment bias. In this last condition, the innovative solution shows significant improvements with respect to the traditional approach. This is the typical case of an aircraft or a car in parking conditions under solar input.

  19. An Innovative Strategy for Accurate Thermal Compensation of Gyro Bias in Inertial Units by Exploiting a Novel Augmented Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Rita; Accardo, Domenico; Moriello, Rosario Schiano Lo; Angrisani, Leopoldo; Simone, Domenico De

    2018-05-07

    This paper presents an innovative model for integrating thermal compensation of gyro bias error into an augmented state Kalman filter. The developed model is applied in the Zero Velocity Update filter for inertial units manufactured by exploiting Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyros. It is used to remove residual bias at startup. It is a more effective alternative to traditional approach that is realized by cascading bias thermal correction by calibration and traditional Kalman filtering for bias tracking. This function is very useful when adopted gyros are manufactured using MEMS technology. These systems have significant limitations in terms of sensitivity to environmental conditions. They are characterized by a strong correlation of the systematic error with temperature variations. The traditional process is divided into two separated algorithms, i.e., calibration and filtering, and this aspect reduces system accuracy, reliability, and maintainability. This paper proposes an innovative Zero Velocity Update filter that just requires raw uncalibrated gyro data as input. It unifies in a single algorithm the two steps from the traditional approach. Therefore, it saves time and economic resources, simplifying the management of thermal correction process. In the paper, traditional and innovative Zero Velocity Update filters are described in detail, as well as the experimental data set used to test both methods. The performance of the two filters is compared both in nominal conditions and in the typical case of a residual initial alignment bias. In this last condition, the innovative solution shows significant improvements with respect to the traditional approach. This is the typical case of an aircraft or a car in parking conditions under solar input.

  20. Comparison of individual pitch and smart rotor control strategies for load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, C.; Leithead, W.; Jamieson, P.; Bossanyi, E.; Graham, M.

    2014-06-01

    Load reduction is increasingly seen as an essential part of controller and wind turbine design. On large multi-MW wind turbines that experience high levels of wind shear and turbulence across the rotor, individual pitch control and smart rotor control are being considered. While individual pitch control involves adjusting the pitch of each blade individually to reduce the cyclic loadings on the rotor, smart rotor control involves activating control devices distributed along the blades to alter the local aerodynamics of the blades. Here we investigate the effectiveness of using a DQ-axis control and a distributed (independent) control for both individual pitch and trailing edge flap smart rotor control. While load reductions are similar amongst the four strategies across a wide range of variables, including blade root bending moments, yaw bearing and shaft, the pitch actuator requirements vary. The smart rotor pitch actuator has reduced travel, rates, accelerations and power requirements than that of the individual pitch controlled wind turbines. This benefit alone however would be hard to justify the added design complexities of using a smart rotor, which can be seen as an alternative to upgrading the pitch actuator and bearing. In addition, it is found that the independent control strategy is apt at roles that the collective pitch usually targets, such as tower motion and speed control, and it is perhaps here, in supplementing other systems, that the future of the smart rotor lies.

  1. Comparison of individual pitch and smart rotor control strategies for load reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumley, C; Leithead, W; Jamieson, P; Bossanyi, E; Graham, M

    2014-01-01

    Load reduction is increasingly seen as an essential part of controller and wind turbine design. On large multi-MW wind turbines that experience high levels of wind shear and turbulence across the rotor, individual pitch control and smart rotor control are being considered. While individual pitch control involves adjusting the pitch of each blade individually to reduce the cyclic loadings on the rotor, smart rotor control involves activating control devices distributed along the blades to alter the local aerodynamics of the blades. Here we investigate the effectiveness of using a DQ-axis control and a distributed (independent) control for both individual pitch and trailing edge flap smart rotor control. While load reductions are similar amongst the four strategies across a wide range of variables, including blade root bending moments, yaw bearing and shaft, the pitch actuator requirements vary. The smart rotor pitch actuator has reduced travel, rates, accelerations and power requirements than that of the individual pitch controlled wind turbines. This benefit alone however would be hard to justify the added design complexities of using a smart rotor, which can be seen as an alternative to upgrading the pitch actuator and bearing. In addition, it is found that the independent control strategy is apt at roles that the collective pitch usually targets, such as tower motion and speed control, and it is perhaps here, in supplementing other systems, that the future of the smart rotor lies

  2. Effects of EFL Individual Learner Variables on Foreign Language Reading Anxiety and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Hsin-Yi

    2016-08-01

    Past research has shown an association between foreign language reading anxiety and reading strategy. However, individual variables tend to affect foreign language anxiety and strategy use. The present study examined a hypothesized model that specified direct and indirect effects among English and foreign languages readers' distinct variables, including academic level; self-perceived English level; and satisfaction with reading proficiency, reading anxiety, and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. A total of 523 volunteer Taiwanese college students provided 372 valid responses to a written questionnaire (281 women and 91 men; M age = 19.7 years, SD = 1.1) containing the translated versions of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale, Survey of Reading Strategies Inventory, and self-assessment background questionnaire. The results showed that self-evaluation of reading proficiency did not correlate with academic level and readers' perceptions. Satisfaction had a direct effect on foreign language reading anxiety but not on metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Results of path analysis demonstrated that the perception learners who had their own reading proficiency predicted their foreign language reading anxiety and was a mediating variable for metacognitive reading strategy use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Core Self-Evaluations and Individual Strategies of Coping with Unemployment among Displaced Spanish Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkes, Tihana; Maslić Seršić, Darja; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2017-10-30

    Unemployment has negative but also positive effects on mental health and general well-being depending on which coping strategies the individual use. Our aim was to determine the contribution of core self-evaluations in explaining the coping strategies of job search and job devaluation, as well as to test the potential moderation effect of job search and mediation effect of job devaluation on the relationship between self core-evaluations and both positive and negative experience of unemployment. One hundred seventy-eight individuals who lost their jobs involuntarily for a longer period than one month completed a questionnaire while attending to employment office. Results show that there is a significant relation between core-self evaluations and job devaluation (.37**). Furthermore, core-self evaluations were positively related to positive experience of unemployment (r = .31; p unemployment (r = .60; p unemployment strategies (job devaluation; β = .26; p unemployment. But, individuals with a longer duration of the current period of unemployment and higher core self-evaluations had a more positive experience of unemployment, and job devaluation partially mediated this relation (SE = .002; p = .038). These results imply that programs interventions should include the improvement of core self-evaluations and the positive experience of unemployed people.

  4. Development of Communication Strategies for the Marketing of Electronic Banking Services for Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunas Natalia V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to study the trends in the development of communication strategies for the marketing of electronic banking services for individuals by studying the foreign experience in Digital Banking, as well as the situation in the Ukrainian banking market. There offered a comparative characteristic of banking systems of electronic banking services for clients with the purpose of working out flexible methodological approaches for the development of marketing communication strategies for remote client servicing. The characteristic features of electronic banking services and technologies in Ukraine are determined. Comparative evaluation of positive aspects and risks of remote electronic banking systems for banks as well as their client segment is conducted. Analytical aspects of the sociological survey of European banks regarding the selection of the most important priorities of the marketing strategies of financial institutions for 2017 are presented. Also the main factors determining the development of marketing communications of banks and their clients in the field of electronic payments both in Ukraine and abroad are identified. Modern directions of development of communication strategies of marketing of electronic banking services for individuals in Ukraine are proposed.

  5. Changing Conceptions of Employee Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Hayes, Linda J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses many differing forms of incentive compensation systems that are being used in today's organizations. The review traces the roots of bonus compensation from individual piece-work plans through the adoption of organization-wide gain sharing plans to the growing recognition of open-book management. Reasons for the…

  6. Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Listrik Dinamik menggunakan Strategi Pembelajaran Team Assisted Individualization melalui Simulasi Crocodile Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Gumrowi

    2016-04-01

    through physics crocodile simulation. This study was conducted in three cycles. The results of analysis show that cooperative learning strategies type Team Assisted Individualization through crocodile physics simulations can improve learning outcomes on dynamic electricity. The average of students’ learning outcomes increased as follows: the first cycle is 61.23, and 68.13 in the second cycle, an increase of 11.27%, and the third cycle result is 72.63, or an increase of 6.6%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar listrik dinamik siswa MAN 1 Bandar Lampung dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Team Assisted Individualization (TAI. melalui simulasi Crocodile physics. Objek penelitian ini adalah hasil belajar siswa pada pokok bahasan listrik dinamik dengan model pembelajaran kooperatif Tipe TAI (team assisted individualization melalui simulasi Crocodile physics. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan selama tiga siklus, dari hasil analisis diperoleh bahwa strategi pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Team Assisted Individualization melalui simulasi crocodile physics dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar listrik dinamik. Rata-rata hasil belajar siswa meningkat pada siklus I dari 61,23 menjadi 68,13 pada siklus II atau meningkat 11,27%, pada siklus III 72,63 atau meningkat 6,6% Kata Kunci: cooperatif tipe TAI, listrik dinamik, simulasi crocodile physics

  7. Individual differences in foraging strategies of parasitic sabre-tooth blennies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bshary

    Full Text Available Originally, evolutionary game theory typically predicted that optimal behaviour in a given situation is uniform or bimodal. However, the growing evidence that animals behave more variably while individuals may differ consistently in their behaviour, has led to the development of models that predict a distribution of strategies. Here we support the importance of such models in a study on a coral reef fish host-parasite system. Parasitic blennies (Plagiotremus sp. regularly attack other fishes to bite off scales and mucus. Individuals of some victim species react to being bitten with punishing the parasite through aggressive chasing. Our field observations and laboratory experiments show that individual blennies differ markedly in how they incorporate being punished into their foraging decisions. We discuss how these differences may affect the payoff structure and hence the net effect of punishment on punishers and on the appearance of a public good for look-alikes.

  8. Thalamic functional connectivity predicts seizure laterality in individual TLE patients: Application of a biomarker development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Barron

    2015-01-01

    No significant differences in functional connection strength in patient and control groups were observed with Mann-Whitney Tests (corrected for multiple comparisons. Notwithstanding the lack of group differences, individual patient difference scores (from control mean connection strength successfully predicted seizure onset zone as shown in ROC curves: discriminant analysis (two-dimensional predicted seizure onset zone with 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity; logistic regression (four-dimensional achieved 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The strongest markers in both analyses were left thalamo-hippocampal and right thalamo-entorhinal cortex functional connection strength. Thus, this study shows that thalamic functional connections are sensitive and specific markers of seizure onset laterality in individual temporal lobe epilepsy patients. This study also advances an overall strategy for the programmatic development of neuroimaging biomarkers in clinical and genetic populations: a disease model informed by coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to anatomically constrain individual patient analyses.

  9. Effective Reading Comprehension in EFL Contexts: Individual and Collaborative Concept Mapping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Riahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to investigate the possible impacts of Individual Concept Mapping (ICM and Collaborative Concept Mapping (CCM strategies on Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension. For this purpose, 90 pre-intermediate female language learners ranged between 12 to 17 years of age were selected to randomly assign into ICM, CCM and Control groups in this study. After taking Key English Test (KET, the ICM and CCM groups received EFL reading materials presented and practiced with ICM and CCM strategies, respectively, while the Control group received only conventional instructions to reading comprehension. After conducting the treatment, all participants took a Concept Mapping post-test constructed by the researchers. The hypothetical assumptions in this study were in favor of ICM and CCM strategies to improve the Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Statistics supported the outperformance of the ICM and CCM groups comparing to Control group who received convention PPP teaching techniques on Concept Mapping post-test. However, the superiority of neither strategies was statistically proved so that no meaningful difference between the reading comprehension of the ICM and CCM groups were detected. Therefore, the researchers failed to determine which strategy caused a better or higher impact. Some pedagogical implications and recommended topics for further research were provided to the motivated researchers.

  10. Trunk, pelvis and hip biomechanics in individuals with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: Strategies for step ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Laura E; Bennell, Kim L; Wrigley, Tim V; Hinman, Rana S; Hall, Michelle; O'Donnell, John; Hodges, Paul W

    2018-03-01

    Femoroacetabular impingment (FAI) syndrome is common among young active adults and a proposed risk factor for the future development of hip osteoarthritis. Pain is dominant and drives clinical decision-making. Evidence for altered hip joint function in this patient population is inconsistent, making the identification of treatment targets challenging. A broader assessment, considering adjacent body segments (i.e. pelvis, trunk) and individual movement strategies, may better inform treatment programs. This exploratory study aimed to compare trunk, pelvis, and hip biomechanics during step ascent between individuals with and without FAI syndrome. Fifteen participants diagnosed with symptomatic cam-type or combined (cam plus pincer) FAI who were scheduled for arthroscopic surgery, and 11 age-, and sex-comparable pain- and disease-free individuals, underwent three-dimensional motion analysis during a step ascent task. Trunk, pelvis and hip biomechanics were compared between groups. Participants with FAI syndrome exhibited altered ipsilateral trunk lean and pelvic rise towards the symptomatic side during single-leg support compared to controls. Alterations were not uniformly adopted across all individuals with FAI syndrome; those who exhibited more pronounced alterations to frontal plane pelvis control tended to report pain during the task. There were minimal between-group differences for hip biomechanics. Exploratory data suggest biomechanics at the trunk and pelvis during step ascent differ between individuals with and without FAI syndrome. Those with FAI syndrome implement a range of proximal strategies for task completion, some of which may have relevance for rehabilitation. Longitudinal investigations of larger cohorts are required to evaluate hypothesized clinical and structural consequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Eye movements provide insight into individual differences in children's analogical reasoning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ariel; Vendetti, Michael S; Bunge, Silvia A

    2018-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is considered a key driver of cognitive development and is a strong predictor of academic achievement. However, it is difficult for young children, who are prone to focusing on perceptual and semantic similarities among items rather than relational commonalities. For example, in a classic A:B::C:? propositional analogy task, children must inhibit attention towards items that are visually or semantically similar to C, and instead focus on finding a relational match to the A:B pair. Competing theories of reasoning development attribute improvements in children's performance to gains in either executive functioning or semantic knowledge. Here, we sought to identify key drivers of the development of analogical reasoning ability by using eye gaze patterns to infer problem-solving strategies used by six-year-old children and adults. Children had a greater tendency than adults to focus on the immediate task goal and constrain their search based on the C item. However, large individual differences existed within children, and more successful reasoners were able to maintain the broader goal in mind and constrain their search by initially focusing on the A:B pair before turning to C and the response choices. When children adopted this strategy, their attention was drawn more readily to the correct response option. Individual differences in children's reasoning ability were also related to rule-guided behavior but not to semantic knowledge. These findings suggest that both developmental improvements and individual differences in performance are driven by the use of more efficient reasoning strategies regarding which information is prioritized from the start, rather than the ability to disengage from attractive lure items. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Communicative Strategies Used by Spouses of Individuals with Communication Disorders Related to Stroke-Induced Aphasia and Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    Background: A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative…

  13. Analysis on the Operation Strategy of the 220kV External Transmission Channel for the Nujiang Power Grid after the Installation of Series Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxin; Feng, Peilei; Jan, Lisheng; Dai, Xiaozhong; Cai, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, Nujiang Prefecture vigorously develop hydropower, the grid structure in the northwest of Yunnan Province is not perfect, which leads to the research and construction of the power grid lags behind the development of the hydropower. In 2015, the company in view of the nu river hydropower dilemma decided to change outside the nu river to send out a passage with series compensation device in order to improve the transmission capacity, the company to the main problems related to the system plan, but not too much in the region distribution network and detailed study. Nujiang power grid has unique structure and properties of the nujiang power grid after respectively, a whole rack respectively into two parts, namely power delivery channels, load power supply, the whole grid occurred fundamental changes, the original strategy of power network is not applicable, especially noteworthy is the main failure after network of independent operation problem, how to avoid the local series, emergency problem is more urgent, very tolerance test area power grid, this paper aims at the analysis of existing data, simulation, provide a reference for respectively after the operation for the stable operation of the power grid.

  14. The Role of Individual Differences and Situational Variables in the Use of Workplace Sexual Identity Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Louren; Leuty, Melanie E

    2016-07-01

    Examination of individual difference variables have been largely ignored within research on the use of workplace sexual identity management strategies. The current study examined personality traits (extraversion, openness, and neuroticism), facets of sexual identity development (identity confusion, internalized heterosexism), and situational variables (e.g., perceptions of workplace climate and heterosexism) in explaining the use of management strategies, as well as possible interactions between individual and situational factors. Perceptions of the workplace climate toward lesbian and gay individuals significantly related to the use each of the management strategies, and Internalized Heterosexism was found to significantly predict the use of the Explicitly Out strategy. Most interactions between individual difference and situational variables were not supported, with the exception of an interaction between workplace heterosexism and internalized homophobia in explaining the use of the Explicitly Out strategy.

  15. Aeromagnetic Compensation for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naprstek, T.; Lee, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aeromagnetic data is one of the most widely collected types of data in exploration geophysics. With the continuing prevalence of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in everyday life there is a strong push for aeromagnetic data collection using UAVs. However, apart from the many political and legal barriers to overcome in the development of UAVs as aeromagnetic data collection platforms, there are also significant scientific hurdles, primary of which is magnetic compensation. This is a well-established process in manned aircraft achieved through a combination of platform magnetic de-noising and compensation routines. However, not all of this protocol can be directly applied to UAVs due to fundamental differences in the platforms, most notably the decrease in scale causing magnetometers to be significantly closer to the avionics. As such, the methodology must be suitably adjusted. The National Research Council of Canada has collaborated with Aeromagnetic Solutions Incorporated to develop a standardized approach to de-noising and compensating UAVs, which is accomplished through a series of static and dynamic experiments. On the ground, small static tests are conducted on individual components to determine their magnetization. If they are highly magnetic, they are removed, demagnetized, or characterized such that they can be accounted for in the compensation. Dynamic tests can include measuring specific components as they are powered on and off to assess their potential effect on airborne data. The UAV is then flown, and a modified compensation routine is applied. These modifications include utilizing onboard autopilot current sensors as additional terms in the compensation algorithm. This process has been applied with success to fixed-wing and rotary-wing platforms, with both a standard manned-aircraft magnetometer, as well as a new atomic magnetometer, much smaller in scale.

  16. Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats as a Tool for Translating Evidence into Individualized Medical Strategies (I-SWOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Bernhardt, Alexander M; Robinson, Peter N; Kölbel, Tilo; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Debus, Sebastian; Detter, Christian

    2015-06-01

    It is the physicians' task to translate evidence and guidelines into medical strategies for individual patients. Until today, however, there is no formal tool that is instrumental to perform this translation. We introduce the analysis of strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) related to therapy with opportunities (O) and threats (T) related to individual patients as a tool to establish an individualized (I) medical strategy (I-SWOT). The I-SWOT matrix identifies four fundamental types of strategy. These comprise "SO" maximizing strengths and opportunities, "WT" minimizing weaknesses and threats, "WO" minimizing weaknesses and maximizing opportunities, and "ST" maximizing strengths and minimizing threats. Each distinct type of strategy may be considered for individualized medical strategies. We describe four steps of I-SWOT to establish an individualized medical strategy to treat aortic disease. In the first step, we define the goal of therapy and identify all evidence-based therapeutic options. In a second step, we assess strengths and weaknesses of each therapeutic option in a SW matrix form. In a third step, we assess opportunities and threats related to the individual patient, and in a final step, we use the I-SWOT matrix to establish an individualized medical strategy through matching "SW" with "OT". As an example we present two 30-year-old patients with Marfan syndrome with identical medical history and aortic pathology. As a result of I-SWOT analysis of their individual opportunities and threats, we identified two distinct medical strategies in these patients. I-SWOT is a formal but easy to use tool to translate medical evidence into individualized medical strategies.

  17. Advanced-stage III/IV follicular lymphoma. Treatment strategies for individual patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, Frank; Bamberg, Michael; Weinmann, Martin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Ottinger, Hellmut [Dept. of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Engelhard, Marianne [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Soekler, Martin [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Background: in patients with advanced-stage III/IV follicular lymphoma (FL), there are many treatment options available. The current challenge is to choose the optimal strategy for the individual patient. Methods: the literature was reviewed with respect to treatment strategies in patients with advanced FL by screening the PubMed databank. Results: in advanced-stage III/IV FL, median survival may approach 8-10 years. Treatment strategies include a watch-and-wait strategy, chemoimmunotherapy, monotherapy with rituximab, and - as an experimental approach so far - radioimmunotherapy. The use of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for patients in first remission or chemosensitive relapse prolongs progression-free survival while the effect on overall survival remains unclear compared to standard chemotherapy. However, long-term results are flawed by high relapse rates and risk of secondary malignancies. In patients with relapsed/chemoresistant disease, allogeneic HSCT constitutes the only curative approach but is associated with high treatment-related mortality. In the palliative setting, low-dose involved-field irradiation constitutes an effective treatment option in order to control local symptoms with potential long-lasting response. Conclusion: in case of advanced-disease FL, asymptomatic patients can be managed expectantly. In symptomatic patients, chemoimmunotherapy is regarded as standard therapy. In symptomatic elderly patients with relevant comorbidities, rituximab {+-} single-agent chemotherapy, or low-dose involved-field radiotherapy might be appropriate. For younger patients with chemoresistant/relapsed disease, allogeneic HSCT might be considered, since advances in supportive care and better patient selection have resulted in improved outcomes. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of retinal sensitivity using a time-saving strategy in normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzumura H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hirotaka Suzumura,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Ryoko Hyodo,4 Tairo Kimura5 1Eye Department, Nakano General Hospital, Tokyo, 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University, Ehime, 4Eye Department, Minami Matsuyama Hospital, Ehime, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare retinal sensitivities in normal individuals obtained using the Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm Standard (SITA-S on the Humphrey field analyzer with those obtained using the Dynamic strategy on the Octopus.Methods: Prior to visual field examinations, the background luminance, stimulus size, and exposure time with the Octopus 101 were conformed to the Humphrey field analyzer II settings. Volunteers over 20 years of age without apparent ophthalmic abnormalities were examined with the SITA-S central 30-2 program followed by the Dynamic 32 program. Eye with corrected visual acuity ≥0.8, refraction ≥ −6.0 diopters, and fields with satisfactory levels of reliability in SITA-S and Dynamic were selected.Results: Sixty-seven eyes from 67 normal individuals of mean age 51.3 ± 16.3 (range 22–76 years satisfied the selection criteria and were analyzed. Mean retinal sensitivity was significantly (P < 0.0001 higher with SITA-S (29.0 ± 2.4 dB than with Dynamic (26.8 ± 2.1 dB. Changes in retinal sensitivity with increasing age were significantly (P = 0.0003 greater with Dynamic (−0.09 ± 0.04 dB/year; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.10 to −0.08 dB/year than with SITA-S (−0.07 ± 0.04 dB/year, 95% CI −0.08 to −0.06 dB/year. When classifying the visual field into three areas (central, mid-peripheral, and peripheral, retinal sensitivities with SITA-S were significantly higher in all areas than with Dynamic (P < 0.0001 for all three areas.Conclusion: Differences in Dynamic and SITA-S strategies may contribute to the differences in retinal sensitivities observed in normal individuals

  19. Nutritional strategies to boost immunity and prevent infection in elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, K P

    2001-12-01

    Older adults are at risk for malnutrition, which may contribute to their increased risk of infection. Nutritional supplementation strategies can reduce this risk and reverse some of the immune dysfunction associated with advanced age. This review discusses nutritional interventions that have been examined in clinical trials of older adults. The data support use of a daily multivitamin or trace-mineral supplement that includes zinc (elemental zinc, >20 mg/day) and selenium (100 microg/day), with additional vitamin E, to achieve a daily dosage of 200 mg/day. Specific syndromes may also be addressed by nutritional interventions (for example, cranberry juice consumption to reduce urinary tract infections) and may reduce antibiotic use in older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities. Drug-nutrient interactions are common in elderly individuals, and care providers should be aware of these interactions. Future research should evaluate important clinical end points rather than merely surrogate markers of immunity.

  20. Social dilemmas and individual/group coordination strategies in a complex rural land-use game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García-Barrios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening ongoing bottom-up capacity building processes for local and sustainable landscape-level governance is a multi-dimensional social endeavor. One of the tasks involved – participatory rural land use planning – requires more understanding and more awareness among all stakeholders regarding the social dilemmas local people confront when responding to each other’s land-use decisions. In this paper we will analyze and discuss a version of our game SIERRA SPRINGS that is simple to play for any stakeholder that can count to 24, yet entails a complex-coordination land use game – with an extensive and yet finite set of solutions – which can mimic in a stylized form some of the dilemmas landowners could confront in a landscape planning process where there livelihoods are at stake. The game has helped researchers and players observe and reflect on the individual coordination strategies that emerge within a group in response to these stylized dilemmas. This paper (1 develops a game-theoretical approach to cooperation, competition and coordination of land uses in small rural watersheds, (2 describe the goal, rules and mechanics of the game, (3 analyzes the structure of each farms’ solution set vs. the whole watershed’s solution set, (4 derives from them the coordination dilemmas and the risk of coordination failure, (5 describes four individual coordination strategies consistently displayed by players; mapping them in a plane we have called Group-Level Coordination Space, and (6 discusses the strengths, limitations and actual and potential uses of the game both for research and as an introductory tool for stakeholders involved in participatory land use planning.

  1. A systemic framework for managing e-learning adoption in campus universities: individual strategies in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Russell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are hopes that new learning technologies will help to transform university learning and teaching into a more engaging experience for twenty-first-century students. But since 2000 the changes in campus university teaching have been more limited than expected. I have drawn on ideas from organisational change management research to investigate why this is happening in one particular campus university context. My study examines the strategies of individual lecturers for adopting e-learning within their disciplinary, departmental and university work environments to develop a conceptual framework for analysing university learning and teaching as a complex adaptive system. This conceptual framework links the processes through which university teaching changes, the resulting forms of learning activity and the learning technologies used – all within the organisational context of the university. The framework suggests that systemic transformation of a university's learning and teaching requires coordinated change across activities that have traditionally been managed separately in campus universities. Without such coordination, established ways of organising learning and teaching will reassert themselves, as support staff and lecturers seek to optimise their own work locally. The conceptual framework could inform strategies for realising the full benefits of new learning technologies in other campus universities.

  2. Individual Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Santurette

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR, held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium.

  3. Unbending mind: Individuals with hoarding disorder do not modify decision strategy in response to feedback under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarskaya, Helen; Tolin, David F; Henick, Daniel; Levy, Ifat; Pittenger, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models of hoarding disorder emphasize impairments in information processing and decision making in the genesis of hoarding symptomology. We propose and test the novel hypothesis that individuals with hoarding are maladaptively biased towards a deliberative decision style. While deliberative strategies are often considered normative, they are not always adaptable to the limitations imposed by many real-world decision contexts. We examined decision-making patterns in 19 individuals with hoarding and 19 healthy controls, using a behavioral task that quantifies selection of decision strategies in a novel environment with known probabilities (risk) in response to feedback. Consistent with prior literature, we found that healthy individuals tend to explore different decision strategies in the beginning of the experiment, but later, in response to feedback, they shift towards a compound strategy that balances expected values and risks. In contrast, individuals with hoarding follow a simple, deliberative, risk-neutral, value-based strategy from the beginning to the end of the task, irrespective of the feedback. This seemingly rational approach was not ecologically rational: individuals with hoarding and healthy individuals earned about the same amount of money, but it took individuals with hoarding a lot longer to do it: additional cognitive costs did not lead to additional benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thalamic functional connectivity predicts seizure laterality in individual TLE patients: application of a biomarker development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel S; Fox, Peter T; Pardoe, Heath; Lancaster, Jack; Price, Larry R; Blackmon, Karen; Berry, Kristen; Cavazos, Jose E; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive markers of brain function could yield biomarkers in many neurological disorders. Disease models constrained by coordinate-based meta-analysis are likely to increase this yield. Here, we evaluate a thalamic model of temporal lobe epilepsy that we proposed in a coordinate-based meta-analysis and extended in a diffusion tractography study of an independent patient population. Specifically, we evaluated whether thalamic functional connectivity (resting-state fMRI-BOLD) with temporal lobe areas can predict seizure onset laterality, as established with intracranial EEG. Twenty-four lesional and non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. No significant differences in functional connection strength in patient and control groups were observed with Mann-Whitney Tests (corrected for multiple comparisons). Notwithstanding the lack of group differences, individual patient difference scores (from control mean connection strength) successfully predicted seizure onset zone as shown in ROC curves: discriminant analysis (two-dimensional) predicted seizure onset zone with 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity; logistic regression (four-dimensional) achieved 86% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The strongest markers in both analyses were left thalamo-hippocampal and right thalamo-entorhinal cortex functional connection strength. Thus, this study shows that thalamic functional connections are sensitive and specific markers of seizure onset laterality in individual temporal lobe epilepsy patients. This study also advances an overall strategy for the programmatic development of neuroimaging biomarkers in clinical and genetic populations: a disease model informed by coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to anatomically constrain individual patient analyses.

  5. Behavioural strategies towards human disturbances explain individual performance in woodland caribou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Martin; Dussault, Christian; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues

    2014-09-01

    Behavioural strategies may have important fitness, ecological and evolutionary consequences. In woodland caribou, human disturbances are associated with higher predation risk. Between 2004 and 2011, we investigated if habitat selection strategies of female caribou towards disturbances influenced their calf's survival in managed boreal forest with varying intensities of human disturbances. Calf survival was 53% and 43% after 30 and 90 days following birth, respectively, and 52% of calves that died were killed by black bear. The probability that a female lose its calf to predation was not influenced by habitat composition of her annual home range, but decreased with an increase in proportion of open lichen woodland within her calving home range. At the local scale, females that did not lose their calf displayed stronger avoidance of high road density areas than females that lost their calf to predation. Further, females that lost their calf to predation and that had a low proportion of ≤5-year-old cutovers within their calving home range were mostly observed in areas where these young cutovers were locally absent. Also, females that lost their calf to predation and that had a high proportion of ≤5-year-old cutovers within their calving home range were mostly observed in areas with a high local density of ≤5-year-old cutovers. Our study demonstrates that we have to account for human-induced disturbances at both local and regional scales in order to further enhance effective caribou management plans. We demonstrate that disturbances not only impact spatial distribution of individuals, but also their reproductive success.

  6. A descriptive report of management strategies used by chiropractors, as reviewed by a single independent chiropractic consultant in the Australian workers compensation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luca Katie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In New South Wales, Australia, an injured worker enters the workers compensation system with the case often managed by a pre-determined insurer. The goal of the treating practitioner is to facilitate the claimant to return to suitable duties and progress to their pre-injury status, job and quality of life. Currently, there is very little documentation on the management of injured workers by chiropractors in the Australian healthcare setting. This study aims to examine treatment protocols and recommendations given to chiropractic practitioners by one independent chiropractic reviewer in the state of New South Wales, and to discuss management strategies recommended for the injured worker. Methods A total of 146 consecutive Independent Chiropractic Consultant reports were collated into a database. Pain information and management recommendations made by the Independent Chiropractic Consultant were tabulated and analysed for trends. The data formulated from the reports is purely descriptive in nature. Results The Independent Chiropractic Consultant determined the current treatment plan to be "reasonable" (80.1% or "unreasonable" (23.6%. The consultant recommended to "phase out" treatment in 74.6% of cases, with an average of six remaining treatments. In eight cases treatment was unreasonable with no further treatment; in five cases treatment was reasonable with no further treatment. In 78.6% of cases, injured workers were to be discharged from treatment and 21.4% were to be reassessed for the need of a further treatment plan. Additional recommendations for treatment included an active care program (95.2%, general fitness program (77.4%, flexibility/range of movement exercises (54.1%, referral to a chronic pain specialist (50.7% and work hardening program (22.6%. Conclusion It is essential chiropractic practitioners perform 'reasonably necessary treatment' to reduce dependency on passive treatment, increase compliance to active

  7. Coping strategies in individuals at risk and not at risk of mobile phone addiction

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    Dziurzyńska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide an answer to the question of whether, and what, differences in stress coping strategies could be found between university students at risk and those not at risk of mobile phone addiction. The study included 408 students aged 19 to 28 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mobile Phone Addiction Assessment Questionnaire (in Polish, Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Telefonu Komórkowego, KBUTK by Pawłowska and Potembska, and the Coping with Stress Questionnaire (SVF by Janke, Erdmann, and Boucsein, translated into Polish by Januszewska. The results of the study showed that individuals at risk of mobile phone addiction were more likely to cope with stress by seeking substitute gratification, reacting with resignation, passivity, dejection and hopelessness, blaming themselves, pitying themselves and looking for support. They also tended to ruminate over their suffering, withdraw from social interactions, react with aggression and/or take to drinking.

