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Sample records for individual compensation strategies

  1. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  2. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully...... account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR...

  3. Wind and Wave Disturbances Compensation to Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Using Improved Individual Pitch Control Based on Fuzzy Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rich and high quality of offshore wind resources, floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT arouses the attentions of many researchers. But on a floating platform, the wave and wind induced loads can significantly affect power regulation and vibration of the structure. Therefore, reducing these loads becomes a challenging part of the design of the floating system. To better alleviate these fatigue loads, a control system making compensations to these disturbances is proposed. In this paper an individual pitch control (IPC system integrated with disturbance accommodating control (DAC and model prediction control (MPC through fuzzy control is developed to alleviate the fatigue loads. DAC is mainly used to mitigate the effects of wind disturbance and MPC counteracts the effects of wave on the structure. The new individual pitch controller is tested on the NREL offshore 5 MW wind turbine mounted on a barge with a spread-mooring system, running in FAST, operating above-rated condition. Compared to the original baseline collective pitch control (CPC (Jonkman et al., 2007, the IPC system shows a better performance in reducing fatigue loads and is robust to complex wind and wave disturbances as well.

  4. New Perspectives on Compensation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anne; Morgan, Gwen

    Low compensation, in both earnings and benefits, and the resulting high turnover of staff and low quality of programs in early childhood care and education are a national problem. Noting that how we define and view the problem, and the strategies we adopt to solve it, may differ depending on perspectives and disciplines, this paper expands the…

  5. Promising Strategies for Increasing Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Despite rising demand for high-quality child care, the norm for early childhood staff is low salaries, few benefits, and difficult working conditions. This article provides an overview of compensation of early childhood professionals, and describes some state and local initiatives that address the need for funding and policies that support a…

  6. A compensation index for multiattribute decision strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koele, P; Westenberg, M R

    1995-09-01

    In multiattribute decision problems, the subject has to evaluate a number of alternatives with given values on a number of attributes, in order to arrive at some conclusion about the attractiveness or utility of these alternatives. The information processing procedure leading to a conclusion is called adecision strategy, and one of the main research topics in multiattribute decision research has been the extent to which these strategies follow compensatory principles. Judges are said to follow compensatory strategies when low values on some attributes are compensated for by high values on other attributes. In process tracing studies using the information board technique, descriptions of decision strategies are usually based on three indices of the information search process:variability of search,search pattern (Payne, 1976), anddepth of search. Variability of search, defined as the standard deviation of the proportion of information searched per alternative, is considered to give an indication of the degree of compensation of a decision strategy, compensation being smaller as variability increases. In this article, we propose an alternative way for establishing the degree of compensation of decision strategies in information board studies. We argue that the degree of compensation depends on both variability of searchand depth of search (the proportion of information searched), and that a valid compensation index has to be a multiplicative function of these two indices.

  7. Object individuation and compensation in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Silvia; Fait, Elisa; Brignani, Debora; Mazza, Veronica

    2016-04-01

    Theories on neural compensation suggest that aged participants overactivate the brain areas involved in a task to compensate for the age-related decline. In this electrophysiological study, we investigated the temporal locus of neural overactivation in aging during multiple target processing. We measured performance and three event-related brain potential responses (N1, N2pc, and contralateral delay activity) in young and old adults, while they enumerated a variable number (1-4) of targets presented in an easy (distractor absent) or difficult (distractor present) condition. The main results indicated that although N2pc (∼200 ms) increased in amplitude in the distractor-present condition in the young group, no modulation occurred for the old group. Old participants were associated with larger N2pc amplitudes than young participants in the distractor-absent condition, where both groups had comparable levels of accuracy. These effects were not present for N1 and contralateral delay activity. Overall, the data suggest that in enumeration, aging is associated with compensatory effects that rely on the selection mechanism responsible for target individuation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Individual adaptation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldasheva, A A

    2014-01-01

    The article looks at the relation between adaptation strategy and individual style of activity based on the doctrine of human adaptation of V.I. Medvedev that enables opening up characteristics of professional activity in diverse environments. It illustrates a role and the relation between physiological and psychological mechanisms, which can vary, depending on individual adaptation strategies of a person. Theoretical and practical studies based on activity paradigm allow us to look at the basic principles of human interaction with the environment from a new perspective. Based on the law on the conceptual model of adaptation proposed by V.I. Medvedev, the article illustrates that humans are active figures in adaptation situations, modeling their own adaption strategies, using different individual styles manifested in the programs of adaptive behaviour.

  9. Compensating Losses in Bridge Employment? Examining Relations between Compensation Strategies, Health Problems, and Intention to Remain at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Andreas; De Lange, Annet; Weigl, Matthias; Oxfart, Caroline; Van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the precursors of bridge employment, this study aimed to investigate whether individual action strategies in terms of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC; Baltes & Baltes, 1990) are able to buffer the well-known negative impact of poor health on the intention to remain in the workforce. 784 employees (60-85…

  10. Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-01-01

    Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated the effect of received predation compensation on individual husbandry units’ future herd size. The main findin...

  11. Analysis of car-following model with cascade compensation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Cascade compensation mechanism was designed to improve the dynamical performance of traffic flow system. Two compensation methods were used to study unit step response in time domain and frequency characteristics with different parameters. The overshoot and phase margins are proportional to the compensation parameter in an underdamped condition. Through the comparison we choose the phase-lead compensation method as the main strategy in suppressing the traffic jam. The simulations were conducted under two boundary conditions to verify the validity of the compensator. The conclusion can be drawn that the stability of the system is strengthened with increased phase-lead compensation parameter. Moreover, the numerical simulation results are in good agreement with analytical results.

  12. Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-08-01

    Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated the effect of received predation compensation on individual husbandry units' future herd size. The main finding in this study is that predation compensation had a positive effect on husbandry units' future herd size. The effect of predation compensation, however, was nonlinear in some years, indicating that predation compensation had a positive effect on future herd size only up to a certain threshold whereby adding additional predation compensation had little effect on future herd size. More importantly, the effect of predation compensation was positive after controlling for reindeer density, indicating that for a given reindeer density husbandry units receiving more predation compensation performed better (measured as the size of future herds) compared to husbandry units receiving less compensation.

  13. HMO strategies for managing workers' compensation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, P A

    1996-03-01

    Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) have become very active in managing workers' compensation medical expense benefits. A survey of 316 HMOs shows that this activity takes the form of various network models and a range of services--such as utilization review and case management--that may not be linked to a provider network. Of the HMOs surveyed, 78 reported that, by using managed care services and provider discounts, they were able to save from 20 percent to 30 percent on occupational health claim costs.

  14. Migration control: a distance compensation strategy in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea-Wheller, Thomas A; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-08-01

    Migratory behaviour forms an intrinsic part of the life histories of many organisms but is often a high-risk process. Consequently, varied strategies have evolved to negate such risks, but empirical data relating to their functioning are limited. In this study, we use the model system of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis to demonstrate a key strategy that can shorten migration exposure times in a group of social insects. Colonies of these ants frequently migrate to new nest sites, and due to the nature of their habitat, the distances over which they do so are variable, leading to fluctuating potential costs dependent on migration parameters. We show that colonies of this species facultatively alter the dynamics of a migration and so compensate for the distance over which a given migration occurs. Specifically, they achieve this by modulating the rate of 'tandem running', in which workers teach each other the route to a new nest site. Using this method, colonies are able to engage a larger number of individuals in the migration process when the distance to be traversed is greater, and furthermore, the system appears to be based on perceived encounter rate at the individual level. This form of decentralised control highlights the adaptive nature of a behaviour of ecological importance, and indicates that the key to its robustness lies in the use of simple rules. Additionally, our results suggest that such coordinated group reactions are central to achieving the high levels of ecological success seen in many eusocial organisms.

  15. A Direct Voltage Unbalance Compensation Strategy for Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Wu, Xiaohua; Meng, Lexuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a control strategy with low bandwidth communications for paralleled three-phase inverters is proposed to achieve satisfactory voltage unbalance compensation. The proposed control algorithm mainly consists of voltage/current inner loop controllers, a droop controller, a selective......-leg inverters was tested in order to validate the proposed control strategy....

  16. Die Face Engineering based Springback Compensation Strategy and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Arthur; Lee, Wing; He, Jeanne; Xu, Jinbo; Liu, Kesu; Chen, Chin Chun

    2005-08-01

    Springback or shape change has been one of the major challenges in sheet metal fabrication, particularly with increase application of high strength steel (HSS) and aluminum alloys in automotive stamping. Springback, an elastic material recovery after the unloading of stamping tools, causes variations and inconsistencies of final part dimensions. Minor or mild springback usually can be corrected in the re-strike process. Excessive springback must be corrected so the part will be produced within the given design tolerance and dimension. The commonly used Spring Forward approaches and shape compensations such as over-crown and over-bending are proven effective to alleviate excessive springback. To enhance these approaches, a new strategy of Die Face Engineering (DFE) based processing is proposed to quickly and easily to achieve the maximum allowable compensation using the under cut (or die lock) as the primary criteria. The implementation of the die face compensation through iterative FEA calculation, automatic surface mapping, projection and manual morphing are crucial to meet production environment requirements in terms of generating NC quality CAD surfaces of the compensated or morphed die face. In this paper, the strategy of the die face compensation with the consideration of the under cut criteria is presented. The implementation of various processes to enable user to perform the die face compensation task in a production environment is also discussed. Finally, two examples are shown to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed springback compensation scheme based on the combined CAE/CAD methodology.

  17. THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL CRISIS ON COMPENSATION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Moşteanu; Monica Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The continuous impact of uncertain economic environment affected most organizations’ workforce through an uninterrupted increase of unemployment, wage reduction and diminution in offered benefits, thus forcing more and more companies to revise their compensation strategy. Employee compensation consists of a series of elements used in order to attract, retain and motivate skilled employees. Nevertheless, especially in Eastern Europe, the most important factor is still the fixed pay, respective...

  18. A RELATIONAL FAIRNESS PERSPECTIVE ON INDIVIDUALITY AND INDIVIDUALIZATION IN CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES TO COMPENSATION IN ORGANIZATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Lund

    The primary concern of this thesis is to explore the relations between contemporary compensation systems based on individualization and individuality, the constitution of the fair claim, the causality of blame and the causality of rewarding, and the need to belong and it relation with human motiv...... horizon-tal relations?...

  19. Aligning Compensation Strategy with Business Strategy - A case study of a company within the service industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mytty, Noora; Pedak, Karla; Sun, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Business strategy and compensation strategy are commonly recognized as important strategic issues in an organization over the past decades. Collectively, they play a crucial role in determining organization’s performance and economic success, hence the correlation and interaction between the two is gaining more attention among companies and researchers. Literature states that an optimal alignment between business strategy and compensation strategy facilitates organization to secure its compet...

  20. Compensation Strategies: Tracking Movement in EFL Learners' Speaking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza; Negin Taji, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the compensation strategies used by Iranian elementary EFL learners across the speaking skill. The participants of this study were a sample of 120 EFL elementary male and female learners whose ages ranged between 11 and 25 at a language institute in Rostam, Iran. The main participants were homogenized through…

  1. Compensated individually addressable array technology for human breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D. Kent

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming broad bandwidth acoustic or microwave beams which encompass array design, array excitation, source signal preprocessing, and received signal postprocessing. This technique uses several different methods to achieve improvement over conventional array systems. These methods are: 1) individually addressable array elements; 2) digital-to-analog converters for the source signals; 3) inverse filtering from source precompensation; and 4) spectral extrapolation to expand the bandwidth of the received signals. The components of the system will be used as follows: 1) The individually addressable array allows scanning around and over an object, such as a human breast, without any moving parts. The elements of the array are broad bandwidth elements and efficient radiators, as well as detectors. 2) Digital-to-analog converters as the source signal generators allow virtually any radiated field to be created in the half-space in front of the array. 3) Preprocessing allows for corrections in the system, most notably in the response of the individual elements and in the ability to increase contrast and resolution of signal propagating through the medium under investigation. 4) Postprocessing allows the received broad bandwidth signals to be expanded in a process similar to analytic continuation. Used together, the system allows for compensation to create beams of any desired shape, control the wave fields generated to correct for medium differences, and improve contract and resolution in and through the medium.

  2. Variable compensation during the sit-to-stand task among individuals with severe knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Armand, Stéphane; Lubbeke, Anne; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Suva, Domizio; Turcot, Katia

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) show variability during the sit-to-stand (STS) task, so they may not perform the STS in the same way. This study aimed to determine whether individuals with knee OA have different strategies in performing the STS. Participants with knee OA and able-bodied individuals underwent STS evaluation at a self-selected pace with use of a motion measurement system consisting of 12 cameras and 2 force plates. In total, 101 participants (57 women) with knee OA showed 3 main STS strategies. As compared with the 27 controls (14 women), 24 OA participants, compensated STS, showed greater trunk flexion (47.1° vs. 38.3°; P<0.01) and trunk obliquity (4.6° vs. -0.8°; P<0.001) when completing the STS task in the same amount of time as controls (2.4 vs. 2.7s; P=0.999). The second group (n=59), inadequately compensated STS, also compensated with trunk flexion (47.7° vs. 38.3°; P<0.01) and trunk obliquity (1.6° vs. -0.8°; P<0.001) but took longer than controls (3.4 vs. 2.7s; P=0.001). The third group (n=18), severe impaired STS, took an extended amount of time to execute the STS (6s), with marked trunk flexion (59.2°) and obliquity (4.1°), so participants in this group were perhaps severely impaired in completing the STS. This study identified 3 groups STS trunk strategies among participants with STS. Moreover, the data reveal a concise representation of the relations among strategy variables. The findings could be used to simplify the characterization of the STS among patients with knee OA and aid with follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Workers' Compensation reform requires an agenda … and a strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Michael B

    2010-01-01

    In a response to Joseph LaDou's article in this issue, Michael Lax focuses on the broader issues. If we are agreed that we need significant change in Workers' Compensation, what should the nature of those changes be? Of equal importance to knowing what we want is the development of a strategy for how to get there. Without an effective strategy, we will be consigned to discussing the issues again and again, developing attractive alternatives that live only on paper or at conferences.

  4. Selection, optimization, and compensation strategies : Interactive effects on daily work engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Chan, Felicia; Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    The theory of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) proposes that the "orchestrated" use of three distinct action regulation strategies (selection, optimization, and compensation) leads to positive employee outcomes. Previous research examined overall scores and additive models (i.e., main

  5. The linkages between business strategies and compensation policies using miles and snow's framework

    OpenAIRE

    Saura, M. D.; Gómez-Mejía, Luis R.

    1996-01-01

    This study links a multidimensional measure of compensatíon strategy to Miles and Snow's (1978) business strategies, and examines their interactive impact on firm performance. The results reported here indicate that a more mechanistic compensation strategy makes a greater contribution to firm performance among defenders, while a more organic compensation strategy makes a greater contribution to firm performance among prospectors

  6. Individualizing Language Strategies Using CONSULT-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.; Metz, Elizabeth

    This handbook offers suggestions for implementing actions (termed variously in other settings as treatments, interventions, methods, techniques, strategies or activities) recommended for individual learners by CONSULT-I (R), a computer program created by James Fattu and Edward Patrick. Application of the program described in the handbook was under…

  7. Individual strategies in artificial grammar learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, I.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.; Pothos, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been used extensively to study theories of learning, but compelling conclusions cannot be drawn without an analysis of individual strategies. We describe a new statistical method for doing so, based on the increasingly popular framework of latent variable

  8. Lidar-Assisted Feedforward Individual Pitch Control to Compensate Wind Shear and Yawed Inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Svenja; Geisler, Jens; Konigorski, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Lidar-assisted individual pitch control (IPC) has been investigated occasionally in recent years, focusing on the compensation of (vertical) wind shear as the main disturbance. Since yawed inflow might cause significant load fluctuations too, it is worth to compensate. Load patterns caused by yawed inflow significantly differ from those caused by wind shear, requiring a more sophisticated control algorithm. In this paper a lidar-assisted cyclic pitch feedforward control to compensate wind shear and yawed inflow is presented. The main objective is the analysis of the load patterns through a simplified aerodynamic model, which among other things focuses on a reasonable representation of the skewed wake effect. Establishing a suitable structure of the feedforward controller follows. The paper concludes with a comparison of fatigue load reductions achieved by three different controllers. Firstly, a well-known feedback individual pitch control; secondly, a feedforward controller for pure wind shear compensation and thirdly, this new feedforward controller to compensate wind shear and yawed inflow. The last two controllers use ideal lidar measurement chains.

  9. Integral Sliding Mode Control Strategy of D-STATCOM for Unbalanced Load Compensation under Various Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Control strategies of D-STATCOM for unbalanced load compensation under internal and external disturbances were discussed. Linear control strategies do not have a satisfactory dynamic performance and become invalid under internal or external disturbances. To guarantee a good precision and robustness, a control strategy combining input-output feedback linearization technique with integral sliding mode control (ISMC method was applied to D-STATCOM for unbalanced load compensation. The strategy has features of simple structure and is easy to implement. A 10 MVar/10 kV D-STATCOM simulation system was built in PSCAD/EMTDC to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the control strategy proposed. Simulation results show that the control strategy can compensate reactive power and eliminate unbalance simultaneously under various disturbances.

  10. Individual Versus Community-Level Risk Compensation Following Preexposure Prophylaxis of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin; Murphy, Dean A

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed the concept of risk compensation and how it has been applied in HIV prevention, paying particular attention to the strategy of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). In risk compensation, reduced perceptions of risk after the introduction of a preventative intervention lead to more frequent risk-taking behavior. Such a change may undermine the intervention's protective benefits. We found that many studies purporting to investigate risk compensation do not assess or report changes in perceptions of risk, instead relying on behavioral measures. Our analysis suggests a complex and sometimes counterintuitive relationship between the introduction of a new prevention intervention, perceptions of HIV risk, and subsequent changes in behavior. As PrEP is introduced, we believe comprehensive assessment of community-level risk compensation-that is, changes in risk perceptions and behavior as a result of increased optimism about avoiding HIV among people not directly protected by PrEP-should not be omitted. We therefore suggest ways to assess prevention optimism and community-level risk compensation.

  11. Contingent workers: Workers' compensation data analysis strategies and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A dynamic compensation strategy to correct patient-positioning errors in conformal prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauve, A D; Siebers, J V; Crimaldi, A J; Hagan, M P; Kealla, P J

    2006-06-01

    Traditionally, pretreatment detected patient-positioning errors have been corrected by repositioning the couch to align the patient to the treatment beam. We investigated an alternative strategy: aligning the beam to the patient by repositioning the dynamic multileaf collimator and adjusting the beam weights, termed dynamic compensation. The purpose of this study was to determine the geometric range of positioning errors for which the dynamic compensation method is valid in prostate cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Twenty-five previously treated prostate cancer patients were replanned using a four-field technique to deliver 72 Gy to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). Patient-positioning errors were introduced by shifting the patient reference frame with respect to the treatment isocenter. Thirty-six randomly selected isotropic displacements with magnitudes of 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 cm were sampled for each patient, for a total of 5400 errors. Dynamic compensation was used to correct each of these errors by conforming the beam apertures to the new target position and adjusting the monitor units using inverse-square and off-axis factor corrections. The dynamic compensation plans were then compared with the original treatment plans via dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Changes of more than 5% of the prescription dose, 3.6 Gy, were deemed significant. Compared with the original treatment plans, dynamic compensation produced small discrepancies in isodose distributions and DVH analyses. These differences increased with the magnitudes of the initial patient-positioning errors. Coverage of the PTV was excellent: D95 and Dmean were not increased or decreased by more than 5% of the prescription dose, and D5 was not decreased by more than 5% of the prescription dose for any of the 5400 simulated positioning errors. D5 was increased by more than 5% of the prescription dose in only three of the 5400 positioning errors

  13. Using the Kinect to limit abnormal kinematics and compensation strategies during therapy with end effector robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Lum, Peter S; Cooper, Rory A; Brewer, Bambi R

    2013-06-01

    Abnormal kinematics and the use of compensation strategies during training limit functional improvement from therapy. The Kinect is a low cost ($100) sensor that does not require any markers to be placed on the user. Integration of this sensor into currently used therapy systems can provide feedback about the user's movement quality, and the use of compensatory strategies to complete tasks. This paper presents a novel technique of adding the Kinect to an end effector robot to limit compensation strategies and to train normal joint coordination during movements with an end effector robot. This methodology has wider implications for other robotic and passively actuated end effector rehabilitation devices.

  14. L2 Skills and the Use of Compensation Strategies: The Case of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Medina, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    The following article is based on the analysis of the compensation strategies used by two groups of intermediate students of English language at the Official School of Languages of Moratalaz (Madrid) in the academic year 2009/2010. Our analysis tries to describe to what extent adult learners make use of suitable learning strategies in the four…

  15. Clinical evaluation of 4D PET motion compensation strategies for treatment verification in ion beam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Chiara; Kurz, Christopher; Riboldi, Marco; Bauer, Julia; Fontana, Giulia; Baroni, Guido; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia

    2016-06-01

    A clinical trial named PROMETHEUS is currently ongoing for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT, Germany). In this framework, 4D PET-CT datasets are acquired shortly after the therapeutic treatment to compare the irradiation induced PET image with a Monte Carlo PET prediction resulting from the simulation of treatment delivery. The extremely low count statistics of this measured PET image represents a major limitation of this technique, especially in presence of target motion. The purpose of the study is to investigate two different 4D PET motion compensation strategies towards the recovery of the whole count statistics for improved image quality of the 4D PET-CT datasets for PET-based treatment verification. The well-known 4D-MLEM reconstruction algorithm, embedding the motion compensation in the reconstruction process of 4D PET sinograms, was compared to a recently proposed pre-reconstruction motion compensation strategy, which operates in sinogram domain by applying the motion compensation to the 4D PET sinograms. With reference to phantom and patient datasets, advantages and drawbacks of the two 4D PET motion compensation strategies were identified. The 4D-MLEM algorithm was strongly affected by inverse inconsistency of the motion model but demonstrated the capability to mitigate the noise-break-up effects. Conversely, the pre-reconstruction warping showed less sensitivity to inverse inconsistency but also more noise in the reconstructed images. The comparison was performed by relying on quantification of PET activity and ion range difference, typically yielding similar results. The study demonstrated that treatment verification of moving targets could be accomplished by relying on the whole count statistics image quality, as obtained from the application of 4D PET motion compensation strategies. In particular, the pre-reconstruction warping was shown to represent a promising choice when combined with intra

  16. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual control strategies. 123.46... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Transfer of Information and Permit Review § 123.46 Individual control strategies. (a..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the...

  17. Burnout and job performance: the moderating role of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Leiter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to explain why research thus far has found only low to moderate associations between burnout and performance. We argue that employees use adaptive strategies that help them to maintain their performance (i.e., task performance, adaptivity to change) at acceptable levels despite experiencing burnout (i.e., exhaustion, disengagement). We focus on the strategies included in the selective optimization with compensation model. Using a sample of 294 employees and their supervisors, we found that compensation is the most successful strategy in buffering the negative associations of disengagement with supervisor-rated task performance and both disengagement and exhaustion with supervisor-rated adaptivity to change. In contrast, selection exacerbates the negative relationship of exhaustion with supervisor-rated adaptivity to change. In total, 42% of the hypothesized interactions proved to be significant. Our study uncovers successful and unsuccessful strategies that people use to deal with their burnout symptoms in order to achieve satisfactory job performance.

  18. Enhanced control strategy for MMC-based STATCOM for unbalanced load compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieves, M.; Maza, J.M.; Mauricio, J.M.;

    2014-01-01

    as required for load unbalance compensation. This paper proposes an improved balancing strategy for the delta configuration to overcome this situation based on the injection of a third harmonic zero sequence current. Simulation results have proved the effectiveness of the proposal even where different...

  19. Self-Regulatory Strategies in Daily Life: Selection, Optimization, and Compensation and Everyday Memory Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephanie A.; Rickenbach, Elizabeth H.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of self-regulatory strategies, such as selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) requires resources. However, it is theorized that SOC use is most advantageous for those experiencing losses and diminishing resources. The present study explored this seeming paradox within the context of limitations or constraints due to…

  20. Optimizing urology group partnerships: collaboration strategies and compensation best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Dana L; Maller, Bruce S; Peltier, Lisa R

    2014-10-01

    Market forces in health care have created substantial regulatory, legislative, and reimbursement changes that have had a significant impact on urology group practices. To maintain viability, many urology groups have merged into larger integrated entities. Although group operations vary considerably, the majority of groups have struggled with the development of a strong culture, effective decision-making, and consensus-building around shared resources, income, and expense. Creating a sustainable business model requires urology group leaders to allocate appropriate time and resources to address these issues in a proactive manner. This article outlines collaboration strategies for creating an effective culture, governance, and leadership, and provides practical suggestions for optimizing the performance of the urology group practice.

  1. The "perfect storm" in compensation: convergence of events leads to a greater need to review compensation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert B

    2004-01-01

    The recent unprecedented convergence of significant strategic events in the compensation arena has created the need for ongoing and extensive compensation planning. This article reviews the events leading to this point, describes the implications of the results from a recent Aon study with WorldatWork, and suggests what employers can do to successfully navigate the "perfect storm" in compensation.

  2. A Fuzzy PI Speed Controller based on Feedback Compensation Strategy for PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available in order to solve the problem of robustness or anti-disturbance of the traditional PI speed controller in the permanent magnet synchronous motor. A fuzzy PI speed controller based on load torque feedback compensation is proposed for the permanent magnet synchronous motor. The combination of fuzzy PI control strategy and load feedback compensation method can enhance the robustness and disturbance rejection of the speed loop. According to the validated results of simulation and experiments, by using this PMSM speed controller, the robustness of the system speed control was enhanced markedly, and the capacity of anti-disturbance was also improved significantly.

  3. Perceptual compensation is correlated with individuals' "autistic" traits: implications for models of sound change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C L Yu

    Full Text Available Variation is a ubiquitous feature of speech. Listeners must take into account context-induced variation to recover the interlocutor's intended message. When listeners fail to normalize for context-induced variation properly, deviant percepts become seeds for new perceptual and production norms. In question is how deviant percepts accumulate in a systematic fashion to give rise to sound change (i.e., new pronunciation norms within a given speech community. The present study investigated subjects' classification of /s/ and // before /a/ or /u/ spoken by a male or a female voice. Building on modern cognitive theories of autism-spectrum condition, which see variation in autism-spectrum condition in terms of individual differences in cognitive processing style, we established a significant correlation between individuals' normalization for phonetic context (i.e., whether the following vowel is /a/ or /u/ and talker voice variation (i.e., whether the talker is male or female in speech and their "autistic" traits, as measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ. In particular, our mixed-effect logistic regression models show that women with low AQ (i.e., the least "autistic" do not normalize for phonetic coarticulation as much as men and high AQ women. This study provides first direct evidence that variability in human's ability to compensate for context-induced variations in speech perceptually is governed by the individual's sex and cognitive processing style. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that the systematic infusion of new linguistic variants (i.e., the deviant percepts originate from a sub-segment of the speech community that consistently under-compensates for contextual variation in speech.

  4. Self-Regulatory Strategies in Daily Life: Selection, Optimization, and Compensation and Everyday Memory Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie, Robinson; Margie, Lachman; Elizabeth, Rickenbach

    2015-01-01

    The effective use of self-regulatory strategies, such as selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) requires resources. However, it is theorized that SOC use is most advantageous for those experiencing losses and diminishing resources. The present study explored this seeming paradox within the context of limitations or constraints due to aging, low cognitive resources, and daily stress in relation to everyday memory problems. We examined whether SOC usage varied by age and level of const...

  5. New Heuristic Strategies for Reactive Power Compensation of Radial Distribution Feeders

    OpenAIRE

    S. F. Mekhamer; M. E. El-Hawary; Soliman, S.A.; Moustafa, M. A.; Mansour, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce two new heuristic techniques for reactive power compensation in radial distribution feeders. The methods can be considered as generalization ideas that emerged from recent heuristic search strategies and lead to better results. The methods formulae are derived and the techniques are applied to three feeders. Results of the proposed approaches are compared with previous methods to show the superiority of the proposed methods. To show the closeness or remote...

  6. Compensation for channel interaction in a simultaneous cochlear implant coding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Paul; Kals, Mathias; Schatzer, Reinhold; Griessner, Andreas; Zierhofer, Clemens

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated a concept to reduce detrimental effects of spatial channel interaction in case of simultaneous stimulation with cochlear implants. The hypothesis was that effects of simultaneous channel interaction can be compensated by an algorithm such that no difference in hearing performance between simultaneous pulsatile stimulation and a strictly sequential reference strategy can be found. The simultaneous strategies used in this study stimulated two or three electrodes simultaneously in a monopolar configuration and used a specific compensation algorithm to reduce detrimental effects of simultaneous channel interaction. Overall stimulation rate was kept constant throughout conditions. Three of the configurations applied extended pulse phase durations. The German Oldenburg sentence and a German vowel test were used to measure speech recognition in 12 cochlear implant users. The results support the initial hypothesis. No significant differences in performance were found. A small spatial distance between simultaneous electrodes yielded slightly better results than a large distance. Extending the pulse phase durations had no significant effect on hearing performance. However, it significantly reduced stimulation amplitudes. Thus strategies implementing channel interaction compensated simultaneous stimulation with extended pulse phase durations might be a viable option for reducing power consumption and increasing battery life in cochlear implants.

  7. Intralimb compensation strategy depends on the nature of joint perturbation in human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Hui; Roiz, Ronald A; Auyang, Arick G

    2008-01-01

    Due to the well-described spring-mass dynamics of bouncing gaits, human hopping is a tractable model for elucidating basic neuromuscular compensation principles. We tested whether subjects would employ a multi-joint or single-joint response to stabilize leg stiffness while wearing a spring-loaded ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) that applied localized resistive and assistive torques to the ankle. We analyzed kinematics and kinetics data from nine subjects hopping in place on one leg, at three frequencies (2.2, 2.4, and 2.8Hz) and three orthosis conditions (freely articulating AFO, AFO with plantarflexion resistance, and AFO with plantarflexion assistance). Leg stiffness was invariant across AFO conditions, however, compensation strategy depended upon the nature of the applied load. Biological ankle stiffness increased in response to a resistive load at twice the rate that it decreased with an assitive load. Ankle adjustments alone fully compensated for an assistive load with no net change in combined (biological plus applied) total ankle stiffness (p > or =0.133). In contrast, a resistive load resulted in a 7.4-9.0% increase in total ankle stiffness across frequencies and a concomitant 10-15% increase in knee joint stiffness at each frequency (pcompensation strategies that are specific to the nature of the joint loading.

  8. Strategic use of reminders in an 'intention offloading' task: Do individuals with autism spectrum conditions compensate for memory difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Mouslim; Gilbert, Sam J

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have found that individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) can have difficulty remembering to execute delayed intentions. However, in these studies participants were prevented from setting external reminders, whereas the use of such reminders in everyday life is commonplace (e.g. calendars, to-do lists, smartphone alerts). In the present study, 28 participants with ASC and 24 matched neurotypicals performed a task requiring them to remember delayed intentions. In the first phase participants were required to use unaided memory, whereas in the second they had the option to offload their intentions by setting reminders if they wished. Performance of the ASC group was significantly poorer than the neurotypical group in phase 1, and metacognitive evaluations of memory abilities mirrored this. Nevertheless, in the second phase, the ASC group failed to compensate for impaired performance: if anything they set fewer reminders than the neurotypical group. These results indicate that intact explicit metacognitive judgements cannot be assumed to lead directly to the use of compensatory strategies.

  9. The Effect of Cognitive and Compensation Strategy Instruction on Reading Comprehension Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail YAMAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Language learning is generally viewed as a quite demanding process. Considering its multi-faceted and intricate nature, there is an ongoing and ever-growing quest for new ways to render the learning period shorter and more effective. In this process, some contributive means such as language learning strategies are offered and employed as boosting and facilitating factors. Having its roots in the studies conducted to identify the common characteristics of successful language learners in 1970s, language learning strategies appear to be effective in terms of different language skills. As reading comprehension skill constitutes one of the most important aspects of competence in a language, language learning strategies promise some facilities in this context, too. Even though it can be easily observed that there is an ever-growing body of research on the use meta-cognitive strategies, cognitive and compensation strategies receive much less interest. In order to fill this gap, this study aims to find out whether teaching cognitive and compensation strategies for reading comprehension skill makes a statistically significant difference in the students’ reading performances. The subjects of the study are 60 first-year students attending the ELT program at Ondokuz Mayıs University. 30 students are assigned to the experimental group while the other 30 students are included in the control group. In order to specify the extent to which the treatment process is successful a pre- and post-test for reading comprehension were administered to the subjects. In order to evaluate the reading comprehension level of the students, ten multiple-choice questions, two open ended questions and four true-false questions are addressed to them in the test (pre-post test. The statistical analyses of the study are conducted by means of the SPSS software with statistical techniques like mean, standard deviation, frequencies and T-tests. The statistically significance level is

  10. Repetitive PD control strategy with inverse transfer function compensation for CVCF inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanxu DUAN; Bangyin LIU; Yong KANG; Jian CHEN

    2004-01-01

    A novel repetitive control strategy for the output waveform of single-phase CVCF inverters is presented. In this scheme, the inverse transfer function of inverter is used as a compensator to obtain stable and satisfy harmonic rejection. Besides,PD controller is adopted to improve transient performance. Simulation and experimental results, which are gotten from a DSP-based 400Hz, 5.5KW inverter, indicate that the proposed control scheme can achieve not only low THD during steady-state operation but also fast transient response during load step change.

  11. Compensation strategy for machining optical freeform surfaces by the combined on- and off-machine measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou

    2015-09-21

    Freeform surface is promising to be the next generation optics, however it needs high form accuracy for excellent performance. The closed-loop of fabrication-measurement-compensation is necessary for the improvement of the form accuracy. It is difficult to do an off-machine measurement during the freeform machining because the remounting inaccuracy can result in significant form deviations. On the other side, on-machine measurement may hides the systematic errors of the machine because the measuring device is placed in situ on the machine. This study proposes a new compensation strategy based on the combination of on-machine and off-machine measurement. The freeform surface is measured in off-machine mode with nanometric accuracy, and the on-machine probe achieves accurate relative position between the workpiece and machine after remounting. The compensation cutting path is generated according to the calculated relative position and shape errors to avoid employing extra manual adjustment or highly accurate reference-feature fixture. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. [Individualized treatment strategies for Clostridium difficile infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbach, P; Dersch, P; Bachmann, O

    2017-07-01

    Upon hospitalization, up to 15.5% of patients are already colonized with a toxigenic Clostridium difficile strain (TCD). The rate of asymptomatic colonization is 0-3% in healthy adults and up to 20-40% in hospitalized patients. The incidence and mortality of C. difficile infection (CDI) has significantly increased during recent years. Mortality lies between 3 and 14%. CDI is generally caused by intestinal dysbiosis, which can be triggered by various factors, including antibiotics or immune suppressants. If CDI occurs, ongoing antibiotic therapy should be discontinued. The choice of treatment is guided by the clinical situation: Mild courses of CDI should be treated with metronidazole. Oral vancomycin is suitable as a first-line therapy of mild CDI occurring during pregnancy and lactation, as well as in cases of intolerance or allergy to metronidazole. Severe courses should be treated with vancomycin. Recurrence should be treated with vancomycin or fidaxomicin. Multiple recurrences should be treated with vancomycin or fidaxomicin; if necessary, a vancomycin taper regimen may also be used. An alternative is fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), with healing rates of more than 80%. Bezlotoxumab is the first available monoclonal antibody which neutralizes the C. difficile toxin B, and in combination with an antibiotic significantly reduces the rate of a new C. difficile infection compared to placebo. A better definition of clinical and microbiota-associated risk factors and the ongoing implementation of molecular diagnostics are likely to lead to optimized identification of patients at risk, and an increasing individualization of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches.

  13. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Pieter; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-04-04

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviour of others. Here we show experimentally that individuals differ in their social learning strategies and that they tend to employ the same learning strategy irrespective of the interaction context. Payoff-based learners focus on their peers' success, while decision-based learners disregard payoffs and exclusively focus on their peers' past behaviour. These individual differences may be of considerable importance for cultural evolution. By means of a simple model, we demonstrate that groups harbouring individuals with different learning strategies may be faster in adopting technological innovations and can be more efficient through successful role differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of individual variation for human interactions and sheds new light on the dynamics of cultural evolution.

  14. The Use of Compensation Strategies in the Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking and Its Relationship with Their Foreign Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Ali Akbar; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Compensation Strategies (CpSs) are strategies which a language user employs in order to achieve his intended meaning when precise linguistic forms are for some reasons not available at that point of communication. Different factors may influence the use of CpSs, among which the level of language proficiency is one of the most important ones. The…

  15. Individual differences and metacognitive knowledge of visual search strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    A crucial ability for an organism is to orient toward important objects and to ignore temporarily irrelevant objects. Attention provides the perceptual selectivity necessary to filter an overwhelming input of sensory information to allow for efficient object detection. Although much research has examined visual search and the 'template' of attentional set that allows for target detection, the behavior of individual subjects often reveals the limits of experimental control of attention. Few studies have examined important aspects such as individual differences and metacognitive strategies. The present study analyzes the data from two visual search experiments for a conjunctively defined target (Proulx, 2007). The data revealed attentional capture blindness, individual differences in search strategies, and a significant rate of metacognitive errors for the assessment of the strategies employed. These results highlight a challenge for visual attention studies to account for individual differences in search behavior and distractibility, and participants that do not (or are unable to) follow instructions.

  16. Individual differences and metacognitive knowledge of visual search strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Proulx

    Full Text Available A crucial ability for an organism is to orient toward important objects and to ignore temporarily irrelevant objects. Attention provides the perceptual selectivity necessary to filter an overwhelming input of sensory information to allow for efficient object detection. Although much research has examined visual search and the 'template' of attentional set that allows for target detection, the behavior of individual subjects often reveals the limits of experimental control of attention. Few studies have examined important aspects such as individual differences and metacognitive strategies. The present study analyzes the data from two visual search experiments for a conjunctively defined target (Proulx, 2007. The data revealed attentional capture blindness, individual differences in search strategies, and a significant rate of metacognitive errors for the assessment of the strategies employed. These results highlight a challenge for visual attention studies to account for individual differences in search behavior and distractibility, and participants that do not (or are unable to follow instructions.

  17. Band gap engineering of NaTaO3 using density functional theory: a charge compensated codoping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brindaban; Srinivasu, K; Ghosh, Swapan K

    2014-08-28

    In this theoretical study, we employ a codoping strategy to reduce the band gap of NaTaO3 aimed at improving the photocatalytic activity under visible light. The systematic study includes the effects of metal (W) and nonmetal (N) codoping on the electronic structure of NaTaO3 in comparison to the effect of individual dopants. The feasibility of the introduction of N into the NaTaO3 crystal structure is found to be enhanced in the presence of W, as indicated by the calculated formation energy. This codoping leads to formation of a charge compensated system, beneficial for the minimization of vacancy related defect formation. The electronic structure calculations have been carried out using a hybrid density functional for an accurate description of the proposed system. The introduction of W in place of Ta leads to the appearance of donor states below the conduction band, while N doping in place of oxygen introduces isolated acceptor states above the valence band. The codoping of N and W also passivates undesirable discrete midgap states. This feature is not observed in the case of (Cr, N) codoped NaTaO3 in spite of its charge compensated nature. We have also studied charge non-compensated codoping using several dopant pairs, including anion-anion and cation-anion pairs. However, this non-compensated codoping introduces localized states in between the valence band and the conduction band, and hence may not be effective in enhancing the photocatalytic properties of NaTaO3. The optical spectrum shows that the absorption curve for the (W, N)-codoped NaTaO3 is extended to the visible region due to narrowing of the band gap to 2.67 eV. Moreover, its activity for the photo decomposition of water to produce both H2 and O2 remains intact. Hence, based on the present investigation we can propose (W, N) codoped NaTaO3 as a promising photocatalyst for visible light driven water splitting.

  18. A new strategy for respiration compensation, applied toward 3D free-breathing cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Bruno; Farnebäck, Gunnar; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Durán-Mendicuti, Alejandra

    2006-07-01

    In thorax and abdomen imaging, image quality may be affected by breathing motion. Cardiac MR images are typically obtained while the patient holds his or her breath, to avoid respiration-related artifacts. Although useful, breath-holding imposes constraints on scan duration, which in turn limits the achievable resolution and SNR. Longer scan times would be required to improve image quality, and effective strategies are needed to compensate for respiratory motion. A novel approach at respiratory compensation, targeted toward 3D free-breathing cardiac MRI, is presented here. The method aims at suppressing the negative effects of respiratory-induced cardiac motion while capturing the heart's beating motion. The method is designed so that the acquired data can be reconstructed in two different ways: First, a time series of images is reconstructed to quantify and correct for respiratory motion. Then, the corrected data are reconstructed a final time into a cardiac-phase series of images to capture the heart's beating motion. The method was implemented, and initial results are presented. A cardiac-phase series of 3D images, covering the entire heart, was obtained for two free-breathing volunteers. The present method may prove especially useful in situations where breath-holding is not an option, for example, for very sick, mentally impaired or infant patients.

  19. A compound control strategy combining velocity compensation with ADRC of electro-hydraulic position servo control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingwei; Shao, Junpeng; Yang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    In order to enhance the anti-jamming ability of electro-hydraulic position servo control system at the same time improve the control precision of the system, a compound control strategy that combines velocity compensation with Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (ADRC) is proposed, and the working principle of the compound control strategy is given. ADRC controller is designed, and the extended state observer is used for observing internal parameters uncertainties and external disturbances, so that the disturbances of the system are suppressed effectively. Velocity compensation controller is designed and the compensation model is derived to further improve the positioning accuracy of the system and to achieve the velocity compensation without disturbance. The compound control strategy is verified by the simulation and experiment respectively, and the simulation and experimental results show that the electro-hydraulic position servo control system with ADRC controller can effectively inhibit the external disturbances, the precise positioning control is realized after introducing the velocity compensation controller, and verify that the compound control strategy is effective.

  20. Can Planning Time Compensate for Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Katharine B.

    2014-01-01

    Language learners with high working memory capacity have an advantage, all other factors being equal, during the second language acquisition (SLA) process; therefore, identifying a pedagogical intervention that can compensate for low working memory capacity would be advantageous to language learners and instructors. Extensive research on the…

  1. Can Planning Time Compensate for Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Katharine B.

    2014-01-01

    Language learners with high working memory capacity have an advantage, all other factors being equal, during the second language acquisition (SLA) process; therefore, identifying a pedagogical intervention that can compensate for low working memory capacity would be advantageous to language learners and instructors. Extensive research on the…

  2. 38 CFR 4.16 - Total disability ratings for compensation based on unemployability of the individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to meet the percentage standards set forth in paragraph (a) of this section. The rating board will... disabilities, there shall be at least one disability ratable at 40 percent or more, and sufficient additional... boards should submit to the Director, Compensation and Pension Service, for extra-schedular...

  3. Strategies to improve compensation and pension timeliness: lessons learned from high-performing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Belinda V; Shiner, Brian; Watts, Bradley V; Zubkoff, Lisa; Schlosser, James E

    2010-12-01

    The compensation and pension (C&P) process is the mechanism by which injured Veterans are assigned their medical and disability benefits. As part of the documentation and rating process performed by the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), many Veterans need supplemental medical examinations performed by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Improving C&P examination timeliness is a goal of many VHA facilities. To identify strategies to improve examination timeliness, we used national performance measures to identify high-performing VHA facilities. We then interviewed seven facilities using Donabedian's structure-process-outcome framework to determine characteristics attributed to their high-performance. We developed a list of high-performance characteristics common to all facilities, which relied on a tailored relationship between each VHA facility and VBA office. Additional characteristics were grouped thematically into three management foci - financial incentives, role specialization, and process reliability. Distillation of these characteristics provides guidance to other VHA facilities seeking to improve their C&P timeliness.

  4. Asynchronous update based networked predictive control system using a novel proactive compensation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yingyao; Zuo, Xin; Liu, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Networked predictive control system (NPCS) has been proposed to address random delays and data dropouts in networked control systems (NCSs). A remaining challenge of this approach is that the controller has uncertain information about the actual control inputs, which leads to the predicted control input errors. The main contribution of this paper is to develop an explicit mechanism running in the distributed network nodes asynchronously, which enables the controller node to keep informed of the states of the actuator node without a priori knowledge about the network. Based on this mechanism, a novel proactive compensation strategy is proposed to develop asynchronous update based networked predictive control system (AUBNPCS). The stability criterion of AUBNPCS is derived analytically. A simulation experiment based on Truetime demonstrates the effectiveness of the scheme.

  5. On Untranslatability of Humor in Mark Twain's Novels and Compensating Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹小路

    2016-01-01

    Mark Twain was a well-known 19th-century American author and a reputed critical realist. His novels are excellent for combining humor with irony, which reveal his criticism of kinds of miserable reality in American society. His humor is not just for humorous effect, but has serious and profound social connotations. So when readers of the target language are reading his novels, their understanding of the deep purpose and connotations would be influenced by the quality of translation of those humors. Therefore, translators must own language competence and sufficient knowledge about the cultural background, for humor is a typical example of untranslatability. This paper makes an analysis of the two types of untranslatability: the cultural untranslatability and the linguistic and takes translation of humor in Mark Twain's novels as examples to analyze the untranslatability of humor in literature and gives suggestions of compensating strategy.

