WorldWideScience

Sample records for individual case review

  1. Depression Case Finding in Individuals with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Zahra S; Mele, Bria S; Roberts, Derek J; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna

    2017-05-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of depression case finding tools with a criterion standard in the outpatient setting among adults with dementia. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies of older outpatients with dementia. Elderly outpatients (clinic and long-term care) with dementia (N = 3,035). Prevalence of major depression and diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. From the 11,539 citations, 20 studies were included for qualitative synthesis and 15 for a meta-analysis. Tools included were the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Single Question, Nijmegen Observer-Rated Depression Scale, and Even Briefer Assessment Scale-Depression. The pooled prevalence of depression in individuals with dementia was 30.3% (95% CI = 22.1-38.5). The average age was 75.2 (95% CI = 71.7-78.7), and mean Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranged from 11.2 to 24. The diagnostic accuracy of the individual tools was pooled for the best-reported cutoffs and for each cutoff, if available. The CSDD had a sensitivity of 0.84 (95% CI = 0.73-0.91) and a specificity of 0.80 (95% CI = 0.65-0.90), the 30-item GDS (GDS-30) had a sensitivity of 0.62 (95% CI = 0.45-0.76) and a specificity 0.81 (95% CI = 0.75-0.85), and the HDRS had a sensitivity of 0.86 (95% CI = 0.63-0.96) and a specificity of 0.84 (95% CI = 0.76-0.90). Summary statistics for all tools across best-reported cutoffs had significant heterogeneity. There are many validated tools for the detection of depression in individuals with dementia. Tools that incorporate a physician interview with patient and collateral histories, the CSDD and HDRS, have higher sensitivities, which would ensure fewer false-negatives. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics

  2. A case law review of the individuals with disabilities education act for children with hearing loss or auditory processing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisman, Brian M; John, Andrew B

    2010-01-01

    In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), and it has been revised and modified several times. At the time of this writing, this law was most recently amended by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Pub. L. No. 108-446, 118 Stat. 2647, December 3, 2004), which took effect on July 1, 2005. Colloquially the law is still referred to as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Children with hearing loss or auditory processing disorder (APD) may qualify for services under IDEA. However, a review of the literature found no review of case law for such children. This article provides a comprehensive review of case law involving the IDEA and children with hearing loss or APD from the U.S. Supreme Court and U.S. courts of appeals. We conducted a systematic review of case law. A LexisNexis search for cases involving IDEA and children with hearing loss or APDs was conducted. For the purpose of the present case review, all appellate decisions (cases accepted by the U.S. courts of appeals or the U.S. Supreme Court) were included if they found that the child had hearing loss or APD, regardless of the reason for the appeal under IDEA. In the instance of multiple cases that involved the same two parties, these cases are summarized together to provide the legal context. Brief explanations of IDEA and the federal judicial process as it pertains to IDEA disputes are presented. Following these explanations, a chronological review of IDEA appellate cases concerning students with hearing loss or APD is provided. The IDEA cases reviewed focus on three main issues: placement of the child, methodology of teaching, and the provision of services. This case law review provides a helpful summary of higher court cases for educational audiologists and parents of children with hearing loss or APDs, as well as educators, individualized education program team members, school administrators, and legal

  3. Quality assurance in the 22991 EORTC ROG trial in localized prostate cancer: Dummy run and individual case review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzinger, Oscar; Poortmans, Philip; Giraud, Jean-Yves; Maingon, Philippe; Budiharto, Tom; Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den; Davis, J. Bernard; Musat, Elena; Ataman, Fatma; Huyskens, Dominique P.; Gulyban, Akos; Bolla, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: EORTC trial 22991 was designed to evaluate the addition of concomitant and adjuvant short-term hormonal treatments to curative radiotherapy in terms of disease-free survival for patients with intermediate risk localized prostate cancer. In order to assess the compliance to the 3D conformal radiotherapy protocol guidelines, all participating centres were requested to participate in a dummy run procedure. An individual case review was performed for the largest recruiting centres as well. Materials and methods: CT-data of an eligible prostate cancer patient were sent to 30 centres including a description of the clinical case. The investigator was requested to delineate the volumes of interest and to perform treatment planning according to the protocol. Thereafter, the investigators of the 12 most actively recruiting centres were requested to provide data on five randomly selected patients for an individual case review. Results: Volume delineation varied significantly between investigators. Dose constraints for organs at risk (rectum, bladder, hips) were difficult to meet. In the individual case review, no major protocol deviations were observed, but a number of dose reporting problems were documented for centres using IMRT. Conclusions: Overall, results of this quality assurance program were satisfactory. The efficacy of the combination of a dummy run procedure with an individual case review is confirmed in this study, as none of the evaluated patient files harboured a major protocol deviation. Quality assurance remains a very important tool in radiotherapy to increase the reliability of the trial results. Special attention should be given when designing quality assurance programs for more complex irradiation techniques

  4. Presurgical nasoalveolar molding therapy in cleft lip and palate individuals: Case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan H Gandedkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nasoalveolar molding (NAM therapy is advocated to reduce the severity of alveolar cleft and nasal deformity. NAM therapy has demonstrated to be an effective method for reducing cleft and improve nose anatomy. This paper presents a case report of three cleft lip and palate individuals treated with NAM therapy. Furthermore, the paper highlights the advantages of NAM therapy along with an enumeration of literature suggesting in favor of NAM therapy and otherwise. Regardless of controversies and divergent views involved with NAM therapy, the immediate success of NAM therapy facilitating primary lip repair surgery cannot be under-emphasized.

  5. Individuals Account Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Donald

    2004-01-01

    .... This report was commissioned by Navy Personnel Command (NPC) to: (1) review and analyze the IA to determine if current accounting methods accurately capture the number of personnel included in the IA; (2...

  6. Quality assurance in the EORTC 22033–26033/CE5 phase III randomized trial for low grade glioma: The digital individual case review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, Alysa; Weber, Damien C.; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Gulyban, Akos; Fenton, Paul A.; Stupp, Roger; Baumert, Brigitta G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The phase III EORTC 22033–26033/NCIC CE5 intergroup trial compares 50.4 Gy radiotherapy with up-front temozolomide in previously untreated low-grade glioma. We describe the digital EORTC individual case review (ICR) performed to evaluate protocol radiotherapy (RT) compliance. Methods: Fifty-eight institutions were asked to submit 1–2 randomly selected cases. Digital ICR datasets were uploaded to the EORTC server and accessed by three central reviewers. Twenty-seven parameters were analysed including volume delineation, treatment planning, organ at risk (OAR) dosimetry and verification. Consensus reviews were collated and summary statistics calculated. Results: Fifty-seven of seventy-two requested datasets from forty-eight institutions were technically usable. 31/57 received a major deviation for at least one section. Relocation accuracy was according to protocol in 45. Just over 30% had acceptable target volumes. OAR contours were missing in an average of 25% of cases. Up to one-third of those present were incorrectly drawn while dosimetry was largely protocol compliant. Beam energy was acceptable in 97% and 48 patients had per protocol beam arrangements. Conclusions: Digital RT plan submission and review within the EORTC 22033–26033 ICR provide a solid foundation for future quality assurance procedures. Strict evaluation resulted in overall grades of minor and major deviation for 37% and 32%, respectively.

  7. Quality assurance of radiotherapy in the ongoing EORTC 22042–26042 trial for atypical and malignant meningioma: results from the dummy runs and prospective individual case Reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, Mehtap; Straube, William; Hurkmans, Coen W; Melidis, Christos; Haan, Patricia F de; Villà, Salvador; Collette, Sandra; Weber, Damien C

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing EORTC 22042–26042 trial evaluates the efficacy of high-dose radiotherapy (RT) in atypical/malignant meningioma. The results of the Dummy Run (DR) and prospective Individual Case Review (ICR) were analyzed in this Quality Assurance (QA) study. Institutions were requested to submit a protocol compliant treatment plan for the DR and ICR, respectively. DR-plans (n=12) and ICR-plans (n=50) were uploaded to the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center of Advanced Technology Consortium server (http://atc.wustl.edu/) and were assessed prospectively. Major deviations were observed in 25% (n=3) of DR-plans while no minor deviations were observed. Major and minor deviations were observed in 22% (n=11) and 10% (n=5) of the ICR-plans, respectively. Eighteen% of ICRs could not be analyzed prospectively, as a result of corrupted or late data submission. CTV to PTV margins were respected in all cases. Deviations were negatively associated with the number of submitted cases per institution (p=0.0013), with a cutoff of 5 patients per institutions. No association (p=0.12) was observed between DR and ICR results, suggesting that DR’s results did not predict for an improved QA process in accrued brain tumor patients. A substantial number of protocol deviations were observed in this prospective QA study. The number of cases accrued per institution was a significant determinant for protocol deviation. These data suggest that successful DR is not a guarantee for protocol compliance for accrued patients. Prospective ICRs should be performed to prevent protocol deviations

  8. Individual Pesticides in Registration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    You can used the Chemical Search database to search pesticides by chemical name and find their registration review dockets, along with Work Plans, risk assessments, interim and final decisions, tolerance rules, and cancellation actions.

  9. Review on individual neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal, M.

    1983-01-01

    Up to now, nuclear energy workers in relation to neutron radiations were few. Fast development of nuclear energy lead us to study, for future, individual dosimetry techniques which are autonomous, more accurate and cheaper. The future dosemeter will be a couple: fast neutron dosemeter and slow neutron dosemeter. The different current studies concerning this ''composite'' dosemeter are described. In 1984-1985, operation of a ''non-homogeneous, composite'' dosemeter is foreseen; later on, an ''homogeneous composite'' dosemeter that is to say a dosemeter which needs same basis techniques [fr

  10. Transpalatal distraction--state of the art for the individual management of transverse maxillary deficiency--a review of 50 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphs, Nicolai; Ernst, Nicole; Menneking, Horst; Hoffmeister, Bodo

    2014-12-01

    Transpalatal distraction has been established as a technique for surgical assisted rapid palatal/maxillary expansion (SARPE/SARME) in order to correct transverse maxillary deficiency. From 2007 until 2013 bone borne transpalatal distraction devices have been inserted in 50 patients affected by transverse maxillary deficiency and transpalatal distraction has been performed by the same surgical team. Patient records were retrospectively evaluated after ending of the active distraction phase with respect to indication, achieved expansion, additional procedures and side effects. In all cases the existing transverse maxillary deficiency was corrected by means of transpalatal distraction according to the individual needs. No complications were observed that interfered with that therapeutic aim. Evaluation of the records showed a wide variance of parameters which impedes evidence based statements. According to that series transpalatal distraction is a safe, powerful and reliable procedure and can be recommended as a state of the art procedure for the individually adapted correction of transverse maxillary deficiency if well known parameters of distraction are respected. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic review of studies generating individual participant data on the efficacy of drugs for treating soil-transmitted helminthiases and the case for data-sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Julia B; Benton, Joanne; Julé, Amélie M; Guérin, Phillipe J; Olliaro, Piero L; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Walker, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT) by mass drug administration is the cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s policy to control soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) and hookworm species (Necator americanus and Ancylostama duodenale) which affect over 1 billion people globally. Despite consensus that drug efficacies should be monitored for signs of decline that could jeopardise the effectiveness of PCT, systematic monitoring and evaluation is seldom implemented. Drug trials mostly report aggregate efficacies in groups of participants, but heterogeneities in design complicate classical meta-analyses of these data. Individual participant data (IPD) permit more detailed analysis of drug efficacies, offering increased sensitivity to identify atypical responses potentially caused by emerging drug resistance. We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies concluding after 2000 that collected IPD suitable for estimating drug efficacy against STH. We included studies that administered a variety of anthelmintics with follow ups less than 60 days after treatment. We estimated the number of IPD and extracted cohort- and study-level meta-data. We estimate that there exist individual data on approximately 35,000 participants from 129 studies conducted in 39 countries, including 34 out of 103 countries where PCT is recommended. We find significant heterogeneity in diagnostic methods, times of outcome assessment, and the reported measure of efficacy. We also quantify cohorts comprising pre-school age children, pregnant women, and co-infected participants, including with HIV. We argue that establishing a global IPD repository would improve the capacity to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs, respond to changes and safeguard the ongoing effectiveness of PCT. Establishing a fair, transparent data governance policy will be key for the