  8. Study on financial risk towards individual investor as strategy to improve urban community empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, F. M.; Aprilia, A.

    2018-01-01

    Investor will be always influenced by its risk tolerance when investing, each investor has own risk tolerance that differ to another, although this still being questioned until now. This research aimed to know the influence of demography factor in distinguish and classify Financial Risk Tolerance (FRT) and Financial Risk Taking Behavior (FRB) to individual investor. Methodology in this research is data that used as primary data which distributed by offline and online. The sample in this research is 642 respondents in Jakarta. Logistic regression is analyze method that used in this research. The research found that there is influence of gender, marital, status, education and income level to Financial Risk Tolerance (FRT) and Financial Risk Taking Behavior (FRB). For FRT significantly 0.000 for gender and marital status; 0.010 for education and 0.001 for income level. Whereas for FRB significantly 0.000 for gender; 0.003 for marital status and 0.010 for education level. The research contribution is crucial for financial advisor to notice the characteristic investor based on demography factor such as gender, marital, status, education level and income level. Therefore, this research able to give optional decision for appropriate investment to clients as ones of strategy to improve urban community empowerment.

  9. Giving structure to the biofilm matrix: an overview of individual strategies and emerging common themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Laura; Harkins, Catriona; MacPhee, Cait E; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are communities of microbial cells that underpin diverse processes including sewage bioremediation, plant growth promotion, chronic infections and industrial biofouling. The cells resident in the biofilm are encased within a self-produced exopolymeric matrix that commonly comprises lipids, proteins that frequently exhibit amyloid-like properties, eDNA and exopolysaccharides. This matrix fulfils a variety of functions for the community, from providing structural rigidity and protection from the external environment to controlling gene regulation and nutrient adsorption. Critical to the development of novel strategies to control biofilm infections, or the capability to capitalize on the power of biofilm formation for industrial and biotechnological uses, is an in-depth knowledge of the biofilm matrix. This is with respect to the structure of the individual components, the nature of the interactions between the molecules and the three-dimensional spatial organization. We highlight recent advances in the understanding of the structural and functional role that carbohydrates and proteins play within the biofilm matrix to provide three-dimensional architectural integrity and functionality to the biofilm community. We highlight, where relevant, experimental techniques that are allowing the boundaries of our understanding of the biofilm matrix to be extended using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, and Bacillus subtilis as exemplars. © FEMS 2015.

  10. Novice medical students: individual patterns in the use of learning strategies and how they change during the first academic year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, Götz; Giesler, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Adequate use of different learning strategies is one of the most important prerequisites of academic success. The actual use of learning strategies is the result of an interaction between individual and situational variables. Against this background we conducted a longitudinal study with first year medical students to investigate whether individuals show different patterns in their use of learning strategies and whether these patterns change during the first academic year. Medical students (N=175, 58% female) were surveyed three times in their first academic year regarding their use of learning strategies. A hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward) was conducted in order to identify groups of students with different patterns of learning strategies. We identified four different patterns in approaches to learning among novice medical students ("easy-going", "flexible", "problematic" and "hardworking" learners). Compared to their peers, the problematic learners had the worst final school grades. In addition changes in the use of learning strategies were identified, most of them occurred during the first term. Students start their academic studies with different patterns of learning strategies; the characteristics of these patterns change during the first academic year. Further research is necessary to better understand how individual and situational variables determine students' learning.

  11. When larger brains do not have more neurons: Increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease.

  12. Self-management strategies used by 'high functioning' individuals with bipolar disorder: from research to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Greg; Suto, Melinda; Hole, Rachelle; Hale, Sandra; Amari, Erica; Michalak, Erin E

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex mental illness that results in substantial costs, both at a personal and societal level. Research into BD has been driven by a strongly medical model conception, with a focus upon pathology and dysfunction. Little research to date has focused upon strategies used to maintain or regain wellness in BD. Here, we present results from a qualitative study of self-management strategies used by a Canadian sample of 'high-functioning' individuals with BD. The aims of the present paper are two-fold: (1) To provide a description of the self-management strategies identified as effective by this sample of high functioning individuals and 2) to explore these results from a clinical perspective. High functioning (determined as a score of either 1 or 2 on the objectively-rated Multidimensional Scale of Independent Functioning) individuals with BD type I or II (N = 33) completed quantitative scales to assess depression, mania, psychosocial functioning and quality of life, and underwent either an individual interview or focus group about the self-management strategies they used to maintain or regain wellness. The specific self-management strategies that individuals enacted are contained within the following categories: (1) sleep, diet, rest and exercise; (2) ongoing monitoring; (3) reflective and meditative practices; (4) understanding BD and educating others; (5) connecting to others and (6) enacting a plan. These strategies are discussed in the context of current treatment interventions and research findings, offering clinicians a broad range of potential techniques or tools to assist with their efforts to support individuals with BD in maintaining or regaining wellness. The strategies adopted by a sample of people coping well with their BD show remarkable overlap with the targets of existing adjunctive psychosocial interventions for BD. The clinician can use this information to motivate clients to engage with such strategies. The present

  13. Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yulong; Yu, Hongbo; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people's appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals' perception of others' as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflicted noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner gave money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bore the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner). Results showed that the individuals' preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing noise) affected their relationship (exchange versus communal) with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in general and showed no

  14. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  15. Examining Success of Communication Strategies Used by Formal Caregivers Assisting Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease during an Activity of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how formal (i.e., employed) caregivers' use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the successful completion of an activity of daily living (ADL). Based on the literature, the authors hypothesized that caregivers' use of 1 proposition,…

  16. Individual differences in the effects of emotion regulation strategies : The role of personality and trait affect intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.; Hanser, W.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    This experimental study examined if (1) emotion experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy (suppression, giving in, neutral) when listening to a well-known rock music fragment, and if (2) personality and trait affect intensity can predict individual differences in

  17. The Development of Individual Learners in an L2 Listening Strategies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeldham, Michael; Gruba, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the idiosyncratic development of second language (L2) learners in a listening strategies course. The progress of four Taiwanese EFL learners was examined longitudinally through a variety of quantitative and qualitative techniques as the learners participated in a course combining direct instruction of strategies with their…

  18. Individualized Instruction Strategies in Mainstream Classrooms: Including Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Stephanie R.

    2008-01-01

    This literature review describes research based teaching strategies for general education teachers to provide equal education for students diagnosed with autism. General education classrooms are often made up of students with a broad spectrum of abilities, and it is the teacher's job to meet the needs of those students. Strategies addressed in…

  19. The Development of Strategy Use in Elementary School Children: Working Memory and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbo, Ineke; Vandierendonck, Andre

    2007-01-01

    The current study tested the development of working memory involvement in children's arithmetic strategy selection and strategy efficiency. To this end, an experiment in which the dual-task method and the choice/no-choice method were combined was administered to 10- to 12-year-olds. Working memory was needed in retrieval, transformation, and…

  20. Technical Analysis in Forex : A Strategy for Individual Trader in Intra-Day Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Miikka

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the thesis was to create a simple and profitable strategy for Foreign Exchange Market (forex) currency trading. Forex is an interesting international market, which is becom-ing globally more and more popular. The author has a strong interest in forex and he had no-ticed how many trading strategies are very complicated and difficult to use. The meaning was to study what kind of simple trading strategy would be profitable in forex. The target of the study was intra-day traders, who ...

  1. The Effectiveness of Group Training of Procedural Emotion Regulation Strategies in Cognitive Coping of Individuals Suffering Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali ghaedniay jahromi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies in cognitive coping of individuals suffering substance abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for this study. Then, 16 patients suffering substance abuse were selected through convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to two control and experimental groups. The experimental group received 10 sessions of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies while the control group received no treatment. Both groups before and after the treatment completed the Persian version of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (Hasani, 2011. Results: The results showed that group training of e procedural motion regulation strategies leads to a reduction in maladaptive strategies such as self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, and other-blame and an increase in adaptive strategies such as refocus on planning, positive reappraisal, and perspective development. Conclusion: Training of procedural emotion regulation strategies via the reduction of maladaptive and increase of adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies can provide the opportunity for the improvement and non-return to substance abuse.

  2. Variation in habitat choice and delayed reproduction: Adaptive queuing strategies or individual quality differences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Pol, M.; Pen, I.; Heg, D.; Weissing, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    In most species, some individuals delay reproduction or occupy inferior breeding positions. The queue hypothesis tries to explain both patterns by proposing that individuals strategically delay breeding (queue) to acquire better breeding or social positions. In 1995, Ens, Weissing, and Drent

  3. Strength in the Face of Adversity: Resilience Strategies of Transgender Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.; Watson, Laurel S.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological inquiry explored the lived experiences of resilience of 21 transgender individuals. Through individual semistructured interviews (3 interviews each with 5 participants) and 1 focus group interview (16 participants), the authors identified 5 common resiliency themes (evolving a self-generated definition of self, embracing…

  4. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  5. A Comparison of the Habitual Landing Strategies from Differing Drop Heights of Parkour Practitioners (Traceurs) and Recreationally Trained Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Regan J; Maulder, Peter S

    2015-12-01

    Parkour is an activity that encompasses methods of jumping, climbing and vaulting. With landing being a pertinent part of this practise, Parkour participants (traceurs) have devised their own habitual landing strategies, which are suggested to be a safer and more effective style of landing. The purpose of this study was to compare the habitual landing strategies of traceurs and recreationally trained individuals from differing drop heights. Comparisons between landing sound and mechanical parameters were also assessed to gauge the level of landing safety. Ten recreationally trained participants and ten traceurs performed three landings from 25% and 50% body height using their own habitual landing strategies. Results at 25% showed significantly lower maximal vertical force (39.9%, p strike analysis revealed traceurs landed using forefoot or forefoot-midfoot strategies in 93.2% of trials; whereas recreationally trained participants used these styles in only 8.3% of these landings. To conclude, the habitual landings of traceurs are more effective at lowering the kinetic landing variables associated with a higher injury risk in comparison to recreationally trained individuals. Sound as a measure of landing effectiveness and safety holds potential significance; however requires further research to confirm. Key pointsHabitual traceur landings were observed to be safer landing techniques in comparison to those utilised by recreationally trained individuals, due to the lower maximal vertical forces, slower times to maximal vertical force, lesser loading rates and lower maximal sound.Traceurs predominantly landed with the forefoot only, whereas recreationally trained individuals habitually utilised a forefoot to heel landing strategy.The habitual landing techniques performed by traceurs may be beneficial for other landing sports to incorporate into training to reduce injury.

  6. Measurements of Rationality: Individual Differences in Information Processing, the Transitivity of Preferences and Decision Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleboda, Patrycja; Sokolowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to validate the Rational-Experiential Inventory ( REI ) and the Cognitive Reflection Test ( CRT ) through checking their relation to the transitivity axiom. The second goal was to test the relation between decision strategies and cognitive style as well as the relation between decision strategies and the transitivity of preferences. The following characteristics of strategies were investigated: requirements for trade-offs, maximization vs. satisficing and option-wise vs. attribute-wise information processing. Respondents were given choices between two multi-attribute options. The options were designed so that the choice indicated which strategy was applied. Both the REI-R and the CRT were found to be good predictors of the transitivity of preferences. Respondents who applied compensatory strategies and the maximization criterion scored highly on the REI-R and in the CRT , whereas those who applied the satisficing rule scored highly on the REI-R but not in the CRT . Attribute-wise information processing was related to low scores in both measurements. Option-wise information processing led to a high transitivity of preferences.

  7. The impact of societal cultural values and individual social beliefs on the perceived effectiveness of managerial influence strategies: a meso approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, P.P.; Kennedy, J.C.; Tata, J.; Yukl, G.; Bond, M.H.; Peng, T.K.; Srinivas, E.S.; Howell, J.P.; Prieto, L.; Koopman, P.L.; Boonstra, J.J.; Pasa, S.; Lacassagne, M.F.; Higashide, H.; Cheosakul, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a 12-nation study designed to test empirically the relationships between societal cultural values, individual social beliefs, and the perceived effectiveness of different influence strategies. The relationships between three types of broad influence strategy

  8. Self-care management strategies among individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus: nursing interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt CW

    2013-01-01

    Caralise W HuntAuburn University School of Nursing, Auburn, AL, USAAbstract: Nurses provide care for individuals living with diabetes in a variety of areas. Nursing interventions assist individuals living with diabetes to manage diabetes and can positively affect outcomes. This article describes an integrated literature review conducted to evaluate and summarize nursing interventions and research in self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane databa...

  9. Communication Difficulties and the Use of Communication Strategies: From the Perspective of Individuals with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Monica Blom; Carlsson, Marianne; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: To enhance communicative ability and thereby the possibility of increased participation of persons with aphasia, the use of communication strategies has been proposed. However, little is known about how persons with aphasia experience having conversations and how they perceive their own and their conversation partner's use of…

  10. Sociocultural and Individual Influences on Muscle Gain and Weight Loss Strategies among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the role of body dissatisfaction, body image importance, sociocultural influences (media and parent and peer encouragement), self-esteem and negative affect on body change strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles in adolescent boys and girls. Surveys were administered to 587 boys and 598 girls aged between 11 and 15…

  11. A framework of expatriation strategy on the scope of the individual, the organization and the international environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Zabdiele Moreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Expatriate managers play an important role in implementing the strategic objectives of multinational enterprises. The study aims at analyzing the strategy of expatriation in its three areas – expatriate, multinational company and international environment. It should be noted that these elements have been addressed separately in the literature. Multinational companies, in addition to verifying the conditions related to internal resources, also need to determine the key components that permeate the individual issues that will influence the determinants of personnel appointment of a foreign subsidiary. The institutional and cultural distance are external factors, however, they affect the level of the organization, and consequently, the individual. The contribution of the study consists of developing a framework and proposes a new view on the topic that includes the perspectives of the overall strategy proposed by Peng (2012, however, it highlights the role of people in the process of expatriation.

  12. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would

  13. Barriers to the use of research-based instructional strategies: The influence of both individual and situational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Henderson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Many proven research-based instructional strategies have been developed for introductory college-level physics. Significant efforts to disseminate these strategies have focused on convincing individual instructors to give up their traditional practices in favor of particular research-based practices. Yet evidence suggests that the findings of educational research are, at best, only marginally incorporated into typical introductory physics courses. In this paper we present partial results of an interview study designed to generate new ideas about why proven strategies are slow to integrate in mainstream instruction. Specifically we describe the results of open-ended interviews with five physics instructors who represent likely users of educational research. We found that these instructors have conceptions about teaching and learning that are more compatible with educational research than with their self-described instructional practices. Instructors often blamed this discrepancy on situational factors that favor traditional instruction. A theoretical model is introduced to explain these findings.

  14. A proteomic strategy to identify novel serum biomarkers for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in individuals with fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Stephen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has a prevalence of over 20% in Western societies. Affected individuals are at risk of developing both cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC. Presently there is no cost effective population based means of identifying cirrhotic individuals and even if there were, our ability to perform HCC surveillance in the at risk group is inadequate. We have performed a pilot proteomic study to assess this as a strategy for serum biomarker detection. Methods 2D Gel electrophoresis was performed on immune depleted sera from 3 groups of patients, namely those with (1 pre-cirrhotic NAFLD (2 cirrhotic NAFLD and (3 cirrhotic NAFLD with co-existing HCC. Five spots differentiating at least one of these three groups were characterised by mass spectroscopy. An ELISA assay was optimised and a cross sectional study assessing one of these serum spots was performed on serum from 45 patients with steatohepatitis related cirrhosis and HCC and compared to 77 patients with histologically staged steatohepatitis. Results Four of the spots identified were apolipoprotein isoforms, the pattern of which was able to differentiate the three groups. The 5th spot, seen in the serum of cirrhotic individuals and more markedly in those with HCC, was identified as CD5 antigen like (CD5L. By ELISA assay, although CD5L was markedly elevated in a number of cirrhotic individuals with HCC, its overall ability to distinguish non-cancer from cancer individuals as determined by AUC ROC analysis was poor. However, serum CD5L was dramatically increased, independently of age, sex, and the presence of necroinflammation, in the serum of individuals with NAFLD cirrhosis relative to those with pre-cirrhotic disease. Conclusion This novel proteomic strategy has identified a number of candidate biomarkers which may have benefit in the surveillance and diagnosis of individuals with chronic liver disease and/or HCC.

  15. Causes of work-related stress and individual strategies in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa

    Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. This is a critical and not fully uncovered problem. The working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. This study shows that some aspects of knowledge work can have...... a negative impact on daily activities and cause frustration and work-related stress. The study also finds that few primary preventive activities have been initiated. Based on an empirical study, the authors outline the characteristics of the job as knowledge worker and how it is being experienced. The study...... to the individual for his or her working life. Self-managed knowledge workers thus experience that they stand alone when it comes to work-related problems and stress. The stress intervention applied is characteristically short-term and focused on the individual. The individual perspective consequently affects...

  16. Individual differences in airline captains' personalities, communication strategies, and crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Aircrew effectiveness in coping with emergencies has been linked to captain's personality profile. The present study analyzed cockpit communication during simulated flight to examine the relation between captains' discourse strategies, personality profiles, and crew performance. Positive Instrumental/Expressive captains and Instrumental-Negative captains used very similar communication strategies and their crews made few errors. Their talk was distinguished by high levels of planning and strategizing, gathering information, predicting/alerting, and explaining, especially during the emergency flight phase. Negative-Expressive captains talked less overall, and engaged in little problem solving talk, even during emergencies. Their crews made many errors. Findings support the theory that high crew performance results when captains use language to build shared mental models for problem situations.

  17. Developmental and Individual Differences in Young Children's Use and Maintenance of a Selective Memory Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Christina; Bjorklund, David F.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Children who were 4 to 8 years of age were asked to perform a sort-recall task where only half of the items had to be studied and remembered. Following a baseline trial, children were assigned to 1 of 3 groups and were prompted to use either a sorting or a clustering strategy (experimental groups) or were not prompted at all (control group).…

  18. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in…

  19. Successful Strategies of Individuals with Dyslexia in the Field of Music: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kent Peter

    2014-01-01

    Many of the symptoms of dyslexia--such as difficulties with decoding written symbols, phonemic awareness, physical coordination, and readable handwriting--may adversely affect music learning. Despite challenges, some individuals with dyslexia succeed in music. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of five professional musicians…

  20. Sex-specific and individual preferences for hunting strategies in white sharks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Towner, A.V.; Leos-Barajas, V.; Langrock, R.; Schick, R.S.; Smale, M.J.; Kaschke, T.; Jewell, O.J.W; Papastamatiou, Y.P.

    2016-01-01

    1. Fine-scale predator movements may be driven by many factors including sex, habitat anddistribution of resources. There may also be individual preferences for certain movementstrategies within a population which can be hard to quantify.2. Within top predators, movements are also going to be

  1. Impact of educational group strategy to improve clinical and glycemic parameters in individuals with diabetes and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielli Teixeira Lima Favaro

    Full Text Available Objective.To evaluate the impact of an educational group strategy to improve clinical and glycemic parameters in individuals with diabetes and hypertension. Methods. This descriptive prospective study included 172 individuals living in São José do Rio Preto-SP, Brazil, who were enrolled in a well-integrated educational group called HIPERDIA (Record System for Follow-up of Hypertensive and Diabetic Individuals coordinated by a qualified multidisciplinary team. We analyzed sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data. Data were collected in the first, fifth, and eighth meeting of the educational group. Results. A total of 68.6% of patients were women, 85.4% were white, 64.0% had an incomplete basic education, 47.7% were retired, 79.7% had been diagnosed with diabetes for 6 or more years, 9.9% were smokers, and 9.9% used alcohol. Individuals' diastolic blood pressure decreased between the fifth and eighth meeting (p<0.05. Between the first and fifth meeting, both fasting glucose levels (p<0.05 and glycated hemoglobin decreased; the latter continue to drop at the fifth and eighth meetings (p<0.001. Anthropometric parameters remained unchanged. Conclusion. The results suggest that an educational group strategy is favorable for controlling diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

  2. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1 upset or bother (2 aversive emotional reactions (3 punitive impulses, and (4 punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher in Mating Effort more than those lower in Mating Effort. Higher Mating Effort also predicted greater temptation, intention, and likelihood to engage in punitive behaviors in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We discuss these data in light of individual differences in relations between reproductive strategy and romantic jealousy. Additionally, we point to the importance of controlling for co-linearity between reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity, and the need for addressing related methodological problems within jealousy research.

  3. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Catarina O; Barela, José A; Prado-Medeiros, Christiane L; Salvini, Tania F; Barela, Ana M F

    2009-12-01

    Body weight support (BWS) systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years) were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical assistance.

  4. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barela Ana MF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight support (BWS systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Methods Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. Results The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Conclusion Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical

  5. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  6. Why does informatics work? Compensation strategies of the actors in the implementation of a medical prescription writing software - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v2i1.159en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Zarama-Vasquez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the informatization process of a hospital service, taking as an example the implementation of a prescription writing software. This tool allows doctors to prescribe via computer the pharmaceutical regimen to be prepared and dispensed by the nursing personnel. The ethnographic study in the hospital service describes the introduction process of this tool from the perspective of the daily activities of the nursing staff. The article highlights a number of difficulties the users are facing and describes the solutions they create, in particular the “compensation strategies” they develop for turning the tool operational, reliable and efficient. The article also shows that the compensation strategies the users are creating in situ are partly invisible for the designers of the software. Distant from the daily activities of the users, the software designers neither perceive the problems involved with the use of the product, nor do they perceive the locally created solutions. They ascribe the performance of the tool to the quality of its conception and possibilities of improvement. This article invites the readers to reflect about what turns an information system efficient and effective and about the lessons learned for the conception of these tools.

  7. Optimal chemotherapy for leukemia: a model-based strategy for individualized treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaraj Jayachandran

    Full Text Available Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, commonly known as ALL, is a predominant form of cancer during childhood. With the advent of modern healthcare support, the 5-year survival rate has been impressive in the recent past. However, long-term ALL survivors embattle several treatment-related medical and socio-economic complications due to excessive and inordinate chemotherapy doses received during treatment. In this work, we present a model-based approach to personalize 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP treatment for childhood ALL with a provision for incorporating the pharmacogenomic variations among patients. Semi-mechanistic mathematical models were developed and validated for i 6-MP metabolism, ii red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV dynamics, a surrogate marker for treatment efficacy, and iii leukopenia, a major side-effect. With the constraint of getting limited data from clinics, a global sensitivity analysis based model reduction technique was employed to reduce the parameter space arising from semi-mechanistic models. The reduced, sensitive parameters were used to individualize the average patient model to a specific patient so as to minimize the model uncertainty. Models fit the data well and mimic diverse behavior observed among patients with minimum parameters. The model was validated with real patient data obtained from literature and Riley Hospital for Children in Indianapolis. Patient models were used to optimize the dose for an individual patient through nonlinear model predictive control. The implementation of our approach in clinical practice is realizable with routinely measured complete blood counts (CBC and a few additional metabolite measurements. The proposed approach promises to achieve model-based individualized treatment to a specific patient, as opposed to a standard-dose-for-all, and to prescribe an optimal dose for a desired outcome with minimum side-effects.

  8. Individual resilience as a strategy to counter employment barriers for people with epilepsy in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugumbate, Jacob; Gray, Mel

    2017-09-01

    Understanding individual resilience helps to improve employment opportunities of people with epilepsy. This is significant because, in Zimbabwe, as in many other countries in the Global South, people with epilepsy encounter several barriers in a context of less-than-ideal public services. Despite this disadvantage, some people with epilepsy have better employment outcomes for reasons including level of seizure control, social background, employment support services, and individual resilience. This article reports on data from participants (n=8), who were part of a larger study (n=30) on employment experiences of people with epilepsy in Harare. The study used in-depth interviews with the participants, who were all service users and members of the Epilepsy Support Foundation (ESF) in Harare. The eight resilient participants comprised four males and four females aged between 26-48years, who were selected because, unlike the remaining 22 participants, they had overcome chronic unemployment. Seven of the eight participants were employed, while one had recently become unemployed. Views of service providers (n=7) were sought on the experiences of people with epilepsy through a focus group discussion. The service providers included two health workers, three social service workers, and two disability advocacy workers. Data were analysed using NVivo, a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis package. The study found that participants experienced barriers, such as a lack of medical treatment, yet this was important for education and training, lack of finances for training, and negative attitudes at workplaces. Despite these barriers, participants had overcome chronic unemployment due to their individual resilience characterised by: (i) a 'fighting spirit', (ii) being their own advocates, and (iii) having a mastery over, and acceptance of, their epilepsy. The research concluded that, where people with epilepsy faced barriers, as in Zimbabwe, individual resilience acted as

  9. Individual Education Program Kaitannya dengan Differentiated Assessment: Strategi Mengakomodir Siswa Berkebutuhan Khusus di Sekolah Umum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Sekar Vusparatih

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Individual Education Program (IEP is a plan made by a team consists of parents, teachers, and other school elements. The purpose of IEP is to help students reach expected academic target. IEP is designed for students in special needs that not only defined academic target but also the methods for reaching the target. The article explains the stages in defining IEP. The primary purpose of IEP is to give the same chance for students with special needs to have standard and public school education for other normal students. Through public schools, the students with special needs could interact and socialize with other students. 

  10. Individual Education Program Kaitannya dengan Differentiated Assessment: Strategi Mengakomodir Siswa Berkebutuhan Khusus di Sekolah Umum

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Sekar Vusparatih

    2011-01-01

    Individual Education Program (IEP) is a plan made by a team consists of parents, teachers, and other school elements. The purpose of IEP is to help students reach expected academic target. IEP is designed for students in special needs that not only defined academic target but also the methods for reaching the target. The article explains the stages in defining IEP. The primary purpose of IEP is to give the same chance for students with special needs to have standard and public school educatio...

  11. Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong eCao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc. may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships, monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people’s appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals’ perception of others’ as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflict noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase. As compensation one partner give money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner and the other bear the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner. Results showed that the individuals’ preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing harm affected their relationship (exchange versus communal with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in

  12. Primary ovary choriocarcinoma: individual DNA polymorphic analysis as a strategy to confirm diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nalesso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary choriocarcinoma of the ovary is rare. Furthermore, this tumor can arise from gestational tissue or pure germ cells of the ovary, with the latter resulting in non-gestational choriocarcinoma. While the clinical characteristics and histology of both tumor types are identical, differentiation of these tumors is necessary for effective treatment. One strategy for the differentiation of these tumors types is to assay for the presence of paternal DNA. Accordingly, in the present case, a patient with primary choriocarcinoma of the ovary with a non-gestational origin was confirmed by DNA analysis. The patient subsequently exhibited an excellent response to chemotherapy, and following surgery, achieved complete remission. A pathological analysis of surgical specimens further confirmed the absence of tumor.

  13. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Zandbergen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual’s address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  14. Distrust As a Disease Avoidance Strategy: Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly. Empirically, we utilize two convenience samples and a large nationally representative sample of US citizens to demonstrate the existence of a robust and replicable effect of individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalized social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.

  15. Individual differences in preference for epistemic versus teleologic strategies of deliberate self-persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cheryl A; Lord, Charles G; Morin, Amanda L; Brady, Sara E; Yoke, Kristin; Lu, Tong

    2014-03-01

    People are often dissatisfied with their attitudes (e.g., liking their jobs too little or junk food too much) and would like to evaluate differently. On the basis of theory and research, a scale was developed to measure individual differences in preference for 2 types of cognitive tactics (epistemic or teleologic [E or T]) that people use when they try to change their own attitudes (Maio & Thomas, 2007). For each of 3 attitude objects (my life, a romantic partner, Arabs), the scale items loaded on the 2 intended factors, and E - T scale scores were significantly correlated across the 3 attitude objects (Study 1). Scale scores also displayed satisfactory internal and test-retest reliability and discriminant validity (Study 2). In addition, E - T scores (i.e., mean preference for epistemic vs. teleologic tactics) displayed satisfactory predictive and construct validity by predicting the extent to which individuals would recall negative attributes of their lives (Study 3) and of going to a counseling center (Study 4) after a session of deliberate self-persuasion. The discussion centers on theoretical and practical applications of the new scale. 2014 APA

  16. Relationships between coping strategies, individual characteristics and job satisfaction in a sample of hospital nurses: cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Kelleci, Meral; Dogan, Selma

    2008-12-01

    This study aims to describe and compare the job satisfaction, coping strategies, personal and organizational characteristics among nurses working in a hospital in Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey design study, 186 nurses from Cumhuriyet University Hospital completed Personal Data Form, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Ways of Coping Inventory. Response rate was 74.4%. In this study, it was found that job satisfaction score of nurses showed moderate (mean: 3.46+/-0.56) was found. While nurses mostly used to employ self-confident and optimistic approaches that had already being considered as positive coping strategies with stress, yielding and helpless approaches were employed less than that. While a statistically significant positive relation (pjob satisfaction and dimensions of Ways of Coping Inventory "self-confident approach" and "optimistic approach", negative relation (pjob satisfaction and dimensions of the "helpless approach". Organizational and individual nurse characteristics were not found to be associated with job satisfaction. But, job satisfaction of the nurses who is bounded by a contract was found higher than that of permanent staff nurses (pjob satisfaction of Turkish hospital nurses was at a moderate and that of the nurses who succeeded to coping with the stress was heightened. Higher levels of job satisfaction were associated with positive coping strategies. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of coping strategies to nurses' job satisfaction.

  17. Compensation of Disadvantages in University Examination Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Quapp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Active social participation of disabled people is one of the major tasks of modern society. That also includes access to the academic community by higher education. Universities all over the world work hard to give handicapped students a chance to graduate. In this context, compensation of disadvantages in examination procedures is an important matter. But, also chronic illness may impair the student's examination performance. To ensure equal examination opportunities for all students, responsible university officials must be creative to find individual compensation solutions. The paper analyzes examination regulations at universities in different countries and offers solutions to compensate disabled and chronic ill students' disadvantages. It discusses the necessity of compensation for different types of disability and chronic illness. Finally, an overview of current German case law and solutions for compensation problems are provided.

  18. From individual to herd protection with pneumococcal vaccines: the contribution of the Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Linares-Pérez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is currently undergoing advanced clinical evaluation prior to its planned introduction in Cuba. The implementation of the pneumococcal vaccination strategy has been designed with consideration of the need to maximize both its direct and indirect effects. A novel approach is suggested, which addresses preschool children as the first-line target group to generate herd immunity in infants and to have an impact on transmission at the community level. The clinical evaluation pipeline is described herein, including evaluations of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impact. The scientific contribution of the Cuban strategy could support a paradigm shift from individual protection to a population effect based on a rigorous body of scientific evidence.

  19. Distrust As a Disease Avoidance Strategy: Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue...... social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalized social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.......Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid...

  20. Pragmatism rules: the intervention and prevention strategies used by psychiatric nurses working with non-suicidal self-harming individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, A

    2007-02-01

    Self harm in the absence of expressed suicidal intent is an under explored area in psychiatric nursing research. This paper reports on findings of a study undertaken in two acute psychiatric inpatient units in Ireland. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the practices of psychiatric nurses in relation to people who self harm, but who are not considered suicidal. Semi structured interviews were held with eight psychiatric nurses. Content analysis revealed several themes. For the purpose of this paper the prevention and intervention strategies psychiatric nurses engage in when working with non-suicidal self harming individuals are presented. Recommendations for further research are offered.

  1. Maintaining a focus on opportunities at work : The interplay between age, job complexity, and the use of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    The concept of focus on opportunities describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities employees believe to have in their personal future at work. This study investigated the specific and shared effects of age, job complexity, and the use of successful aging strategies called selection,

  2. Developing fair compensation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousdale, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of finding an effective way to incorporate Aboriginal values into the process of developing fair compensation structures was discussed. This paper discusses pricing intangible values using dollars, but it was emphasized that 'values' are whatever are important to us. Therefore, in order to achieve fair compensation, creative alternatives that are value-focused should be pursued. In addition to the more straight-forward monetary compensation, compensation could also be about avoiding losses, mitigating adverse impacts, achieving better communication, and promoting cultural understanding. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  3. AGING AND INDIVIDUAL VULNERABILITY: A PANORAMA OF OLDER ADULTS ATTENDED BY THE FAMILY HEALTH STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keylla Talitha Fernandes Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar las condiciones de vulnerabilidad individuales en los ancianos y investigar la relación con los indicadores de salud a través de una encuesta de hogares. Método: diseño descriptivo, transversal, realizado con 368 ancianos asistidos por la Estrategia Salud de la Familia. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de una entrevista estructurada, con el apoyo de instrumentos, incluyendo los indicadores sociodemográficos, de salud y Vulnerable Elderly Survey. También llevó a cabo el análisis descriptivo y la prueba de chi-cuadrado de Pearson. Resultados: existe una prevalencia de 52,2% de la vulnerabilidad individual entre los ancianos, así como una asociación con problemas de salud, la salud autopercepción negativa, dificultad en la movilidad y el desempeño de las actividades de la vida diaria. Conclusión: la vulnerabilidad de la identificación de los ancianos es una iniciativa importante para la adecuación de las políticas y programas de salud que se centran en la promoción del envejecimiento con el mantenimiento de la capacidad funcional.