  6. Application Lyapunov Theory to Determine Control Strategy of Static Var Compensator for Damping Power System Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The disturbance in power system is unavoidable situation. It causes in power system oscillation. Approach: This study applied the Static Var Compensator (SVC to damp power system oscillation. The stability criterion of the Lyapunov is applied to derive the control strategy of SVC. The simulation results are tested on a Single Machine Infinite bus. The proposed method is equipped in sample system with disturbance. The generator rotor angle curve of the system without and with a SVC is plotted and compared for various cases. Results: It was found that the system without a SVC has high variation whereas that of the system with a SVC has much smaller variation. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the SVC can damp power system oscillaton.

  7. Walking Stability Compensation Strategy of a Small Humanoid Robot Based on the Error of Swing Foot Height and Impact Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the impact force of swing legs and improve walking stability when a small humanoid robot is walking, a set of impact dynamics equations based on the second kind Lagrange equation is produced, and an impact compensation control strategy with a BP network optimized by a particle swarm algorithm is designed. The core element of the compensation controller is replacing the error back propagation with a particle swarm algorithm. Due to the regulating joints of the knee, hip and ankle, the walking process is more stable than before. The experiment results show that when the left swing leg lands, the impact force drops by 2N and 1.5N respectively in the moments 4.5s and 10.5s. Therefore, the compensation strategy can reduce the impact force effectively and improve the walking stability.

  8. Vocabulary Developing Strategies Applied to Individuals with Hearing Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Guzin; Girgin, Umit; Uzuner, Yildiz; Kaya, Zehranur

    2016-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to investigate the strategies utilized for vocabulary development of ten individuals (first year college students) in Graphic Art Department, School for The Handicapped, Anadolu University with hearing impairment. The reflective and cyclical data were consisted of videotape recordings of the actual lessons,…

  9. Individual and Collective Mobility Strategies among Minority Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Fathali M.; Perreault, Stephane

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study of predictions from major intergroup theories concerning factors involved in individual and collective mobility strategies of minority group members. Reports support for predictions of social identity theory, relative deprivation theory, and resource mobilization theory. Found that less talented minority group members…

  10. The moderating effects of job control and selection, optimization, and compensation strategies on the age-work ability relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigl, Matthias; Mueller, Andreas; Hornung, Severin; Zacher, Hannes; Angerer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Work ability describes employees' capability to carry out their work with respect to physical and psychological job demands. This study investigated direct and interactive effects of age, job control, and the use of successful aging strategies called selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) i

  11. Professionally successful adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: Compensation strategies and subjective effects of pharmacological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Palmini

    Full Text Available Abstract Although as a group, adult patients with ADHD have difficulties in social functioning due to inattention and executive dysfunction, some strive and succeed in living a productive, independent life. Purpose: To report on professionally successful adults with ADHD and analyze their main symptoms, compensation strategies and the subjective effect of methylphenidate on their functioning. Methods: The main symptoms of five patients with ADHD who are University educated and financially independent are reported. These patients were selected from a personally followed cohort of adults with ADHD. All were diagnosed according to DSM-IV adapted criteria (K-SADS E, version 6.0 and completed the Portuguese translated version of the ADHD adult self-reporting scale (ASRS. Results: Main reported symptoms included difficulties with attention, tendency to procrastinate and to 'shuffle' priorities, excessive daytime somnolence, memory difficulties and impulsiveness. Compensation strategies revolve around conscious, 'energy demanding' and time consuming efforts to control and circumvent symptomatic behavioral tendencies. They feel methylphenidate helps by alleviating the need to constantly apply compensation strategies for socially disabling symptoms. In sum, they achieve the same results in a more natural, less effortful fashion. Conclusions: Adults with ADHD may succeed professionally despite significant symptoms of inattention and executive dysfunction. They do so by appropriately using effortful strategies of compensation, the need for which is alleviated by the use of methylphenidate. These subjective reports require confirmation in prospective studies on larger series of patients.

  12. The evolution of individual variation in communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A; Pen, Ido; Komdeur, Jan; Weissing, Franz J

    2010-11-01

    Communication is a process in which senders provide information via signals and receivers respond accordingly. This process relies on two coevolving conventions: a "sender code" that determines what kind of signal is to be sent given the sender's state; and a "receiver code" that determines the appropriate responses to different signal types. By means of a simple but generic model, we show that polymorphic sender and receiver strategies emerge naturally during the evolution of communication, and that the number of alternative strategies observed at equilibrium depends on the potential for error in signal production. Our model suggests that alternative communication strategies will evolve whenever senders possess imperfect information about their own quality or state, signals are costly, and genetic mechanisms allow for a correlation between sender and receiver behavior. These findings provide an explanation for recent reports of individual differences in communication strategies, and suggest that the amount of individual variation that can be expected in communication systems depends on the type of information being conveyed. Our model also suggests a link between communication and the evolution of animal personalities, which is that individual differences in the production and interpretation of signals can result in consistent differences in behavior.

  13. Hedging Strategies and the Financing of the 1992 International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund.

    OpenAIRE

    André SCHMITT; Sandrine SPAETER

    2005-01-01

    The maritime oil transport is regulated by the 1992 Civil Liability Convention for Oil Damage and the 1992 Oil Pollution Compensation Fund. In this compensation regime, contributions of oil firms are based on the aggregate risk of the Fund and are assessed each time an oil spill is registered. In this paper, we present the main characteristics of such a compensation regime and we explain why oil firms would benefit from a reorga- nization of the financing of the Fund by introducing appropriat...

  14. Improved control strategy for PI-R current of DFIG considering voltage and current harmonics compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S. Y.; Liu, Q. H.; Zhao, Y. N.; Liu, S. Y.

    2016-08-01

    With the rapid development of wind power generation, the related research of wind power control and integration issues has attracted much attention, and the focus of the research are shifting away from the ideal power grid environment to the actual power grid environment. As the main stream wind turbine generator, a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is connected to the power grid directly by its stator, so it is particularly sensitive to the power grid. This paper studies the improvement of DFIG control technology in the power grid harmonic environment. Based on the DFIG dynamic model considering the power grid harmonic environment, this paper introduces the shortcomings of the common control strategy of DFIG, and puts forward the enhanced method. The decoupling control of the system is realized by compensating the coupling between the rotor harmonic voltage and harmonic current, improving the control performance. In addition, the simulation experiments on PSCAD/EMTDC are carried out to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the improved scheme.

  15. Driving Difficulties and Adaptive Strategies: The Perception of Individuals Having Sustained a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bottari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. After a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, individuals quickly resume driving. However, relatively little is known about the impact of mTBI on driving ability and, notably, on the perceived influence of postconcussive symptoms on driving. Hence, the objective of this study was to document the perception of driving abilities in individuals with mTBI. Method. Twenty-seven drivers with mTBI were interviewed to document their perception regarding their driving abilities. Both driving-related difficulties and compensatory strategies used to increase driving safety were documented. A mixed quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data was completed. Results. 93% of participants reported at least one difficulty perceived as having an impact on everyday activities. Most frequently named problems affecting driving were fatigue and reduced concentration. In addition, 74% of participants had adapted their driving or developed strategies to compensate for driving difficulties. Discussion/Conclusion. Postconcussive symptoms have repercussions on driving ability. However, people with mTBI tend to be aware of their difficulties and develop, over time, adaptive strategies. Preventive measures are thus warranted to increase health care professionals' awareness of the potential consequences of mTBI on driving ability and to promote guidelines for the safe resumption of driving after injury.

  16. An Improved DTC-SVM Method for Sensorless Matrix Converter Drives Using an Overmodulation Strategy and a Simple Nonlinearity Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    -current distortion due to the nonlinearity of the matrix converter, an overmodulation strategy and a simple nonlinearity-compensation method using $PQR$ transformation are also presented. Experimental results are shown to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy....... frequency and fast torque dynamics. It is possible to combine the advantages of matrix converters with the advantages of the DTC strategy using space-vector modulation and two PI controllers. To overcome the degrading of dynamic torque response compared with the basic DTC method and the phase...

  17. Donations and dependence: Individual contributor strategies in house elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwig, Jennifer A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the importance of individual contributors to financing federal candidates, past work has largely neglected this crucial financial constituency in favor of research on corporate and trade political action committees (PACs). By contrast, in this study I offer the first analysis of aggregate contributions from the population of individual contributors to House candidates. Using an original big dataset constructed from over fifteen million Federal Election Commission (FEC) disclosure records, I identify individual contributors (rather than contributions) and trace the variation in their strategies across types of House candidates. I distinguish between frequent donors, who are theorized to have more contact with members of Congress, versus infrequent donors in these elections. I find evidence that the character of aggregate donations from repeat donors is more access-oriented even while controlling for other salient candidate characteristics. Funds from infrequent donors, in contrast, appear more ideologically motivated. By also examining the percentage of funds that House candidates receive from repeat donors, I show that the fundraising coalitions of candidates may reproduce reliance on more access-oriented, repeat donors despite the influx of dollars from infrequent donors. I suggest that my findings provide a persuasive case for re-evaluating the diversity of roles individual contributors play in the campaign finance system, and for systematically analyzing variation in contributor strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross-Slope and Level Walking Strategies During Swing in Individuals With Lower Limb Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Coralie; Loiret, Isabelle; Langlois, Karine; Bonnet, Xavier; Lavaste, François; Fodé, Pascale; Pillet, Hélène

    2017-06-01

    To quantitatively analyze prosthetic limb swing phase gait strategies used to adapt to cross slopes compared with flat surfaces. Cross-sectional study. Gait laboratory. A volunteer sample (N=49) of individuals with transfemoral amputation (n=17), individuals with transtibial amputation (n=15), and able-bodied individuals (n=17). Participants walked on flat and 6° (10%) inclined cross-slope surfaces at a self-selected walking speed. Gait speed, step width, sagittal plane kinematics (ankle, knee, hip) on the prosthetic side during swing (uphill limb) and on the contralateral side during stance (downhill limb), frontal plane pelvic kinematics on the prosthetic side during swing, contralateral side ankle power during stance, and timing of gait events. All groups reduced gait speed and downhill limb knee flexion during the stance phase. Able-bodied participants adjusted their uphill limb ankle flexion during the swing phase. Participants with lower limb amputation used additional adjustments during the swing phase of the prosthetic limb when positioned uphill on cross slopes. Transtibial amputee participants mainly adapted with increased flexion of the residual hip and knee joints. Transfemoral amputee participants primarily compensated using increased pelvic hiking and vaulting gait strategies. The swing phase of the uphill limb during cross-slope walking results in compensatory mechanisms that should be addressed during rehabilitation to gain confidence and reduce avoidance when encountering cross slopes in daily life. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptual compensation is correlated with individuals' "autistic" traits: implications for models of sound change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Alan C L

    2010-01-01

    .... Building on modern cognitive theories of autism-spectrum condition, which see variation in autism-spectrum condition in terms of individual differences in cognitive processing style, we established...

  20. The Relationship between Physician Compensation Strategies and the Intensity of Care Delivered to Medicare Beneficiaries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landon, Bruce E; Reschovsky, James D; O'Malley, A. James; Pham, Hoangmai H; Hadley, Jack

    2011-01-01

    .... Data Sources/Study Setting. We combined data from the 2004 to 2005 Community Tracking Study Physician Survey on PCP compensation methods with administrative data from the Medicare program for beneficiaries to whom...

  1. Fine-Tuning the Impact of "Play or Pay" Strategies: Evaluating Compensation Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkin, Elliot N

    2015-01-01

    One of the options available to employers under the Affordable Care Act is to drop health care coverage, pay a penalty and provide some form of additional compensation to employees. This article describes a process for evaluating this option, including considerations for establishing the amount of compensation to be provided, if any. It identifies a number of complexities and provides hypothetical examples of how employers might apply this option to employees with different salaries, ages and family statuses.

  2. Potential load reductions on megawatt turbines exposed to wakes using individual-pitch wake compensator and trailing-edge flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Helen; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2011-01-01

    for the loading conditions of the individual turbines in the farm. The dynamic wake meandering model (DWM) is believed to capture the essential physics of the wake problem, and thus, both load and production aspects can be predicted, which is contrary to the traditional engineering wake prediction methods...... that typically focus on either load or power prediction. As a consequence, the wake affected inflow field generated by the DWM formulation opens for control strategies for the individual turbine. Two different control approaches for load reduction on the individual turbines are implemented in the multi-body aero...

  3. Seniors in Society. Strategies to Retain Individual Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The research project on "Seniors in Society. Strategies to Retain Individual Autonomy" (2002 - 2004 is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic. It's importance is empha-sized by the relevance of social and economic aspects of demographic ageing of the popula-tion and that of fundamental changes associated with the transformation of Czech society. The objectives of the research are (1 to find out seniors' material and social resources sup-porting their relative autonomy in everyday life, (2 to record their personal expectations from state, community, or formal and informal support and aid institutions, respectively, and (3 to uncover their engagement in social interaction and individual experiencing of the integration into social groups. The data acquired become the base for (4 identifying the typologies corre-sponding to the levels of seniors' social integration (i.e. groups of relatives, friends, neighbours, special-interest and professional groups. By applying qualitative methods, we explore (5 strategies of everyday life and coping with life cycle events and crisis within par-ticular types. Special attention is paid to the family background of the seniors, including rela-tives in the vertical line. Specifically, we focus on (6 conditions under which family is capa-ble and willing to help or actually is helping it's oldest members, as well as on their interpre-tation within (7 identified types of the relatives supportive systems.

  4. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Larissa J; Wunderli, Michael D; Vonmoos, Matthias; Römmelt, Andreas T; Baumgartner, Markus R; Seifritz, Erich; Schaub, Michael P; Quednow, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH) use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits.

  5. Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in Healthy Individuals: A Compensation for Cognitive Deficits or a Question of Personality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available The ongoing bioethical debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE in healthy individuals is often legitimated by the assumption that PCE will widely spread and become desirable for the general public in the near future. This assumption was questioned as PCE is not equally save and effective in everyone. Additionally, it was supposed that the willingness to use PCE is strongly personality-dependent likely preventing a broad PCE epidemic. Thus, we investigated whether the cognitive performance and personality of healthy individuals with regular nonmedical methylphenidate (MPH use for PCE differ from stimulant-naïve controls. Twenty-five healthy individuals using MPH for PCE were compared with 39 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls regarding cognitive performance and personality assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery including social cognition, prosocial behavior, decision-making, impulsivity, and personality questionnaires. Substance use was assessed through self-report in an interview and quantitative hair and urine analyses. Recently abstinent PCE users showed no cognitive impairment but superior strategic thinking and decision-making. Furthermore, PCE users displayed higher levels of trait impulsivity, novelty seeking, and Machiavellianism combined with lower levels of social reward dependence and cognitive empathy. Finally, PCE users reported a smaller social network and exhibited less prosocial behavior in social interaction tasks. In conclusion, the assumption that PCE use will soon become epidemic is not supported by the present findings as PCE users showed a highly specific personality profile that shares a number of features with illegal stimulant users. Lastly, regular MPH use for PCE is not necessarily associated with cognitive deficits.

  6. [Temperature compensation strategy and implementation for photoelectric modulation interferometer with large optical path difference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Chao; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Ji-Long; Chen, You-Hua

    2013-05-01

    For temperature drift in hypervelocity photoelectric modulation interferometer, a control model of temperature compensation is presented including voltage and phase compensation. First, according to the similar and modeling theory, an equivalent circuit model of mechanical properties of hypervelocity photoelectric modulation interferometer was established, the impact of temperature drift on its resonance frequency was analyzed, a mathematical model was set up, which contains drive voltage, frequency and resonance frequency, and the control method was determined for high optical path difference to get steady. Then, a digital method including voltage and phase compensation is given for optical path difference deviation control, which merges the DPLL and program of voltage and phase compensation. Finally, the control method was tested through experiment system. A test between drive control system including voltage and phase compensation and traditional drive control system was executed, using a laser doppler vibrometer to record the amount of change in optical path difference within 3 hours. Results show that the optical path difference deviation caused by temperature drift in long term is reduced by about 50%.

  7. Strategies for organizational change from group homes to individualized supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to transform. Although the approach taken by each organization was unique, there were also some common strategies, which included generating commitment to common values and mission, a turn or return to authentic person-centered planning, shifting power and control, using community supports and relationships, moving away from facility-based settings, and nurturing staff engagement. Ultimately, organizational change is an ongoing process that requires organizational perseverance and commitment.

  8. Individual foraging strategies reveal niche overlap between endangered galapagos pinnipeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Villegas-Amtmann

    Full Text Available Most competition studies between species are conducted from a population-level approach. Few studies have examined inter-specific competition in conjunction with intra-specific competition, with an individual-based approach. To our knowledge, none has been conducted on marine top predators. Sympatric Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki share similar geographic habitats and potentially compete. We studied their foraging niche overlap at Cabo Douglas, Fernandina Island from simultaneously collected dive and movement data to examine spatial and temporal inter- and intra-specific competition. Sea lions exhibited 3 foraging strategies (shallow, intermediate and deep indicating intra-specific competition. Fur seals exhibited one foraging strategy, diving predominantly at night, between 0-80 m depth and mostly at 19-22 h. Most sea lion dives also occurred at night (63%, between 0-40 m, within fur seals' diving depth range. 34% of sea lions night dives occurred at 19-22 h, when fur seals dived the most, but most of them occurred at dawn and dusk, when fur seals exhibited the least amount of dives. Fur seals and sea lions foraging behavior overlapped at 19 and 21 h between 0-30 m depths. Sea lions from the deep diving strategy exhibited the greatest foraging overlap with fur seals, in time (19 h, depth during overlapping time (21-24 m, and foraging range (37.7%. Fur seals foraging range was larger. Cabo Douglas northwest coastal area, region of highest diving density, is a foraging "hot spot" for both species. Fur seals and sea lions foraging niche overlap occurred, but segregation also occurred; fur seals primarily dived at night, while sea lions exhibited night and day diving. Both species exploited depths and areas exclusive to their species. Niche breadth generally increases with environmental uncertainty and decreased productivity. Potential competition between these species could be greater during

  9. Determinants of R and D Compensation Strategies in the High Tech Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, David B.; Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.

    1984-01-01

    Interviewed managers in high technology and traditional firms (N=105) to explore the determinants of research and development compensation practices and policies in high technology firms. Results indicated that sales volume, stage in the product life cycle, profitabilty, and turnover are predictors of the method and magnitude of financial rewards.…

  10. Evolve the Controller for Static Synchronous Series Compensator Based on Control Strategy of Sen Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Jayaraman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Real and Reactive power flow in an alternating current transmission line can be independently controlled by connecting, to the transmission line, a series-compensating voltage, which is variable in magnitude and phase angle. The Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC, a solid-state voltage source inverter (VSC coupled with a transformer, is connected in series with a transmission line. An SSSC injects an almost sinusoidal voltage, of variable magnitude, in series with a transmission line. This injected voltage is almost in quadrature with the line current, thereby emulating an inductive or a capacitive reactance in series with the transmission line. This emulated variable reactance, inserted by the injected voltage source, influences the electric power flow in the transmission line. In this report, an attempt is made to evolve the model of SSSC and VSC with preliminary studies for the controller design.

  11. Compensation strategy to reduce geometry and mechanics mismatches in porous biomaterials built with Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; Melancon, David; Liu, Lu; Johnston, R Burnett; Pasini, Damiano

    2016-05-06

    The accuracy of Additive Manufacturing processes in fabricating porous biomaterials is currently limited by their capacity to render pore morphology that precisely matches its design. In a porous biomaterial, a geometric mismatch can result in pore occlusion and strut thinning, drawbacks that can inherently compromise bone ingrowth and severely impact mechanical performance. This paper focuses on Selective Laser Melting of porous microarchitecture and proposes a compensation scheme that reduces the morphology mismatch between as-designed and as-manufactured geometry, in particular that of the pore. A spider web analog is introduced, built out of Ti-6Al-4V powder via SLM, and morphologically characterized. Results from error analysis of strut thickness are used to generate thickness compensation relations expressed as a function of the angle each strut formed with the build plane. The scheme is applied to fabricate a set of three-dimensional porous biomaterials, which are morphologically and mechanically characterized via micro Computed Tomography, mechanically tested and numerically analyzed. For strut thickness, the results show the largest mismatch (60% from the design) occurring for horizontal members, reduces to 3.1% upon application of the compensation. Similar improvement is observed also for the mechanical properties, a factor that further corroborates the merit of the design-oriented scheme here introduced.

  12. Research on Acceleration Compensation Strategy of Electric Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wei, Zhicheng

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the driving technology of electric vehicle is developing rapidly. There are many kinds of methods in driving performance control technology. The paper studies the acceleration performance of electric vehicle. Under the premise of energy management, an acceleration power compensation method by fuzzy control theory based on driver intention recognition is proposed, which can meet the driver’s subjective feelings better. It avoids the problem that the pedal opening and power output are single correspondence when the traditional vehicle accelerates. Through the simulation test, this method can significantly improve the performance of acceleration and output torque smoothly in non-emergency acceleration to ensure vehicle comfortable and stable.

  13. The Buffering Effect of Selection, Optimization, and Compensation Strategy Use On The Relationship Between Problem Solving Demands and Occupational Well-Being : A Daily Diary Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Antje; Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated within-person relationships between daily problem solving demands, selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategy use, job satisfaction, and fatigue at work. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that high SOC strategy use boosts the positiv

  14. Load monitoring and compensation strategies for guided-waves based structural health monitoring using piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Surajit; Ladpli, Purim; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2015-09-01

    Accurate interpretation of in-situ piezoelectric sensor signals is a challenging task. This paper presents the development of a numerical compensation model based on physical insight to address the influence of structural loads on piezo-sensor signals. The model requires knowledge of in-situ strain and temperature distribution in a structure while acquiring piezoelectric sensor signals. The parameters of the numerical model are obtained using experiments on flat aluminum plate under uniaxial tensile loading. It is shown that the model parameters obtained experimentally can be used for different structures, and sensor layout. Furthermore, the combined effects of load and temperature on the piezo-sensor response are also investigated and it is observed that both of these factors have a coupled effect on the sensor signals. It is proposed to obtain compensation model parameters under a range of operating temperatures to address this coupling effect. An important outcome of this study is a new load monitoring concept using in-situ piezoelectric sensor signals to track changes in the load paths in a structure.

  15. Load monitoring and compensation strategies for guided-waves based structural health monitoring using piezoelectric transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Surajit; Ladpli, Purim; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2015-09-01

    Accurate interpretation of in-situ piezoelectric sensor signals is a challenging task. This article presents the development of a numerical compensation model based on physical insight to address the influence of structural loads on piezo-sensor signals. The model requires knowledge of in-situ strain and temperature distribution in a structure while acquiring sensor signals. The parameters of the numerical model are obtained using experiments on flat aluminum plate under uniaxial tensile loading. It is shown that the model parameters obtained experimentally can be used for different structures, and sensor layout. Furthermore, the combined effects of load and temperature on the piezo-sensor response are also investigated and it is observed that both of these factors have a coupled effect on the sensor signals. It is proposed to obtain compensation model parameters under a range of operating temperatures to address this coupling effect. An important outcome of this study is a new load monitoring concept using in-situ piezoelectric sensor signals to track changes in the load paths in a structure.

  16. An Embedded Voltage Harmonic Compensation Strategy for Current Controlled DG Interfacing Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Meng, Lexuan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Harmonics have been considered as one of the major issues in future power grids. With the increasing demand in advanced control functions, power electronic converter interfaced Distributed Generators (DGs) are expected to perform harmonic compensation when necessary. It has been demonstrated in a...... voltage detection; 3) compared with conventional voltage detection based method, it offers better performance because of direct harmonic voltage regulation. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method....... in a number of studies that DG converters operating in Voltage-Controlled Mode (VCM) can be easily configured to realize voltage harmonic suppression utilizing naturally embedded voltage control loop. While for DG converters operating in Current-Controlled Mode (CCM), such function was rarely studied....... Considering that CCM is commonly used in renewable energy based generators and energy storage systems, it has certain significance to achieve the same function with CCM operated converters. Aiming at such objective, this paper proposes a voltage detection based embedded Harmonic Compensator (HC) for CCM...

  17. Paying Teachers for What They Know and Do: New and Smarter Compensation Strategies To Improve Schools. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan; Kelley, Carolyn

    This book discusses various pay and compensation initiatives in use nationwide, highlighting: (1) How Are Teachers Compensated?" (current status of teacher compensation and the changing context of teaching); (2) "What Have We Learned from Attempts at Change?" (three approaches to compensating teachers, recent short-lived reform…

  18. Creating beauty: creativity compensates for low physical attractiveness when individuals assess the attractiveness of social and romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Christopher D

    2017-04-01

    Although creativity is attractive in a potential mate, it is unclear (i) whether the effects of creativity on attractiveness generalize to other social contexts and (ii) whether creativity has equivalent effects on men's and women's attractiveness. As social knowledge of creativity may either enhance or 'offset' the appeal of social partners who differ in physical attractiveness, three repeated measures experiments were conducted to directly address these issues. Here, participants rated a series of face-text pairs for attractiveness on trials that differed in one of four combinations of facial attractiveness (attractive and less attractive) and creativity (creative and less creative), rating story-tellers in two experiments (short interpretations of an identical painting) and creative ideas in a further experiment (alternative uses for an everyday object). Regardless of the sex of the judge, creativity and facial attractiveness had independent effects on men's overall attractiveness (initial experiment) and, in further experiments, more substantial effects on the attractiveness of men with less attractive faces than men with attractive faces (when using a different measure of creativity) and specific effects on the attractiveness of individuals with less attractive faces (when using different face stimuli). Collectively, across three experiments, these findings suggest that creativity may compensate for putative cues to lower biological 'quality' and that the benefits of creativity to social groups more generally enhance attraction to creative men (in two experiments) and creative men and women (one experiment). More broadly, the data suggest that species can integrate knowledge of cognitive intelligence with visual cues to biological 'quality' to facilitate mate and/or ally choice.

  19. Creating beauty: creativity compensates for low physical attractiveness when individuals assess the attractiveness of social and romantic partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Although creativity is attractive in a potential mate, it is unclear (i) whether the effects of creativity on attractiveness generalize to other social contexts and (ii) whether creativity has equivalent effects on men's and women's attractiveness. As social knowledge of creativity may either enhance or ‘offset’ the appeal of social partners who differ in physical attractiveness, three repeated measures experiments were conducted to directly address these issues. Here, participants rated a series of face–text pairs for attractiveness on trials that differed in one of four combinations of facial attractiveness (attractive and less attractive) and creativity (creative and less creative), rating story-tellers in two experiments (short interpretations of an identical painting) and creative ideas in a further experiment (alternative uses for an everyday object). Regardless of the sex of the judge, creativity and facial attractiveness had independent effects on men's overall attractiveness (initial experiment) and, in further experiments, more substantial effects on the attractiveness of men with less attractive faces than men with attractive faces (when using a different measure of creativity) and specific effects on the attractiveness of individuals with less attractive faces (when using different face stimuli). Collectively, across three experiments, these findings suggest that creativity may compensate for putative cues to lower biological ‘quality’ and that the benefits of creativity to social groups more generally enhance attraction to creative men (in two experiments) and creative men and women (one experiment). More broadly, the data suggest that species can integrate knowledge of cognitive intelligence with visual cues to biological ‘quality’ to facilitate mate and/or ally choice. PMID:28484614

  20. Implementation of Control Strategies for Power Quality Improvement Using Distribution Static Compensator (D-Statcom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Upendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This present paper deals the enhancement of voltage sags, Harmonic distortion and low power factor using Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM in Distribution system. The present model is based on the Voltage Source Converter (VSC principle. The D-STATCOM injects a current into the system to mitigate the voltage sags. The operation of the proposed control method is presented for D-STATCOM. Simulations and analysis are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK with this control method for the proposed systems. The reliability of the control scheme in the system response to the voltage instabilities due to system faults or load variations is proved obviously in the simulation results.

  1. Neurorehabilitation strategies for poststroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: from compensation to the recovery of swallowing function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabib, Christopher; Ortega, Omar; Kumru, Hatice; Palomeras, Ernest; Vilardell, Natalia; Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Muriana, Desirée; Rofes, Laia; Terré, Rosa; Mearin, Fermín; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is very prevalent among poststroke patients, causing severe complications but lacking specific neurorehabilitation treatment. This review covers advances in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and physiologically based neurorehabilitation strategies for poststroke OD. The pathophysiology of oropharyngeal biomechanics can be assessed by videofluoroscopy, as delayed laryngeal vestibule closure is closely associated with aspiration. Stroke may affect afferent or efferent neuronal circuits participating in deglutition. The integrity of oropharyngeal-cortical afferent pathways can be assessed by electroencephalography through sensory-evoked potentials by pharyngeal electrical stimulation, while corticopharyngeal efferent pathways can be characterized by electromyography through motor-evoked potentials by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Dysfunction in both cortico-mediated evoked responses is associated with delayed swallow response and aspiration. Studies have reported hemispherical asymmetry on motor control of swallowing and the relevance of impaired oropharyngeal sensitivity on aspiration. Advances in treatment include improvements in compensatory strategies but are mainly focused on (1) peripheral stimulation strategies and (2) central, noninvasive stimulation strategies with evidence of their clinical benefits. Characterization of poststroke OD is evolving from the assessment of impaired biomechanics to the sensorimotor integration processes involved in deglutition. Treatment is also changing from compensatory strategies to promoting brain plasticity, both to recover swallow function and to improve brain-related swallowing dysfunction. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. A High Efficiency Charging Strategy for a Supercapacitor Using a Wireless Power Transfer System Based on Inductor/Capacitor/Capacitor (LCC Compensation Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the application of rail transit vehicles, when using typical wireless power transfer (WPT systems with series–series (SS compensation supply power for supercapacitors, the output current is in an approximately inverse relationship with the duty cycle in a wide range. This renders the typical buck circuit control inappropriate. In order to help resolve the above issues, this paper designs inductor/capacitor/capacitor (LCC compensation with new compensation parameters, which can achieve an adjustable quasi-constant voltage from the input of the inverter to the output of the rectifier. In addition, the two-port network method is used to analyze the resonant compensation circuit. The analysis shows that LCC compensation is more suitable for the WPT system using the supercapacitor as the energy storage device. In the case of LCC compensation topology combined with the charging characteristics of the supercapacitor, an efficient charging strategy is designed, namely first constant current charging, followed by constant power charging. Based on the analysis of LCC compensation, the system has an optimal load, by which the system works at the maximum efficiency point. Combined with the characteristics of the constant voltage output, the system can maintain high efficiency in the constant power stage by making constant output power the same as the optimal power point. Finally, the above design is verified through experiments.

  3. Control strategy for three-phase four-wire PWM converter of integrated voltage compensation type active SFCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Tang, Yuejin; Shi, Jing; Li, Zhi; Ren, Li; Cheng, Shijie

    2010-02-01

    The integrated voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is composed of three air-core superconducting transformers and a three-phase four-wire PWM converter. In order to realize the current-limiting characteristics of the integrated active SFCL, it is needed to control the three-phase four-wire PWM converter flexibly and reasonably. Thereby, the control strategy for the converter is analyzed in this paper. In dq0 reference frame, the mathematical model of the converter is founded. The double-loop control strategy, consisting of voltage outer loop and current inner loop, is presented. Moreover, the voltage balance control for the split DC link capacitors is also considered. Using MATLAB, the simulation model of the integrated active SFCL is built. According to the simulation results, it is known that, the presented control strategy is feasible and valid, and the converter can work well under unsymmetrical and symmetrical fault conditions, and then the fault current can be limited quickly and effectively.

  4. A new control strategy with saturation effect compensation for an autonomous induction generator driven by wide speed range turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margato, Elmano, E-mail: efmargato@isel.ipl.p [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, DEEA, Av. Cons. Emidio Navarro 1, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Electrotecnia e Electronica Industrial, Av. Cons. Emidio Navarro 1, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal); Center for Inovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Faria, Jose, E-mail: josefaria@netvisao.p [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, DEEA, Av. Cons. Emidio Navarro 1, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Electrotecnia e Electronica Industrial, Av. Cons. Emidio Navarro 1, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal); Resende, M.J., E-mail: mresende@ist.utl.p [Center for Inovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, DEEC, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Palma, Joao, E-mail: jpalma@lnec.p [Centro de Electrotecnia e Electronica Industrial, Av. Cons. Emidio Navarro 1, 1950-062 Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, LNEC, Av. Brasil 101, 1700-066 (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel control strategy for autonomous induction generators with variable rotor speed. {yields} Generator excitation achieved using a current controlled voltage source inverter. {yields} Machine optimized use with stability and saturation effect compensation. {yields} Both saturation and cross-saturation effects discussed upon generator modeling. {yields} Efficient excitation and continuous load voltage control in a wide rotor speed range. -- Abstract: This paper presents a variable speed autonomous squirrel cage generator excited by a current-controlled voltage source inverter to be used in stand-alone micro-hydro power plants. The paper proposes a system control strategy aiming to properly excite the machine as well as to achieve the load voltage control. A feed-forward control sets the appropriate generator flux by taking into account the actual speed and the desired load voltage. A load voltage control loop is used to adjust the generated active power in order to sustain the load voltage at a reference value. The control system is based on a rotor flux oriented vector control technique which takes into account the machine saturation effect. The proposed control strategy and the adopted system models were validated both by numerical simulation and by experimental results obtained from a laboratory prototype. Results covering the prototype start-up, as well as its steady-state and dynamical behavior are presented.

  5. Managing daily happiness: The relationship between selection, optimization, and compensation strategies and well-being in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshale, Salom M; Lachman, Margie E

    2016-11-01

    Past work on selective optimization and compensation (SOC) has focused on between-persons differences and its relationship with global well-being. However, less work examines within-person SOC variation. This study examined whether variation over 7 days in everyday SOC was associated with happiness in a sample of 145 adults ages 22-94. Age differences in this relationship, the moderating effects of health, and lagged effects were also examined. On days in which middle-age and older adults and individuals with lower health used more SOC, they also reported greater happiness. Lagged effects indicated lower happiness led to greater subsequent SOC usage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. New Perspectives on Compensation Strategies for the Out-of-School Time Workforce. Working Paper Series. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gwen; Harvey, Brooke

    Noting that the quality, continuity, and stability of out-of-school time programs depend, in part, on the presence of a well-trained and fairly compensated staff, this paper examines the unique characteristics of the out-of-school time workforce that contribute to inadequate compensation and explores workforce compensation from an economic…

  7. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Piet; Weissing, Franz J.

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the

  8. Consistent individual differences in human social learning strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Lucas; van den Berg, Piet; Weissing, Franz J.

    2014-01-01

    Social learning has allowed humans to build up extensive cultural repertoires, enabling them to adapt to a wide variety of environmental and social conditions. However, it is unclear which social learning strategies people use, especially in social contexts where their payoffs depend on the behaviou

  9. Strategies for Organizational Change from Group Homes to Individualized Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to…

  10. Strategies for Organizational Change from Group Homes to Individualized Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly looking to convert from facility-based services for adults with developmental disabilities to individualized supports. Such conversion involves not only a change in services but a transformation of organizational culture. This qualitative study involved four organizations that have made sustained efforts to…

  11. Communicative strategies used by spouses of individuals with communication disorders related to stroke-induced aphasia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2014-11-01

    A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative disabilities, nor what factors contribute to the development of a particular approach by communication partners. To develop a set of categories to describe the strategies used by communication partners of adults who have problems expressing themselves due to neurogenic communicative disabilities. The reliability of assessment was a particular focus. The material explored consisted of 21 video-recorded everyday conversations involving seven couples where one spouse had a communicative disability. Three of the dyads included a person with dysarthria and anomia related to later stages of Parkinson's disease, while four of them included a person with stroke-induced aphasia involving anomia. First a qualitative interaction analysis was performed to explore the strategies used by the communication partners when their spouses had problems expressing themselves. The strategies were then categorized, the reliability of the categorizations was explored and the relative frequency of the various strategies was examined. The analysis of the conversational interactions resulted in a set of nine different strategies used by the communication partners without a communicative disability. Each of these categories belonged to one of three overall themes: No participation in repair; Request for clarification or modification; and Providing candidate solutions. The reliability of the categorization was satisfactory. There were no statistically significant differences between diagnoses in the frequency of use of strategies, but the spouses of the persons with Parkinson's disease tended to use open-class initiations of repair more often than the spouses of the persons

  12. Strategies for compensating for higher costs of geothermal electricity with environmental benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Institute for Resources and Environment; Niitsuma, Hiroaki [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Technology

    1999-12-01

    After very high growth in the 1980s, geothermal electricity production has slowed in the mid- and late-1990s. While Japanese, Indonesian and Philippine geothermal growth has remained high as a consequence of supportive government policies, geothermal electricity production has been flat or reduced in much of Europe and North America. Low prices for coal and natural gas, combined with deregulation, means that in much of the world electricity from new fuel-burning electricity plants can be provided at half the cost of new geothermal electricity. Cost-cutting must be pursued, but is unlikely to close the price gap by itself. Geothermal production is widely perceived as being environmentally clean, but this is not unambiguously true, and requires reinjection to be fully realized. Strategies for monetizing the environmental advantages of geothermal, including the carbon tax, are discussed. (author)

  13. 论信息型文本的翻译补偿策略%On the Compensating Strategies for Informative Texts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉英; 胡勇

    2012-01-01

    基于纽马克的文本分析理论,本文以《江西省省情介绍》的英译为语料,阐述了信息型文本的特点及其翻译原则和翻译补偿策略。在信息型文本翻译补偿手段中,语法补偿手段使用频率最高,其次是文化补偿,而使用语用补偿和审美补偿手段的必要性不是很突出。%Based on Newmark' s Text Typology Theory, this paper deals with the characteristics, translating principles as well as translation compensation methods of informative texts through an analysis of A Brief Introduction to Jiangxi Province. It is found that among the four types of compensation strategies, grammatical compensation occurs with the highest frequency, cultural compensation being the second most used strategy while there are not noteworthy cases of pragmatic or aesthetic compensation.

  14. Nitrate concentration-shift cultivation to enhance protein content of heterotrophic microalga Chlorella vulgaris: Over-compensation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tonghui; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Yu; Li, Xingrui; Zhang, Yongkui

    2017-02-27

    Protein production from microalgae requires both high cell density during cultivation and high protein content in cells. Heterotrophic microalgae can achieve high cell density, and yet are confronted with the problem of low protein content. Based on over-compensation strategy, a new concentration-shift method was proposed to cultivate heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris, aiming to increase protein content. With a prior starvation period, microalgae utilized more nitrate and accumulated more proteins compared to one-stage cultivation. Considering the convenience of operation, nitrate-added culture was adopted for producing heterotrophic microalgae, rather than sterile centrifugal culture. Operating parameters including nitrate concentration in N-deficient medium, N-starved time and nitrate concentration in N-rich medium were optimized, which were 0.18gl(-1), 38h and 2.45gl(-1), respectively. Under the optimized conditions, protein content in heterotrophic Chlorella reached 44.3%. Furthermore, the heterotrophic microalga was suggested to be a potential single-cell protein source according to the amino acid composition.

  15. Comparison of Coping Strategies, Perfectionism and Self-Efficacy in Individuals with Substance Use Disorder and Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzeneh Ranjbar, N

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the coping strategies, perfectionism (positive and negative and self-efficacy in individuals with substance use disorder and normal individuals. Method: In this casual-comparative study, 200 persons (100 individuals with substance use disorder and 100 normal individuals were selected by cluster random sampling. The groups were matched with consideration of demographic characteristics (age, gender, marital status and education and they completed the Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies inventory (1984, Terry-Short perfectionism scale (1995 and Schwartz and Jerusalem general self-efficacy questionnaire (1981. Results: Findings of the study showed that the two groups had significant differences on subscales of coping strategies namely: avoidance, self-control, responsibility, avoidance-escape and problem solving. In addition, substance abuse group had also lower scores on the positive perfectionism in comparison of normal group. A significant difference on the level of self-efficacy was observed between the two groups, in this regard, self-efficacy in normal group was more than substance abuse group. Conclusion: The selection of improper coping style, unrealistic and excessive expectations about the abilities and low levels of self-efficacy are factors that can lead to more substance abuse and finally addiction.

  16. Effects of emotion regulation strategies on music elicited emotions : An experimental study explaining individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.M.; Hanser, W.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study examined if emotional experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy during music listening and if individual differences in effects of strategies can be explained by person characteristics. Adults (N = 466) completed questionnaires and rated emotion

  17. Rationalizing vaccine injury compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M

    2008-01-01

    Legislation recently adopted by the United States Congress provides producers of pandemic vaccines with near-total immunity from civil lawsuits without making individuals injured by those vaccines eligible for compensation through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. The unusual decision not to provide an alternative mechanism for compensation is indicative of a broader problem of inconsistency in the American approach to vaccine-injury compensation policy. Compensation policies have tended to reflect political pressures and economic considerations more than any cognizable set of principles. This article identifies a set of ethical principles bearing on the circumstances in which vaccine injuries should be compensated, both inside and outside public health emergencies. A series of possible bases for compensation rules, some grounded in utilitarianism and some nonconsequentialist, are discussed and evaluated. Principles of fairness and reasonableness are found to constitute the strongest bases. An ethically defensible compensation policy grounded in these principles would make a compensation fund available to all individuals with severe injuries and to individuals with less-severe injuries whenever the vaccination was required by law or professional duty.

  18. Video Self-Modeling as an Intervention Strategy for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Anderson, Candace; McCarthy, Scott; Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling demonstrates promise as an intervention strategy to improve outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. This article summarizes the empirical evidence supporting the use of video self-modeling with individuals with autism spectrum disorders to increase language and communication, increase social skills, modify…

  19. G-STRATEGY: Optimal Selection of Individuals for Sequencing in Genetic Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaoyan; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Smith, Albert V; McPeek, Mary Sara

    2016-09-01

    In a large-scale genetic association study, the number of phenotyped individuals available for sequencing may, in some cases, be greater than the study's sequencing budget will allow. In that case, it can be important to prioritize individuals for sequencing in a way that optimizes power for association with the trait. Suppose a cohort of phenotyped individuals is available, with some subset of them possibly already sequenced, and one wants to choose an additional fixed-size subset of individuals to sequence in such a way that the power to detect association is maximized. When the phenotyped sample includes related individuals, power for association can be gained by including partial information, such as phenotype data of ungenotyped relatives, in the analysis, and this should be taken into account when assessing whom to sequence. We propose G-STRATEGY, which uses simulated annealing to choose a subset of individuals for sequencing that maximizes the expected power for association. In simulations, G-STRATEGY performs extremely well for a range of complex disease models and outperforms other strategies with, in many cases, relative power increases of 20-40% over the next best strategy, while maintaining correct type 1 error. G-STRATEGY is computationally feasible even for large datasets and complex pedigrees. We apply G-STRATEGY to data on high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein from the AGES-Reykjavik and REFINE-Reykjavik studies, in which G-STRATEGY is able to closely approximate the power of sequencing the full sample by selecting for sequencing a only small subset of the individuals.

  20. G-STRATEGY: Optimal Selection of Individuals for Sequencing in Genetic Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaoyan; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Smith, Albert V.; McPeek, Mary Sara

    2017-01-01

    In a large-scale genetic association study, the number of phenotyped individuals available for sequencing may, in some cases, be greater than the study’s sequencing budget will allow. In that case, it can be important to prioritize individuals for sequencing in a way that optimizes power for association with the trait. Suppose a cohort of phenotyped individuals is available, with some subset of them possibly already sequenced, and one wants to choose an additional fixed-size subset of individuals to sequence in such a way that the power to detect association is maximized. When the phenotyped sample includes related individuals, power for association can be gained by including partial information, such as phenotype data of ungenotyped relatives, in the analysis, and this should be taken into account when assessing whom to sequence. We propose G-STRATEGY, which uses simulated annealing to choose a subset of individuals for sequencing that maximizes the expected power for association. In simulations, G-STRATEGY performs extremely well for a range of complex disease models and outperforms other strategies with, in many cases, relative power increases of 20–40% over the next best strategy, while maintaining correct type 1 error. G-STRATEGY is computationally feasible even for large datasets and complex pedigrees. We apply G-STRATEGY to data on HDL and LDL from the AGES-Reykjavik and REFINE-Reykjavik studies, in which G-STRATEGY is able to closely-approximate the power of sequencing the full sample by selecting for sequencing a only small subset of the individuals. PMID:27256766

  1. Compensation Strategies and Risk in SLA under Cloud Computing Mode%云计算模式下 SLA 中的补偿策略及风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严建援; 鲁馨蔓; 甄杰

    2014-01-01

    In this paper , we first propose three compensation strategies ( linked respectively to the number of out-ages, the number of failures lasting more than prescribed thresholds , and the cumulative downtime ) in Service Level Agreement(SLA)according to characteristics of cloud computing .By setting tolerance threshold in SLA, we provide grading compensation to customers based on the level of service failures .In order to provide a meas-ure of risk, we compute the Value-at-Risk(VaR)for three strategies and obtain the characteristics and variation of VaR.Under the equal average losses , we can see that the compensation strategy based on the cumulative du-ration demonstrates a larger VaR compared with the one based on the number of failures .Hence , the former is risker.The illustrative example indicates that our proposed compensation strategy is reasonable and feasible .The results provide constructive guide for cloud service providers to make compensation strategies .%本文基于云计算的特性,首次提出了服务水平协议( Service Level Agreement ,SLA)中的三种补偿策略(分别为基于服务失败数量、基于长服务中断数量和基于累积中断时间的补偿策略),通过在SLA中约定客户容忍阀值,针对服务失败等级对客户进行分级补偿。针对三种策略的补偿成本,本文对云服务提供商造成的损失风险进行了测量和分析,得到了风险价值( Value-at-Risk,VaR)变化的特征和规律。在平均损失相同情况下,基于累积中断时间补偿策略的VaR值大于基于服务失败数量补偿策略的VaR值,因此采取基于中断时间的补偿策略风险更大。实例数据分析表明,本文提出的补偿策略是合理可行的。本文结论对于云服务提供商的补偿策略制定具有指导意义。

  2. The Training of Compensation Strategy in the College English Course%浅析大学英语学习中补偿策略的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文洁

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Oxford's understanding and classification of language learning strategies, this paper analyzes one of the key strategies, that is, Compensation Strategy. With reference to the students' learning problems in the College English course, this article aims to introduce Compensation Strategy for students' English learning and provides a practical training model to facilitate college English teachers' training of their students' ability to use this strategy.%文章采用教育学家Oxford对语言学习策略的定义及分类,并对其分类中的直接策略之一——补偿策略进行进一步探讨。根据英语教学实践中所发现问题,文章着重讨论大学生英语学习中培养补偿策略的重要性。通过介绍其详细的分类及培养方法,以求对英语教学有一定的引导意义并帮助学生更轻松地学好英语。

  3. Altered sodium intake affects plasma concentrations of BNP but not proBNP in healthy individuals and patients with compensated heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Goetze, Jens Peter; Norsk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and proBNP are promising markers for treatment of heart failure (HF), but the intra-individual biological variation is high. We investigated whether changes in sodium intake and posture contribute to this variation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 12 ...... has a considerable effect on plasma BNP and therefore contributes to the intra-individual variability. We suggest dietary sodium intake to be standardized at least 3 days prior to blood sampling for the determination of plasma BNP.......AIMS: Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and proBNP are promising markers for treatment of heart failure (HF), but the intra-individual biological variation is high. We investigated whether changes in sodium intake and posture contribute to this variation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 12...... healthy individuals and 12 patients with medically treated compensated HF were examined after 1 week of low (70 mmol [1.61 g] per day) and 1 week of high (250 mmol [5.75 g] per day) sodium intake. Plasma volume and plasma concentrations of BNP and proBNP were determined after 1 h in seated and 1 h...