  12. Systematic review of studies generating individual participant data on the efficacy of drugs for treating soil-transmitted helminthiases and the case for data-sharing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia B Halder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT by mass drug administration is the cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO's policy to control soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm, Trichuris trichiura (whipworm and hookworm species (Necator americanus and Ancylostama duodenale which affect over 1 billion people globally. Despite consensus that drug efficacies should be monitored for signs of decline that could jeopardise the effectiveness of PCT, systematic monitoring and evaluation is seldom implemented. Drug trials mostly report aggregate efficacies in groups of participants, but heterogeneities in design complicate classical meta-analyses of these data. Individual participant data (IPD permit more detailed analysis of drug efficacies, offering increased sensitivity to identify atypical responses potentially caused by emerging drug resistance.We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies concluding after 2000 that collected IPD suitable for estimating drug efficacy against STH. We included studies that administered a variety of anthelmintics with follow ups less than 60 days after treatment. We estimated the number of IPD and extracted cohort- and study-level meta-data.We estimate that there exist individual data on approximately 35,000 participants from 129 studies conducted in 39 countries, including 34 out of 103 countries where PCT is recommended. We find significant heterogeneity in diagnostic methods, times of outcome assessment, and the reported measure of efficacy. We also quantify cohorts comprising pre-school age children, pregnant women, and co-infected participants, including with HIV.We argue that establishing a global IPD repository would improve the capacity to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs, respond to changes and safeguard the ongoing effectiveness of PCT. Establishing a fair, transparent data governance policy will be key for

  13. 32 CFR 881.3 - Individual Service Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual Service Review Board. 881.3 Section... Individual Service Review Board. (a) The Commander, Headquarters Air Force Personnel Center (HQ AFPC/CC) establishes the Individual Service Review Board as necessary. (b) The Board consists of military members in...

  14. Case Management for Individuals with Mental Retardation. ARC Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    A question-and-answer format is used in this fact sheet to provide information on case management for individuals with mental retardation. The fact sheet describes the major components of a case management system, the role of the case manager, the individual's or family's role in case management, providers of case management services and systems…

  15. Radiotherapy quality assurance for the RTOG 0834/EORTC 26053-22054/NCIC CTG CEC.1/CATNON intergroup trial "concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy in newly diagnosed non-1p/19q deleted anaplastic glioma": Individual case review analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrunhosa-Branquinho, André N; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Collette, Sandra; Clementel, Enrico; Liu, Yan; Hurkmans, Coen W; Feuvret, Loïc; Van Beek, Karen; van den Bent, Martin; Baumert, Brigitta G; Weber, Damien C

    2018-03-29

    The EORTC phase III 26053-22054/ RTOG 0834/NCIC CTG CEC.1/CATNON intergroup trial was designed to evaluate the impact on concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy in newly diagnosed non-1p/19q deleted anaplastic gliomas. The primary endpoint was overall survival. We report the results of retrospective individual case reviews (ICRs) for the first patient randomized per institution to detect the compliance with the study protocol. Sixty-nine institutions were required to submit the radiotherapy plan of their first randomized patient. Full digital datasets uploaded to the EORTC server were assessed by three independent and blinded reviewers through the EORTC radiotherapy quality assurance platform. Sixty-two (90%) of sixty-nine ICRs were received and assessable. Of the 62 cases, 22 were evaluated as per protocol (35.5%), 11 as acceptable variation (17.7%) and 29 were classified as unacceptable variations (46.8%). Most common unacceptable variations were related to the PTV dose (n = 19, 31%) and delineation (n = 17, 27%) processes. The ICR analysis showed a significant number of unacceptable variations with potential impact on tumor control and/or toxicity profile. Prospective ICRs are encouraged for future studies to prevent and correct protocol violations before start of treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.

  17. Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.

  18. Rhabdomyolysis in adolescent athletes: review of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kevin; Gregory, Andrew; Desai, Neerav; Diamond, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria and ranges in severity from asymptomatic to life threatening with acute kidney failure. While a common condition in adult populations, it is understudied in pediatrics and the majority of adolescent cases are likely exercise-induced, caused by strenuous exercise in athletes. Recently, in our pediatric sports medicine practice, we have seen numerous cases of late adolescent high school athletes who present with severe muscle pain and were found to have elevated creatine kinase levels. The cases review potential contributing factors including characteristics of the workout, use of supplements, caffeine, medication, and metabolic or genetic predisposition. Treatment for exercised-induced rhabdomyolysis rarely requires more than rehydration. Return to play should be progressive, individualized, and include acclimatization and monitoring of hydration status, though guidelines require further review.

  19. Neuropharmacology In Individual With Aphasia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The neuropharmacology of aphasia is an area of cognitive neuroscience. In this article we review what is known about these domain, especially with regard to treating aphasia with drugs. Neurotransmitters can improve language function in certain patients with aphasia. We discuss which neurotransmitters work for which language functions in which patients. Method: PubMed and Science databases were searched to identify studies investigated effects of drugs on language function in aphasia in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2015.   Results: Studies show that Catecholamines seem especially promising for nonfluent aphasias. Dopamine agonists, in particular bromocriptine, improve verbal fluency in transcortical motor aphasia. Norepinephrine affects prefrontal functions and seems to relieve symptoms of depression and improve overall recovery of function, including language, following stroke. Amphetamines potentiate norepinephrine to promote general recovery, and have been shown to improve language performance in some patients with nonfluent aphasia. Conclusion: studies have been looking at the possibility of manipulating brain chemistry for functional gain in patients with aphasia, but, to date, no overwhelming evidence has emerged to support routine use of drugs as either a complementary or alternative treatment for aphasia. Studies have been largely anecdotal with small numbers of patients and varying types of aphasia. Improvements due to spontaneous recovery have been difficult to separate from treatment benefits.

  20. Female serial killing: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Andreas; Völlm, Birgit; Graf, Marc; Dittmann, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Single homicide committed by women is rare. Serial killing is very infrequent, and the perpetrators are usually white, intelligent males with sadistic tendencies. Serial killing by women has, however, also been described. To conduct a review of published literature on female serial killers and consider its usefulness in assessing a presenting case. A literature review was conducted, after searching EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. The presenting clinical case is described in detail in the context of the literature findings. Results The literature search revealed few relevant publications. Attempts to categorize the phenomenon of female serial killing according to patterns of and motives for the homicides have been made by some authors. The most common motive identified was material gain or similar extrinsic gratification while the 'hedonistic' sadistic or sexual serial killer seems to be extremely rare in women. There is no consistent theory of serial killing by women, but psychopathic personality traits and abusive childhood experiences have consistently been observed. The authors' case did not fit the description of a 'typical' female serial killer. In such unusual circumstances as serial killing by a woman, detailed individual case formulation is required to make sense of the psychopathology in each case. Publication of cases in scientific journals should be encouraged to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Exercise for Individuals with Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inskip

    Full Text Available Individuals with Lewy body Dementia (LBD, which encompasses both Parkinson disease dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB experience functional decline through Parkinsonism and sedentariness exacerbated by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Exercise may improve functional outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the multi-domain nature of the LBD cluster of symptoms (physical, cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic results in vulnerable individuals often being excluded from exercise studies evaluating physical function in PD or cognitive function in dementia to avoid confounding results. This review evaluated existing literature reporting the effects of exercise interventions or physical activity (PA exposure on cluster symptoms in LBD.A high-sensitivity search was executed across 19 databases. Full-length articles of any language and quality, published or unpublished, that analysed effects of isolated exercise/physical activity on indicative Dementia with Lewy Bodies or PD-dementia cohorts were evaluated for outcomes inclusive of physical, cognitive, psychiatric, physiological and quality of life measures. The protocol for this review (Reg. #: CRD42015019002 is accessible at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/.111,485 articles were initially retrieved; 288 full articles were reviewed and 89.6% subsequently deemed ineligible due to exclusion of participants with co-existence of dementia and Parkinsonism. Five studies (1 uncontrolled trial, 1 randomized controlled trial and 3 case reports evaluating 16 participants were included. Interventions were diverse and outcome homogeneity was low. Habitual gait speed outcomes were measured in 13 participants and increased (0.18m/s, 95% CI -0.02, 0.38m/s, exceeding moderate important change (0.14m/s for PD cohorts. Other outcomes appeared to improve modestly in most participants.Scarce research investigating exercise in LBD exists. This review confirms

  2. Individual Performance Management: A Review of Current Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O’ Boyle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of current practice in relation to individual performance management systems and process within the traditional business environment. There is a consensus that the role of the individual is central to the overall performance of any organization and how individual performances are managed and evaluated can have significant impacts on overall organizational success. Many organizations employ the traditional performance appraisal in order to monitor and assess individual employee performances. However, new approaches, such as 360-degree feedback have also become commonplace within the business environment. An analysis of each approach including benefits and challenges associated with each process is presented within this paper.

  3. Deficits in Processing Case Markers in Individuals with Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Sung

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with aphasia demonstrated greater difficulties in the case marker assignment compared to their normal control group. Furthermore, noncanonical word-order and passive sentences elicited more errors on the task than canonical and active sentences. Passive sentences were the significant predictors for overall aphasia severity. The results suggested that PWA using a verb-final language with well-developed case-marking systems presented deficits in case marker processing. The syntactic structure and canonicity of word order need to be considered as critical linguistic features in testing their performance on dealing with case markers.

  4. Societal Constraints, Systemic Disadvantages and Homelessness: An Individual Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Kauppi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research utilizing the individual case study method examined the complex issues related to pathways into and out of home-lessness for an Aboriginal man from a First Nation community on the western James Bay in Canada. This instrumental case study focused on an individual's story, rather than on a site or a group of individuals, an incident or a series of incidents, or a program [6] [15]. First, as a research tool, it provides insight into the issue of homelessness and some of its causes from the perspective of an Aboriginal person. Second, the in-depth data gathered allowed us to understand some of the factors that work and those that do not work in facilitating transitions out of homelessness. Third, as an educational tool, it allows people from the outside to have a better understanding of how systemic disadvantages contribute to individuals falling into homelessness.

  5. Communication Assessment for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Kagohara, Debora; van der Meer, Larah; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed studies that aimed to determine whether behaviors, such as body movements, vocalizations, eye gaze, and facial expressions, served a communicative function for individuals with Rett syndrome. A systematic search identified eight studies, which were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) assessment targets, (c) assessment…

  6. An Analysis of Legal Hearings and Cases Related to Individualized Education Programs for Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etscheidt, Susan

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews 68 hearings and cases concerned with disputes regarding individualized education programs (IEPs) for students with disabilities. It concludes that IEP goals must be matched to evaluation data, team members must be qualified to develop programs, and the methodology selected must be able to assist the students in achieving…

  7. A Systematic Review of Effects of Social Stories Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Barton, Erin E.; Collier, Margo; Lin, Yi-Ling; Montoya, Charisse

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize 22 single-case research design (SCRD) studies on social stories intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) SCRD standards to analyze study rigor and evidence of a causal relation. We calculated four nonoverlap indices to…

  8. Bariatric surgery in individuals with liver cirrhosis: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Cazzo

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Bariatric surgery has become the gold standard treatment for morbid obesity, but there is no consensus regarding its safety and efficacy among individuals with chronic liver diseases. Objective: To critically evaluate the existing evidence on literature about bariatric surgery in individuals with liver cirrhosis. Method: Narrative review performed by means of an online search in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases. Results: Bariatric surgery is safe and effective in individuals with chronic liver disease without clinical decompensation or significant portal hypertension. Individuals with severe liver function impairment present significantly higher surgical morbidity and mortality. Among candidates to liver transplantation, surgery may be performed before, after and even during transplantation, and there is a predominant trend to perform it after. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy seems to be the most adequate technique in this group of subjects. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery is safe and effective in individuals with compensated cirrhosis without significant portal hypertension, but presents higher morbidity. Among candidates to liver transplantation and/or individuals with severe portal hypertension, morbidity and mortality are significantly higher.