  4. Compensation and exotic livestock disease management: the views of animal keepers and veterinarians in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Webb, A; Naylor, R; Little, R; Maye, D

    2016-11-19

    Relatively little is known about the perceived influence of different compensation systems on animal keepers' management of exotic livestock disease. This paper aims to address this research gap by drawing on interviews with 61 animal keepers and 21 veterinarians, as well as a series of nine animal keeper focus groups across five different livestock sectors in England. The perceived influence of current compensation systems on disease control behaviour was explored and alternative compensation systems that respectively reward positive practices and penalise poor practices were presented in the form of scenarios, alongside a third system that considered the option of a cost-sharing levy system between industry and government. The results indicate that animal keepers consider themselves to be influenced by a range of non-financial factors, for example, feelings of responsibility, reputation and animal welfare concerns, in the context of their exotic disease management practices. The majority of animal keepers were unaware of the current compensation systems in place for exotic diseases, and were therefore not consciously influenced by financial recompense. Concerns were raised about linking compensation to disease management behaviour due to auditing difficulties. A cost-sharing levy system would likely raise awareness of exotic disease and compensation among animal keepers, but differentiation of payments based upon individual farm-level risk assessments was called for by participants as a strategy to promote positive disease management practices. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Development of a pharmacokinetic‐guided dose individualization strategy for hydroxyurea treatment in children with sickle cell anaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Min; McGann, Patrick T.; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Ware, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS Hydroxyurea has emerged as the primary disease‐modifying therapy for patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). The laboratory and clinical benefits of hydroxyurea are optimal at maximum tolerated dose (MTD), but the current empirical dose escalation process often takes up to 12 months. The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic‐guided dosing strategy to reduce the time required to reach hydroxyurea MTD in children with SCA. Methods Pharmacokinetic (PK) data from the HUSTLE trial (NCT00305175) were used to develop a population PK model using non‐linear mixed effects modelling (nonmem 7.2). A D‐optimal sampling strategy was developed to estimate individual PK and hydroxyurea exposure (area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)). The initial AUC target was derived from HUSTLE clinical data and defined as the mean AUC at MTD. Results PK profiles were best described by a one compartment with Michaelis–Menten elimination and a transit absorption model. Body weight and cystatin C were identified as significant predictors of hydroxyurea clearance. The following clinically feasible sampling times are included in a new prospective protocol: pre‐dose (baseline), 15–20 min, 50–60 min and 3 h after an initial 20 mg kg–1 oral dose. The mean target AUC(0,∞) for initial dose titration was 115 mg l–1 h. Conclusion We developed a PK model‐based individualized dosing strategy for the prospective Therapeutic Response Evaluation and Adherence Trial (TREAT, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02286154). This approach has the potential to optimize the dose titration of hydroxyurea therapy for children with SCA, such that the clinical benefits at MTD are achieved more quickly. PMID:26615061

  6. Development of a pharmacokinetic-guided dose individualization strategy for hydroxyurea treatment in children with sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Min; McGann, Patrick T; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Ware, Russell E; Vinks, Alexander A

    2016-04-01

    Hydroxyurea has emerged as the primary disease-modifying therapy for patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA). The laboratory and clinical benefits of hydroxyurea are optimal at maximum tolerated dose (MTD), but the current empirical dose escalation process often takes up to 12 months. The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic-guided dosing strategy to reduce the time required to reach hydroxyurea MTD in children with SCA. Pharmacokinetic (PK) data from the HUSTLE trial (NCT00305175) were used to develop a population PK model using non-linear mixed effects modelling (nonmem 7.2). A D-optimal sampling strategy was developed to estimate individual PK and hydroxyurea exposure (area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)). The initial AUC target was derived from HUSTLE clinical data and defined as the mean AUC at MTD. PK profiles were best described by a one compartment with Michaelis-Menten elimination and a transit absorption model. Body weight and cystatin C were identified as significant predictors of hydroxyurea clearance. The following clinically feasible sampling times are included in a new prospective protocol: pre-dose (baseline), 15-20 min, 50-60 min and 3 h after an initial 20 mg kg(-1) oral dose. The mean target AUC(0,∞) for initial dose titration was 115 mg l(-1)  h. We developed a PK model-based individualized dosing strategy for the prospective Therapeutic Response Evaluation and Adherence Trial (TREAT, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02286154). This approach has the potential to optimize the dose titration of hydroxyurea therapy for children with SCA, such that the clinical benefits at MTD are achieved more quickly. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  8. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We derive the optimal compensation contract in a principal–agent setting in which outcome is used to provide incentives for both effort and risky investments. To motivate investment, optimal compensation entails rewards for high as well as low outcomes, and it is increasing at the mean outcome...

  9. Strategy to better select HIV-infected individuals for latent TB treatment in BCG-vaccinated population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hui Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the T-SPOT.TB interferon-γ releasing assay and the tuberculin skin test (TST, for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection(LTBI and the development of subsequent active tuberculosis, in BCG-vaccinated HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals without clinical suspicion of active TB or a past history of TB were enrolled from 1 January 2008 to 30 November 2010. Both T-SPOT.TB test and TST were offered to the participants whom were followed up prospectively until April 30, 2012 for development of TB. RESULTS: Among the 909 participants, 25% had positive TST reactions with cut-off point of 5 mm and 15% had positive T-SPOT.TB results. After a median follow-up of 2.97 years, there were 5 cases developed culture-confirmed active TB (all had dual positive TST and T-SPOT.TB results, and the incidence was 0.17 per 100 person-years. The relative risks (RRs for subsequent active TB in HIV-infected individuals with positive TST results, positive T-SPOT.TB results and dual positive results compared with the risk for individuals with negative results were 40.6 (95% CI 2.1-767.9, 73.9 (95% CI 3.9-1397.7 and 226.5 (95% CI 12.0-4284, respectively. The number needed to treat to prevent one subsequent TB case among patients with a positive TST, a positive T-SPOT.TB and dual positive results was 35, 22 and 8 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting positive results of the TST and T-SPOT.TB to screen LTBI among BCG-vaccinated HIV-infected individuals might be feasible. Number needed to treat for isoniazid preventive therapy could be reduced significantly by using dual positive strategy.

  10. Does CEO compensation impact patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingbola, Kunle; van den Berg, Herman A

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between CEO compensation and patient satisfaction in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to determine what impact hospital CEO compensation has on hospital patient satisfaction. The analyses in this study were based on data of 261 CEO-hospital-year observations in a sample of 103 nonprofit hospitals. A number of linear regressions were conducted, with patient satisfaction as the dependent variable and CEO compensation as the independent variable of interest. Controlling variables included hospital size, type of hospital, and frequency of adverse clinical outcomes. CEO compensation does not significantly influence hospital patient satisfaction. Both patient satisfaction and CEO compensation appear to be driven primarily by hospital size. Patient satisfaction decreases, while CEO compensation increases, with the number of acute care beds in a hospital. In addition, CEO compensation does not even appear to moderate the influence of hospital size on patient satisfaction. There are several limitations to this study. First, observations of CEO-hospital-years in which annual nominal CEO compensation was below $100,000 were excluded, as they were not publicly available. Second, this research was limited to a three-year range. Third, this study related the compensation of individual CEOs to a measure of performance based on a multitude of patient satisfaction surveys. Finally, this research is restricted to not-for-profit hospitals in Ontario, Canada. The findings seem to suggest that hospital directors seeking to improve patient satisfaction may find their efforts frustrated if they focus exclusively on the hospital CEO. The findings highlight the need for further research on how CEOs may, through leading and supporting those hospital clinicians and staff that interact more closely with patients, indirectly enhance patient satisfaction. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no research has examined the relationship between

  11. Group vs. Individual Treatment for Acute Insomnia: A Pilot Study Evaluating a “One-Shot” Treatment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Boullin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite undeniable evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I, the potential for its widespread dissemination and implementation has yet to be realised. A suggested reason for this is that traditional CBT-I is considered too burdensome for deployment, in its current form, within the context of where it would be most beneficial—Primary Care. One strategy, aimed to address this, has been to develop briefer versions of CBT-I, whilst another has been to deliver CBT-I in a group format. An alternative has been to attempt to address insomnia during its acute phase with a view to circumventing its progression to chronic insomnia. The aim of the present study was to compare a brief version of CBT-I (one-shot when delivered individually or in groups to those with acute insomnia. Method: Twenty-eight individuals with acute insomnia (i.e., meeting full DSM-5 criteria for insomnia disorder for less than three months self-assigned to either a group or individual treatment arm. Treatment consisted of a single one-hour session accompanied by a self-help pamphlet. Subjects completed measures of insomnia severity, anxiety and depression pre-treatment and at one-month post-treatment. Additionally, daily sleep diaries were compared between pre-treatment and at the one-month follow up. Results: There were no significant between group differences in treatment outcome on any sleep or mood measures although those in the group treatment arm were less adherent than those who received individual treatment. Furthermore, the combined (group and individual treatment arms pre-post test effect size on insomnia symptoms, using the Insomnia Severity Index, was large (d = 2.27. Discussion: It appears that group treatment is as efficacious as individual treatment within the context of a “one shot” intervention for individuals with acute insomnia. The results are discussed with a view to integrating one-shot CBT

  12. A Comparison of the Habitual Landing Strategies from Differing Drop Heights of Parkour Practitioners (Traceurs and Recreationally Trained Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan J. Standing, Peter S. Maulder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkour is an activity that encompasses methods of jumping, climbing and vaulting. With landing being a pertinent part of this practise, Parkour participants (traceurs have devised their own habitual landing strategies, which are suggested to be a safer and more effective style of landing. The purpose of this study was to compare the habitual landing strategies of traceurs and recreationally trained individuals from differing drop heights. Comparisons between landing sound and mechanical parameters were also assessed to gauge the level of landing safety. Ten recreationally trained participants and ten traceurs performed three landings from 25% and 50% body height using their own habitual landing strategies. Results at 25% showed significantly lower maximal vertical force (39.9%, p < 0.0013, ES = -1.88, longer times to maximal vertical force (68.6%, p < 0.0015, ES = 1.72 and lower loading rates (65.1%, p < 0.0002, ES = -2.22 in the traceur group. Maximal sound was also shown to be lower (3.6%, with an effect size of -0.63, however this was not statistically significant (p < 0.1612. At 50%, traceurs exhibited significantly different values within all variables including maximal sound (8.6%, p < 0.03, ES = -1.04, maximal vertical force (49.0%, p < 0.0002, ES = -2.38, time to maximal vertical force (65.9%, p < 0.0067, ES = 1.32 and loading rates (66.3%, p < 0.0002, ES = -2.00. Foot strike analysis revealed traceurs landed using forefoot or forefoot-midfoot strategies in 93.2% of trials; whereas recreationally trained participants used these styles in only 8.3% of these landings. To conclude, the habitual landings of traceurs are more effective at lowering the kinetic landing variables associated with a higher injury risk in comparison to recreationally trained individuals. Sound as a measure of landing effectiveness and safety holds potential significance; however requires further research to confirm.

  13. Phase alteration compensation in reflection digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, O; Amezquita, R; Monroy, F

    2011-01-01

    The phase maps obtained from digital holographic microscopy techniques carry information about the axial lengths of the object under study. Additionally, these phase maps have information of tilt and curvatures with origin in the off-axis geometry and the magnification lenses system, respectively. Only a complete compensation of these extra phases allows a correct interpretation of the phase information. In this article a numerical strategy to compensate for these alterations is designed, using a phase mask located in different planes. This strategy is applied in the measurement of a phase steps plate using a digital holography setup.

  14. Reactive power compensator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  15. Reactive power compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  16. The Dynamics of Avian Influenza: Individual-Based Model with Intervention Strategies in Traditional Trade Networks in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Wilasang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic to Southeast Asia. In Thailand, avian influenza viruses continue to cause large poultry stock losses. The spread of the disease has a serious impact on poultry production especially among rural households with backyard chickens. The movements and activities of chicken traders result in the spread of the disease through traditional trade networks. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of avian influenza in the traditional trade network in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. We also propose an individual-based model with intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. We found that the dynamics of the disease mainly depend on the transmission probability and the virus inactivation period. This study also illustrates the appropriate virus disinfection period and the target for intervention strategies on traditional trade network. The results suggest that good hygiene and cleanliness among household traders and trader of trader areas and ensuring that any equipment used is clean can lead to a decrease in transmission and final epidemic size. These results may be useful to epidemiologists, researchers, and relevant authorities in understanding the spread of avian influenza through traditional trade networks.

  17. Coping Strategies as Moderators of the Relation between Individual Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine coping strategies as moderators of the relationship between individual race-related stress and mental health symptoms among a sample of 128 African American women. Coping strategies refer to efforts used to resolve problems and those used to manage, endure, or alleviate distress. Culture-specific…

  18. Expanding the toolbox for studying the biological responses of individual fish to hydropower infrastructure and operating strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasler, C.T.; Cooke, S.J.; Patterson, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydropower infrastructure and the operational strategies used by power utilities have the potential to change local aquatic environments. However, few studies have evaluated sub-organismal responses such as physiological consequences of individual fish to fluctuating flows or hydropower infrastructure such as fishways or turbines. Rather than review the impacts of hydropower on fish, this paper detailed the behavioural, energetic, genomic, molecular, forensic, isotopic, and physiological tools available for studying sub-organismal responses of fish to hydropower infrastructure and operating procedures with a critical assessment of their benefits and limitations. A brief summary of the current state of knowledge regarding the 12 types of tools was provided along with their usefulness in fisheries science and environmental management. The benefits and limitations of using these techniques for evaluating hydropower impacts on fish and fish habitat were discussed. Two case studies were presented to demonstrate how the inclusion of individual-based information into hydropower research has helped to improve the understanding of complex fish and hydropower issues. Practitioners can use the expanded toolbox to assess fishway performance, migration delays, and fish responses to fluctuating flows through a mechanistic approach. These tools are also relevant for evaluating other anthropogenic impacts such as water withdrawal for irrigation or drinking water, habitat alteration, and fisheries interactions. The expanded toolbox can contribute to a more sustainable hydropower industry by providing regulators with tools for making informed decisions and evaluating compliance issues. 150 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  19. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  20. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  1. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  2. Predictors of Energy Compensation during Exercise Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Riou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation was 18% ± 93%. The analyses indicated that 48% of the variance of energy compensation is explained by the interaction between initial fat mass, age and duration of exercise interventions. Sex, frequency, intensity and dose of exercise energy expenditure were not significant predictors of energy compensation. The fitted model suggested that for a shorter study duration, lower energy compensation was observed in younger individuals with higher initial fat mass (FM. In contrast, higher energy compensation was noted for younger individuals with lower initial FM. From 25 weeks onward, energy compensation was no longer different for these predictors. For studies of longer duration (about 80 weeks, the energy compensation approached 84%. Lower energy compensation occurs with short-term exercise, and a much higher level of energy compensation accompanies long-term exercise interventions.

  3. Radioembolization of hepatocarcinoma with (90)Y glass microspheres: development of an individualized treatment planning strategy based on dosimetry and radiobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, C; Mira, M; Maccauro, M; Spreafico, C; Romito, R; Morosi, C; Camerini, T; Carrara, M; Pellizzari, S; Negri, A; Aliberti, G; Sposito, C; Bhoori, S; Facciorusso, A; Civelli, E; Lanocita, R; Padovano, B; Migliorisi, M; De Nile, M C; Seregni, E; Marchianò, A; Crippa, F; Mazzaferro, V

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the dosimetric approach and to review the absorbed doses delivered, taking into account radiobiology, in order to identify the optimal methodology for an individualized treatment planning strategy based on (99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. We performed retrospective dosimetry of the standard TheraSphere® treatment on 52 intermediate (n = 17) and advanced (i.e. portal vein thrombosis, n = 35) hepatocarcinoma patients with tumour burden 10 cc). Apparent radiosensitivity values from TCP were around 0.003/Gy, a factor of 3-5 lower than in EBRT, as found by other authors. The dose-rate effect was negligible: a purely linear model can be applied. Toxicity incidence was significantly larger for Child B7 patients (89 vs 14%, p < 0.0001), who were therefore excluded from dose-toxicity analysis. Child A toxic vs non-toxic treatments were significantly separated in terms of dose averaged on whole non-tumoural parenchyma (including non-irradiated regions) with AUC from 0.73 to 0.94. TD50 was ≈ 100 Gy. No methodology was superior to parenchyma mean dose, which therefore can be used for planning, with a limit of TD15 ≈ 75 Gy. A dosimetric treatment planning criterion for Child A patients without complete obstruction of the portal vein was developed.

  4. Quantitative analysis of formal caregivers' use of communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease during oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional observational study examined formal caregivers' use of task-focused and social communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease residing in a long-term care facility during a basic activity of daily living: toothbrushing. Thirteen formal caregiver-resident dyads were observed during a total of 78 separate toothbrushing sessions. All caregiver utterances occurring during the task were transcribed and coded for type of communication strategy utilizing a multidimensional observational coding scheme, which was developed a priori. Overall, the majority of residents, irrespective of disease severity, successfully completed toothbrushing with the support of caregiver assistance. Caregivers assisting residents with moderate and severe AD were found to use a variety of communication strategies, with task-focused strategies accounting for the majority of use. For the most part, the communicative strategies employed did not differ across disease severity. However, some differences were identified including the use of one proposition, paraphrased repetition, using the resident's name, and provision of full assistance, with these strategies being used more often when assisting individuals with severe AD. This study adds to the emerging literature supporting the use of specific communication strategies while assisting residents with AD during the completion of daily tasks. From reviewing this study, readers will be able to identify a variety of communication strategies, both task-focused and relational, that formal caregivers utilize while assisting residents with moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during a basic activity of daily living. Furthermore, the reader will be able to distinguish between communication strategies that are optimal when assisting individuals with moderate AD as compared to assisting individuals with severe AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, M.L.; Hoogeman, M.S.; Mens, J.W.; Quint, S.; Ahmad, R.; Dhawtal, G.; Heijmen, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 Gy. Individualized model-based internal target volumes (mbITVs) accounting for the cervix and uterus motion due to bladder volume changes were generated by using a motion-model constructed from two pretreatment CT scans (full and empty bladder). Two individualized strategies were designed: a nonadaptive strategy, using an mbITV accounting for the full-range of bladder volume changes throughout the treatment; and an online-adaptive strategy, using mbITVs of bladder volume subranges to construct a library of plans. The latter adapts the treatment online by selecting the plan-of-the-day from the library based on the measured bladder volume. The individualized strategies were evaluated by the seven to eight CT scans not used for mbITVs construction, and compared with a population-based approach. Geometric uniform margins around planning cervix–uterus and mbITVs were determined to ensure adequate coverage. For each strategy, the percentage of the cervix–uterus, bladder, and rectum volumes inside the planning target volume (PTV), and the clinical target volume (CTV)-to-PTV volume (volume difference between PTV and CTV) were calculated. Results: The margin for the population-based approach was 38 mm and for the individualized strategies was 7 to 10 mm. Compared with the population-based approach, the individualized nonadaptive strategy decreased the CTV-to-PTV volume by 48% ± 6% and the percentage of bladder and rectum inside the PTV by 5% to 45% and 26% to 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. Replacing the individualized nonadaptive strategy by an online-adaptive, two-plan library further decreased the percentage of

  6. Dealing with flood damages: will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Suykens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks. We have provided a comparative legal analysis of the financial compensation mechanisms following floods, be it through insurance, public funds, or a combination of both, with an empirical focus on Belgium, the Netherlands, England, and France. Similarities and differences between the methods in which these compensation mechanisms for flood damages enhance resilience were analyzed. The comparative analysis especially focused on the link between the recovery strategy on the one hand and prevention and mitigation strategies on the other. There is great potential within the recovery strategy for promoting preventive action, for example in terms of discouraging citizens from living in high-risk areas, or encouraging the uptake of mitigation measures, such as adaptive building. However, this large potential has yet to be realized, in part because of insufficient consideration and promotion of these connections within existing legal frameworks. We have made recommendations about how the linkages between strategies can be further improved. These recommendations relate to, among others, the promotion of resilient reinstatement through recovery mechanisms and the removal of legal barriers preventing the establishment of link-inducing measures.

  7. Compensation Services Advisor | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The Compensation Services Advisor is accountable for the effective ... Coordinates the annual Performance Review and Assessment System ... by IDRC and the broader financial and social implications of working in Canada. ... in areas such as mortgages, credit and so on to individuals not accustomed to ...

  8. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise training

  9. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    Full Text Available Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance.Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review.Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD, 50 (6 % of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28. Some investigations (n = 13 lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i optimizing electrode positioning, (ii fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise

  10. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Methods Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Results Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and

  11. Court opens door to more claims under Red Cross HIV compensation fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Tim

    2005-12-01

    The Ontario Superior Court has allowed families of deceased individuals who contracted HIV from tainted blood to proceed with their claims against the Canadian Red Cross for compensation despite the existence of a compensation plan and fund.

  12. Motor control and cardiovascular responses during isoelectric contractions of the upper trapezius muscle: evidence for individual adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiassen, S E; Aminoff, T

    1997-01-01

    transition towards a greater involvement of type II motor units. The results indicate that prolonged low-level contractions of the shoulder muscles may in general be accomplished with a moderate metabolic stress, but also that neuromuscular adaptation strategies differ significantly between individuals. These results may help to explain why occupational shoulder-neck loads of long duration cause musculoskeletal disorders in some subjects but not in others.

  13. Enthalpy–entropy compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enthalpy–entropy compensation is the name given to the correlation sometimes observed between the estimates of the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction obtained from temperature-dependence data. Although the mainly artefactual nature of this correlation has been known for many years, the subject enjoys periodical ...

  14. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  15. Teacher Compensation and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Examines changes in the conceptualization of schooling over time from an organizational perspective. Explores how compensation systems might be better designed to match alternative organizational designs, considering scientific management, effective schools, content-driven schooling, and high standards/high involvement schools as organizational…

  16. (statcom) in synchronous compensator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    with fast response and low cost for stabilizing electricity grid power and voltage. ... The conventional and modified Newton-Raphson-based power flow equations .... The control of the reactive power exchange between .... because of its faster rate of convergence and accuracy ..... compensator, North American Power System.

  17. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  18. Offspring Hg exposure relates to parental feeding strategies in a generalist bird with strong individual foraging specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cátia S A; Blondel, Léa; Sotillo, Alejandro; Müller, Wendt; Stienen, Eric W M; Boeckx, Pascal; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Monteiro, Marta S; Loureiro, Susana; de Neve, Liesbeth; Lens, Luc

    2017-12-01

    Generalist species can potentially exploit a wide variety of resources, but at the individual level they often show a certain degree of foraging specialization. Specific foraging strategies, however, may increase exposure to environmental contaminants that can alter the cost-benefit balance of consuming particular food items. The Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) is known to opportunistically feed on a wide range of marine and terrestrial prey that differ in contaminant load, such as mercury (Hg) that strongly biomagnifies through the aquatic food web. The hypothesis tested in this study were: i) a predominant use of marine prey by females during egg-formation and by both parents during chick rearing increases the exposure to Hg during embryonic development and chick growth, and ii) this affects parental investment in clutch volume, chick growth and body condition. Total Hg burden and isotopic signatures of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) were determined for eggs, down feathers, and primary feathers of L. fuscus chicks collected at a coastal colony in Belgium. As expected, eggs and feathers of chicks from parents with a stable isotope signature that suggested a predominantly marine diet had higher levels of Hg. The use of marine resources by females during the egg-formation period positively correlated to maternal investment in egg size, though entailing the cost of increased Hg-concentrations which in turn negatively affected clutch volume. Furthermore, it is shown that the use of chick down feathers is a suitable matrix to non-lethally estimate Hg concentrations in eggs. Contrary to our expectations, no relationship between Hg exposure and chick growth or chick body condition was found, which may be due the low concentrations found. We conclude that currently Hg contamination does not constitute a risk for development and condition of L. fuscus offspring at the levels currently observed at the Belgian coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Evaluating impacts of fire management strategies on native and invasive plants using an individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangur, Alexander N.; Fill, Jennifer M.; Northfield, Tobin D.; van de Wiel, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The capacity for species to coexist and potentially exclude one another can broadly be attributed to drivers that influence fitness differences (such as competitive ability) and niche differences (such as environmental change). These drivers, and thus the determinants of coexistence they influence, can interact and fluctuate both spatially and temporally. Understanding the spatiotemporal variation in niche and fitness differences in systems prone to fluctuating drivers, such as fire, can help to inform the management of invasive species. In the Cape floristic region of South Africa, invasive Pinus pinaster seedlings are strong competitors in the post-burn environment of the fire-driven Fynbos vegetation. In this, system native Protea spp. are especially vulnerable to unseasonal burns, but seasonal prescribed (Summer) burns are thought to present a high safety risk. Together, these issues have limited the appeal of prescribed burn management as an alternative to costly manual eradication of P. pinaster. Using a spatially-explicit field-of-neighbourhood individual-based model, we represent the drivers of spatiotemporal variation in niche differences (driven by fire regimes) and fitness differences (driven by competitive ability). In doing so, we evaluate optimal fire management strategies to a) control invasive P. pinaster in the Cape floristic region of South Africa, while b) minimizing deleterious effects of management on native Protea spp. The scarcity of appropriate data for model calibration has been problematic for models in invasion biology, but we use recent advances in Approximate Bayesian Computing techniques to overcome this limitation. We present early conclusions on the viability of prescribed burn management to control P. pinaster in South Africa.

  20. Software compensation in Particle Flow reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Lan Tran, Huong; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The Particle Flow approach to calorimetry requires highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analog energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in Particle Flow reconstruct...

  1. Forest Ecosystem Services and Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  2. Forest ecosystem services and eco-compensation mechanisms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  3. Is Group Polling Better? An Investigation of the Effect of Individual and Group Polling Strategies on Students' Academic Performance, Anxiety, and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ariel Yu-Zhen; Yeh, Katherine Pin-Chen; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yu-Yan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polling technologies (clickers or tablets) integrated with strategies (individual or group) on students' academic performance, anxiety, and attention. The participants were 34 students enrolled in an educational research methodology course. The anxiety scale, pre- and in-class quizzes,…

  4. Center for Worker's Compensation Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the NIOSH Center for Workers’ Compensation Studies (CWCS) is to use workers’ compensation data and systems to improve workplace safety and health....

  5. Addressing inadequate compensation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-12

    Aug 12, 2016 ... The issue LSLAs raise a number of concerns regarding compensation, including ... at a meeting with traders in Lamu, Kenya, where a new port is planned. ... compensation and a fair share of benefits and risks in land deals.

  6. Structuring competitive physician compensation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Kim; Turcotte, Claire

    2010-12-01

    When developing and reviewing their physician compensation programs, healthcare organizations should: Understand the market data. Test outcomes of incentive plans for fair market value. Check total compensation for fair market value and reasonableness.

  7. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  8. Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Examining data of a sample of UK companies over the period 2003–2006 we find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant. An increase in the number of compensation

  9. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Schmuecking, Michael; Aebersold, Daniel; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations

  10. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  11. In silico evaluation of limited blood sampling strategies for individualized recombinant factor IX prophylaxis in hemophilia B patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preijers, T.; Hazendonk, H. C. A. M.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Leebeek, F. W. G.; Cnossen, M. H.; Mathôt, R. A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with severe hemophilia B regularly administer prophylactic intravenous doses of clotting factor IX concentrate to maintain a trough level of at least 0.01 IU mL(-1) in order to prevent joint bleeds. Assessment of individual pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters allows individualization

  12. Radioembolization of hepatocarcinoma with 90Y glass microspheres: development of an individualized treatment planning strategy based on dosimetry and radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiesa, C.; Maccauro, M.; Aliberti, G.; Padovano, B.; Seregni, E.; Crippa, F.; Mira, M.; Negri, A.; Spreafico, C.; Morosi, C.; Civelli, E.; Lanocita, R.; Marchiano, A.; Romito, R.; Sposito, C.; Bhoori, S.; Facciorusso, A.; Mazzaferro, V.; Camerini, T.; Carrara, M.; Pellizzari, S.; Migliorisi, M.; De Nile, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the dosimetric approach and to review the absorbed doses delivered, taking into account radiobiology, in order to identify the optimal methodology for an individualized treatment planning strategy based on 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. We performed retrospective dosimetry of the standard TheraSphere registered treatment on 52 intermediate (n = 17) and advanced (i.e. portal vein thrombosis, n = 35) hepatocarcinoma patients with tumour burden < 50 % and without obstruction of the main portal vein trunk. Response was monitored with the densitometric radiological criterion (European Association for the Study of the Liver) and treatment-related liver decompensation was defined ad hoc with a time cut-off of 6 months. Adverse events clearly attributable to disease progression or other causes were not attributed to treatment. Voxel dosimetry was performed with the local deposition method on 99m Tc-MAA SPECT images. The reconstruction protocol was optimized. Concordance of 99m Tc-MAA and 90 Y bremsstrahlung microsphere biodistributions was studied in 35 sequential patients. Two segmentation methods were used, based on SPECT alone (home-made code) or on coregistered SPECT/CT images (IMALYTICS trademark by Philips). STRATOS trademark absorbed dose calculation was validated for 90 Y with a single time point. Radiobiology was used introducing other dosimetric variables besides the mean absorbed dose D: equivalent uniform dose (EUD), biologically effective dose averaged over voxel values (BED ave ) and equivalent uniform biologically effective dose (EUBED). Two sets of radiobiological parameters, the first derived from microsphere irradiation and the second from external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), were used. A total of 16 possible methodologies were compared. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were derived. The area under the

  13. Effectiveness of Gross Model-Based Emotion Regulation Strategies Training on Anger Reduction in Drug-Dependent Individuals and its Sustainability in Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massah, Omid; Sohrabi, Faramarz; A'azami, Yousef; Doostian, Younes; Farhoudian, Ali; Daneshmand, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Emotion plays an important role in adapting to life changes and stressful events. Difficulty regulating emotions is one of the problems drug abusers often face, and teaching these individuals to express and manage their emotions can be effective on improving their difficult circumstances. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Gross model-based emotion regulation strategies training on anger reduction in drug-dependent individuals. The present study had a quasi-experimental design wherein pretest-posttest evaluations were applied using a control group. The population under study included addicts attending Marivan's methadone maintenance therapy centers in 2012 - 2013. Convenience sampling was used to select 30 substance-dependent individuals undergoing maintenance treatment who were then randomly assigned to the experiment and control groups. The experiment group received its training in eight two-hour sessions. Data were analyzed using analysis of co-variance and paired t-test. There was significant reduction in anger symptoms of drug-dependent individuals after gross model based emotion regulation training (ERT) (P emotion regulation strategies training. Based on the results of this study, we may conclude that the gross model based emotion regulation strategies training can be applied alongside other therapies to treat drug abusers undergoing rehabilitation.