  4. Individual-learning ability predicts social-foraging strategy in house sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsnelson, Edith; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2011-02-22

    Social foragers can use either a 'producer' strategy, which involves searching for food, or a 'scrounger' strategy, which involves joining others' food discoveries. While producers rely on personal information and past experience, we may ask whether the tendency to forage as a producer is related to being a better learner. To answer this question, we hand-raised house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings that upon independence were given an individual-learning task that required them to associate colour signal and food presence. Following the testing phase, all fledglings were released into a shared aviary, and their social-foraging tendencies were measured. We found a significant positive correlation between individual's performance in the individual-learning task and subsequent tendency to use searching (producing) behaviour. Individual-learning score was negatively correlated with initial fear of the test apparatus and with body weight. However, the correlation between individual learning and searching remained significant after controlling for these variables. Since it was measured before the birds entered a social group, individual-learning ability could not be the outcome of being a producer. However, the two traits may be initially associated, or individual learning could facilitate producing behaviour. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that associates individual-learning abilities with social-foraging strategies in animal groups.

  5. The environment matters: Comparing individuals and dyads in their adaptive use of decision strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane E. Kaemmer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals have been shown to adaptively select decision strategies depending on the environment structure. Two experiments extended this research to the group level. Subjects (N = 240 worked either individually or in two-person groups, or dyads, on a multi-attribute paired-comparison task. They were randomly assigned to two different environments that favored one of two prototypical decision strategies---weighted additive or take-the-best (between-subjects design in Experiment 1 and within-subject design in Experiment 2. Performance measures revealed that both individuals and dyads learned to adapt over time. A higher starting and overall performance rate in the environment in which weighted additive performed best led to the conclusion that weighted additive served as a default strategy. When this default strategy had to be replaced, because the environmental structure favored take-the-best, the superior adaptive capacity of dyads became observable in the form of a steeper learning rate. Analyses of nominal dyads indicate that real dyads performed at the level of the best individuals. Fine-grained analyses of information-search data are presented. Results thus point to the strong moderating role of the environment structure when comparing individual with group performance and are discussed within the framework of adaptive strategy selection.

  6. Measurement Structure of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire-24 in a Sample of Individuals with Musculoskeletal Pain: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; Jochman, Joseph; Fujikawa, Mayu; Strand, David; Cheing, Gladys; Lee, Gloria; Chan, Fong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the factorial structure of the "Coping Strategy Questionnaire"-24 (CSQ-24) in a sample of Canadians with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Method: The sample included 171 workers' compensation clients (50.9% men) recruited from outpatient rehabilitation facilities in Canada. Mean age of participants was 42.45 years (SD =…

  7. 战略导向的薪酬管理与协同研究%Research on Strategy-oriented Compensation Management System and its Synergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小调; 杜纲

    2012-01-01

    随着企业的发展,企业管理复杂性愈加凸显,在人力资源管理上,就表现为人才吸引和保留政策设计上的困难和复杂.从企业战略角度出发进行薪酬管理,有利于企业统筹薪酬,有针对性地激励企业中的各类人才.本文基于系统分析方法,分析了企业战略薪酬管理系统的基本特征,并构建了企业战略薪酬管理系统,并在此基础上进一步探讨了战略薪酬管理系统的协同内容与协同效应.%With the development of the enterprise, the business management is becoming more and more complex. What reflects in human resource management is the difficulties and complexity of the policy design aiming at talent attraction and retention. Strategic compensation management, that is implement compensation management from the perspective of enterprise strategy, benefits the overall compensation management and is more proper to encourage the different kinds of employees. Base on the system analysis method, this paper analysis the basic characteristic of the strategic management system, build the strategic compensation management system, and then describe the synergy mechanism and synergy effectiveness of the strategic compensation management further more.

  8. Teaching basic haemorheology to medical students by individual and collaborative strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Natalie Toksvang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether a classic article on haemorheology would lead to better learning when integrated with a collaborative rather than an individual teaching strategy in the undergraduate physiology classroom setting. A total of 88 2nd-year medical students were randomised to solve assignments based on the classic article individually (n=42 or in groups (n=46 during a 45-minute lesson on basic haemorheology. At the end of the lesson, students completed a test and an evaluation form. There were no differences between the two intervention groups with regard to the total test score, but students who had worked in groups rated their own effort during the lesson higher. In the present study, a collaborative teaching strategy did not lead to higher test scores than an individual teaching strategy. However, our findings suggest that students working in groups may feel a greater level of involvement during class.

  9. Individual-learning ability predicts social-foraging strategy in house sparrows

    OpenAIRE

    Katsnelson, Edith; Motro, Uzi; Feldman, Marcus W; Lotem, Arnon

    2010-01-01

    Social foragers can use either a ‘producer’ strategy, which involves searching for food, or a ‘scrounger’ strategy, which involves joining others' food discoveries. While producers rely on personal information and past experience, we may ask whether the tendency to forage as a producer is related to being a better learner. To answer this question, we hand-raised house sparrow (Passer domesticus) nestlings that upon independence were given an individual-learning task that required them to asso...

  10. 动态电压恢复器的快速检测及补偿策略%Fast Detection and Compensation Strategy Applied for Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩; 王宇; 石巍; 方太勋; 刘为群

    2015-01-01

    Low voltage ride through(LVRT)is an important technical problem for power quality.In order to study LVRT,this paper designed an LVRT experimental system composed of dynamic voltage restorer(DVR),and used voltage dq integrated value and its change rate as detection criterion for voltage drops,and used the voltage feed forward and resonance control loop as the compensation strategy,which can achieve fast compensation of low voltage power grid fault.The experiment is completed using above platform.The test results show that DVR which adopts above detection and compensation strategy can achieve the compensation for low voltage fault quickly.%为了研究低电压穿越问题,设计了一套由动态电压恢复器组成的低电压穿越试验系统。提出采用电压 dq 综合值结合其变化率作为低电压故障发生检测判据,采用电压差前馈结合谐振控制环作为补偿策略,实现对电网低电压故障的快速补偿。经电压补偿试验表明,采用上述低电压故障检测及补偿策略的动态电压恢复器能够快速实现电压补偿。

  11. Deserved Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National People's Congress (NPC), the top legislature, recently adopted amendments to the Law on State Compensation, granting citizens greater power to obtain compensation when their rights are violated by the state.

  12. Strategies for Coping With Individual PTSD Symptoms: Experiences of African American Victims of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Tami P; Weiss, Nicole H; Price, Carolina; Pugh, Nicole; Hansen, Nathan B

    2017-05-08

    Understanding how populations at particular risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its deleterious outcomes cope with individual PTSD symptoms is critical to developing interventions that promote resilience, support recovery, and ultimately empower traumatized populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify specific strategies women use to cope with individual PTSD symptoms among a population at particular risk for experiencing trauma and its negative sequelae-African American victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who use substances. This 30-day study included 107 African American women who reported experiencing current IPV and using a substance. During their follow-up interviews, women participated in a structured interview to retrospectively report on the strategies they typically used to cope with various PTSD symptoms during the 30-day period. Results of content analysis revealed that women used 19 different strategies to cope with symptoms (e.g., social support, substance use, electronic media, religious or spiritual coping), which varied as a function of the PTSD symptom experienced. Aggregating symptoms to the cluster level obscured the variability in strategies used to cope with individual symptoms. Findings are discussed in the context of the larger literature on coping and PTSD, specifically regarding (a) coping strategies that may be adaptive or maladaptive and (b) directions for future research that attend to experiences of individual PTSD symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. [A new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies: coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Yang, Ming; Han, Xue; Lin, Jun-zhi; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-08-01

    The stable and controllable quality of decoction pieces is an important factor to ensure the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the dilemma that the existing standardization of processing mode cannot effectively eliminate the variability of quality raw ingredients, and ensure the stability between different batches, we first propose a new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies that coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics. In order to explain this thinking, an individual study case about different grades aconite is provided. We hope this strategy could better serve for clinical medicine, and promote the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing skills and theories.

  14. International trade shows: Structure, strategy and performance of exhibitors at individual booths vs. joint booths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines differences in exhibitors who participate at international trade shows at joint booths and those who participate at individual booths. The structure, strategy, and trade show performance of exhibitors at joint booths and those at individual booths are analysed. The analysis of...... implications for exhibitors at interna-tional trade shows and export marketing programmes and other marketing programmes offering services to international trade show exhibitors....

  15. The Influence of Individual and Situational Factors on Children's Choice of a Conflict Management Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Anni; Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of individual and situational factors on nursery school children's conflict management strategies. This observational study of triadic interaction was carried out among 69 children whose mean age was 48 months. The video-recorded data were coded for the type of…

  16. Effective Reading Comprehension in EFL Contexts: Individual and Collaborative Concept Mapping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Zahra; Pourdana, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the possible impacts of Individual Concept Mapping (ICM) and Collaborative Concept Mapping (CCM) strategies on Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension. For this purpose, 90 pre-intermediate female language learners ranged between 12 to 17 years of age were selected to randomly assign into ICM, CCM and…

  17. The Relation between Navigation Strategy and Associative Memory: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi T.; Weisberg, Steven M.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the hippocampus is implicated in both spatial navigation and associative memory, very little is known about whether individual differences in the 2 domains covary. People who prefer to navigate using a hippocampal-dependent place strategy may show better performance on associative memory tasks than those who prefer a caudate-dependent…

  18. 差异化级联型电流质量调节装置的补偿策略%A Compensation Strategy for Differentiated Cascaded Current Quality Regulation Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永海; 刘书铭; 朱永强; 雷霄; 肖湘宁

    2011-01-01

    Due to evident defects of high-capacity FACTS devices such as high manufacturing cost, high power loss and causing strong electromagnetic interference, the compensation capacity of actually applied FACTS device is restricted. When the compensation capacity demanded by power grid is larger than that of the compensation device, how to choose appropriate compensation strategy to achieve optimal compensation effect is significant for practical utilization of compensation devices. The design principle and compensation fimctions of differentiated cascaded current quality regulation device are presented. Combining the compensation strategy selection with its compensating capability, the merits and demerits of several compensating methods under insufficient compensation capacity are analyzed. It is propose to apply genetic algorithm (GA) in compensating strategy of compensation devices to optimally allocate compensation capacity for different compensating objects to achieve the aim of multi-object coordinative optimization. The availability of the proposed method is verified by practical example.%大容量的FACTS装置存在造价高、功耗大、电磁干扰强等问题,实际应用中装置的补偿容量有限.当系统所需的补偿容量大于装置的补偿能力时,如何选择合适的补偿策略达到最优的补偿效果,在装置的实用化过程中有着重要的作用.介绍了差异化级联型电流质量调节装置的设计原理和多个补偿功能,将装置补偿方案的选择和其补偿能力相结合,主要讨论了在装置补偿容量不足的情况下,几种补偿方法的优劣.提出将遗传算法应用到装置的补偿策略中,优化分配装置多个补偿目标的补偿容量,达到多目标协调优化的方法.并通过实际算例,验证了该方法的优越性.

  19. 汽车前照灯光轴检测偏差补偿策略%Compensation Strategy on Optical Axis Detection Deviation of Automotive Headlamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘嵩岩; 崔怀于; 徐灯福; 蓝志坤; 吴培娣

    2014-01-01

    分析了汽车前照灯光轴检测的误差来源,提出了汽车轴偏角补偿量、汽车停放角补偿量和汽车停放距离补偿量的测量方法,论述了汽车前照灯光轴检测水平方向误差及垂直方向误差的补偿策略,设计了汽车前照灯检测误差补偿系统。试验结果表明,对检测误差进行补偿后,水平方位角的检测结果方差由1.836×10-1降为0.183×10-1,垂直方位角的检测结果方差由1.53×10-2降为0.39×10-2,验证了汽车前照灯检测误差补偿策略的有效性和准确性。%Sources of headlamp optical axis detection error are analyzed and measurement methods for the compensation values of vehicle wheel setback angle, parking angle and vehicle parking distance are presented. Compensation strategy for the detection errors of vehicle headlamp optical axis in horizontal and vertical direction is discussed, and error compensation system for vehicle headlamp test is designed. The test results show that the variance of the horizontal azimuth declines to 0.183×10 -1from 1.836×10 -1, moreover, the variance of vertical azimuth decreases to 0.39×10 -2 from1.53×10 -2after compensation is made to inspection errors. The feasibility and accuracy of compensation strategy on optical axis inspection deviation of vehicle headlamp are proved.

  20. Individual differences in attention strategies during detection, fine discrimination, and coarse discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Elizabeth A.; Serences, John T.; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Interacting with the environment requires the ability to flexibly direct attention to relevant features. We examined the degree to which individuals attend to visual features within and across Detection, Fine Discrimination, and Coarse Discrimination tasks. Electroencephalographic (EEG) responses were measured to an unattended peripheral flickering (4 or 6 Hz) grating while individuals (n = 33) attended to orientations that were offset by 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 90° from the orientation of the unattended flicker. These unattended responses may be sensitive to attentional gain at the attended spatial location, since attention to features enhances early visual responses throughout the visual field. We found no significant differences in tuning curves across the three tasks in part due to individual differences in strategies. We sought to characterize individual attention strategies using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, which grouped individuals into families of curves that reflect attention to the physical target orientation (“on-channel”) or away from the target orientation (“off-channel”) or a uniform distribution of attention. The different curves were related to behavioral performance; individuals with “on-channel” curves had lower thresholds than individuals with uniform curves. Individuals with “off-channel” curves during Fine Discrimination additionally had lower thresholds than those assigned to uniform curves, highlighting the perceptual benefits of attending away from the physical target orientation during fine discriminations. Finally, we showed that a subset of individuals with optimal curves (“on-channel”) during Detection also demonstrated optimal curves (“off-channel”) during Fine Discrimination, indicating that a subset of individuals can modulate tuning optimally for detection and discrimination. PMID:23678013

  1. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Hojilla, J; Koester, Kimberly A; Cohen, Stephanie E; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was 'seasonal' and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts.

  2. Evaluating alternative strategies for minimizing unintended fitness consequences of cultured individuals on wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Marissa L; Waples, Robin S

    2013-02-01

    Artificial propagation strategies often incur selection in captivity that leads to traits that are maladaptive in the wild. For propagation programs focused on production rather than demographic contribution to wild populations, effects on wild populations can occur through unintentional escapement or the need to release individuals into natural environments for part of their life cycle. In this case, 2 alternative management strategies might reduce unintended fitness consequences on natural populations: (1) reduce selection in captivity as much as possible to reduce fitness load (keep them similar), or (2) breed a separate population to reduce captive-wild interactions as much as possible (make them different). We quantitatively evaluate these 2 strategies with a coupled demographic-genetic model based on Pacific salmon hatcheries that incorporates a variety of relevant processes and dynamics: selection in the hatchery relative to the wild, assortative mating based on the trait under selection, and different life cycle arrangements in terms of hatchery release, density dependence, natural selection, and reproduction. Model results indicate that, if natural selection only occurs between reproduction and captive release, the similar strategy performs better. However, if natural selection occurs between captive release and reproduction, the different and similar strategies present viable alternatives to reducing unintended fitness consequences because of the greater opportunity to purge maladaptive individuals. In this case, the appropriate approach depends on the feasibility of each strategy and the demographic goal (e.g., increasing natural abundance, or ensuring that a high proportion of natural spawners are naturally produced). In addition, the fitness effects of hatchery release are much greater if hatchery release occurs before (vs. after) density-dependent interactions. Given the logistical challenges to achieving both the similar and different strategies

  3. Beyond labelling: what strategies do nut allergic individuals employ to make food choices? A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Barnett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Food labelling is an important tool that assists people with peanut and tree nut allergies to avoid allergens. Nonetheless, other strategies are also developed and used in food choice decision making. In this paper, we examined the strategies that nut allergic individuals deploy to make safe food choices in addition to a reliance on food labelling. METHODS: THREE QUALITATIVE METHODS: an accompanied shop, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and the product choice reasoning task - were used with 32 patients that had a clinical history of reactions to peanuts and/or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated food allergy. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed data. RESULTS: Three main strategies were identified that informed the risk assessments and food choice practices of nut allergic individuals. These pertained to: (1 qualities of product such as the product category or the country of origin, (2 past experience of consuming a food product, and (3 sensory appreciation of risk. Risk reasoning and risk management behaviours were often contingent on the context and other physiological and socio-psychological needs which often competed with risk considerations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and taking into account the complexity of strategies and the influences of contextual factors will allow healthcare practitioners, allergy nutritionists, and caregivers to advise and educate patients more effectively in choosing foods safely. Governmental bodies and policy makers could also benefit from an understanding of these food choice strategies when risk management policies are designed and developed.

  4. Comparing Personality Dimensions and coping Strategies in Healthy Individuals and Heart Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heart disease is a psycho-physiological disorder that in addition to physical and biological factors, psychological factors such as stressful events, personality traits and coping strategies play an important role in its occurrence and exacerbation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate personality dimensions and stress-coping strategies within healthy individuals compared with heart patients. Methods: In this analytical-comparative study, 50 patients with heart disease(26 males and 24 females and 50 healthy subjects (28 males and 22 females were selected. The participants were required to respond to the Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ-R and Folkman and Lazarus’s stress-coping strategies questionnaire. In order to analyze the studydata, descriptive indicators and independent t-test were applied using SPSS software(ver, 19 and  the significance level was set at α= 0/01. Findings: The study results revealed a significant defference between heart patients and healthy individuals in terms of personality dimensions, neuroticism, and psychoticism, though no significant difference was observed in regard with emotion-focused coping strategies between the two groups. In the present study, the effect of gender was also examined on personality dimensions and coping strategies. Moreover, extraversion features as well as emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies were demonstrated to differ significantly between males and females. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that heart patients seem to be more anxious, fearful, violent, aggressive and fast developing for anxiety, depression and aggression compared to healthy individuals who apply emotion-oriented coping style dealing with the problems.

  5. 企业薪酬战略引发的一些不公平问题探讨%Discussion on Some Inequities Caused by Corporate Compensation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古爱军

    2011-01-01

    How to develop effective remuneration policy and a reasonable salary level is the organizalion's most important human resources strategy.This article focuses on some problems brought by corporate compensation strategy, studies and analyzes the equity theory and proposes solutions.%如何制定有效的薪酬政策和合理的薪酬水平是组织人力资源战略的重中之重.本文着重从企业薪酬战略引发的一些问题着手,通过公平理论进行深入研究和分析,并提出解决方案.

  6. When push comes to shove: Compensating and opportunistic strategies in a collective-risk household energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya eSkatova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems like climate change, every little push counts. Community energy schemes are a popular policy targeted to reduce a country’s carbon emissions but the effect they have on energy use depends on whether people can work together as a community. We often find ourselves caught in a dilemma: if others are not doing their bit, why should I? In our experiment participants (N = 118 were matched in groups of 10 to play in a collective-risk game framed as a community energy purchase scheme. They made only one decision about energy use for their virtual household a day, whilst a full round of the game lasted one week in real time. All decisions were entered via personal phone or a home computer. If in the end of the week the group exceeded a pre-paid threshold of energy use, all group members would share a fine. Each day participants received feedback about decisions of their group partners, and in some groups the feedback was manipulated as high (unfair condition or low (fair condition use. High average group use created individual risk for participants to be penalized in the end of the week, even if they did not use much themselves. We found that under the risk of having to pay a fine, participants stayed significantly below the fair-share threshold regardless of unfair behaviour of others. On the contrary, they significantly decreased their consumption towards the end of the game. Seeing that others are doing their bit – using a fair-share – encouraged people to take advantage of the situation: those who played against fair confederates did not follow the normative behaviour but conversely, increased their consumption over the course of the game. These opportunistic strategies were demonstrated by impulsive participants who were also low in punishment sensitivity. We discuss the findings in the light of policy research as well as literature on cooperation and prosocial behaviour.

  7. Selection, optimization, and compensation: strategies to maintain, maximize, and generate resources in later life in the face of chronic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Philip A; Kidahashi, Miwako; DeRienzis, Daniel R

    2011-02-01

    This qualitative study of 45 older adults examines how they allocate their resources in the face of chronic health conditions. Participants were recruited from 2 senior centers and interviewed about their repertoire of activities, any changes in those activities in later life, and meanings they ascribed to those changes. The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation model guided our analysis and interpretation of participants' responses. The findings demonstrate the complexity of participants' responses to age-related changes, particularly in how they adapted and negotiated both their perception and life goals when faced with changing social landscapes. We discuss some implications and nuances of our findings.

  8. Restructuring the navigational field: individual predisposition towards field independence predicts preferred navigational strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; D'Alessandro, Adele; Nori, Raffaella; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2017-06-01

    To successfully navigate within an environment, individuals have to organize the spatial information in terms of salient landmarks, paths and general layout of the navigational environment. They may differ in the strategy they adopt to orientate themselves, with some individuals preferring to use salient landmarks (landmark spatial style, L-SS), others preferring to plan routes or paths through an egocentric strategy in which landmarks are connected with each other (route spatial style, R-SS) and others still create a global map-like configuration of the environment regardless of their own position in the environment (survey spatial style, S-SS). Here, we assessed whether Field independence (FI), that is the extent to which the individual perceives part of a field as discrete from the surrounding field rather than embedded in the field, predicted the individual's spatial style. We assessed the individual's spatial style using the spatial cognitive style test (SCST) and measured FI using the group embedded figure test (GEFT). We found that FI predicted general spatial ability, with a higher level of FI being associated with better performances on the SCST. Also, Field-independent individuals showed a marked preference for an S-SS. These results suggest that a higher level of FI is associated with better performance on higher level spatial tasks (i.e. R-SS and S-SS) that is tasks requiring individuals to restructure the "navigational field" according to the navigational goal. The results also suggest that a higher level of FI makes individuals more prone to use a global and complex map-like representation of the environment.

  9. The buffering effect of selection, optimization, and compensation strategy use on the relationship between problem solving demands and occupational well-being: a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Antje; Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated within-person relationships between daily problem solving demands, selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategy use, job satisfaction, and fatigue at work. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that high SOC strategy use boosts the positive relationship between problem solving demands and job satisfaction, and buffers the positive relationship between problem solving demands and fatigue. Using a daily diary study design, data were collected from 64 administrative employees who completed a general questionnaire and two daily online questionnaires over four work days. Multilevel analyses showed that problem solving demands were positively related to fatigue, but unrelated to job satisfaction. SOC strategy use was positively related to job satisfaction, but unrelated to fatigue. A buffering effect of high SOC strategy use on the demands-fatigue relationship was found, but no booster effect on the demands-satisfaction relationship. The results suggest that high SOC strategy use is a resource that protects employees from the negative effects of high problem solving demands.

  10. Sequential isotopic signature along gladius highlights contrasted individual foraging strategies of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lorrain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cephalopods play a major role in marine ecosystems, but knowledge of their feeding ecology is limited. In particular, intra- and inter-individual variations in their use of resources has not been adequatly explored, although there is growing evidence that individual organisms can vary considerably in the way they use their habitats and resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using δ(13C and δ(15N values of serially sampled gladius (an archival tissue, we examined high resolution variations in the trophic niche of five large (>60 cm mantle length jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas that were collected off the coast of Peru. We report the first evidence of large inter-individual differences in jumbo squid foraging strategies with no systematic increase of trophic level with size. Overall, gladius δ(13C values indicated one or several migrations through the squid's lifetime (∼8-9 months, during which δ(15N values also fluctuated (range: 1 to 5‰. One individual showed an unexpected terminal 4.6‰ δ(15N decrease (more than one trophic level, thus indicating a shift from higher- to lower-trophic level prey at that time. The data illustrate the high diversity of prey types and foraging histories of this species at the individual level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The isotopic signature of gladii proved to be a powerful tool to depict high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids, thus complementing traditional information offered by stomach content analysis and stable isotopes on metabolically active tissues. The observed differences in life history strategies highlight the high degree of plasticity of the jumbo squid and its high potential to adapt to environmental changes.

  11. By the numbers: Structure-seeking individuals prefer quantitative over qualitative representations of personal value to compensate for the threat of unclear performance contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Zachary K; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    What combination of dispositional and situational factors leads people to represent their personal value in quantitative terms (e.g., salary) rather than qualitative terms (e.g., virtue)? Integrating research on quantitative information seeking, dispositional epistemic motivation, and learned helplessness, the current article hypothesized that individuals high, but not low, in uncertainty avoidance (measured with the Personal Need for Structure Scale [PNS]) would prefer quantitative (over qualitative) value representations to compensate for the diminished self-esteem certainty caused by exposure to unclear performance contingencies. Accordingly, in Study 1 high-PNS participants exposed to unclear (vs. clear) performance contingencies in one domain (visual intelligence) preferred a quantitative value representation in another domain (verbal intelligence). Study 2 showed that this effect is mediated by self-esteem certainty, not self-esteem level. Study 3 included a failure feedback condition to further isolate the role of epistemic motivation, as distinct from self-enhancement motivation, in driving the tendency to quantify personal value.

  12. Effects of EFL Individual Learner Variables on Foreign Language Reading Anxiety and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Hsin-Yi

    2016-08-01

    Past research has shown an association between foreign language reading anxiety and reading strategy. However, individual variables tend to affect foreign language anxiety and strategy use. The present study examined a hypothesized model that specified direct and indirect effects among English and foreign languages readers' distinct variables, including academic level; self-perceived English level; and satisfaction with reading proficiency, reading anxiety, and metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. A total of 523 volunteer Taiwanese college students provided 372 valid responses to a written questionnaire (281 women and 91 men; M age = 19.7 years, SD = 1.1) containing the translated versions of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale, Survey of Reading Strategies Inventory, and self-assessment background questionnaire. The results showed that self-evaluation of reading proficiency did not correlate with academic level and readers' perceptions. Satisfaction had a direct effect on foreign language reading anxiety but not on metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Results of path analysis demonstrated that the perception learners who had their own reading proficiency predicted their foreign language reading anxiety and was a mediating variable for metacognitive reading strategy use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. 29 CFR 525.6 - Compensable time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensable time. 525.6 Section 525.6 Labor Regulations... WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.6 Compensable time. Individuals employed subject to this part must be compensated for all hours worked. Compensable time includes not only those...

  14. Individual HIV Risk versus Population Impact of Risk Compensation after HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Initiation among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Akshay; Goodreau, Steven M.; Rosenberg, Eli S.; Weiss, Kevin M.; Hoover, Karen W.; Smith, Dawn K.; Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Risk compensation (RC) could reduce or offset the biological prevention benefits of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among those at substantial risk of infection, including men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated the potential extent and causal mechanisms through which RC could impact HIV transmission at the population and individual levels. Methods Using a stochastic network-based mathematical model of HIV transmission dynamics among MSM in the United States, we simulated RC as a reduction in the probability of condom use after initiating PrEP, with heterogeneity by PrEP adherence profiles and partnership type in which RC occurred. Outcomes were changes to population-level HIV incidence and individual-level acquisition risk. Results When RC was limited to MSM highly/moderately adherent to PrEP, 100% RC (full replacement of condoms) resulted in a 2% relative decline in incidence compared to no RC, but an 8% relative increase in infection risk for MSM on PrEP. This resulted from confounding by indication: RC increased the number of MSM indicated for PrEP as a function of more condomless anal intercourse among men otherwise not indicated for PrEP; this led to an increased PrEP uptake and subsequent decline in incidence. Conclusions RC is unlikely to decrease the prevention impact of PrEP, and in some cases RC may be counterintuitively beneficial at the population level. This depended on PrEP uptake scaling with behavioral indications. Due to the increased acquisition risk associated with RC, however, clinicians should continue to support PrEP as a supplement rather than replacement of condoms. PMID:28060881

  15. Protection Measures and Compensation Strategies of Ecological Public Welfare Forest in Changsha City%长沙市生态公益林保护措施及补偿对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱模清

    2012-01-01

    介绍了长沙市生态公益林建设现状及管理措施,分析了该市生态公益林补偿存在的问题,并提出了补偿对策。%Status and management measures of ecological public welfare forest construction in Changsha City were introduced, existing problems in the compensation of ecological public welfare forest were analyzed, and the compensation strategies were proposed.

  16. 文化缺省的形式补偿和意义补偿策略探析--以《红楼梦》咏物诗为例%Strategies for Structural Compensation and Meaning Compensation of Cultural Default--Taking the Object Poems in Hong Lou Meng as Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雯雯

    2013-01-01

    Compensation for cultural default refers to the restoration or supplement of the absence of relevant background knowledge shared by the writer and his intended readers. The thesis divides the compensation for cultural default into structural compensation and meaning compensation. By comparing the translation compensation in Hawkes’version and Yangs’version of the object poems in Hong Lou Meng, some strategies for the two kinds of compensation are introduced. Strategies for structural compensation are alliteration, consonance and rhyme, while strategies for meaning compensation are amplification, annotation,paraphrasing and omission of cultural images.%  文化缺省补偿是指在翻译过程中对原作者在与其意向读者交流时对双方共有的相关文化背景知识的省略进行修复或补充。本文根据文化缺省补偿对象的不同将其分为形式补偿和意义补偿。以霍译本和杨译本对《红楼梦》咏物诗的翻译补偿为例,探析总结形式补偿策略,即头韵法、辅韵法和韵脚法,以及意义补偿策略,即增益法、注释法、释义法和意象舍弃法。

  17. The Role of Personality Traits in the Choice and Use of the Compensation Category of English Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the role of personality traits in the prediction choice and use of the Compensatory English Language Learning Strategies (CELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Adapted Inventory for Compensatory English Language Learning Strategies based on Compensation…

  18. The endogenous character of executive compensation: Does corporate strategy affect the choice to adopt residual income-based incentives?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V. Sonneveld (Frank)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates whether firms following a prospector strategy are less likely to adopt residual income (RI) as their main performance measure than firms following a defender strategy. The rationale behind this research question is that previous research has shown that implementin

  19. Individual differences in foraging strategies of parasitic sabre-tooth blennies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bshary

    Full Text Available Originally, evolutionary game theory typically predicted that optimal behaviour in a given situation is uniform or bimodal. However, the growing evidence that animals behave more variably while individuals may differ consistently in their behaviour, has led to the development of models that predict a distribution of strategies. Here we support the importance of such models in a study on a coral reef fish host-parasite system. Parasitic blennies (Plagiotremus sp. regularly attack other fishes to bite off scales and mucus. Individuals of some victim species react to being bitten with punishing the parasite through aggressive chasing. Our field observations and laboratory experiments show that individual blennies differ markedly in how they incorporate being punished into their foraging decisions. We discuss how these differences may affect the payoff structure and hence the net effect of punishment on punishers and on the appearance of a public good for look-alikes.

  20. Individualized prostate biopsy strategy for Chinese patients with different prostate-specific antigen levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Dai; Ding-Wei Ye; Yun-Yi Kong; Yi-Jin Shen; Bo-Hua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the best individualized prostate biopsy strategies for Chinese patients with suspected prostate cancer. Methods: The present study included 221 Chinese patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies for the first time. All patients underwent the same 10-core biopsy protocol. In addition to the Hodge sextant technique, four more biopsies were obtained from the base and middle regions of bilateral peripheral zones.The differences between 10-core and sextant strategies in cancer detection among patients with different prostate specific anitgen (PSA) levels were evaluated. The relationship between PSA level, number of positive biopsy cores and organ-confined cancer rate in prostate cancer patients was also analyzed. Results: The overall prostate cancer detection rate was 40.7% in the 221 patients. The 10-core strategy increased cancer detection by 6.67% (6/90) in our patients (P 50 ng/mL (P 50 ng/mL. For patients with PSA ranging from 20.1 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL, the 10-core strategy should be applied in patients with life expectancy > 10 years and the sextant strategy should be applied in those with life expectancy < 10 years.

  1. Effective Reading Comprehension in EFL Contexts: Individual and Collaborative Concept Mapping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Riahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to investigate the possible impacts of Individual Concept Mapping (ICM and Collaborative Concept Mapping (CCM strategies on Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension. For this purpose, 90 pre-intermediate female language learners ranged between 12 to 17 years of age were selected to randomly assign into ICM, CCM and Control groups in this study. After taking Key English Test (KET, the ICM and CCM groups received EFL reading materials presented and practiced with ICM and CCM strategies, respectively, while the Control group received only conventional instructions to reading comprehension. After conducting the treatment, all participants took a Concept Mapping post-test constructed by the researchers. The hypothetical assumptions in this study were in favor of ICM and CCM strategies to improve the Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Statistics supported the outperformance of the ICM and CCM groups comparing to Control group who received convention PPP teaching techniques on Concept Mapping post-test. However, the superiority of neither strategies was statistically proved so that no meaningful difference between the reading comprehension of the ICM and CCM groups were detected. Therefore, the researchers failed to determine which strategy caused a better or higher impact. Some pedagogical implications and recommended topics for further research were provided to the motivated researchers.

  2. Tracking 'differential organ motion' with a 'breathing' multileaf collimator: magnitude of problem assessed using 4D CT data and a motion-compensation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J R; Webb, S; McQuaid, D; Binnie, D M; Hawkes, D J

    2007-08-21

    Intrafraction tumour (e.g. lung) motion due to breathing can, in principle, be compensated for by applying identical breathing motions to the leaves of a multileaf collimator (MLC) as intensity-modulated radiation therapy is delivered by the dynamic MLC (DMLC) technique. A difficulty arising, however, is that irradiated voxels, which are in line with a bixel at one breathing phase (at which the treatment plan has been made), may move such that they cease to be in line with that breathing bixel at another phase. This is the phenomenon of differential voxel motion and existing tracking solutions have ignored this very real problem. There is absolutely no tracking solution to the problem of compensating for differential voxel motion. However, there is a strategy that can be applied in which the leaf breathing is determined to minimize the geometrical mismatch in a least-squares sense in irradiating differentially-moving voxels. A 1D formulation in very restricted circumstances is already in the literature and has been applied to some model breathing situations which can be studied analytically. These are, however, highly artificial. This paper presents the general 2D formulation of the problem including allowing different importance factors to be applied to planning target volume and organ at risk (or most generally) each voxel. The strategy also extends the literature strategy to the situation where the number of voxels connecting to a bixel is a variable. Additionally the phenomenon of 'cross-leaf-track/channel' voxel motion is formally addressed. The general equations are presented and analytic results are given for some 1D, artificially contrived, motions based on the Lujan equations of breathing motion. Further to this, 3D clinical voxel motion data have been extracted from 4D CT measurements to both assess the magnitude of the problem of 2D motion perpendicular to the beam-delivery axis in clinical practice and also to find the 2D optimum breathing-leaf strategy

  3. Experiments on individual strategy updating in iterated snowdrift game under random rematching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hang; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning; Wang, Guangchao

    2015-03-07

    How do people actually play the iterated snowdrift games, particularly under random rematching protocol is far from well explored. Two sets of laboratory experiments on snowdrift game were conducted to investigate human strategy updating rules. Four groups of subjects were modeled by experience-weighted attraction learning theory at individual-level. Three out of the four groups (75%) passed model validation. Substantial heterogeneity is observed among the players who update their strategies in four typical types, whereas rare people behave like belief-based learners even under fixed pairing. Most subjects (63.9%) adopt the reinforcement learning (or alike) rules; but, interestingly, the performance of averaged reinforcement learners suffered. It is observed that two factors seem to benefit players in competition, i.e., the sensitivity to their recent experiences and the overall consideration of forgone payoffs. Moreover, subjects with changing opponents tend to learn faster based on their own recent experience, and display more diverse strategy updating rules than they do with fixed opponent. These findings suggest that most of subjects do apply reinforcement learning alike updating rules even under random rematching, although these rules may not improve their performance. The findings help evolutionary biology researchers to understand sophisticated human behavioral strategies in social dilemmas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history strategies compensates for a poor start in life in Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K

    2010-12-01

    Low food availability during early growth and development can have long-term negative consequences for reproductive success. Phenotypic plasticity in adult life-history decisions may help to mitigate these potential costs, yet adult life-history responses to juvenile food conditions remain largely unexplored. I used a food-manipulation experiment with female Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to examine age-related changes in adult life-history responses to early food conditions, whether these responses varied across different adult food conditions, and how these responses affected overall reproductive success. Guppy females reared on low food as juveniles matured at a later age, at a smaller size, and with less energy reserves than females reared on high food as juveniles. In response to this setback, they changed their investment in growth, reproduction, and fat storage throughout the adult stage such that they were able to catch up in body size, increase their reproductive output, and restore their energy reserves to levels comparable to those of females reared on high food as juveniles. The net effect was that adult female guppies did not merely mitigate but surprisingly were able to fully compensate for the potential long-term negative effects of poor juvenile food conditions on reproductive success.

  5. Development of Digital Hysteresis Current Control with PLL Loop Gain Compensation Strategy for PWM Inverters with Constant Switching Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Belhaouchet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis current control is one of the simplest techniques used to control the magnitude and phase angle of motor current for motor drives systems. However, this technique presents several disadvantages such as operation at variable switching frequency which can reveal problems of filtering, interference between the phases in the case of the three-phase systems with insulated neutral connection or delta connection, and irregularity of the modulation pulses which especially causes an acoustic noise on the level of the machine for the high power drive. In this paper, a new technique is proposed for a variable-hysteresis-band controller based on dead beat control applied to three phase voltage source PWM inverters feeding AC motors. Its main aim is firstly ensure a constant switching frequency and secondly the synchronization of modulation pulses using the phase-locked-loop with loop gain compensation in order to ensure a better stability. The behavior of the proposed technique is verified by simulation.

  6. Creative compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll, D

    1994-09-19

    A discussion is presented of executive compensation in Canada's petroleum industry. Mandatory disclosure of executive compensation and benefits is regulated by the Ontario Securities Commission. Examination of the compensation packages of 80 oilpatch CEOs shows a clear difference in philosophy between large and small companies. Larger companies pay larger salaries, offer pension plans, and reward long-term loyalty. Within smaller companies, compensation tends to be linked with stock performance. Trends in compensation are to lower base salaries with more variables such as bonuses, cash incentives and gain-sharing programs. Increasing shareholder scrutiny is prompting more stringent guidelines on stock option plans. Some companies place performance conditions on stock vesting. Another option is to grant premium priced options to executives, to increase the gains required for the executive to post a profit. Other comapanies are granting stock options to their field personnel, or are granting stock to all employees. Directors are playing an increasing role in executive compensation. 4 tabs.

  7. Strategies used during a challenging weighted walking task in healthy adults and individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinski, Andrew J; Higginson, Jill S

    2012-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that affects millions of people. While numerous gait differences have been identified between healthy adults and adults with knee OA under normal and challenging conditions, adults with knee OA have not been studied during a challenging weighted walking task. Investigation of the effect of weighted walking on the initial contact and loading response phases of gait was undertaken in 20 healthy and 20 knee OA subjects ages 40-85 years old walking at 1.0m/s while unweighted and weighted with 1/6th of their body weight in a weight vest. Subjects were grouped according to their Kellgren and Lawrence radiographic score and healthy subjects were age-matched to those with knee OA. ANOVA revealed significant effects for hip flexion angle at initial contact, step length, initial double support percent, and load rate. Post hoc t-tests revealed that subjects with knee OA had a larger initial double support percent and hip flexion angle at initial contact and a decreased load rate compared to unweighted, healthy adults. Also, both groups increased their initial double support percent in response to the challenging weighted walking task, but only the healthy adults increased their hip flexion angle at initial contact and decreased their load rate. During the weighted condition, the knee OA group had a shorter step length compared to the healthy group. Because the knee OA group only made minor compensations to their gait strategy, it appears that they may be unable or prefer not to adjust their gait mechanics due to underlying issues.

  8. Individual Movement Strategies Revealed through Novel Clustering of Emergent Movement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Denis; Cvetojevic, Sreten; Robertson, Ellen P.; Reichert, Brian E.; Hochmair, Hartwig H.; Fletcher, Robert J.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding movement is critical in several disciplines but analysis methods often neglect key information by adopting each location as sampling unit, rather than each individual. We introduce a novel statistical method that, by focusing on individuals, enables better identification of temporal dynamics of connectivity, traits of individuals that explain emergent movement patterns, and sites that play a critical role in connecting subpopulations. We apply this method to two examples that span movement networks that vary considerably in size and questions: movements of an endangered raptor, the snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus), and human movement in Florida inferred from Twitter. For snail kites, our method reveals substantial differences in movement strategies for different bird cohorts and temporal changes in connectivity driven by the invasion of an exotic food resource, illustrating the challenge of identifying critical connectivity sites for conservation in the presence of global change. For human movement, our method is able to reliably determine the origin of Florida visitors and identify distinct movement patterns within Florida for visitors from different places, providing near real-time information on the spatial and temporal patterns of tourists. These results emphasize the need to integrate individual variation to generate new insights when modeling movement data.

  9. Communicative Strategies Used by Spouses of Individuals with Communication Disorders Related to Stroke-Induced Aphasia and Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    Background: A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative…

  10. Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats as a Tool for Translating Evidence into Individualized Medical Strategies (I-SWOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Bernhardt, Alexander M; Robinson, Peter N; Kölbel, Tilo; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Debus, Sebastian; Detter, Christian

    2015-06-01

    It is the physicians' task to translate evidence and guidelines into medical strategies for individual patients. Until today, however, there is no formal tool that is instrumental to perform this translation. We introduce the analysis of strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) related to therapy with opportunities (O) and threats (T) related to individual patients as a tool to establish an individualized (I) medical strategy (I-SWOT). The I-SWOT matrix identifies four fundamental types of strategy. These comprise "SO" maximizing strengths and opportunities, "WT" minimizing weaknesses and threats, "WO" minimizing weaknesses and maximizing opportunities, and "ST" maximizing strengths and minimizing threats. Each distinct type of strategy may be considered for individualized medical strategies. We describe four steps of I-SWOT to establish an individualized medical strategy to treat aortic disease. In the first step, we define the goal of therapy and identify all evidence-based therapeutic options. In a second step, we assess strengths and weaknesses of each therapeutic option in a SW matrix form. In a third step, we assess opportunities and threats related to the individual patient, and in a final step, we use the I-SWOT matrix to establish an individualized medical strategy through matching "SW" with "OT". As an example we present two 30-year-old patients with Marfan syndrome with identical medical history and aortic pathology. As a result of I-SWOT analysis of their individual opportunities and threats, we identified two distinct medical strategies in these patients. I-SWOT is a formal but easy to use tool to translate medical evidence into individualized medical strategies.