  9. Postural control in blind individuals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Rodolfo Borges; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2017-09-01

    Postural control (PC) requires the interaction of the three sensory systems for a good maintenance of the balance, and in blind people, lack of visual input can harm your PC. Thus the objective is to perform a literature review concerning role of sight in the maintenance of PC and the adaptation of brain structures when vision is absent. Studies were searched from Pubmed, and EMBASE that included individuals with congenital blindness. Articles studying person with acquired blindness or low vision was excluded from this review. 26 out of 322 articles were selected for review, and we found that 1) blind individuals exhibit PC deficits and that is compensated by the intensification of the remaining systems; 2) Neuroplastic adaptation occurs throughout the entire cerebral cortex; and 3) Sensorimotor stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation seem to be a rehabilitation strategy. According to this review, the findings suggest that improved remaining sensations in the presence of adaptations and neuroplasticity, does not translate into better postural control performance. Regarding rehabilitation strategies, more studies are needed to show which therapeutic modality best contributes to postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Is individualized medicine more cost-effective? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatz, Maximilian H M; Schremser, Katharina; Rogowski, Wolf H

    2014-05-01

    Individualized medicine (IM) is a rapidly evolving field that is associated with both visions of more effective care at lower costs and fears of highly priced, low-value interventions. It is unclear which view is supported by the current evidence. Our objective was to systematically review the health economic evidence related to IM and to derive general statements on its cost-effectiveness. A literature search of MEDLINE database for English- and German-language studies was conducted. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility studies for technologies meeting the MEDLINE medical subject headings (MeSH) definition of IM (genetically targeted interventions) were reviewed. This was followed by a standardized extraction of general study characteristics and cost-effectiveness results. Most of the 84 studies included in the synthesis were from the USA (n = 43, 51 %), cost-utility studies (n = 66, 79 %), and published since 2005 (n = 60, 71 %). The results ranged from dominant to dominated. The median value (cost-utility studies) was calculated to be rounded $US22,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained (adjusted to $US, year 2008 values), which is equal to the rounded median cost-effectiveness in the peer-reviewed English-language literature according to a recent review. Many studies reported more than one strategy of IM with highly varying cost-effectiveness ratios. Generally, results differed according to test type, and tests for disease prognosis or screening appeared to be more favorable than tests to stratify patients by response or by risk of adverse effects. However, these results were not significant. Different definitions of IM could have been used. Quality assessment of the studies was restricted to analyzing transparency. IM neither seems to display superior cost-effectiveness than other types of medical interventions nor to be economically inferior. Instead, rather than 'whether' healthcare was individualized, the question of 'how' it was individualized was

  11. Prevalence of osteoarthritis in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wshah A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adnan Wshah,1,2 Sara JT Guilcher,2,3 Roger Goldstein,1,2,4,5 Dina Brooks1,2,5 1Respiratory Medicine, West Park Healthcare Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: The objective of this review was to examine the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA in individuals with COPD. A computer-based literature search of CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO and Embase databases was performed. Studies reporting the prevalence of OA among a cohort of individuals with COPD were included. The sample size varied across the studies from 27 to 52,643 with a total number of 101,399 individuals with COPD recruited from different countries. The mean age ranged from 59 to 76 years. The prevalence rates of OA among individuals with COPD were calculated as weighted means. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria with a prevalence ranging from 12% to 74% and an overall weighted mean of 35.5%. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of OA is high among individuals with COPD and should be considered when developing and applying interventions in this population. Keywords: COPD, osteoarthritis, prevalence, comorbidities, pulmonary rehabilitation

  12. Individual and team performance in team-handball: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2014-12-01

    Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key PointsThe specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition.To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested.Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors.

  13. Review of ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following is a letter report from the Executive Committee of the BOSC concerning the review of the ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop: Developing a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Research Strategy for Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide.

  14. Necrotizing enterocolitis - review of 34 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, E.G.; Abbud, E.A.; Duarte, F.B.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-four cases of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis are reviewed. The authors took into consideration the actual criteria of classification, and demonstrated the pre-disposal factors and the correlation between clinical and roentgenographics findings in this condition. (author)

  15. Backing the Founders: The Case for Unalienable Individual Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor R. Machan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many may benefit from revisiting the natural rights support for the fully free society even though the case is on record in several books and numerous scholarly pieces. Here I provide a sketch of that support, with a plethora of references for those who would like to explore the full case.The basic point is that adult human beings are moral agents and as such require in their communities respect for–and at times expert protection of–their individual natural rights. This is what gives rise to a polity of very limited government or law. Like referees at a game, whoever maintains and defends the law must stick to that job and not stray into other projects lest the work become corrupted. Such a society will not guarantee good conduct or prosperity but will have the best chance at these.

  16. Secondary acute leukemia - review of 15 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, P; Rajni, A; Gopal, R; Saikia, T; Kurkure, P A; Nair, C N; Advani, S H

    1988-12-01

    Acute leukemia is a rare complication of long-term chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy and radiotherapy. With improved survival in cancer patients resulting from modern methods of investigations and treatment, more case of secondary leukemia have come to light. In this review, fifteen cases of secondary leukemia, its prognostic implications and methods to reduce the risk of its development are emphasised. Relevant literature is also reviewed. (author). 3 tabs., 24 refs.

  17. Examining End-of-Life Case Management: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Case management was initiated in the 1970s to reduce care discontinuity. A literature review focused on end-of-life (EOL case management identified 17 research articles, with content analysis revealing two themes: (a seeking to determine or establish the value of EOL case management and (b identifying ways to improve EOL case management. The evidence, although limited, suggests that EOL case management is helpful to dying individuals and their families. Research is needed to more clearly illustrate its usefulness or outcomes and the extent of need for it and actual availability. Among other benefits, EOL case management may help reduce hospital utilization, a major concern with the high cost of hospital-based care and the increased desire for home-based EOL care.

  18. Experiences of case management with chronic illnesses: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, J Y; Liu, M F

    2018-03-01

    This qualitative systematic review aimed to identify and synthesize recent qualitative studies to improve understanding of the experiences and perceptions of case management interventions that individuals with chronic illnesses and their caregivers have. Case management has been shown to be effective at improving quality of care and lowering costs for individuals with chronic illnesses. However, no qualitative review has been synthesized with recent qualitative studies about case management experiences by individual with chronic illnesses. This qualitative systematic review uses a thematic synthesis method to review 10 qualitative studies published within the last 10 years, from 2007 to 2016, thereby identifying and discussing the understandings that individuals with chronic illnesses and their caregivers have about case management. From this synthesis, three themes were identified as facilitators of case management (access to healthcare resources, health status supports and emotional aid) and two themes were identified as barriers to it (low information about case management and time constraints). This is the first qualitative systematic review of the perceptions and experiences that individuals with chronic illnesses and their caregivers have about case management. The facilitators of case management can be employed to inform patients about the benefits of case management and to improve population health. The findings about barriers to case management can be used to reform case management for populations with chronic illnesses. These factors should be considered by nursing researchers and healthcare policymakers when implementing case management. © 2018 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Enamel hypoplasia and its role in identification of individuals: A review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Machado, Meghna; Rao, Ashwin; Krishan, Kewal; Garg, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of individuals is the mainstay of any forensic investigation especially in cases of mass disasters when mutilated remains are brought for examination. Dental examination helps in establishing the identity of an individual and thus, has played a vital role in forensic investigation process since long. In this regard, description on the role of enamel hypoplasia is limited in the literature. The present article reviews the literature on the enamel hypoplasia and discusses its utility in forensic identification. Enamel hypoplasia is a surface defect of the tooth crown caused by disturbance of enamel matrix secretion. Enamel defects can be congenital or acquired. In cases of mass disasters, or when the body is completely charred, putrefied and mutilated beyond recognition, the unique dental features can help in identification of the victims. PMID:26097340

  20. Case report and review of the literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access this article online ... Case report and review of the literature .... HTML pages have been optimized of mobile and other hand-held devices (such as ... such as for Windows: Digital Editions, OS X: Calibre/Bookworm, iPhone/iPod Touch/.

  1. Reexpansion pulmonary edema: review of pediatric cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Shinichiro

    2014-03-01

    Reexpansion pulmonary edema (RPE) is an increased permeability pulmonary edema that usually occurs in the reexpanded lung after several days of lung collapse. This condition is recognized to occur more frequently in patients under the age of 40 years, but there has been no detailed analysis of reported pediatric cases of RPE to date. For this review, PubMed literature searches were performed using the following terms: 're(-)expansion pulmonary (o)edema' AND ('child' OR 'children' OR 'infant' OR 'boy' OR 'girl' OR 'adolescent'). The 22 pediatric cases of RPE identified were included in this review. RPE was reported in almost the entire pediatric age range, and as in adult cases, the severity ranged from subclinical to lethal. No specific treatment for RPE was identified, and treatment was administered according to the clinical features of each patient. Of the 22 reported cases, 10 occurred during the perioperative period, but were not related to any specific surgical procedures or anesthetic techniques, or to the duration of lung collapse. Pediatric anesthesiologists should be aware that pediatric RPE can occur after reexpansion of any collapsed lung and that some invasive therapies can be useful in severe cases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Metastatic craniopharyngioma: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangou, Evan Mark; Tynan, Jennifer Ruth; Robinson, Christopher Adam; Ogieglo, Lissa Marie; Vitali, Aleksander Michal

    2009-09-01

    Distant spread of craniopharyngioma is a rare but important complication. Most cases are a result of spread along the surgical path. We describe a rare case of metastatic leptomeningeal craniopharyngioma as a result of dissemination along CSF pathways in a child. A review of previously described cases is provided. A 14-year-old male was diagnosed with metastatic craniopharyngioma on routine follow-up imaging after multiple surgeries and radiation for locally recurrent craniopharyngioma. The lesion was erosive through the right parietal bone, but had remained clinically silent. The lesion was distant from previous surgical paths. The patient underwent right parietal craniotomy and resection of the lesion. Duraplasty and cranioplasty were necessary for closure. Histopathology confirmed adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. One-year follow-up demonstrated no recurrence. A review of reported cases suggests that leptomeningeal implantation may be an important step in metastases of craniopharyngioma, although the mechanism is poorly understood. Attention to tumor spillage at the time of surgery may be important in preventing distant recurrences.

  3. Keloidal Scleroderma: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Kassira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We report a rare case of keloidal scleroderma and provide an analysis of similar cases. Results. A 41 year-old woman presented with dark brown, indurated, exophytic nodules over the chest along with smaller hyperpigmented plaques scattered over the abdomen, with concomitant sclerodactyly. The clinical, laboratory, and pathological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of keloidal scleroderma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, resulting in reduced firmness of her plaques and no new lesions. A literature review of previously reported cases was performed using keywords including keloidal morphea, keloidal scleroderma, nodular morphea, and nodular scleroderma. In our review, the majority of patients were African American and female. 91% of cases had nodular lesions with distribution on the trunk. The majority of patients exhibited sclerodactyly and pulmonary involvement was reported in 28%1. The majority of patients were ANA positive (63% and only 10% demonstrated anti-SCL-70 positivity. Conclusion. Keloidal scleroderma is a rare presentation, which can often be clinically confused with keloid and scar formation. Due to this being a rare variant, our knowledge of treatment options and efficacy is limited. Methotrexate could be considered as an initial treatment option for patients with progressive keloidal scleroderma.