  14. Assessment of Motor Control during Three-Dimensional Movements Tracking with Position-Varying Gravity Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Active movements are important in the rehabilitation training for patients with neurological motor disorders, while weight of upper limb impedes movements due to muscles weakness. The objective of this study is to develop a position-varying gravity compensation strategy for a cable-based rehabilitation robot. The control strategy can estimate real-time gravity torque according to position feedback. Then, the performance of this control strategy was compared with the other two kinds of gravity compensation strategies (i.e., without compensation and with fixed compensation during movements tracking. Seven healthy subjects were invited to conduct tracking tasks along four different directions (i.e., upward, forward, leftward, and rightward. The performance of movements with different compensation strategies was compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE between target and actual moving trajectories, normalized jerk score (NJS, mean velocity ratio (MVR of main motion direction, and the activation of six muscles. The results showed that there were significant effects in control strategies in all four directions with the RMSE and NJS values in the following order: without compensation > fixed compensation > position-varying compensation and MVR values in the following order: without compensation < fixed compensation < position-varying compensation (p < 0.05. Comparing with movements without compensation in all four directions, the activation of muscles during movements with position-varying compensation showed significant reductions, except the activations of triceps and in forward and leftward movements, the activations of upper trapezius and middle parts of deltoid in upward movements and the activations of posterior parts of deltoid in all four directions (p < 0.05. Therefore, with position-varying gravity compensation, the upper limb cable-based rehabilitation robotic system might assist subjects to perform movements with higher quality and

  15. Fukushima: liability and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, Japan endured one of the worst natural disasters in its history when a massive earthquake struck the Pacific coast of the country and was followed by a tsunami which led to considerable loss of lives. It also led to a major accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Soon afterwards, the operator of the plant, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), assumed responsibility and liability for the nuclear accident. On 28 April 2011, TEPCO established a dedicated contact line to provide consulting services for financial compensation related to the damage caused

  16. King eiders use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N; O'Brien, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves ("capital") and current diet ("income"). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 +/- 18%, N: 99 +/- 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 +/- 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 +/- 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual variation into

  17. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  18. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel N. Jones; Aurelio José Figueredo; Erin Denise Dickey; W. Jake Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1) upset or bother (2) aversive emotional reactions (3) punitive impulses, and (4) punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher...

  19. A Survey of Coping Strategies With Stress in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Individuals Without a History of Fixed Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr Bafghi, Seyed Mahmood; Ahmadi, Nastaran; Yassini Ardekani, Seyyed Mojtaba; Jafari, Lida; Bitaraf Ardekani, Bahareh; Heydari, Roya; Maroufi, Fahame; Faraji, Reza

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating the coping strategies with stress in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and individuals without a history of fixed MI and cardiovascular disorders. This case-control crossover study was conducted from March 2015 to February 2016 on 220 patients with acute MI (MI patients) as case group and 220 patients without any history of MI and cardiovascular diseases as the control group using availability sampling method. To collect the required data, demographic information questionnaire, Holms-Raheh life stress inventory, perceived stress questionnaire, and coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS) were applied. On the basis of our findings, 118 patients (53.6%) with MI used emotion-focused coping strategy. Ninety-seven patients (82.2%) with MI who used emotion-focused coping strategy had negative perceived stress. Additionally, 71 patients (60.2%) with MI who had used emotion-focused coping strategy suffered from very high level of stress. The most MI patients had very high level of stress while most people in control group had high level of stress. Most MI patients that had very high level of stress cope with it in emotion-focused coping strategy and it proves that people with higher levels of stress are more likely to use inefficient coping strategies.

  20. Annual compensation for pipelines in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    The Surface Rights Board (SRB) in Alberta held a hearing in November 2007 to address three issues involving a pipeline for Enbridge Pipelines (Athabasca) Inc. as well as several land owner issues in Townships 66-68 and Ranges 17-19, all west of the 4th Meridian. The issues the SRB examined were the appropriate amount (i.e. magnitude) of compensation payable under right of entry orders under consideration; the appropriate structure of the compensation award; and to whom the compensation was payable. This document presented a review by the Farmer's Advocate Office (FAO) of the published decision of the SRB. The verbatim decision and rationale used by the SRB to award annual compensation for loss and/or ongoing nuisance and inconvenience was presented. The document could be useful to landowners as they determine their negotiation strategy when faced with considering future pipeline access agreements. The document included a discussion of the context for the decision and a case review. Specific topics that were covered included the rationale for the decision; long term effects of pipeline arguments and SRB commentary; the award and determination; and what still needs to be done. It was concluded that the SRB requires evidence in order to answer several questions regarding the magnitude of any losses, and to what degree, if any, had the nuisance, inconvenience, and loss of rights already been anticipated and factored into the operator's final offer

  1. Whiplash and the compensation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B

    2011-12-01

    Review article. To explain why the evidence that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes is not compelling, either in general, or in the specific case of whiplash. There is a common view that compensation-related factors lead to worse health outcomes ("the compensation hypothesis"), despite the presence of important, and unresolved sources of bias. The empirical evidence on this question has ramifications for the design of compensation schemes. Using studies on whiplash, this article outlines the methodological problems that impede attempts to confirm or refute the compensation hypothesis. Compensation studies are prone to measurement bias, reverse causation bias, and selection bias. Errors in measurement are largely due to the latent nature of whiplash injuries and health itself, a lack of clarity over the unit of measurement (specific factors, or "compensation"), and a lack of appreciation for the heterogeneous qualities of compensation-related factors and schemes. There has been a failure to acknowledge and empirically address reverse causation bias, or the likelihood that poor health influences the decision to pursue compensation: it is unclear if compensation is a cause or a consequence of poor health, or both. Finally, unresolved selection bias (and hence, confounding) is evident in longitudinal studies and natural experiments. In both cases, between-group differences have not been addressed convincingly. The nature of the relationship between compensation-related factors and health is unclear. Current approaches to testing the compensation hypothesis are prone to several important sources of bias, which compromise the validity of their results. Methods that explicitly test the hypothesis and establish whether or not a causal relationship exists between compensation factors and prolonged whiplash symptoms are needed in future studies.

  2. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora L; Tinker, M Tim; Estes, James A; Koch, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ(15)N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ(15)N values increased throughout life, 2) δ(15)N values increased to a plateau at ∼5 years of age, and 3) δ(15)N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ(13)C(shark-diet) and Δ(15)N(shark-diet) equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and

  3. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.L.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, J.A.; Koch, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ15N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ15N values increased throughout life, 2) δ15N values increased to a plateau at ~5 years of age, and 3) δ15N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ13Cshark-diet and Δ15Nshark-diet equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and individual dietary

  4. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora L Kim

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level, as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ(15N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1 δ(15N values increased throughout life, 2 δ(15N values increased to a plateau at ∼5 years of age, and 3 δ(15N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ(13C(shark-diet and Δ(15N(shark-diet equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively. We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%, within-individuals (40%, and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%. Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and

  5. Successful Organizational Strategies to Sustain Use of A-CHESS: A Mobile Intervention for Individuals With Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James H; Alagoz, Esra; Dinauer, Susan; Johnson, Kimberly A; Pe-Romashko, Klaren; Gustafson, David H

    2015-08-18

    Mobile health (mHealth) services are growing in importance in health care research with the advancement of wireless networks, tablets, and mobile phone technologies. These technologies offer a wide range of applications that cover the spectrum of health care delivery. Although preliminary experiments in mHealth demonstrate promising results, more robust real-world evidence is needed for widespread adoption and sustainment of these technologies. Our aim was to identify the problems/challenges associated with sustained use of an mHealth addiction recovery support app and to determine strategies used by agencies that successfully sustained client use of A-CHESS. Qualitative inquiry assessed staff perceptions about organizational attributes and strategies associated with sustained use of the mobile app, A-CHESS. A total of 73 interviews of clinicians and administrators were conducted. The initial interviews (n=36) occurred at the implementation of A-CHESS. Follow-up interviews (n=37) occurred approximately 12 and 24 months later. A coding scheme was developed and Multiuser NVivo was used to manage and analyze the blinded interview data. Successful strategies used by treatment providers to sustain A-CHESS included (1) strong leadership support, (2) use of client feedback reports to follow up on non-engaged clients, (3) identify passionate staff and incorporate A-CHESS discussions in weekly meetings, (4) develop A-CHESS guidelines related to client use, (5) establish internal work groups to engage clients, and (6) establish a financial strategy to sustain A-CHESS use. The study also identified attributes of A-CHESS that enhanced as well as inhibited its sustainability. Mobile apps can play an important role in health care delivery. However, providers will need to develop strategies for engaging both staff and patients in ongoing use of the apps. They will also need to rework business processes to accommodate the changes in communication frequency and style, learn to use

  6. Joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining with feedback error compensation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seyeong

    2009-11-01

    This letter investigates the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of error-free feedback channels. We also propose to utilize adaptive diversity to compensate for the performance degradation due to feedback error. We accurately quantify the performance of the joint AMDC scheme in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average number of combined paths, the average spectral efficiency, and the average bit error rate. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. It is observed that the proposed compensation strategy can offer considerable error performance improvement with little loss in processing power and spectral efficiency in comparison with the no compensation case. Copyright © 2009 IEEE.

  7. Joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining with feedback error compensation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seyeong; Hong-Chuan, Yang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2009-01-01

    This letter investigates the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of error-free feedback channels. We also propose to utilize adaptive diversity to compensate for the performance degradation due to feedback error. We accurately quantify the performance of the joint AMDC scheme in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average number of combined paths, the average spectral efficiency, and the average bit error rate. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. It is observed that the proposed compensation strategy can offer considerable error performance improvement with little loss in processing power and spectral efficiency in comparison with the no compensation case. Copyright © 2009 IEEE.

  8. Gauging the gaps in student problem-solving skills: assessment of individual and group use of problem-solving strategies using online discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L; Mitchell, Steven M; Osgood, Marcy P

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.

  9. Compensating citizens for poor service delivery: experimental research in public and private settings

    OpenAIRE

    Thomassen, JP; Leliveld, MC; Van de Walle, Steven; Ahaus, K

    2017-01-01

    After a service failure, citizens expect a recovery strategy that restores perceived justice and places a reasonable value on their loss. Offering monetary compensation is a strategy commonly used in private settings, but less so in public settings. To date compensation effects have not been researched in public settings. To investigate citizens’ evaluations of perceived justice, negative emotions and post-recovery satisfaction we used a 2 (sector: public, private) by 2 (compensation promised...

  10. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Simon, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed.

  11. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Simon, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed. (orig.)

  12. Software compensation in particle flow reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Huong Lan; Krueger, Katja; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-10-01

    The particle flow approach to calorimetry benefits from highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analogue energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in particle flow reconstruction with the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). The impact of software compensation on the choice of optimal transverse granularity for the analogue hadronic calorimeter option of the International Large Detector (ILD) concept is also discussed.

  13. Maintaining Professional Relationships in an Interdisciplinary Setting: Strategies for Navigating Nonbehavioral Treatment Recommendations for Individuals with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhead, Matthew T

    2015-05-01

    Due to an increase in research and clinical application of behavior analysis with individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one setting a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) may work within is an interdisciplinary setting, where multiple disciplines collaborate to improve the outcomes of individuals with ASD. In some cases, nonbehavioral colleagues could recommend nonbehavioral treatments, setting the occasion for the BCBA to offer an alternative treatment to or question the nonbehavioral treatment. However, excessive questioning or critiques of nonbehavioral treatments by the BCBA may unintentionally erode professional relationships between the BCBA and their nonbehavioral colleagues. Because an erosion of professional relationships may occur when a BCBA questions a nonbehavioral treatment, a decision-making model for determining whether or not the proposed nonbehavioral treatment is worth addressing may be useful. The purpose of this paper is to outline such a decision-making model in order to assist the BCBA in assessing nonbehavioral treatments while maintaining an ethical balance between professional relationships and the well-being and safety of the individual with ASD. Such a model could assist the BCBA in becoming familiar with the proposed treatment, understanding the perspective of the nonbehavioral colleague and assessing the negative impacts the treatment could have on the individual with ASD. With this information, the BCBA will be in a better position to decide whether or not addressing the nonbehavioral treatment is worth the possibility of eroding a professional relationship.

  14. Social Goals and Conflict Strategies of Individuals with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities Who Present Problems of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A few recent studies have adopted a social cognitive perspective to explore how individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs), who present problems of aggression, view their social world. The focus has mainly been on participants' perceptions of others' behaviour within conflict situations. The present exploratory study aims to…

  15. Standard compensation for power cuts. Working group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The Working Group was commissioned to draw up a proposal in the form of a Government Bill for provisions to be included in the Electricity Market Act on imposing an obligation on the distribution net operator to pay a standard compensation to the users of electricity for the event that they get no access to electricity. The Working Group should consider especially a model of standard compensation presented in the final report by Mr. Jarl Forsten, Deputy Director General of the Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT, published on 30 April 2002 that the amount of standard compensation should not depend on the reason for the power cut. The Working Group proposes that the Electricity Market Act should be amended by provisions providing that a distribution net operator shall pay to the user of electricity a standard compensation for power cuts lasting over 12 hours. The amount of compensation shall be based on the annual network service fee and a sliding scale of compensation related to the duration of the power cut shall be applied. The maximum compensation shall be paid when the power cut lasts more than five days. The maximum amount of individual compensations shall be fixed at EUR 700. The proposed provisions on standard compensation in the event of power cuts are aimed at amending the provisions in Chapter 6a of the Electricity Market Act on price reduction and compensation because of fault in the supply of electricity. The aim of the introduction of standard compensation for power cuts is to persuade distribution net operators to make an effort to minimize the time for power cuts. (orig.)

  16. A Feed-forward Geometrical Compensation and Adaptive Feedback Control Algorithm for Hydraulic Robot Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Zhou, Jianjun; Gabacik, Andrzej

    1998-01-01

    Invited paper presents a new control algorithm based on feed-forward geometrical compensation strategy combined with adaptive feedback control.......Invited paper presents a new control algorithm based on feed-forward geometrical compensation strategy combined with adaptive feedback control....

  17. Compensating citizens for poor service delivery : Experimental research in public and private settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Jean Pierre; Leliveld, Marijke C.; Van de Walle, Steven; Ahaus, Kees

    2017-01-01

    After a service failure, citizens expect a recovery strategy that restores perceived justice and places a reasonable value on their loss. Offering monetary compensation is a strategy commonly used in private settings, but less so in public settings. To date, compensation effects have not been

  18. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  19. Approaching the Hard-to-Reach in Organized Colorectal Cancer Screening: an Overview of Individual, Provider and System Level Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Liwen Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the proven effectiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC screening on reduction of CRC mortality, the uptake of CRC screening remains low. Participation rate is one of determinants for the success of organized population-based screening program. This review aims to identify those who are hard-to-reach, and summarize the strategies to increase their screening rate from individual, provider and system levels. Methods: A systematic search of electronic English databases was conducted on the factors and strategies of uptake in CRC screening for the hard-to-reach population up to May 2017. Discussion: The coverage rate and participation rate are two indexes to identify the hard-to-reach population in organized CRC screening program. However, the homeless, new immigrants, people with severe mental illness, the jail intimates, and people with characteristics including lower education levels and/or low socioeconomic status, living in rural/remote areas, without insurance, and racial minorities are usually recognized as hard-to-reach populations. For them, organized screening programs offer a better coverage, while novel invitation approaches for eligible individuals and multiple strategies from primary care physicians are still needed to enhance screening rates among subjects who are hard-to-reach. Suggestions implied the effectiveness of interventions at the system level, including linkages to general practice; use of decision making tools; enlisting supports from coalition; and the continuum from screening to diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion: Organized CRC screening offers a system access to approach the hard-to-reach populations. To increase their uptake, multiple and novel strategies from individual, provider and system levels should be applied. For policymakers, public healthcare providers and community stakeholders, it is a test to tailor their potential needs and increase their participation rates through continuous efforts to

  20. Vexatious Litigants and the ADA: Strategies to Fairly Address the Need to Improve Access for Individuals with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Helia Garrido

    2016-01-01

    This Article addresses the need to reform the ADA to prevent vexatious litigation and to promote the underlying goals of the Act. Part I of this Article introduces the topic of vexatious litigation and the importance of remedying the effects of exploitation of the ADA. Part II provides an overview of the ADA and its efforts to increase accessibility to individuals with disabilities, emphasizing the provisions of the Act that create incentives to engage in vexatious litigation. Part III examines and analyzes the judiciary's response to vexatious litigation under the ADA, and sanctions that have been issued to limit exploitation. Finally, Part IV provides recommendations to reform the ADA and state disability law counterparts, suggests corrective actions to address vexatious litigation, and identifies methods to promote equality for individuals with disabilities.

  1. Vexatious Litigants and the ADA: Strategies to Fairly Address the Need to Improve Access for Individuals with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Helia

    2018-01-01

    Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy: Vol. 26 : Iss. 1 , Article 2. The Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) is recognized as one of the most significant pieces of civil rights legislation in American history and is aimed at protecting the rights of individuals with disabilities. Unfortunately, as the ADA has developed, some attorneys have exposed methods of exploiting the provisions of the ADA for personal, pecuniary benefits—fee-driven lawsuits for violations of plaintiff-friendly pr...

  2. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E.; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A.; Pentel, Paul R.; LeSage, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. Methods The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self- administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Results Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. PMID:25891231

  3. Blood pressure-lowering treatment strategies based on cardiovascular risk versus blood pressure: A meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Kunal N; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; van der Leeuw, Joep; Goff, David C; Yusuf, Salim; Zanchetti, Alberto; Glasziou, Paul; Jackson, Rodney; Woodward, Mark; Rodgers, Anthony; Neal, Bruce C; Berge, Eivind; Teo, Koon; Davis, Barry R; Chalmers, John; Pepine, Carl; Rahimi, Kazem; Sundström, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Clinical practice guidelines have traditionally recommended blood pressure treatment based primarily on blood pressure thresholds. In contrast, using predicted cardiovascular risk has been advocated as a more effective strategy to guide treatment decisions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. We aimed to compare outcomes from a blood pressure-lowering treatment strategy based on predicted cardiovascular risk with one based on systolic blood pressure (SBP) level. We used individual participant data from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (BPLTTC) from 1995 to 2013. Trials randomly assigned participants to either blood pressure-lowering drugs versus placebo or more intensive versus less intensive blood pressure-lowering regimens. We estimated 5-y risk of CVD events using a multivariable Weibull model previously developed in this dataset. We compared the two strategies at specific SBP thresholds and across the spectrum of risk and blood pressure levels studied in BPLTTC trials. The primary outcome was number of CVD events avoided per persons treated. We included data from 11 trials (47,872 participants). During a median of 4.0 y of follow-up, 3,566 participants (7.5%) experienced a major cardiovascular event. Areas under the curve comparing the two treatment strategies throughout the range of possible thresholds for CVD risk and SBP demonstrated that, on average, a greater number of CVD events would be avoided for a given number of persons treated with the CVD risk strategy compared with the SBP strategy (area under the curve 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.72] for the CVD risk strategy versus 0.54 [95% CI 0.53-0.55] for the SBP strategy). Compared with treating everyone with SBP ≥ 150 mmHg, a CVD risk strategy would require treatment of 29% (95% CI 26%-31%) fewer persons to prevent the same number of events or would prevent 16% (95% CI 14%-18%) more events for the same number of persons treated. Compared with treating

  4. Blood pressure-lowering treatment strategies based on cardiovascular risk versus blood pressure: A meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal N Karmali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice guidelines have traditionally recommended blood pressure treatment based primarily on blood pressure thresholds. In contrast, using predicted cardiovascular risk has been advocated as a more effective strategy to guide treatment decisions for cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. We aimed to compare outcomes from a blood pressure-lowering treatment strategy based on predicted cardiovascular risk with one based on systolic blood pressure (SBP level.We used individual participant data from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (BPLTTC from 1995 to 2013. Trials randomly assigned participants to either blood pressure-lowering drugs versus placebo or more intensive versus less intensive blood pressure-lowering regimens. We estimated 5-y risk of CVD events using a multivariable Weibull model previously developed in this dataset. We compared the two strategies at specific SBP thresholds and across the spectrum of risk and blood pressure levels studied in BPLTTC trials. The primary outcome was number of CVD events avoided per persons treated. We included data from 11 trials (47,872 participants. During a median of 4.0 y of follow-up, 3,566 participants (7.5% experienced a major cardiovascular event. Areas under the curve comparing the two treatment strategies throughout the range of possible thresholds for CVD risk and SBP demonstrated that, on average, a greater number of CVD events would be avoided for a given number of persons treated with the CVD risk strategy compared with the SBP strategy (area under the curve 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.70-0.72] for the CVD risk strategy versus 0.54 [95% CI 0.53-0.55] for the SBP strategy. Compared with treating everyone with SBP ≥ 150 mmHg, a CVD risk strategy would require treatment of 29% (95% CI 26%-31% fewer persons to prevent the same number of events or would prevent 16% (95% CI 14%-18% more events for the same number of persons treated. Compared with

  5. Compensating for the harms of family violence: statutory barriers in Australian victims of crime compensation schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the compensative capacity of the victims of crime statutory schemes that are present in all eight Australian jurisdictions for primary victims of family violence. It argues that the recommendations of the Final Report on Family Violence conducted jointly by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 2010, although a positive step, are insufficient to facilitate meaningful compensation to victims of family violence. In addition to the primary limitations identified by the Commissions--a requirement to report the crime to the police within a reasonable time and a requirement for multiple acts of violence to be reduced to a single act if they are related--there are other statutory barriers that disproportionately disadvantage victims of family violence. These include time limitation provisions, a requirement to report the crime to police, the restriction of compensation to prescribed categories of loss which exclude many of the social, vocational, emotional and psychological harms suffered by victims of family violence, and significant cut-backs on the non-economic component of the schemes. This article further argues that the statutory barriers cumulatively contribute to the perception of a crime as an isolated event perpetrated by a deviant individual. The article recommends that specific provisions for family violence victims should be introduced into all schemes including three categories of compensation not tied to criminal offences but rather the different forms of family violence, with a generous compensation range, and no requirement for proof of injury.

  6. [Susceptibility to strategy of the drug component of the IPHCC+RxGroups classification system in a risk-adjusted morbidity compensation scheme--a conceptional and data-supported analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, C; Felder, S; Busse, R

    2007-01-01

    A report commissioned by the German Ministry of Health recommends to the existing scheme for calculating risk-adjusted transfers to sickness funds supplement with the IPHCC+RxGroups method. The method is based on inpatient diagnoses and prescribed drugs as health status measures deduced from prior use. The present study investigates the sickness fund's expected net return from gaming based on the drug component of the risk adjuster. The study explores three possible strategies using the RxGroups method. For the stimulations, insurees are assigned to additional indications or to higher valued RxGroups within the same indication. Then, costs and financial benefits attributable to the altered drug use are estimated and compared with the status quo. The study uses 2000 and 2001 sample data of more than 370,000 insurees of Germany's company-based sickness funds system (BKK). While upgrading increases overall costs, it can be beneficial for the individual sickness funds. Their net return crucially depends on the number of sickness funds gaming the system: the more participating in the game, the smaller is the average net return. Moreover, not participating often is even worse, which in turn points to a prisoner's dilemma. When extending the risk adjustment scheme in social health insurance, the German legislator should take into account the perverse incentives of risk adjusters such as the described prescription drug model.

  7. Stock-based Compensation Plans and Employee Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Zabojnik

    2014-01-01

    Standard principal-agent theory predicts that large firms should not use employee stock options and other stock-based compensation to provide incentives to non-executive employees. Yet, business practitioners appear to believe that stock-based compensation improves incentives, and mounting empirical evidence points to the same conclusion. This paper provides an explanation for why stock-based incentives can be effective. In the model of this paper, employee stock options complement individual...

  8. Takeovers and (Excess) CEO Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Renneboog, Luc

    2017-01-01

    We study if a CEO’s equity-based compensation affects the expected value generation in takeovers. When the objectives of management and shareholders are more aligned, as proxied by the use of equity-based compensation, more value-maximizing acquisitions are expected. Whereas in widely-held firms the

  9. Takeovers and (excess) CEO compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feito Ruiz, Isabel; Renneboog, Luc

    We study if a CEO’s equity-based compensation affects the expected value generation in takeovers. When the objectives of management and shareholders are more aligned, as proxied by the use of equity-based compensation, more value-maximizing acquisitions are expected. Whereas in widely-held firms the

  10. Study on Compensation Control of STATCOM Based on MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced modular multi-level converter (MMC, which could enhance the voltage and power level by sub-converter modules in series and was easy to extend to any level of output. Its structure and working mechanism were described. By analyzing the energy transfer performance of STATCOM based on MMC working conditions in the compensation, a comprehensive compensation control strategy was proposed based on direct current control mode. By analyzing the higher harmonic components circulation generated by the inconsistencies in the three-phase upper and lower arm voltage, a loop control strategy is proposed for the suppression of the circulation in the arms of the M-STATCOM. The simulation results show the strategy has a better tracking precision and response speed for the compensation control.

  11. Distrust as a Disease-Avoidance Strategy:Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Aarøe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly. Empirically, we utilise two convenience samples and a large nationally representative sample of US citizens to demonstrate the existence of a robust and replicable effect of individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalised social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalised social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.

  12. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  13. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: improving access to psychosocial care for individuals with persistent pain: supporting the National Pain Strategy's call for interdisciplinary pain care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, E Amy; Cheatle, Martin; Keefe, Francis J; Dhingra, Lara

    2018-03-01

    Policy makers have articulated a need for clear, evidence-based guidance to help inform pain policy. Persistent pain is common, expensive, and debilitating, and requires comprehensive assessment and treatment planning. Recently released opioid prescribing guidelines by the CDC (2016) emphasize the importance of using nonopioid therapies before considering opioid treatment for those without a malignant illness. The National Pain Strategy (2016) underscores the importance of comprehensive, interdisciplinary pain care. Unfortunately, despite persuasive evidence supporting the efficacy of psychosocial approaches, these interventions are inaccessible to the majority of Americans. Psychosocial approaches to pain management should be available for all individuals with persistent pain and in all health care settings and contexts as part of the comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to pain care as outlined in the National Pain Strategy. To achieve this, we must prioritize reimbursement of evidence-based psychosocial approaches for pain assessment and management and improve provider training and competencies to implement these approaches.

  14. Static synchronous compensator (Statcom) for dynamic reactive-compensation of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Soebrink, Kent

    2006-01-15

    This paper reviews the common control characteristics of a Statcom and presents the control strategies which may be applied for compensation of large wind farms. The Statcom's control and protection are modelled with the simulation tool Powerfactory (DigSilent). The analysis evaluates (i) a realistic test grid containing local wind turbines in the distribution network, and (ii) a large offshore windfarm connected to the transmission system. (Author)

  15. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Driga, M.D.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  16. Stabilized thermally compensated mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, C. III; Tobin, R.D.; Bergstreser, N.E.; Heinz, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally compensated mirror is described that is formed by a laminated structure. The structure is comprised of a front plate having a reflective front surface and having a plurality of grooves formed in the rear surface for conducting coolant fluid in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface, a rear plate having coolant inlet and coolant outlet openings extending therethrough, a minimum temperature plate interposed between said front and rear plates and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution passageways coupled to receive coolant fluid from said coolant inlet and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a minimum temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, a temperature stabilization plate interposed between said front plate and said minimum temperature plate and formed with a plurality of coolant distribution channels coupled to receive said coolant fluid after said coolant fluid has passed in heat exchanging relation with said reflective surface and oriented to distribute said coolant fluid in a manner to establish a uniform temperature plane parallel to said reflective surface, and means for circulating said coolant fluid through said structure in a predetermined path. (U.S.)

  17. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  18. Language Attitudes, Language Learning Experiences and Individual Strategies What Does School Offer and What Does It Lack?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tódor Erika-Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Language learners’ attitudes towards the language and its speakers greatly influence the language learning process and the learning outcomes. Previous research and studies on attitudes and motivation in language learning (Csizér 2007, Dörnyei 2009 show that attitudes and motivation are strongly intertwined. Positive attitude towards the language and its speakers can lead to increased motivation, which then results in better learning achievement and a positive attitude towards learning the language. The aim of the present study was to get a better insight into what regards the language attitudes of students attending Hungarian minority schools in Romania. The interest of the study lies in students’ attitudes towards the different languages, the factors/criteria along which they express their language attitudes, students’ learning experiences and strategies that they consider efficient and useful in order to acquire a language. Results suggest that students’ attitudes are determined by their own experiences of language use, and in this sense we can differentiate between a language for identification – built upon specific emotional, affective, and cognitive factors – and language for communication.

  19. Analysis of pairwise correlations in multi-parametric PET/MR data for biological tumor characterization and treatment individualization strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfarth, Sara; Moennich, David; Thorwarth, Daniela [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section for Biomedical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Simoncic, Urban [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section for Biomedical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Welz, Stefan; Zips, Daniel [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Schmidt, Holger; Schwenzer, Nina [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this pilot study was to explore simultaneous functional PET/MR for biological characterization of tumors and potential future treatment adaptations. To investigate the extent of complementarity between different PET/MR-based functional datasets, a pairwise correlation analysis was performed. Functional datasets of N=15 head and neck (HN) cancer patients were evaluated. For patients of group A (N=7), combined PET/MR datasets including FDG-PET and ADC maps were available. Patients of group B (N=8) had FMISO-PET, DCE-MRI and ADC maps from combined PET/MRI, an additional dynamic FMISO-PET/CT acquired directly after FMISO tracer injection as well as an FDG-PET/CT acquired a few days earlier. From DCE-MR, parameter maps K{sup trans}, v{sub e} and v{sub p} were obtained with the extended Tofts model. Moreover, parameter maps of mean DCE enhancement, ΔS{sub DCE}, and mean FMISO signal 0-4 min p.i., anti A{sub FMISO}, were derived. Pairwise correlations were quantified using the Spearman correlation coefficient (r) on both a voxel and a regional level within the gross tumor volume. Between some pairs of functional imaging modalities moderate correlations were observed with respect to the median over all patient datasets, whereas distinct correlations were only present on an individual basis. Highest inter-modality median correlations on the voxel level were obtained for FDG/FMISO (r = 0.56), FDG/ anti A{sub FMISO} (r = 0.55), anti A{sub FMISO}/ΔS{sub DCE} (r = 0.46), and FDG/ADC (r = -0.39). Correlations on the regional level showed comparable results. The results of this study suggest that the examined functional datasets provide complementary information. However, only pairwise correlations were examined, and correlations could still exist between combinations of three or more datasets. These results might contribute to the future design of individually adapted treatment approaches based on multiparametric functional imaging.

  20. Harmonic currents Compensator Grid-Connected Inverter at the Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, A.; Naderipour, A.; Habibuddin, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    The main challenge associated with the grid-connected inverter in distributed generation (DG) systems is to maintain the harmonic contents in output current below the specified values and compensates for unbalanced loads even when the grid is subject to disturbances such as harmonic distortion...... and unbalanced loads. To overcome these challenges, a current control strategy for a three-phase grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions is presented. It enables grid-connected inverter by the proposed control method to inject balanced clean currents to the grid even when the local...... loads are unbalanced and/or nonlinear and also compensate of the harmonic currents and control the active and reactive power. The main advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic currents content of the grid current and microgrid without using any compensation...

  1. Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery

    CERN Document Server

    Ernst, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery outlines the techniques needed to accurately track and compensate for respiratory and pulsatory motion during robotic radiosurgery. The algorithms presented within the book aid in the treatment of tumors that move during respiration. In Chapters 1 and 2,  the book introduces the concept of stereotactic body radiation therapy, motion compensation strategies and the clinical state-of-the-art. In Chapters 3 through 5, the author describes and evaluates new methods for motion prediction, for correlating external motion to internal organ motion, and for the evaluation of these algorithms’ output based on an unprecedented amount of real clinical data. Finally, Chapter 6 provides a brief introduction into currently investigated, open questions and further fields of research. Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery targets researchers working in the related fields of surgical oncology, artificial intelligence, robotics and more. ...