  11. Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats as a Tool for Translating Evidence into Individualized Medical Strategies (I-SWOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Bernhardt, Alexander M.; Robinson, Peter N.; Kölbel, Tilo; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Debus, Sebastian; Detter, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background It is the physicians’ task to translate evidence and guidelines into medical strategies for individual patients. Until today, however, there is no formal tool that is instrumental to perform this translation. Methods We introduce the analysis of strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) related to therapy with opportunities (O) and threats (T) related to individual patients as a tool to establish an individualized (I) medical strategy (I-SWOT). The I-SWOT matrix identifies four fundamental types of strategy. These comprise “SO” maximizing strengths and opportunities, “WT” minimizing weaknesses and threats, “WO” minimizing weaknesses and maximizing opportunities, and “ST” maximizing strengths and minimizing threats. Each distinct type of strategy may be considered for individualized medical strategies. Results We describe four steps of I-SWOT to establish an individualized medical strategy to treat aortic disease. In the first step, we define the goal of therapy and identify all evidence-based therapeutic options. In a second step, we assess strengths and weaknesses of each therapeutic option in a SW matrix form. In a third step, we assess opportunities and threats related to the individual patient, and in a final step, we use the I-SWOT matrix to establish an individualized medical strategy through matching “SW” with “OT”. As an example we present two 30-year-old patients with Marfan syndrome with identical medical history and aortic pathology. As a result of I-SWOT analysis of their individual opportunities and threats, we identified two distinct medical strategies in these patients. Conclusion I-SWOT is a formal but easy to use tool to translate medical evidence into individualized medical strategies. PMID:27069939

  12. A novel strategy for clustering major depression individuals using whole-genome sequencing variant data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenglong; Baune, Bernhard T.; Licinio, Julio; Wong, Ma-Li

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent, resulting in an exceedingly high disease burden. The identification of generic risk factors could lead to advance prevention and therapeutics. Current approaches examine genotyping data to identify specific variations between cases and controls. Compared to genotyping, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) allows for the detection of private mutations. In this proof-of-concept study, we establish a conceptually novel computational approach that clusters subjects based on the entirety of their WGS. Those clusters predicted MDD diagnosis. This strategy yielded encouraging results, showing that depressed Mexican-American participants were grouped closer; in contrast ethnically-matched controls grouped away from MDD patients. This implies that within the same ancestry, the WGS data of an individual can be used to check whether this individual is within or closer to MDD subjects or to controls. We propose a novel strategy to apply WGS data to clinical medicine by facilitating diagnosis through genetic clustering. Further studies utilising our method should examine larger WGS datasets on other ethnical groups. PMID:28287625

  13. Advanced-stage III/IV follicular lymphoma. Treatment strategies for individual patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, Frank; Bamberg, Michael; Weinmann, Martin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Ottinger, Hellmut [Dept. of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Engelhard, Marianne [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Soekler, Martin [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Background: in patients with advanced-stage III/IV follicular lymphoma (FL), there are many treatment options available. The current challenge is to choose the optimal strategy for the individual patient. Methods: the literature was reviewed with respect to treatment strategies in patients with advanced FL by screening the PubMed databank. Results: in advanced-stage III/IV FL, median survival may approach 8-10 years. Treatment strategies include a watch-and-wait strategy, chemoimmunotherapy, monotherapy with rituximab, and - as an experimental approach so far - radioimmunotherapy. The use of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for patients in first remission or chemosensitive relapse prolongs progression-free survival while the effect on overall survival remains unclear compared to standard chemotherapy. However, long-term results are flawed by high relapse rates and risk of secondary malignancies. In patients with relapsed/chemoresistant disease, allogeneic HSCT constitutes the only curative approach but is associated with high treatment-related mortality. In the palliative setting, low-dose involved-field irradiation constitutes an effective treatment option in order to control local symptoms with potential long-lasting response. Conclusion: in case of advanced-disease FL, asymptomatic patients can be managed expectantly. In symptomatic patients, chemoimmunotherapy is regarded as standard therapy. In symptomatic elderly patients with relevant comorbidities, rituximab {+-} single-agent chemotherapy, or low-dose involved-field radiotherapy might be appropriate. For younger patients with chemoresistant/relapsed disease, allogeneic HSCT might be considered, since advances in supportive care and better patient selection have resulted in improved outcomes. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of retinal sensitivity using a time-saving strategy in normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzumura H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hirotaka Suzumura,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Ryoko Hyodo,4 Tairo Kimura5 1Eye Department, Nakano General Hospital, Tokyo, 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University, Ehime, 4Eye Department, Minami Matsuyama Hospital, Ehime, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare retinal sensitivities in normal individuals obtained using the Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm Standard (SITA-S on the Humphrey field analyzer with those obtained using the Dynamic strategy on the Octopus.Methods: Prior to visual field examinations, the background luminance, stimulus size, and exposure time with the Octopus 101 were conformed to the Humphrey field analyzer II settings. Volunteers over 20 years of age without apparent ophthalmic abnormalities were examined with the SITA-S central 30-2 program followed by the Dynamic 32 program. Eye with corrected visual acuity ≥0.8, refraction ≥ −6.0 diopters, and fields with satisfactory levels of reliability in SITA-S and Dynamic were selected.Results: Sixty-seven eyes from 67 normal individuals of mean age 51.3 ± 16.3 (range 22–76 years satisfied the selection criteria and were analyzed. Mean retinal sensitivity was significantly (P < 0.0001 higher with SITA-S (29.0 ± 2.4 dB than with Dynamic (26.8 ± 2.1 dB. Changes in retinal sensitivity with increasing age were significantly (P = 0.0003 greater with Dynamic (−0.09 ± 0.04 dB/year; 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.10 to −0.08 dB/year than with SITA-S (−0.07 ± 0.04 dB/year, 95% CI −0.08 to −0.06 dB/year. When classifying the visual field into three areas (central, mid-peripheral, and peripheral, retinal sensitivities with SITA-S were significantly higher in all areas than with Dynamic (P < 0.0001 for all three areas.Conclusion: Differences in Dynamic and SITA-S strategies may contribute to the differences in retinal sensitivities observed in normal individuals

  15. OTTO: a new strategy to extract mental disease-relevant combinations of GWAS hits from individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, H; Mitjans, M; Van der Auwera, S; Centeno, T P; Begemann, M; Grabe, H J; Bonn, S; Nave, K-A

    2016-12-06

    Despite high heritability of schizophrenia, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet revealed distinct combinations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), relevant for mental disease-related, quantifiable behavioral phenotypes. Here we propose an individual-based model to use genome-wide significant markers for extracting first genetic signatures of such behavioral continua. 'OTTO' (old Germanic=heritage) marks an individual characterized by a prominent phenotype and a particular load of phenotype-associated risk SNPs derived from GWAS that likely contributed to the development of his personal mental illness. This load of risk SNPs is shared by a small squad of 'similars' scattered under the genetically and phenotypically extremely heterogeneous umbrella of a schizophrenia end point diagnosis and to a variable degree also by healthy subjects. In a discovery sample of >1000 deeply phenotyped schizophrenia patients and several independent replication samples, including the general population, a gradual increase in the severity of 'OTTO's phenotype' expression is observed with an increasing share of 'OTTO's risk SNPs', as exemplified here by autistic and affective phenotypes. These data suggest a model in which the genetic contribution to dimensional behavioral traits can be extracted from combinations of GWAS SNPs derived from individuals with prominent phenotypes. Even though still in the 'model phase' owing to a world-wide lack of sufficiently powered, deeply phenotyped replication samples, the OTTO approach constitutes a conceptually novel strategy to delineate biological subcategories of mental diseases starting from GWAS findings and individual subjects.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 6 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.208.

  16. A Participative and Individualized Laboratory: A Strategy for Increasing Student Success in College-Level Math Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Clarke, Jose Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This research was carried out within a qualitative research paradigm. The objective was to observe, analyze and enrich pedagogical practice through the use of pedagogical learning strategies. The learning strategy was a participative and individualized lab carried out during a research project in a non-Traditional Laboratory (LnT). The primary aim…

  17. Motivation and strategy use in science: Individual differences and classroom effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Young, Allison J.

    This study examines individual and classroom-level differences in motivation and strategy usage in sixth- and seventh-grade middle school science. Results suggest that students who experience academic difficulties differ from both high achieving and special education students on measures of self-efficacy, goal orientation, expectancy, value, and self-concept of ability in science, with students who experience academic difficulties occasionally demonstrating less adaptive patterns of motivation and cognition than special education students in science. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine between-classroom differences in learning-focused goal orientation. Findings indicate that students who have science teachers that use ability-focused instructional practices (e.g., pointing out the best students as an example to others) are less learning focused, and exhibit a diminished relation between self-concept of ability and being learning focused in science. Implications for science education reform are discussed.Received: 13 September 1993; Revised: 28 March 1994;

  18. Questioning Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Transparent management and open information needed for the fund set up to compensate victims of the 2008 Sanlu milk scandal Almost three years after the Sanlu milk scandal that caused thousands of infants in China to develop urinary disease after drinking melamine

  19. Tissue-specific strategies of the very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient (VLCAD-/- mouse to compensate a defective fatty acid β-oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tucci

    Full Text Available Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD-deficiency is the most common long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder presenting with heterogeneous phenotypes. Similar to many patients with VLCADD, VLCAD-deficient mice (VLCAD(-/- remain asymptomatic over a long period of time. In order to identify the involved compensatory mechanisms, wild-type and VLCAD(-/- mice were fed one year either with a normal diet or with a diet in which medium-chain triglycerides (MCT replaced long-chain triglycerides, as approved intervention in VLCADD. The expression of the mitochondrial long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD was quantified at mRNA and protein level in heart, liver and skeletal muscle. The oxidation capacity of the different tissues was measured by LC-MS/MS using acyl-CoA substrates with a chain length of 8 to 20 carbons. Moreover, in white skeletal muscle the role of glycolysis and concomitant muscle fibre adaptation was investigated. In one year old VLCAD(-/- mice MCAD and LCAD play an important role in order to compensate deficiency of VLCAD especially in the heart and in the liver. However, the white gastrocnemius muscle develops alternative compensatory mechanism based on a different substrate selection and increased glucose oxidation. Finally, the application of an MCT diet over one year has no effects on LCAD or MCAD expression. MCT results in the VLCAD(-/- mice only in a very modest improvement of medium-chain acyl-CoA oxidation capacity restricted to cardiac tissue. In conclusion, VLCAD(-/- mice develop tissue-specific strategies to compensate deficiency of VLCAD either by induction of other mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenases or by enhancement of glucose oxidation. In the muscle, there is evidence of a muscle fibre type adaptation with a predominance of glycolytic muscle fibres. Dietary modification as represented by an MCT-diet does not improve these strategies long-term.

  20. Social dilemmas and individual/group coordination strategies in a complex rural land-use game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis García-Barrios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening ongoing bottom-up capacity building processes for local and sustainable landscape-level governance is a multi-dimensional social endeavor. One of the tasks involved – participatory rural land use planning – requires more understanding and more awareness among all stakeholders regarding the social dilemmas local people confront when responding to each other’s land-use decisions. In this paper we will analyze and discuss a version of our game SIERRA SPRINGS that is simple to play for any stakeholder that can count to 24, yet entails a complex-coordination land use game – with an extensive and yet finite set of solutions – which can mimic in a stylized form some of the dilemmas landowners could confront in a landscape planning process where there livelihoods are at stake. The game has helped researchers and players observe and reflect on the individual coordination strategies that emerge within a group in response to these stylized dilemmas. This paper (1 develops a game-theoretical approach to cooperation, competition and coordination of land uses in small rural watersheds, (2 describe the goal, rules and mechanics of the game, (3 analyzes the structure of each farms’ solution set vs. the whole watershed’s solution set, (4 derives from them the coordination dilemmas and the risk of coordination failure, (5 describes four individual coordination strategies consistently displayed by players; mapping them in a plane we have called Group-Level Coordination Space, and (6 discusses the strengths, limitations and actual and potential uses of the game both for research and as an introductory tool for stakeholders involved in participatory land use planning.

  1. Autoregressive spatial analysis and individual tree modeling as strategies for the management of Eremanthus erythropappus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henrique Ferraco Scolforo; Jose Roberto Soares Scolforo; Jose Marcio de Mello; Antonio Carlos Ferraz Filho; Diogo Francisco Rossoni; Thiza Falqueto Altoe; Antonio Donizette Oliveira; Renato Ribeiro de Lima

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to apply statistical techniques to discriminate fertilization treat-ments of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC.) MacLeish. through autoregressive modeling, and to develop individual tree models for diameter and crown area (CA) projection to define management strategies for candeia plantations sub-jected to different fertilization treatments. This is an important tree species originating from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest and Savannah biomes, intensively used in the cosmetic industry. Nonetheless, to date, research has not addressed the management of natural stands or plan-tations of the species. Our experiment was located in Baependi, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and comprised of four randomized blocks and 13 treatments. The treatments consisted of 12 different regimes of fertilization plus a control. Each sample plot was composed of 50 plants plus two border plants in a planting spacing of 2.5 9 2.0 m and undergoing pruning at 5 and 6 years of age. Starting in the second year, total tree height (H) and circumference (at 1.30 m from the ground or breast height, CBH) were measured every 6 months. Starting in the fifth year CA was measured. Tree growth varied by fertilization strategy. Differences were detected by using an autoregressive approach, considering that standard statistical methods were not powerful enough to detect significant differences. Three growth groups were formed, and maximum growth was obtained for treatment 10 (NPK, 8-28-16). Manage-ment guidelines are provided based on individual tree models for different fertilization levels.

  2. A systemic framework for managing e-learning adoption in campus universities: individual strategies in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Russell

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are hopes that new learning technologies will help to transform university learning and teaching into a more engaging experience for twenty-first-century students. But since 2000 the changes in campus university teaching have been more limited than expected. I have drawn on ideas from organisational change management research to investigate why this is happening in one particular campus university context. My study examines the strategies of individual lecturers for adopting e-learning within their disciplinary, departmental and university work environments to develop a conceptual framework for analysing university learning and teaching as a complex adaptive system. This conceptual framework links the processes through which university teaching changes, the resulting forms of learning activity and the learning technologies used – all within the organisational context of the university. The framework suggests that systemic transformation of a university's learning and teaching requires coordinated change across activities that have traditionally been managed separately in campus universities. Without such coordination, established ways of organising learning and teaching will reassert themselves, as support staff and lecturers seek to optimise their own work locally. The conceptual framework could inform strategies for realising the full benefits of new learning technologies in other campus universities.

  3. Social Insurance and Truncated Benefits: Measuring the Impacts of Workers' Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Samuel K.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the indirect impacts of state-mandated workers' compensation benefits on workers' wages. The benefit structure of workers' compensation causes a fundamental estimation problem. I develop a new strategy to limit the biases inherent in earlier models. I utilize individual-level census data (between 1940 and 1990) to exploit benefit variation that occurs both across states and within the fifty states over time. The results suggest that wage offsets are not constant across ti...

  4. Strategies to improve HIV treatment adherence in developed countries: clinical management at the individual level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriquez M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Maithe Enriquez¹, David S McKinsey²¹School of Nursing, University of Missouri-Kansas City and Division of Infectious Diseases, Truman Medical Center Hospital Hill, ²School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Kansas and Division of Infectious Diseases, Research Medical Center, Kansas City, MO, USAAbstract: Remarkable advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease have been blunted by widespread suboptimal adherence (ie, nonadherence, which has emerged as a major barrier to achieving the primary goal of antiretroviral (ARV therapy: suppression of HIV viral load. Nonsuppressed HIV viral load is associated with drug resistance, increased morbidity and mortality, and a higher risk of person-to-person HIV transmission. For HIV-infected individuals who are failing HIV treatment due to nonadherence, becoming adherent is a life-saving behavior change. However, overcoming nonadherence is one of the most daunting challenges in the successful management of HIV disease. The purpose of this paper is to provide clinicians with a better understanding of nonadherence to ARV treatment and to review the various factors that have been associated with either adherence or nonadherence. Strategies are presented that may help the nonadherent individual become ready to take HIV medications as prescribed.Keywords: noncompliance, treatment failure, AIDS

  5. Optimization of a motor learning attention-directing strategy based on an individual's motor imagery ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Takeshi; Hirai, Masahiro; Watanabe, Eiju

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning performance has been shown to be affected by various cognitive factors such as the focus of attention and motor imagery ability. Most previous studies on motor learning have shown that directing the attention of participants externally, such as on the outcome of an assigned body movement, can be more effective than directing their attention internally, such as on body movement itself. However, to the best of our knowledge, no findings have been reported on the effect of the focus of attention selected according to the motor imagery ability of an individual on motor learning performance. We measured individual motor imagery ability assessed by the Movement Imagery Questionnaire and classified the participants into kinesthetic-dominant (n = 12) and visual-dominant (n = 8) groups based on the questionnaire score. Subsequently, the participants performed a motor learning task such as tracing a trajectory using visuomotor rotation. When the participants were required to direct their attention internally, the after-effects of the learning task in the kinesthetic-dominant group were significantly greater than those in the visual-dominant group. Conversely, when the participants were required to direct their attention externally, the after-effects of the visual-dominant group were significantly greater than those of the kinesthetic-dominant group. Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation between the size of after-effects and the modality-dominance of motor imagery. These results suggest that a suitable attention strategy based on the intrinsic motor imagery ability of an individual can improve performance during motor learning tasks.

  6. 广告翻译中的文化缺省及补偿策略探析%Analysis of cultural default and compensation strategies in advertising translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶晶; 朱立华

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of intercultural communication, advertising translation is not only the conversion of the language symbol, but also the collision between different cultures. In this paper, through the analysis of typical examples of advertisement translation, to analyze the cultural default phenomena and related compensation strategies, in order to maximize cross cultural barriers in the translation of advertisements, so as to achieve successful communication.%作为一种跨文化交际活动,广告翻译不仅仅是语言符号的转换,更是不同文化之间的碰撞。本文通过分析典型的广告翻译实例,探讨其中的文化缺省现象及相关补偿策略,以期能够最大限度地跨越广告翻译中的文化障碍,从而获得交际的成功。

  7. Novice medical students: individual patterns in the use of learning strategies and how they change during the first academic year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, Götz; Giesler, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Adequate use of different learning strategies is one of the most important prerequisites of academic success. The actual use of learning strategies is the result of an interaction between individual and situational variables. Against this background we conducted a longitudinal study with first year medical students to investigate whether individuals show different patterns in their use of learning strategies and whether these patterns change during the first academic year. Medical students (N=175, 58% female) were surveyed three times in their first academic year regarding their use of learning strategies. A hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward) was conducted in order to identify groups of students with different patterns of learning strategies. We identified four different patterns in approaches to learning among novice medical students ("easy-going", "flexible", "problematic" and "hardworking" learners). Compared to their peers, the problematic learners had the worst final school grades. In addition changes in the use of learning strategies were identified, most of them occurred during the first term. Students start their academic studies with different patterns of learning strategies; the characteristics of these patterns change during the first academic year. Further research is necessary to better understand how individual and situational variables determine students' learning.

  8. 基于投切门限值的无功补偿控制策略研究%Study on control strategy for var compensation based on capacitor-switching threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王腾飞

    2015-01-01

    Thyristor switched capacitor (TSC) is used more and more widely in var compensation device in our country, the control strategy of nine-zone diagram is often used, the strategy will produce "switching oscillation" phenomenon in some control areas. Therefore, this paper proposes a control strategy based on the capacitor-switching threshold, in order to test the feasibility of the strategy, simulation model based on the strategy for TSC var compensation is created, the results show that this strategy can not only overcome strategy of nine-zone diagram, but also can improve the response speed and precision accuracy of capacitor-switching, and can completely meet the requirements of control strategy for var compensation.%晶闸管投切电容器(TSC)是我国目前较为常用的无功补偿装置,其控制规则往往采用九域图控制,该策略在某些控制区域会产生“投切振荡”的现象。为此,本文提出了一种基于投切门限值的控制策略,为了检验所提出控制策略的可行性,建立了基于该策略的TSC无功补偿仿真模型,仿真结果表明该策略不仅能够克服九域图控制的不足,而且可以提高电容器组投切的响应速度和无功补偿精度,完全能满足无功补偿控制装置的策略需要。

  9. Giving structure to the biofilm matrix: an overview of individual strategies and emerging common themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, Laura; Harkins, Catriona; MacPhee, Cait E; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are communities of microbial cells that underpin diverse processes including sewage bioremediation, plant growth promotion, chronic infections and industrial biofouling. The cells resident in the biofilm are encased within a self-produced exopolymeric matrix that commonly comprises lipids, proteins that frequently exhibit amyloid-like properties, eDNA and exopolysaccharides. This matrix fulfils a variety of functions for the community, from providing structural rigidity and protection from the external environment to controlling gene regulation and nutrient adsorption. Critical to the development of novel strategies to control biofilm infections, or the capability to capitalize on the power of biofilm formation for industrial and biotechnological uses, is an in-depth knowledge of the biofilm matrix. This is with respect to the structure of the individual components, the nature of the interactions between the molecules and the three-dimensional spatial organization. We highlight recent advances in the understanding of the structural and functional role that carbohydrates and proteins play within the biofilm matrix to provide three-dimensional architectural integrity and functionality to the biofilm community. We highlight, where relevant, experimental techniques that are allowing the boundaries of our understanding of the biofilm matrix to be extended using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, and Bacillus subtilis as exemplars. © FEMS 2015.

  10. Coping strategies in individuals at risk and not at risk of mobile phone addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziurzyńska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide an answer to the question of whether, and what, differences in stress coping strategies could be found between university students at risk and those not at risk of mobile phone addiction. The study included 408 students aged 19 to 28 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mobile Phone Addiction Assessment Questionnaire (in Polish, Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Telefonu Komórkowego, KBUTK by Pawłowska and Potembska, and the Coping with Stress Questionnaire (SVF by Janke, Erdmann, and Boucsein, translated into Polish by Januszewska. The results of the study showed that individuals at risk of mobile phone addiction were more likely to cope with stress by seeking substitute gratification, reacting with resignation, passivity, dejection and hopelessness, blaming themselves, pitying themselves and looking for support. They also tended to ruminate over their suffering, withdraw from social interactions, react with aggression and/or take to drinking.

  11. Disclosure Management on Social Network Sites: Individual Privacy Perceptions and User-Directed Privacy Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp K. Masur

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The social web and specifically social network sites (SNS have offered new opportunities for interaction and communication, but have also increased the risk of privacy violations. In this study, we investigated how far users imply different disclosure management strategies in status updates and chat conversations. We hypothesized that users perceive specific information as differently private depending on their personal privacy preference, but generally show the same disclosure management pattern: the higher the perceived privacy level of an information, the less frequently it will be shared. We tested the hypothesis using an online survey with 316 German SNS users. The findings suggest that respondents engaged in disclosure management taking both communication channel and type of information into account. We further found that trust toward SNS contacts and use of privacy settings significantly influenced disclosure management in one-to-many (status updates but not in one-to-one communications situations (chat conversations. The results complement existing research by showing the pivotal role of individual privacy perceptions in explaining users’ privacy management in the social web.

  12. Surgeon compensation and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, K K; Walker, P M

    2000-06-01

    Financial incentives are the only form of compensation that will motivate surgeons at an academic health sciences center to perform the tasks outlined in the hospital's mission statement. A questionnaire divided into 5 sections: demographics, compensation, time allocation, benefits and incentives, and motivational factors. The Department of Surgery, The Toronto Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. All academic surgeons (N=64) practicing at The Toronto Hospital in July 1997. Of the 64 eligible mailed surveys, there were responses for 59. Of these 59 surgeons, 48 (81%) receive compensation through a fee-for-service method. However, only 32 (54%) of the surgeons prefer the fee-for-service method, while 18 (31%) prefer salary and 9 (15%) prefer an alternative system. On average, these academic surgeons spend 44% of their time teaching or performing research, for which they receive 14% of their total income. Of the motivational factors assessed, financial bonuses are a positive motivational factor for all "surgeon tasks." In addition, task-specific motivational factors were established for research, teaching, and operating, including research facilities, mentorship and prestige, and interesting case types, respectively. Surgeons are not appropriately renumerated for time spent on academic activities, and many would prefer an alternative form of compensation to the fee-for-service method. Knowledge that surgeons are receptive to tasks supporting the hospital's mission statement leads us to conclude that appropriate motivation can shape the activity of academic surgeons. Financial rewards ranked the highest as a motivational factor for all surgeon tasks; however, task-specific motivational factors were identified. Overall, multiple factors, specifically targeted to the individual, will serve to motivate. Thus, compensation packages based on individual preferences and personal motivational factors will be the most successful.

  13. Individualized surgical strategies for Rathke cleft cyst based on cyst location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Peng, Yuping; Qi, Songtao; Zhang, Xi-an; Qiu, Binghui; Pan, Jun

    2013-12-01

    An assessment regarding both surgical approaches and the extent of resection for Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs) based on their locations has not been reported. The aim of this study was to report the results of a large series of surgically treated patients with RCCs and to evaluate the feasibility of individualized surgical strategies for different RCCs. We retrospectively reviewed 87 cases involving patients with RCCs (16 intrasellar, 50 intra- and suprasellar, and 21 purely suprasellar lesions). Forty-nine patients were treated via a transsphenoidal (TS) approach, and 38 were treated via a transcranial (TC) approach (traditional craniotomy in 21 cases and supraorbital keyhole craniotomy in 17). The extent of resection was classified as gross-total resection (GTR) or subtotal resection (STR) of the cyst wall. Patients were thus divided into 3 groups according to the approach selected and the extent of resection: TS/STR (n = 49), TC/STR (n = 23), and TC/GTR (n = 15). Preoperative headaches, visual dysfunction, hypopituitarism, and diabetes insipidus (DI) resolved in 85%, 95%, 55%, and 65% of patients, respectively. These rates did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. Overall, complications occurred in 8% of patients in TS/STR group, 9% in TC/STR group, and 47% in TC/GTR group, respectively (p = 0.002). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage (3%), new hypopituitarism (9%), and DI (6%) were observed after surgery. All CSF leaks occurred in the endonasal group, while the TC/GTR group showed a higher rate of postoperative hypopituitarism (p = 0.7 and p strategies for RCCs based on cyst location. Gross-total resection does not appear to reduce the recurrence rate but increase the risk of postoperative complications. The endonasal approach seems more appropriate for primarily intrasellar RCCs, while the craniotomy is recommended for purely or mainly suprasellar cysts. The supraorbital route appears to be preferred over traditional craniotomy for its minimal invasiveness

  14. Long-term species, sexual and individual variations in foraging strategies of fur seals revealed by stable isotopes in whiskers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Kernaléguen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual variations in the use of the species niche are an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. A challenge in testing consistency of individual foraging strategy is the repeated collection of information on the same individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The foraging strategies of sympatric fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis were examined using the stable isotope signature of serially sampled whiskers. Most whiskers exhibited synchronous δ(13C and δ(15N oscillations that correspond to the seal annual movements over the long term (up to 8 years. δ(13C and δ(15N values were spread over large ranges, with differences between species, sexes and individuals. The main segregating mechanism operates at the spatial scale. Most seals favored foraging in subantarctic waters (where the Crozet Islands are located where they fed on myctophids. However, A. gazella dispersed in the Antarctic Zone and A. tropicalis more in the subtropics. Gender differences in annual time budget shape the seal movements. Males that do not perform any parental care exhibited large isotopic oscillations reflecting broad annual migrations, while isotopic values of females confined to a limited foraging range during lactation exhibited smaller changes. Limited inter-individual isotopic variations occurred in female seals and in male A. tropicalis. In contrast, male A. gazella showed large inter-individual variations, with some males migrating repeatedly to high-Antarctic waters where they fed on krill, thus meaning that individual specialization occurred over years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Whisker isotopic signature yields unique long-term information on individual behaviour that integrates the spatial, trophic and temporal dimensions of the ecological niche. The method allows depicting the entire realized niche of the species, including some of its less well-known components such as age-, sex-, individual- and

  15. Long-Term Species, Sexual and Individual Variations in Foraging Strategies of Fur Seals Revealed by Stable Isotopes in Whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cazelles, Bernard; Arnould, John P. Y.; Richard, Pierre; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variations in the use of the species niche are an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. A challenge in testing consistency of individual foraging strategy is the repeated collection of information on the same individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings The foraging strategies of sympatric fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis) were examined using the stable isotope signature of serially sampled whiskers. Most whiskers exhibited synchronous δ13C and δ15N oscillations that correspond to the seal annual movements over the long term (up to 8 years). δ13C and δ15N values were spread over large ranges, with differences between species, sexes and individuals. The main segregating mechanism operates at the spatial scale. Most seals favored foraging in subantarctic waters (where the Crozet Islands are located) where they fed on myctophids. However, A. gazella dispersed in the Antarctic Zone and A. tropicalis more in the subtropics. Gender differences in annual time budget shape the seal movements. Males that do not perform any parental care exhibited large isotopic oscillations reflecting broad annual migrations, while isotopic values of females confined to a limited foraging range during lactation exhibited smaller changes. Limited inter-individual isotopic variations occurred in female seals and in male A. tropicalis. In contrast, male A. gazella showed large inter-individual variations, with some males migrating repeatedly to high-Antarctic waters where they fed on krill, thus meaning that individual specialization occurred over years. Conclusions/Significance Whisker isotopic signature yields unique long-term information on individual behaviour that integrates the spatial, trophic and temporal dimensions of the ecological niche. The method allows depicting the entire realized niche of the species, including some of its less well-known components such as age-, sex-, individual- and migration-related changes. It

  16. Cultivating entrepreneurial spirit : on how institutional environments influence individual decision-making : implications for developing effective innovation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellsen, Karina Birkeland

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is a presentation of research on how entrepreneurship happens. The connection between individuals and surroundings is under close scrutiny. It is argued that institutional systems exert important influence on individuals’ willingness to engage in entrepreneurial activity. Consequently, effective innovation strategies should include emphasis on creating milieus conducive of entrepreneurship. The choice structure people relate to has to be constructed favo...

  17. Decision-Making Models with Sets of Strategies for Applications to Individuals and Groups in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Wanda E.

    Three decision-making models that have applications for college presidents and administrators are reviewed. While both individual and group decision-making are addressed, emphasis is placed on the importance of group decisions on institutional policy planning. The model of Edmund M. Burke (1979) presents specific decision-making strategies in…

  18. Individual differences in the effects of emotion regulation strategies : The role of personality and trait affect intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, A.; Laceulle, O.; Hanser, W.E.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study examined if (1) emotion experience can be manipulated by applying an emotion regulation strategy (suppression, giving in, neutral) when listening to a well-known rock music fragment, and if (2) personality and trait affect intensity can predict individual differences in effec

  19. Ergonomic analysis of working postures using OWAS in semi-trailer assembly, applying an individual sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Christopher; Mertens, Alexander; Schlick, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    In semi-trailer assembly, workers are exposed to several physical risk factors. Awkward working postures have not yet been investigated in semi-trailer assembly, although they are known to be a major risk factor for musculoskeletal disorders. We therefore conducted a comprehensive ergonomic analysis of working postures using the Ovako working posture analysing system (OWAS), with an individual sampling strategy. The postural load in semi-trailer assembly was assessed on the basis of 20,601 observations of 63 workers executing a representative set of nine work tasks. According to the OWAS, the postural load of various working postures and body part positions may have a harmful effect on the musculoskeletal system. We therefore give examples of corrective measures that could improve awkward working postures. Applying an individual sampling strategy was revealed to have advantages over a collective strategy, so this is recommended for future ergonomic analyses.

  20. When larger brains do not have more neurons: increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Messeder, Débora J.; Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Pantoja, Nilma A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease. PMID:26082686

  1. When larger brains do not have more neurons: increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Messeder, Débora J; Fonseca-Azevedo, Karina; Pantoja, Nilma A

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease.

  2. When larger brains do not have more neurons: Increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease.

  3. A descriptive report of management strategies used by chiropractors, as reviewed by a single independent chiropractic consultant in the Australian workers compensation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luca Katie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In New South Wales, Australia, an injured worker enters the workers compensation system with the case often managed by a pre-determined insurer. The goal of the treating practitioner is to facilitate the claimant to return to suitable duties and progress to their pre-injury status, job and quality of life. Currently, there is very little documentation on the management of injured workers by chiropractors in the Australian healthcare setting. This study aims to examine treatment protocols and recommendations given to chiropractic practitioners by one independent chiropractic reviewer in the state of New South Wales, and to discuss management strategies recommended for the injured worker. Methods A total of 146 consecutive Independent Chiropractic Consultant reports were collated into a database. Pain information and management recommendations made by the Independent Chiropractic Consultant were tabulated and analysed for trends. The data formulated from the reports is purely descriptive in nature. Results The Independent Chiropractic Consultant determined the current treatment plan to be "reasonable" (80.1% or "unreasonable" (23.6%. The consultant recommended to "phase out" treatment in 74.6% of cases, with an average of six remaining treatments. In eight cases treatment was unreasonable with no further treatment; in five cases treatment was reasonable with no further treatment. In 78.6% of cases, injured workers were to be discharged from treatment and 21.4% were to be reassessed for the need of a further treatment plan. Additional recommendations for treatment included an active care program (95.2%, general fitness program (77.4%, flexibility/range of movement exercises (54.1%, referral to a chronic pain specialist (50.7% and work hardening program (22.6%. Conclusion It is essential chiropractic practitioners perform 'reasonably necessary treatment' to reduce dependency on passive treatment, increase compliance to active

  4. Polystyrene microspheres enable 10‐color compensation for immunophenotyping of primary human leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Karen D.; Norman, John C.; Huye, Leslie; Hegde, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compensation is a critical process for the unbiased analysis of flow cytometry data. Numerous compensation strategies exist, including the use of bead‐based products. The purpose of this study was to determine whether beads, specifically polystyrene microspheres (PSMS) compare to the use of primary leukocytes for single color based compensation when conducting polychromatic flow cytometry. To do so, we stained individual tubes of both PSMS and leukocytes with panel specific antibodies conjugated to fluorochromes corresponding to fluorescent channels FL1‐FL10. We compared the matrix generated by PSMS to that generated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Ideal for compensation is a sample with both a discrete negative population and a bright positive population. We demonstrate that PSMS display autofluorescence properties similar to PBMC. When comparing PSMS to PBMC for compensation PSMS yielded more evenly distributed and discrete negative and positive populations to use for compensation. We analyzed three donors' PBMC stained with our 10‐color T cell subpopulation panel using compensation generated by PSMS vs.PBMC and detected no significant differences in the population distribution. Panel specific antibodies bound to PSMS represent an invaluable valid tool to generate suitable compensation matrices especially when sample material is limited and/or the sample requires analysis of dynamically modulated or rare events. © 2015 The Authors. Cytometry Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26202733

  5. Causes of work-related stress and individual strategies in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa

    – it can be both exciting and stressful. With regard to causes, it is evident that the strains of knowledge work are often caused by the organization and management of the knowledge worker. Autonomy and individualized responsibility causes both a formal and informal transfer of responsibility...... to the individual for his or her working life. Self-managed knowledge workers thus experience that they stand alone when it comes to work-related problems and stress. The stress intervention applied is characteristically short-term and focused on the individual. The individual perspective consequently affects...

  6. The Effectiveness of Group Training of Procedural Emotion Regulation Strategies in Cognitive Coping of Individuals Suffering Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali ghaedniay jahromi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies in cognitive coping of individuals suffering substance abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pretest-posttest and control group was used for this study. Then, 16 patients suffering substance abuse were selected through convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to two control and experimental groups. The experimental group received 10 sessions of group training of procedural emotion regulation strategies while the control group received no treatment. Both groups before and after the treatment completed the Persian version of cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (Hasani, 2011. Results: The results showed that group training of e procedural motion regulation strategies leads to a reduction in maladaptive strategies such as self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, and other-blame and an increase in adaptive strategies such as refocus on planning, positive reappraisal, and perspective development. Conclusion: Training of procedural emotion regulation strategies via the reduction of maladaptive and increase of adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies can provide the opportunity for the improvement and non-return to substance abuse.

  7. Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yulong; Yu, Hongbo; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people's appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals' perception of others' as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflicted noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner gave money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bore the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner). Results showed that the individuals' preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing noise) affected their relationship (exchange versus communal) with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in general and showed no

  8. Evaluation of alternative PCB clean-up strategies using an individual-based population model of mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: Chris.salice@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79410 (United States); Sample, Bradley E., E-mail: bsample@ecorisk.com [Ecological Risk Inc., Rancho Murieta, CA 95683 (United States); Miller Neilan, Rachael; Rose, Kenneth A.; Sable, Shaye [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Energy, Coast and Environment Building, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Population models can be used to place observed toxic effects into an assessment of the impacts on population-level endpoints, which are generally considered to provide greater ecological insight and relevance. We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate the population-level effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the impact that different remediation strategies had on mink population endpoints (population size and extinction risk). Our simulations indicated that the initial population size had a strong impact on mink population dynamics. In addition, mink populations were extremely responsive to clean-up scenarios that were initiated soon after the contamination event. In fact, the rate of PCB clean-up did not have as strong a positive effect on mink as did the initiation of clean-up (start time). We show that population-level approaches can be used to understand adverse effects of contamination and to also explore the potential benefits of various remediation strategies. - Highlights: > We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate population-level impacts of PCB contamination. > The model was also used to explore the population responses to different PCB remediation strategies. > Population size had a large impact on whether mink populations persisted or went extinct. > Starting remediation sooner had a stronger positive effect on mink populations than did the rate of PCB clean-up. > Individual-based models are useful in understanding effects of contamination and different remediation strategies. - An individual-based model of mink showed strong population-level effects of PCB contamination and provided insight into optimal PCB remediation strategies.

  9. Sexual Abuse of Individuals with Disabilities: Prevention Strategies for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Adriana G.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse of individuals with disabilities occurs in alarming proportions, although the prevalence and incidence of such abuse is difficult to determine. Although all states maintain statistics on child sexual abuse, the rate of victimization for individuals with disabilities is not specific. This paper reviews several studies conducted on…

  10. Individuals with non-specific low back pain use a trunk stiffening strategy to maintain upright posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie L; Henry, Sharon M; Raasch, Christine C; Hitt, Juvena R; Bunn, Janice Y

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that individuals with non-specific low back pain (LBP) have altered movement coordination. However, the relationship of this neuromotor impairment to recurrent pain episodes is unknown. To assess coordination while minimizing the confounding influences of pain we characterized automatic postural responses to multi-directional support surface translations in individuals with a history of LBP who were not in an active episode of their pain. Twenty subjects with and 21 subjects without non-specific LBP stood on a platform that was translated unexpectedly in 12 directions. Net joint torques of the ankles, knees, hips, and trunk in the frontal and sagittal planes as well as surface electromyographs of 12 lower leg and trunk muscles were compared across perturbation directions to determine if individuals with LBP responded using a trunk stiffening strategy. Individuals with LBP demonstrated reduced peak trunk torques, and enhanced activation of the trunk and ankle muscle responses following perturbations. These results suggest that individuals with LBP use a strategy of trunk stiffening achieved through co-activation of trunk musculature, aided by enhanced distal responses, to respond to unexpected support surface perturbations. Notably, these neuromotor alterations persisted between active pain periods and could represent either movement patterns that have developed in response to pain or could reflect underlying impairments that may contribute to recurrent episodes of LBP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Individual differences in self-enhancement and self-protection strategies: an integrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepper, Erica G; Gramzow, Richard H; Sedikides, Constantine

    2010-04-01

    Research has identified a large number of strategies that people use to self-enhance or self-protect. We aimed for an empirical integration of these strategies. Two studies used self-report items to assess all commonly recognized self-enhancement or self-protection strategies. In Study 1 (N=345), exploratory factor analysis identified 4 reliable factors. In Study 2 (N=416), this model was validated using confirmatory factor analysis. The factors related differentially to the key personality variables of regulatory focus, self-esteem, and narcissism. Expanding this integrative approach in the future can reveal a great deal about the structure and dynamics of self-enhancement and self-protection motivation.

  12. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  13. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    OpenAIRE

    Matyugina, Eleonora Grigorievna; Glyzina, Tatiana Svyatoslavovna; Kolbysheva, Yuliya Vladimirovna; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; O. V. Vusovich

    2015-01-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  14. Language and Graffiti of Exceptional Individuals: Pedagogical Strategies IN West Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obiozor, Williams Emeka

    2008-01-01

    This paper establishes the place of language and graffiti practiced by exceptional individuals in the interpretation of family values, the preservation of culture and traditional heritage of the Igbo...

  15. Self-care management strategies among individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus: nursing interventions

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Caralise W HuntAuburn University School of Nursing, Auburn, AL, USAAbstract: Nurses provide care for individuals living with diabetes in a variety of areas. Nursing interventions assist individuals living with diabetes to manage diabetes and can positively affect outcomes. This article describes an integrated literature review conducted to evaluate and summarize nursing interventions and research in self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane databa...

  16. Barriers to the use of research-based instructional strategies: The influence of both individual and situational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Henderson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Many proven research-based instructional strategies have been developed for introductory college-level physics. Significant efforts to disseminate these strategies have focused on convincing individual instructors to give up their traditional practices in favor of particular research-based practices. Yet evidence suggests that the findings of educational research are, at best, only marginally incorporated into typical introductory physics courses. In this paper we present partial results of an interview study designed to generate new ideas about why proven strategies are slow to integrate in mainstream instruction. Specifically we describe the results of open-ended interviews with five physics instructors who represent likely users of educational research. We found that these instructors have conceptions about teaching and learning that are more compatible with educational research than with their self-described instructional practices. Instructors often blamed this discrepancy on situational factors that favor traditional instruction. A theoretical model is introduced to explain these findings.

  17. Sociocultural and Individual Influences on Muscle Gain and Weight Loss Strategies among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the role of body dissatisfaction, body image importance, sociocultural influences (media and parent and peer encouragement), self-esteem and negative affect on body change strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles in adolescent boys and girls. Surveys were administered to 587 boys and 598 girls aged between 11 and 15…

  18. Chromosomal Anomalies in Individuals with Autism: A Strategy Towards the Identification of Genes Involved in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castermans, Dries; Wilquet, Valerie; Steyaert, Jean; van de Ven, Wim; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Devriendt, Koen

    2004-01-01

    We review the different strategies currently used to try to identify susceptibility genes for idiopathic autism. Although identification of genes is usually straightforward in Mendelian disorders, it has proved to be much more difficult to establish in polygenic disorders like autism. Neither genome screens of affected siblings nor the large…

  19. A proteomic strategy to identify novel serum biomarkers for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in individuals with fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Stephen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has a prevalence of over 20% in Western societies. Affected individuals are at risk of developing both cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC. Presently there is no cost effective population based means of identifying cirrhotic individuals and even if there were, our ability to perform HCC surveillance in the at risk group is inadequate. We have performed a pilot proteomic study to assess this as a strategy for serum biomarker detection. Methods 2D Gel electrophoresis was performed on immune depleted sera from 3 groups of patients, namely those with (1 pre-cirrhotic NAFLD (2 cirrhotic NAFLD and (3 cirrhotic NAFLD with co-existing HCC. Five spots differentiating at least one of these three groups were characterised by mass spectroscopy. An ELISA assay was optimised and a cross sectional study assessing one of these serum spots was performed on serum from 45 patients with steatohepatitis related cirrhosis and HCC and compared to 77 patients with histologically staged steatohepatitis. Results Four of the spots identified were apolipoprotein isoforms, the pattern of which was able to differentiate the three groups. The 5th spot, seen in the serum of cirrhotic individuals and more markedly in those with HCC, was identified as CD5 antigen like (CD5L. By ELISA assay, although CD5L was markedly elevated in a number of cirrhotic individuals with HCC, its overall ability to distinguish non-cancer from cancer individuals as determined by AUC ROC analysis was poor. However, serum CD5L was dramatically increased, independently of age, sex, and the presence of necroinflammation, in the serum of individuals with NAFLD cirrhosis relative to those with pre-cirrhotic disease. Conclusion This novel proteomic strategy has identified a number of candidate biomarkers which may have benefit in the surveillance and diagnosis of individuals with chronic liver disease and/or HCC.

  20. Observational learning by individuals with autism: a review of teaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavnick, Joshua B; Hume, Kara A

    2014-05-01

    Observational learning is the process used to explain the acquisition of novel behaviors or performance of previously acquired behaviors under novel conditions after observing the behavior of another person and the consequences that follow the behavior. Many learners with autism do not attend to environmental stimuli at a level sufficient to learn a range of prosocial behaviors through observation of others. Modeling, group or dyadic instruction, and explicit observation training can improve the extent to which individuals with autism learn through observation. This article reviews previous research that involved observational learning by individuals with autism and outlines future research that could benefit instructional practices.

  1. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1 upset or bother (2 aversive emotional reactions (3 punitive impulses, and (4 punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher in Mating Effort more than those lower in Mating Effort. Higher Mating Effort also predicted greater temptation, intention, and likelihood to engage in punitive behaviors in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We discuss these data in light of individual differences in relations between reproductive strategy and romantic jealousy. Additionally, we point to the importance of controlling for co-linearity between reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity, and the need for addressing related methodological problems within jealousy research.

  2. Individuality Normalization when Labeling with Isotopic Glycan Hydrazide Tags (INLIGHT): A Novel Glycan-Relative Quantification Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S. Hunter; Taylor, Amber D.; Muddiman, David C.

    2013-09-01

    The Individuality Normalization when Labeling with Isotopic Glycan Hydrazide Tags (INLIGHT) strategy for the sample preparation, data analysis, and relative quantification of N-linked glycans is presented. Glycans are derivatized with either natural (L) or stable-isotope labeled (H) hydrazide reagents and analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled online to a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. A simple glycan ladder, maltodextrin, is first used to demonstrate the relative quantification strategy in samples with negligible analytical and biological variability. It is shown that after a molecular weight correction attributable to isotopic overlap and a post-acquisition normalization of the data to account for any systematic bias, a plot of the experimental H:L ratio versus the calculated H:L ratio exhibits a correlation of unity for maltodextrin samples mixed in different ratios. We also demonstrate that the INLIGHT approach can quantify species over four orders of magnitude in ion abundance. The INLIGHT strategy is further demonstrated in pooled human plasma, where it is shown that the post-acquisition normalization is more effective than using a single spiked-in internal standard. Finally, changes in glycosylation are able to be detected in complex biological matrices, when spiked with a glycoprotein. The ability to spike in a glycoprotein and detect change at the glycan level validates both the sample preparation and data analysis strategy, making INLIGHT an invaluable relative quantification strategy for the field of glycomics.