  4. Disability Case Review of Administrative Law Judge Hearing Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Disability Case Review is a post-effectuation quality review of administrative law judge (ALJ) disability hearing decisions. This dataset includes results from...

  5. Review of casing while drilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavković Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drilling methods have been plagued with huge operational and financial challenges, such as cost of purchasing, inspecting, handling, transporting the drill equipment and most importantly, tripping in-and-out of the drill string whenever the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA needs a replacement, needs of wiper trip or when total depth is reached. The tripping in-and-out of the drill string not only contributes to Non Productive Time (NPT but also leads to well control difficulties including wellbore instability and lost circulation. All this has led Oil and Gas industry, as well as any other engineering industry, to seek for new ways and methods in order to reduce these problems. Thanks to the advances in technical solutions and constant improvements of conventional drilling methods, a new drilling method - casing while drilling has been developed. Casing Drilling encompasses the process of simultaneously drilling and casing a well, using the active casing and thus optimizes the production. This paper presents a review of casing while drilling method (CwD and its practical usage in drilling wells. The comparison of conventional drilling method and casing while drilling is also presented. The CwD method achieves significantly better results than conventional drilling method.

  6. Trachelectomy: A Review of 15 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-ZOHAIRY, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the indications and complications of removal of the retained cervical stump (trachelectomy). Material and Methods: Retrospective review of the records of 15 cases of removal of the retained cervical stump performed at the Department of Surgical Oncology NCI Cairo University and Nasser Institute Cairo between January 2005 and December 2009. Results: Fifteen patients were identified with a mean age of 43.1+8.4 years. The indications for subtotal hysterectomy were uterine fibroids, 7 (46.7%), abnormal bleeding, 5 (33.3%), and ovarian mass, 3 (20%) cases. Route of trachelectomy was abdominal in all cases. The indications for trachelectomy were cervical malignancy in 8 (53.3%), residual tumor at the hysterectomy specimen in 3 (20%), and persistent bleeding in 2 (13.3%) cases. The most common concomitant procedures with the trachelectomy were pelvic lymphadenectomy in 11 (73.3%), and oophorectomy in 10 (66.6%) cases. There were no postoperative mortalities. The most common complications were wound infection, 4 (26.6%), and urinary tract infection, 3 (20%). The mean estimated blood loss was 341.0± 82.3 ml. Hospital stay was 7.915.1 days. The most common histological diagnosis was squamous carcinoma 9 cases (60%). The median follow-up period was 16 months. Conclusion: Subtotal hysterectomy carries the risk of developing a stump cancer. Patient agreement is mandatory. Subtotal hysterectomy should be avoided whenever possible in populations with restricted access to screening programs for cancer of the uterine cervix.

  7. Individual Characteristics and Their Influence on Innovation : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balau, Georgiana; Faems, Dries; van der Bij, Hans; Duysters, G; DeHoyos, A; Kaminishi, K

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is widely acknowledged nowadays as the source for firms' competitive advantage. Whereas previous innovation research mainly focus on the group and organisational levels, only a relatively small number of studies cover individual perspectives on innovation performance. Based on a

  8. Neurocognitive outcomes of individuals with a sex chromosome trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY: a systematic review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEGGETT, VICTORIA; JACOBS, PATRICIA; NATION, KATE; SCERIF, GAIA; BISHOP, DOROTHY V M

    2010-01-01

    Aim To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). Method A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. Results We identified 35 articles on five neonatally identified samples that had adequate power for our review. An additional 11 studies were included where cases had been identified for reasons other than neurodevelopmental concerns. Individuals with an additional X chromosome had mean IQs that were within broadly normal limits but lower than the respective comparison groups, with verbal IQ most affected. Cognitive outcomes were poorest for females with XXX. Males with XYY had normal-range IQs, but all three SCT groups (XXX, XXY, and XYY) had marked difficulties in speech and language, motor skills, and educational achievement. Nevertheless, most adults with SCTs lived independently. Less evidence was available for brain structure and for attention, social, and psychiatric outcomes. Within each group there was much variation. Interpretation Individuals with SCTs are at risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties. However, the evidence base is slender, and further research is needed to ascertain the nature, severity, and causes of these difficulties in unselected samples. PMID:20059514

  9. Neurocognitive outcomes of individuals with a sex chromosome trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Victoria; Jacobs, Patricia; Nation, Kate; Scerif, Gaia; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2010-02-01

    To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. We identified 35 articles on five neonatally identified samples that had adequate power for our review. An additional 11 studies were included where cases had been identified for reasons other than neurodevelopmental concerns. Individuals with an additional X chromosome had mean IQs that were within broadly normal limits but lower than the respective comparison groups, with verbal IQ most affected. Cognitive outcomes were poorest for females with XXX. Males with XYY had normal-range IQs, but all three SCT groups (XXX, XXY, and XYY) had marked difficulties in speech and language, motor skills, and educational achievement. Nevertheless, most adults with SCTs lived independently. Less evidence was available for brain structure and for attention, social, and psychiatric outcomes. Within each group there was much variation. Individuals with SCTs are at risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties. However, the evidence base is slender, and further research is needed to ascertain the nature, severity, and causes of these difficulties in unselected samples.

  10. Ortner's syndrome: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vijayalakshmi; Herle, Adarsha; Mohammed, Navisha; Thahir, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    More than a century ago, Ortner described a case of cardiovocal syndrome wherein he attributed a case of left vocal fold immobility to compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve by a dilated left atrium in a patient with mitral valve stenosis. Since then, the term Ortner's syndrome has come to encompass any nonmalignant, cardiac, intrathoracic process that results in embarrassment of either recurrent laryngeal nerve-usually by stretching, pulling, or compression; and causes vocal fold paralysis. Not surprisingly, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, with its longer course around the aortic arch, is more frequently involved than the right nerve, which passes around the subclavian artery. To discuss the pathogenesis of hoarseness resulting from cardiovascular disorders involving the recurrent laryngeal nerve along with the findings of literature review. This paper reports a series of four cases of Ortner's syndrome occurring due to different causes. Case study. Ortner's syndrome could be a cause of hoarseness of voice in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Although hoarseness of voice is frequently encountered in the Otolaryngology outpatient department, cardiovascular- related hoarseness is an unusual presentation. Indirect laryngoscopy should be routinely performed in all cases of heart disease.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Case Studies in Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 161Case Studies in Knowledge ManagementEdited by Murray JennexHersley: PA: Idea Group, 2005, pp. 372, ISBN 1-59140-352-9Reviewed by Dr. Adnan BOYACIAnadolu UniversityEskişehir-TurkeyKnowledge management (KM as a structured system and the way to the effectiveness isrelatively new field for the contemporary organizations functioning in different andcompetitive domain of public and private sectors in terms of getting optimal effectivenessunderlined by the concepts such as quality, productivity…etc. Because of the growingimportance and the popularity of the KM either as a research topic or specialized coursesubject, a crucial need for understanding, conceptualization and implementation of KM asa system has emerged since the mid 1990’s. In this sense, the book contributes criticallyto fill the gap between theory and implementation as a teaching material.This edited book is published by Idea Group Publishing. The book has twenty chaptersdivided into seven sections. In addition to a section of authors’ biography contributing thebook and an index, there is a preface that the basic terms and key concepts underliningthe cases discussed following chapters, which is explained in a schematized way.Besides the editor, total of 47 authors have contributed to the book. These authors arefrom different countries, academic backgrounds, and institutions. Although approximatelyone third of the authors are from USA, the rest of the authors are from Canada, England,Austria, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Egypt, Bahrain and China. The authorsrepresent a variety of universities, private companies, and military institutions. Most ofthem have strong professional backgrounds, which help them address the issues bothfrom theoretical and practical perspectives. Contributions of authors having differentbackgrounds and institutions enable the book to have very comprehensive spectrum andthis makes the book attractive practically for those working different sectors

  12. Lemierre syndrome: two cases and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mohammed Iqbal; Baring, David; Addidle, Michael; Murray, Craig; Adams, Calum

    2007-09-01

    Lemierre syndrome is usually caused by an acute oropharyngeal infection in previously healthy young adults, resulting in thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein, leading to metastatic septic embolization and bacteraemia. The usual organism is Fusobacterium necrophorum. Lemierre syndrome, not so long ago labeled as the "forgotten disease," is on the rise. Today with increasing antibiotic-resistant organisms, and decreasing awareness of the syndrome, subsequent re-emergence of this "forgotten disease" is becoming more common in clinical settings. Lemierre syndrome has significant morbidity. Cranial nerve complications associated with the condition have been increasingly diagnosed in the last few years. Looking back at literature on Lemierre syndrome, there have been review articles in medical and microbiology journals but rarely in otolaryngology journals. By presenting our cases we demonstrate the diverse presentations and severity of the illness. A review of the literature and a case report on two cases seen in our institution in the last year are presented. Each of these had varied presentations and neurologic complications-one developed 9th to 12th cranial nerve palsies and Horner syndrome, which have not been described in previous literature, and the other developed polyneuropathy and a frontal lobe infarct among other multisystem complications. Diagnosis of Lemierre syndrome is not always straightforward as clinical features are variable and blood cultures are often negative. Awareness of the syndrome and a high degree of suspicion are needed.

  13. Tympanoplasty Outcomes: A Review of 789 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Indorewala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tympanoplasty is indicated to restore hearing disability and prevent recurrent otorrhea.  Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective review of patients who underwent tympanoplasty with or without mastoidectomy over a 1-year period.  Results: A total of 789 tympanoplasties were reviewed, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.1. In total, 91% and 9% of tympanoplasties were performed without and with mastoidectomy, respectively. Complete graft take was observed in 98.6% of cases. Approximately 25% of patients had an air-bone gap (ABG gap ≤20dB pre-operatively, increasing to 75.6% post-operatively. ABG closure improved from 0.8% to 46.7%. Mean ABG improved from 26.30 ±8.1dB pre-operatively to 14 ± 10.41dB post- operatively (t=28.7, P

  14. Body Dissatisfaction in Individuals with Obesity Compared to Normal-Weight Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha-Alexandra Weinberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body dissatisfaction has been identified as a psychological correlate of obesity that is related to disordered eating, poor self-esteem, and depression. However, not all individuals with obesity are equally vulnerable to these correlates, and ‘normative discontent' is present in individuals with normal weight, too. In this light, the complex relationship of body image and individual weight status seems like a worthwhile direction of research inquiry. As such, this review aims to systematically explore the degree of body dissatisfaction in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight individuals. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted. All quantitative studies of adult samples reporting results regarding differences in body dissatisfaction between individuals with normal weight and obesity were included. Results: 17 articles were found. Across studies, individuals with obesity reported higher body dissatisfaction than normal-weight individuals (questionnaires: d = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.63-1.16, p Conclusion: The findings underline the severity of body dissatisfaction among individuals with obesity and especially among women. Future research recommendations are discussed.