  2. Skew quad compensation at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.

    1977-10-01

    Rotational and focal effects of solenoids used in PEP detectors will cause severe perturbations of machine beam optics and must be corrected. Ordinarily this would be accomplished by the addition of compensating solenoids and adjustment of insertion quadrupole strengths. It has been found that an arbitrary cross plane coupling representing the effects of solenoids and/or skew quads in any combination can be synthesized (or compensated) exactly using a quartet of skew quads combined with other erect transport elements in a wide variety of configurations. Specific skew quad compensating systems for PEP have been designed and are under study by PEP staff. So far no fundamental flaws have been discovered. In view of that, PEP management has tentatively authorized the use of such a system in the PEP-4, PEP-9 experiments and proposes to leave the question open ''without prejudice'' for other experiments. Use of skew quad compensation involves an imponderable risk, of course, simply because the method is new and untested. But in addition to providing the only known method for dealing with skew quad perturbations, skew quad compensation, as an alternate to compensating solenoids, promises to be much cheaper, to require much less power and to occupy much less space in the IR's. The purpose of this note is to inform potential users of the foregoing situation and to explain skew quad compensation more fully. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. A primer for workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Spengler, Dan M; Mir, Hassan R

    2014-07-01

    A physician's role within a workers' compensation injury extends far beyond just evaluation and treatment with several socioeconomic and psychological factors at play compared with similar injuries occurring outside of the workplace. Although workers' compensation statutes vary among states, all have several basic features with the overall goal of returning the injured worker to maximal function in the shortest time period, with the least residual disability and shortest time away from work. To help physicians unfamiliar with the workers' compensation process accomplish these goals. Review. Educational review. The streamlined review addresses the topics of why is workers' compensation necessary; what does workers' compensation cover; progression after work injury; impairment and maximum medical improvement, including how to use the sixth edition of American Medical Association's (AMA) Guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment (Guides); completion of work injury claim after impairment rating; independent medical evaluation; and causation. In the "no-fault" workers' compensation system, physicians play a key role in progressing the claim along and, more importantly, getting the injured worker back to work as soon as safely possible. Physicians should remain familiar with the workers' compensation process, along with how to properly use the AMA Guides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased mortality exposure within the family rather than individual mortality experiences triggers faster life-history strategies in historic human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory predicts that extrinsic mortality risk is one of the most important factors shaping (human) life histories. Evidence from contemporary populations suggests that individuals confronted with high mortality environments show characteristic traits of fast life-history strategies: they marry and reproduce earlier, have shorter birth intervals and invest less in their offspring. However, little is known of the impact of mortality experiences on the speed of life histories in historical human populations with generally higher mortality risk, and on male life histories in particular. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether individual-level mortality experiences within the family have a greater effect on life-history decisions or family membership explains life-history variation. In a comparative approach using event history analyses, we study the impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within the natal family up to an individual's age of 15. Results show that the speed of life histories is not adjusted according to individual-level mortality experiences but is due to family-level effects. The general finding of lower ages at marriage/reproduction after exposure to higher mortality in the family holds for both females and males. This study provides evidence for the importance of the family environment for reproductive timing while individual-level mortality experiences seem to play only a minor role in reproductive life history decisions in humans.

  5. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute conference on compensation and benefit strategies for the energy and resource sectors : explore total rewards and gain a competitive edge while preserving the bottom line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference focused on the the role that compensation and benefits packages play in attracting new employees and retaining them in today's tight labour market. Methods of creating competitive compensation and benefits packages were described by leading human resource experts from across Canada. The conference also presented creative ways to compete for workers and to lower the rate of employee turnover by improving the work environment. The need for creative benefits solutions within the framework of established collective agreements was also reviewed. The legal ramifications involved in drug testing were identified along with information on both company and employee rights. The presentations emphasized the need for effective communications between employees and management to engage employees, and clarified why different demographics present unique challenges that require particular solutions. The conference included a learning session on improving corporate immigration policy and best practices in attracting and retaining an Aboriginal workforce. One of the 12 presentations featured at this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. figs.

  6. Altitude Compensating Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Jones, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The dual-bell nozzle (fig. 1) is an altitude-compensating nozzle that has an inner contour consisting of two overlapped bells. At low altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle operates in mode 1, only utilizing the smaller, first bell of the nozzle. In mode 1, the nozzle flow separates from the wall at the inflection point between the two bell contours. As the vehicle reaches higher altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle flow transitions to mode 2, to flow full into the second, larger bell. This dual-mode operation allows near optimal expansion at two altitudes, enabling a higher mission average specific impulse (Isp) relative to that of a conventional, single-bell nozzle. Dual-bell nozzles have been studied analytically and subscale nozzle tests have been completed.1 This higher mission averaged Isp can provide up to a 5% increase2 in payload to orbit for existing launch vehicles. The next important step for the dual-bell nozzle is to confirm its potential in a relevant flight environment. Toward this end, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) have been working to develop a subscale, hot-fire, dual-bell nozzle test article for flight testing on AFRC's F15-D flight test bed (figs. 2 and 3). Flight test data demonstrating a dual-bell ability to control the mode transition and result in a sufficient increase in a rocket's mission averaged Isp should help convince the launch service providers that the dual-bell nozzle would provide a return on the required investment to bring a dual-bell into flight operation. The Game Changing Department provided 0.2 FTE to ER42 for this effort in 2014.

  7. From individual coping strategies to illness codification: the reflection of gender in social science research on multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Geneviève; Lippel, Katherine

    2014-09-10

    Emerging fields such as environmental health have been challenged, in recent years, to answer the growing methodological calls for a finer integration of sex and gender in health-related research and policy-making. Through a descriptive examination of 25 peer-reviewed social science papers published between 1996 and 2011, we explore, by examining methodological designs and theoretical standpoints, how the social sciences have integrated gender sensitivity in empirical work on Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS). MCS is a "diagnosis" associated with sensitivities to chronic and low-dose chemical exposures, which remains contested in both the medical and institutional arenas, and is reported to disproportionately affect women. We highlighted important differences between papers that did integrate a gender lens and those that did not. These included characteristics of the authorship, purposes, theoretical frameworks and methodological designs of the studies. Reviewed papers that integrated gender tended to focus on the gender roles and identity of women suffering from MCS, emphasizing personal strategies of adaptation. More generally, terminological confusions in the use of sex and gender language and concepts, such as a conflation of women and gender, were observed. Although some men were included in most of the study samples reviewed, specific data relating to men was undereported in results and only one paper discussed issues specifically experienced by men suffering from MCS. Papers that overlooked gender dimensions generally addressed more systemic social issues such as the dynamics of expertise and the medical codification of MCS, from more consistently outlined theoretical frameworks. Results highlight the place for a critical, systematic and reflexive problematization of gender and for the development of methodological and theoretical tools on how to integrate gender in research designs when looking at both micro and macro social dimensions of environmental

  8. What Constitutes Fair Compensation for Unfair Dismissal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Generally the monetary compensation is perceived to be a solatium. 19 .... compensation for non-patrimonial loss in the context of an unfair labour practice. 41 .... awards of compensation where a person's dignity is impaired in the course of an.

  9. Good social skills despite poor theory of mind: exploring compensation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Lucy Anne; Colvert, Emma; Bolton, Patrick; Happé, Francesca

    2018-03-26

    It is proposed that some individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can 'compensate' for their underlying difficulties (e.g. in theory of mind; ToM), thus demonstrating relatively few behavioural symptoms, despite continued core cognitive deficits. The mechanisms underpinning compensation are largely unexplored, as is its potential impact on mental health. This study aimed to estimate compensation patterns in ASD, by contrasting overt social behaviour with ToM task performance, in order to compare the characteristics of 'Low' and 'High' Compensators. A total of 136 autistic adolescents, from the ongoing Social Relationships Study, completed a range of cognitive tasks, the Autistic Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and a self-report anxiety questionnaire. Participants were assigned compensation group status; High Compensators demonstrated good ADOS scores despite poor ToM performance, while Low Compensators demonstrated similarly poor ToM, accompanied by poor ADOS scores. High Compensators demonstrated better IQ and executive function (EF), but greater self-reported anxiety, compared with Low Compensators. Such differences were not found when comparing individuals who had good versus poor ADOS scores, when ToM performance was good. Other core autistic characteristics (weak central coherence, nonsocial symptoms) did not differentiate the High and Low Compensators. IQ, EF and anxiety appear to be implicated in the processes by which certain autistic young people can compensate for their underlying ToM difficulties. This tendency to compensate does not appear to reflect the severity of 'hit' for ASD per se, suggesting that well-compensated individuals are not experiencing a milder form of ASD. The construct of compensation in ASD has implications for research and clinical practice. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Compensative hypertrophy of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    Several measurement methods are available to practitioners to reveal a compensative hypertrophy. Mensuration of the kidney has the advantage of simplicity but is in fact an unreliable and inaccurate method. Separate clearances in their traditional form have never entered into routine use because of the disadvantages of ureteral catheterism. The use of radioactive tracers avoids this drawback, but clearances calculated in this way are only valid in the absence of obstructive urinary disorders. Solutions have been proposed, but the values obtained are no longer identical with the clearances. The Hg uptake test quantifies quite accurately the function of each kidney. From the results obtained a complete compensative hypertrophy developed on a healthy kidney and an incomplete compensative hypertrophy developed on the diseased kidney have been described. In each of these situations the degree to which compensative hypertrophy develops seems to be fixed at a given level peculiar to each patient [fr

  11. 28 CFR 104.51 - Payments to eligible individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Payment of Claims § 104.51 Payments to eligible individuals. Not later than 20 days... compensation due a claimant under the Fund, the Special Master shall authorize payment to such claimant of the...

  12. Using GAMM to examine inter-individual heterogeneity in thermal performance curves for Natrix natrix indicates bet hedging strategy by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mathew J; Aubret, Fabien; Coulon, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    The thermal performance curve (TPC) illustrates the dependence on body- and therefore environmental- temperature of many fitness-related aspects of ectotherm ecology and biology including foraging, growth, predator avoidance, and reproduction. The typical thermal performance curve model is linear in its parameters despite the well-known, strong, non-linearity of the response of performance to temperature. In addition, it is usual to consider a single model based on few individuals as descriptive of a species-level response to temperature. To overcome these issues, we used generalized additive mixed modeling (GAMM) to estimate thermal performance curves for 73 individual hatchling Natrix natrix grass snakes from seven clutches, taking advantage of the structure of GAMM to demonstrate that almost 16% of the deviance in thermal performance curves is attributed to inter-individual variation, while only 1.3% is attributable to variation amongst clutches. GAMM allows precise estimation of curve characteristics, which we used to test hypotheses on tradeoffs thought to constrain the thermal performance curve: hotter is better, the specialist-generalist trade off, and resource allocation/acquisition. We observed a negative relationship between maximum performance and performance breadth, indicating a specialist-generalist tradeoff, and a positive relationship between thermal optimum and maximum performance, suggesting "hotter is better". There was a significant difference among matrilines in the relationship between Area Under the Curve and maximum performance - relationship that is an indicator of evenness in acquisition or allocation of resources. As we used unfed hatchlings, the observed matriline effect indicates divergent breeding strategies among mothers, with some mothers provisioning eggs unequally resulting in some offspring being better than others, while other mothers provisioned the eggs more evenly, resulting in even performance throughout the clutch. This

  13. CEO Compensation and Disclosure Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weijia; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between CEO compensation and disclosure policy related to corporate governance information within S&P 500 index. Our sample consists of 456 companies for the period from 2005 to 2015. Most previous researchers mainly put their attention on various corporate governance characteristics such as board size, board independence, and executive ownership when analysing CEO compensation. Our paper extends the previous study by dividing corporate governance into...

  14. Neuroanatomy of the vmPFC and dlPFC predicts individual differences in cognitive regulation during dietary self-control across regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Tusche, Anita; Manoharan, Nicolas; Hutcherson, Cendri; Hare, Todd; Plassmann, Hilke

    2018-06-04

    Making healthy food choices is challenging for many people. Individuals differ greatly in their ability to follow health goals in the face of temptation, but it is unclear what underlies such differences. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated in healthy humans (i.e., men and women) links between structural variation in gray matter volume and individuals' level of success in shifting toward healthier food choices. We combined MRI and choice data into a joint dataset by pooling across three independent studies that employed a task prompting participants to explicitly focus on the healthiness of food items before making their food choices. Within this dataset, we found that individual differences in gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) predicted regulatory success. We extended and confirmed these initial findings by predicting regulatory success out of sample and across tasks in a second dataset requiring participants to apply a different regulation strategy that entailed distancing from cravings for unhealthy, appetitive foods. Our findings suggest that neuroanatomical markers in the vmPFC and dlPFC generalized to different forms of dietary regulation strategies across participant groups. They provide novel evidence that structural differences in neuroanatomy of two key regions for valuation and its control, the vmPFC and dlPFC, predict an individual's ability to exert control in dietary choices. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dieting involves regulating food choices in order to eat healthier foods and fewer unhealthy foods. People differ dramatically in their ability to achieve or maintain this regulation, but it is unclear why. Here, we show that individuals with more gray matter volume in the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are better at exercising dietary self-control. This relationship was observed across four different studies examining two different forms of dietary

  15. Mesothelioma incidence surveillance systems and claims for workers’ compensation. Epidemiological evidence and prospects for an integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinaccio Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and lethal tumour strongly associated with exposure to asbestos (mainly occupational. In Italy a large proportion of workers are protected from occupational diseases by public insurance and an epidemiological surveillance system for incident mesothelioma cases. Methods We set up an individual linkage between the Italian national mesothelioma register (ReNaM and the Italian workers’ compensation authority (INAIL archives. Logistic regression models were used to identify and test explanatory variables. Results We extracted 3270 mesothelioma cases with occupational origins from the ReNaM, matching them with 1625 subjects in INAIL (49.7%; 91.2% (1,482 of the claims received compensation. The risk of not seeking compensation is significantly higher for women and the elderly. Claims have increased significantly in recent years and there is a clear geographical gradient (northern and more developed regions having higher claims rates. The highest rates of compensation claims were after work known to involve asbestos. Conclusions Our data illustrate the importance of documentation and dissemination of all asbestos exposure modalities. Strategies focused on structural and systematic interaction between epidemiological surveillance and insurance systems are needed.

  16. The self-imagination effect: benefits of a self-referential encoding strategy on cued recall in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of oneself is preserved in many memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage. Therefore, cognitive strategies that capitalize on mechanisms related to the self may be particularly effective at enhancing memory in this population. The present study investigated the effect of "self-imagining," imagining an event from a personal perspective, on short and long delayed cued recall in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage. Sixteen patients intentionally encoded word pairs under four separate conditions: visual imagery, semantic elaboration, other person imagining, and self-imagining. The results revealed that self-imagining led to better performance than other-imagining, semantic elaboration, and visual imagery. Furthermore, the "self-imagination effect" (SIE) was preserved after a 30-min delay and was independent of memory functioning. These findings indicate that self-imagining provides a mnemonic advantage in brain-injured individuals, even those with relatively poor memory functioning, and suggest that self-imagining may tap into mnemonic mechanisms related to the self.

  17. [Psychosomatic stress factors in compensated and decompensated tinnitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobik, Corinna; Weber, Rainer K; Münte, Thomas F; Frommer, Jörg

    2003-08-01

    In modern medical practice, chronic decompensated tinnitus is defined as a complex psychosomatic process in which mental and social factors are considered to have a determining effect on the patient's subjective response to the impairment of otological or other somatic functions attributed to tinnitus. What is still largely unknown is the interaction of the individual factors and their impact on the patient's ability to cope with tinnitus. The impact of psycho-social and somatic factors on the subjective experience of patients with compensated and decompensated tinnitus is evaluated. 53 patients with chronic tinnitus were divided into two groups, compensated and decompensated, on the basis of their subjective experience of the disorder, established according to the tinnitus questionnaire published by Goebel and Hiller. Self-assessment instruments and a survey of symptoms of somatic stress disorders were used to compare the two groups in terms of differences in the patients' mental and psycho-social behaviour, in their strategies for coping with tinnitus and in the incidence of co-morbidity. The patients with decompensated tinnitus suffered from more pronounced mental and social disabilities, were more prone to depression and used less effective techniques to cope with their illness. The principal difference between the two groups, however, appeared to lie in a significantly higher degree of somatic multi-morbidity, where a particularly strong correlation was found between tinnitus and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and hypacusis. 81 percent of the total sample of patients suffered from impaired hearing. Patients with decompensated tinnitus experienced greater communication difficulties as a result of their auditory impairment. In the diagnosis and therapy of tinnitus, in addition to psychic and psycho-social aspects greater attention ought to be paid to somatic factors, influencing the patient's ability to cope with the disorder.

  18. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645 ns 'mini' bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have <1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1%/ms. This places a significant design burden on the current transformer; such a design is almost impossible to achieve. Extremely large expensive cores are needed to meet the low droop, while leakage inductance increases with size, thereby reducing the achievable rise time. In this paper, I discuss a digital compensation approach [M. Kesselman, Spallation neutron source beam current monitor electronics, PAC2001 June 18-22, 2001, Chicago, IL.] that extends the lower cut-off frequency of the current transformer, optimized for high frequency response, so that it can be used in this application with improvements in droop of the order of 1000:1. Transformer saturation (current-time product) is a separate issue and the transformer must be designed to handle the current-time product of the signal to assure it does not saturate

  19. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... filter system consisting of distributed passive filters and an active filter....... the active filter is responsible for the correction of the system unbalance and the cancellation of the remaining harmonics. The paper also analyzes the effects of the circuit configuration on the system impedance characteristics and consequently the effectiveness of the filter system. Simulation studies...

  20. STRATEGY OF VISUAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH INJURY TO THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT OF THE KNEE AND HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS (SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piontek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Knee joint dysfunction resulting from injury to the anterior crucial ligament (ACL is associated not only with mechanical joint instability but also with damage of ligamentous receptors responsible for the joint proprioception. It was found that disturbances of signals from the damaged joint produce disorders in movement perception and position of the analogous joint in the normal limb. This study is aimed at evaluating the control strategy in patients with an injury to the anterior crucial ligament.Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Subjects/Patients- 84 men, aged 15 to 55 years (mean age 27 years were included in this study. Methods- Patients were divided into two groups: those with unilateral injury to the ACL (33 patients and a control group of healthy volunteers (soccer players; 51 men. Anterior crucial ligament damage was confirmed with arthroscopic knee joint examination in every patient. The way of visual proprioceptive control was assessed with both dynamic (DRT and static (SRT Riva tests standing on one leg. Tests were performed with the Delos Postural Proprioceptive System (Delos s.r.l., Corso Lecce, Torino, Italy in the biomechanical evaluation laboratory at Rehasport Clinic in Poznań. Results: A statistically significant difference for deviations from the averaged axis in SRT (static Riva test with closed eyes was found between the limb with a damaged ACL and the normal limb in the group of patients with injury to the ACL (p=0.006 and between the limb with a damaged ACL and normal limbs in healthy volunteers (p=0.022. A statistically significant difference for deviations from the averaged axis in SRT with closed eyes was also found between the dominant and non-dominant limb in healthy volunteers (p=0.013. No significant differences in the results of tests with open eyes were noted. Conclusions: The results of systems and their contribution to the visual proprioceptive control suggest an important role of the

  1. Harmonic Resonance Damping with a Hybrid Compensation System in Power Systems with Dispersed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and a group of distributed passive filters has been studied previously. The passive filters are used for each distorting load or Dispersed Generation (DG) unit to remove major harmonics and provide reactive power compensation. The active...... filter is connected in parallel with the distributed passive filters and loads/DGs to correct the system unbalance and remove the remaining harmonic components. The effectiveness of the presented compensation system has also been demonstrated. This paper studies the performance of the hybrid compensation...... demonstrated that the harmonic resonance can be damped effectively. The hybrid filter system is an effective compensation system for dispersed generation systems. In the compensation system, the passive filters are mainly responsible for main harmonic and reactive power compensation of each individual load/ DG...

  2. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  3. The use of a compensator library to reduce dose inhomogeneity in tangential radiotherapy of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, Robin J.; Bliss, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: The dose variation throughout the volume of the breast from tangential fields can exceed 20% for large breasts. This is postulated to result in poor cosmesis [Radiother Oncol 16 (1989) 253], particularly at the inframammary fold, where the dose is highest. Compensators may be used to reduce this variation, but at the cost of the time to manufacture each unique compensator for the individual patients. This paper outlines the implementation and routine use of a library of reusable compensators. Materials and methods: For the period of December 1999 to May 2001, 94 patients attending for breast radiotherapy received treatment using breast compensators calculated from multiple outlines measured using the Osiris system. The compensators manufactured for the early patients were added to a library for possible reuse by later patients. Of the 94 patients, 28 patients' compensators formed the library and 66 subsequent patients have been treated using compensators derived from the library. Selection of the most appropriate library compensator was determined from the analysis of the distribution of the calculated dose-volume histogram for the whole breast, excluding lung, penumbra and build-up regions. Once the library was complete, approximately 50% of all subsequent breast patients were treated with compensators (46% from the library and 4% with individual compensators). This represented a usage rate of 92% for the library compensators for those patients requiring compensation. Results: In all cases the compensators reduced the variation in the dose distribution. For example, the group treated with a library compensator demonstrated a mean reduction from 29 to 9% for the volume of breast tissue receiving more than 5% greater than the reference dose. If the same patients had been treated using their own individual compensators, the corresponding value would have been 7%. There is a small systematic, but negligible, difference in the two populations of

  4. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    were never explicitly mentioned in permits, but in practice a ratio of 1:1 (often measured as area or length was usually applied. The compensation measures typically consisted in recreating the same kind of natural asset that was affected, in a location close to the damaged area. In the two cases specially studied, the road and railway planning processes were not properly adjusted to integrate compensation issues, resulting in unnecessary bureaucracy and insufficient co-ordination between different projects, such as between the environmental-impact assessment process and the compensation process or between closely related sub-projects in the same region. To meet the EU’s goal of no net loss of biodiversity, we suggest that policy requirements should be made stricter and that incentives for voluntary compensation should be created. In line with the goals of Swedish national transport policy and the European Landscape Convention, account should be taken of social and cultural aspects, and there should be a shift from a narrow focus on individual projects to a broader planning approach, since this would allow compensation measures to be taken where they can deliver the greatest environmental benefits.

  5. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-06-21

    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  6. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to the...

  7. Motion-compensated processing of image signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In a motion-compensated processing of images, input images are down-scaled (scl) to obtain down-scaled images, the down-scaled images are subjected to motion- compensated processing (ME UPC) to obtain motion-compensated images, the motion- compensated images are up-scaled (sc2) to obtain up-scaled

  8. Motion compensation for fully 4D PET reconstruction using PET superset data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaeghe, J; Gravel, P; Mio, R; Fukasawa, R; Rosa-Neto, P; Soucy, J-P; Thompson, C J; Reader, A J, E-mail: jeroen.verhaeghe@mcgill.c [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-07-21

    Fully 4D PET image reconstruction is receiving increasing research interest due to its ability to significantly reduce spatiotemporal noise in dynamic PET imaging. However, thus far in the literature, the important issue of correcting for subject head motion has not been considered. Specifically, as a direct consequence of using temporally extensive basis functions, a single instance of movement propagates to impair the reconstruction of multiple time frames, even if no further movement occurs in those frames. Existing 3D motion compensation strategies have not yet been adapted to 4D reconstruction, and as such the benefits of 4D algorithms have not yet been reaped in a clinical setting where head movement undoubtedly occurs. This work addresses this need, developing a motion compensation method suitable for fully 4D reconstruction methods which exploits an optical tracking system to measure the head motion along with PET superset data to store the motion compensated data. List-mode events are histogrammed as PET superset data according to the measured motion, and a specially devised normalization scheme for motion compensated reconstruction from the superset data is required. This work proceeds to propose the corresponding time-dependent normalization modifications which are required for a major class of fully 4D image reconstruction algorithms (those which use linear combinations of temporal basis functions). Using realistically simulated as well as real high-resolution PET data from the HRRT, we demonstrate both the detrimental impact of subject head motion in fully 4D PET reconstruction and the efficacy of our proposed modifications to 4D algorithms. Benefits are shown both for the individual PET image frames as well as for parametric images of tracer uptake and volume of distribution for {sup 18}F-FDG obtained from Patlak analysis.

  9. Crime victims‘ right to compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the most important documents of the United Nations, Council of Europe and the European Union relating to rights to damage compensation (restitution from offender and state compensation. The analysis shows that there is a gradual move from the concept of exercising the rights of victims in favor of a solidaristic model that takes less into account the rights of victims, and more the need to satisfy their legitimate interests. The economic crisis that is undermining the foundations of the welfare state could jeopardize the realization of this concept, especially in those European countries where the criminal justice system focuses solely on the offender, as is the case in Serbia. In such circumstances, regulation which protects the right to compensation, other rights and interests of victims, shall apply only to the extent that serves crime prevention. So it happens that in spite of a suitable normative framework and developments regarding the protection of victims of domestic violence and trafficking, the right to compensation and other rights of the victims do not actually get actualized in practice. In order to overcome this, a systemic reform to the criminal justice system should be undertaken with the aim to redirect the system towards the victim of the offense. Within these reforms a public fund for compensation of the victims of violence should be established and the process of mediation between the victim and the offender with the goal to make a settlement should be regulated, because these mechanisms do not exist in Serbia.

  10. Compensating need satisfaction across life boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hewett, Rebecca; Haun, Verena; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Self-determination theory suggests that satisfaction of an individual's basic psychological needs (for competence, autonomy, and relatedness) is a key for well-being. This has gained empirical support in multiple life domains, but little is known about the way that need satisfaction interacts...... between work and home. Drawing from ideas of work–home compensation, we expect that the benefits of need satisfaction in the home domain are reduced when needs are satisfied in the work domain. We tested this hypothesis with a daily diary study involving 91 workers. Results showed that individuals...... particularly benefit from satisfaction of their need for competence in the home domain when it is not satisfied during the working day. No such interactions were found between the needs for autonomy or relatedness. Our study highlights that the interaction of need satisfaction across domains represents...

  11. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  12. Network compensation for missing sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    1991-01-01

    A network learning translation invariance algorithm to compute interpolation functions is presented. This algorithm with one fixed receptive field can construct a linear transformation compensating for gain changes, sensor position jitter, and sensor loss when there are enough remaining sensors to adequately sample the input images. However, when the images are undersampled and complete compensation is not possible, the algorithm need to be modified. For moderate sensor losses, the algorithm works if the transformation weight adjustment is restricted to the weights to output units affected by the loss.

  13. Comparison of dynamic monitoring strategies based on CD4 cell counts in virally suppressed, HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a prospective, observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniglia, Ellen C.; Cain, Lauren E.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Robins, James M.; Logan, Roger; Abgrall, Sophie; Mugavero, Michael J.; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Remonie; Drozd, Daniel R.; Seage, George R.; Bonnet, Fabrice; Dabis, Francois; Moore, Richard D.; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard; Mathews, William C.; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Deeks, Steven G.; Muga, Roberto; Boswell, Stephen L.; Ferrer, Elena; Eron, Joseph J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Jose, Sophie; Phillips, Andrew; Justice, Amy C.; Tate, Janet P.; Gill, John; Pacheco, Antonio; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Bucher, Heiner C.; Egger, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Porter, Kholoud; Touloumi, Giota; Crane, Heidi; Miro, Jose M.; Sterne, Jonathan A.; Costagliola, Dominique; Saag, Michael; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Clinical guidelines vary with respect to the optimal monitoring frequency of HIV-positive individuals. We compared dynamic monitoring strategies based on time-varying CD4 cell counts in virologically suppressed HIV-positive individuals. In this observational study, we used data from prospective

  14. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  15. The relationship between South African CEO compensation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This exploratory study is based on a statistical data analysis to determine whether a long-term correlation is present between South African CEO compensation and company performance in the banking sector. The detailed analysis, using a seven-year time period, is performed at individual company level as well as at ...

  16. Psychology of Pay and Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites:

  17. Ongoing transients in carbonate compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudreau, B.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is acidifying the oceans. Over the next 2000 years, this will modify the dissolution and preservation of sedimentary carbonate. By coupling new formulas for the positions of the calcite saturation horizon, zsat, the compensation depth, zcc, and the snowline, zsnow, to a

  18. Strategic Design of Teacher Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the national focus on revitalizing the teacher evaluation and support/development process, as well as the current economic downturn, many school districts are reviewing how teachers are compensated. While a few courageous districts have completely upended current structures, most districts are undertaking changes that leave the most…

  19. Optimal compensation for neuron loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David GT; Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-01-01

    The brain has an impressive ability to withstand neural damage. Diseases that kill neurons can go unnoticed for years, and incomplete brain lesions or silencing of neurons often fail to produce any behavioral effect. How does the brain compensate for such damage, and what are the limits of this compensation? We propose that neural circuits instantly compensate for neuron loss, thereby preserving their function as much as possible. We show that this compensation can explain changes in tuning curves induced by neuron silencing across a variety of systems, including the primary visual cortex. We find that compensatory mechanisms can be implemented through the dynamics of networks with a tight balance of excitation and inhibition, without requiring synaptic plasticity. The limits of this compensatory mechanism are reached when excitation and inhibition become unbalanced, thereby demarcating a recovery boundary, where signal representation fails and where diseases may become symptomatic. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12454.001 PMID:27935480

  20. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat; Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed

  1. A health campaign for the elderly: developing a health promotion strategy for the elderly using functional assessments of community dwelling individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Oliveira Monaco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a functional health screening strategy forcommunity-dwelling elderly individuals, including eventual referralto existing health services. We justified the study by considering thelimitations of the Brazilian health system. A second objective was totest whether this strategy would show benefits a year later. Methods:We conducted a prospective cohort study in an urban community inthe city of São Paulo. Subjects included community-dwelling men andwomen aged 60 years or more, capable of walking, recruited throughan announcement in a local newspaper. Patients were invited to aspecific place on a scheduled date to undergo functional screeningtests for elderly patients; we chose tests that are well established inliterature. The tests resulted in a health score showing the number ofchanges found. This database was subsequently used for registrationpurposes, counseling and referral to primary health care facilities inSão Paulo. After one year, each patient was recalled by mail for asecond assessment that used the same methodology. Results: Theinitial assessments included 187 subjects (mean age 68.8 years. Oneyear later 90 patients returned (48% of the total; mean age 69.7 years.This group presented 4.23 alterations in our score against 5.23 in thefirst assessment (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Results show that a tool toidentify functional changes may benefit large groups of elderly subjects.We raised the possibility of whether more functionally disabled peoplewould have a higher absence rate. In the first assessment, patientsthat did not return after one year had a score of 5.75, compared to 5.23for those returning after one year. This difference was not statisticallysignificant (p = 0.33.

  2. The Compensation and Benefits System: Private Companies vs. Budgetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Bogdan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic evolution of the last decades has entailed major changes concerning the Human Resource Management practices, in both private and budgetary sector of Romania. In order to maintain efficiency and market competitivity, a company must adapt to these changes by altering its human resource strategy since managers are encountering increasingly complex challenges as to attracting, motivating and retaining employees. Such an objective might be accomplished by elaborating a competitive system of employee compensation. This article focuses on the stage reached by the Human Resource Management in the compensation and benefits system of the private and budgetary sector. For the latter, we are focusing on the romanian system of higher education. This study demonstrates that the compensation and benefits system which is implemented in romanian universities is limited and can offer few opportunities as compared to the one implemented by private companies. It is worth saying that the legal system has a negative impact in this matter.

  3. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  4. An individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for managing fatigue among frail older people: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Y-W; Lai, Claudia Ky; Siu, Parco M; Kwong, Enid; Tse, Mimi My

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of an individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for frail older people with fatigue. A three-arm, single-blinded, quasi-experimental pilot study. Community health centres. A total of 79 frail older people with fatigue, mean age 79.32 years (±7.72). The combined group received a 16-week combined intervention consisting of exercise training and a behavioural change enhancement programme. The exercise group received exercise training and health talks, whereas the control group received only health talks. Feasibility was assessed through the participants' recruitment, retention, attendance and adherence, feedback, and reports of adverse events. The preliminary effects were assessed by the participants' level of fatigue, physical endurance, self-efficacy, and self-perceived compliance with exercise. Feasibility was achievable with high recruitment (87.2%) and low overall attrition (7.1%) rates. A similar reduction in fatigue was identified in all groups, but a trend of greater improvement in physical endurance was observed in the combined group than in the other two groups. The combined group also had a significantly better attendance rate [F(2,76) = 5.64, p behavioural change, when the participants are establishing the habit of exercising daily.