  3. Correlacionando tipos de cultura organizacional com estratégias de remuneração utilizando a tipologia de Charles Handy Correlation between organizational culture and compensation strategies using Charles Handy's typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maria Russo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo identificou as correlações entre as estratégias de remuneração e a tipologia de cultura organizacional proposta por Handy (2003 baseada nas dimensões do grau de formalização e centralização que identifica a cultura: Zeus (poder, Apolo (papéis, Atena (tarefa, e Dionísio (pessoa. A pesquisa foi aplicada a gestores de remuneração de 76 empresas associadas ao Grupo de Permuta de Informações Salariais (Grupisa, e os questionários com um construto composto por doze componentes da remuneração organizacional foram analisados utilizando Correlação de Pearson e Regressão Múltipla. Concluímos que as variáveis de remuneração se correlacionam de forma diferente com cada um dos tipos de cultura: (i organizações "Zeus" devem enfatizar os fatores comportamentais em todas as esferas do sistema de remuneração; (ii para as organizações "Apolo" a ênfase deve ser aplicada nas oportunidades de crescimento e desenvolvimento, (iii nas organizações "Atena" o foco deve ser nas recompensas financeiras, e, (iv organizações "Dionísio" devem dar ênfase à qualidade da remuneração.This study identified the correlations between compensation strategies and the organizational culture typology proposed by Handy (2003, based on the degree of formalization and centralization that identifies the culture: Zeus (power, Apollo (roles, Athena (task and Dionysus (person. A survey was performed of compensation managers at 76 companies associated with the Salary Information Exchange Group (GRUPISA, and the questionnaires with a construct composed of twelve organizational compensation components were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple regression We concluded that the compensation variables were correlated in a different fashion with each of the culture types: (i "Zeus" organizations should emphasize behavioral factors in all spheres of the compensation system; (ii in the case of "Apollo" organizations the

  4. Faculty Compensation Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silander, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Faculty compensation policy is seen as one means by which an institution influences the faculty to work toward institutional goals. Among the broad criteria for compensation are worth, equity, need, and market measures. Benefits and issues in compensation including differentials in compensation, merit, part-time instruction, etc. are discussed.…

  5. The Nature and Use of Individualized Learning Plans as a Promising Career Intervention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, V. Scott; Phelps, L. Allen; Haakenson, Kristin A.; Durham, Julie F.; Timmons, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Individualized learning plans (ILPs) are being implemented in high schools throughout the United States as strategic planning tools that help students align course plans with career aspirations and often include the development of postsecondary plans. Initial indications are that ILPs may be an important method for helping students achieve both…

  6. Distrust As a Disease Avoidance Strategy: Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Lene; Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly. Empirically, we utilize two convenience samples and a large nationally representative sample of US citizens to demonstrate the existence of a robust and replicable effect of individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized...

  7. A Strategy of Professional Development for Dealing with Individual Differences in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer-Hayon, Lya; Ben-Peretz, Miriam

    1985-01-01

    This article relates to two problems: how to deal with individual differences in heterogeneous classes and how to plan and implement professional development programs in this area. The planning and implementation of such a program through a process of collaboration between researchers and teachers is reported in the study. (Author)

  8. Sex-specific and individual preferences for hunting strategies in white sharks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Towner, A.V.; Leos-Barajas, V.; Langrock, R.; Schick, R.S.; Smale, M.J.; Kaschke, T.; Jewell, O.J.W; Papastamatiou, Y.P.

    2016-01-01

    1. Fine-scale predator movements may be driven by many factors including sex, habitat anddistribution of resources. There may also be individual preferences for certain movementstrategies within a population which can be hard to quantify.2. Within top predators, movements are also going to be direct

  9. Successful Strategies of Individuals with Dyslexia in the Field of Music: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kent Peter

    2014-01-01

    Many of the symptoms of dyslexia--such as difficulties with decoding written symbols, phonemic awareness, physical coordination, and readable handwriting--may adversely affect music learning. Despite challenges, some individuals with dyslexia succeed in music. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of five professional musicians…

  10. Individual Cognitive Structuring and the Sociocultural Context: Strategy Shifts in the Game of Dominoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I explore the relation between the sociocultural and individual cognitive structuring as elementary school students, high school students, and adults play the strategic game of dominoes. I present data from a study in which players at each level were observed and video-recorded during domino tournament play. Findings reveal the…

  11. Beyond Individual Behaviour Change: The Role of Power, Knowledge and Strategy in Tackling Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenis, Anneleen; Mathijs, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Individual behaviour change is fast becoming a kind of "holy grail" to tackle climate change, in environmental policy, the environmental movement and academic literature. This is contested by those who claim that social structures are the main problem and who advocate collective social action. The objective of the research presented in this paper…

  12. Successful Strategies of Individuals with Dyslexia in the Field of Music: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kent Peter

    2014-01-01

    Many of the symptoms of dyslexia--such as difficulties with decoding written symbols, phonemic awareness, physical coordination, and readable handwriting--may adversely affect music learning. Despite challenges, some individuals with dyslexia succeed in music. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of five professional musicians…

  13. The use of body weight support on ground level: an alternative strategy for gait training of individuals with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barela Ana MF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body weight support (BWS systems on treadmill have been proposed as a strategy for gait training of subjects with stroke. Considering that ground level is the most common locomotion surface and that there is little information about individuals with stroke walking with BWS on ground level, it is important to investigate the use of BWS on ground level in these individuals as a possible alternative strategy for gait training. Methods Thirteen individuals with chronic stroke (four women and nine men; mean age 54.46 years were videotaped walking on ground level in three experimental conditions: with no harness, with harness bearing full body weight, and with harness bearing 30% of full body weight. Measurements were recorded for mean walking speed, cadence, stride length, stride speed, durations of initial and terminal double stance, single limb support, swing period, and range of motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints; and foot, shank, thigh, and trunk segments. Results The use of BWS system leads to changes in stride length and speed, but not in stance and swing period duration. Only the hip joint was influenced by the BWS system in the 30% BWS condition. Shank and thigh segments presented less range of motion in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions, and the trunk was held straighter in the 30% BWS condition than in the other conditions. Conclusion Individuals with stroke using BWS system on ground level walked slower and with shorter stride length than with no harness. BWS also led to reduction of hip, shank, and thigh range of motion. However, this system did not change walking temporal organization and body side asymmetry of individuals with stroke. On the other hand, the BWS system enabled individuals with chronic stroke to walk safely and without physical assistance. In interventions, the physical therapist can watch and correct gait pattern in patients' performance without the need to provide physical

  14. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was

  15. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  16. The Compensation of College and University Presidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Ross, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the compensation of more than 600 college and university presidents, both individual and institutional characteristics were found to predict salary. The overall results are consistent with both functional theories of compensation and perspectives emphasizing the attribution of effectiveness to leaders. (MSE)

  17. Proposal of a generics individual competence development plan lined up to enterprise strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Bündchen; Anielson Barbosa da Silva

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that propose a Competencies Development Plan for an Agency of a traditional Brazilian financial institution from the identification of generic individual competencies. The study disclosed that the Agency needs to develop six competencies: communication, products and services, negotiation, internal self-development, internal processes and teamwork. The research results, in relation to the domain level, denote to a technics competence priorization. ...

  18. Chronopharmacological strategies: Intra- and inter-individual variability of molecular clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohdo, Shigehiro; Koyanagi, Satoru; Matsunaga, Naoya

    2010-07-31

    In all living organisms, one of the most indispensable biological functions is the circadian clock (suprachiasmatic nuclei; SCN), which acts like a multifunction timer to regulate homeostatic systems such as sleep and activity, hormone levels, appetite, and other bodily functions with 24h cycles. Circadian rhythms regulate diverse physiologic processes, including homeostatic functions of steroid hormones and their receptors. Perturbations of these rhythms are associated with pathogenic conditions such as depression, diabetes and cancer. Clock genes are identified as the genes that ultimately control a vast array of circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. Clock gene regulates several diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome and sleep etc. CLOCK mutation affects the expression of rhythmic genes in wild-type (WT) tissue, but also affects that of non-rhythmic genes. On the other hand, the change of the drug pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) parameters are influenced by not only inter-individual variability but also intra-individual variabilities of medications. Identification of a rhythmic marker for selecting dosing time will lead to improved progress and diffusion of chronopharmacotherapy. The mechanisms underlying chronopharmacological findings should be clarified from viewpoint of clock genes. On the other hand, several drugs have an effect on molecular clock. Thus, the knowledge of intra- and inter-individual variability of molecular clock should be applied for the clinical practice. Therefore, we introduce the regulatory system of biological rhythm from viewpoints of clock genes and the possibility of pharmacotherapy based on the intra- and inter-individual variability of clock genes.

  19. Self-care management strategies among individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus: nursing interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt CW

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Caralise W HuntAuburn University School of Nursing, Auburn, AL, USAAbstract: Nurses provide care for individuals living with diabetes in a variety of areas. Nursing interventions assist individuals living with diabetes to manage diabetes and can positively affect outcomes. This article describes an integrated literature review conducted to evaluate and summarize nursing interventions and research in self-management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane database were searched for the years 2002–2013 using the search terms “diabetes”, “type 2 diabetes”, “self-care”, “self-management”, “diabetes self-management”, “intervention”, and “nursing”. Results from the review indicate that nurses deliver care independently and in conjunction with other health care providers for individuals living with diabetes. A majority of the reviewed studies included a nursing education intervention for patients living with diabetes. Nursing interventions are linked to improvements in diabetes knowledge, self-management behaviors, and physiologic and psychologic outcomes.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, self-care management, nursing interventions

  20. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks. PMID:26556417

  1. Developmental progressions and regressions in the selective remembering strategies of EMR individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, N W; Turner, L A; Hersh, R E

    1985-09-01

    Developmental changes in the use of strategies to eliminate interference from irrelevant information in memory were investigated. The participants in the first experiment were 11-, 15-, and 18-year-old EMR students, and those in the second experiment were 30-year-old retarded and nonretarded adults. In both experiments a directed forgetting paradigm was used in which the person was presented two sets of pictures but only recalled one set on a trial. On some trials there was a cue to forget the first set and to remember only the second set. The cue to forget was not used by the youngest group of students. The 15- and 18-year-olds used the cue, but interference from the to-be-forgotten items remained. The 30-year-old retarded group regressed to the performance pattern of the youngest group, whereas the nonretarded adults used appropriate selective remembering strategies. The implications of developmental changes in the memory performance of retarded persons were discussed.

  2. Exercise Strategies for Hypoglycemia Prevention in Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Yardley, Jane E.; Ronald J Sigal

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF Fear of hypoglycemia is one of the main barriers to physical activity for individuals with type 1 diabetes. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic forms of exercise (i.e., resistance exercise/weight lifting, sprints, and high-intensity intervals) can attenuate exercise-related declines in blood glucose both during and after exercise in young, healthy adults with type 1 diabetes. These responses might vary based on age, sex, and fitness level and in the general safety of relying on th...

  3. Primary ovary choriocarcinoma: individual DNA polymorphic analysis as a strategy to confirm diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nalesso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary choriocarcinoma of the ovary is rare. Furthermore, this tumor can arise from gestational tissue or pure germ cells of the ovary, with the latter resulting in non-gestational choriocarcinoma. While the clinical characteristics and histology of both tumor types are identical, differentiation of these tumors is necessary for effective treatment. One strategy for the differentiation of these tumors types is to assay for the presence of paternal DNA. Accordingly, in the present case, a patient with primary choriocarcinoma of the ovary with a non-gestational origin was confirmed by DNA analysis. The patient subsequently exhibited an excellent response to chemotherapy, and following surgery, achieved complete remission. A pathological analysis of surgical specimens further confirmed the absence of tumor.

  4. From individual to herd protection with pneumococcal vaccines: the contribution of the Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Linares-Pérez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is currently undergoing advanced clinical evaluation prior to its planned introduction in Cuba. The implementation of the pneumococcal vaccination strategy has been designed with consideration of the need to maximize both its direct and indirect effects. A novel approach is suggested, which addresses preschool children as the first-line target group to generate herd immunity in infants and to have an impact on transmission at the community level. The clinical evaluation pipeline is described herein, including evaluations of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impact. The scientific contribution of the Cuban strategy could support a paradigm shift from individual protection to a population effect based on a rigorous body of scientific evidence.

  5. Individual differences in preference for epistemic versus teleologic strategies of deliberate self-persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cheryl A; Lord, Charles G; Morin, Amanda L; Brady, Sara E; Yoke, Kristin; Lu, Tong

    2014-03-01

    People are often dissatisfied with their attitudes (e.g., liking their jobs too little or junk food too much) and would like to evaluate differently. On the basis of theory and research, a scale was developed to measure individual differences in preference for 2 types of cognitive tactics (epistemic or teleologic [E or T]) that people use when they try to change their own attitudes (Maio & Thomas, 2007). For each of 3 attitude objects (my life, a romantic partner, Arabs), the scale items loaded on the 2 intended factors, and E - T scale scores were significantly correlated across the 3 attitude objects (Study 1). Scale scores also displayed satisfactory internal and test-retest reliability and discriminant validity (Study 2). In addition, E - T scores (i.e., mean preference for epistemic vs. teleologic tactics) displayed satisfactory predictive and construct validity by predicting the extent to which individuals would recall negative attributes of their lives (Study 3) and of going to a counseling center (Study 4) after a session of deliberate self-persuasion. The discussion centers on theoretical and practical applications of the new scale. 2014 APA

  6. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Zandbergen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual’s address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks.

  7. Effects of individualized feeding strategy in early lactation on indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2015-01-01

    energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity......, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected...

  8. Endovascular biopsy: Strategy for analyzing gene expression profiles of individual endothelial cells obtained from human vessels✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengda; Lawson, Devon A.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg; Hetts, Steven W.; Higashida, Randall T.; Dowd, Christopher F.; Halbach, Van V.; Werb, Zena; Su, Hua; Cooke, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop a strategy of achieving targeted collection of endothelial cells (ECs) by endovascular methods and analyzing the gene expression profiles of collected single ECs. Methods and results 134 ECs and 37 leukocytes were collected from four patients' intra-iliac artery endovascular guide wires by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and analyzed by single-cell quantitative RT-PCR for expression profile of 48 genes. Compared to CD45+ leukocytes, the ECs expressed higher levels (p < 0.05) of EC surface markers used on FACS and other EC related genes. The gene expression profile showed that these isolated ECs fell into two clusters, A and B, that differentially expressed 19 genes related to angiogenesis, inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling, with cluster B ECs have demonstrating similarities to senescent or aging ECs. Conclusion Combination of endovascular device sampling, FACS and single-cell quantitative RT-PCR is a feasible method for analyzing EC gene expression profile in vascular lesions. PMID:26989654

  9. Strategies for planning the optimal dialysis access for an individual patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, David A; Lok, Charmaine E

    2014-05-01

    Achieving functioning vascular access in hemodialysis patients remains challenging. Current guidelines recommend creating arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) as the initial form of vascular access and are primarily based on outdated, observational data. Determining the optimal access for each individual patient is, therefore, of great interest. Multiple recent studies suggest that certain subgroups of patients may benefit from alternative forms of vascular access. In particular, the elderly and patients with limited life-expectancy may be less likely to benefit from an AVF first approach. These patients may be more likely to die before benefiting from an AVF and are more likely to experience primary failure of an AVF. If these factors are considered, arteriovenous grafts, and in some cases central venous catheters, become a valid alternative form of vascular access. Patients may also have strong opinions about each type of vascular access, leading to a preference for alternative forms of access. A patient-centered approach to the choice of dialysis access that incorporates a balance between recent evidence from the literature and patient preferences may be preferred to the current fistula first focus in vascular access choice.

  10. Signal function drives phenotypic and genetic diversity: the effects of signalling individual identity, quality or behavioural strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Mullen, Sean P; Dale, James

    2017-07-05

    Animal coloration is influenced by selection pressures associated with communication. During communication, signallers display traits that inform receivers and modify receiver behaviour in ways that benefit signallers. Here, we discuss how selection on signallers to convey different kinds of information influences animal phenotypes and genotypes. Specifically, we address the phenotypic and genetic consequences of communicating three different kinds of information: individual identity, behavioural strategy and quality. Previous work has shown signals that convey different kinds of information differ in terms of the (i) type of selection acting on signallers (e.g. directional, stabilizing, or negative frequency dependent), and (ii) developmental basis of signals (i.e. heritability, genetic architecture). These differences result in signals that convey different information having consistently different phenotypic properties, including the amount, modality and continuity of intraspecific variation. Understanding how communication influences animal phenotypes may allow researchers to quickly identify putative functions of colour variation prior to experimentation. Signals that convey different information will also have divergent evolutionary consequences. For example, signalling individual identity can increase genetic diversity, signalling quality may decrease diversity, and signalling strategy can constrain adaptation and contribute to speciation. Considering recent advances in genomic resources, our framework highlights new opportunities to resolve the evolutionary consequences of selection on communication across diverse taxa and signal types.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Social Insurance and Truncated Benefits: Measuring the Impacts of Workers' Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the indirect impacts of state-mandated workers' compensation benefits on workers' wages. The benefit structure of workers' compensation causes a fundamental estimation problem. I develop a new strategy to limit the biases inherent in earlier models. I utilize individual-level census data (between 1940 and 1990 to exploit benefit variation that occurs both across states and within the fifty states over time. The results suggest that wage offsets are not constant across time and may be larger for workers at lower-wage levels.

  12. Use of an individual-based simulation model to explore and evaluate potential insecticide resistance management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Russell; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Elias, Jan; Semenov, Mikhail A; Denholm, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Tools with the potential to predict risks of insecticide resistance and aid the evaluation and design of resistance management tactics are of value to all sectors of the pest management community. Here we describe use of a versatile individual-based model of resistance evolution to simulate how strategies employing single and multiple insecticides influence resistance development in the pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus. Under repeated exposure to a single insecticide, resistance evolved faster to a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin) than to a pyridine azomethane (pymetrozine), due to difference in initial efficacy. A mixture of these compounds delayed resistance compared to use of single products. The effectiveness of rotations depended on the sequence in which compounds were applied in response to pest density thresholds. Effectiveness of a mixture strategy declined with reductions in grower compliance. At least 50% compliance was needed to cause some delay in resistance development. No single strategy meets all requirements for managing resistance. It is important to evaluate factors that prevail under particular pest management scenarios. The model used here provides operators with a valuable means for evaluating and extending sound resistance management advice, as well as understanding needs and opportunities offered by new control techniques. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Estrategias para Compensar no Linealidades Generadas por Válvulas en Lazos de Control de Flujo Strategies to Compensate Non-Linearities Generated by Valves in Flow Control Loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E Vásquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se compararon diferentes estrategias para compensar no linealidades generadas por válvulas en lazos de control de flujo. Se realizó la identificación de un proceso de flujo de líquido incompresible mediante una prueba en planta y se desarrolló un sistema de control por computador. En este sistema fueron implementados un controlador lineal PI y cuatro diferentes estrategias de compensación, usando LabVIEW®. La comparación fue realizada usando como índices de desempeño la integral del valor absoluto del error, el tiempo de estabilización y el sobrepaso. Las estrategias usadas permitieron mejorar el desempeño del controlador lineal en la zona de saturación del actuador. En conclusión, se puede considerar el uso de estos algoritmos para reemplazar elementos como controladores con auto-sintonía o posicionadores no lineales que elevan los costos de inversión y mantenimiento de la plantaIn this work, different strategies to compensate nonlinearities generated by valves in flow control loops were compared. The identification for an incompressible flow process was made through a plant test and a computer control system was developed. In this system a PI linear controller and four different compensation strategies were implemented using LabVIEW™. The comparison was made using the integral of the absolute value of the error, settling time and overshoot as performance indexes. The compared strategies allowed improving the performance of the linear controller in the actuator saturation zone. In conclusion, using these algorithms can be considered to replace elements as self-tuning controllers or nonlinear positioners that raise the inversion and maintenance costs of the plant

  14. Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong eCao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc. may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships, monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people’s appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals’ perception of others’ as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflict noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase. As compensation one partner give money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner and the other bear the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner. Results showed that the individuals’ preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing harm affected their relationship (exchange versus communal with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in

  15. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would r

  16. Essays in Executive Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zhang (Dan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on how executive compensation is designed and its implications for corporate finance and government regulations. Chapter 2 analyzes several proposals to restrict CEO compensation and calibrates two models of executive compensation that describe how firms would

  17. Group vs. Individual Treatment for Acute Insomnia: A Pilot Study Evaluating a “One-Shot” Treatment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Boullin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite undeniable evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I, the potential for its widespread dissemination and implementation has yet to be realised. A suggested reason for this is that traditional CBT-I is considered too burdensome for deployment, in its current form, within the context of where it would be most beneficial—Primary Care. One strategy, aimed to address this, has been to develop briefer versions of CBT-I, whilst another has been to deliver CBT-I in a group format. An alternative has been to attempt to address insomnia during its acute phase with a view to circumventing its progression to chronic insomnia. The aim of the present study was to compare a brief version of CBT-I (one-shot when delivered individually or in groups to those with acute insomnia. Method: Twenty-eight individuals with acute insomnia (i.e., meeting full DSM-5 criteria for insomnia disorder for less than three months self-assigned to either a group or individual treatment arm. Treatment consisted of a single one-hour session accompanied by a self-help pamphlet. Subjects completed measures of insomnia severity, anxiety and depression pre-treatment and at one-month post-treatment. Additionally, daily sleep diaries were compared between pre-treatment and at the one-month follow up. Results: There were no significant between group differences in treatment outcome on any sleep or mood measures although those in the group treatment arm were less adherent than those who received individual treatment. Furthermore, the combined (group and individual treatment arms pre-post test effect size on insomnia symptoms, using the Insomnia Severity Index, was large (d = 2.27. Discussion: It appears that group treatment is as efficacious as individual treatment within the context of a “one shot” intervention for individuals with acute insomnia. The results are discussed with a view to integrating one-shot CBT

  18. Strategies utilized to transfer weight during knee flexion and extension with rotation for individuals with a total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lauren A; Denney, Linda M; Maletsky, Lorin P

    2013-02-01

    Functional activities in daily life can require squatting and shifting body weight during transverse plane rotations. Stability of the knee can be challenging for people with a total knee replacement (TKR) due to reduced proprioception, nonconforming articular geometry, muscle strength, and soft tissue weakness. The objective of this study was to identify strategies utilized by individuals with TKR in double-stance transferring load during rotation and flexion. Twenty-three subjects were recruited for this study: 11 TKR subjects (age: 65 ± 6 years; BMI 27.4 ± 4.1) and 12 healthy subjects (age: 63 ± 7; BMI 24.6 ± 3.8). Each subject completed a novel crossover button push task where rotation, flexion, and extension of the knee were utilized. Each subject performed two crossover reaching tasks where the subject used the opposite hand to cross over their body and press a button next to either their shoulder (high) or knee (low), then switched hands and rotated to press the opposite button, either low or high. The two tasks related to the order they pressed the buttons while crossing over, either low-to-high (L2H) or high-to-low (H2L). Force platforms measured ground reaction forces under each foot, which were then converted to lead force ratios (LFRs) based on the total force. Knee flexion angles were also measured. No statistical differences were found in the LFRs during the H2L and L2H tasks for the different groups, although differences in the variation of the loading within subjects were noted. A significant difference was found between healthy and unaffected knee angles and a strong trend between healthy and affected subject's knee angles in both H2L and L2H tasks. Large variations in the LFR at mid-task in the TKR subjects suggested possible difficulties in maintaining positional stability during these tasks. The TKR subjects maintained more of an extended knee, which is a consistent quadriceps avoidance strategy seen by other researchers in

  19. 基于电流矢量的三电平逆变器死区和管压降补偿策略%Dead time and forward voltage compensation strategy of three level inverter based on the current vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文祥; 张旭

    2012-01-01

    在电机控制过程中,死区和管压降的存在导致逆变器输出波形畸变.为了消除电压和电流的畸变,死区和管压降补偿是必要的.本文给出了一种简洁高效的三电平电压型逆变器死区补偿方法,用以改善电机的输出波形,详细分析了死区产生机理,利用电流矢量对死区进行准确补偿.根据PWM状态和电流矢量的位置分析功率器件压降的变化,结合电流方向进行补偿.最后基于F2812DSP芯片的三电平逆变器实验平台对该方法进行了开环和闭环实验研究,验证了理论分析的正确性和实际可行性.%In order to prevent the output waveforms distortion due to dead-time and forward voltage, we must add the dead-time and forward voltage compensation in the process of motor control. This paper introduced a simple and efficient dead-time compensation method for three-level inverter to improve output waveforms. The cause of dead-time was analysed in detail, and dead-time can be compensated accurately using current vector. We analyse the changes in forward voltage of power devices based on PWM state and the position of current vector, and then compensate according to the current direction. Finally open and closed loop experiments are done to prove the proposed strategy through experiment on a three-level model inverter developed with F2812DSP. We can prove that the analysis is correct and the method can be used in practice.

  20. Compensation and additivity of anthropogenic mortality: life-history effects and review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Guillaume

    2013-03-01

    Demographic compensation, the increase in average individual performance following a perturbation that reduces population size, and, its opposite, demographic overadditivity (or superadditivity) are central processes in both population ecology and wildlife management. A continuum of population responses to changes in cause-specific mortality exists, of which additivity and complete compensation constitute particular points. The position of a population on that continuum influences its ability to sustain exploitation and predation. Here I describe a method for quantifying where a population is on the continuum. Based on variance-covariance formulae, I describe a simple metric for the rate of compensation-additivity. I synthesize the results from 10 wildlife capture-recapture monitoring programmes from the literature and online databases, reviewing current statistical methods and the treatment of common sources of bias. These results are used to test hypotheses regarding the effects of life-history strategy, population density, average cause-specific mortality and age class on the rate of compensation-additivity. This comparative analysis highlights that long-lived species compensate less than short-lived species and that populations below their carrying capacity compensate less than those above.

  1. Compensation and exotic livestock disease management: the views of animal keepers and veterinarians in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Webb, A; Naylor, R; Little, R; Maye, D

    2016-11-19

    Relatively little is known about the perceived influence of different compensation systems on animal keepers' management of exotic livestock disease. This paper aims to address this research gap by drawing on interviews with 61 animal keepers and 21 veterinarians, as well as a series of nine animal keeper focus groups across five different livestock sectors in England. The perceived influence of current compensation systems on disease control behaviour was explored and alternative compensation systems that respectively reward positive practices and penalise poor practices were presented in the form of scenarios, alongside a third system that considered the option of a cost-sharing levy system between industry and government. The results indicate that animal keepers consider themselves to be influenced by a range of non-financial factors, for example, feelings of responsibility, reputation and animal welfare concerns, in the context of their exotic disease management practices. The majority of animal keepers were unaware of the current compensation systems in place for exotic diseases, and were therefore not consciously influenced by financial recompense. Concerns were raised about linking compensation to disease management behaviour due to auditing difficulties. A cost-sharing levy system would likely raise awareness of exotic disease and compensation among animal keepers, but differentiation of payments based upon individual farm-level risk assessments was called for by participants as a strategy to promote positive disease management practices. British Veterinary Association.

  2. A Study on Compensation for Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兰兰

    2012-01-01

    Considering the linguistic and cultural difference between English and Chinese, it is inevitable to lose the original musical beauty, visual beauty and original rhetorical devices in advertisements translation. So compensation measures are always taken to compensate the lost information. This paper focuses on the discussion of the features of advertisement, cultural and linguistic differences between English and Chinese advertisements, which result in the loss of information. And compensation strategies on words, musical beauty and rhetorical devices in advertisement translation are introduced in this paper.

  3. Compensation of Disadvantages in University Examination Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Quapp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Active social participation of disabled people is one of the major tasks of modern society. That also includes access to the academic community by higher education. Universities all over the world work hard to give handicapped students a chance to graduate. In this context, compensation of disadvantages in examination procedures is an important matter. But, also chronic illness may impair the student's examination performance. To ensure equal examination opportunities for all students, responsible university officials must be creative to find individual compensation solutions. The paper analyzes examination regulations at universities in different countries and offers solutions to compensate disabled and chronic ill students' disadvantages. It discusses the necessity of compensation for different types of disability and chronic illness. Finally, an overview of current German case law and solutions for compensation problems are provided.

  4. Transitioning to value-based physician compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    An effective strategy for creating a viable physician compensation plan should include nine key steps or tactics: Get physicians on board early. Engage a physician champion. Create a compensation committee. Address department-level issues and differences. Verify the plan's affordability. Adopt a routine review schedule. Understand the payer environment and keep in contact with payers. Stay abreast of industry trends. Maintain an ongoing dialogue with physicians.

  5. The Dynamics of Avian Influenza: Individual-Based Model with Intervention Strategies in Traditional Trade Networks in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilasang, Chaiwat; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Chadsuthi, Sudarat

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic to Southeast Asia. In Thailand, avian influenza viruses continue to cause large poultry stock losses. The spread of the disease has a serious impact on poultry production especially among rural households with backyard chickens. The movements and activities of chicken traders result in the spread of the disease through traditional trade networks. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of avian influenza in the traditional trade network in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. We also propose an individual-based model with intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. We found that the dynamics of the disease mainly depend on the transmission probability and the virus inactivation period. This study also illustrates the appropriate virus disinfection period and the target for intervention strategies on traditional trade network. The results suggest that good hygiene and cleanliness among household traders and trader of trader areas and ensuring that any equipment used is clean can lead to a decrease in transmission and final epidemic size. These results may be useful to epidemiologists, researchers, and relevant authorities in understanding the spread of avian influenza through traditional trade networks. PMID:27110273

  6. The Dynamics of Avian Influenza: Individual-Based Model with Intervention Strategies in Traditional Trade Networks in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Wilasang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic to Southeast Asia. In Thailand, avian influenza viruses continue to cause large poultry stock losses. The spread of the disease has a serious impact on poultry production especially among rural households with backyard chickens. The movements and activities of chicken traders result in the spread of the disease through traditional trade networks. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of avian influenza in the traditional trade network in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. We also propose an individual-based model with intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. We found that the dynamics of the disease mainly depend on the transmission probability and the virus inactivation period. This study also illustrates the appropriate virus disinfection period and the target for intervention strategies on traditional trade network. The results suggest that good hygiene and cleanliness among household traders and trader of trader areas and ensuring that any equipment used is clean can lead to a decrease in transmission and final epidemic size. These results may be useful to epidemiologists, researchers, and relevant authorities in understanding the spread of avian influenza through traditional trade networks.

  7. Neuronal correlates of ADHD in adults with evidence for compensation strategies – a functional MRI study with a Go/No-Go paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Response inhibition impairment is one of the most characteristic symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Thus functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a Go/No-Go task seems to be an ideal tool for examining neuronal correlates of inhibitory control deficits in ADHD. Prior studies have shown frontostriatal abnormalities in children and adolescents. The aim of our study was to investigate whether adults with ADHD would still show abnormal brain activation in prefrontal brain regions during motor response inhibition tasks. Methods: fMRI was used to compare brain activation in 15 untreated adult patients with ADHD and 15 healthy reference volunteers during performance of a Go/No-Go task. Results: In contrast to various other studies with children and adolescents with ADHD, we found no significant difference in the activity of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC or other frontostriatal structures between ADHD and healthy adults. Significantly enhanced activity was found in the parietal cortex, which is known to play an important role in building up attention. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the enhanced activity is due to the ability of adult ADHD patients to compensate their deficits for a short time, which is demonstrated in our study by equal task performance in both groups.

  8. Maintaining a focus on opportunities at work : The interplay between age, job complexity, and the use of selection, optimization, and compensation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The concept of focus on opportunities describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities employees believe to have in their personal future at work. This study investigated the specific and shared effects of age, job complexity, and the use of successful aging strategies called selection, opti

  9. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  10. Design of Motor-Driven Load Simulator Based on Improved Compensation Control Strategy%基于改进补偿控制策略的电动负载模拟器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞; 王明艳; 张奥扬

    2013-01-01

      负载模拟器可以模拟飞行器飞行过程中受到的空气力矩,是重要的半实物仿真设备之一。针对电动负载模拟器存在的多余力矩,且严重影响了加载精度和系统的稳定性,通过在加载系统的基本结构和原理上,对加载系统进行建模,分析常规补偿法的局限性,提出改进的补偿方法,并用复合控制策略来设计控制系统。仿真结果表明,此方法能够大幅度消除多余力矩,且在工程中有一定的可行性。%Load simulator is an important equipment in hardware-in-the-loop simulation, which can simulate the air torque during aircraft flight. The extra torque existing in the motor-driven load simulator influenced the load precision and system stability. The model of load system is built based on the basic structure and principle of load system, the limitations of the conventional compensation method are analyzed, and the improved compensation method is proposed. The control system is designed by compound control strategy. The simulation results show that the method can greatly reduce the extra torque and can be used in the engineering.

  11. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, M.L., E-mail: m.bondar@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus-MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hoogeman, M.S.; Mens, J.W.; Quint, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus-MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ahmad, R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus-MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Programme of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, University Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Dhawtal, G.; Heijmen, B.J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus-MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 Gy. Individualized model-based internal target volumes (mbITVs) accounting for the cervix and uterus motion due to bladder volume changes were generated by using a motion-model constructed from two pretreatment CT scans (full and empty bladder). Two individualized strategies were designed: a nonadaptive strategy, using an mbITV accounting for the full-range of bladder volume changes throughout the treatment; and an online-adaptive strategy, using mbITVs of bladder volume subranges to construct a library of plans. The latter adapts the treatment online by selecting the plan-of-the-day from the library based on the measured bladder volume. The individualized strategies were evaluated by the seven to eight CT scans not used for mbITVs construction, and compared with a population-based approach. Geometric uniform margins around planning cervix-uterus and mbITVs were determined to ensure adequate coverage. For each strategy, the percentage of the cervix-uterus, bladder, and rectum volumes inside the planning target volume (PTV), and the clinical target volume (CTV)-to-PTV volume (volume difference between PTV and CTV) were calculated. Results: The margin for the population-based approach was 38 mm and for the individualized strategies was 7 to 10 mm. Compared with the population-based approach, the individualized nonadaptive strategy decreased the CTV-to-PTV volume by 48% {+-} 6% and the percentage of bladder and rectum inside the PTV by 5% to 45% and 26% to 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. Replacing the individualized nonadaptive strategy by an online-adaptive, two-plan library further decreased the percentage of

  12. Options in Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis; Frimor, Hans; Munk, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We derive the optimal compensation contract in a principal–agent setting in which outcome is used to provide incentives for both effort and risky investments. To motivate investment, optimal compensation entails rewards for high as well as low outcomes, and it is increasing at the mean outcome to...

  13. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own di

  14. Indexing Executive Compensation Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dittmann (Ingolf); E.G. Maug (Ernst); O.G. Spalt (Oliver)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the efficiency of indexing executive pay by calibrating the standard model of executive compensation to a large sample of US CEOs. The benefits from linking the strike price of stock options to an index are small and fully indexing all options would increase compensation costs

  15. Research on the Design of Compensation Strategies and the Methods of its Application for Human Capital in Private Enterprises%民营企业人力资本薪酬策略设计及其运用方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭辉

    2015-01-01

    It is important for different types of human capital to adopt different compensation strategies, based on the compensation as an important economic lever to encourge different types of human capital realize their values. In view of the compensation level of human capital in private enterprises is lower than the compensation level of human capital in other property enterprises, on the other hand, the incentives, retention, and competition for talents are at a disadvantage in private enterprises. Therefore, in order to enhance the com⁃pensation external competitiveness, compensation internal consistency and performance incentive of human capital, the design principles of compensation strategies and the concrete methods of its application for different types of human capital are made based on compensation structure, compensation level and compensation package, so as to promote the compensation competitiveness of human capital in private enterprises.%基于薪酬是作为激励企业不同类型人力资本价值实现的重要经济杠杆,对不同类型人力资本采取不同的薪酬策略显得尤为重要。鉴于我国民营企业①人力资本薪酬水平相比其他性质企业仍很低,企业人才的激励、留用与争夺都处于劣势。本文从薪酬结构、薪酬水平以及薪酬组合三方面制定民营企业不同类型人力资本薪酬策略设计原则及其具体运用方法,旨在增强民营企业薪酬的外部竞争性、内部一致性以及绩效激励作用,从而提升民营企业人力资本薪酬竞争力。

  16. [Dosage compensation mechanism of X chromosome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yun; Chen, Mei; Li, Bin

    2012-08-01

    Dosage compensation mechanism is crucial for the balance expression of X chromosome genes, which ensures the protein or enzyme encoded by the X chromosome to be equal or almost equal expression amounts between males and females. However, different organisms have evolved distinct dosage compensation strategies, and so far three kinds of dosage compensation strategies among organisms have been reported. The first strategy is that the single male X chromosome expression is doubly activated; the second one is to inactivate one female X chromosome by leaving both sexes with one active allele; and the third one is to reduce the expression to half activity in both X chromosomes of the female. The study of dosage compensation will be useful to reveal the mechanism of regulation of X-linked genes as well as the evolution and the differentiation progress of the sex chromosome, and it can also contribute to illustrate mutation and distortion of sex chromosome. Therefore, this paper briefly reviewed and discussed the progresses and prospects of the important mechanism of dosage compensation.

  17. Study of the Current Compensation Control Strategy for EPS in High-speed and Large Steering Angle Operation%高速大转角工况下EPS电流补偿控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴星男; 江浩斌; 唐斌; 王志忠

    2013-01-01

    为提高车辆在高速大转角工况下的横向稳定性,以装备管柱式EPS的某微型乘用车为研究对象,建立其非线性3自由度整车模型,对车辆转向特性和转向行驶稳定性进行理论分析;在没有电子稳定程序或车辆动态稳定性控制装置的情况下,引入可控的补偿电流对EPS控制策略进行改进,并在matlab/simulink中进行仿真分析。结果表明,所研究的EPS电流补偿控制策略有效提高了高速大转角时车辆转向系统阻尼,增强了车辆的横向稳定性和驾驶员“路感”,使车辆的横摆运动得到良好控制。%In order to improve the vehicle's lateral stability in high-speed and large steering angle operation, the researchers established a 3-DOF model of the whole vehicle using a mini passenger car equipped with column-type EPS as research object, and analyzed vehicle steering characteristic and steering stability theoretically. A controllable compensation current has been introduced to improve the control strategy for EPS with the absence of electronic stability program (ESP) or vehicle dynamic control (VDC) system. The simulation was made in Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the EPS current compensation control strategy has effectively increased the steering system damping in high-speed and large steering angle operation, it has also enhanced the lateral stability and the road feel. The vehicle's yaw motion is well controlled.

  18. Locating hybrid individuals in the red wolf (Canis rufus) experimental population area using a spatially targeted sampling strategy and faecal DNA genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer R; Lucash, Chris; Schutte, Leslie; Waits, Lisette P

    2007-05-01

    Hybridization with coyotes (Canis latrans) continues to threaten the recovery of endangered red wolves (Canis rufus) in North Carolina and requires the development of new strategies to detect and remove coyotes and hybrids. Here, we combine a spatially targeted faecal collection strategy with a previously published reference genotype data filtering method and a genetic test for coyote ancestry to screen portions of the red wolf experimental population area for the presence of nonred wolf canids. We also test the accuracy of our maximum-likelihood assignment test for identifying hybrid individuals using eight microsatellite loci instead of the original 18 loci and compare its performance to the Bayesian approach implemented in newhybrids. We obtained faecal DNA genotypes for 89 samples, 73 of which were matched to 23 known individuals. The performance of two sampling strategies - comprehensive sweep and opportunistic spot-check was evaluated. The opportunistic spot-check sampling strategy required less effort than the comprehensive sweep sampling strategy but identified fewer individuals. Six hybrids or coyotes were detected and five of these individuals were subsequently captured and removed from the population. The accuracy and power of the genetic test for coyote ancestry is decreased when using eight loci; however, nonred wolf canids are identified with high frequency. This combination of molecular and traditional field-based approaches has great potential for addressing the challenge of hybridization in other species and ecosystems.

  19. Dynamical compensation in physiological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Omer; Swisa, Avital; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval; Alon, Uri

    2016-11-08

    Biological systems can maintain constant steady-state output despite variation in biochemical parameters, a property known as exact adaptation. Exact adaptation is achieved using integral feedback, an engineering strategy that ensures that the output of a system robustly tracks its desired value. However, it is unclear how physiological circuits also keep their output dynamics precise-including the amplitude and response time to a changing input. Such robustness is crucial for endocrine and neuronal homeostatic circuits because they need to provide a precise dynamic response in the face of wide variation in the physiological parameters of their target tissues; how such circuits compensate their dynamics for unavoidable natural fluctuations in parameters is unknown. Here, we present a design principle that provides the desired robustness, which we call dynamical compensation (DC). We present a class of circuits that show DC by means of a nonlinear feedback loop in which the regulated variable controls the functional mass of the controlling endocrine or neuronal tissue. This mechanism applies to the control of blood glucose by insulin and explains several experimental observations on insulin resistance. We provide evidence that this mechanism may also explain compensation and organ size control in other physiological circuits.

  20. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Davis, Glen M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance. Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD), 50 (6) %) of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28). Some investigations (n = 13) lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i) optimizing electrode positioning, (ii) fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii) adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise training

  1. Strategies for Rapid Muscle Fatigue Reduction during FES Exercise in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    Full Text Available Rapid muscle fatigue during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked muscle contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI is a significant limitation to attaining health benefits of FES-exercise. Delaying the onset of muscle fatigue is often cited as an important goal linked to FES clinical efficacy. Although the basic concept of fatigue-resistance has a long history, recent advances in biomedical engineering, physiotherapy and clinical exercise science have achieved improved clinical benefits, especially for reducing muscle fatigue during FES-exercise. This review evaluated the methodological quality of strategies underlying muscle fatigue-resistance that have been used to optimize FES therapeutic approaches. The review also sought to synthesize the effectiveness of these strategies for persons with SCI in order to establish their functional impacts and clinical relevance.Published scientific literature pertaining to the reduction of FES-induced muscle fatigue was identified through searches of the following databases: Science Direct, Medline, IEEE Xplore, SpringerLink, PubMed and Nature, from the earliest returned record until June 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened to obtain 35 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review.Following the evaluation of methodological quality (mean (SD, 50 (6 % of the reviewed studies using the Downs and Black scale, the largest treatment effects reported to reduce muscle fatigue mainly investigated isometric contractions of limited functional and clinical relevance (n = 28. Some investigations (n = 13 lacked randomisation, while others were characterised by small sample sizes with low statistical power. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of emerging trends to improve fatigue-resistance during FES included (i optimizing electrode positioning, (ii fine-tuning of stimulation patterns and other FES parameters, (iii adjustments to the mode and frequency of exercise

  2. Learning Styles and Organisational Development in Practice:An exploratory study of how learning styles and individual learning strategies can facilitate organisational development

    OpenAIRE

    Brix, Jacob; Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Issues of innovation and knowledge management are often treated from an organisational learning perspective. As a complement to this, there is a vast potential in the strategic enhancement of individual learning by implementing learning styles profiles and creating personal learning strategies for management and employees in a knowledge based organisation. Based on an action-research case study, we offer an example of how learning styles affects individual learning and thus personal knowledge...

  3. Evaluating impacts of fire management strategies on native and invasive plants using an individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangur, Alexander N.; Fill, Jennifer M.; Northfield, Tobin D.; van de Wiel, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The capacity for species to coexist and potentially exclude one another can broadly be attributed to drivers that influence fitness differences (such as competitive ability) and niche differences (such as environmental change). These drivers, and thus the determinants of coexistence they influence, can interact and fluctuate both spatially and temporally. Understanding the spatiotemporal variation in niche and fitness differences in systems prone to fluctuating drivers, such as fire, can help to inform the management of invasive species. In the Cape floristic region of South Africa, invasive Pinus pinaster seedlings are strong competitors in the post-burn environment of the fire-driven Fynbos vegetation. In this, system native Protea spp. are especially vulnerable to unseasonal burns, but seasonal prescribed (Summer) burns are thought to present a high safety risk. Together, these issues have limited the appeal of prescribed burn management as an alternative to costly manual eradication of P. pinaster. Using a spatially-explicit field-of-neighbourhood individual-based model, we represent the drivers of spatiotemporal variation in niche differences (driven by fire regimes) and fitness differences (driven by competitive ability). In doing so, we evaluate optimal fire management strategies to a) control invasive P. pinaster in the Cape floristic region of South Africa, while b) minimizing deleterious effects of management on native Protea spp. The scarcity of appropriate data for model calibration has been problematic for models in invasion biology, but we use recent advances in Approximate Bayesian Computing techniques to overcome this limitation. We present early conclusions on the viability of prescribed burn management to control P. pinaster in South Africa.

  4. Machining Complex Oriented Compensation System for Generalized Kinematic Errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper puts forward a machining complex oriented compensation strategy for the generalized kinematic errors (GKEs).According to this strategy, the error map, which is constructed by using the off-line measuring information of the machined workpiece, is not oriented for the machine tool but for the machining complex to compensate the GKEs. The error map is derived by the proposed predictive learning control algorithm (PLCA), which is supported by the information model of machining complex. Experimental results show that the machining complex oriented GKEs compensation strategy and the information model based PLCA is effective.