  15. CAMERON LESIONS: LITERATURE REVIEW AND CASE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vasilenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameron syndrome is the ulcerative or erosive lesions of mucosal layer at the sac of hiatal hernia which can cause chronic occult or overt bleeding and iron-deficiency anemia. Hiatal hernia is a relatively frequent finding, which is in most cases asymptomatic or manifested by dyspeptic symptoms of varying severity. Despite of being a very important association of hiatal hernia Cameron syndrome is not widely represented in medical literature. That`s the reason of a lack of awareness among physicians, surgeons and endoscopists about that pathology. Cameron lesions are significant pathology because they can become a source of chronic occult as well as an acute life-threatening bleeding. Those lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract are often misinterpreted or overlooked during standard diagnostic procedures. It can lead to the misdiagnosis and false ways of treatment. The review focuses on the pathogenesis, main diagnostic problems and treatment options of that pathology. The diagnostics of the Cameron syndrome is difficult because sometimes the lesions can`t be seen on upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. The review describes the criteria by which the physician may suspect Cameron syndrome when endoscopy results are not certain. Clinical case represents an important problem which is often faced by the doctors — the severe iron-deficiency anemia refractory to the medication and blood transfusions in the patients with Cameron lesions. It`s very important for doctor to be aware of that complication to include Cameron syndrome into the diagnostic search for the sources of persistent blood loss. Cameron lesions can be asymptomatic as well as be manifested in the form of severe chronic anemia. And that`s the reason why there are an important issue about the proper treatment which have to be provided in each case. The review describes the effectiveness of different treatment options and makes the conclusion about the principles on which doctor can

  16. Emphysematous gastritis: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipman, P.J.; Drury, P.

    2001-01-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis that results from infection of the stomach wall by gas-forming organisms. Diagnosis of this commonly fatal condition rests on radiological demonstration of gas within the stomach wall. This can be observed on plain radiographs or CT scans of the abdomen. Only by prompt diagnosis and treatment can mortality be avoided. A new case of empysematous gastritis, diagnosed on CT scan by the demonstration of both intramural and portal venous gas, is presented and the literature is reviewed. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Surfer's myelopathy: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegovic, Amna; Strachan-Jackman, Shirley; Carr, David

    2011-09-01

    Nontraumatic spinal cord injury from surfing is a new entity first described in 2004 and likely of ischemic etiology. We report the case of a 25-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of lower extremity weakness after surfing in Indonesia. The patient reported developing low back pain, lower extremity weakness, sensory changes, and urinary retention shortly after his first surfing lesson. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with surfer's myelopathy. The purpose of this report is to review the clinical presentation, etiology, risk factors, and management of this increasingly described entity.

  18. Cerebral cysticercosis: a review of 42 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, M.A.; Costa, G.

    1992-01-01

    Forty-two cases of cysticercosis involving the central nervous system using computed tomography are reviewed. The types of involvement were classified according to an evolutionary phase of the larva and its tomographic appearance. Four main types were identified: Type I - seven patients - cysts of several sizes with discrete or no enhancement which correspond to young cysticerci; Type II - nine patients - cystic lesions with ring enhancement with dense walls representing the initial regressive phase of the parasite associated to an adjacent oedema; Type III - three patients - calcifications, mainly intraparenchymatous, presenting enhancement in the periphery without associated oedema; Type IV - two patients - calcifications with no oedema nor enhancement, signifying a residual lesion produced by the parasite. Multiple lesions were present in 26 cases and about 50% of all patients suffered combined forms of neuro cysticercosis. (author)

  19. Pituitary macroadenomas: reviews of 60 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Alair Augusto S.M.D. dos; Fontes, Cristina Asvolinsque P.; Magnago, Marcelo; Moreira, Denise Madeira; Andreiuolo, Pedro Angelo; Oliveira, Fernando Barros de; Teixeira, Ricardo Tostes D.; Correa, Saul Orlando C.

    2000-01-01

    We reviewed 60 cases of patients with pituitary macroadenomas who were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging evaluations at private institutions in Niteroi and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. Macroprolactinomas were the most prevalent tumors. We also observed four growth-hormone (GH) secreting macroadenomas with clinical signs of acromegaly, and one GH- and prolactin-secreting macroadenoma. Seven patients presented pituitary apoplexy and hyperintense signal on T1-W images before contrast medium (gadolinium) administration suggestive of intratumoral bleeding. The follow-up of 15 cases demonstrated a reduction in the size of the tumor after surgery, clinical treatment or radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging is important for the study of pituitary macroadenomas, particularly before surgery, as it shows the involvement of adjacent structures, specially the cavernous sinus, optic chiasm and pituitary stalk compression. (author)

  20. Vocational Rehabilitation for Individuals with Schizophrenia: The Societal Case

    OpenAIRE

    Evensen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Employment is an important factor in recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. The illness is, however, associated with consistently high unemployment rates. The high unemployment in this group is found to be associated with a number of both illness-related barriers and system-related barriers to employment. The main aim of this thesis was to further investigate the barriers to employment in participants with broad schizophrenia spectrum disorders in Norway, a high-income Scandinavian w...

  1. EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethi Valsan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country. Being a neurotoxin, it tends to affect elective mental capacities. Frontal lobe is found to be most affected by chronic alcohol use. AIM To study the executive functions in alcohol dependent individuals and to determine any relationship with alcohol intake variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 recently detoxified alcohol dependent individuals attending the De-addiction Clinic of Medical College, Kottayam, was compared to 30 controls on four tests of executive functions, namely, Controlled Word Association Test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Statistical analysis of the data has been done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Windows version 10. RESULTS Executive function was significantly impaired in the alcohol dependent individuals when compared to normal controls in all the four tests. On analysing the effect of drinking variables on executive functioning, the performance of patients is seen to improve with abstinence in Stroop. Those with a positive family history of ADS in the first degree relatives produced fewer words in verbal fluency. CONCLUSION As the executive impairment remains more or less stable irrespective to the chronicity or amount of alcohol use, it could be assumed that the executive dysfunction observed is a trait marker rather than a state dependent variable.

  2. Interventions to prevent burnout in high risk individuals: evidence review

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnall, A-M; Jones, R; Akter, H; Woodall, J

    2016-01-01

    Although there is existing evidence on what works to treat burnout and work-related stress, there is less on what works to prevent it from occurring in the first place.\\ud \\ud This report provides an overview of literature covering how to prevent burnout and work-related stress in individuals and within organisations.

  3. Systemic mastocytosis: Case report with literature review

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    Mitrović Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mastocytosis is a clonal neoplastic disorder of the mast cells. The clinical signs and symptoms of mastocytosis are heterogeneous ranging from indolent disease with a longterm survival to a highly aggressive neoplasm with survival of about 6 months. Systemic mastocytosis (SM is characterized by mastocyte infiltration of one or more organs, with or without skin involvment. Case Outline. The presented patient presents a highly challenging diagnostic and therapeutic case. A 46-year-old man was referred to our Centre due to the 7-year-long history of hepatosplenomegaly and mild thrombocytopenia. Ultrasound examination showed hepatosplenomegaly (liver 170 mm; spleen 200 mm, platelet count was 90Č109/L, serum tryptase level was elevated and bone marrow biopsy showed infiltration with mast cells (CD117, CD25 and mast cell tryptase positive. Our patient was diagnosed with aggressive systemic mastocytosis (SM according to WHO Classification (2008, although the clinical course of the disease was indolent, without complications for more than 7 years. Because of the ‘intermediate’ course, this patient was referred to as smouldering or intermediate SM and was not treated with cytostatics. Conclusion. Utilizing the established criteria, indolent SM can be discriminated from the aggressive subvariants of SM in most cases. However, a small group of patients, like our case belongs to the „grey zone“. Therapeutic approach to these patients is individual and prognosis is uncertain.

  4. A Review of Educational Approaches for Individuals with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Foreman, Phil

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews research on educational approaches to the management of autism. Approaches include sensory-motor therapies (sensory integration training, auditory integration therapy, music therapy), applied behavior analysis, communication therapies, multi-treatment programs, and play and group therapy. Recommendations are made about the…

  5. A systematic review of the individual determinants of research evidence use in allied health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarondo L

    2011-07-01

    practitioners towards regularly utilizing evidence in practice. Allied health practitioners may benefit from participation in regular educational opportunities such as case studies or journal clubs which can put them at the same level of thinking and awareness of research evidence. Future research should aim to review organizational and contextual factors and explore their interaction with individual determinants of research evidence use.Keywords: evidence-based practice, research use, individual determinants, allied health, predictors

  6. Metastatic involvement of the pituitary gland: a systematic review with pooled individual patient data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenzhuan; Chen, Fangxiang; Dalm, Brian; Kirby, Patricia A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-02-01

    To report a rare case of pituitary metastasis (PM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and help better understand the incidence of PM and its most common presenting symptoms through a pooled individual patient data analysis. Literature regarding PM was systematically reviewed with a pooled individual patient data analysis conducted. Pooled individual data analysis result is also compared with the result in a most recent systematic review. Our results demonstrate that the incidence of PM among all intracranial metastases is 0.87% (95% CI 0.56, 1.18); it is 1.9% (95% CI 1.46, 2.34) among all autopsied cancer cases; it is 11.56% (95% CI 7.08, 16.04) among all breast cancer patients who had hypophysectomies and 12.83% (95% CI 10.5, 15.16) among all autopsied breast cancer patients. The fixed effect model showed that the incidence of PM in breast cancer patients group is significantly higher (p anterior hypopituitarism (23.68 vs 39.66%, p = 0.015), visual deterioration (27.89 vs 41.38%, p = 0.039), cranial nerve palsies (21.58 vs 41.38%, p = 0.003) and headaches (15.79 vs 32.76%, p = 0.005) were reported significantly higher than previously described in the literature. Pituitary metastasis is rare in patients with cancer, and the pituitary gland is an uncommonly involved location in patients with intracranial metastases. With advanced diagnostic imaging techniques and increased awareness about the manifestation of sellar lesions, the incidence of cranial nerve palsies and anterior pituitarism are higher than reported. This information may allow earlier diagnosis of PM.

  7. Women's groups and individual entrepreneurs: a Ugandan case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, H; Kajura, E; Katongole, G; Whitworth, J

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews conducted among 8 women's income-generating groups and 12 individual women entrepreneurs in 15 villages in Masaka district, Uganda. The Baganda are the main tribe in the study villages. The study evaluates the economic achievement, objectives, and social characteristics of the groups. Groups ranged in size from 9-20 members. All had functioned for 3-5 years. A regular membership fee was paid through the sale of agricultural produce. Groups met at least every 2 weeks. This study revealed that the individual goals were to increase individual wealth, while the stated group goals were to invest in the community. Members considered the groups as useful in providing an easy way to raise capital. Most members considered financial status as a criterion for group membership. Elderly women tended to join social and handicraft groups. The women's group members tended to be friends before the establishment of the group and tended to be currently married to men residing in the area. Of the 12 women entrepreneurs, only 5 were currently married. All 12 women entrepreneurs had considerable initiative. The 12 women and the women's group members derived income from two or more sources: agricultural projects, animal husbandry, craft production, alcohol production and sale, or other activities. Study findings indicate that decisions were often delayed or avoided in order to preserve social cohesion. In a market-oriented enterprise, quick response time is needed and the bureaucratic dynamics would hinder some agricultural ventures. The poorest women experienced barriers to group membership. Women entrepreneurs were more successful than group women.

  8. Individual Characteristics of Entrepreneurs in Transition Countries. The Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areti Stringa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition process in Albania, as in other ex-communist countries, stopped the enterprise development. The increasing number of small and medium enterprises is the most promising consequence of the transition process. Several researches in western countries have demonstrated that entrepreneurship involves objective and subjective factors and is interrelated with environmental objective factors and individual subjective ones. Our research examines clear characteristics of the businesses’ analysis, the performance of the entrepreneurs themselves (their background and personal characteristics, their motivation to start a business and the perceptions of the different characteristics and the aspects of the businesses they run.