  5. Closing-in behavior: Compensation or attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambron, Elisabetta; Beschin, Nicoletta; Cerrone, Chiara; Della Sala, Sergio

    2018-03-01

    Closing-in behavior (CIB) defines the abnormal misplacement of the copy performance, positioned very closed to or on the top of the model. This symptom is observed in graphic copying by patients suffering from different neurological diseases, most commonly dementia. The cognitive origins of this behavior are still a matter of investigation, and research of the last 10 years has been focused on exploring 2 main accounts of CIB, the compensation and the attraction hypotheses, providing evidence in both directions. While the first account defines CIB as a compensatory strategy to overcome visuospatial and/or working memory deficits during copying tasks, the attraction hypothesis looks at CIB as primitive default behavior in which attention and action are closely coupled and movements are performed toward the focus of attention. We explored these 2 hypotheses in a sample of patients with and without CIB, and controls in 5 experiments: Experiments 1 and 2 tested the attraction hypothesis and, respectively, the prediction that CIB can be elicited in a noncopying dual task condition loading upon attentional resources or by irrelevant attentional grabbing stimuli. The other experiments investigated the compensation hypothesis manipulating the distance between model and copying space (Experiment 3), the task demand (single or dual task loading on verbal working memory; Experiment 4), the task requirements (copying and tracing) and visual demand (visual copy and memory; Experiment 5). The results support the attraction hypothesis of CIB. CIB reflects an impairment of the attention and action system, rather than a compensatory strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Current situation and issue of Industrial Accident Compensation insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Rhie, Jeongbae; Yoon, Jo-Duk; Kim, Jinsoo; Won, Jonguk

    2012-05-01

    Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI) has a history of about 50 yr, and is the oldest social insurance system in Korea. After more than 20 times of revision improvements in benefits, its contents and claim systems have been upgraded. It became the protector of injured workers and their families, and at the same time became the system which could cope with both financial burden of employers and their responsibilities. However, there are some issues to be reformed to upgrade the IACI: 1) the problems in the approval system of occupational diseases, 2) quality improvement of workers' compensation medical care, 3) vocational rehabilitation and return to work, 4) workers' compensation premiums and out-of-pocket money of injured workers, 5) issues in application of IACI. Growth of IACI cannot be achieved by an effort of an individual. Efforts by workers, owners, and government, in addition to physicians and welfare professionals toward the same goal are required for the next level improvement of IACI.

  7. Plasticity during vestibular compensation: the role of saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Gavin MacDougall

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focussed on one major aspect of compensation: the recent behavioural findings concerning oculomotor responses in human vestibular compensation and their possible implications for recovery after unilateral vestibular loss (UVL. New measurement techniques have provided new insights into how patients recover after UVL and have given clues for vestibular rehabilitation. Prior to this it has not been possible to quantify the level of function of all the peripheral vestibular sense organs. Now it is. By using vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to measure utricular and saccular function and by new video head impulse testing to measure semicircular canal function to natural values of head accelerations. With these new video procedures it is now possible to measure both slow phase eye velocity and also saccades during natural head movements. The present evidence is that there is little or no recovery of slow phase eye velocity responses to natural head accelerations. It is doubtful as to whether the modest changes in slow phase eye velocity to small angular accelerations are functionally effective during compensation. On the other hand it is now clear that saccades can play a very important role in helping patients compensate and return to a normal lifestyle. Preliminary evidence suggests that different patterns of saccadic response may predict how well patients recover. It may be possible to train patients to produce more effective saccadic patterns in the first days after their unilateral loss. Some patients do learn new strategies, new behaviours, to conceal their inadequate VOR but when those strategies are prevented from operating by using passive, unpredictable, high acceleration natural head movements, as in the head impulse test, their vestibular loss can be demonstrated. It is those very strategies which the tests exclude, which may be the cause of their successful compensation.

  8. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS... allowable under paragraph (a) of this section must be reduced by— (1) All compensation made available to the... under § 136.235. Government Revenues ...

  9. Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokemoto, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform were closely related. Nuclear damage compensation cost should be part of generation cost of nuclear power. Extend of nuclear damage compensation was limited by compensation standard of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) following guidelines of Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation. TEPCO had already paid compensation of about two trillion yen until now, which was only a part of total damage compensation cost. TEPCO had been provided more than 3.4 trillion yen by Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Cooperation, which would be put back by nuclear operators including TEPCO. TEPCO could obtain present raising funds and try to reconstruct business with restart of nuclear power, which might disturb energy reform. Present nuclear damage compensation scheme had better be reformed with learning more from Minamata disease case in Japan. (T. Tanaka)

  10. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  11. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A; Pentel, Paul R; LeSage, Mark G

    2015-06-01

    The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self-administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantum electrodynamics with compensating current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechler, A [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej

    1974-01-01

    A formulation of quantum electrodynamics is proposed in which all the propagators and field operators are gauge invariant. It is based on an old idea of Heisenberg and Euler which consists in the introduction of the linear integrals of potentials as arguments of the exponential functions. This method is generalized by an introduction of the so-called ''compensating currents'', which ensure local, i.e. in every point of space-time, charge conservation. The linear integral method is a particular case of that proposed in this paper. As the starting point we use quantum electrodynamics with a non-zero, small photon mass (Proca theory). It is shown that, due to the presence of the compensating current, the theory is fully renormalizable in Hilbert space with positive definite scalar product. The problem of the definition of the current operator is also briefly discussed.

  13. Executive compensation: a calibration approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ivilina Popova; Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    We use a version of the Grossman and Hart principal-agent model with 10 actions and 10 states to produce quantitative predictions for executive compensation. Performance incentives derived from the model are compared with the performance incentives of 350 firms chosen from a survey by Michael Jensen and Kevin Murphy. The results suggest both that the model does a reasonable job of explaining the data and that actual incentives are close to the optimal incentives predicted by theory.

  14. Compensating Differentials for Sexual Harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Joni Hersch

    2011-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...

  15. 23 CFR 751.15 - Just compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Just compensation. 751.15 Section 751.15 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.15 Just compensation. (a) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the... nonconforming junkyard as provided in § 751.11 must pertain at the time of the taking or removal in order to...

  16. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modules...

  17. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.217 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217...

  18. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.205 Compensation... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205...

  19. 33 CFR 136.113 - Other compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT General Procedure § 136.113 Other compensation. A... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other compensation. 136.113...

  20. The battle over workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, J N

    2000-01-01

    Faced with lower profits and rapidly increasing premium costs in the 1980s, insurers and employer organizations cleverly parlayed the public perception of worker fraud and abuse in the workers' compensation system (that they helped to create) into massive legislative changes. Over the last decade, state legislators and governors, Republican and Democrat alike, have jumped on this bandwagon, one that workers and their allies have dubbed the workers' compensation "deform" movement. Alleging a "game plan" and a calculated campaign on the part of insurers and employers, the author looks at the major components of changes that were made, examines the elements of workers' compensation over which employers and insurers have gained control, and discusses Newt Gingrich's efforts to capitalize on employer and insurer fervor over the system. This campaign whistled through the country until it goaded the labor movement, injured workers, the trial bar, and others in Ohio in 1997 to organize themselves to stand up to employers by defeating the deform law through a ballot initiative. The article details that battle and suggests that similar voices can be achieved through a return to grassroots organizing and mobilization.

  1. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  2. 38 CFR 21.3023 - Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. 21.3023 Section 21.3023 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Nonduplication; pension, compensation, and dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Child; age 18. A child who...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Speaking Strategies Employed by Second ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW

    speaking skills and more strategy training should be given in using wide varieties of speaking .... helpful, and meta cognitive strategies are important for ..... think of. Similarly, in compensating for the missing knowledge, gestures, word coinage.

  4. Characteristics of compensated hypogonadism in patients with sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Maseroli, Elisa; Rastrelli, Giulia; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, a view that subclinical endocrine disorders represent milder forms of the clinically overt disease has emerged. Accordingly, it has been proposed that compensated hypogonadism represents a genuine clinical subset of late-onset hypogonadism. The aim of the present study is to investigate the associations of compensated hypogonadism with particular clinical and psychological characteristics of male subjects complaining of sexual dysfunction. After excluding documented genetic causes of hypogonadism, an unselected consecutive series of 4,173 patients consulting our unit for sexual dysfunction was studied. Compensated hypogonadism was identified according to the European Male Ageing study criteria: total testosterone ≥10.5 nmol/L and luteinizing hormone >9.4 U/L. Several hormonal, biochemical, and instrumental (penile Doppler ultrasound) parameters were studied, along with results of the Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY) and ANDROTEST. One hundred seventy (4.1%) subjects had compensated hypogonadism, whereas 827 (19.8%) had overt hypogonadism. After adjustment for confounding factors, no specific sexual symptoms were associated with compensated hypogonadism. However, compensated hypogonadism individuals more often reported psychiatric symptoms, as detected by Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire score, when compared with both eugonadal and overt hypogonadal subjects (adjusted odds ratios = 1.018 [1.005;1.031] and 1.014 [1.001;1.028], respectively; both P hypogonadism had an increased predicted risk of cardiovascular events (as assessed by Progetto Cuore risk algorithm) when compared with eugonadal individuals. Accordingly, mortality related to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), but not MACE incidence, was significantly higher in subjects with both compensated and overt hypogonadism when compared with eugonadal subjects. The present data do not support the concept that compensated (subclinical) hypogonadism

  5. Automatic error compensation in dc amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longden, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    When operational amplifiers are exposed to high levels of neutron fluence or total ionizing dose, significant changes may be observed in input voltages and currents. These changes may produce large errors at the output of direct-coupled amplifier stages. Therefore, the need exists for automatic compensation techniques. However, previously introduced techniques compensate only for errors in the main amplifier and neglect the errors induced by the compensating circuitry. In this paper, the techniques introduced compensate not only for errors in the main operational amplifier, but also for errors induced by the compensation circuitry. Included in the paper is a theoretical analysis of each compensation technique, along with advantages and disadvantages of each. Important design criteria and information necessary for proper selection of semiconductor switches will also be included. Introduced in this paper will be compensation circuitry for both resistive and capacitive feedback networks

  6. Avaliação estratégica de educação em grupo e individual no programa educativo em diabetes Evaluación estratégica de educación en grupo e individual en el programa educativo en diabetes Evaluation of group and individual strategies in a diabetes education program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa de Carvalho Torres

    2009-04-01

    ñado individualmente. El acompañamiento ocurrió por seis meses durante el año de 2006, siendo evaluados por cuestionarios específicos: conocimientos en diabetes, actitudes psicológicas, cambio de comportamiento, calidad de vida. Fue realizada evaluación clínica en el tiempo inicial, después de tres y seis meses de intervención. RESULTADOS: El promedio de edad de los pacientes era de 60,6 años. Los resultados de la educación en grupo e individual fueron semejantes en la prueba de actitudes, cambio de comportamiento y calidad de vida. Se observó reducción en los niveles de HbA1c en los dos grupos, mientras que en el de educación en grupo la diferencia presentó significancia estadística (p=0,012. CONCLUSIONES: Las dos estrategias del programa educativo en diabetes fueron efectivas, sin embargo, la educación en grupo presentó mejores resultados de control glicérico en comparación con la individual.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of individual and group strategies in a diabetes education program. METHODS: A total of 104 type-2 diabetes outpatients enrolled in an education program of a teaching hospital in Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil, were randomly selected and assigned to two different education strategies: group education (54 subjects and individual education (50 subjects. Group education comprised three monthly sessions, which involved play and interactive dynamics. In parallel, a second group received individual education. Subjects were follow up for six months during 2006 and they were evaluated using specific questionnaires: knowledge of diabetes, psychological attitudes, change in behavior, quality of life. Clinical evaluation was performed at baseline, three and six months of intervention. RESULTS: Mean age was 60.6 years. The results of group and individual education were similar in the assessment tests of attitude, change of behavior and quality of life. A reduction in HbA1c levels was seen in both groups, but a statistically significant

  7. Robust finite-time tracking control for nonlinear suspension systems via disturbance compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Jing, Xingjian; Sun, Weichao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the finite-time tracking control with external disturbance for active suspension systems. In order to compensate unknown disturbance efficiently, a disturbance compensator with finite-time convergence property is studied. By analyzing the discontinuous phenomenon of classical disturbance compensation techniques, this study presents a simple approach to construct a continuous compensator satisfying the finite-time disturbance rejection performance. According to the finite-time separation principle, the design procedures of the nominal controller for the suspension system without disturbance and the disturbance compensator can be implemented in a completely independent manner. Therefore, the overall control law for the closed-loop system is continuous, which offers some distinct advantages over the existing discontinuous ones. From the perspective of practical implementation, the continuous controller can avoid effectively the unexpected chattering in active suspension control. Comparative experimental results are presented and discussed to illustrate the advantage and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  8. Variable compensation in Primary Healthcare: a report on the experience in Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli Neto, Paulo; Faoro, Nilza Teresinha; Prado Júnior, José Carlos do; Pisco, Luís Augusto Coelho

    2016-05-01

    How professionals are compensated may affect how they perform their tasks. Fixed compensation may take the form of wages, payment for productivity or capitation. In addition to fixed compensation, there are numerous mechanisms for variable compensation. This article describes the experience of Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, and Lisbon in Portugal, using different models of performance-based compensation. In all three of these examples, management felt the need to offer monetary reward to achieve certain goals. The indicators analyzed the structure, processes and outcomes, and assessed professionals individual and as part of healthcare teams. In Lisbon, variable compensation can be as high as 40% of the base wage, while in Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro it is limited to 10%. Despite the growing use of this management tool in Brazil and the world, further studies are required to analyze the effectiveness of variable compensation.

  9. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  10. Procedural justice and quality of life in compensation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, Nieke A; Akkermans, Arno J; Cuijpers, Pim; Bruinvels, David J

    2013-11-01

    There is considerable evidence that being involved in compensation processes has a negative impact on claimants' health. Previous studies suggested that this negative effect is caused by a stressful compensation process: claimants suffered from a lack of communication, a lack of information, and feelings of distrust. However, these rather qualitative findings have not been quantitatively investigated yet. This observational study aimed to fill this gap of knowledge, investigating the claimants' perceived fairness of the compensation process, the provided information, and the interaction with lawyers and insurance companies, in relation to the claimants' quality of life. Participants were individuals injured in traffic accidents, older than 18 years, who were involved in a compensation process in the Netherlands. They were recruited by three claims settlement offices. Outcome measures were procedural, interactional, and informational justice, and quality of life. Participants (n=176) perceived the interaction with lawyers to be fairer than the interaction with insurance companies (pquality of life (rs=.22, p=.004). The finding that the interaction with insurance companies was considered less fair than the interaction with lawyers may imply that insurers could improve their interaction with claimants, e.g. by communicating more directly. The result that claimants with mild injuries and with trunk/back injuries considered the compensation process to be less fair than those with respectively severe injuries and injuries to other body parts suggests that especially the former two require an attentive treatment. Finally, the fact that procedural justice was positively correlated with quality of life could implicate that it is possible to improve claimants' health in compensation processes by enhancing procedural justice, e.g. by increasing the ability for claimants to express their views and feelings and by involving claimants in the decision-making process. Copyright

  11. 75 FR 63425 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... or she is disabled as a result of the illness. (3) Hearing loss. If the individual claims compensation for hearing loss, the date of injury is the date the individual receives an audiogram with an accompanying report which indicates the individual has suffered a loss of hearing that is related to employment...

  12. Person-based differences in pay reactions: A compensation-activation theory and integrative conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Ingrid Smithey; Shaw, Jason D

    2018-06-07

    Compensation research has focused traditionally on how pay design characteristics (e.g., pay level, individual or group incentives) relate to average employee outcomes and, in toto, on how these outcomes affect organizational performance. Recently, scholars have begun to pay more attention to how individuals vary in the strength of their reactions to pay. Empirical research in several disciplines examines how the interplay of pay systems and person-based characteristics (psychological individual differences, demographics, and relative performance or position in a group) relate to important work-related outcomes. We develop a compensation-activation theory that frames compensation design characteristics as workplace "situations" providing cues that activate individuals' corresponding fundamental social motives made salient due to chronic or transient person-based characteristics. Where activation occurs, stronger-than-average responses to the compensation "situation" are expected. Using the theory as a lens, we synthesize and reinterpret existing research on person-based reactions to pay characteristics, including sorting, incentive/motivational effects, and effects on collective pay system reactions and unit/organizational outcomes. We conclude with a research agenda aimed at refining compensation-activation theory and advancing the study of compensation as it affects individual and organizational outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Improving inter-transmission compensation in EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilov, Dimo; Stoilov, Luben

    2013-01-01

    This article is intended as a roadmap to the correction of the existing shortcomings in the EU power transmission tariff system, especially in the existing mechanism of Inter-Transmission System Operator (TSO) Compensation (ITC). The relevant literature is surveyed and the essence of the issue is formulated. Definitions, preconditions, assumptions and constraints for the problem are explained. The paper outlines the most simple and straightforward approach for the improvement of inter-transmission compensation in the Continental European Synchronous Area. The proposals are based on the old practice of socialization of the network costs retained in almost all European countries, i.e. the principle of charging the customers “at the exit”. Equal treatment is given to internal users and cross-border users: a TSO is reimbursed for both internal and cross-border flows from the users conjoined to its network on an equal footing with the users extracting power from the peripheral nodes. The existing inequity in individual payments for power transmission is overcome and the cross-border subsidy element is avoided. This approach should be tested (modeled and evaluated) with real data for the European union of networks. Some key parts of the article are written in a more popular style, in order to be accessible to inexpert readers as well. -- Highlights: •A roadmap to the correction of the shortcomings in the EU power transmission tariff system. •Simple and straightforward approach for improvement of ITC in the European synchronous area. •Equal treatment to internal and cross-border users avoiding cross-subsidies. •Formalization and illustration of the approach. •Real data tests for the European interconnected systems should be performed

  14. Resitting or Compensating a Failed Examination: Does It Affect Subsequent Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Institutions of higher education commonly employ a conjunctive standard setting strategy, which requires students to resit failed examinations until they pass all tests. An alternative strategy allows students to compensate a failing grade with other test results. This paper uses regression discontinuity design to compare the effect of first-year…

  15. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  16. How to avoid deferred-compensation troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Todd I

    2005-06-01

    Executive compensation packages have long included stock options and deferred compensation plans in order to compete for talent. Last year, Congress passed a law in response to the Enron debacle, in which executives were perceived to be protecting their deferred compensation at the expense of employees, creditors, and investors. The new law is designed to protect companies and their shareholders from being raided by the very executives that guided the company to financial ruin. Physicians who are part owners of medical practices need to know about the changes in the law regarding deferred compensation and how to avoid costly tax penalties. This article discusses how the changes affect medical practices as well as steps physician-owned clinics can take to avoid the risk of penalty, such as freezing deferred compensation and creating a new deferred compensation plan.

  17. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  18. Compensation and wellness: a conflict for veterans' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Niki; Mackenzie, Alison; Mobbs, Robyn

    2008-05-01

    In Australia greater attention is being given to health determinants, and the dominance of treatment in health policy and budgets is giving away some ground to prevention, health promotion, rehabilitation and disability management. This creates a dilemma for compensation systems: should the inclusion criteria be broadened to match the new thinking or should a narrower definition of "disease, injury or death" be retained? This issue is explored in the context of war syndromes among veterans. While veterans experience symptoms more frequently and more severely than military and community controls, their patterns of symptoms are not unique. Current compensation and benefit programs can create iatrogenic effects. It is concluded that compensation systems should be kept as safety nets while resources are provided to improve the capacity of primary health care caregivers, community organisations and veterans with war syndromes and their families to better deal with these problems. Adapting compensation systems to promote wellness through self-management health partnerships is one way of directing resources to individuals and their families. Action research at the community level with veterans, their families, their organisations, primary health care organisations, policy makers and researchers would allow this sector to work out the best way to apply existing efficacious tools to these modern health problems.

  19. The path to memory is guided by strategy: distinct networks are engaged in associative encoding under visual and verbal strategy and influence memory performance in healthy and impaired individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J. B.; Brewer, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Given the diversity of stimuli encountered in daily life, a variety of strategies must be used for learning new information. Relating and encoding visual and verbal stimuli into memory has been probed using various tasks and stimulus-types. Engagement of specific subsequent memory and cortical processing regions depends on the stimulus modality of studied material; however, it remains unclear whether different encoding strategies similarly influence regional activity when stimulus-type is held constant. In this study, subjects encoded object pairs using a visual or verbal associative strategy during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and subsequent memory was assessed for pairs encoded under each strategy. Each strategy elicited distinct regional processing and subsequent memory effects: middle / superior frontal, lateral parietal, and lateral occipital for visually-associated pairs and inferior frontal, medial frontal, and medial occipital for verbally-associated pairs. This regional selectivity mimics the effects of stimulus modality, suggesting that cortical involvement in associative encoding is driven by strategy, and not simply by stimulus-type. The clinical relevance of these findings, probed in two patients with recent aphasic strokes, suggest that training with strategies utilizing unaffected cortical regions might improve memory ability in patients with brain damage. PMID:22390467

  20. Enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation was found to be a universal law in protein unfolding based on over 3 000 experimental data. Water molecular reorganization accompanying the protein unfolding was suggested as the origin of the enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding. It is indicated that the enthalpy-entropy compensation constitutes the physical foundation that satisfies the biological need of the small free energy changes in protein unfolding, without the sacrifice of the bio-diversity of proteins. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory proposed herein also provides valuable insights into the Privalov's puzzle of enthalpy and entropy convergence in protein unfolding.

  1. Cigarette price minimization strategies in the United States: price reductions and responsiveness to excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Licht, Andrea S; Kruger, Judy M

    2013-11-01

    Because cigarette price minimization strategies can provide substantial price reductions for individuals continuing their usual smoking behaviors following federal and state cigarette excise tax increases, we examined independent price reductions compensating for overlapping strategies. The possible availability of larger independent price reduction opportunities in states with higher cigarette excise taxes is explored. Regression analysis used the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (N = 26,826) to explore national and state-level independent price reductions that smokers obtained from purchasing cigarettes (a) by the carton, (b) in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price than in the state of residence, and (c) in "some other way," including online or in another country. Price reductions from these strategies are estimated jointly to compensate for known overlapping strategies. Each strategy reduced the price of cigarettes by 64-94 cents per pack. These price reductions are 9%-22% lower than conventionally estimated results not compensating for overlapping strategies. Price reductions vary substantially by state. Following cigarette excise tax increases, the price reduction available from purchasing cigarettes by cartons increased. Additionally, the price reduction from purchasing cigarettes in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price is positively associated with state cigarette excise tax rates and border state cigarette excise tax rate differentials. Findings from this large, nationally representative study of cigarette smokers suggest that price reductions are larger in states with higher cigarette excise taxes, and increase as cigarette excise taxes rise.

  2. Radioembolization of hepatocarcinoma with {sup 90}Y glass microspheres: development of an individualized treatment planning strategy based on dosimetry and radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, C.; Maccauro, M.; Aliberti, G.; Padovano, B.; Seregni, E.; Crippa, F. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Nuclear Medicine Division, Milan (Italy); Mira, M.; Negri, A. [University of Milan, Postgraduate Health Physics School, Milan (Italy); Spreafico, C.; Morosi, C.; Civelli, E.; Lanocita, R.; Marchiano, A. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Radiology 2, Milan (Italy); Romito, R.; Sposito, C.; Bhoori, S.; Facciorusso, A.; Mazzaferro, V. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Surgery 1, Milan (Italy); Camerini, T. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Scientific Direction, Milan (Italy); Carrara, M. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Health Physics, Milan (Italy); Pellizzari, S. [University La Sapienza, Engineering Faculty, Rome (Italy); Migliorisi, M. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Nuclear Medicine Division, Milan (Italy); Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Clinical Engineering, Milan (Italy); De Nile, M.C. [University of Pavia, Physics Faculty, Pavia, Lombardy (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to optimize the dosimetric approach and to review the absorbed doses delivered, taking into account radiobiology, in order to identify the optimal methodology for an individualized treatment planning strategy based on {sup 99m}Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. We performed retrospective dosimetry of the standard TheraSphere registered treatment on 52 intermediate (n = 17) and advanced (i.e. portal vein thrombosis, n = 35) hepatocarcinoma patients with tumour burden < 50 % and without obstruction of the main portal vein trunk. Response was monitored with the densitometric radiological criterion (European Association for the Study of the Liver) and treatment-related liver decompensation was defined ad hoc with a time cut-off of 6 months. Adverse events clearly attributable to disease progression or other causes were not attributed to treatment. Voxel dosimetry was performed with the local deposition method on {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT images. The reconstruction protocol was optimized. Concordance of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA and {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung microsphere biodistributions was studied in 35 sequential patients. Two segmentation methods were used, based on SPECT alone (home-made code) or on coregistered SPECT/CT images (IMALYTICS trademark by Philips). STRATOS trademark absorbed dose calculation was validated for {sup 90}Y with a single time point. Radiobiology was used introducing other dosimetric variables besides the mean absorbed dose D: equivalent uniform dose (EUD), biologically effective dose averaged over voxel values (BED{sub ave}) and equivalent uniform biologically effective dose (EUBED). Two sets of radiobiological parameters, the first derived from microsphere irradiation and the second from external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), were used. A total of 16 possible methodologies were compared. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were

  3. Coping strategies of ostomized individuals Estrategias de enfrentamiento (coping en personas ostomizadas Estratégias de enfrentamento (coping de pessoas ostomizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Campos Barnabe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at understanding the experience of individuals with intestinal diversions as regards coping with their new life conditions. The qualitative approach was used, involving 11 ostomized subjects. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews which were taped and later fully transcribed and analyzed according to Content Analysis as proposed by Bardin and the Coping theoretical framework . The findings in the study were evidenced by three core categories denominated: i did not choose it; i had to accept it and i have to live with the ostomy. The form to manage the condition of being ostomized was revealed by coping strategies which were based on both emotions and the problem itself. The study contributed for reflection and application of knowledge in assistance practice and teaching for care the ostomized.El objetivo del estudio fue comprender la experiencia que personas con derivaciones intestinales presenta al enfrentar esta nueva condición de vida. Se utilizó un enfoque de naturaleza cualitativa, con 11 sujetos estomizados. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, grabadas y posteriormente transcritas en su totalidad, siendo analizadas según el Análisis de Contenido de Bardin y el fundamento teórico de Coping. Los hallazgos del estudio fueron en tres categorías centrales, denominadas: no lo elegí; tuve que aceptarlo y con(vivo con la estomía. La estrategia para controlar la condición, ser estomizado, se realizó a través de estrategias para enfrentar tanto aspectos emocionales como el problema en sí. El estudio contribuyó para reflexionar y utilizar el conocimiento en la práctica asistencial y para la educación en cuanto al cuidado del entomizado.Este trabalho objetivou compreender a experiência de pessoas com derivações intestinais, quanto ao enfrentamento à nova condição de vida. Realizou-se estudo qualitativo, sendo entrevistados 11 sujeitos ostomizados. Os

  4. Adaptive social learning strategies in temporally and spatially varying environments : how temporal vs. spatial variation, number of cultural traits, and costs of learning influence the evolution of conformist-biased transmission, payoff-biased transmission, and individual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Henrich, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Long before the origins of agriculture human ancestors had expanded across the globe into an immense variety of environments, from Australian deserts to Siberian tundra. Survival in these environments did not principally depend on genetic adaptations, but instead on evolved learning strategies that permitted the assembly of locally adaptive behavioral repertoires. To develop hypotheses about these learning strategies, we have modeled the evolution of learning strategies to assess what conditions and constraints favor which kinds of strategies. To build on prior work, we focus on clarifying how spatial variability, temporal variability, and the number of cultural traits influence the evolution of four types of strategies: (1) individual learning, (2) unbiased social learning, (3) payoff-biased social learning, and (4) conformist transmission. Using a combination of analytic and simulation methods, we show that spatial-but not temporal-variation strongly favors the emergence of conformist transmission. This effect intensifies when migration rates are relatively high and individual learning is costly. We also show that increasing the number of cultural traits above two favors the evolution of conformist transmission, which suggests that the assumption of only two traits in many models has been conservative. We close by discussing how (1) spatial variability represents only one way of introducing the low-level, nonadaptive phenotypic trait variation that so favors conformist transmission, the other obvious way being learning errors, and (2) our findings apply to the evolution of conformist transmission in social interactions. Throughout we emphasize how our models generate empirical predictions suitable for laboratory testing.

  5. Multi-qubit compensation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y; Merrill, J T; Brown, K R

    2010-01-01

    The Hamiltonian control of n qubits requires precision control of both the strength and timing of interactions. Compensation pulses relax the precision requirements by reducing unknown but systematic errors. Using composite pulse techniques designed for single qubits, we show that systematic errors for n-qubit systems can be corrected to arbitrary accuracy given either two non-commuting control Hamiltonians with identical systematic errors or one error-free control Hamiltonian. We also examine composite pulses in the context of quantum computers controlled by two-qubit interactions. For quantum computers based on the XY interaction, single-qubit composite pulse sequences naturally correct systematic errors. For quantum computers based on the Heisenberg or exchange interaction, the composite pulse sequences reduce the logical single-qubit gate errors but increase the errors for logical two-qubit gates.

  6. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo; Tsuneya, Tsubokawa; Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe

    1999-01-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10 33 to 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 . Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  7. Self compensating fire detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholin, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A device employing ionization principles for fire detection disclosing a configuration which allows compensation for adverse effects due to the flow of the gas through the device or due to the accumulation of dust and dirt therein. The detecting device includes two ionization chambers, each having a first member, such as a cylindrically shaped cup, having first and second conductive surface portions. Each chamber also incudes a second member, such as a circular, electrode disc having two conductive surface portions. There is disposed in each chamber a radioactive source for ionizing the gas in the volumes intervening between respective pairs of surfaces. The area dimensions of the respective pairs of surfaces, the interventing volumes and the distances there between, and the relative orientation of the respective pairs are calculated and placed such that the ionization currents flowing between pairs of conductive surfaces are substantially equal and orthogonal to each other

  8. Caloric compensation for sugar-sweetened beverages in meals: A population-based study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombi-Vaca, Maria Fernanda; Sichieri, Rosely; Verly, Eliseu

    2016-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption can cause positive energy balance, therefore leading to weight gain. A plausible biological mechanism to explain this association is through weak caloric compensation for liquid calories. However, there is an ongoing debate surrounding SSB calorie compensation. The body of evidence comes from a diversity of study designs and highly controlled settings assessing food and beverage intake. Our study aimed to test for caloric compensation of SSB in the free-living setting of daily meals. We analyzed two food records of participants (age 10 years or older) from the 2008-2009 National Dietary Survey (Brazil, N = 34,003). We used multilevel analyses to estimate the within-subject effects of SSB on food intake. Sugar-sweetened beverage calories were not compensated for when comparing daily energy intake over two days for each individual. When comparing meals, we found 42% of caloric compensation for breakfast, no caloric compensation for lunch and zero to 22% of caloric compensation for dinner, differing by household per capita income. In conclusion, SSB consumption contributed to higher energy intake due to weak caloric compensation. Discouraging the intake of SSB especially during lunch and dinner may help reduce excessive energy intake and lead to better weight management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An efficient strategy based on an individualized selection of registration methods. Application to the coregistration of MR and SPECT images in neuro-oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacchella, Jean-Marc; Lefort, Muriel; Habert, Marie-Odile; Yeni, Nathanaëlle; Kas, Aurélie; Frouin, Frédérique; Roullot, Elodie; Cohen, Mike-Ely; Guillevin, Rémy; Petrirena, Grégorio; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    An efficient registration strategy is described that aims to help solve delicate medical imaging registration problems. It consists of running several registration methods for each dataset and selecting the best one for each specific dataset, according to an evaluation criterion. Finally, the quality of the registration results, obtained with the best method, is visually scored by an expert as excellent, correct or poor. The strategy was applied to coregister Technetium-99m Sestamibi SPECT and MRI data in the framework of a follow-up protocol in patients with high grade gliomas receiving antiangiogenic therapy. To adapt the strategy to this clinical context, a robust semi-automatic evaluation criterion based on the physiological uptake of the Sestamibi tracer was defined. A panel of eighteen multimodal registration algorithms issued from BrainVisa, SPM or AIR software environments was systematically applied to the clinical database composed of sixty-two datasets. According to the expert visual validation, this new strategy provides 85% excellent registrations, 12% correct ones and only 3% poor ones. These results compare favorably to the ones obtained by the globally most efficient registration method over the whole database, for which only 61% of excellent registration results have been reported. Thus the registration strategy in its current implementation proves to be suitable for clinical application. (paper)

  10. Measurement and Compensation of BPM Chamber Motion in HLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. W.; Sun, B. G.; Cao, Y.; Xu, H. L.; Lu, P.; Li, C.; Xuan, K.; Wang, J. G.

    2010-06-01

    Significant horizontal drifts in the beam orbit in the storage ring of HLS (Hefei Light Source) have been seen for many years. What leads to the motion of Beam Position Monitor (BPM) chamber is thermal expansion mainly caused by the synchrotron light. To monitor the BPM chamber motions for all BPMs, a BPM chamber motion measurement system is built in real-time. The raster gauges are used to measure the displacements. The results distinctly show the relation between the BPM chamber motion and the beam current. To suppress the effect of BPM chamber motion, a compensation strategy is implemented at HLS. The horizontal drifts of beam orbit have been really suppressed within 20μm without the compensation of BPM chamber motion in the runtime.