  5. Compensating temperature-induced ultrasonic phase and amplitude changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peng; Hay, Thomas R.; Greve, David W.; Junker, Warren R.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    In ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM), environmental and operational conditions, especially temperature, can significantly affect the propagation of ultrasonic waves and thus degrade damage detection. Typically, temperature effects are compensated using optimal baseline selection (OBS) or optimal signal stretch (OSS). The OSS method achieves compensation by adjusting phase shifts caused by temperature, but it does not fully compensate phase shifts and it does not compensate for accompanying signal amplitude changes. In this paper, we develop a new temperature compensation strategy to address both phase shifts and amplitude changes. In this strategy, OSS is first used to compensate some of the phase shifts and to quantify the temperature effects by stretching factors. Based on stretching factors, empirical adjusting factors for a damage indicator are then applied to compensate for the temperature induced remaining phase shifts and amplitude changes. The empirical adjusting factors can be trained from baseline data with temperature variations in the absence of incremental damage. We applied this temperature compensation approach to detect volume loss in a thick wall aluminum tube with multiple damage levels and temperature variations. Our specimen is a thick-walled short tube, with dimensions closely comparable to the outlet region of a frac iron elbow where flow-induced erosion produces the volume loss that governs the service life of that component, and our experimental sequence simulates the erosion process by removing material in small damage steps. Our results show that damage detection is greatly improved when this new temperature compensation strategy, termed modified-OSS, is implemented.

  6. 我国县级公立医院取消药品加成补偿政策的合理性研究%Study on the Rationality of Cancelling Drug Addition Compensation Strategy in County-level Public Hospi-tals in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭华伟; 阳光; 颜维华; 刘宪; 郑万会; 张云; 朱小玲; 张培林

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价我国县级公立医院取消药品加成补偿政策的合理性,为破除"以药补医"机制提供参考.方法:收集2015年8月1日前我国30个省、自治区、直辖市(简称"省市")政府办公厅及政府相关部门官方网站中有关县级公立医院取消药品加成政策的文件,对县级公立医院取消药品加成的取消进度、补偿模式、补偿基数、补偿范围、补偿途径及补偿率、财政补偿方式等6个维度进行分析.结果:有46.67%的省市完全取消了药品加成政策;绝大多数省市采取"取消多少,补偿多少"的补偿模式;有54.55%的省市以2011年或取消药品加成前1年的药品加成收入财务数据作为补偿基数;有93.33%的省市由调整医疗服务价格补偿,有86.67%的省市由政府财政补偿,有50.00%的省市由医院加强成本控制自身消化;完全取消药品加成省市的财政补偿率是未完全取消省市的1.72倍,未完全取消省市调整医疗服务价格补偿率是完全取消省市的1.22倍;取消药品加成财政补偿方式主要有按常住人口和按绩效考核结果补偿2种类型.结论:财政补偿率高低同药品加成政策取消进度呈高度正相关;医疗服务价格调整补偿途径承担了补偿的主体责任;取消药品加成政策实施现状与取消药品加成政策目标不相适应.建议建立分步分类的医疗服务价格调整机制及以区域卫生规划为导向的差异化财政投入机制.%OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the rationality of cancelling drug addition compensation strategy in county-level public hospitals in China,and to provide reference for abolishing the system of"drug-maintaining-medicine". METHODS:The documents about cancelling drug addition strategy in county-level public hospitals were collected from websites of 30 provincial,autonomous region and municipality(called"province and city"for short)general office and related governmental departments before Aug. 1st, in 2015. The

  7. Tactile Compensation Strategy for Online Consumption from Perspective of Embodied Cognition%具身认知视角下的网络消费触觉弥补策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On the base of embodied cognition theory, the tactile loss phenomenon in online consumption was discussed and the embodiment of consumer perception was interpreted. And then take advantage of body schema theory and multi-sensory in-teractive integration theory which were form psychology to explain how online experience used the formation of virtual tactile con-sumption to help consumer cognition and make purchase decision. Three tactile compensation strategies from the embodied cogni-tion theory were given at last.%以具身认知理论为基础,分析网络消费中的触觉缺失现象,并解释了消费者感知的具身性。结合心理学中身体图式的存在和多感官交互整合理论,阐述了在线体验如何通过促进虚拟触觉形成辅助消费者认知和购买决策。从具身认知的视角出发提出“语言+图像”弥补、体验弥补和信任弥补三大网络消费触觉弥补策略。

  8. Effects of Video-Based Cooperative, Competitive and Individualized Instructional Strategies on the Performance of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Daramola, Florence Olutunu; James, Moses

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of video-based cooperative, competitive and individualized instructional strategies on the performance of senior secondary schools' students in geometry in Nigeria. It also examined the influence of gender on students' achievement. Pretest, posttest, experimental control group design was adopted for this study.…

  9. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... are based on misconceptions and do not apply to compensation of present actual harm. Finally, two arguments are presented to the effect that, in so far as developed countries accept a major commitment to mitigate climate change, they should also accept a commitment to address or compensate actual harm from...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  10. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  11. Dealing with flood damages: will prevention, mitigation, and ex post compensation provide for a resilient triangle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Suykens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of literature on the design of ex post compensation mechanisms for natural disasters. However, more research needs to be done on the manner in which these mechanisms could steer citizens toward adopting individual-level preventive and protection measures in the face of flood risks. We have provided a comparative legal analysis of the financial compensation mechanisms following floods, be it through insurance, public funds, or a combination of both, with an empirical focus on Belgium, the Netherlands, England, and France. Similarities and differences between the methods in which these compensation mechanisms for flood damages enhance resilience were analyzed. The comparative analysis especially focused on the link between the recovery strategy on the one hand and prevention and mitigation strategies on the other. There is great potential within the recovery strategy for promoting preventive action, for example in terms of discouraging citizens from living in high-risk areas, or encouraging the uptake of mitigation measures, such as adaptive building. However, this large potential has yet to be realized, in part because of insufficient consideration and promotion of these connections within existing legal frameworks. We have made recommendations about how the linkages between strategies can be further improved. These recommendations relate to, among others, the promotion of resilient reinstatement through recovery mechanisms and the removal of legal barriers preventing the establishment of link-inducing measures.

  12. 75 FR 63863 - Division of Federal Employees' Compensation; Proposed Extension of Existing Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... defined by the FECA (5 U.S.C. 8110); (3) compensation may not be paid concurrently with certain benefits..., any compensation benefit, forfeits (as of the date of such conviction) any entitlement to such... compensation benefit can be paid to any individual for any period during which such individual is incarcerated...

  13. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  14. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  15. ACTS Rain Fade Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, Thom A.

    1996-01-01

    Performance status of the Adaptive Rain Fade Compensation includes: (1) The rain fade protocol is functional detecting fades, providing an additional 10 dB of margin and seamless transitions to and from coded operation; (2) The stabilization of the link margins and the optimization of rain fade decision thresholds has resulted in improved BER performance; (3) Characterization of the fade compensation algorithm is ongoing.

  16. Dosage compensation in birds

    OpenAIRE

    McQueen, H A; McBride, D; Miele, G; Bird, A.P.; Clinton, M

    2001-01-01

    The Z and W sex chromosomes of birds have evolved independently from the mammalian X and Y chromosomes [1]. Unlike mammals, female birds are heterogametic (ZW), while males are homogametic (ZZ). Therefore male birds, like female mammals, carry a double dose of sex-linked genes relative to the other sex. Other animals with nonhomologous sex chromosomes possess "dosage compensation" systems to equalize the expression of sex-linked genes. Dosage compensation occurs in animals as diverse as mamma...

  17. Victims' Compensation as a Tool of Therapeutic Justice: Examining the Physical and Mental Health Needs of Victim Compensation Applicants and the Role of Health in Receiving Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Leah E; Guastaferro, Wendy P; Azimi, Andia

    Victims' compensation programs are positioned to serve an important therapeutic role. Their use by persons with physical and mental health problems has not been investigated. This study evaluates the extent to which applicants have physical and mental health needs and whether receiving compensation is related to these needs. Data were part of a larger study designed to assess satisfaction with victim compensation in Georgia. The sample included 500 victim compensation applicants. Individuals were surveyed about their experiences applying for compensation as well as their current wellbeing. Descriptive and multivariate analyses investigated the link between physical and mental health problems and denial of victim compensation. Applicants for crime victim compensation in Georgia experienced a range of physical and mental health problems. Almost half of applicants had been diagnosed with a mental health condition, and 60% had been diagnosed with at least 1 physical health condition. Co-occurring disorders were common. In addition, being denied compensation was significantly related to having a mental health condition and to the number of diagnosed mental health conditions. Crime victim applicants have clear physical and mental health needs. Being denied compensation benefits is related to having a mental health disorder. These results suggest that victim compensation programs can be an intervention point for victims and their families for either receipt of direct service or referral to needed services. In addition, changes in program administration may need to be made to alleviate disparity in award benefit related to mental health status.

  18. 星级饭店薪酬管理存在的问题及对策研究%Research of Problems and Strategies of Compensation Management of Star-related Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡家庆

    2014-01-01

    科学合理的薪酬体系是星级饭店持久稳定发展的基础。在对薪酬管理重要性分析的基础上,指出当前星级饭店薪酬管理存在的问题:薪酬结构相对单一、薪酬管理的价值导向偏离、绩效考核机制缺乏科学性、薪酬体系缺乏动态性、薪酬设计没有突显公平竞争原则。在此基础上提出了相关对策:树立薪酬管理理念、制定明确的薪酬管理目标、以绩效管理为依据完善薪酬体系、使用个性化的薪酬制度,充分考虑文化因素的作用。%Scientific and reasonable compensation management is the foundation of lasting and stable development of star-related hotels. Based on the importance analysis of compensation management,it points out the problems:the compensation structure is relatively simple;the value orientation of compensation management is deviation;the performance evaluation mechanism lacks of scientific;compensation system lacks of dynamic;compensation system lacks of fairness principle.Then it puts forwards some countermeasures:establishes new ideas of compensation management;make clear objectives of compensation management;improve compensation system based on performance management;uses the personalized compensation institution;completely considering the role of cultural factors.

  19. 基于开环控制的启备变电源系统无功补偿控制策略研究%A Discussion on the Control Strategy of Static Var Compensator Based on Open Loop Control for Startup Power Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁延旗; 胡一峰; 朱磊

    2014-01-01

    In power system, static var compensator plays an important role in improving line power factor and the quality of system voltage, but when with the startup power source the static var compensator can hardly have a good compensation effect. The control strategy of static var compensator in startup power source was studied, a method based on open loop control was put forward and the scientificity and rationality of the control strategy was proved through simulation.%在电力系统中,无功补偿装置主要用于提高线路功率因数,改善系统电压质量的作用,但是,在含启备变供电环境下,无功补偿装置想要取得良好的补偿效果就极其困难。对含启备变系统中无功补偿装置的控制策略进行了研究,提出了一种基于开环控制的方法,并通过仿真,验证了控制策略的科学性与合理性。

  20. A Compensation Strategy for Coordinating Dual-channel Supply Chains in E-commerce%电子商务环境下双渠道供应链协调的补偿策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    但斌; 徐广业; 张旭梅

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of E-Commerce, using Internet as a sales channel has received much attention from both the academy and industry. An increased number of companies have used Internet sales channels to reduce costs and expand market. Because of the existence of physical retail stores, Internet sales channels can inevitably lead to channel competition and conflicts, which are both an opportunity and a challenge for companies. The goal of this dissertation is to understand the operating mechanism of dual-channel supply chains and improve their operating efficiency. In this paper the interaction between supply chain members is analyzed through a game model, and the source of the ineffectiveness in dual-channel supply chains is explored and measured. In the end, an optimization and coordination mechanism is proposed.We first consider a centralized system in which all decisions are centralized to maximize performance for the entire supply chain. For instance, a manufacturer is vertically integrated with its retailers in the retailing channel. The vertical integration enables the manufacturer to control both retail price and direct sale price. The centralized system solution serves as a benchmark for the decentralized setting. We then consider a decentralized supply chain using the Stackelberg game. In the decentralized setting, both manufacturer and retailer make their own decisions to maximize individual profits. It is assumed that information on each player's demand function, cost structure, and decision rules is a common knowledge for all the parties concerned. The decision process follows the sequence: (1) a manufacturer as the Stackelberg leader determines the wholesale price and the direct sale price, and (2) a retailer as the follower sets his own optimal retail price based on the manufacturer's decisions. Furthermore, to coordinate the decentralized dual-channel supply chain we propose a new contract as the compensation mechanism to coordinate dual

  1. Self-compassion enhances the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal as an emotion regulation strategy in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Alice; Hofmann, Stefan G; Cuijpers, Pim; Berking, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive reappraisal has been shown to be an effective strategy to regulate depressed mood in healthy and remitted depressed individuals. However, individuals currently suffering from a clinical depression often experience difficulties in utilizing this strategy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal in major depressive disorder can be enhanced through the use of self-compassion and emotion-focused acceptance as preparatory strategies. Thereby, explicit cognitive reappraisal refers to purposefully identifying, challenging, and modifying depressiogenic cognitions to reduce depressed mood. To test our hypotheses, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 54 participants (64.8% female; age M = 35.59, SD = 11.49 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to either wait, or employ self-compassion, acceptance, or reappraisal to regulate their depressed mood. Depressed mood was assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation period on a visual analog scale. Results indicated that participants who had utilized self-compassion as a preparatory strategy experienced a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during reappraisal than did those who had been instructed to wait prior to reappraisal. Participants who had used acceptance as a preparatory strategy did not experience a significantly greater reduction of depressed mood during subsequent reappraisal than those in the waiting condition. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the efficacy of explicit cognitive reappraisal is moderated by the precursory use of other emotion regulation strategies. In particular, they suggest that depressed individuals might benefit from using self-compassion to facilitate the subsequent use of explicit cognitive reappraisal.

  2. One-Way Temperature Compensated Fiber Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    individual compensated links. [1] R. Wynands and S. Weyers, “Atomic Fountain Clocks,” Metrologia , vol. 42, pp. S64-S79, 2005. [2] A. D. Ludlow...3] A. Bauch, et al. ,”Comparison Between Frequency Standards oin Europe and the USA at the 10-15 Uncertainty Level,” Metrologia , vol. 43, pp.109

  3. Executive Compensation: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bognanno, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Chief executive officer (CEO) compensation is defined as the sum of base pay, bonuses, stock grants, stock options, other forms of compensation and benefits. Inflation?adjusted, median total CEO compensation in the United States almost tripled between 1992 and 2000, with grants of stock options evolving to be the largest component of compensation. This article presents the arguments for and against this level and composition of CEO compensation.

  4. Executive Compensation: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bognanno, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Chief executive officer (CEO) compensation is defined as the sum of base pay, bonuses, stock grants, stock options, other forms of compensation and benefits. Inflation?adjusted, median total CEO compensation in the United States almost tripled between 1992 and 2000, with grants of stock options evolving to be the largest component of compensation. This article presents the arguments for and against this level and composition of CEO compensation.

  5. Stealth Compensation via Retirement Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Bebchuk, Lucian Arye

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes an important form of "stealth compensation" provided to managers of public companies. We show how boards have been able to camouflage large amounts of executive compensation through the use of retirement benefits and payments. Our study illustrates the significant role that camouflage and stealth compensation play in the design of compensation arrangements. It also highlights the importance of having information about compensation arrangements not only publicly available b...

  6. Stealth Compensation Via Retirement Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Arye Bebchuk; Fried, Jesse M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes an important form of "stealth compensation" provided to managers of public companies. We show how boards have been able to camouflage large amount of executive compensation through the use of retirement benefits and payments. Our study highlights the significant role that camouflage and stealth compensation play in the design of compensation arrangements. Our study also highlights the significance of whether information about compensation arrangements is not merely publicl...

  7. 新疆少数民族中学生英语学习补偿策略使用情况的调查研究%A Survey of the Use of Compensation Strategies in English Learning Among Ethnic Minority College Students in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚腾龙; 陈嘉云

    2012-01-01

      This paper analyzes the use of compensation strategies among ethnic minority students in Xinjiang in the process of English learning and the comparison of gender differences , then puts forward some suggestions on the ethnic minority English teaching and the use of compensation strategies of English learning%  文章对新疆少数民族学生在英语学习过程中补偿策略的使用状况及其不同性别的使用差异进行了调查分析,并针对少数民族英语教学和英语学习补偿策略的使用提出了一些建议。

  8. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  9. King eiders use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N; O'Brien, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves ("capital") and current diet ("income"). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 +/- 18%, N: 99 +/- 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 +/- 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 +/- 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual variation into

  10. Compensation neurosis rides again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A

    1992-01-01

    Compensation neurosis (CN), also known as accident neurosis, has generally not been considered to be a 'real' disorder. In 1961 it was seemingly laid to rest by Henry Miller, a distinguished neurologist, in a sharp article which appeared in the British Medical Journal. Miller's view of patients who presented psychological symptoms following accidents or traumas was suspicious. Compensated or not, his view seemed to be that they should have their legal process finished as quickly as possible and then they will miraculously convalescence. Miller's work, it appeared, was the coup de grâce for this ill-defined diagnosis. Today, however, compensation neurosis seems to ride again. After a prolonged silence in the psychiatric literature, new papers are emerging, strongly suggesting that this vanishing diagnosis be reconsidered. This new trend will be presented.

  11. Power factor compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barra R, Felipe [Schneider Electric Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    Every company is looking for ways to increase productivity as a way to gain a competitive advantage. Energy is a significant element in making any product and so it is important to assess production processes from an energy perspective. This paper discusses the impact of power factor compensation on energy efficiency. The life cycle solution for energy efficiency involves optimization of active energy using automation and regulation. A brief explanation is given of how each component of a company plays a part in this cycle. Examples include simulations and analysis, modeling, performance monitoring facilities, and environmental sustainability. Reactive energy suppliers and the installation of capacitors are also explained. Types of compensation include fixed and automation compensations. Economic advantages include a reduction in the electricity bill and active energy consumption. Technical advantages include reduction in voltage drop and an increase in available power. The power correction factor also improves reliability and contributes to conservation of the environment.

  12. Climate change and compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Flanagan, Tine Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case for compensation of actual harm from climate change in the poorest countries. First, it is shown that climate change threatens to reverse the fight to eradicate poverty. Secondly, it is shown how the problems raised in the literature for compensation to some extent...... climate change. The first argument appeals to the principle that if it is an injustice to cause risk of incurring harm in the future, then it is also an injustice to cause a similar harm now. The second argument appeals to the principle that if there is moral reason to reduce the risk of specific harms...

  13. 基于负序电压补偿的VSC-HVDC系统的不平衡控制%Unbalanced control strategy based on negative voltage compensation for VSC-HVDC system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨硕; 张卫星; 李德泉

    2012-01-01

    交流系统故障时VSC-HVDC系统的控制策略直接关系到系统的运行和安全性能,具有明显的工程应用价值.建立了交流系统不平衡故障时d-q同步旋转坐标系下系统换流器的正负序数学模型,设计了不平衡条件下的同步相位和正负序分量的实时检测系统.采用非线性系统反馈线性化理论,设计了系统的状态反馈线性化电流解耦控制器.在此基础上设计了负序电压补偿的不平衡控制系统,在有效抑制负序电流的同时,简化了控制系统结构.基于PSIM的数字仿真,验证了所设计的控制器具有良好的控制性能.%The control strategy for unbalanced VSC-HVDC system is directly related to its function and security, so it has a great importance for the engineering. The paper builds a positive and negative mathematical model of VSC in d-q synchronous reference frame, and designs a detecting system of synchronous phase and positive and negative component under unbalanced condition. By using nonlinear transformation and nonlinear system feedback linearization theory, the state-feedback linearization decoupling controller for VSC-HVDC system is established. Finally, the paper designs an unbalanced control strategy based on negative voltage compensation for VSC-HVDC. Besides restraining the negative current, it also simplifies the structure of the control system. The digital simulation based on PSIM proves the designed controller has good control performance.

  14. Paying Teachers for Their Worth: Policies on Teacher Compensation at the School District and Regional Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James E.; Brown, Kathleen Sullivan

    This study reviewed the historical development of the teacher-compensation paradigm, discussed the current trends in alternative compensation policy strategies, and examined the teacher-compensation policies and practices in one state. The study was a mixed-methods policy analysis that used multiple linear regression, cluster analysis, and…

  15. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... are performed for a power system including the dispersed generation units connected into the system through power electronic converters and diode rectifier loads, which produce the distorted waveforms. The simulation results have demonstrated that good compensation effects can be achieved by using the combined...

  16. Gauging the gaps in student problem-solving skills: assessment of individual and group use of problem-solving strategies using online discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L; Mitchell, Steven M; Osgood, Marcy P

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.

  17. Effects of Pain Acceptance and Pain Control Strategies on Physical Impairment in Individuals with Chronic Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowles, Kevin E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Gross, Richard T.; McDaniel, Michael L.; Mouse, Angela; Bates, Mick; Gallimore, Paula; McCall, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial treatments for chronic pain are effective. There is a need, however, to understand the processes involved in determining how these treatments contribute to behavior change. Control and acceptance strategies represent two potentially important processes involved in treatment, although they differ significantly in approach. Results from…

  18. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.L.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, J.A.; Koch, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ15N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ15N values increased throughout life, 2) δ15N values increased to a plateau at ~5 years of age, and 3) δ15N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ13Cshark-diet and Δ15Nshark-diet equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and individual dietary

  19. Successful Organizational Strategies to Sustain Use of A-CHESS: A Mobile Intervention for Individuals With Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James H; Alagoz, Esra; Dinauer, Susan; Johnson, Kimberly A; Pe-Romashko, Klaren; Gustafson, David H

    2015-08-18

    Mobile health (mHealth) services are growing in importance in health care research with the advancement of wireless networks, tablets, and mobile phone technologies. These technologies offer a wide range of applications that cover the spectrum of health care delivery. Although preliminary experiments in mHealth demonstrate promising results, more robust real-world evidence is needed for widespread adoption and sustainment of these technologies. Our aim was to identify the problems/challenges associated with sustained use of an mHealth addiction recovery support app and to determine strategies used by agencies that successfully sustained client use of A-CHESS. Qualitative inquiry assessed staff perceptions about organizational attributes and strategies associated with sustained use of the mobile app, A-CHESS. A total of 73 interviews of clinicians and administrators were conducted. The initial interviews (n=36) occurred at the implementation of A-CHESS. Follow-up interviews (n=37) occurred approximately 12 and 24 months later. A coding scheme was developed and Multiuser NVivo was used to manage and analyze the blinded interview data. Successful strategies used by treatment providers to sustain A-CHESS included (1) strong leadership support, (2) use of client feedback reports to follow up on non-engaged clients, (3) identify passionate staff and incorporate A-CHESS discussions in weekly meetings, (4) develop A-CHESS guidelines related to client use, (5) establish internal work groups to engage clients, and (6) establish a financial strategy to sustain A-CHESS use. The study also identified attributes of A-CHESS that enhanced as well as inhibited its sustainability. Mobile apps can play an important role in health care delivery. However, providers will need to develop strategies for engaging both staff and patients in ongoing use of the apps. They will also need to rework business processes to accommodate the changes in communication frequency and style, learn to use

  20. Forest ecosystem services and eco-compensation mechanisms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  1. Forest Ecosystem Services and Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  2. Perception of Interannual Covariation and Strategies for Risk Reduction among Mikea of Madagascar : Individual and Social Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram

    2007-06-01

    This paper begins with the hypothesis that Mikea, participants in a mixed foraging-fishing-farming-herding economy of southwestern Madagascar, may attempt to reduce interannual variance in food supply caused by unpredictable rainfall by following a simple rule-of-thumb: Practice an even mix of activities that covary positively with rainfall and activities that covary negatively with rainfall. Results from a historical matrix participatory exercise confirm that Mikea perceive that foraging and farming outcomes covary positively or negatively with rainfall. This paper further considers whether Mikea learn about covariation through personal observation and memory recall (individual learning) or through socially transmitted ethnotheory (social learning). Dual inheritance theory models by Boyd and Richerson (1988) predict that individual learning is more effective in spatially and temporally variable environments such as the Mikea Forest. In contrast, the psychological literature suggests that individuals judge covariation poorly when memory of past events is required, unless they share a socially learned theory that a covariation should exist (Nisbett and Ross 1980). Results suggest that Mikea rely heavily on shared ethnotheory when judging covariation, but individuals continually strive to improve their judgment through individual observation.

  3. Formula Based Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Doug; Picus, Lawrence O.

    1999-01-01

    Recognizing that traditional salary bargaining is divisive and that teacher salaries should remain competitive, Temple City (California) Unified School District has been experimenting with formula-based compensation for the past four years. Primary benefits are lack of conflict over salary increases, which are determined before negotiating other…

  4. Software compensation in Particle Flow reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Lan Tran, Huong; Sefkow, Felix; Green, Steven; Marshall, John; Thomson, Mark; Simon, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The Particle Flow approach to calorimetry requires highly granular calorimeters and sophisticated software algorithms in order to reconstruct and identify individual particles in complex event topologies. The high spatial granularity, together with analog energy information, can be further exploited in software compensation. In this approach, the local energy density is used to discriminate electromagnetic and purely hadronic sub-showers within hadron showers in the detector to improve the energy resolution for single particles by correcting for the intrinsic non-compensation of the calorimeter system. This improvement in the single particle energy resolution also results in a better overall jet energy resolution by improving the energy measurement of identified neutral hadrons and improvements in the pattern recognition stage by a more accurate matching of calorimeter energies to tracker measurements. This paper describes the software compensation technique and its implementation in Particle Flow reconstruct...

  5. Compensation for a bad start: grow now, pay later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, N B.; Monaghan, P

    2001-05-01

    Nutritional conditions during key periods of development, when the architecture and modus operandi of the body become established, are of profound importance in determining the subsequent life-history trajectory of an organism. If developing individuals experience a period of nutritional deficit, they can subsequently show accelerated growth should conditions improve, apparently compensating for the initial setback. However, recent research suggests that, although compensatory growth can bring quick benefits, it is also associated with a surprising variety of costs that are often not evident until much later in adult life. Clearly, the nature of these costs, the timescale over which they are incurred and the mechanisms underlying them will play a crucial role in determining compensatory strategies. Nonetheless, such effects remain poorly understood and largely neglected by ecologists and evolutionary biologists.

  6. The Influence of Compensation on Performance of Sales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    ... should be a plank to determine their compensation and salary should be emphasized ... effective in encouraging greater sales effort. To build a .... managers, today individual incentive plans also pay people based on output or even quality.

  7. 基于Buck交-交斩波器的无功补偿器拓扑与控制方法设计%Topology and Control Strategy Design for Buck AC-AC Chopper Based Var Compensators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武伟; 谢少军; 汤雨; 许津铭

    2013-01-01

    首先介绍了一种新的交流斩波型无功补偿器,无需直流储能环节,系统可靠性得到加强.以Buck型交流斩波无功补偿器为对象,分析了交流斩波无功补偿的基本原理和补偿特性,推导出占空比与补偿电流之间的关系,建立了系统分析模型.在此基础上,提出了基于广义积分的直接电流控制策略,并给出了参数设计准则,最后进行了仿真和实验验证.仿真和实验结果表明,基于直接电流控制的Buck型交流斩波无功补偿器可以实现对网侧无功功率的实时补偿.%A new AC-AC chopper based var compensator is proposed. It does not require the DC-link energy storage and can effectively enhance the system reliability. The basic principles and compensation characteristics of the Buck AC/AC chopper based var compensator are described, the relationship between duty ratio and compensation current is derived, and the system analysis model is developed. A new direct current control method based on the second order generalized integral is proposed for the var compensator with detailed design criteria as well. The experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the realtime compensation of reactive power in grid side can be realized by this var compensator based on a direct current controlled Buck AC/AC chopper.

  8. Individual differences in reproductive strategy are related to views about recreational drug use in Belgium, the Netherlands and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintelier, K.J.P.; Ishii, K.; Weeden, J.; Kurzban, R.; Braeckman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in moral views are often explained as the downstream effect of ideological commitments, such as political orientation and religiosity. Recent studies in the U.S. suggest that moral views about recreational drug use are also influenced by attitudes toward sex and that this rela

  9. BRAZILIAN INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES FOR CHINA AND THEIR REFLECTIONS IN THE INTERCULTURAL ADJUSTMENT OF THE BRAZILIAN EXPATRIATE INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletéia Carpes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for sites with greater strategic location advantage for the development of activities means that for some companies in the footwear sector, China represents a favorable site for the establishment of factories and commercial offices. The transfer of activities to foreign territory accords the inherent benefits of proximity to the chosen country, but highlights the challenges of choosing and preparing people for appropriate international action and following up on the development of selected work abroad. Business performance abroad is influenced by the performance of the individual expatriate, and the greater the difference of culture experienced between the country of origin and the country to which the individual will relocate, the lower the psychological comfort of the expatriate. Knowing this, this study’s objective was to check the reflection of the internationalization of China in the individual expatriate intercultural adjustment, through the Black model, Mendehall and Oddou (1991. Among other findings, researchers noted the absence of advance directives coming from the expatriate company, the obstacle of psychic distance in the adjustment of the individual, and the reactive posture of Brazilians as a way of adjusting to the circumstance.

  10. Assessment of Motor Control during Three-Dimensional Movements Tracking with Position-Varying Gravity Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Active movements are important in the rehabilitation training for patients with neurological motor disorders, while weight of upper limb impedes movements due to muscles weakness. The objective of this study is to develop a position-varying gravity compensation strategy for a cable-based rehabilitation robot. The control strategy can estimate real-time gravity torque according to position feedback. Then, the performance of this control strategy was compared with the other two kinds of gravity compensation strategies (i.e., without compensation and with fixed compensation during movements tracking. Seven healthy subjects were invited to conduct tracking tasks along four different directions (i.e., upward, forward, leftward, and rightward. The performance of movements with different compensation strategies was compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE between target and actual moving trajectories, normalized jerk score (NJS, mean velocity ratio (MVR of main motion direction, and the activation of six muscles. The results showed that there were significant effects in control strategies in all four directions with the RMSE and NJS values in the following order: without compensation > fixed compensation > position-varying compensation and MVR values in the following order: without compensation < fixed compensation < position-varying compensation (p < 0.05. Comparing with movements without compensation in all four directions, the activation of muscles during movements with position-varying compensation showed significant reductions, except the activations of triceps and in forward and leftward movements, the activations of upper trapezius and middle parts of deltoid in upward movements and the activations of posterior parts of deltoid in all four directions (p < 0.05. Therefore, with position-varying gravity compensation, the upper limb cable-based rehabilitation robotic system might assist subjects to perform movements with higher quality and

  11. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  12. Practical Strategies for Promoting Full Inclusion of Individuals with Disabilities in Community-Based Participatory Intervention Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hassouneh, Dena; Alcala-Moss, Amana; McNeff, E.

    2011-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with disability communities is directed toward facilitating full inclusion of individuals with disabilities and disability community organizations in all aspects of the research process. Within the CBPR framework, academic-disability community partners may value and wish to use experimental designs to test interventions. Being aware of and proactively addressing barriers and challenges to inclusion in the areas of human resources, training, produc...

  13. 三相软开关PWM变流器电流极性检测与电流补偿方法%Current Polarity Detection and Current Compensation Strategy for PAC Based Three-Phase ZVS PWM Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈克庆; 陈国呈; 孙承波

    2005-01-01

    A novel software implementation for current polarity detection and current compensation is presented. For a three-phase zero-voltage soft-switching (ZVS) PWM converter based on phase and amplitude control (PAC), when saw-tooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes are adopted, the positive or negative slopes are chosen according to the phase current polarity. Since polarity reversal causes current distortion, current at the instant of reversal should be compensated for. Based on the characteristic of unity power factor converter in rectification and regeneration modes, a software implementation for current polarity detection is proposed.Distortion of current zero-crossing caused by using saw-tooth carriers with alternate positive and negative slopes is analyzed, and the relevant compensation method is proposed. Experimental study with a 1.5 kW device shows that phase current has a small harmonic content and power factor is high both in rectification and regeneration modes.

  14. Deferred Compensation Becomes More Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey Williams

    2006-01-01

    A key part of the compensation package for some college and university presidents is money that they do not receive in their paychecks. Formally known as deferred compensation, such payments can take many forms, including supplemental retirement pay, severance pay, or even bonuses. With large institutions leading the way, deferred compensation has…

  15. How religious coping is used relative to other coping strategies depends on the individual's level of religiosity and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krägeloh, Christian U; Chai, Penny Pei Minn; Shepherd, Daniel; Billington, Rex

    2012-12-01

    Results from empirical studies on the role of religiosity and spirituality in dealing with stress are frequently at odds, and the present study investigated whether level of religiosity and spirituality is related to the way in which religious coping is used relative to other coping strategies. A sample of 616 university undergraduate students completed the Brief COPE (Carver in Int J Behav Med 4:92-100, 1997) questionnaire and was classified into groups of participants with lower and higher levels of religiosity and spirituality, as measured by the WHOQOL-SRPB (WHOQOL-SRPB Group in Soc Sci Med 62:1486-1497, 2006) instrument. For participants with lower levels, religious coping tended to be associated with maladaptive or avoidant coping strategies, compared to participants with higher levels, where religious coping was more closely related to problem-focused coping, which was also supported by multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the present study thus illustrate that investigating the role of religious coping requires more complex approaches than attempting to assign it to one higher order factor, such as problem- or emotion-focused coping, and that the variability of findings reported by previous studies on the function of religious coping may partly be due to variability in religiosity and spirituality across samples.

  16. Compensability index for compensation radiotherapy after treatment interruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putora Paul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our work was to develop a simple method to evaluate a compensation treatment after unplanned treatment interruptions with respect to their tumour- and normal tissue effect. Methods We developed a software tool in java programming language based on existing recommendations to compensate for treatment interruptions. In order to express and visualize the deviations from the originally planned tumour and normal tissue effects we defined the compensability index. Results The compensability index represents an evaluation of the suitability of compensatory radiotherapy in a single number based on the number of days used for compensation and the preference of preserving the originally planned tumour effect or not exceeding the originally planned normal tissue effect. An automated tool provides a method for quick evaluation of compensation treatments. Conclusions The compensability index calculation may serve as a decision support system based on existing and established recommendations.

  17. Compensation for Occupational Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    The legal scope and criteria for occupational cancer in Korea was out of date. The aim of this study was to review the current criteria for occupational cancer and amend the existent criteria on the basis of recent scientific evidence. The scientific evidence and the legal list of occupational cancer were analyzed to identify the causes of occupational cancer on a global scale. The relationship between compensated occupational cancer cases and carcinogen exposure in Korea was examined. The fa...

  18. Molecular imaging of HER2-positive breast cancer: a step toward an individualized 'image and treat' strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capala, Jacek; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    HER2 overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. Therefore, HER2 has become an important prognostic and predictive factor, as well as a target for molecular therapies. The article reviews recent advances in molecular imaging of HER2 that could facilitate...... individual approaches to targeted therapy of HER2-positive breast cancers.......HER2 overexpression is correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and poor clinical outcome. Therefore, HER2 has become an important prognostic and predictive factor, as well as a target for molecular therapies. The article reviews recent advances in molecular imaging of HER2 that could facilitate...

  19. Endovascular biopsy: Strategy for analyzing gene expression profiles of individual endothelial cells obtained from human vessels(✩).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengda; Lawson, Devon A; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V; Werb, Zena; Su, Hua; Cooke, Daniel L

    2015-09-01

    To develop a strategy of achieving targeted collection of endothelial cells (ECs) by endovascular methods and analyzing the gene expression profiles of collected single ECs. 134 ECs and 37 leukocytes were collected from four patients' intra-iliac artery endovascular guide wires by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and analyzed by single-cell quantitative RT-PCR for expression profile of 48 genes. Compared to CD45(+) leukocytes, the ECs expressed higher levels (p < 0.05) of EC surface markers used on FACS and other EC related genes. The gene expression profile showed that these isolated ECs fell into two clusters, A and B, that differentially expressed 19 genes related to angiogenesis, inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling, with cluster B ECs have demonstrating similarities to senescent or aging ECs. Combination of endovascular device sampling, FACS and single-cell quantitative RT-PCR is a feasible method for analyzing EC gene expression profile in vascular lesions.

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Individuals with Disabilities: A Behavior Analytic Strategy for Addressing Private Events in Challenging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Audrey N; Contreras, Bethany P; Clay, Casey J; Twohig, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Applied behavior analysts work with many populations including individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities. Although behavior analysts have a variety of empirically supported treatments to implement when working with individuals with disabilities, sometimes, other variables may adversely impact treatment effectiveness. The degree to which problematic thoughts and feelings (private events) influence behavior may be a variable that contributes to treatment efficacy. Traditional behavior analytic services are not always equipped to successfully address the private events influencing client behavior. In such cases, it may be beneficial for behavior analysts to consider additional philosophically aligned treatments for private events. One such treatment, acceptance and commitment therapy, may be a useful tool for behavior analysts to incorporate into their toolbox in order to help clients. The purpose of this paper is to introduce behavior analysts to a potential solution to the problem of effectively addressing private events in behavior analytic services. We then propose a model for thinking about private events in relation to clients with disabilities and present a guide for taking steps to address private events in the clinical setting. We conclude this paper with a call for research and present a possible research agenda for behavior analysts.

  1. Using brain-based measures to compose teams: how individual capabilities and team collaboration strategies jointly shape performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Anita Williams; Hackman, J Richard; Jerde, Thomas E; Chabris, Christopher F; Bennett, Sean L; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Advances in understanding neural processes open the possibility of using brain-based measures to compose collaborative work teams. Neuroimaging studies have shown that individual differences in patterns of brain activity can predict differences in performance of specific tasks. We extended this finding by examining performance not simply by a single brain, but by pairs of brains. We used measures derived from brain-based studies to compose 100 two-person teams in which members' roles were either congruent or incongruent with their individual abilities. The assessed abilities are rooted in the visual system, which comprises independent "spatial" and "object" subsystems. The team task required one member to navigate through a virtual maze (a spatial task) and the other to remember "tag" repetitions of complex "greebles" (an object-properties task). Teams in which members' role assignments were congruent with their abilities performed better than incongruent teams and teams in which both members scored high on only one of the abilities. In addition, verbal collaboration enabled members of incongruent teams to overcome their compositional disadvantage but did not enhance the performance of congruent teams-and actually impaired performance in teams in which both members were adept in only one of the two necessary abilities. The findings show that knowledge about brain systems can not only be used to compose teams, but also provides insights into how teams can best perform.

  2. Individual participation in intergroup contests is mediated by numerical assessment strategies in black howler and tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Sarie; Scarry, Clara J

    2015-12-01

    Asymmetries in resource-holding potential between opposing groups frequently determine outcomes of intergroup contests. Since both numerical superiority and high intergroup dominance rank may confer competitive advantages, group members should benefit from assessing the relative strength of rivals prior to engaging in defensive displays. However, differences in individual assessment may emerge when cost-benefit trade-offs differ among group members. We examine the influence of numerical superiority and intergroup dominance relationships on individual participation in intergroup encounters in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus). Black howlers responded with longer vocal displays during encounters with neighbours with an equal number of resident males, while tufted capuchins increased their participation with increasing relative male group size. Within each species, males and females responded similarly to varying numerical odds, suggesting that despite pay-off asymmetries between males and females, both sexes were similarly influenced by numerical asymmetries in deciding to participate in collective group defence. Whereas the outcome of contests among tufted capuchins was determined by relative male group size, reflected in a pronounced intergroup dominance hierarchy, the absence of dominance relationships among black howler groups may have provoked prolonged vocal displays in order to assess rival groups with matching competitive abilities.

  3. Distrust as a Disease-Avoidance Strategy:Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity Regulate Generalized Social Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Aarøe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout human evolutionary history, cooperative contact with others has been fundamental for human survival. At the same time, social contact has been a source of threats. In this article, we focus on one particular viable threat, communicable disease, and investigate how motivations to avoid pathogens influence people's propensity to interact and cooperate with others, as measured by individual differences in generalized social trust. While extant studies on pathogen avoidance have argued that such motivations should prompt people to avoid interactions with outgroups specifically, we argue that these motivations should prompt people to avoid others more broadly. Empirically, we utilise two convenience samples and a large nationally representative sample of US citizens to demonstrate the existence of a robust and replicable effect of individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalized social trust. We furthermore compare the effects of pathogen disgust sensitivity on generalised social trust and outgroup prejudice and explore whether generalised social trust to some extent constitutes a pathway between pathogen avoidance motivations and prejudice.

  4. 75 FR 49595 - Performance of Functions; Claims for Compensation Under the Federal Employees' Compensation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ...-free number). Individuals with hearing or speech impairments may access this telephone number via TTY...' Compensation Programs, U.S. Department of Labor, Room S-3524, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC... an alternative format, contact OWCP at 202-693-0031 (this is not a toll-free number)....

  5. Joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining with feedback error compensation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Seyeong

    2009-11-01

    This letter investigates the effect of feedback error on the performance of the joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (AMDC) scheme which was previously studied with an assumption of error-free feedback channels. We also propose to utilize adaptive diversity to compensate for the performance degradation due to feedback error. We accurately quantify the performance of the joint AMDC scheme in the presence of feedback error, in terms of the average number of combined paths, the average spectral efficiency, and the average bit error rate. Selected numerical examples are presented and discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed feedback error compensation strategy with adaptive combining. It is observed that the proposed compensation strategy can offer considerable error performance improvement with little loss in processing power and spectral efficiency in comparison with the no compensation case. Copyright © 2009 IEEE.

  6. Predicting short-term positive affect in individuals with social anxiety disorder: The role of selected personality traits and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Jaclyn S; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C

    2015-08-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interventions to address chronic disease and HIV: strategies to promote exercise and nutrition among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Diana; Somarriba, Gabriel; Neri, Daniela; Miller, Tracie L

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments.

  8. A Feed-forward Geometrical Compensation and Adaptive Feedback Control Algorithm for Hydraulic Robot Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Zhou, Jianjun; Gabacik, Andrzej;

    1998-01-01

    Invited paper presents a new control algorithm based on feed-forward geometrical compensation strategy combined with adaptive feedback control.......Invited paper presents a new control algorithm based on feed-forward geometrical compensation strategy combined with adaptive feedback control....

  9. Practice and exploration of exploration og compensation system design in hospital strategy%医院战略薪酬体系设计的实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立启; 苗志敏; 修海清; 李玉明; 杨士进; 王洪涛

    2008-01-01

    Strategic compensation management is an important topic of modern hospital administration. The design of the compensation system is not only a technical work, but also a kind of strategic thinking. In order to promote a sustained development of the hospital to achieve its strategic objectives, we must consider strategically the intrinsic relationship between the salary distribution and strategic objectives of the hospital, and the unique role and the inter-relationship of the salary distribution system based on the overall allocation framework, and then design the distribution system from the technical aspects to ensure an effective practice of the compensation system. This article aims to summarize the experience of the authors in the practice and exploration of designing the strategic compensation system in order to provide some useful information for further improving the hospital compensation management system in China.%战略薪酬管理是现代医院管理的重要命题,薪酬体系的设计不仅是一项技术工作,也是一种战略思考.要使薪酬体系持久地促进医院往战略目标方向发展,就必须从医院战略层面上思考薪酬分配与战略目标的内在关系,从整体薪酬分配框架来考虑薪酬分配制度的独特作用和相互关系,再从技术层面上来设计各项分配制度,使薪酬制度能够有效运用.文章总结了我院战略薪酬体系设计的实践与探索,以期为今后进一步完善我国薪酬管理体系提供参考.

  10. Language Attitudes, Language Learning Experiences and Individual Strategies What Does School Offer and What Does It Lack?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tódor Erika-Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Language learners’ attitudes towards the language and its speakers greatly influence the language learning process and the learning outcomes. Previous research and studies on attitudes and motivation in language learning (Csizér 2007, Dörnyei 2009 show that attitudes and motivation are strongly intertwined. Positive attitude towards the language and its speakers can lead to increased motivation, which then results in better learning achievement and a positive attitude towards learning the language. The aim of the present study was to get a better insight into what regards the language attitudes of students attending Hungarian minority schools in Romania. The interest of the study lies in students’ attitudes towards the different languages, the factors/criteria along which they express their language attitudes, students’ learning experiences and strategies that they consider efficient and useful in order to acquire a language. Results suggest that students’ attitudes are determined by their own experiences of language use, and in this sense we can differentiate between a language for identification – built upon specific emotional, affective, and cognitive factors – and language for communication.

  11. Domestic cat walking parallels human constrained optimization: optimization strategies and the comparison of normal and sensory deficient individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, John E A; Gutmann, Anne; Randev, Jabina; Hulliger, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate how fundamental gait parameters used in walking (stride length, frequency, speed) are selected by cats we compared stride characteristics selected when walking on a solid surface to those selected when they were constrained to specific stride lengths using a pedestal walkway. Humans spontaneously select substantially different stride length-stride frequency-speed relationships in walking when each of these parameters is constrained, as in walking to a metronome beat (frequency constrained), evenly spaced floor markers (stride length constrained) or on a treadmill (speed constrained). In humans such adjustments largely provide energetic economy under the prescribed walking conditions. Cats show a similar shift in gait parameter selection between conditions as observed in humans. This suggests that cats (and by extension, quadrupedal mammals) also select gait parameters to optimize walking cost-effectiveness. Cats with a profound peripheral sensory deficit (from pyridoxine overdose) appeared to parallel the optimization seen in healthy cats, but without the same level of precision. Recent studies in humans suggest that gait optimization may proceed in two stages - a fast perception-based stage that provides the initial gait selection strategy which is then fine-tuned by feedback. The sensory deficit cats appeared unable to accomplish the feedback-dependent aspect of this process.