  9. A short history and critical review of individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernli, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of X-rays and the radioactive element radium harmful radiation effects occurred, mainly in the medical field. Consequently, the radiologists, a new profession at that time, called for a limitation of radiation exposures. First proposals were to limit the exposure rate to prevent the incidence of skin erythema. It took more than two decades and there were many victims of severe radiation effects until a sound basis for radiation protection and individual monitoring was established. For external dosimetry, the film dosemeter was invented in the 1920's. This device, often combined with an ion chamber-based pencil dosemeter, dominated the systems used in personnel dosimetry until the end of the twentieth century. For internal exposure, the concept of limiting the 'body burden' was commonly used, and only in the late 1970's, the new concept of the 'effective dose equivalent' published in ICRP publication 26 allowed for a unified interpretation and, therefore, addition of the dosimetric quantities for external and internal exposures. By the end of the last century, individual monitoring had to survive an inflation of proposals for new quantities, but fortunately, it was also the time of vast developments of new technologies, methods and procedures. Later on, much room was given to highly sophisticated regulations, requirements, metrological concepts and administrative procedures. In this complex environment, the original task of individual monitoring became more and more hidden behind secondary loads. Now, like about hundred years ago, however with different motivation, once again the ultimate goal of the professional work has to be thought about by asking: Do people always know why they do what they do? Or simply: Why individual monitoring? (authors)

  10. Paediatric nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma: a case series and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.N.; Borg, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue tumour in children, with the head and neck region accounting for 35-40% of cases. Nasopharyngeal RMSs tend to grow rapidly and invade adjacent structures. Both the intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma studies and the European Studies have established that the ideal management of this disease is multimodal, using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This case series examines the role of radiotherapy in the management of paediatric nasopharyngeal RMSs, with particular reference to long-term morbidity and disease-free survival. The cases of five children with nasopharyngeal RMS were reviewed and a systematic review of the literature contained in the PubMed databases was conducted to establish 24 individually detailed cases. Management in all patients was multimodal, using a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy as well as surgery. External beam radiotherapy is an integral component of treatment for nasopharyngeal RMSs. With more patients surviving for longer periods, more long-term sequelae of radiotherapy have been reported. Complications include sensorineural deafness, endocrine manifestations following radiation of the pituitary gland, cranial nerve palsies, second malignancies within the radiation field, cataract formation, retinopathy and growth disturbance. Morbidity from radiotherapy may be considerable and depends on the field and dose of radiation. Current advances in radiotherapy are aimed at improving the rate of tumour control and reducing such complications. Recent improvements in imaging and conformal techniques have the potential to reduce the morbidity associated with radiotherapy in this cohort.

  11. Systemic Case Formulation, Individualized Process Monitoring, and State Dynamics in a Case of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter K; Stöger-Schmidinger, Barbara; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Schöller, Helmut; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility of a systemic procedure (synergetic process management) including modeling of the idiographic psychological system and continuous high-frequency monitoring of change dynamics in a case of dissociative identity disorder. The psychotherapy was realized in a day treatment center with a female client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dissociative identity disorder. Methods: A three hour long co-creative session at the beginning of the treatment period allowed for modeling the systemic network of the client's dynamics of cognitions, emotions, and behavior. The components (variables) of this idiographic system model (ISM) were used to create items for an individualized process questionnaire for the client. The questionnaire was administered daily through an internet-based monitoring tool (Synergetic Navigation System, SNS), to capture the client's individual change process continuously throughout the therapy and after-care period. The resulting time series were reflected by therapist and client in therapeutic feedback sessions. Results: For the client it was important to see how the personality states dominating her daily life were represented by her idiographic system model and how the transitions between each state could be explained and understood by the activating and inhibiting relations between the cognitive-emotional components of that system. Continuous monitoring of her cognitions, emotions, and behavior via SNS allowed for identification of important triggers, dynamic patterns, and psychological mechanisms behind seemingly erratic state fluctuations. These insights enabled a change in management of the dynamics and an intensified trauma-focused therapy. Conclusion: By making use of the systemic case formulation technique and subsequent daily online monitoring, client and therapist continuously refer to detailed visualizations of the mental and behavioral network and

  12. Systemic Case Formulation, Individualized Process Monitoring, and State Dynamics in a Case of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Karl Schiepek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility of a systemic procedure (synergetic process management including modeling of the idiographic psychological system and continuous high-frequency monitoring of change dynamics in a case of dissociative identity disorder. The psychotherapy was realized in a day treatment center with a female client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD and dissociative identity disorder. Methods. A three hour long co-creative session at the beginning of the treatment period allowed for modeling the systemic network of the client’s dynamics of cognitions, emotions, and behavior. The components (variables of this idiographic system model (ISM were used to create items for an individualized process questionnaire for the client. The questionnaire was administered daily through an internet-based monitoring tool (Synergetic Navigation System, SNS, to capture the client’s individual change process continuously throughout the therapy and after-care period. The resulting time series were reflected by therapist and client in therapeutic feedback sessions. Results. For the client it was important to see how the personality states dominating her daily life were represented by her idiographic system model and how the transitions between each state could be explained and understood by the activating and inhibiting relations between the cognitive-emotional components of that system. Continuous monitoring of her cognitions, emotions, and behavior via SNS allowed for identification of important triggers, dynamic patterns, and psychological mechanisms behind seemingly erratic state fluctuations. These insights enabled a change in management of the dynamics and an intensified trauma-focused therapy. Conclusion. By making use of the systemic case formulation technique and subsequent daily online monitoring, client and therapist continuously refer to detailed visualizations of the mental and

  13. A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Cobbina, Samuel J; Mao, Guanghua; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Liuqing

    2016-05-01

    The rational for the study was to review the literature on the toxicity and corresponding mechanisms associated with lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), individually and as mixtures, in the environment. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and generally persist in the environment, enabling them to biomagnify in the food chain. Living systems most often interact with a cocktail of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metal exposure to biological systems may lead to oxidation stress which may induce DNA damage, protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and others. In this review, the major mechanism associated with toxicities of individual metals was the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, toxicities were expressed through depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Interestingly, a metal like Pb becomes toxic to organisms through the depletion of antioxidants while Cd indirectly generates ROS by its ability to replace iron and copper. ROS generated through exposure to arsenic were associated with many modes of action, and heavy metal mixtures were found to have varied effects on organisms. Many models based on concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) have been introduced to help predict toxicities and mechanisms associated with metal mixtures. An integrated model which combines CA and IA was further proposed for evaluating toxicities of non-interactive mixtures. In cases where there are molecular interactions, the toxicogenomic approach was used to predict toxicities. The high-throughput toxicogenomics combines studies in genetics, genome-scale expression, cell and tissue expression, metabolite profiling, and bioinformatics.

  14. Detecting anxiety in individuals with Parkinson disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Bria; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Smith, Eric E; Pringsheim, Tamara; Ismail, Zahinoor; Goodarzi, Zahra

    2018-01-02

    To examine diagnostic accuracy of anxiety detection tools compared with a gold standard in outpatient settings among adults with Parkinson disease (PD). A systematic review was conducted. MEDLINE, EMABASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to April 7, 2017. Prevalence of anxiety and diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were gathered. Pooled prevalence of anxiety was calculated using Mantel-Haenszel-weighted DerSimonian and Laird models. A total of 6,300 citations were reviewed with 6 full-text articles included for synthesis. Tools included within this study were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety, Parkinson's Anxiety Scale (PAS), and Mini-Social Phobia Inventory. Anxiety diagnoses made included generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and any anxiety type. Pooled prevalence of anxiety was 30.1% (95% confidence interval 26.1%-34.0%). The GAI had the best-reported sensitivity of 0.86 and specificity of 0.88. The observer-rated PAS had a sensitivity of 0.71 and the highest specificity of 0.91. While there are 6 tools validated for anxiety screening in PD populations, most tools are only validated in single studies. The GAI is brief and easy to use, with a good balance of sensitivity and specificity. The PAS was specifically developed for PD, is brief, and has self-/observer-rated scales, but with lower sensitivity. Health care practitioners involved in PD care need to be aware of available validated tools and choose one that fits their practice. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. The myth of individualism-collectivism: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Maxim; Singer, Jefferson A

    2002-08-01

    The authors critically assess the dimension of individualism-collectivism (I-C) and its various uses in cross-cultural psychology. They argue that I-C research is characterized largely by insufficient conceptual clarity and a lack of systematic data. As a result, they call into question the utility of I-C as an explanatory tool for cultural variation in behavior, suggest alternative dimensions for cross-cultural research, and interpret the weaknesses of research on I-C as illustrative of a general trend in social psychology.

  16. Is Individual Metering Socially Sustainable? The Case of Multifamily Housing in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Barraqué

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Before generalising water metering and billing at the apartment level for consumer equity reasons, and alleviating the burden of water bills for poor families through increasing block tariffs (IBTs, Paris Council asked for some expert advice. The pros and cons of two separate issues – IBTs efficiency and justice; and individual household metering – were mixed. Our research first summarises various studies of the redistributive effects of tariff changes, first from flat rates to metering, and then from uniform prices to IBTs. We address the particular case of multifamily housing, where it is possible to retain collective billing, while relying on sub-metering to allocate the bill. The limitations of classical econometric surveys on large samples (in terms of understanding households’ strategies with tap water support the need for supplementary detailed sociological surveys at neighbourhood or building levels, if only to check the unexpected redistributive effects of tariff changes in practice. We review the specific French situation, peculiarly in Paris, to show that individual apartment billing is more costly and tends to have regressive effects. Like other cities in France, Paris abandoned the implementation of Art. 93 of the 2000 law, which encouraged individual billing; and we explain why.

  17. Investigating the benefits of sport participation for individuals with schizophrenia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundy, Andrew; Roskell, Carolyn; Stubbs, Brendon; Probst, Michel; Vancampfort, Davy

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review was to consider the impact of being introduced to a sport and sport participation on (a) weight loss and psychiatric symptoms, (b) any other health benefits in people with schizophrenia, supported by quantitative and qualitative findings. A systematic review in accordance with the PRISMA statement was conducted. Searches were undertaken in January 2014. Articles were eligible that (1) considered the effect (quantitative studies) and experience (qualitative and case studies) of either; being introduced to a 'sport' or undertaking a sport activity, (2) included >85% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective spectrum disorders according to recognised criteria. A total of 10 studies including 5 trials (2*pre-experimental, 2*controlled trials, 1*randomised control trial), 2 qualitative studies and 3 case studies were included (n=185). Two out of 3 studies that considered weight as an outcome measure reported significant reductions in weight and psychiatric symptoms following sports participation. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI) ranged from -0.7kg.m2 (pschizophrenia. Sport has the potential to improve an individual's quality of life through providing a meaningful normalizing activity that leads to achievement, success and satisfaction. Well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to fully determine the health effects of sports participation in schizophrenia.