  11. Measurement and Compensation of BPM Chamber Motion in HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J. W.; Sun, B. G.; Cao, Y.; Xu, H. L.; Lu, P.; Li, C.; Xuan, K.; Wang, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Significant horizontal drifts in the beam orbit in the storage ring of HLS (Hefei Light Source) have been seen for many years. What leads to the motion of Beam Position Monitor (BPM) chamber is thermal expansion mainly caused by the synchrotron light. To monitor the BPM chamber motions for all BPMs, a BPM chamber motion measurement system is built in real-time. The raster gauges are used to measure the displacements. The results distinctly show the relation between the BPM chamber motion and the beam current. To suppress the effect of BPM chamber motion, a compensation strategy is implemented at HLS. The horizontal drifts of beam orbit have been really suppressed within 20μm without the compensation of BPM chamber motion in the runtime.

  12. Compensation strategies for PET scanners with unconventional scanner geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gundlich, B; Oehler, M

    2006-01-01

    The small animal PET scanner ClearPET®Neuro, developed at the Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH in cooperation with the Crystal Clear Collaboration (CERN), represents scanners with an unconventional geometry: due to axial and transaxial detector gaps ClearPet®Neuro delivers inhomogeneous sinograms with missing data. When filtered backprojection (FBP) or Fourier rebinning (FORE) are applied, strong geometrical artifacts appear in the images. In this contribution we present a method that takes the geometrical sensitivity into account and converts the measured sinograms into homogeneous and complete data. By this means artifactfree images are achieved using FBP or FORE. Besides an advantageous measurement setup that reduces inhomogeneities and data gaps in the sinograms, a modification of the measured sinograms is necessary. This modification includes two steps: a geometrical normalization and corrections for missing data. To normalize the measured sinograms, computed sinograms are used that describe the geometric...

  13. A Direct Voltage Unbalance Compensation Strategy for Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Wu, Xiaohua; Meng, Lexuan

    2015-01-01

    and nonlinear loads. Moreover, by adjusting voltage references according to the amplitude of the negative sequence voltage, the unbalance factor, which is mainly caused by single phase generators/loads, can be mitigated to an extremely low value. Finally, an AC microgrid which includes three three-phase three...

  14. A relational fairness perspective on individuality and individualization in contemporary approaches to compensations in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Lund

    motivation. Mere specifikt er hovedspørgsmålet for denne afhandling: Hvordan er den retfærdige ret konstitueret i henholdsvis et kompensations-system baseret på individualitet og individualisering, et socialt relationelt perspektiv og hvordan vil eventuelle forskelle påvirke horisontale relationer?...

  15. 38 CFR 3.351 - Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special monthly dependency and indemnity compensation, death compensation, pension and spouse's compensation ratings. 3.351 Section 3.351 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension...

  16. The Effect of Disability Insurance on Health Investment: Evidence from the Veterans Benefits Administration's Disability Compensation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2009-01-01

    I examine whether individuals respond to monetary incentives to detect latent medical conditions. The effect is identified by a policy that deemed diabetes associated with herbicide exposure a compensable disability under the Veterans Benefits Administration's Disability Compensation program. Since a diagnosis is a requisite for benefit…

  17. Current practice of the social insurance against occupational accidents in paying compensation for occupational diseases induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, K.; Seitz, G.

    1988-01-01

    The companies for social insurance against occupational accidents form part of the statutory accident insurance system, and are responsible for compensation of occupational accidents or diseases. The compensation practice adopted by them is determined by legal provisions, which are explained in this paper as a background to the discussion of individual cases and the relevant decisions. (orig.) [de

  18. The relation between self-regulated strategies and individual study time, prepared participation and achievement in a problem-based curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, M.M. van den

    2006-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL) students are encouraged to take responsibility for their own self-regulated learning process. The present study focuses on two self-regulated learning strategies, namely time planning and self-monitoring. Time planning involves time management, scheduling and planning

  19. Relationships among Individual Task Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Use and Academic Performance in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimberly; Narayan, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between self-efficacy, self-regulated learning strategy use and academic performance. Participants were 96 undergraduate students working on projects with three subtasks (idea generation task, methodical task and data collection) in a blended learning environment. Task self-efficacy was measured with…

  20. Insecurity of Employment and Work-Life Balance: From the viewpoint of compensating wage differentials

    OpenAIRE

    MORIKAWA Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents survey-based evidence on the "fair" compensating wage differentials for insecurity of employment and lack of work-life balance (WLB). We present facts about individual perceptions of the desirable compensating differentials and then estimate the effects of working hours and wages on job satisfaction. The fair wage premiums for insecurity of employment and lack of WLB are both around 10% to 20%. The actual relative wages of nonstandard workers seem to be lower than those in...

  1. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    .... APHIS-2011-0004] RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... interim rule that amended the plum pox regulations to provide for the payment of compensation to eligible... are required to be destroyed in order to prevent the spread of plum pox. The interim rule also...

  2. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.211 Compensation... that amount required to accomplish the activities for which the claim was paid. Real or Personal...

  3. Multiple Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Data for a sample of UK companies over the period 2003-2006 are analyzed using a variety of econometric methods. We find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant.

  4. Compensation of oscillation coupling induced by solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for construction of various schemes of oscillation coupling compensation, induced by solenoids in charged particle storage rings, are described. Peculiarities of magnetic structure, enabling to localize oscillation coupling in wide energy range are discussed. Results of calculation of compensation schemes for design of NR-2000 storage ring spin rotation are presented

  5. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  6. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  7. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... management; and Be supported by strong corporate governance, including active and effective oversight by the... Sound Compensation Practices adopted by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) in April 2009, as well as... will promote the prompt improvement of incentive compensation practices in the banking industry by...

  8. Complexities in understanding the role of compensation-related factors on recovery from whiplash-associated disorders: discussion paper 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Linda J; Connelly, Luke B; Spearing, Natalie M; Côté, Pierre; Buitenhuis, Jan; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-12-01

    Focused discussion. To present some of the complexities in conducting research on the role of compensation and compensation-related factors in recovery from whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and to suggest directions for future research. There is divergence of opinion, primary research findings, and systematic reviews on the role of compensation and/or compensation-related factors in WAD recovery. The topic of research of compensation/compensation-related factors was discussed at an international summit meeting of 21 researchers from diverse fields of scientific enquiry. This article summarizes the main points raised in that discussion. Traffic injury compensation is a complex sociopolitical construct, which varies widely across jurisdictions. This leads to conceptual and methodological challenges in conducting and interpreting research in this area. It is important that researchers and their audiences be clear about what aspect of the compensation system is being addressed, what compensation-related variables are being studied, and what social/economic environment the compensation system exists in. In addition, summit participants also recommended that nontraditional, sophisticated study designs and analysis strategies be employed to clarify the complex causal pathways and mechanisms of effects. Care must be taken by both researchers and their audiences not to overgeneralize or confuse different aspects of WAD compensation. In considering the role of compensation/compensation-related factors on WAD and WAD recovery, it is important to retain a broad-based conceptualization of the range of biological, psychological, social, and economic factors that combine and interact to define and determine how people recover from WAD.

  9. High Precision Infrared Temperature Measurement System Based on Distance Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the need of real-time remote monitoring of human body surface temperature for optical rehabilitation therapy, a non-contact high-precision real-time temperature measurement method based on distance compensation was proposed, and the system design was carried out. The microcontroller controls the infrared temperature measurement module and the laser range module to collect temperature and distance data. The compensation formula of temperature with distance wass fitted according to the least square method. Testing had been performed on different individuals to verify the accuracy of the system. The results indicate that the designed non-contact infrared temperature measurement system has a residual error of less than 0.2°C and the response time isless than 0.1s in the range of 0 to 60cm. This provides a reference for developing long-distance temperature measurement equipment in optical rehabilitation therapy.

  10. Compensatory internet use among individuals higher in social anxiety and its implications for well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Aaron C; Fernandez, Katya C; Levinson, Cheri A; Augustine, Adam A; Larsen, Randy J; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2012-08-01

    The social compensation hypothesis states that the internet primarily benefits individuals who feel uncomfortable communicating face-to-face. In the current research, we tested whether individuals higher in social anxiety use the internet as a compensatory social medium, and whether such use is associated with greater well-being. In Study 1, individuals higher in social anxiety reported greater feelings of comfort and self-disclosure when socializing online than less socially anxious individuals, but reported less self-disclosure when communicating face-to-face. However, in Study 2, social anxiety was associated with lower quality of life and higher depression most strongly for individuals who communicated frequently online. Our results suggest that, whereas social anxiety may be associated with using the internet as an alternative to face-to-face communication, such a strategy may result in poorer well-being.

  11. Limitations on the compensation of gamete donors: a public opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Malinda S; Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2017-06-01

    To determine public opinion on gamete donor compensation. Cross-sectional web-based survey. Not applicable. A nationally representative sample of 1,427 people in the United States. Not applicable. Support for the compensation of gamete donors. Of 1,427 respondents, 51 (4%) disagreed with use of IVF for any indication, and 232 (16%) believed that oocyte and/or sperm donation to be always unacceptable. Of the remaining 1,185 respondents, 953 (80%) supported and 41 (4%) opposed paying sperm donors; 1,063 (90%) supported and 24 (2%) opposed paying oocyte donors. Of respondents, 90% believed that appropriate compensation for one cycle of oocyte donation should be less than $10,000. A total of 559 (47%) supported a limit on sperm donor compensation and 544 (46%) supported a limit on oocyte donor compensation. Individuals who had personal knowledge of someone with infertility or who used assisted reproductive technology (ART), and Republicans compared with Democrats, were more likely to support limits on both oocyte and sperm donor compensation. Divorced compared with married respondents were less likely to support limits on gamete donor compensation. Men were less likely to support limits on sperm donor compensation. Most respondents in a nationally representative cohort support compensating gamete donors. Although most do not support limits on gamete donor compensation, most agree the appropriate payment for one cycle of oocyte donation is in line with former American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 42 CFR 413.102 - Compensation of owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definitions—(1) Compensation. Compensation means the total benefit received by the owner for the services he... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation of owners. 413.102 Section 413.102... § 413.102 Compensation of owners. (a) Principle. A reasonable allowance of compensation for services of...

  13. Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey: Factors Related to Compensation of Pediatric Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, Cheryl L; Hilliard, Marisa E; Williams, Andre; Armstrong, F Daniel; Christidis, Peggy; Kichler, Jessica; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Stamm, Karen E; Wysocki, Tim

    2017-05-01

    To summarize compensation results from the 2015 Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Workforce Survey and identify factors related to compensation of pediatric psychologists. All full members of SPP ( n  = 1,314) received the online Workforce Survey; 404 (32%) were returned with usable data. The survey assessed salary, benefits, and other income sources. The relationship between demographic and employment-related factors and overall compensation was explored.   Academic rank, level of administrative responsibility, and cost of living index of employment location were associated with compensation. Compensation did not vary by gender; however, women were disproportionately represented at the assistant and associate professor level. Compensation of pediatric psychologists is related to multiple factors. Longitudinal administration of the Workforce Survey is needed to determine changes in compensation and career advancement for this profession over time. Strategies to increase the response rate of future Workforce Surveys are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. A dimension reduction method for flood compensation operation of multi-reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, B.; Wu, S.; Fan, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple reservoirs cooperation compensation operations coping with uncontrolled flood play vital role in real-time flood mitigation. This paper come up with a reservoir flood compensation operation index (ResFCOI), which formed by elements of flood control storage, flood inflow volume, flood transmission time and cooperation operations period, then establish a flood cooperation compensation operations model of multi-reservoir system, according to the ResFCOI to determine a computational order of each reservoir, and lastly the differential evolution algorithm is implemented for computing single reservoir flood compensation optimization in turn, so that a dimension reduction method is formed to reduce computational complexity. Shiguan River Basin with two large reservoirs and an extensive uncontrolled flood area, is used as a case study, results show that (a) reservoirs' flood discharges and the uncontrolled flood are superimposed at Jiangjiaji Station, while the formed flood peak flow is as small as possible; (b) cooperation compensation operations slightly increase in usage of flood storage capacity in reservoirs, when comparing to rule-based operations; (c) it takes 50 seconds in average when computing a cooperation compensation operations scheme. The dimension reduction method to guide flood compensation operations of multi-reservoir system, can make each reservoir adjust its flood discharge strategy dynamically according to the uncontrolled flood magnitude and pattern, so as to mitigate the downstream flood disaster.

  15. Self Organization in Compensated Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2004-03-01

    In partially compensated semiconductor (PCS) Fermi level is pinned to donor sub-band. Due to positional randomness and almost isoenergetic hoppings, donor-spanned electronic subsystem in PCS forms fluid-like highly mobile collective state. This makes PCS playground for pattern formation, self-organization, complexity emergence, electronic neural networks, and perhaps even for origins of life, bioevolution and consciousness. Through effects of impact and/or Auger ionization of donor sites, whole PCS may collapse (spinodal decomposition) into microblocks potentially capable of replication and protobiological activity (DNA analogue). Electronic screening effects may act in RNA fashion by introducing additional length scale(s) to system. Spontaneous quantum computing on charged/neutral sites becomes potential generator of informationally loaded microstructures akin to "Carl Sagan Effect" (hidden messages in Pi in his "Contact") or informational self-organization of "Library of Babel" of J.L. Borges. Even general relativity effects at Planck scale (R.Penrose) may affect the dynamics through (e.g.) isotopic variations of atomic mass and local density (A.A.Berezin, 1992). Thus, PCS can serve as toy model (experimental and computational) at interface of physics and life sciences.

  16. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies?

  17. Increased mortality exposure within the family rather than individual mortality experiences triggers faster life-history strategies in historic human populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within

  18. 48 CFR 628.305 - Overseas workers' compensation and war-hazard insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Procurement Executive has the authority to issue the waivers for employees who work on an intermittent or...) Individuals hired in the United States or its possessions, regardless of citizenship; and, (iii) Local... local workers' compensation laws. (2) Individuals who are self-employed (i.e., they have not...

  19. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Weigl, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals' behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees' SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context. Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees' use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB. Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23-58 years) who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers' OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads. Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB. Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is perceived negatively

  20. Operation of static series compensator under distorted utility conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, H.; Nelsen, H.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    in the case of distorted grid voltage. Furthermore, a selective harmonic compensation strategy is applied to filter out the grid harmonics. The operation of the SSC under distorted utility conditions and voltage dips is discussed. The validity of the proposed controller is verified by experiments, carried out...... on a 10-kV SSC laboratory setup. Experimental results have shown the ability of the SSC to mitigate voltage dips and harmonics. It is also shown that the proposed controller has improved the transient performance of the SSC even under distorted utility conditions....

  1. Towards Compensation Correctness in Interactive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cátia; Ferreira, Carla

    One fundamental idea of service-oriented computing is that applications should be developed by composing already available services. Due to the long running nature of service interactions, a main challenge in service composition is ensuring correctness of failure recovery. In this paper, we use a process calculus suitable for modelling long running transactions with a recovery mechanism based on compensations. Within this setting, we discuss and formally state correctness criteria for compensable processes compositions, assuming that each process is correct with respect to failure recovery. Under our theory, we formally interpret self-healing compositions, that can detect and recover from failures, as correct compositions of compensable processes.

  2. Inductive voltage compensation in superconducting magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.; Goddard, J.S.; Shen, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper details several techniques of inductive voltage compensation developed for quench detection in superconducting magnet systems with multiple coils and power supplies, with particular application for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF). Sources of noise, their magnitudes, and the sensitivity required for normal zone detection to avoid damage to the magnets are discussed. Two passive compensation schemes (second difference and central difference) are introduced and illustrated by parameters of LCTF; these take advantage of coil symmetries and other system characteristics. An active compensation scheme based on current rate input fom pickup coils and utilizing theory on ac loss voltage for calibration was tested, and the experimental setup and test results are discussed

  3. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance Evaluations and Victim Satisfaction With State Compensation for Violent Crime: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, M J J; Koster, N N; Van Heugten, J

    2015-07-29

    Satisfaction with a particular good or service represents an affective state in response to an individual's evaluation of the performance of that good or service. This evaluation involves a comparison between perceived actual performance and prior expectations. The current study used this theoretical idea to study violent crime victims' levels of satisfaction with services provided by a Dutch state compensation scheme. One hundred and seventy-seven victims of violent crime who had applied for compensation from the Dutch Violent Offences Compensation Fund (DVOCF) participated in two brief telephone interviews: one before receipt of the fund's decision upon their request for compensation and one after receipt of that decision. Based on the theories of distributive and procedural justice, measurement of prior expectations was differentiated in expectations about receipt of compensation, treatment by fund workers, and information provision. Results suggested that satisfaction with the DVOCF depended on fulfillment of expectations about treatment by fund workers and information provision, but not on fulfillment of expectations about receipt of compensation. Other predictors of victim satisfaction were as follows: duration of the application procedure, approval upon request for compensation, and satisfaction assessed during the first interview. Results were discussed in light of theory, policy implications, study limitations, and future research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Is clinician refusal to treat an emerging problem in injury compensation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijnath, Bianca; Mazza, Danielle; Kosny, Agnieszka; Bunzli, Samantha; Singh, Nabita; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Collie, Alex

    2016-01-20

    The reasons that doctors may refuse or be reluctant to treat have not been widely explored in the medical literature. To understand the ethical implications of reluctance to treat there is a need to recognise the constraints of doctors working in complex systems and to consider how these constraints may influence reluctance. The aim of this paper is to illustrate these constraints using the case of compensable injury in the Australian context. Between September and December 2012, a qualitative investigation involving face-to-face semistructured interviews examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs) facilitating return to work in people with compensable injuries. Compensable injury management in general practice in Melbourne, Australia. 25 GPs who were treating, or had treated a patient with compensable injury. The practice of clinicians refusing treatment was described by all participants. While most GPs reported refusal to treat among their colleagues in primary and specialist care, many participants also described their own reluctance to treat people with compensable injuries. Reasons offered included time and financial burdens, in addition to the clinical complexities involved in compensable injury management. In the case of compensable injury management, reluctance and refusal to treat is likely to have a domino effect by increasing the time and financial burden of clinically complex patients on the remaining clinicians. This may present a significant challenge to an effective, sustainable compensation system. Urgent research is needed to understand the extent and implications of reluctance and refusal to treat and to identify strategies to engage clinicians in treating people with compensable injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Is clinician refusal to treat an emerging problem in injury compensation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijnath, Bianca; Mazza, Danielle; Kosny, Agnieszka; Bunzli, Samantha; Singh, Nabita; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Collie, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective The reasons that doctors may refuse or be reluctant to treat have not been widely explored in the medical literature. To understand the ethical implications of reluctance to treat there is a need to recognise the constraints of doctors working in complex systems and to consider how these constraints may influence reluctance. The aim of this paper is to illustrate these constraints using the case of compensable injury in the Australian context. Design Between September and December 2012, a qualitative investigation involving face-to-face semistructured interviews examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs) facilitating return to work in people with compensable injuries. Setting Compensable injury management in general practice in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 25 GPs who were treating, or had treated a patient with compensable injury. Results The practice of clinicians refusing treatment was described by all participants. While most GPs reported refusal to treat among their colleagues in primary and specialist care, many participants also described their own reluctance to treat people with compensable injuries. Reasons offered included time and financial burdens, in addition to the clinical complexities involved in compensable injury management. Conclusions In the case of compensable injury management, reluctance and refusal to treat is likely to have a domino effect by increasing the time and financial burden of clinically complex patients on the remaining clinicians. This may present a significant challenge to an effective, sustainable compensation system. Urgent research is needed to understand the extent and implications of reluctance and refusal to treat and to identify strategies to engage clinicians in treating people with compensable injuries. PMID:26792215

  7. Health Insurance Costs and Employee Compensation: Evidence from the National Compensation Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Priyanka

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines the relationship between rising health insurance costs and employee compensation. I estimate the extent to which total compensation decreases with a rise in health insurance costs and decompose these changes in compensation into adjustments in wages, non-health fringe benefits, and employee contributions to health insurance premiums. I examine this relationship using the National Compensation Survey, a panel dataset on compensation and health insurance for a sample of establishments across the USA. I find that total hourly compensation reduces by $0.52 for each dollar increase in health insurance costs. This reduction in total compensation is primarily in the form of higher employee premium contributions, and there is no evidence of a change in wages and non-health fringe benefits. These findings show that workers are absorbing at least part of the increase in health insurance costs through lower compensation and highlight the importance of examining total compensation, and not just wages, when examining the relationship between health insurance costs and employee compensation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. End-Stage Renal Disease After Renal Surgery in Patients with Normal Preoperative Kidney Function: Balancing Surgical Strategy and Individual Disorders at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Umberto; Larcher, Alessandro; Terrone, Carlo; Antonelli, Alessandro; Volpe, Alessandro; Fiori, Cristian; Furlan, Maria; Dehò, Federico; Minervini, Andrea; Serni, Sergio; Porpiglia, Francesco; Trevisani, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea; Carini, Marco; Simeone, Claudio; Montorsi, Francesco; Bertini, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Although nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) has demonstrated benefit in terms of renal function preservation, it is unclear whether NSS might also decrease the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) relative to radical nephrectomy (RN). In the current paper, we aimed to report the rate and the predictors of ESRD after surgery, accounting for detailed individual baseline characteristics and comorbidities. A multi-institutional collaboration among five European tertiary care centers allowed study of 2027 patients with normal preoperative renal function and a clinically localized T1abN0M0 renal mass. Cox regression analyses were used to predict the risk of ESRD (defined as the onset of a postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate kidney disease. Univariable ESRD rates at 5 and 10 yr of follow-up were virtually equivalent for patients who underwent NSS (1.5% and 2.5%, respectively) versus RN (1.9% and 2.7%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-1.6). However, diabetes, smoking, uncontrolled hypertension, and other comorbidities were consistently more frequent in the NSS group relative to their RN counterparts. After adjusting for detailed baseline individual characteristics, NSS was shown to have an independent protective effect relative to RN (HR: 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; p=0.02) at multivariable analyses. After accounting for individual baseline characteristics, such as age, diabetes, uncontrolled hypertension, or other comorbidities, partial nephrectomy independently protects against end-stage renal disease and the consequent need for dialysis relative to radical nephrectomy. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The risks and rewards of setting physician compensation internally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jen

    2013-01-01

    To establish physician compensation internally, finance leaders should: Educate decision makers on basic regulatory guidance and valuation theory. Determine fair market value. Consider using a compensation calculator.

  10. The motor deficits caused by Parkinson's disease are not able to block adjustments for a safe strategy during obstacle crossing in individuals with moderate disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Alota Ignácio Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to verify whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD are able to adjust their motor behavior according to restrictions imposed by the task instruction during walking with obstacle crossing. Eighteen elderly people (moderate motor compromise with a diagnosis of PD walked on a pathway and cross an obstacle according to the following conditions: walking at preferred velocity; walking at maximum vertical elevation of the feet to cross the obstacle; walking at maximum step length to cross the obstacle; walking at maximum velocity. The modulations were directly related to the instructions provided to patients with PD before performing each task, which seems to indicate that attentional cues can influence and benefit strategies during obstacle crossing. In conclusion, patients with PD are able to adjust walking during obstacle crossing according to instructions given to them, which increases their safety.

  11. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  12. Defense Contract Audit Agency Compensation Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) assists the administrative contracting officer in accomplishing that responsibility by determining whether the contractor's compensation system is sound, reliable, consistently applied, and results...

  13. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  14. Shaft Seal Compensates for Cold Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Seal components easy to install. Ring seal for rotating or reciprocating shafts spring-loaded to compensate for slow yielding (cold flow) of sealing material. New seal relatively easy to install because components preassembled, then installed in one piece.

  15. Integrated open source mine workers compensation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Mine Workers Compensation System developed by the CSIR and Molepe Consulting for the South African Department of Health. Mining activities increase the risk of certain occupational lung diseases. South African legislation...

  16. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-22

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  17. voltage compensation using artificial neural network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Offor Theophilos

    Simulation results showed that DVR is effective in compensating for ... shutdown of heavy equipment, switching operations etc, ... station were carried out in MatLab 2013 application. ... semiconductor in a pulse width modulation (PWM).

  18. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage which was adopted on 12 September 1997 by a Diplomatic Conference held between 8-12 September 1997 in Vienna

  19. Precision cancer immunotherapy: optimizing dendritic cell-based strategies to induce tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses against individual patient tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Nagaoka, Koji; Takahara, Masashi; Yang, Xiao Yi; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Guo, Hongtao; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hobeika, Amy; Hartman, Zachary; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2015-05-01

    Most dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines have loaded the DC with defined antigens, but loading with autologos tumor-derived antigens would generate DCs that activate personalized tumor-specific T-cell responses. We hypothesized that DC matured with an optimized combination of reagents and loaded with tumor-derived antigens using a clinically feasible electroporation strategy would induce potent antitumor immunity. We first studied the effects on DC maturation and antigen presentation of the addition of picibanil (OK432) to a combination of zoledronic acid, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2. Using DC matured with the optimized combination, we tested 2 clinically feasible sources of autologous antigen for electroloading, total tumor mRNA or total tumor lysate, to determine which stimulated more potent antigen-specific T cells in vitro and activated more potent antitumor immunity in vivo. The combination of tumor necrosis factor-α/prostaglandin E2/zoledronic acid/OK432 generated DC with high expression of maturation markers and antigen-specific T-cell stimulatory function in vitro. Mature DC electroloaded with tumor-derived mRNA [mRNA electroporated dendritic cell (EPDC)] induced greater expansion of antigen-specific T cells in vitro than DC electroloaded with tumor lysate (lysate EPDC). In a therapeutic model of MC38-carcinoembryonic antigen colon cancer-bearing mice, vaccination with mRNA EPDC induced the most efficient anti-carcinoembryonic antigen cellular immune response, which significantly suppressed tumor growth. In conclusion, mature DC electroloaded with tumor-derived mRNA are a potent cancer vaccine, especially useful when specific tumor antigens for vaccination have not been identified, allowing autologous tumor, and if unavailable, allogeneic cell lines to be used as an unbiased source of antigen. Our data support clinical testing of this strategy.

  20. Effects of series compensation on spot price power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.B.; Wang Feng

    2005-01-01

    The operation of a deregulated power market becomes more complex as the generation scheduling is dependent on suppliers' and consumers' bids. With large number of transactions in the power market changing in time, it is more likely for some transmission lines to face congestion. Series compensation, such as TCSC, with its ability to directly control the power flow can be very helpful to improve the operation of transmission networks. The effects of TCSC on the operation of a spot price power market are studied in this paper using the modified IEEE 14-bus system. Optimal Power Flow incorporating TCSC is used to implement the spot price market. Linear bids are used to model suppliers' and consumers' bids. Issues of location and cost of TCSC are discussed. The effects of levels of TCSC compensation on wide range of system quantities are studied. The effects on the total social benefit, the spot prices, transmission congestion, total generation and consumption, benefit to individual supplier and consumer etc. are discussed. It is demonstrated that though use of TCSC makes the system more efficient and augments competition in the market, it is not easy to establish general relationships between the levels of compensation and various market quantities. Simulation studies like these can be used to assess the effects of TCSC in specific systems. (Author)

  1. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlicek, V.; Pokorny, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper

  2. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlíček, V.; Pokorný, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper.

  3. Radiotherapy dose compensation for lung patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyaratna, N.; Arnold, A.; Metcalfe, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a more homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume from compensated anterior and posterior fields while the healthy lung is spared by de-weighting the lateral fields. A compensation computation which used linear iterations to compute the most homogeneous dose distribution across the target volume was applied to produce optimum compensator designs. The equivalent tissue-air ratio (E-TAR) inhomogeneity correction was applied for the computations using a GE target series 11 planning computer. The compensators designed were tested for accuracy in a modified water/lung phantom using a scanning diode and an anthropomorphic phantom using thermoluminescent dosimeters. A comparison has been made between the compensated and uncompensated plans for the first nine patients who we have treated with this technique. The dose profiles produced by the computation agreed with the prediction of the computed isodose plans to within ± 2% at the target depth. The thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-measured results in the anthropomorphic phantom agreed with the planning computer within ± 3%. A comparison of nine compensated plans of radiotherapy patients for large-volume targets in the lung region showed a maximum variation in the target to be 19% uncompensated versus 10% compensated. By providing compensated treatment fields from anterior and posterior treatment portals, a homogeneous dose that conforms well to the target volume is provided. As an added bonus, this enables the lateral lung fields to be significantly de-weighted and the healthy lung is spared considerable dose. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М.Galynovskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of models of three-phase-to-single-phase rotary reversible thyristor converters of brushless synchronous compensators in a circuit simulation system is analyzed. It is shown that combined control mode of opposite-connected thyristors may result in the exciter armature winding short circuits both at the thyristor feed-forward and lagging current delay angles. It must be taken into consideration when developing brushless compensator excitation systems.

  5. Executive Compensation and Principal-Agent Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Garen, John E

    1994-01-01

    The empirical literature on executive compensation generally fails to specify a model of executive pay on which to base hypotheses regarding its determinants. In contrast, this paper analyzes a simple principal-agent model to determine how well it explains variations in CEO incentive pay and salaries. Many findings are consistent with the basic intuition of principle-agent models that compensation is structured to trade off incentives with insurance. However, statistical significance for some...

  6. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  7. Compensation for Combat Deaths: Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    through the courts for deaths resulting from other parties’ negligence or criminal behavior; a key difference between the tort system and many other...funding facilities that function outside of the tort system— for example, workers’ compensation programs for workplace fatalities and the Victims...receive $100,000 if the 10-percent risk of a loss of $100,000 actually came to pass. Tort law generally uses an ex post approach to compensation and

  8. Reactive power compensation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Just, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive resource on reactive power compensation, presenting the design, application and operation of reactive power equipment and installations The area of reactive power compensation is gaining increasing importance worldwide. If suitably designed, it is capable of improving voltage quality significantly, meaning that losses in equipment and power systems are reduced, the permissible loading of equipment can be increased, and the over-all stability of system operation improved. Ultimately, energy use and CO2 emisson are reduced. This unique guide discusses the

  9. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntombizodwa Ndlovu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. Methods: The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. Results: There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9% had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7% had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7% had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3% claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7% claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2% or neighbourhood (20; 37.8% exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts’ exposure criteria. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to

  10. Compensation for environmental asbestos-related diseases in South Africa: a neglected issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Ntombizodwa; Naude, Jim teWater; Murray, Jill

    2013-01-24

    Environmentally acquired asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) are of concern globally. In South Africa, there is widespread contamination of the environment due to historical asbestos mining operations that were poorly regulated. Although the law makes provision for the compensation of occupationally acquired ARDs, compensation for environmentally acquired ARDs is only available through the Asbestos Relief Trust (ART) and Kgalagadi Relief Trust, both of which are administered by the ART. This study assessed ARDs and compensation outcomes of environmental claims submitted to the Trusts. The personal details, medical diagnoses, and exposure information of all environmental claims considered by the Trusts from their inception in 2003 to April 2010 were used to calculate the numbers and proportions of ARDs and compensation awards. There were 146 environmental claimants of whom 35 (23.9%) had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 (0.7%) had lung cancer, and 77 (52.7%) had malignant mesothelioma. 53 (36.3%) claimants were compensated: 20 with fibrotic pleural disease and 33 with mesothelioma. Of the 93 (63.7%) claimants who were not compensated, 33 had no ARDs, 18 had fibrotic pleural disease, 1 had lung cancer, and 44 had mesothelioma. In addition to having ARDs, those that were compensated had qualifying domestic (33; 62.2%) or neighbourhood (20; 37.8%) exposures to asbestos. Most of the claimants who were not compensated had ARDs but their exposures did not meet the Trusts' exposure criteria. This study demonstrates the environmental impact of asbestos mining on the burden of ARDs. Mesothelioma was the most common disease diagnosed, but most cases were not compensated. This highlights that there is little redress for individuals with environmentally acquired ARDs in South Africa. To stop this ARD epidemic, there is a need for the rehabilitation of abandoned asbestos mines and the environment. These issues may not be unique to South Africa as many countries continue to mine and use

  11. Environmental change, phenotypic plasticity, and genetic compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F

    2005-10-01

    When a species encounters novel environmental conditions, some phenotypic characters may develop differently than in the ancestral environment. Most environmental perturbations of development are likely to reduce fitness, and thus selection would usually be expected to favor genetic changes that restore the ancestral phenotype. I propose the term "genetic compensation" to refer to this form of adaptive evolution. Genetic compensation is a subset of genetic accommodation and the reverse of genetic assimilation. When genetic compensation has occurred along a spatial environmental gradient, the mean trait values of populations in different environments may be more similar in the field than when representatives of the same populations are raised in a common environment (i.e., countergradient variation). If compensation is complete, genetic divergence between populations may be cryptic, that is, not detectable in the field. Here I apply the concept of genetic compensation to three examples involving carotenoid-based sexual coloration and then use these and other examples to discuss the concept in a broader context. I show that genetic compensation may lead to a cryptic form of reproductive isolation between populations evolving in different environments, may explain some puzzling cases in which heritable traits exposed to strong directional selection fail to show the expected evolutionary response, and may complicate efforts to monitor populations for signs of environmental deterioration.