  12. Contouring error compensation on a micro coordinate measuring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Wang, Hung-Yu; Ye, Jyun-Kuan

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional measurements of nano-technology researches have received a great attention in the world. Based on the high accuracy demand, the error compensation of measurement machine is very important. In this study, a high precision Micro-CMM (coordinate measuring machine) has been developed which is composed of a coplanar stage for reducing the Abbé error in the vertical direction, the linear diffraction grating interferometer (LDGI) as the position feedback sensor in nanometer resolution, and ultrasonic motors for position control. This paper presents the error compensation strategy including "Home accuracy" and "Position accuracy" in both axes. For the home error compensation, we utilize a commercial DVD pick-up head and its S-curve principle to accurately search the origin of each axis. For the positioning error compensation, the absolute positions relative to the home are calibrated by laser interferometer and the error budget table is stored for feed forward error compensation. Contouring error can thus be compensated if both the compensation of both X and Y positioning errors are applied. Experiments show the contouring accuracy can be controlled to within 50nm after compensation.

  13. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  14. Analysis of pairwise correlations in multi-parametric PET/MR data for biological tumor characterization and treatment individualization strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfarth, Sara; Moennich, David; Thorwarth, Daniela [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section for Biomedical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Simoncic, Urban [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section for Biomedical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Welz, Stefan; Zips, Daniel [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Schmidt, Holger; Schwenzer, Nina [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this pilot study was to explore simultaneous functional PET/MR for biological characterization of tumors and potential future treatment adaptations. To investigate the extent of complementarity between different PET/MR-based functional datasets, a pairwise correlation analysis was performed. Functional datasets of N=15 head and neck (HN) cancer patients were evaluated. For patients of group A (N=7), combined PET/MR datasets including FDG-PET and ADC maps were available. Patients of group B (N=8) had FMISO-PET, DCE-MRI and ADC maps from combined PET/MRI, an additional dynamic FMISO-PET/CT acquired directly after FMISO tracer injection as well as an FDG-PET/CT acquired a few days earlier. From DCE-MR, parameter maps K{sup trans}, v{sub e} and v{sub p} were obtained with the extended Tofts model. Moreover, parameter maps of mean DCE enhancement, ΔS{sub DCE}, and mean FMISO signal 0-4 min p.i., anti A{sub FMISO}, were derived. Pairwise correlations were quantified using the Spearman correlation coefficient (r) on both a voxel and a regional level within the gross tumor volume. Between some pairs of functional imaging modalities moderate correlations were observed with respect to the median over all patient datasets, whereas distinct correlations were only present on an individual basis. Highest inter-modality median correlations on the voxel level were obtained for FDG/FMISO (r = 0.56), FDG/ anti A{sub FMISO} (r = 0.55), anti A{sub FMISO}/ΔS{sub DCE} (r = 0.46), and FDG/ADC (r = -0.39). Correlations on the regional level showed comparable results. The results of this study suggest that the examined functional datasets provide complementary information. However, only pairwise correlations were examined, and correlations could still exist between combinations of three or more datasets. These results might contribute to the future design of individually adapted treatment approaches based on multiparametric functional imaging.

  15. Biologically Informed Individual-Based Network Model for Rift Valley Fever in the US and Evaluation of Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoglio, Caterina M.

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa with periodic outbreaks in human and animal populations. Mosquitoes are the primary disease vectors; however, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) can also spread by direct contact with infected tissues. The transmission cycle is complex, involving humans, livestock, and multiple species of mosquitoes. The epidemiology of RVFV in endemic areas is strongly affected by climatic conditions and environmental variables. In this research, we adapt and use a network-based modeling framework to simulate the transmission of RVFV among hypothetical cattle operations in Kansas, US. Our model considers geo-located livestock populations at the individual level while incorporating the role of mosquito populations and the environment at a coarse resolution. Extensive simulations show the flexibility of our modeling framework when applied to specific scenarios to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of mosquito control and livestock movement regulations in reducing the extent and intensity of RVF outbreaks in the United States. PMID:27662585

  16. “对证选配”助听器%Individualized Hearing Aid Fitting Strategies:Basics and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建一; 西品香; 马佳; 李媛媛

    2013-01-01

    The maximization of comfortableness and intelligibility for hearing aid users are two objectives in hearing aid fitting. When fitting hearing aids for people with sensorineural hearing loss, the hearing aid fitters are supposed to conduct accurate audiological evaluation, choose and fit hearing aids according to individual conditions, assess the effects of hearing aids properly, have a good command of necessary psychological knowledge and have a good affinity, language ability and ability to communicate with hearing-impaired people.%  助听器配戴者的舒适度和清晰度最大化是助听器验配的两大目标。助听器验配师在为感音神经性聋患者验配助听器时,应进行准确的听力学评估,对证选择助听器,对证调试助听器,科学评估助听器的效果,掌握必要的心理学知识,并具备良好的亲和力、表达能力和沟通能力。

  17. Vestibular compensation and vestibular rehabilitation. Current concepts and new trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveze, A; Bernard-Demanze, L; Xavier, F; Lavieille, J-P; Elziere, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the vestibular compensation and demonstrating how the vestibular rehabilitation is conducted to help the recovery of balance function. Vestibular rehabilitation is based on improving the natural phenomenon called vestibular compensation that occurs after acute vestibular disturbance or chronic and gradual misbalance. Central compensation implies three main mechanisms namely adaptation, substitution and habituation. The compensation, aided by the rehabilitation aimed to compensate and/or to correct the underused or misused of the visual, proprioceptive and vestibular inputs involved in the postural control. As the strategy of equilibration is not corrected, the patient is incompletely cured and remains with inappropriate balance control with its significance on the risk of fall and impact on quality of life. The vestibular rehabilitation helps to correct inappropriate strategy of equilibrium or to accelerate a good but slow compensation phenomenon. Nowadays, new tools are more and more employed for the diagnosis of vestibular deficit (that may include various sources of impairment), the assessment of postural deficit, the control of the appropriate strategy as well to facilitate the efficiency of the rehabilitation especially in elderly people.

  18. 个体能力发展的相关方法与策略途径研究%Methods and Strategies for Individual Capacity Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国权; 孙锐

    2011-01-01

    员工个体能力发展在塑造和保持企业核心能力方面扮演着重要角色。在对个体能力的内涵和相关发展属性分析的基础上,总结、归纳了个体能力发展的基本方式和具体方法,然后从"能力获取"的角度出发,将个体能力发展划分为体验、交流、解读、反思等四种策略途径。在建立个体能力发展途径框架的基础上,讨论了不同具体能力发展方法所涉及的策略要素以及相关方法的衍生开发。%Employee capacity development plays an important role in shaping and maintaining core capacity of enterprises.In this paper,based on exploration the content and attribute of individual capacity,we summarized the basic methods and means of individual capacity development.From the point of 'ability obtaining',we examined four strategies for employee capacity development: experience,communication,interpretation,and reflection.On the basis of such framework,we discuss the elements and specific approach in different strategies.

  19. From individual coping strategies to illness codification: the reflection of gender in social science research on multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Geneviève; Lippel, Katherine

    2014-09-10

    Emerging fields such as environmental health have been challenged, in recent years, to answer the growing methodological calls for a finer integration of sex and gender in health-related research and policy-making. Through a descriptive examination of 25 peer-reviewed social science papers published between 1996 and 2011, we explore, by examining methodological designs and theoretical standpoints, how the social sciences have integrated gender sensitivity in empirical work on Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS). MCS is a "diagnosis" associated with sensitivities to chronic and low-dose chemical exposures, which remains contested in both the medical and institutional arenas, and is reported to disproportionately affect women. We highlighted important differences between papers that did integrate a gender lens and those that did not. These included characteristics of the authorship, purposes, theoretical frameworks and methodological designs of the studies. Reviewed papers that integrated gender tended to focus on the gender roles and identity of women suffering from MCS, emphasizing personal strategies of adaptation. More generally, terminological confusions in the use of sex and gender language and concepts, such as a conflation of women and gender, were observed. Although some men were included in most of the study samples reviewed, specific data relating to men was undereported in results and only one paper discussed issues specifically experienced by men suffering from MCS. Papers that overlooked gender dimensions generally addressed more systemic social issues such as the dynamics of expertise and the medical codification of MCS, from more consistently outlined theoretical frameworks. Results highlight the place for a critical, systematic and reflexive problematization of gender and for the development of methodological and theoretical tools on how to integrate gender in research designs when looking at both micro and macro social dimensions of environmental

  20. Effects of an individual weight-adjusted feeding strategy in early lactation on milk production of Holstein cows during extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Friggens, N.C.; Taghipoor, M.

    2016-01-01

    % primiparous cows. The cows were divided into 2 feeding strategies: half of the cows received a high-energy density diet (HD) in early lactation followed by a lower-energy density diet (LD; strategy HD-LD). The change in diet was defined individually after 42 d of lactation, and when the live weight (LW) gain...... of the cow was ≥0 based on a 5-d average. The other half of the cows were fed the LD diet during the entire lactation (strategy LD-LD). Both groups received 3 kg of concentrates per day during milking. Weekly milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cells), daily milk production, daily feed...... and treatment effects using a linear mixed-effects model. The HD-LD and LD-LD cows had a similar length of lactation (461 ± 7 d). The HD diet reduced the intensity of the mobilization period and increased the milk production of the multiparous cows in early lactation compared with the cows fed the LD diet...

  1. A practical strategy for sEMG-based knee joint moment estimation during gait and its validation in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Suncheol; Park, Hyung-Soon; Stanley, Christopher J; Kim, Jung; Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L

    2012-05-01

    Individuals with cerebral palsy have neurological deficits that may interfere with motor function and lead to abnormal walking patterns. It is important to know the joint moment generated by the patient's muscles during walking in order to assist the suboptimal gait patterns. In this paper, we describe a practical strategy for estimating the internal moment of a knee joint from surface electromyography (sEMG) and knee joint angle measurements. This strategy requires only isokinetic knee flexion and extension tests to obtain a relationship between the sEMG and the knee internal moment, and it does not necessitate comprehensive laboratory calibration, which typically requires a 3-D motion capture system and ground reaction force plates. Four estimation models were considered based on different assumptions about the functions of the relevant muscles during the isokinetic tests and the stance phase of walking. The performance of the four models was evaluated by comparing the estimated moments with the gold standard internal moment calculated from inverse dynamics. The results indicate that an optimal estimation model can be chosen based on the degree of cocontraction. The estimation error of the chosen model is acceptable (normalized root-mean-squared error: 0.15-0.29, R: 0.71-0.93) compared to previous studies (Doorenbosch and Harlaar, 2003; Doorenbosch and Harlaar, 2004; Doorenbosch, Joosten, and Harlaar, 2005), and this strategy provides a simple and effective solution for estimating knee joint moment from sEMG.

  2. Using GAMM to examine inter-individual heterogeneity in thermal performance curves for Natrix natrix indicates bet hedging strategy by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mathew J; Aubret, Fabien; Coulon, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    The thermal performance curve (TPC) illustrates the dependence on body- and therefore environmental- temperature of many fitness-related aspects of ectotherm ecology and biology including foraging, growth, predator avoidance, and reproduction. The typical thermal performance curve model is linear in its parameters despite the well-known, strong, non-linearity of the response of performance to temperature. In addition, it is usual to consider a single model based on few individuals as descriptive of a species-level response to temperature. To overcome these issues, we used generalized additive mixed modeling (GAMM) to estimate thermal performance curves for 73 individual hatchling Natrix natrix grass snakes from seven clutches, taking advantage of the structure of GAMM to demonstrate that almost 16% of the deviance in thermal performance curves is attributed to inter-individual variation, while only 1.3% is attributable to variation amongst clutches. GAMM allows precise estimation of curve characteristics, which we used to test hypotheses on tradeoffs thought to constrain the thermal performance curve: hotter is better, the specialist-generalist trade off, and resource allocation/acquisition. We observed a negative relationship between maximum performance and performance breadth, indicating a specialist-generalist tradeoff, and a positive relationship between thermal optimum and maximum performance, suggesting "hotter is better". There was a significant difference among matrilines in the relationship between Area Under the Curve and maximum performance - relationship that is an indicator of evenness in acquisition or allocation of resources. As we used unfed hatchlings, the observed matriline effect indicates divergent breeding strategies among mothers, with some mothers provisioning eggs unequally resulting in some offspring being better than others, while other mothers provisioned the eggs more evenly, resulting in even performance throughout the clutch. This

  3. 20 CFR 345.201 - Individual employer record defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subpart, “Individual Employer Record” means a record of each employer's benefit ratio; reserve ratio; 1-year compensation base; 3-year compensation base; unallocated charge; reserve balance; net...

  4. [Susceptibility to strategy of the drug component of the IPHCC+RxGroups classification system in a risk-adjusted morbidity compensation scheme--a conceptional and data-supported analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, C; Felder, S; Busse, R

    2007-01-01

    A report commissioned by the German Ministry of Health recommends to the existing scheme for calculating risk-adjusted transfers to sickness funds supplement with the IPHCC+RxGroups method. The method is based on inpatient diagnoses and prescribed drugs as health status measures deduced from prior use. The present study investigates the sickness fund's expected net return from gaming based on the drug component of the risk adjuster. The study explores three possible strategies using the RxGroups method. For the stimulations, insurees are assigned to additional indications or to higher valued RxGroups within the same indication. Then, costs and financial benefits attributable to the altered drug use are estimated and compared with the status quo. The study uses 2000 and 2001 sample data of more than 370,000 insurees of Germany's company-based sickness funds system (BKK). While upgrading increases overall costs, it can be beneficial for the individual sickness funds. Their net return crucially depends on the number of sickness funds gaming the system: the more participating in the game, the smaller is the average net return. Moreover, not participating often is even worse, which in turn points to a prisoner's dilemma. When extending the risk adjustment scheme in social health insurance, the German legislator should take into account the perverse incentives of risk adjusters such as the described prescription drug model.

  5. Urban agglomeration and CEO compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; John, Kose; Waisman , Maya

    2012-01-01

    An underlying assumption in the executive compensation literature is that there is a national labor market for CEOs. The urban economics literature, however, documents higher ability among workers in large metropolitans, which results in a real and stable urban wage premium. In this paper, we investigate the link between the spatial clustering of firms in big, central cities (i.e., urban agglomeration) and the level and structure of CEO compensation. Using CEO compensation data for the period...

  6. Compensating for the harms of family violence: statutory barriers in Australian victims of crime compensation schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the compensative capacity of the victims of crime statutory schemes that are present in all eight Australian jurisdictions for primary victims of family violence. It argues that the recommendations of the Final Report on Family Violence conducted jointly by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 2010, although a positive step, are insufficient to facilitate meaningful compensation to victims of family violence. In addition to the primary limitations identified by the Commissions--a requirement to report the crime to the police within a reasonable time and a requirement for multiple acts of violence to be reduced to a single act if they are related--there are other statutory barriers that disproportionately disadvantage victims of family violence. These include time limitation provisions, a requirement to report the crime to police, the restriction of compensation to prescribed categories of loss which exclude many of the social, vocational, emotional and psychological harms suffered by victims of family violence, and significant cut-backs on the non-economic component of the schemes. This article further argues that the statutory barriers cumulatively contribute to the perception of a crime as an isolated event perpetrated by a deviant individual. The article recommends that specific provisions for family violence victims should be introduced into all schemes including three categories of compensation not tied to criminal offences but rather the different forms of family violence, with a generous compensation range, and no requirement for proof of injury.

  7. Study on Compensation Control of STATCOM Based on MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduced modular multi-level converter (MMC, which could enhance the voltage and power level by sub-converter modules in series and was easy to extend to any level of output. Its structure and working mechanism were described. By analyzing the energy transfer performance of STATCOM based on MMC working conditions in the compensation, a comprehensive compensation control strategy was proposed based on direct current control mode. By analyzing the higher harmonic components circulation generated by the inconsistencies in the three-phase upper and lower arm voltage, a loop control strategy is proposed for the suppression of the circulation in the arms of the M-STATCOM. The simulation results show the strategy has a better tracking precision and response speed for the compensation control.

  8. Stock-based compensation plans and employee incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Zabojnik, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Standard principal-agent theory predicts that large firms should not use employee stock options and other stock-based compensation to provide incentives to non-executive employees. Yet, business practitioners appear to believe that stock-based compensation improves incentives, and mounting empirical evidence points to the same conclusion. This paper provides an explanation for why stock-based incentives can be effective. In the model of this paper, employee stock options complement individual...

  9. STRATEGY OF VISUAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH INJURY TO THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT OF THE KNEE AND HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS (SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piontek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Knee joint dysfunction resulting from injury to the anterior crucial ligament (ACL is associated not only with mechanical joint instability but also with damage of ligamentous receptors responsible for the joint proprioception. It was found that disturbances of signals from the damaged joint produce disorders in movement perception and position of the analogous joint in the normal limb. This study is aimed at evaluating the control strategy in patients with an injury to the anterior crucial ligament.Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Subjects/Patients- 84 men, aged 15 to 55 years (mean age 27 years were included in this study. Methods- Patients were divided into two groups: those with unilateral injury to the ACL (33 patients and a control group of healthy volunteers (soccer players; 51 men. Anterior crucial ligament damage was confirmed with arthroscopic knee joint examination in every patient. The way of visual proprioceptive control was assessed with both dynamic (DRT and static (SRT Riva tests standing on one leg. Tests were performed with the Delos Postural Proprioceptive System (Delos s.r.l., Corso Lecce, Torino, Italy in the biomechanical evaluation laboratory at Rehasport Clinic in Poznań. Results: A statistically significant difference for deviations from the averaged axis in SRT (static Riva test with closed eyes was found between the limb with a damaged ACL and the normal limb in the group of patients with injury to the ACL (p=0.006 and between the limb with a damaged ACL and normal limbs in healthy volunteers (p=0.022. A statistically significant difference for deviations from the averaged axis in SRT with closed eyes was also found between the dominant and non-dominant limb in healthy volunteers (p=0.013. No significant differences in the results of tests with open eyes were noted. Conclusions: The results of systems and their contribution to the visual proprioceptive control suggest an important role of the

  10. IMPROVED GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED ON INDIVIDUAL SIMILARITY EVALUATION STRATEGY%基于个体相似性评价策略的改进遗传算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤可宗; 张彤; 罗立民

    2016-01-01

    Genetic algorithm is a method of searching the optimal solution by simulating natural evolutionary process.But it always requires longer computation time for the best solution in solving process.This paper presents an improved genetic algorithm,it is based on individual similarity evaluation strategy.In it a new rotation crossover operator is incorporated.The fitness value of each individual is assigned according to its similarity and reliability with its parents.The real fitness of individual is only evaluated when the reliability value is below a threshold.Experimental results show that the fitness values of individual derived from similarity evaluation strategy are close to the actual ones,and the number of evaluations required for seeking the optimal solution by the improved genetic algorithm is significantly less than that of traditional genetic algorithm.Additionally,the data on test criterion show that the performance of the proposed algorithm and the optimal solution derived from it are relatively better than the traditional genetic algorithm as well.%遗传算法是一种通过模拟自然进化过程搜索最优解的方法。但这种算法在求解最优解过程中总是以计算时间为代价来换得最优解的产生。对此,提出一种基于个体相似`性评价策略的改进遗传算法,融入了一种新的旋转交叉算子,每个子个体根据其与父个体的相似度和可信度来确定个体的适应度值,仅当可信度值低于某个阈值时,个体才做真实的适应度计算。实验结果显示,相似性评价策略计算得到的个体适应度值接近真实的适应度值,并且改进的算法求得最优解需要的评价次数明显要少于传统遗传算法,而在测试准测上的数据表明:提出的改进遗传算法相对于传统遗传算法,性能较好且求得的最优解也较为理想。

  11. ANALYSIS ON THE STRATEGIES OF TRANSLATION COMPENSATION IN MR. YANG'S ENGLISH VERSION OF A DREAM OF RED MANSION%浅析翻译中的文化补偿策略——以《红楼梦》杨译本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包相玲

    2012-01-01

    翻译在跨文化信息交流中是一种重要的信息转化手段。由于文化的民族性和多样性特征,译者在翻译活动中难免会遭遇到文化缺省的现象,因此翻译时必须采取适当的补偿策略,才能使译文读者欣赏到原作所体现的异域文化。本文以《红楼梦》的杨译本为例来探讨翻译中的文化缺省现象及文化补偿策略。%Translation is a kind of cross-cultural information communication activity. Because of the cultural diversity and its historical characteristics, it is unavoidable to experience cultural default in translation. Thus some translation compensation strategies should be adopted in order to make readers appreciate the essence of foreign culture. This paper intends to discuss the strategies of translation compensation for cultural default with examples from A Dream of Red Mansion of Mr. Yang 's English version.

  12. Struggling for a normal life: work as an individual self-care management strategy among persons living with non-malignant chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Gudrun; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-01-01

    A significant part of the population suffers from non-malignant chronic pain that is not treated by pain specialists. No successful long-term treatment exists. The patients have to deal with their condition in collaboration with health personnel establishing treatment programmes under uncertain circumstances with few guidelines. Thus, there is a strong need for knowledge on how patients with chronic non-malignant pain manage their condition. The aim of the study was to explore how patients with chronic non-malignant pain deal with their condition. Twenty patients with chronic non-malignant pain (aged 26-63 in year 2006) told in an open-ended interview situation, how they lived with and dealt with their condition. The interviews were analysed within a phenomenological meaning condensation framework. For all patients the pain was as an integrated part of their life that required huge efforts to cope with. Typically, the patients experienced loneliness, fear of stigmatization and despair because of their unpredictable condition, and they wanted to come back to a normalized daily life, first and foremost by getting back to paid work. In general, the patients developed individual strategies that were influenced by their local contexts and life situation as well as the pain itself. This may be interpreted in line with Bourdieu's notions of habitus, strategies and social capital.

  13. Compensation: The Impact of Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1994-01-01

    Complexity of employee compensation policy is examined as it applies to colleges and universities. It is argued that sound compensation policy helps the institution attract and retain qualified, skilled employees. New approaches that shift the focus from job to employee are outlined, and their implications for institutions of higher education are…

  14. Alternative Teacher Compensation: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppich, Julia E.; Rigby, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This policy primer is designed to provide base-line information about new forms of teacher pay that are emerging around the country, to support the local conversations and negotiations that will lead to the development of innovative compensation systems. It identifies reasons why teacher compensation is high on local, state, and federal policy…

  15. Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery

    CERN Document Server

    Ernst, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery outlines the techniques needed to accurately track and compensate for respiratory and pulsatory motion during robotic radiosurgery. The algorithms presented within the book aid in the treatment of tumors that move during respiration. In Chapters 1 and 2,  the book introduces the concept of stereotactic body radiation therapy, motion compensation strategies and the clinical state-of-the-art. In Chapters 3 through 5, the author describes and evaluates new methods for motion prediction, for correlating external motion to internal organ motion, and for the evaluation of these algorithms’ output based on an unprecedented amount of real clinical data. Finally, Chapter 6 provides a brief introduction into currently investigated, open questions and further fields of research. Compensating for Quasi-periodic Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery targets researchers working in the related fields of surgical oncology, artificial intelligence, robotics and more. ...

  16. Harmonic currents Compensator Grid-Connected Inverter at the Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, A.; Naderipour, A.; Habibuddin, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    The main challenge associated with the grid-connected inverter in distributed generation (DG) systems is to maintain the harmonic contents in output current below the specified values and compensates for unbalanced loads even when the grid is subject to disturbances such as harmonic distortion...... and unbalanced loads. To overcome these challenges, a current control strategy for a three-phase grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions is presented. It enables grid-connected inverter by the proposed control method to inject balanced clean currents to the grid even when the local...... loads are unbalanced and/or nonlinear and also compensate of the harmonic currents and control the active and reactive power. The main advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic currents content of the grid current and microgrid without using any compensation...

  17. A compound compensation method for car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Xing; Jun, Du; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2016-10-01

    A compound compensation mechanism was introduced into the car-following system. Two basic compensation methods were combined to generate a compound control strategy to improve the performance of the traffic flow system. The compensation effect was analyzed with unit step response in time domain and bode diagram in frequency domain, respectively. Two lemmas and one theorem were proved with the use of Routh criteria and small gain theorem. Numerical simulations were conducted in two situations under three types of condition. The simulation results verify the truth that with the increasing compensation parameters the stability of the car-following system is strengthened. It is shown that numerical results are in accordance with analytical results. In general, the performance of car-following model can be improved with an exterior control method.

  18. 三电平APF死区效应及其补偿策略研究%Study on Dead-time Effect of Active Filter with a Three-level NPC Inverter and Its Compensation Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华; 张迎; 李成君

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of dead-time of the active power filters (APF),the dead-time effect, and the impact of the APF output for different time and different switching state of dead-time are studied and analyzed. In order to avoid damage to power switching devices,a few seconds of dead-time must be inserted in the switching signals to prevent a short circuit.By adopting current feedback compensation method,the PWM pulse widened or compressed by dead-time period can be compressed or widened,thus effectively compensating dead-time effect.Finally the experimental results indicate that the APF system can provide the required signals to perform filtering and compensation.%为解决三电平有源电力滤波器( APF)存在的死区影响问题,对死区效应产生的机理进行了详细分析,对不同的死区时间及不同开关状态条件下死区对APF输出的影响进行了研究.针对因存在死区使逆变器输出补偿电流波形在幅值和相位上产生偏差的问题,提出了通过电流极性判断的电流反馈型死区补偿方法,有效地解决了死区给有源滤波系统带来的补偿效果降低问题,实验结果验证了该方法的有效性.

  19. 38 CFR 3.459 - Death compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death compensation. 3.459..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.459 Death compensation. (a) Death compensation will be apportioned if the child or children of the deceased veteran are not in the custody of...

  20. Workers' compensation law: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, B

    1994-09-01

    1. The workers' compensation system provides benefits to workers who are injured or made ill in the course of employment or their dependents regardless of fault. 2. The current workers' compensation laws benefit both the employer and the employee; however, workers' compensation is an exclusive remedy which bars recovery through a negligence lawsuit. 3. Workers' compensation regulations interact with other federal statutes such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and the Family Medical Leave Act. 4. Workers' compensation covers occupational injuries and occupational diseases, which may include cumulative trauma and mental stress claims. Nurses may be instrumental in evaluating and planning for an injured employee's return to work and occasionally in detecting fraudulent claims.

  1. Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey: Factors Related to Compensation of Pediatric Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, Cheryl L; Hilliard, Marisa E; Williams, Andre; Armstrong, F Daniel; Christidis, Peggy; Kichler, Jessica; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Stamm, Karen E; Wysocki, Tim

    2017-05-01

    To summarize compensation results from the 2015 Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) Workforce Survey and identify factors related to compensation of pediatric psychologists. All full members of SPP ( n  = 1,314) received the online Workforce Survey; 404 (32%) were returned with usable data. The survey assessed salary, benefits, and other income sources. The relationship between demographic and employment-related factors and overall compensation was explored.   Academic rank, level of administrative responsibility, and cost of living index of employment location were associated with compensation. Compensation did not vary by gender; however, women were disproportionately represented at the assistant and associate professor level. Compensation of pediatric psychologists is related to multiple factors. Longitudinal administration of the Workforce Survey is needed to determine changes in compensation and career advancement for this profession over time. Strategies to increase the response rate of future Workforce Surveys are discussed.

  2. Mesothelioma incidence surveillance systems and claims for workers’ compensation. Epidemiological evidence and prospects for an integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinaccio Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and lethal tumour strongly associated with exposure to asbestos (mainly occupational. In Italy a large proportion of workers are protected from occupational diseases by public insurance and an epidemiological surveillance system for incident mesothelioma cases. Methods We set up an individual linkage between the Italian national mesothelioma register (ReNaM and the Italian workers’ compensation authority (INAIL archives. Logistic regression models were used to identify and test explanatory variables. Results We extracted 3270 mesothelioma cases with occupational origins from the ReNaM, matching them with 1625 subjects in INAIL (49.7%; 91.2% (1,482 of the claims received compensation. The risk of not seeking compensation is significantly higher for women and the elderly. Claims have increased significantly in recent years and there is a clear geographical gradient (northern and more developed regions having higher claims rates. The highest rates of compensation claims were after work known to involve asbestos. Conclusions Our data illustrate the importance of documentation and dissemination of all asbestos exposure modalities. Strategies focused on structural and systematic interaction between epidemiological surveillance and insurance systems are needed.

  3. Compensation and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In a single generation, there has been a revolution in the role women play in the work-force. Unfortunately, many inequities exist between a man's experience in the workforce and a woman's most notably, the wage disparity in female-dominated professions; salary inequities between men and women within professions; and inadequate compensation packages, poor retirement benefits, and a lack of job-guaranteed family leave for women in the workforce. Movement toward rectifying these inequities is encumbered by the many polarized reactions to the various difficulties women experience and the fact that these difficulties are influenced by many factors-social/cultural, economic, and political. ASHA may begin stalking out its position by increasing awareness and understanding of the issues addressed above and identifying which issues the Association can influence through education and which may be better addressed by the government. Through educating our membership and supporting productive government solutions, ASHA may hope to improve the working woman's financial status and, therefore, her choices and opportunities.

  4. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    and responsibilising the unemployed individual? The paper finds that the individualisation that is taking place occurs as an individualisation of responsibility, more than as an individualisation of interventions. A related finding is that the social rights perspective is becoming performance......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  5. CPLD-Based Circuit Design of IGBT Dead-Time Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-zhen WANG

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available IGBT (insulated-gate bipolar transistors dead-time compensation circuit has a very important significant for improving the output voltage waveform of the inverter, reducing the harmonic output current. Thus, many compensation strategies are reported in literatures and have been implemented in industrial drives recently. Overall, the method of dead-time compensation can be divided into hardware compensation and software compensation. Hardware compensation method needs additional hardware circuits, which means additional space and cost. Still more, the additional circuit is easy to interfere with others, which can reduce the compensation accuracy. While the software compensation method takes up a lot of memory space and additional input-output ports of processor, which often result to the added operation and heat dissipation of controller. In this paper, CPLD (complex programmable logic device-based circuit design of dead-time compensation is presented to solve these existed drawbacks. It is verified that not only can the circuit simplify existed inverter dead-time compensation design, but also it has the advantages of small volume, strong anti-interference ability, and high compensation precision. The simulation results validate that this method is feasible and effective.

  6. Strategy of mutual compensation of green and red mutants of firefly luciferase identifies a mutation of the highly conservative residue E457 with a strong red shift of bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksharov, Mikhail I; Ugarova, Natalia N

    2013-11-01

    Bioluminescence spectra of firefly luciferases demonstrate highly pH-sensitive spectra changing the color from green to red light when pH is lowered from alkaline to acidic. This reflects a change of ratio of the green and red emitters in the bimodal spectra of bioluminescence. We show that the mutations strongly stabilizing green (Y35N) or red (H433Y) emission compensate each other leading to the WT color of firefly luciferase. We further used this compensating ability of Y35N to search for strong red-shifting mutations in the C-domain of firefly luciferase by random mutagenesis. The discovered mutation E457K substantially increased the contribution of the red emitter and caused a 12 nm red shift of the green emitter as well. E457 is highly conservative not only in beetle luciferases but also in a whole ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes and forms a conservative structural hydrogen bond with V471. Our results suggest that the removal of this hydrogen bond only mildly affects luciferase properties and that most of the effect of E457K is caused by the introduction of positive charge. E457 forms a salt bridge with R534 in most ANL enzymes including pH-insensitive luciferases which is absent in pH-sensitive firefly luciferases. The mutant A534R shows that this salt bridge is not important for pH-sensitivity but considerably improves in vivo thermostability. Although E457 is located far from the oxyluciferin-binding site, the properties of the mutant E457K suggest that it affects color by influencing the AMP binding.

  7. Motion compensation for fully 4D PET reconstruction using PET superset data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, J.; Gravel, P.; Mio, R.; Fukasawa, R.; Rosa-Neto, P.; Soucy, J.-P.; Thompson, C. J.; Reader, A. J.

    2010-07-01

    Fully 4D PET image reconstruction is receiving increasing research interest due to its ability to significantly reduce spatiotemporal noise in dynamic PET imaging. However, thus far in the literature, the important issue of correcting for subject head motion has not been considered. Specifically, as a direct consequence of using temporally extensive basis functions, a single instance of movement propagates to impair the reconstruction of multiple time frames, even if no further movement occurs in those frames. Existing 3D motion compensation strategies have not yet been adapted to 4D reconstruction, and as such the benefits of 4D algorithms have not yet been reaped in a clinical setting where head movement undoubtedly occurs. This work addresses this need, developing a motion compensation method suitable for fully 4D reconstruction methods which exploits an optical tracking system to measure the head motion along with PET superset data to store the motion compensated data. List-mode events are histogrammed as PET superset data according to the measured motion, and a specially devised normalization scheme for motion compensated reconstruction from the superset data is required. This work proceeds to propose the corresponding time-dependent normalization modifications which are required for a major class of fully 4D image reconstruction algorithms (those which use linear combinations of temporal basis functions). Using realistically simulated as well as real high-resolution PET data from the HRRT, we demonstrate both the detrimental impact of subject head motion in fully 4D PET reconstruction and the efficacy of our proposed modifications to 4D algorithms. Benefits are shown both for the individual PET image frames as well as for parametric images of tracer uptake and volume of distribution for 18F-FDG obtained from Patlak analysis.

  8. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  9. Stock Repurchases and Incentive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    1998-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in corporate finance is the rise of stock repurchases as a means of distributing earnings to shareholders. While most attempts to explain repurchase behavior focus on the incentives of firms, this paper focuses on the incentives of the agents who run firms, as determined by those agents' compensation packages. The increased use of repurchases coincided with an increasing reliance on stock options to compensate top managers, and stock options encourage managers to choose ...

  10. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    were never explicitly mentioned in permits, but in practice a ratio of 1:1 (often measured as area or length was usually applied. The compensation measures typically consisted in recreating the same kind of natural asset that was affected, in a location close to the damaged area. In the two cases specially studied, the road and railway planning processes were not properly adjusted to integrate compensation issues, resulting in unnecessary bureaucracy and insufficient co-ordination between different projects, such as between the environmental-impact assessment process and the compensation process or between closely related sub-projects in the same region. To meet the EU’s goal of no net loss of biodiversity, we suggest that policy requirements should be made stricter and that incentives for voluntary compensation should be created. In line with the goals of Swedish national transport policy and the European Landscape Convention, account should be taken of social and cultural aspects, and there should be a shift from a narrow focus on individual projects to a broader planning approach, since this would allow compensation measures to be taken where they can deliver the greatest environmental benefits.

  11. Individual Differences in Language Aptitude and Teaching Strategies%语言学能的个体差异与教学对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷

    2011-01-01

    Language Aptitude is one of the most important factors among individuals in the process of second language acquisition.Based on some reviews of related research literature,this paper argues that language aptitude is of great significance to the second language teaching,studies on language aptitude and teaching environment interactively,and explores teaching strategies that match different language aptitude.%在二语习得中,语言学能是学习者个体差异最重要的因素之一。对语言学能相关研究文献进行了简要回顾,分析了语言学能研究对外语教学的意义,并对语言学能与教学环境进行交互研究,最终探索出与语言学能的个体差异相适应的教学对策。

  12. An individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for managing fatigue among frail older people: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Y-W; Lai, Claudia Ky; Siu, Parco M; Kwong, Enid; Tse, Mimi My

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of an individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for frail older people with fatigue. A three-arm, single-blinded, quasi-experimental pilot study. Community health centres. A total of 79 frail older people with fatigue, mean age 79.32 years (±7.72). The combined group received a 16-week combined intervention consisting of exercise training and a behavioural change enhancement programme. The exercise group received exercise training and health talks, whereas the control group received only health talks. Feasibility was assessed through the participants' recruitment, retention, attendance and adherence, feedback, and reports of adverse events. The preliminary effects were assessed by the participants' level of fatigue, physical endurance, self-efficacy, and self-perceived compliance with exercise. Feasibility was achievable with high recruitment (87.2%) and low overall attrition (7.1%) rates. A similar reduction in fatigue was identified in all groups, but a trend of greater improvement in physical endurance was observed in the combined group than in the other two groups. The combined group also had a significantly better attendance rate [F(2,76) = 5.64, p change, when the participants are establishing the habit of exercising daily.

  13. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  14. The cumulative effect of risk compensation on infection preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxin, Daniel; Sega, Laurentiu; Eaton, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    We study several epidemic models (with and without gender structure) that incorporate risk compensation behavior in response to a lower chance of acquiring the infection as a result of preventive measures that are only partially effective. We show that the cumulative risk compensation that occurs between a high risk susceptible and infectious individual may play an important role in whether the implementation of these measures is successful in lowering the epidemic reproductive number. In addition, we show that certain levels of risk compensation may cancel the benefit of the low infection risk practiced by diagnosed infectious individuals when the goal is a reduction of the epidemic reproductive number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. THE INJURED INDIVIDUAL’S RIGHT TO COMPENSATION IN THE LAW ON DIPLOMATIC PROTECTION

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the right of individuals to receive compensation for injuries suffered in consequence of an internationally wrongful act. Analysing recent practice, it argues that the duty of States to provide for compensation for the benefit of individuals has developed with the progressive recognition of diplomatic protection as a procedural instrument to vindicate violations of rights pertaining to individuals. According to the paper, State discretion to act in protecti...

  16. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection compensation. 158.53 Section 158... Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the... a new compensation level based on an analysis of the data provided under paragraph (c)(1) of...

  17. 48 CFR 752.7007 - Personnel compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel compensation... Personnel compensation. The following clause shall be used in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts. Personnel Compensation (JUL 2007) (a) Direct compensation of the Contractor's personnel will be...

  18. 30 CFR 90.103 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 90.103 Section 90.103 Mineral..., Rights of Part 90 Miners § 90.103 Compensation. (a) The operator shall compensate each Part 90 miner at... part. (d) In addition to the compensation required to be paid under paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of...

  19. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  20. 43 CFR 4.355 - Omitted compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Omitted compensation. 4.355 Section 4.355... Compensation § 4.355 Omitted compensation. When, subsequent to the issuance of a final order determining heirs under § 4.352, it is found that certain additional compensation had been due the decedent and had...

  1. 7 CFR 930.133 - Compensation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation rate. 930.133 Section 930.133 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.133 Compensation rate. A compensation rate of $250 per meeting shall be paid to the public member and to the alternate public member when attending Board meetings. Such compensation is a...

  2. 12 CFR 9.15 - Fiduciary compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiduciary compensation. 9.15 Section 9.15 Banks... BANKS Regulations § 9.15 Fiduciary compensation. (a) Compensation of bank. If the amount of a national bank's compensation for acting in a fiduciary capacity is not set or governed by applicable law,...

  3. 23 CFR 751.15 - Just compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Just compensation. 751.15 Section 751.15 Highways... AND ACQUISITION § 751.15 Just compensation. (a) Just compensation shall be paid the owner for the... removed, relocated, or disposed of pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 136. (b) No rights to compensation accrue until...

  4. 12 CFR 7.2011 - Compensation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Corporate Practices § 7.2011 Compensation plans. Consistent with safe and sound banking practices and the compensation provisions of 12 CFR part 30, a national bank may adopt compensation plans, including, among... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation plans. 7.2011 Section 7.2011...

  5. International mobility technology research: a Delphi study to identify challenges and compensatory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferds, Alexandra N; Pearlman, Jon L; Wee, Joy; Cooper, Rory A

    2011-01-01

    We sought to identify logistical and ethical challenges to performing wheelchair-related research in low- and middle-income countries and to generate a list of compensatory strategies to address these challenges. Thirteen individuals with experience in the field participated in an online Delphi study. The surveys asked participants to identify research challenges, suggest strategies to address the selected challenges, and critique each other's strategies. Participants identified challenges in the use of research techniques, compensation for participation that does not result coercion, oral and written translation materials, funding for research, collaboration with local professionals, and "respect for persons." Effective international mobility research requires time, cultural sensitivity, collaboration, and careful planning. An understanding of these requirements can allow researchers to anticipate and compensate for common pitfalls of their work, thus making the research more productive and beneficial to subjects. Future research is required to verify the general effectiveness of compensatory strategies.

  6. Experience with Advanced Static VAR Compensators Operating on Wind Farms and in Laboratory in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    Wind turbines with induction generators consume reactive power. Apart from the no-load consumption that is almost constant, the consumption of reactive power varies almost in proportion with the power production, which can vary immensely. Apart from the fact that the grid must supply the reactive....... This paper describes a 100 kvar power electronic reactive power compensator. The compensator was tested in a wind farm in Western Denmark. The electrical circuit and the working principle of the compensator are described and some survey data are shown. The paper also describes a 2x4 Mvar reactive power...... compensator placed in another wind farm of a total of 24 WM in Western Denmark with the aim to compensate the whole farm. Measurements of operation and losses are given. Finally the paper describes a new control strategy tested on a 10 kvar multilevel reactive power compensator....

  7. Compensation of airflow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Tiedemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Compensation of airflow maldistribution in fin-and tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning is investigated with regards to circuitry design and control of individual channel superheats. In particularly, the interlaced and the face split circuitry designs are compared numerically using...

  8. 78 FR 68867 - Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... receive all compensation benefits to which they are entitled. Agency: Office of Workers' Compensation... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Proposed... Office of Workers' Compensation (OWCP) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed collection...

  9. Compensating need satisfaction across life boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hewett, Rebecca; Haun, Verena; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Self-determination theory suggests that satisfaction of an individual's basic psychological needs (for competence, autonomy, and relatedness) is a key for well-being. This has gained empirical support in multiple life domains, but little is known about the way that need satisfaction interacts...... between work and home. Drawing from ideas of work–home compensation, we expect that the benefits of need satisfaction in the home domain are reduced when needs are satisfied in the work domain. We tested this hypothesis with a daily diary study involving 91 workers. Results showed that individuals...... particularly benefit from satisfaction of their need for competence in the home domain when it is not satisfied during the working day. No such interactions were found between the needs for autonomy or relatedness. Our study highlights that the interaction of need satisfaction across domains represents...

  10. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Compensation during Gait using Hamstring Muscle Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalfamo, Paola Formento; Aguiar, Gerardo; Curi, Jorge; Braidot, Ariel

    2010-06-10

    Previous research has shown that an increase in hamstring activation may compensate for anterior tibial transalation (ATT) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee (ACLd); however, the effects of this compensation still remain unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify the activation of the hamstring muscles needed to compensate the ATT in ACLd knee during the complete gait cycle and to evaluate the effect of this compensation on quadriceps activation and joint contact forces. A two dimensional model of the knee was used, which included the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints, knee ligaments, the medial capsule and two muscles units. Simulations were conducted to determine the ATT in healthy and ACLd knee and the hamstring activation needed to correct the abnormal ATT to normal levels (100% compensation) and to 50% compensation. Then, the quadriceps activation and the joint contact forces were calculated. Results showed that 100% compensation would require hamstring and quadriceps activations larger than their maximum isometric force, and would generate an increment in the peak contact force at the tibiofemoral (115%) and patellofemoral (48%) joint with respect to the healthy knee. On the other hand, 50% compensation would require less force generated by the muscles (less than 0.85 of maximum isometric force) and smaller contact forces (peak tibiofemoral contact force increased 23% and peak patellofemoral contact force decreased 7.5% with respect to the healthy knee). Total compensation of ATT by means of increased hamstring activity is possible; however, partial compensation represents a less deleterious strategy.

  11. 75 FR 2594 - Proposed Information Collection (Compensation and Pension Examination Program (CPEP) Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Compensation and Pension Examination Program (CPEP) Veterans... comments on the Veteran experience in taking the Compensation and Pension examination at individual CPEP... through the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) at http://www.Regulations.gov ; or to Mary...

  12. 英美文化缺失对英语阅读教学的影响及补偿策略%The effect and compensation strategies of Britain and American cultural default on English reading teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓菲

    2013-01-01

    Language is one of the important tools for human communication. It carries cultural information and reflects the life of human society. Language and culture are inseparable. There is a big difference between western culture and Chinese culture in many aspects. Therefore, it is inevitable for the foreign language learners to learn the culture. It is particularly important to English reading teaching and one of the goals of English reading course is to improve cross-cultural communicative competence through the deep understanding of English national culture by compensation for cultural default.%  语言是人类交际的重要工具之一。它承载文化信息、反映人类社会的生活。语言和文化是密不可分的。西方文化在许多方面与中国的文化存在着很大的差异。对于外语学习者来讲,不可避免地涉及到文化学习。英美文化的缺失必然会导致学习者的认知困难。因此,英美文化导入在英语教学中尤其是对英语阅读课的教学中显得尤为重要,通过一系列的补偿策略加深对英语民族文化的了解来提高跨文化的语言交际能力也是英语阅读课的目标之一。

  13. Compensation for electrical converter nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2013-11-19

    Systems and methods are provided for delivering energy from an input interface to an output interface. An electrical system includes an input interface, an output interface, an energy conversion module between the input interface and the output interface, an inductive element between the input interface and the energy conversion module, and a control module. The control module determines a compensated duty cycle control value for operating the energy conversion module to produce a desired voltage at the output interface and operates the energy conversion module to deliver energy to the output interface with a duty cycle that is influenced by the compensated duty cycle control value. The compensated duty cycle control value is influenced by the current through the inductive element and accounts for voltage across the switching elements of the energy conversion module.

  14. Adaptive beamforming and phase bias compensation for GNSS receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Zhao; Baowang Lian; Juan Feng

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive antenna arrays have been used to mitigate the interference on global navigation satel ite system (GNSS) re-ceivers. The performance of interference mitigation depends on the beamforming algorithms adopted by the antenna array. However, the adaptive beamforming wil change the array pattern in real-time, which has the potential to introduce phase center biases into the antenna array. For precise applications, these phase biases must be mitigated or compensated because they wil bring errors in code phase and carrier phase measurements. A novel adaptive beamforming algorithm is proposed firstly, then the phase bias induced by the proposed algorithm is estimated, and final y a com-pensation strategy is addressed. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed beamforming algorithm suppresses effectively the strong interference and improves significantly the capturing performance of GNSS signals. Simultaneously, the bias compensation method avoids the loss of the carrier phase lock and reduces the phase measurement errors for GNSS receivers.