  18. Tympanoplasty Outcomes: A Review of 789 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Indorewala

    2015-03-01

     Results: A total of 789 tympanoplasties were reviewed, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.1. In total, 91% and 9% of tympanoplasties were performed without and with mastoidectomy, respectively. Complete graft take was observed in 98.6% of cases. Approximately 25% of patients had an air-bone gap (ABG gap ≤20dB pre-operatively, increasing to 75.6% post-operatively. ABG closure improved from 0.8% to 46.7%. Mean ABG improved from 26.30 ±8.1dB pre-operatively to 14 ± 10.41dB post- operatively (t=28.7, P

  19. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  20. [Assessment of individual clinical outcomes: regarding an electroconvulsive therapy case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraurgi, Ioseba; Gorbeña, Susana; Martínez-Cubillos, Miren-Itxaso; Escribano, Margarita; Gómez-de-Maintenant, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of therapeutic results and of the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments is an area of interest both for clinicians and researchers. In general, randomized controlled trial designs have been used as the methodology of choice in which intergroup comparisons are made having a minimum of participants in each arm of treatment. However, these procedures are seldom used in daily clinical practice. Despite this fact, the evaluation of treatment results for a specific patient is important for the clinician in order to address if therapeutic goals have been accomplished both in terms of statistical significance and clinical meaningfulness. The methodology based on the reliable change index (Jacobson y Truax)1 provides an estimate of these two criteria. The goal of this article is to propose a procedure to apply the methodology with a single case study of a woman diagnosed with major depression and treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Melorheostosis: a review of 23 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyschmidt, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Zentralkrankenhaus Bremen (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to review clinical and radiological signs of melorheostosis in a large series of cases. Family history, patient history, clinical data and radiological features of 23 consecutive cases of melorheostosis were investigated. Criteria for establishing the diagnosis ''melorheostosis'' were defined. Sixteen patients (mean age 34 years, equal ratio between genders) had chronic pain in the affected limb(s) and/or subcutaneous fibrosis and/or various skin lesions. Number of involved bones: one bone (n = 10); two bones (n = 4); three or more bones (n = 9). Anatomic distribution: upper extremity (n = 5); lower extremity (n = 16); upper and lower extremity (n = 1); sacrum (n = 1). Radiologic pattern: osteoma-like (n = 7); classic candle wax appearance (n = 5); myositis ossificans-like (n = 1); osteopathia striata-like (n = 6); mixed pattern (n = 4). Patterns different from the appearance formerly judged to be ''classic'' prevail. The standard concept of disease manifestation has to be adjusted. Pathogenesis remains unclear. The classic theory claims the presence of an early embryonic infection of a sensory nerve inducing changes in the respective sclerotome, but we propose the concept of mosaicism as a better explanation for the sporadic occurrence, the asymmetric ''segmental'' pattern with variable extent of involvement and equal gender ratio of the disease. (orig.)

  2. Melorheostosis: a review of 23 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review clinical and radiological signs of melorheostosis in a large series of cases. Family history, patient history, clinical data and radiological features of 23 consecutive cases of melorheostosis were investigated. Criteria for establishing the diagnosis ''melorheostosis'' were defined. Sixteen patients (mean age 34 years, equal ratio between genders) had chronic pain in the affected limb(s) and/or subcutaneous fibrosis and/or various skin lesions. Number of involved bones: one bone (n = 10); two bones (n = 4); three or more bones (n = 9). Anatomic distribution: upper extremity (n = 5); lower extremity (n = 16); upper and lower extremity (n = 1); sacrum (n = 1). Radiologic pattern: osteoma-like (n = 7); classic candle wax appearance (n = 5); myositis ossificans-like (n = 1); osteopathia striata-like (n = 6); mixed pattern (n = 4). Patterns different from the appearance formerly judged to be ''classic'' prevail. The standard concept of disease manifestation has to be adjusted. Pathogenesis remains unclear. The classic theory claims the presence of an early embryonic infection of a sensory nerve inducing changes in the respective sclerotome, but we propose the concept of mosaicism as a better explanation for the sporadic occurrence, the asymmetric ''segmental'' pattern with variable extent of involvement and equal gender ratio of the disease. (orig.)

  3. Neurobrucellosis: three case reports and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jia-wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is a multisystem disease which may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. This article aims to present clinical manifestations and to discuss the clinical features and management of 3 neurobrucellosis cases. Methods The diagnosis, treatment, laboratory results and accessory examination findings of 3 patients with neurobrucellosis between August 2010 and March 2012 were retrospectively analyzed, and relevant literature was reviewed. Results All the 3 cases had definite history of exposure to epidemic areas or infectious diseases, and history of being infected with Brucella by drinking raw milk. During the screening because of fever for reasons unknown, they were proved to be infected with Brucella by etiological or serological tests. Initial clinical manifestations consisted of fever and headache, with meningitis symptoms and signs, spondylitis, uroschesis and constipation (which might be caused by lumbosacral nerve root lesion, or neurological manifestations in auditory nerve and abducent nerve, such as hearing loss and diplopia. All patients were treated with rifampicin, doxycycline plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ceftriaxone. Conclusion Neurobrucellosis presents with various clinical signs and symptoms, and is often accompanied by systemic infection. Brucellosis should be kept in mind during the screening of fever for reasons unknown, and be differentiated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The combined treatment by antibotics of different pharmacological mechanisms with full dose and long range is effective, and the prognosis is favorable.

  4. Sensorimotor Control in Individuals With Idiopathic Neck Pain and Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Rutger M J; Osmotherly, Peter G; Rivett, Darren A; Farrell, Scott F; Snodgrass, Suzanne J

    2017-06-01

    (1) To identify reported tests used to assess sensorimotor control in individuals with idiopathic neck pain and (2) to investigate whether these tests can quantify differences between individuals with idiopathic neck pain and healthy individuals. Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus. Studies reporting sensorimotor outcomes in individuals with idiopathic neck pain or healthy individuals were identified. There were 1,677 records screened independently by 2 researchers for eligibility: 43 studies were included in the review, with 30 of these studies included in the meta-analysis. Methodologic quality was determined using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction table. Sensorimotor control was most commonly assessed by joint position error and postural sway. Pooled means for joint position error after cervical rotation in individuals with neck pain (range, 2.2°-9.8°) differed significantly (P=.04) compared with healthy individuals (range, 1.66°-5.1°). Postural sway with eyes open ranged from 4.85 to 10.5cm 2 (neck pain) and 3.5 to 6.6cm 2 (healthy) (P=.16), and postural sway with eyes closed ranged from 2.51 to 16.6cm 2 (neck pain) and 2.74 to 10.9cm 2 (healthy) (P=.30). Individual studies, but not meta-analysis, demonstrated differences between neck pain and healthy groups for postural sway. Other test conditions and other tests were not sufficiently investigated to enable pooling of data. The findings from this review suggest sensorimotor control testing may be clinically useful in individuals with idiopathic neck pain. However, results should be interpreted with caution because clinical differences were small; therefore, further cross-sectional research with larger samples is needed to determine the magnitude of the relation between

  5. Traumatic floating clavicle: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouse, Mohamad; Jacob, Korula Mani; Poonnoose, Pradeep Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar fracture dislocations of the clavicle are rare injuries, usually the result of high-energy direct trauma. Since the original description by Porral in 1831, only a handful of individual case reports and case series by Beckman and Sanders have been reported in the literature. Management of these injuries has remained controversial ranging from nonoperative to aggressive surgery. We report on the case of a young army cadet who had a fracture of the lateral end of the clavicle, with an anterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint. Despite being planned for surgery, at the patients request, it was decided to manage the lesion conservatively with graded physiotherapy. At one-year follow-up, he had full pain-free, functional range of movement of the shoulder. This young high demand patient had a good outcome with conservative management, despite going against the current trend towards surgical treatment. We present this case with a review of the literature, highlighting the various management options for this rare lesion.

  6. Modelling Individual Evacuation Decisions during Natural Disasters: A Case Study of Volcanic Crisis in Merapi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumadi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As the size of human populations increases, so does the severity of the impacts of natural disasters. This is partly because more people are now occupying areas which are susceptible to hazardous natural events, hence, evacuation is needed when such events occur. Evacuation can be the most important action to minimise the impact of any disaster, but in many cases there are always people who are reluctant to leave. This paper describes an agent-based model (ABM of evacuation decisions, focusing on the emergence of reluctant people in times of crisis and using Merapi, Indonesia as a case study. The individual evacuation decision model is influenced by several factors formulated from a literature review and survey. We categorised the factors influencing evacuation decisions into two opposing forces, namely, the driving factors to leave (evacuate versus those to stay, to formulate the model. The evacuation decision (to stay/leave of an agent is based on an evaluation of the strength of these driving factors using threshold-based rules. This ABM was utilised with a synthetic population from census microdata, in which everyone is characterised by the decision rule. Three scenarios with varying parameters are examined to calibrate the model. Validations were conducted using a retrodictive approach by performing spatial and temporal comparisons between the outputs of simulation and the real data. We present the results of the simulations and discuss the outcomes to conclude with the most plausible scenario.

  7. Pituicytoma. Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Velandia Hurtado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pituicytoma is a rare glial tumour located in the sellar and/or suprasellar region of the brain, it originates from pituicytes, and they were included in the World Health Organization (WHO Classification of Central Nervous System Tumours in 2017. As mentioned above it originates from pituicytes cells in the posterior pituitary near the infundibulum. Histological characteristics permits classification and identification among other central nervous system tumours localized in the posterior pituitary or infundibulum. WHO classification describes them as grades such as grade I tumour which has a differentiated structure composed of spindle-shaped cells presumably derived from pituicytes. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman who developed a suprasellar tumour and that it was discovered following a past medical history of amenorrhoea and migraines. Once the lesion was detected in images, the patient rejected surgical treatment even when she developed galactorrhea and preferred medical treatment with cabergoline. However, two years later she developed visual defects due to increase in size by that time accepting surgical treatment. A review of the literature including most common clinical and radiological features of this entity as well as treatment protocols proposed are discussed.

  8. Standing Postural Control in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi Huey; Partridge, Katie; Girdler, Sonya; Morris, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in postural control affect the development of motor and social skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This review compared the effect of different sensory conditions on static standing postural control between ASD and neurotypical individuals. Results from 19 studies indicated a large difference in postural control…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jessica S.

    2017-01-01

    Depression is common in individuals with intellectual disabilities, but evidence regarding treatment for this population is lacking. Through a systematic literature review of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with individuals with intellectual disabilities, a total of six studies were identified that used pretest-post-test nonequivalent control…

  10. A Systematic Review of Assistive Technology for Individuals with Intellectual Disability in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash-Macneil, Virginia; Johnson, Friggita; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that assistive technology (AT) can help support employment skills for individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The authors of this review examined the effectiveness of various types of AT support for individuals with ID in the workplace with a focus on the participant's independent ability to demonstrate a specific…

  11. Instrumented Measurement of Balance and Postural Control in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M.; Sullivan, S. John; Nitz, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks…

  12. Case management: a randomized controlled study comparing a neighborhood team and a centralized individual model.

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, G M; Zimmer, J G; Hall, W J; Friedman, B

    1991-01-01

    This randomized controlled study compared two types of case management for skilled nursing level patients living at home: the centralized individual model and the neighborhood team model. The team model differed from the individual model in that team case managers performed client assessments, care planning, some direct services, and reassessments; they also had much smaller caseloads and were assigned a specific catchment area. While patients in both groups incurred very high estimated healt...

  13. Art Therapy for an Individual with Late Stage Dementia: A Clinical Case Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucknott-Cohen, Tisah; Ehresman, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the healing benefits of art therapy for an individual with dementia of the Alzheimer's type. In this clinical case description, a woman diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease received individual art therapy for 17 weeks. The treatment concerns that arose, altered view of reality, agitation, and retrogenesis provide insight on…

  14. Physical Activity in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Client versus Case Manager Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Catalano, Denise; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" was examined as a physical activity measure for people with severe mental illness. Case manager ratings were more closely related to body mass index than clients' ratings, challenging the accuracy of self-report physical activity measures for individuals with severe mental…

  15. 7 CFR 275.13 - Review of negative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... State systems, the review date for negative cases could be the date of the agency's decision to deny... household which was listed incorrectly in the negative frame. (f) Demonstration projects/SSA processing. A... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of negative cases. 275.13 Section 275.13...