  12. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with compensators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salz, H.; Wiezorek, T.; Scheithauer, M.; Kleen, W.; Schwedas, M.; Wendt, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation with intensity-modulated fields is possible with static as well as dynamic methods. In our university hospital, the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with compensators was prepared and used for the first time for patient irradiation in July 2001. The compensators consist of a mixture of tin granulate and wax, which is filled in a milled negative mould. The treatment planning is performed with Helax-TMS (MDS Nordion). An additional software is used for editing the modulation matrix ('Modifix'). Before irradiation of the first patient, extensive measurements have been carried out in terms of quality assurance of treatment planning and production of compensators. The results of the verification measurements have shown that IMRT with compensators possesses high spatial and dosimetric exactness. The calculated dose distributions are applied correctly. The accuracy of the calculated monitor units is normally better than 3%; in small volumes, further dosimetric inaccuracies between calculated and measured dose distributions are mostly less than 3%. Therefore, the compensators contribute to the achievement of high-level IMRT even when apparatuses without MLC are used. This paper describes the use of the IMRT with compensators, presents the limits of this technology, and discusses the first practical experiences. (orig.) [de

  13. Modeling a Strategy for the War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Darral

    2002-01-01

    .... This paper discusses a strategy for conducting the war on terrorism in terms of a system and how that strategy must be adjusted over the long-term to compensate for fluctuating components of the war on terrorism...

  14. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  15. Flexible Compensation of Voltage and Current Unbalance and Harmonics in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Yousef Mousazadeh Mousavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the harmonics and unbalance problems endanger the voltage and current quality of power systems, due to increasing usage of nonlinear and unbalanced loads. Use of Distributed Generation (DG-interfacing inverters is proposed for voltage or current compensation. In this paper, a flexible control method is proposed to compensate voltage and current unbalance and harmonics using the distributed generation (DG-interfacing inverters. This method is applicable to both grid-connected and islanded Microgrids (MGs. In the proposed method, not only the proper control of active and reactive powers can be achieved, but also there is flexibility in compensating the voltage or current quality problems at DG terminals or Points of Common Coupling (PCCs. This control strategy consists of active and reactive power controllers and a voltage/current quality-improvement block. The controller is designed in a stationary (αβ frame. An extensive simulation study has been performed and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Depending on the compensation modes, the harmonics and unbalance compensation of DG output current, MG-injected current to the grid, as well as PCC and DG voltages, can be achieved in grid-connected operation of MG while in the islanded operation, and the PCC and DG voltages compensation can be obtained through the proposed control scheme.

  16. Inhibition or compensation? A multidimensional comparison of reading processes in Dutch and English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, M; Schoonen, R; de Glopper, Cornelis

    2003-01-01

    This article examines 2 hypotheses about processing of global text content in second language reading: the inhibition hypothesis and the compensation hypothesis. A 3-dimensional classification scheme is used to compare 22 Dutch high school students' reading strategies in Dutch and English. Results

  17. Inhibition or compensation? A multi-dimensional comparison of reading processes in Dutch and English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, M.; Schoonen, R.; de Glopper, K.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines 2 hypotheses about processing of global text content in second language reading: the inhibition hypothesis and the compensation hypothesis. A 3-dimensional classification scheme is used to compare 22 Dutch high school students’ reading strategies in Dutch and English. Results

  18. How to reliably deliver narrow individual-patient error bars for optimization of pacemaker AV or VV delay using a "pick-the-highest" strategy with haemodynamic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Darrel P

    2013-03-10

    Intuitive and easily-described, "pick-the-highest" is often recommended for quantitative optimization of AV and especially VV delay settings of biventricular pacemakers (BVP; cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT). But reliable selection of the optimum setting is challenged by beat-to-beat physiological variation, which "pick-the-highest" combats by averaging multiple heartbeats. Optimization is not optimization unless the optimum is identified confidently. This document shows how to calculate how many heartbeats must be averaged to optimize reliably by pick-the-highest. Any reader, by conducting a few measurements, can calculate for locally-available methods (i) biological scatter between replicate measurements, and (ii) curvature of the biological response. With these, for any clinically-desired precision of optimization, the necessary number of heartbeats can be calculated. To achieve 95% confidence of getting within ±∆x of the true optimum, the number of heartbeats needed is 2(scatter/curvature)(2)/∆x(4) per setting. Applying published scatter/curvature values (which readers should re-evaluate locally) indicates that optimizing AV, even coarsely with a 40ms-wide band of precision, requires many thousand beats. For VV delay, the number approaches a million. Moreover, identifying the optimum twice as precisely requires 30-fold more beats. "Pick the highest" is quick to say but slow to do. We must not expect staff to do the impossible; nor criticise them for not doing so. Nor should we assume recommendations and published protocols are well-designed. Reliable AV or VV optimization, using "pick-the-highest" on commonly-recommended manual measurements, is unrealistic. Improving time-efficiency of the optimization process to become clinically realistic may need a curve-fitting strategy instead, with all acquired data marshalled conjointly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Individualized and Everyday Life Approach to Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-N. Levaux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person’s everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person’s cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field.

  20. 28 CFR 104.21 - Filing for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “Personal Injury Compensation Form” or a “Death Compensation Form.” A claim shall be deemed “filed” for... filing either a “Personal Injury Compensation Form” or a “Death Compensation Form,” the claim shall be..., when a Claims Evaluator determines that both the Eligibility Form and either a Personal Injury...

  1. 20 CFR 211.2 - Definition of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 211.2 Section 211.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.2 Definition of compensation. (a) The term compensation means any form...

  2. 50 CFR 296.4 - Claims eligible for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compensation. (a) Claimants. Damage or loss eligible for Fund compensation must be suffered by a commercial fisherman. (b) Damage or loss of fishing gear. Damage or loss is eligible for Fund compensation if it was... is not eligible for Fund compensation: (1) If the damage or loss was caused by the negligence or...

  3. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency and indemnity compensation. This term means a monthly payment made by...

  4. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Weigl, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals’ behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees’ SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context. Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees’ use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB. Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23–58 years) who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers’ OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads. Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB. Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is perceived

  5. Defining Compensable Injury in Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Megan E

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research provides a core social good by enabling medical progress. In the twenty-first century alone, this includes reducing transmission of HIV/AIDS, developing innovative therapies for cancer patients, and exploring the possibilities of personalized medicine. In order to continue to advance medical science, research relies on the voluntary participation of human subjects. Because research is inherently uncertain, unintended harm is an inevitable part of the research enterprise. Currently, injured research participants in the United States must turn to the “litigation lottery” of the tort system in search of compensation. This state of affairs fails research participants, who are too often left uncompensated for devastating losses, and makes the United States an outlier in the international community. In spite of forty years’ worth of Presidential Commissions and other respected voices calling for the development of a no-fault compensation system, no progress has been made to date. One of the reasons for this lack of progress is the failure to develop a coherent ethical basis for an obligation to provide compensation for research related injuries. This problem is exacerbated by the lack of a clear definition of “compensable injury” in the biomedical research context. This article makes a number of important contributions to the scholarship in this growing field. To begin, it examines compensation systems already in existence and concludes that there are four main definitional elements that must be used to define “compensable injury.” Next, it examines the justifications that have been put forth as the basis for an ethical obligation to provide compensation, and settles on retrospective nonmaleficence and distributive and compensatory justice as the most salient and persuasive. Finally, it uses the regulatory elements and the justifications discussed in the first two sections to develop a well-rounded definition of “compensable injury

  6. CSR STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    LAURENTIU BARANGA; ION STEGAROIU

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has got three components: economic responsibility of shareholders, corporate environmental responsibility, corporate responsibility of the society. Each component of the CSR has its own features, according to which adequate individual behaviour is established. Knowing these features is very important in CSR strategy development.

  7. Temperature compensation and entrainment in circadian rhythms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenstein, C; Heiland, I; Schuster, S

    2012-01-01

    To anticipate daily variations in the environment and coordinate biological activities into a daily cycle many organisms possess a circadian clock. In the absence of external time cues the circadian rhythm persists with a period of approximately 24 h. The clock phase can be shifted by single pulses of light, darkness, chemicals, or temperature and this allows entrainment of the clock to exactly 24 h by cycles of these zeitgebers. On the other hand, the period of the circadian rhythm is kept relatively constant within a physiological range of constant temperatures, which means that the oscillator is temperature compensated. The mechanisms behind temperature compensation and temperature entrainment are not fully understood, neither biochemically nor mathematically. Here, we theoretically investigate the interplay of temperature compensation and entrainment in general oscillatory systems. We first give an analytical treatment for small temperature shifts and derive that every temperature-compensated oscillator is entrainable to external small-amplitude temperature cycles. Temperature compensation ensures that this entrainment region is always centered at the endogenous period regardless of possible seasonal temperature differences. Moreover, for small temperature cycles the entrainment region of the oscillator is potentially larger for rectangular pulses. For large temperature shifts we numerically analyze different circadian clock models proposed in the literature with respect to these properties. We observe that for such large temperature shifts sinusoidal or gradual temperature cycles allow a larger entrainment region than rectangular cycles. (paper)

  8. Engineering Compensations in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Micahel; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure in such a......Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this paper, we introduce an engineering approach and an environment to deal with advanced...... compensations based on forward recovery principles. We extend the existing Web service transaction coordination architecture and infrastructure in order to support flexible compensation operations. A contract-based approach is being used, which allows the specification of permitted compensations at runtime. We...

  9. Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Wilson, R.

    1988-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CH 3 ) 4 ) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to sampling inefficiencies. The results of the simulations also indicate that significant compensation is achieved (given small enough saturation) due to low energy recoil protons produced in collisions with low energy (1--20 MeV) cascade and fission neutrons in the active medium. Both compensation mechanisms are important to help balance the response of a calorimeter to incident electrons and hadrons, that is, to achieve a ratio of pulse heights (e/h ∼ 1) which will lead to the best energy resolution. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Incomplete and imperfect information for sales compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Valeanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales force compensation represents the fix and / or variable payment by the company. To compensate agents based on the results, the company set a goal which is brought to their attention through the compensation plan. Applying the model of moral hazard, where the agent behavior cannot be verified, it cannot be specified in the contract what is the expected behavior of the agent. In order to make an offer to contract principal should know the effort that the agent will submit it to define the payment and the contract is determined optimally in trade between the two conflicting objectives of the two participants in the contract. Although agent behavior cannot be verified, the result of this behavior should be measurable at the end of the contract so that the employer may make the contract contingent on effort commission agent for sale of which is measured by the amount of earnings to the company.

  11. 'Compensation neurosis': a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weighill, V E

    1983-01-01

    This review examines the literature on psychological reactions, often referred to as 'compensation neurosis', which occur after an accident and which are thought to be produced or maintained by a compensation claim. Theories and research are examined. The area is complicated and research so far is limited in scope and design. Few accident cases involve compensation claims and the incidence of psychological difficulties across the whole range of cases is unknown. Researchers have considered a number of background factors--severity of injury, pre-existing neurotic traits, social class, sex and age--but there has been little investigation of attitudinal, family, social and employment factors or of progress of the condition and follow-up after settlement. The review identifies a major research need for more adequate screening and sampling of cases and for more systematic investigation of personal and family factors.

  12. Institutional directors and board compensation: Spanish evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix López-Iturriaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We address the influence of directors who represent institutional investors in three aspects of board compensation policies: level of compensation, composition, and performance sensitivity. We differentiate pressure-sensitive directors (i.e., with business links and pressure-resistant directors (i.e., without business links. Our results show that pressure-resistant directors decrease total board compensation and its fixed proportion, whereas they increase the variable proportion of total remuneration and the pay-for-performance sensitivity. By contrast, pressure-sensitive directors offer the opposite results. These findings are consistent with the view that institutional investors are not a homogeneous group and that pressure-resistant directors fulfill a more thorough monitoring role.

  13. Compensation: Will it provide a waste site?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Offering an attractive compensation package to persuade a community to voluntarily accept an otherwise undesirable facility may work in some cases, but it's not likely to work for high-level nuclear-waste disposal. The public perception of the risks involved and the public distrust of the institutions responsible for managing those risks are just too great. Much of the controversy stems from public perceptions that the site-selection process itself is unfair. Resentment builds when this occurs, and offers of compensation come to be labeled bribes or blood money. The driving force behind current nuclear-waste policy is intergenerational equity - the moral concept that the generation that produced the waste should dispose of it, permanently. Regardless of the moral appeal, doubts have been raised about the technical feasibility of this approach. Alternatives featuring intergenerational monetary compensation may better honor the commitment hor-ellipsis and reduce pressure to try to do what may be impossible

  14. Reexamining workers' compensation: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Leslie I

    2012-06-01

    Injured workers, particularly those with more severe injuries, have long experienced workers' compensation systems as stressful and demeaning, have found it difficult to obtain benefits, and, when able to obtain benefits, have found them inadequate. Moreover, the last two decades have seen a substantial erosion of the protections offered by workers' compensation. State after state has erected additional barriers to benefit receipt, making the workers' compensation experience even more difficult and degrading. These changes have been facilitated by a framing of the political debate focused on the free market paradigm, employer costs, and worker fraud and malingering. The articles in this special issue propose an alternate framework and analysis, a human rights approach, that values the dignity and economic security of injured workers and their families. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The neurobiology of individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  16. Mourning as individual chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Marko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motives for preparing this paper, are personal and professional, there is mutual interference. Ending of the paper is considered as synchronicity, in author s personal mourning. A mourning, as hard experience, but also as a chance for development, integration of somebody s own capacities, embodied in relationship with another, is close connected with individuation, that is represented as spontaneous, unconcious process of self development of personality with the aim of searching unity and wholesness of personality, following number of compensations toward balance and wholesness as final aim, but also is considered as ideal. In close conection with individuation is transcedental function that integrates conscious and unconcsious attitude, overcomes struggle of consiousness and unconsciousness. In paper, there are examples of two myths, myth about Demetra and Persefona, and Orpheus and Euridica, that show possible individuation directions throughout mourning process. Individation is, there, put in the context of death and Under World. Beside individual, there is consideration of colective mourning, although that approach is restricted for some reasons. There is question of capacity of society for mourning.

  17. Bend compensated large-mode-area fibers: achieving robust single-modedness with transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, John M; Nicholson, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-12

    Fibers with symmetric bend compensated claddings are proposed, and demonstrate performance much better than conventional designs. These fibers can simultaneously achieve complete HOM suppression, negligible bend loss, and mode area >1000 square microns. The robust single-modedness of these fibers offers a path to overcoming mode instability limits on high-power amplifiers and lasers. The proposed designs achieve many of the advantages of our previous (asymmetric) bend compensation strategy in the regime of moderately large area, and are much easier to fabricate and utilize.

  18. On the feedback error compensation for adaptive modulation and coding scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seyeong

    2011-11-25

    In this paper, we consider the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of perfect feedback channels. We quantify the performance of two joint AMDC schemes in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average spectral efficiency, the average number of combined paths, and the average bit error rate. The benefit of feedback error compensation with adaptive combining is also quantified. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Motivate Effect of Higher Education Institutions' Compensation System on Faculties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Qing-liang; SU Jun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the questionnaire survey, this article reveals the effects of the current university compensation system on faculties in three psychological aspects, namely performance exam effect, work pressure and endurance capability. The results indicate that university faculties have a strong pursuit for self-fulfillment and successful career. Most of them love their teaching career and wish to further improve the fairness and efficiency of university management system by deepening the management systemic reform. Multi-leveled, multi-purposed and multi-modeled managing strategy of university compensation system is proved to be the main methods of improving fairness and efficiency.

  20. Weak hadronic currents in compensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Working within the framework of a compensation theory of strong and weak interactions, it is shown that: (1) an axial vector baryon number current can be included in the weak current algebra if certain restrictions on the K-meson strong couplings are relaxed; (2) the theory does not permit the introduction of strange currents of the chiral form V + A; and (3) the assumption that the superweak currents of the theory cannot contain certain CP conserving terms can be justified on the basis of compensation requirements

  1. Skew quad compensation for SPEAR minibeta optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, K.

    1984-06-01

    With the new minibeta insertion for SPEAR the betatron coupling and the perturbations of beam optics caused by the solenoid field of the MARK III detector can't be compensated by the simple coils used so far. Therefore another scheme with four skew quads arranged in two families has been chosen. Even though this scheme doesn't compensate the effect of the solenoid on the beam completely, the residual emittance coupling is much less than 1% which should be sufficient under all running conditions. The major advantage of this concept is its simplicity

  2. Convention on supplementary compensation for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Society, Beijing; U.S. Nuclear Energy Institute

    2000-01-01

    The Contracting parties recognize the importance of the measures provided in the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third party liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy as well as in national legislation on compensation for nuclear damage consistent with the principles of these conventions. The Contracting parties desire to establish a worldwide liability regime to supplement and enhance these measures with a view to increasing the amount of compensation for nuclear damage and encourage regional and global co-operation to promote a higher level of nuclear safety in accordance with the principle of international partnership and solidarity

  3. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  4. Security careers skills, compensation, and career paths

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The third edition of Security Careers is the authoritative reference for current job descriptions and pay practices of security, compliance, ethics, environmental, health and safety occupations. The job descriptions and compensation ranges in this report are drawn from research from the Foushée Group, which has been conducting this research since 1980. Security Careers includes more than 75 job descriptions for security-related positions, which range from the entry-level security guard to the top global corporate executive. It also provides four years of compensation trend data to give a th

  5. Kayenta advanced series compensation operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The world's first three-phase, thyristor-controlled series compensation scheme with continuously variable impedance has been introduced into a transmission system. Energized and dedicated in September 1992, the installation was placed into commercial operation in January 1993 and has provided over one year of operating experience. This paper describes the 230 kV, 330 MVAr (60 Hz) advanced series compensation (ASC) project, located in north-eastern Arizona at Kayenta Substation on the 320 km Glen Canyon-Shiprock transmission line. The paper describes operating experiences, coordination with phase shifting transformer, phase shifter failure, platform power, system disturbances, and future plans.

  6. Radiation damage effects on calorimeter compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Handler, T.

    1990-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of a detector that is to be used at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the response of the calorimeter to electromagnetic and hadronic particles and the equality of those responses for different types of particles at equal incident energies, i.e. compensation. However, as the simulations that are reported show, the compensation characteristics of a calorimeter can be seriously compromised over a relatively short period of time due to the large radiation levels that are expected in the SSC environment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  7. Compensation systems for low temperature applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skoczen, Balzej T

    2004-01-01

    The book is dedicated to the behaviour of ductile materials at cryogenic temperatures, structural stability issues and reliability oriented parametric optimisation of compensation systems containing the corrugated bellows. The problems of local and global stability of systems containing bellows, coupling between the low-cycle fatigue and stability as well as evolution of plastic strain fields, micro-damage and strain induced phase transformation in the corrugated shells at cryogenic temperatures are presented. As a special feature reliability oriented optimum design of compensation systems under strength, stability, fatigue and geometrical constraints is discussed. The relevant applications in the particle accelerators and cryogenic transfer lines are shown.

  8. The marriage premium and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W R; Harford, K

    1989-12-01

    This paper proposes and tests an alternative explanation of the marriage premium that relies upon differences in workers' tastes and compensating wage differentials. A key assumption is that marital status proxies for the consumption of family goods, such as children, and that these are costly. Workers whose greater demands for family goods are taste- generated and shown to choose jobs that offer greater wage, and less non-pecuniary compensation. This creates an observed wage premium that has nothing to do with differences in workers' productivities. Supporting empirical evidence for this hypothesis is presented, including a reevaluation of previous studies.

  9. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction...... using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...

  10. Digital, electromagnetic rod position indicator with compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilchenfeld, M.M.; Geis, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    A digital rod position indicator having discrete coils L 0 , L 1 , L 2 ..... spaced along the travel path of an elongate magnetically permeable member stores in digital form compensation signals for automatically adjusting the location relative to the coils at which a digital output signal representative of the position of the end of the elongate member transitions from one code to the next. The appropriate compensation signal is addressed using the digital output signal and a correction factor which takes into account the direction of movement including reversals. Reference is made to the positioning of the control rods in a pressurized water reactor. (author)

  11. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  12. 26 CFR 1.414(q)-1T - Highly compensated employee (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-10Definition of officer and rules on inclusion of officers in highly compensated group. Q&A-11Rules with... rules for permanent and total disability and employee stock ownership plans respectively). (c) Other... pursuant to section 401(c)(1). This rule with respect to the inclusion of certain self-employed individuals...

  13. Evaluation of motion management strategies based on required margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawkey, D; Svatos, M; Zankowski, C

    2012-01-01

    Strategies for delivering radiation to a moving lesion each require a margin to compensate for uncertainties in treatment. These motion margins have been determined here by separating the total uncertainty into components. Probability density functions for the individual sources of uncertainty were calculated for ten motion traces obtained from the literature. Motion margins required to compensate for the center of mass motion of the clinical treatment volume were found by convolving the individual sources of uncertainty. For measurements of position at a frequency of 33 Hz, system latency was the dominant source of positional uncertainty. Averaged over the ten motion traces, the motion margin for tracking with a latency of 200 ms was 4.6 mm. Gating with a duty cycle of 33% required a mean motion margin of 3.2–3.4 mm, and tracking with a latency of 100 ms required a motion margin of 3.1 mm. Feasible reductions in the effects of the sources of uncertainty, for example by using a simple prediction algorithm to anticipate the lesion position at the end of the latency period, resulted in a mean motion margin of 1.7 mm for tracking with a latency of 100 ms, 2.4 mm for tracking with a latency of 200 ms, and 2.1–2.2 mm for the gating strategies with duty cycles of 33%. A crossover tracking latency of 150 ms was found, below which tracking strategies could take advantage of narrower motion margins than gating strategies. The methods described here provide a means to guide selection of a motion management strategy for a given patient. (paper)

  14. Study designs for identifying risk compensation behavior among users of biomedical HIV prevention technologies: balancing methodological rigor and research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Kristen

    2013-10-01

    The growing evidence base for biomedical HIV prevention interventions - such as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides, male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and eventually prevention vaccines - has given rise to concerns about the ways in which users of these biomedical products may adjust their HIV risk behaviors based on the perception that they are prevented from infection. Known as risk compensation, this behavioral adjustment draws on the theory of "risk homeostasis," which has previously been applied to phenomena as diverse as Lyme disease vaccination, insurance mandates, and automobile safety. Little rigorous evidence exists to answer risk compensation concerns in the biomedical HIV prevention literature, in part because the field has not systematically evaluated the study designs available for testing these behaviors. The goals of this Commentary are to explain the origins of risk compensation behavior in risk homeostasis theory, to reframe risk compensation as a testable response to the perception of reduced risk, and to assess the methodological rigor and ethical justification of study designs aiming to isolate risk compensation responses. Although the most rigorous methodological designs for assessing risk compensation behavior may be unavailable due to ethical flaws, several strategies can help investigators identify potential risk compensation behavior during Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV testing of new technologies. Where concerns arise regarding risk compensation behavior, empirical evidence about the incidence, types, and extent of these behavioral changes can illuminate opportunities to better support the users of new HIV prevention strategies. This Commentary concludes by suggesting a new way to conceptualize risk compensation behavior in the HIV prevention context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards a global system of compensation for transboundary nuclear damage: reflexions on the interrelationship of civil and international state liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, G.

    1993-01-01

    International state liability is an essential complementary element of any global and comprehensive nuclear compensation system. Civil liability alone will not be able to fully compensate victims of a nuclear accident and will therefore not fully internalize the costs of nuclear activities. To make it effective and politically acceptable, state liability must be fully integrated procedurally with any civil liability system as a last tier of compensation following a simple process for handling together both civil and state liability claims at the international level, with individuals being able to sue Installation States. 69 refs

  16. Instability of Employment and the Lack of Work Life Balance: From the viewpoint of compensating wage differentials (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORIKAWA Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present survey-based evidence on the compensating wage differentials for the instability of employment and the lack of work-life-balance in Japan. First, we present facts on the individual evaluation of the size of fair compensating differentials. Then we estimate the effects of working hours and wages on the job satisfaction index. The fair compensating wage differentials for the instability of employment and lack of work-life-balance are both between 10% and ...

  17. Adaptive friction compensation: a globally stable approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.A.; Tóth, R.; Babuska, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive friction compensation scheme is proposed. The friction force is computed as a timevarying friction coefficient multiplied by the sign of the velocity and an on-line update law is designed to estimate this coefficient based on the actual position and velocity errors.

  18. 33 CFR 136.235 - Compensation allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable. The amount of compensation allowable is limited to the actual net reduction or loss of earnings or profits suffered. Calculations for net reductions or losses must clearly reflect adjustments for... available; (d) Any saved overhead or normal expenses not incurred as a result of the incident; and (e) State...

  19. On the compensation effect in heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bligaard; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Logadottir, Ashildur

    2003-01-01

    For a class of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions, we explain the compensation effect in terms of a switching of kinetic regimes leading to a concomitant change in the apparent activation energy and in the prefactor for the overall rate of the reaction. We first use the ammonia synthesis...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.208 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1280.208 Section 1280.208 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information...

  1. Evaluation of the implementation of Employees Compensation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the passage into law of the Employees Compensation Act in 2011, countless cases of workplace accidents have occurred in Nigeria. Yet there seems to be no succour for the Nigerian worker as many state governments have either refused to register with or do not have the will power to implement the legislation in ...

  2. Employing Conjoint Analysis in Making Compensation Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienast, Philip; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method employing conjoint analysis that generates utility/cost ratios for various elements of the compensation package. Its superiority to simple preference surveys is examined. Results of a study of the use of this method in fringe benefit planning in a large financial institution are reported. (Author/JAC)

  3. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Li, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2010-01-01

    We examine how executive compensation affects the cost of debt financing. Analyzing CEO pay data from the UK, we find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have opposite effects on the cost of debt. An increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while an

  4. ARCC Teacher Compensation Initiative: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February 2014, the Tennessee State Board of Education (SBE) requested that the Appalachia Regional Comprehensive Center (ARCC) provide assistance to the SBE's Basic Education Program (BEP) Review Committee. The SBE requested additional information on the use and effectiveness of market-based teacher compensation and market-based incentives by…

  5. Open Business Models: New Compensation Mechanisms for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open Business Models: New Compensation Mechanisms for Creativity and Inclusion ... This research aims to explore important new business models in the networked society ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018 ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  6. Inertia compensated force and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, B.; Engeler, P.; Gossweiler, C. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    Any moving structure is affected by inertial effects. In case of force and pressure sensors, inertial effects cause measurement errors. The paper deals with novel signal conditioning methods and mechanical design features to minimize inertial effects. A novel solution for passive compensation of pressure sensors is presented. (orig.)

  7. Compensation of coupling in the SSC complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, F.; Bourianoff, G.

    1991-10-01

    This paper will describe a study of the coupling effects and their compensation by means of local depending techniques for some of the accelerators in the SSC Complex. Results concerning corrections and decoupling for the Low Energy and Medium Energy Boosters will be compared to results obtained for the Collider Ring. Some preliminary experimental data about measurement of coupling quantities will also be presented

  8. 44 CFR 295.21 - Allowable compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable compensation. 295.21 Section 295.21 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... no-cost crisis counseling services available in the community. FEMA will not reimburse for treatment...

  9. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Liu, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how different components of executive compensation affect the cost of debt. We find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have differing effects: an increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while higher share holdings lead to higher

  10. The Compensation Act 2006 and School Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Jones, John

    2006-01-01

    The Compensation Act 2006 received its Royal Assent on 25 July 2006. The Act allows the courts to have regard to the social utility of "desirable activities", including school trips, in considering negligence claims. The article reviews the law of negligence as it affects teachers of the very young and considers the possible impact of…

  11. 22 CFR 96.34 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... actually rendered, taking into account the country in which the adoption services are provided and norms... norms are known to the accrediting entity; the location, number, and qualifications of staff; workload requirements; budget; and size of the agency or person. (e) Any other compensation paid to the agency's or...

  12. Flywheels Would Compensate for Rotor Imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastar, J. A. S.

    1982-01-01

    Spinning flywheels within rotor can null imbalance forces in rotor. Flywheels axes are perpendicular to each other and to rotor axis. Feedback signals from accelerometers or strain gages in platform control flywheel speeds and rotation directions. Concept should be useful for compensating rotating bodies on Earth. For example, may be applied to large industrial centrifuge, particularly if balance changes during operation.

  13. Paraxial charge compensator for electron cryomicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, John A.; Rosenthal, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a multi-hole condenser aperture for the production of several electron beams in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) making it possible to simultaneously image and irradiate spatially separated regions of a specimen. When the specimen is a thin film of vitreous ice suspended over a holey carbon film, simultaneous irradiation of the adjacent carbon support with the off-axis beam compensates for some of the effects of charging in the image formed by a beam irradiating only the ice. Because the intervening region is not irradiated, charge-neutralization of frozen-hydrated specimens can occur by a through-space mechanism such as the emission of secondary electrons from a grounded carbon support film. We use paraxial charge compensation (PCC) to control the amount of charge build-up on the specimen and observe the effects of charge on images. The multi-hole aperture thus provides a tool for investigating the mechanism of charging and charge mitigation during the imaging of radiation sensitive biological specimens by cryomicroscopy. -- Highlights: ► A multi-hole condenser aperture produces multiple (paraxial) beams in TEM. ► Paraxial charge compensation is used to study electron-optical effects of charging. ► Emission of secondary electrons controls charging by a through space mechanism. ► Paraxial beams compensate for charging effects in frozen-hydrated specimens.

  14. Feedback loop compensates for rectifier nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Signal processing circuit with two negative feedback loops rectifies two sinusoidal signals which are 180 degrees out of phase and produces a single full-wave rectified output signal. Each feedback loop incorporates a feedback rectifier to compensate for the nonlinearity of the circuit.

  15. Wavefront compensation applied to AVLIS laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsiorowski, T.; Wirth, A.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of an AVLIS system depends upon the power density and uniformity of the laser system. Because of wavefront aberrations the realized beam quality is not ideal. Wavefront compensation provides a means to improve beam quality and system efficiency. (author)

  16. 31 CFR 28.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 28.515 Section 28.515 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... a rate less than that paid to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance...

  17. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  18. Compensation techniques for operational amplifier bias current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two techniques are proposed for the compensation of the input current on operational amplifiers that can be used on inverting and non-inverting configurations. A qualitative analysis of temperature drift problems is made, and as a practical application, the construction of a voltage follower for high impedance measurements is presented. (Author) [pt

  19. Paraxial charge compensator for electron cryomicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berriman, John A. [Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA (United Kingdom); Rosenthal, Peter B., E-mail: peter.rosenthal@nimr.mrc.ac.uk [Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, NW7 1AA (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    We describe a multi-hole condenser aperture for the production of several electron beams in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) making it possible to simultaneously image and irradiate spatially separated regions of a specimen. When the specimen is a thin film of vitreous ice suspended over a holey carbon film, simultaneous irradiation of the adjacent carbon support with the off-axis beam compensates for some of the effects of charging in the image formed by a beam irradiating only the ice. Because the intervening region is not irradiated, charge-neutralization of frozen-hydrated specimens can occur by a through-space mechanism such as the emission of secondary electrons from a grounded carbon support film. We use paraxial charge compensation (PCC) to control the amount of charge build-up on the specimen and observe the effects of charge on images. The multi-hole aperture thus provides a tool for investigating the mechanism of charging and charge mitigation during the imaging of radiation sensitive biological specimens by cryomicroscopy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multi-hole condenser aperture produces multiple (paraxial) beams in TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraxial charge compensation is used to study electron-optical effects of charging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emission of secondary electrons controls charging by a through space mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraxial beams compensate for charging effects in frozen-hydrated specimens.

  20. 7 CFR 301.74-5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exclusively at farmers markets or similar outlets that require orchard owners to sell only fruit that they... of commercial stone fruit orchards. Owners of commercial stone fruit orchards are eligible to receive... marketers. Orchard owners eligible for compensation under this paragraph who market all fruit they produce...