  15. Dosage compensation, the origin and the afterlife of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jan; Meller, Victoria H

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 100 years Drosophila has been developed into an outstanding model system for the study of evolutionary processes. A fascinating aspect of evolution is the differentiation of sex chromosomes. Organisms with highly differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the mammalian X and Y, must compensate for the imbalance in gene dosage that this creates. The need to adjust the expression of sex-linked genes is a potent force driving the rise of regulatory mechanisms that act on an entire chromosome. This review will contrast the process of dosage compensation in Drosophila with the divergent strategies adopted by other model organisms. While the machinery of sex chromosome compensation is different in each instance, all share the ability to direct chromatin modifications to an entire chromosome. This review will also explore the idea that chromosome-targeting systems are sometimes adapted for other purposes. This appears the likely source of a chromosome-wide targeting system displayed by the Drosophila fourth chromosome.

  16. The Compensation and Benefits System: Private Companies vs. Budgetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Bogdan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic evolution of the last decades has entailed major changes concerning the Human Resource Management practices, in both private and budgetary sector of Romania. In order to maintain efficiency and market competitivity, a company must adapt to these changes by altering its human resource strategy since managers are encountering increasingly complex challenges as to attracting, motivating and retaining employees. Such an objective might be accomplished by elaborating a competitive system of employee compensation. This article focuses on the stage reached by the Human Resource Management in the compensation and benefits system of the private and budgetary sector. For the latter, we are focusing on the romanian system of higher education. This study demonstrates that the compensation and benefits system which is implemented in romanian universities is limited and can offer few opportunities as compared to the one implemented by private companies. It is worth saying that the legal system has a negative impact in this matter.

  17. NEUROREHABILITATION STRATEGIES IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Stanescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic progressive disease which is one of the leading causes of handicap in young subjects. Despite the availability of advanced disease-modifying and symptomatic therapies, there is still a need for complex rehabilitation interventions in order to compensate functional deficits, to minimize limitations in activity, to increase independence and quality of life of MS patients. Individualized programs elaborated by a multidisciplinary team of experts are the key to success of rehabilitation. Treatment should be adapted depending on: the individual patient's needs, demands of their surrounding environment, type and degree of disability, and treatment goals. The main objective of rehabilitation is, therefore, to ease the burden of symptoms by improving self-performance and independence. The methods used are: function conservation , optimization of restant capacities, compensation of functional deficits and prevention of complications. Benefits of rehabilitation interventions are generally higher in earlier phases of MS. Inpatient and outpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation has been shown to be beneficial in improving disability. Outcome measures applied for patients with MS include: the EDSS score, the Barthel index and the FIM (Functional Independence Measure. The coexistence of physical and cognitive impairments, together with the imprevisible evolution of the disease makes MS rehabilitation very challenging. Rehabilitation is a valuable tool in the overall management of MS patients, the improvements obtained after treatment sessions often outlast the treatment period by several months. Neurorehabilitation methods are important tools in developing complex management strategies for patients with multiple sclerosis.

  18. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  19. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  20. Depth Compensated Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography via Digital Compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Boroomand, Ameneh; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a well-known imaging modality which allows for \\textit{in-vivo} visualization of the morphology of different biological tissues at cellular level resolutions. The overall SD-OCT imaging quality in terms of axial resolution and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) degrades with imaging depth, while the lateral resolution degrades with distance from the focal plane. This image quality degradation is due both to the design of the SD-OCT imaging system and the optical properties of the imaged object. Here, we present a novel Depth Compensated SD-OCT (DC-OCT) system that integrates a Depth Compensating Digital Signal Processing (DC-DSP) module to improve the overall imaging quality via digital compensation. The designed DC-DSP module can be integrated to any SD-OCT system and is able to simultaneously compensate for the depth-dependent loss of axial and lateral resolutions, depth-varying SNR, as well as sidelobe artifact for improved imaging quality. The integrated D...

  1. 78 FR 28441 - Executive Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Finance Board), and will consider the appropriate disposition of an OFHEO corporate governance provision... consequences for failure to comply with the rule. For the reasons described below in response to other comments... ``reasonable'' compensation to clarify that the factors being reviewed by FHFA include not only corporate and...

  2. Working conditions, compensation and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Solveig Osborg

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines absence behaviour in relation to the working environment. A theoretical model is built in order to separate the effects of voluntary absences and absences related to ill health, where health effects are assumed to be tied to working conditions. This model is based on the Shapiro and Stiglitz efficiency wage model. In addition, work environment is introduced as a part of the compensation package. The model gives a testable hypothesis of compensating wage differentials. A panel of quarterly firm level data from 1990 to 1998 are used and the theoretical model is supported by the empirical findings. The result indicates that the workers may not be fully compensated when experiencing high levels of noise in the work area, or when the job involves a high degree of monotonous work, heavy or frequent lifting or poor work postures. Ill health, and thus increased long-term absence, is not highly related to economic variables. However, long-term absence is relatively higher if the firm is troubled with many accidents or near misses. In addition, disamenities for which workers are not fully compensated cause ill health and increased long-term absence.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of turbulence compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Schutte, K.; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2013-01-01

    A well-known phenomena that diminishes the recognition range in infrared imagery is atmospheric turbulence. In literature many methods are described that try to compensate for the distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence. Most of these methods use a global processing approach in which they assum

  4. Can Education Compensate for Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which education can compensate for social disadvantage is a matter of political controversy, especially in the context of policies for social mobility. On the one hand, to blame poor achievement on social class or poverty was seen to dodge the professional responsibility of teachers. On the other, the strong correlation between…

  5. Psychology of Pay and Compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites:

  6. Ongoing transients in carbonate compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudreau, B.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is acidifying the oceans. Over the next 2000 years, this will modify the dissolution and preservation of sedimentary carbonate. By coupling new formulas for the positions of the calcite saturation horizon, zsat, the compensation depth, zcc, and the snowline, zsnow, to a b

  7. MANEUVERING TARGET TRACKING USING FUZZY COMPENSATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A new approach is provided to estimate the state of arbitrarily maneuvering target. In this approach a fuzzy compensator is used to tackle the uncertainty which results from the targets arbitrarily maneuvering. To design the observer of the nonlinear system, the fuzzy T-S model and the receding horizon control strategy are employed. Besides, the design depends on tracking the output error of the model. Compared with the technique used in other articles, the errors between the first estimated value and the true state value of the estimated variable are not strictly required. Numerical simulating results show that the proposed approach can estimate the states of the random maneuvering targets on-line so as to obtain the exact tracking of the target.

  8. Plasticity during vestibular compensation: the role of saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Gavin MacDougall

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focussed on one major aspect of compensation: the recent behavioural findings concerning oculomotor responses in human vestibular compensation and their possible implications for recovery after unilateral vestibular loss (UVL. New measurement techniques have provided new insights into how patients recover after UVL and have given clues for vestibular rehabilitation. Prior to this it has not been possible to quantify the level of function of all the peripheral vestibular sense organs. Now it is. By using vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to measure utricular and saccular function and by new video head impulse testing to measure semicircular canal function to natural values of head accelerations. With these new video procedures it is now possible to measure both slow phase eye velocity and also saccades during natural head movements. The present evidence is that there is little or no recovery of slow phase eye velocity responses to natural head accelerations. It is doubtful as to whether the modest changes in slow phase eye velocity to small angular accelerations are functionally effective during compensation. On the other hand it is now clear that saccades can play a very important role in helping patients compensate and return to a normal lifestyle. Preliminary evidence suggests that different patterns of saccadic response may predict how well patients recover. It may be possible to train patients to produce more effective saccadic patterns in the first days after their unilateral loss. Some patients do learn new strategies, new behaviours, to conceal their inadequate VOR but when those strategies are prevented from operating by using passive, unpredictable, high acceleration natural head movements, as in the head impulse test, their vestibular loss can be demonstrated. It is those very strategies which the tests exclude, which may be the cause of their successful compensation.

  9. A Novel Control algorithm based DSTATCOM for Load Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Sreejith; Pindoriya, Naran M.; Srinivasan, Babji

    2015-11-01

    Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) has been used as a custom power device for voltage regulation and load compensation in the distribution system. Controlling the switching angle has been the biggest challenge in DSTATCOM. Till date, Proportional Integral (PI) controller is widely used in practice for load compensation due to its simplicity and ability. However, PI Controller fails to perform satisfactorily under parameters variations, nonlinearities, etc. making it very challenging to arrive at best/optimal tuning values for different operating conditions. Fuzzy logic and neural network based controllers require extensive training and perform better under limited perturbations. Model predictive control (MPC) is a powerful control strategy, used in the petrochemical industry and its application has been spread to different fields. MPC can handle various constraints, incorporate system nonlinearities and utilizes the multivariate/univariate model information to provide an optimal control strategy. Though it finds its application extensively in chemical engineering, its utility in power systems is limited due to the high computational effort which is incompatible with the high sampling frequency in these systems. In this paper, we propose a DSTATCOM based on Finite Control Set Model Predictive Control (FCS-MPC) with Instantaneous Symmetrical Component Theory (ISCT) based reference current extraction is proposed for load compensation and Unity Power Factor (UPF) action in current control mode. The proposed controller performance is evaluated for a 3 phase, 3 wire, 415 V, 50 Hz distribution system in MATLAB Simulink which demonstrates its applicability in real life situations.

  10. Adaptive social learning strategies in temporally and spatially varying environments : how temporal vs. spatial variation, number of cultural traits, and costs of learning influence the evolution of conformist-biased transmission, payoff-biased transmission, and individual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Henrich, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Long before the origins of agriculture human ancestors had expanded across the globe into an immense variety of environments, from Australian deserts to Siberian tundra. Survival in these environments did not principally depend on genetic adaptations, but instead on evolved learning strategies that permitted the assembly of locally adaptive behavioral repertoires. To develop hypotheses about these learning strategies, we have modeled the evolution of learning strategies to assess what conditions and constraints favor which kinds of strategies. To build on prior work, we focus on clarifying how spatial variability, temporal variability, and the number of cultural traits influence the evolution of four types of strategies: (1) individual learning, (2) unbiased social learning, (3) payoff-biased social learning, and (4) conformist transmission. Using a combination of analytic and simulation methods, we show that spatial-but not temporal-variation strongly favors the emergence of conformist transmission. This effect intensifies when migration rates are relatively high and individual learning is costly. We also show that increasing the number of cultural traits above two favors the evolution of conformist transmission, which suggests that the assumption of only two traits in many models has been conservative. We close by discussing how (1) spatial variability represents only one way of introducing the low-level, nonadaptive phenotypic trait variation that so favors conformist transmission, the other obvious way being learning errors, and (2) our findings apply to the evolution of conformist transmission in social interactions. Throughout we emphasize how our models generate empirical predictions suitable for laboratory testing.

  11. Robust adaptive control of MEMS triaxial gyroscope using fuzzy compensator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Juntao; Zhou, Jian

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a robust adaptive control strategy using a fuzzy compensator for MEMS triaxial gyroscope, which has system nonlinearities, including model uncertainties and external disturbances, is proposed. A fuzzy logic controller that could compensate for the model uncertainties and external disturbances is incorporated into the adaptive control scheme in the Lyapunov framework. The proposed adaptive fuzzy controller can guarantee the convergence and asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system. The proposed adaptive fuzzy control strategy does not depend on accurate mathematical models, which simplifies the design procedure. The innovative development of intelligent control methods incorporated with conventional control for the MEMS gyroscope is derived with the strict theoretical proof of the Lyapunov stability. Numerical simulations are investigated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive fuzzy control scheme and demonstrate the satisfactory tracking performance and robustness against model uncertainties and external disturbances compared with conventional adaptive control method.

  12. Extremum Seeking Control of Smart Inverters for VAR Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Daniel; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Stewart, Emma; Auslander, David, M; Callaway, Duncan

    2015-09-04

    Reactive power compensation is used by utilities to ensure customer voltages are within pre-defined tolerances and reduce system resistive losses. While much attention has been paid to model-based control algorithms for reactive power support and Volt Var Optimization (VVO), these strategies typically require relatively large communications capabilities and accurate models. In this work, a non-model-based control strategy for smart inverters is considered for VAR compensation. An Extremum Seeking control algorithm is applied to modulate the reactive power output of inverters based on real power information from the feeder substation, without an explicit feeder model. Simulation results using utility demand information confirm the ability of the control algorithm to inject VARs to minimize feeder head real power consumption. In addition, we show that the algorithm is capable of improving feeder voltage profiles and reducing reactive power supplied by the distribution substation.

  13. Incentive Effects of Workers' Compensation Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Alan B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper uses Current Population Survey data on a large sample of workers to estimate the determinants of participation in state workers' compensation programs in the United States. The principal finding is Chat higher workers' compensation benefits are associated with greater participation in the workers' compensation program, after accounting for worker characteristics, state fixed effects, and other aspects of the workers' compensation law. Moreover, this result holds for both manufactur...

  14. Surgical compensation of presbyopia with corneal inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Aris; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-05-01

    Presbyopia, the physiological change in near vision that develops with ageing, gradually affects individuals older than 40 years and is a growing cause of visual disability due to ageing demographics of the global population. The routine use of computers and 'smartphones', combined with the affluence of the 'baby boomers' generation has set high standards for near vision correction. Corneal inlays are a relatively new treatment modality that is effective at compensating for presbyopia. The dimensions of these devices vary from 2 to 3.8 mm in diameter and 5 to 32 μm in thickness. They are implanted in the anterior corneal stroma of the non-dominant eye, most commonly, in a femtosecond laser created corneal pocket. They improve near vision by increasing the depth of focus, creating a hyper-prolate region of increased central cornea power or providing a refractive add power. This article reviews the literature on the efficacy and safety of corneal inlays.

  15. Helping the most vulnerable out of the poverty trap and reducing inequality: Policies, strategies, and services for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, including intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities: Benchmarking Autism Services Efficacy: BASE Project (Volume 3) Secondary Data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    1) Executive SummaryLegislation (Autism Act NI, 2011), a cross-departmental strategy (Autism Strategy 2013-2020) and a first action plan (2013-2016) have been developed in Northern Ireland in order to support individuals and families affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) without a prior thorough baseline assessment of need. At the same time, there are large existing data sets about the population in NI that had never been subjected to a secondary data analysis with regards to data on ASD...

  16. The path to memory is guided by strategy: distinct networks are engaged in associative encoding under visual and verbal strategy and influence memory performance in healthy and impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Jena B; Brewer, James B

    2012-06-01

    Given the diversity of stimuli encountered in daily life, a variety of strategies must be used for learning new information. Relating and encoding visual and verbal stimuli into memory has been probed using various tasks and stimulus types. Engagement of specific subsequent memory and cortical processing regions depends on the stimulus modality of studied material; however, it remains unclear whether different encoding strategies similarly influence regional activity when stimulus type is held constant. In this study, participants encoded object pairs using a visual or verbal associative strategy during fMRI, and subsequent memory was assessed for pairs encoded under each strategy. Each strategy elicited distinct regional processing and subsequent memory effects: middle/superior frontal, lateral parietal, and lateral occipital for visually associated pairs and inferior frontal, medial frontal, and medial occipital for verbally associated pairs. This regional selectivity mimics the effects of stimulus modality, suggesting that cortical involvement in associative encoding is driven by strategy and not simply by stimulus type. The clinical relevance of these findings, probed in a patient with a recent aphasic stroke, suggest that training with strategies utilizing unaffected cortical regions might improve memory ability in patients with brain damage.

  17. Coping strategies of ostomized individuals Estrategias de enfrentamiento (coping en personas ostomizadas Estratégias de enfrentamento (coping de pessoas ostomizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Campos Barnabe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at understanding the experience of individuals with intestinal diversions as regards coping with their new life conditions. The qualitative approach was used, involving 11 ostomized subjects. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews which were taped and later fully transcribed and analyzed according to Content Analysis as proposed by Bardin and the Coping theoretical framework . The findings in the study were evidenced by three core categories denominated: i did not choose it; i had to accept it and i have to live with the ostomy. The form to manage the condition of being ostomized was revealed by coping strategies which were based on both emotions and the problem itself. The study contributed for reflection and application of knowledge in assistance practice and teaching for care the ostomized.El objetivo del estudio fue comprender la experiencia que personas con derivaciones intestinales presenta al enfrentar esta nueva condición de vida. Se utilizó un enfoque de naturaleza cualitativa, con 11 sujetos estomizados. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, grabadas y posteriormente transcritas en su totalidad, siendo analizadas según el Análisis de Contenido de Bardin y el fundamento teórico de Coping. Los hallazgos del estudio fueron en tres categorías centrales, denominadas: no lo elegí; tuve que aceptarlo y con(vivo con la estomía. La estrategia para controlar la condición, ser estomizado, se realizó a través de estrategias para enfrentar tanto aspectos emocionales como el problema en sí. El estudio contribuyó para reflexionar y utilizar el conocimiento en la práctica asistencial y para la educación en cuanto al cuidado del entomizado.Este trabalho objetivou compreender a experiência de pessoas com derivações intestinais, quanto ao enfrentamento à nova condição de vida. Realizou-se estudo qualitativo, sendo entrevistados 11 sujeitos ostomizados. Os

  18. Radioembolization of hepatocarcinoma with {sup 90}Y glass microspheres: development of an individualized treatment planning strategy based on dosimetry and radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, C.; Maccauro, M.; Aliberti, G.; Padovano, B.; Seregni, E.; Crippa, F. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Nuclear Medicine Division, Milan (Italy); Mira, M.; Negri, A. [University of Milan, Postgraduate Health Physics School, Milan (Italy); Spreafico, C.; Morosi, C.; Civelli, E.; Lanocita, R.; Marchiano, A. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Radiology 2, Milan (Italy); Romito, R.; Sposito, C.; Bhoori, S.; Facciorusso, A.; Mazzaferro, V. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Surgery 1, Milan (Italy); Camerini, T. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Scientific Direction, Milan (Italy); Carrara, M. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Health Physics, Milan (Italy); Pellizzari, S. [University La Sapienza, Engineering Faculty, Rome (Italy); Migliorisi, M. [Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Nuclear Medicine Division, Milan (Italy); Foundation IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Clinical Engineering, Milan (Italy); De Nile, M.C. [University of Pavia, Physics Faculty, Pavia, Lombardy (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to optimize the dosimetric approach and to review the absorbed doses delivered, taking into account radiobiology, in order to identify the optimal methodology for an individualized treatment planning strategy based on {sup 99m}Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. We performed retrospective dosimetry of the standard TheraSphere registered treatment on 52 intermediate (n = 17) and advanced (i.e. portal vein thrombosis, n = 35) hepatocarcinoma patients with tumour burden < 50 % and without obstruction of the main portal vein trunk. Response was monitored with the densitometric radiological criterion (European Association for the Study of the Liver) and treatment-related liver decompensation was defined ad hoc with a time cut-off of 6 months. Adverse events clearly attributable to disease progression or other causes were not attributed to treatment. Voxel dosimetry was performed with the local deposition method on {sup 99m}Tc-MAA SPECT images. The reconstruction protocol was optimized. Concordance of {sup 99m}Tc-MAA and {sup 90}Y bremsstrahlung microsphere biodistributions was studied in 35 sequential patients. Two segmentation methods were used, based on SPECT alone (home-made code) or on coregistered SPECT/CT images (IMALYTICS trademark by Philips). STRATOS trademark absorbed dose calculation was validated for {sup 90}Y with a single time point. Radiobiology was used introducing other dosimetric variables besides the mean absorbed dose D: equivalent uniform dose (EUD), biologically effective dose averaged over voxel values (BED{sub ave}) and equivalent uniform biologically effective dose (EUBED). Two sets of radiobiological parameters, the first derived from microsphere irradiation and the second from external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), were used. A total of 16 possible methodologies were compared. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were

  19. Individualized surgical treatment of femoral neck fracture with strategy andoutcome%股骨颈骨折个体化手术治疗策略与结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戢良超; 谌刚; 李世林; 徐映明; 周平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the Individualized surgical treatment of fresh femoral neck fracture with strategy and outcome. Methods From January 2005 to January 2011 ,admitted femoral neck fracture and a complete follow-up information on 86 cases,they were 47 men and 39 women, age from 18 to 65 in 18 cases,from 66 to 86 in 38 cases. By Garden classification, type Ⅰ were 23 cases, type Ⅱ were 25 cases, type Ⅲ were 26 cases, type Ⅳ were 12 cases . 48 cases were used open reduction. Of 22 cases with cannulated cancellous bone screws , 26 cases with dynamic hip screws. Hemi-hip replacement were 30 cases . Total hip replacement were 8 cases. Results 86 cases were followed up for 1 ~6 years, with an average of 3. 1 years. Internal fixation group 48 cases, the healing time 17 ~ 24 weeks ( an average of 20. 5 weeks) , the varus deformity of hip in 5 cases, avascula r necrosis of femoral head in 3 cases, and the excellent and good rate was 79. 2%. Hip joint replacement group 38 cases, early dislocation in 2 cases,incision infection in 1 case, and the excellent and good rate was 84. 2%. Conclusion With the age, bone density activity ability and fracture type of the patients to choose personalized surgical treatment plan, can gel good curative effect.%目的 探讨新鲜股骨颈骨折个体化手术治疗策略与结果.方法 2005年1月~2011年1月,收治新鲜股骨颈骨折并获得完整随访资料者86例,男47例,女39例,年龄18 ~ 65岁48例,66 ~ 86岁38例,骨折按Garden分型:Ⅰ型23例,Ⅱ型25例,Ⅲ型26例,Ⅳ型12例;分别采用切开复位空心松质骨螺钉内固定22例,动力髋螺钉内固定26例,半髋关节置换30例,全髋关节置换8例.结果 获得1~6年(平均3.1年)随访,内固定组48例,骨折愈合时间17~24周(平均20.5周),髋内翻5例,股骨头缺血坏死3例,优良率79.2%.关节置换组38例,早期脱位2例,切口感染1例,优良率84.2%.结论 根据股骨颈骨折患者年龄、活动能力、骨

  20. 12 CFR 620.31 - Compensation committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation committees. 620.31 Section 620.31 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DISCLOSURE TO SHAREHOLDERS Bank and Association Audit and Compensation Committees § 620.31 Compensation committees. Each Farm Credit bank...

  1. 77 FR 4885 - Patent Compensation Board Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 780 RIN 1990-AA33 Patent Compensation Board Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel... Patent ] Compensation Board regulations to provide that the Secretary of Energy, or a person acting in that position, shall appoint, as needed, a three member panel to serve as the Patent Compensation...

  2. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modul...

  3. 16 CFR 16.16 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 16.16 Section 16.16 Commercial... MANAGEMENT § 16.16 Compensation. (a) Committee members. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Commission... cost to the Commission. The compensation to be paid to such consultant may not exceed the maximum...

  4. 45 CFR 1604.5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 1604.5 Section 1604.5 Public Welfare... Compensation. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and § 1604.7(a), a recipient's written policies shall not permit a full-time attorney to receive any compensation for the outside practice of...

  5. 34 CFR 106.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 106.54 Section 106.54 Education... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages...

  6. 6 CFR 17.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 17.515 Section 17.515 Domestic... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 17.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  7. 22 CFR 146.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 146.515 Section 146.515 Foreign... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  8. 32 CFR 196.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 196.515 Section 196.515 National... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  9. 41 CFR 101-4.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compensation. 101-4.515... Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 101-4.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not... pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate...

  10. 45 CFR 618.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 618.515 Section 618.515 Public... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  11. 24 CFR 3.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 3.515 Section 3.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  12. 10 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 5.515 Section 5.515 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  13. 45 CFR 86.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 86.54 Section 86.54 Public Welfare... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.54 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  14. 7 CFR 15a.54 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 15a.54 Section 15a.54 Agriculture Office... Activities Prohibited § 15a.54 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice which, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  15. 13 CFR 113.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 113.515 Section 113... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  16. 22 CFR 229.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 229.515 Section 229.515 Foreign... in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  17. 18 CFR 1317.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation. 1317.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  18. 47 CFR 51.221 - Reciprocal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocal compensation. 51.221 Section 51.221... Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.221 Reciprocal compensation. The rules governing reciprocal compensation are set forth in subpart H of this part....

  19. 45 CFR 2555.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 2555.515 Section 2555.515 Public... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  20. 43 CFR 41.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 41.515 Section 41.515 Public... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  1. 48 CFR 836.577 - Workers' compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workers' compensation. 836.577 Section 836.577 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL...' compensation. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-86, Workers' compensation,...

  2. 49 CFR 25.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 25.515 Section 25.515 Transportation... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 25.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  3. 38 CFR 23.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 23.515... Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one...

  4. 29 CFR 36.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compensation. 36.515 Section 36.515 Labor Office of the... Activities Prohibited § 36.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results...

  5. 15 CFR 8a.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 8a.515 Section 8a.515... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 8a.515 Compensation. A recipient shall... of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a...

  6. 36 CFR 1211.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 1211.515... Prohibited § 1211.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in the...

  7. 33 CFR 5.55 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 5.55 Section 5.55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.55 Compensation. No member of the Auxiliary shall receive any compensation for his services as...

  8. 45 CFR 1607.5 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compensation. 1607.5 Section 1607.5 Public Welfare... Compensation. (a) While serving on the governing body of a recipient, no attorney member shall receive compensation from that recipient, but any member may receive a reasonable per diem expense payment...

  9. 10 CFR 1042.515 - Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation. 1042.515 Section 1042.515 Energy DEPARTMENT... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce... compensation; (b) Results in the payment of wages to employees of one sex at a rate less than that paid...

  10. Causal compensated perturbations in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, S.; Stebbins, A. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley (USA) Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to calculate linear perturbations in the gravitational and matter fields which arise causally in response to the presence of stiff matter sources in a FRW cosmology. It is shown that, in order to satisfy energy and momentum conservation, the gravitational fields of the source must be compensated by perturbations in the matter and gravitational fields, and the role of such compensation in containing the initial inhomogeneities in their subsequent evolution is discussed. A complete formal solution is derived in terms of Green functions for the perturbations produced by an arbitrary source in a flat universe containing cold dark matter. Approximate Green function solutions are derived for the late-time density perturbations and late-time gravitational waves in a universe containing a radiation fluid. A cosmological energy-momentum pseudotensor is defined to clarify the nature of energy and momentum conservation in the expanding universe. 55 refs.

  11. An efficient strategy based on an individualized selection of registration methods. Application to the coregistration of MR and SPECT images in neuro-oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, Jean-Marc; Roullot, Elodie; Lefort, Muriel; Cohen, Mike-Ely; Guillevin, Rémy; Petrirena, Grégorio; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Habert, Marie-Odile; Yeni, Nathanaëlle; Kas, Aurélie; Frouin, Frédérique

    2014-11-01

    An efficient registration strategy is described that aims to help solve delicate medical imaging registration problems. It consists of running several registration methods for each dataset and selecting the best one for each specific dataset, according to an evaluation criterion. Finally, the quality of the registration results, obtained with the best method, is visually scored by an expert as excellent, correct or poor. The strategy was applied to coregister Technetium-99m Sestamibi SPECT and MRI data in the framework of a follow-up protocol in patients with high grade gliomas receiving antiangiogenic therapy. To adapt the strategy to this clinical context, a robust semi-automatic evaluation criterion based on the physiological uptake of the Sestamibi tracer was defined. A panel of eighteen multimodal registration algorithms issued from BrainVisa, SPM or AIR software environments was systematically applied to the clinical database composed of sixty-two datasets. According to the expert visual validation, this new strategy provides 85% excellent registrations, 12% correct ones and only 3% poor ones. These results compare favorably to the ones obtained by the globally most efficient registration method over the whole database, for which only 61% of excellent registration results have been reported. Thus the registration strategy in its current implementation proves to be suitable for clinical application.

  12. Variable compensation in Primary Healthcare: a report on the experience in Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli Neto, Paulo; Faoro, Nilza Teresinha; Prado Júnior, José Carlos do; Pisco, Luís Augusto Coelho

    2016-05-01

    How professionals are compensated may affect how they perform their tasks. Fixed compensation may take the form of wages, payment for productivity or capitation. In addition to fixed compensation, there are numerous mechanisms for variable compensation. This article describes the experience of Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, and Lisbon in Portugal, using different models of performance-based compensation. In all three of these examples, management felt the need to offer monetary reward to achieve certain goals. The indicators analyzed the structure, processes and outcomes, and assessed professionals individual and as part of healthcare teams. In Lisbon, variable compensation can be as high as 40% of the base wage, while in Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro it is limited to 10%. Despite the growing use of this management tool in Brazil and the world, further studies are required to analyze the effectiveness of variable compensation.

  13. 75 FR 66589 - Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... cash compensation, golden parachute policy, severance or other aspects of compensation.'' See Report of... compensation policies and practices as they relate to risk management and risk-taking incentives, these... extent that risk considerations are a material aspect of the issuer's compensation policies or...

  14. Compensation effects in hadron calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.; Brau, J.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Goodman, M.; Wilson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The pros and cons of utilizing a fissionable material such as /sup 238/U to compensate for the nuclear binding energy losses in a hadron calorimeter are discussed. Fissionable material can return some lost energy to the particle cascade in terms of low-energy neutrons and gamma rays, but electromagnetic sampling inefficiencies (often called transition effects) and the detection medium which tries to convert this energy to a useable signal are just as important. 12 references.

  15. Robust finite-time tracking control for nonlinear suspension systems via disturbance compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Jing, Xingjian; Sun, Weichao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the finite-time tracking control with external disturbance for active suspension systems. In order to compensate unknown disturbance efficiently, a disturbance compensator with finite-time convergence property is studied. By analyzing the discontinuous phenomenon of classical disturbance compensation techniques, this study presents a simple approach to construct a continuous compensator satisfying the finite-time disturbance rejection performance. According to the finite-time separation principle, the design procedures of the nominal controller for the suspension system without disturbance and the disturbance compensator can be implemented in a completely independent manner. Therefore, the overall control law for the closed-loop system is continuous, which offers some distinct advantages over the existing discontinuous ones. From the perspective of practical implementation, the continuous controller can avoid effectively the unexpected chattering in active suspension control. Comparative experimental results are presented and discussed to illustrate the advantage and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  16. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  17. Dispersion compensation based on prism compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongying; Lan, Tian; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2017-04-01

    A prism compressor can compensate dispersion of femtosecond light pulses travelling in air for laser ranging. An accurate expression of the group delay dispersion (GDD) of a prism compressor at arbitrary incident angle and at arbitrary incident point is obtained, which is of benefit to finely compensating dispersion of femtosecond pulses. Influences of several parameters on group delay dispersion are analyzed for the active compensation of dispersion of femtosecond pulses. These expressions are convenient to applications of intra- and extra-cavity dispersion compensation of ultra-short laser pulses, as well as fine compensation of satellite laser ranging and laser altimetry.

  18. PMD compensation based on a new type dynamic first-order PMD compensator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Shilong Pan; Jia Jia; Yanfu Yang; Caiyun Lou

    2006-01-01

    @@ A dynamic first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensator based on garnet and yttrium vanadate crystal has been proposed and implemented. Consisting of a differential group delay (DGD) generator and a Faraday rotator (FR), this PMD compensator has only two degrees of freedom. Feedback control and compensation algorithm are both very simple. Experimental results reveal the compensator behaviors to be excellent for PMD compensation in 40-Gb/s optical time domain multiplexing (OTDM)system.

  19. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: Compensation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Lamb, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Instrumental Activities of Daily Living – Compensation (IADL-C) scale was developed to capture early functional difficulties and to quantify compensatory strategy use that may mitigate functional decline in the aging population. The IADL-C was validated in a sample of cognitively healthy older adults (N=184) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=92) and dementia (N=24). Factor analysis and Rasch item analysis led to the 27-item IADL-C informant questionnaire with four functional domain subscales (money and self-management, home daily living, travel and event memory, and social skills). The subscales demonstrated good internal consistency (Rasch reliability 0.80 to 0.93) and test-retest reliability (Spearman coefficients 0.70 to 0.91). The IADL-C total score and subscales showed convergent validity with other IADL measures, discriminant validity with psychosocial measures, and the ability to discriminate between diagnostic groups. The money and self management subscale showed notable difficulties for individuals with MCI, whereas difficulties with home daily living became more prominent for dementia participants. Compensatory strategy use increased in the MCI group and decreased in the dementia group. PMID:25344901

  20. Design and fabrication of stress-compensated optical coatings: Fabry-Perot filters for astronomical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Denus-Baillargeon, Marie-Maude; Schmitt, Thomas; Larouche, Stéphane; Martinu, Ludvik

    2014-04-20

    The performance of optical coatings may be negatively affected by the deleterious effects of mechanical stress. In this work, we propose an optimization tool for the design of optical filters taking into account both the optical and mechanical properties of the substrate and of the individual deposited layers. The proposed method has been implemented as a supplemental module in the OpenFilters open source design software. It has been experimentally validated by fabricating multilayer stacks using e-beam evaporation, in combination with their mechanical stress assessment performed as a function of temperature. Two different stress-compensation strategies were evaluated: (a) design of two complementary coatings on either side of the substrate and (b) implementing the mechanical properties of the individual materials in the design of the optical coating on one side only. This approach has been tested by the manufacture of a Fabry-Perot etalon used in astronomy while using evaporated SiO2 and TiO2 films. We found that the substrate curvature can be decreased by 85% and 49% for the first and second strategies, respectively.

  1. Evaluating the Use of a Self-Advocacy Strategy as a Means of Improving Progress in the General Curriculum for Individuals with Cognitive Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the use of a self-advocacy strategy, with high school students identified as having a mild cognitive disability, would increase student use of self-advocacy skills across multiple school settings. Participants in the study were also identified as participating in at least one general education class at…

  2. Gauging the Gaps in Student Problem-Solving Skills: Assessment of Individual and Group Use of Problem-Solving Strategies Using Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L.; Mitchell, Steven M.; Osgood, Marcy P.

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted…

  3. Relationships among Individual Task Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Use and Academic Performance in a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimberly; Narayan, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between self-efficacy, self-regulated learning strategy use and academic performance. Participants were 96 undergraduate students working on projects with three subtasks (idea generation task, methodical task and data collection) in a blended learning environment. Task self-efficacy was measured with…

  4. Compensation for Land Loss in Reservoir Resettlement: A Case Study of The Three Gorges Project, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yi-qian; Tan Yan

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies current policies in compensation for land lost due to construction of the Three Gorges project (TGP), China. In the case study of Kaixian County, the value of land in the peri-urban areas is underestimated. Some losses in land are tangible and thus measurable, but some losses are intangible and thus immeasurable. The land available in the resettlement areas is scarce and rarely of equivalent quality. This study suggests that the loss of agricultural land be compensated with alternative land and/or non-land-based livelihood strategies, including part compensation in monetary terms and preferential policies.

  5. Compensation for Land Loss in Reservoir Resettlement: A Case Study of The Three Gorges Project, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangYi-qian; TanYan

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies current policies in compensation for land lost due to construction of the Three Gorges project (TGP), China. In the case study of Kaixian County, the value of land in the peri-urban areas is underestimated. Some losses in land are tangible and thus measurable, but some losses are intangible and thus immeasurable. The land available in the resettlement areas is scarce and rarely of equivalent quality. This study suggests that the loss of agricultural land be compensated with alternative land and/or non-land-based livelihood strategies, including part compensation in monetary terms and preferential policies.

  6. A Novel Phase Compensation Method for ISAR Imaging in Wideband Radar (in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zeng-ping

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is proposed to eliminate the negative influence of the Rotational Phase Component (RPC on the performance of the Doppler Centroid Tracking (DCT phase compensation method. Firstly, the coherent property between adjacent echo pulses sampled directly in Intermediate Frequency (IF is analyzed in the paper. Then a coherent phase compensation method is developed to improve the Translational Phase Component (TPC estimation accuracy of DCT. Compared to the Modified DCT (MDCT algorithm, the proposed method achieves better phase compensation performance. Experimental results prove the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed strategy.

  7. Extreme long range process effects characterization and compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Thiago; Browning, Clyde; Thornton, Martin J.; Vannuffel, Cyril; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Hohle, Christoph; Tortai, Jean-Herve; Schiavone, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Proximity Effects in electron beam lithography impact feature dimensions, pattern fidelity and uniformity. These effects are addressed using a mathematical model representing the radial exposure intensity distribution induced by a point electron source, commonly named as the Point Spread Function (PSF). PSF models are usually employed for predicting and compensating for effects up to 15μm. It is well known that there are also some process related phenomena that impact pattern uniformity that have a longer range, namely CMP effects, fogging, etc. Performing proximity effects corrections can result in lengthy run times as file size and pattern densities continue to increase exponentially per technology node. Running corrections for extreme long range phenomena becomes computational and file size prohibitive. Nevertheless, since extreme long range may reach up several millimeters, and new technology nodes require a high level of precision, a strategy for predicting and compensating these phenomena is crucial. In this paper a set of test patterns are presented in order to verify and calibrate the so called extreme long range effects in the electron beam lithography. Moreover, a strategy to compensate for extreme long range effects based on the pattern density is presented. Since the evaluation is based on a density map instead of the actual patterns, the computational effort is feasible. The proposed method may be performed off-line (in contrast to machine standard in-line correction). The advantage of employing off-line compensation relies on enhancing the employ of dose and/or geometry modulation. This strategy also has the advantage of being completely decoupled from other e-beam writer's internal corrections (like Fogging Effect Correction - FEC).

  8. Quantum optical effective-medium theory for loss-compensated metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Amooghorban, Ehsan; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    A central aim in metamaterial research is to engineer sub-wavelength unit cells that give rise to desired effective-medium properties and parameters, such as a negative refractive index. Ideally one can disregard the details of the unit cell and employ the effective description instead. A popular strategy to compensate for the inevitable losses in metallic components of metamaterials is to add optical gain material. Here we study the quantum optics of such loss-compensated metamaterials at fr...

  9. Reactive Power Compensation and Harmonic Suppression for Power Supply System of HT-7U Superconductive Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a strategy for the reactive power compensation and harmonic suppression of the power supply system in HT-7U superconductive Tokamak is proposed. The optimizedapproach is given in the parameters design for passive filter. Also a controlling method with fastresponse time and good accuracy is put forward for the compensator, which is more suitable forthe dynamic load.PAGS: 84.70.+p ,52.55. Fa, 84.30. Vn

  10. Social and Individual Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneiderman, Ben

    1989-01-01

    This reprint from "Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction" (Shneiderman) discusses the impact of computers on individuals and society. Highlights include individual opportunities for learning, entertainment, and cooperation through networking; problems with the use of computer systems; and the…

  11. Differentiated Curriculum Design: Responding to the Individual and Group Needs of Students with Learning Difficulties with Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Winnie Sin Wai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore special educational curriculum design at senior secondary school level and whether this helps to enhance the academic attainment and self-confidence of students with learning difficulties. An in-depth discussion focuses on lesson planning for the individual needs and group needs of students by…

  12. Increased mortality exposure within the family rather than individual mortality experiences triggers faster life-history strategies in historic human populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Störmer, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2014-01-01

    impact of family versus individual-level effects of mortality exposure on two central life-history parameters, ages at first marriage and first birth, in three historical human populations (Germany, Finland, Canada). Mortality experience is measured as the confrontation with sibling deaths within th

  13. Compensation issues tough to navigate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-02-12

    Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald - excerpt pasted below: Most industries out there are feeling the shift to a more educated, thus more empowered consumer. The legal field is no exception, which is why it's no surprise that lawsuits are on the rise. Today's society is one in which people are more aware than ever of their rights, and often equally convinced of their entitlements in a number of areas. For business owners, employees represent a major source of potential lawsuits. And compensation is an area of particular concern given that many complaints against employers revolve around it in some way.

  14. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  15. Individual dietary specialization and dive behaviour in the California sea otter: Using archival time-depth data to detect alternative foraging strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M.T.; Costa, D.P.; Estes, J.A.; Wieringa, N.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of individual prey specializations has been reported for an ever-growing number of taxa, and has important ramifications for our understanding of predator-prey dynamics. We use the California sea otter population as a case study to validate the use of archival time-depth data to detect and measure differences in foraging behaviour and diet. We collected observational foraging data from radio-tagged sea otters that had been equipped with Mk9 time depth recorders (TDRs, Wildlife Computers, Redmond, WA). After recapturing the study animals and retrieving the TDRs it was possible to compare the two data types, by matching individual dives from the TDR record with observational data and thus examining behavioural correlates of capture success and prey species. Individuals varied with respect to prey selection, aggregating into one of three distinct dietary specializations. A number of TDR-derived parameters, particularly dive depth and post-dive surface interval, differed predictably between specialist types. A combination of six dive parameters was particularly useful for discriminating between specialist types, and when incorporated into a multivariate cluster analysis, these six parameters resulted in classification of 13 adult female sea otters into three clusters that corresponded almost perfectly to the diet-based classification (1 out of 13 animals was misclassified). Thus based solely on quantifiable traits of time-depth data that have been collected over an appropriate period (in this case 1 year per animal), it was possible to assign female sea otters to diet type with >90% accuracy. TDR data can thus be used as a tool to measure the degree of individual specialization in sea otter populations, a conclusion that will likely apply to other diving marine vertebrates as well. Our ultimate goals must be both to understand the causes of individual specialization, and to incorporate such variation into models of population- and community-level food web

  16. A relational fairness perspective on individuality and individualization in contemporary approaches to compensations in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Lund

    Det primære fokus i nærværende afhandling er at belyse relationerne mellem moderne kompensationssystemer baseret på individualisering og individualitet, konstitutionen af den retfærdige ret, skylds kausalitet og belønnings kausalitet, og behovet for sociale relationer og dets relation til motivat...

  17. A relational fairness perspective on individuality and individualization in contemporary approaches to compensations in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Lund

    Det primære fokus i nærværende afhandling er at belyse relationerne mellem moderne kompensationssystemer baseret på individualisering og individualitet, konstitutionen af den retfærdige ret, skylds kausalitet og belønnings kausalitet, og behovet for sociale relationer og dets relation til motivat...

  18. International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund was established under a 1971 Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization Convention to supplement the 1969 Civil Liability Convention (CLC) under which shipowners were held liable for damage caused by oil spills up to $18 million per incident; the new fund increases the amount payable per incident to $57 million as of April 1979. A further increase up to about $76 million is now under consideration. During 1979, the Fund has been concerned in particular with claims arising out of oil spills in Japan and the Baltic Sea. In the former case, some 540 tons of oil was lost by Miya Maru No. 8 after a collision in March 1979 in the Japanese Inland Sea; cleanup costs and compensation to fishermen were about (pound sterling)400,000. In the latter phase, crude oil apparently coming from the Russian tanker Antonio Gramsci, which grounded off Ventspils in February 1979, drifted across the Baltic and was trapped in or under the ice. After the ice melted, it spread to more than 2000 islands in the Swedish Archipelaso; cleanup measures may result in claims as high as (pound sterling) 8 million.

  19. End-Stage Renal Disease After Renal Surgery in Patients with Normal Preoperative Kidney Function: Balancing Surgical Strategy and Individual Disorders at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Umberto; Larcher, Alessandro; Terrone, Carlo; Antonelli, Alessandro; Volpe, Alessandro; Fiori, Cristian; Furlan, Maria; Dehò, Federico; Minervini, Andrea; Serni, Sergio; Porpiglia, Francesco; Trevisani, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea; Carini, Marco; Simeone, Claudio; Montorsi, Francesco; Bertini, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Although nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) has demonstrated benefit in terms of renal function preservation, it is unclear whether NSS might also decrease the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) relative to radical nephrectomy (RN). In the current paper, we aimed to report the rate and the predictors of ESRD after surgery, accounting for detailed individual baseline characteristics and comorbidities. A multi-institutional collaboration among five European tertiary care centers allowed study of 2027 patients with normal preoperative renal function and a clinically localized T1abN0M0 renal mass. Cox regression analyses were used to predict the risk of ESRD (defined as the onset of a postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate <15ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) after adjusting for the individual baseline risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Univariable ESRD rates at 5 and 10 yr of follow-up were virtually equivalent for patients who underwent NSS (1.5% and 2.5%, respectively) versus RN (1.9% and 2.7%, respectively; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-1.6). However, diabetes, smoking, uncontrolled hypertension, and other comorbidities were consistently more frequent in the NSS group relative to their RN counterparts. After adjusting for detailed baseline individual characteristics, NSS was shown to have an independent protective effect relative to RN (HR: 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; p=0.02) at multivariable analyses.

  20. Disclosure-and-resolution programs that include generous compensation offers may prompt a complex patient response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Lindsey; Gallagher, Thomas H; Andrew, Penny; Mello, Michelle M

    2012-12-01

    Under "disclosure-and-resolution" programs, health systems disclose adverse events to affected patients and their families; apologize; and, where appropriate, offer compensation. Early adopters of this approach have reported reduced liability costs, but the extent to which these results stem from effective disclosure and apology practices, versus compensation offers, is unknown. Using survey vignettes, we examined the effects of different compensation offers on individuals' responses to disclosures of medical errors compared to explanation and apology alone. Our results show that although two-thirds of these individuals desired compensation offers, increasing the offer amount did not improve key outcomes. Full-compensation offers did not decrease the likelihood of seeking legal advice and increased the likelihood that people perceived the disclosure and apology as motivated by providers' desire to avoid litigation. Hospitals, physicians, and malpractice insurers should consider this complex interplay as they implement similar initiatives. They may benefit from separating disclosure conversations and compensation offers and from excluding physicians from compensation discussions.