  16. Alstrom syndrome (OMIM 203800: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegele Robert A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alstrom syndrome (AS is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by multiorgan dysfunction. The key features are childhood obesity, blindness due to congenital retinal dystrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss. Associated endocrinologic features include hyperinsulinemia, early-onset type 2 diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia. Thus, AS shares several features with the common metabolic syndrome, namely obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Mutations in the ALMS1 gene have been found to be causative for AS with a total of 79 disease-causing mutations having been described. Case presentation We describe the case of a 27-year old female from an English (Caucasian kindred. She had been initially referred for hypertriglyceridemia, but demonstrated other features suggestive of AS, including blindness, obesity, type 2 diabetes, renal dysfunction, and hypertension. DNA analysis revealed that she is a compound heterozygote with two novel mutations in the ALMS1 gene – H3882Y and V424I. Examination of her family revealed that her phenotypically unaffected mother and younger sister also had heterozygous mutations in the ALMS1 gene. In addition to presenting these novel molecular findings for AS, we review the clinical and genetic features of AS in the context of our case. Conclusion Two novel mutations in the ALMS1 gene causative for AS have been reported here, thereby increasing the number of reported mutations to 81 and providing a wider basis for mutational screening among affected individuals.

  17. Disability Case Adjudication and Review System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DICARS is the legacy system supporting business processes in the Disability Quality Branches (DQBs). It supports quality reviews of DDS disability determinations....

  18. Case management: a randomized controlled study comparing a neighborhood team and a centralized individual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, G M; Zimmer, J G; Hall, W J; Friedman, B

    1991-10-01

    This randomized controlled study compared two types of case management for skilled nursing level patients living at home: the centralized individual model and the neighborhood team model. The team model differed from the individual model in that team case managers performed client assessments, care planning, some direct services, and reassessments; they also had much smaller caseloads and were assigned a specific catchment area. While patients in both groups incurred very high estimated health services costs, the average annual cost during 1983-85 for team cases was 13.6 percent less than that of individual model cases. While the team cases were 18.3 percent less expensive among "old" patients (patients who entered the study from the existing ACCESS caseload), they were only 2.7 percent less costly among "new" cases. The lower costs were due to reductions in hospital days and home care. Team cases averaged 26 percent fewer hospital days per year and 17 percent fewer home health aide hours. Nursing home use was 48 percent higher for the team group than for the individual model group. Mortality was almost exactly the same for both groups during the first year (about 30 percent), but was lower for team patients during the second year (11 percent as compared to 16 percent). Probable mechanisms for the observed results are discussed.

  19. Giant calculus: review and report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmansey, Karl; Severine, Anthony; Lembariti, Bakari S

    2013-01-01

    Dental calculus is a common oral finding. The term giant calculus is used to describe unusually large deposits of dental calculus. Several extreme cases have been reported in the dental literature. The specific etiology of these cases remains uncertain. This paper reviews previously reported cases, and presents another extreme example of giant calculus.

  20. Random Versus Nonrandom Peer Review: A Case for More Meaningful Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Donithan, Adam; Patel, Sohil H

    2018-05-10

    Random peer review programs are not optimized to discover cases with diagnostic error and thus have inherent limitations with respect to educational and quality improvement value. Nonrandom peer review offers an alternative approach in which diagnostic error cases are targeted for collection during routine clinical practice. The objective of this study was to compare error cases identified through random and nonrandom peer review approaches at an academic center. During the 1-year study period, the number of discrepancy cases and score of discrepancy were determined from each approach. The nonrandom peer review process collected 190 cases, of which 60 were scored as 2 (minor discrepancy), 94 as 3 (significant discrepancy), and 36 as 4 (major discrepancy). In the random peer review process, 1,690 cases were reviewed, of which 1,646 were scored as 1 (no discrepancy), 44 were scored as 2 (minor discrepancy), and none were scored as 3 or 4. Several teaching lessons and quality improvement measures were developed as a result of analysis of error cases collected through the nonrandom peer review process. Our experience supports the implementation of nonrandom peer review as a replacement to random peer review, with nonrandom peer review serving as a more effective method for collecting diagnostic error cases with educational and quality improvement value. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Larva migrans: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velho Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of massive Ancylostoma sp. larval infestation is presented in a patient who had received systemic corticosteroid therapy. What attracts attention in this case is the exuberance and rarity of clinical manifestation. Based on the pertinent literature, we discuss the mechanisms of parasital infection, the natural history of the disease and its treatment.

  2. Reverse logistics: A review of case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito, de M.P.; Dekker, Rommert; Flapper, S.D.P.; Fleischmann, B.; Klose, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of scientific literature that describes and discusses cases of reverse logistics activities in practice. Over sixty case studies are considered. Based on these studies we are able to indicate critical factors for the practice of reverse logistics. In addition we compare

  3. Proficiency of individuals with autism spectrum disorder at disembedding figures: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlin, Chiara; Black, Melissa; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review examines the proficiency and visual search strategies of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) while disembedding figures and whether they differ from typical controls and other comparative samples. Five databases, including Proquest, Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL and Science Direct were used to identify published studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty articles were included in the review, the majority of which matched participants by mental age. Outcomes discussed were time taken to identify targets, the number correctly identified, and fixation frequency and duration. Individuals with ASD perform at the same speed or faster than controls and other clinical samples. However, there appear to be no differences between individuals with ASD and controls for number of correctly identified targets. Only one study examined visual search strategies and suggests that individuals with ASD exhibit shorter first and final fixations to targets compared with controls.

  4. Learning from critical case reviews: emergent themes and their impact on practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofts, Linda

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the process of conducting critical case reviews as part of a leadership programme for critical care. Forty-five cases were reviewed over 2 years in five different hospitals and permission was sought from local research ethics committees and research and development committees for the discussions to be treated as research data. Typically the cases presented were patients with complex needs whose trajectory of care had not gone smoothly. Key themes to emerge from the case reviews were: The case reviews themselves were: Communication failures between professional groups, between professional themselves, between staff and families, between wards and departments and between different hospitals. Documentation was also often less than satisfactory. Teams often had problems in working together as a team and different professionals often had different expectations of other members of the team. Individual action may compensate for weaknesses in formal clinical risk system. The case reviews themselves were showcases of the difficulties the health service faces every day and the challenges of communicating effectively. The case reviews provided an effective medium to both resolve those difficulties and model a means through which teams could effectively manage and communicate patient care issues. Furthermore their strength as a learning tool was attributed to team learning as a powerful catalyst for change.

  5. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and repor...

  6. [Sarcoidosis related pleural effusion: 6 case reports and literatures review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Xu, Lili

    2015-02-01

    To summarize the clinical features and the diagnosis-treatment points of sarcoidosis related pleural effusion. Six typical sarcoidosis related pleural effusion cases with pathological evidence were reviewed, and the clinical data of these cases were retrospectively analyzed and the related literatures were reviewed. The literature review was carried out respectively with "sarcoidosis", "pleural disease" and "pleural effusion" as the keywords in CNKI and PubMed database by January 2014. Six cases, including 1 male and 5 females, with sarcoidosis related pleural effusions were reported. 3 cases had bilateral effusions, 2 cases had left effusion and 1 case had right effusion. The pleural effusion routine test had a low specificity, which demonstrated that the fluid was exudate and consisted with large number of lymphocytes. 3 of these cases were diagnosed by medical thoracoscopy. Medical thoracoscopy revealed that pleural involvement was variable with multiple nodulespresent in some cases and subtle change in others. A total of 28 literatures and 92 cases with pleural involvement in sarcoidosis were retrieved from CNKI and PubMed database (time range: 2004.1-2014.1), including 59 cases of pleural effusion, 29 cases of pleural thickening, 3 cases of pneumothorax and 1 case of nodules in pleura. Pleural involvement in sarcoidosis was often misdiagnosed or mistreated as tuberculous pleurisy because the routine tests regarding pleural effusion usually had a low specificity. Medical thoracoscopy could provide clinicians with important clues to assist differentiation of the cause for non-conclusive pleural effusion in this situation.

  7. Rat-bite fever in children: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, Ifeoma C; Christy, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    We report 2 cases of rat-bite fever (RBF), a multisystem zoonosis, in children and review the literature. RBF is caused by I of 2 Gram-negative organisms: Streptobacillus moniliformis or, less commonly, Spirillum minus. Both of our cases developed in school-aged girls with a history of rat exposure who presented with a multisystem illness consisting of fever, petechial and purpuric rash, arthralgia and polyarthritis. Both responded promptly to antibiotic treatment. An additional 10 cases from a MEDLINE review (1960-2000) are reviewed. RBF must be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients with rashes and a history of exposure to rats.

  8. Regulatory review of safety cases and safety assessments - associated challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.G.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory reviews of safety cases and safety assessments are essential for credible decision making on the licensing or authorization of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Regulatory review also plays an important role in developing the safety case and in establishing stakeholders' confidence in the safety of the facility. Reviews of safety cases for radioactive waste disposal facilities need to be conducted by suitably qualified and experienced staff, following systematic and well planned review processes. Regulatory reviews should be sufficiently comprehensive in their coverage of issues potentially affecting the safety of the disposal system, and should assess the safety case against clearly established criteria. The conclusions drawn from a regulatory review, and the rationale for them should be reproducible and documented in a transparent and traceable way. Many challenges are faced when conducting regulatory reviews of safety cases. Some of these relate to issues of project and programme management, and resources, while others derive from the inherent difficulties of assessing the potential long term future behaviour of engineered and environmental systems. The paper describes approaches to the conduct of regulatory reviews and discusses some of the challenges faced. (author)

  9. Complementary Therapies for Pain Among Individuals Receiving Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zins, Savannah; Gross, Cynthia R; Huff, Edwin D; Hooke, Mary Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Pain is a major problem for individuals undergoing hemodialysis and can lead to decreased quality of life when ineffectively managed. Pain is often reported as burdensome; thus, nurses must learn effective, nonpharmacological adjuncts to help care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of this review was to identify non-pharmacologic complementary therapies and evaluate their effectiveness in minimizing pain among individuals undergoing hemodialysis. Multiple complementary interventions were identified, and several reduced pain, but evidence is qualified by limitations in study methods. Complementary therapies have the potential to reduce pain among individuals undergoing hemodialysis; however, more research is needed. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  10. Synovial chondrosarcoma: Report of two cases and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, E.E. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Dr. R.A Calderon Guardia, Universidad De Costa Rica, P.O. Box 628-3000, Heredia (Costa Rica); Musculoskeletal Oncology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Mansor, A. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 59100 (Malaysia); Vanel, D. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Research Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: dvanel@ior.it; Errani, C.; Mercuri, M. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Picci, P. [Musculoskeletal Oncology Research Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M. [Musculoskeletal Anatomical Pathology Department, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Synovial chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue tumor that can arise from a previous synovial chondromatosis or as de novo tumor. The clinical and radiological findings of this malignancy are very similar to those of aggressive synovial chondromatosis. Confusion with other joint pathologies makes the diagnosis of synovial chondrosarcoma difficult in most of the cases. We present one recently diagnosed and treated case of synovial chondrosarcoma. The review of our hospital database revealed one more similar case. In both cases the malignancy arose from a pre-existing synovial chondromatosis. We also present a literature review emphasizing the clinical and histological findings of this rare entity.

  11. with oligodontia: review and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Oblak

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Treatment of patients with ectodermal dysplasia and oligodontia is individual and must be targeted mainly at prevention, for it is necessary to conserve the patient’s own teeth and at the same time replace (the missing tissues and teeth, and correct the facial structures.

  12. BERTIELLOSIS IN MAN: A REVIEW OF CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENEGRI Guillermo M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Bertiella mucronata and Bertiella studeri (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae in humans is reviewed, and international infection rates and a bibliography included. Taxonomic, biological, epidemiological, pathological, diagnostic, control, prevention and therapeutic aspects of the zoonosis are analyzed, and the increase in zoonotic potentiality of the parasitosis is discussed

  13. Individual and small group interactions in learning to teach with a hypermedia case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mi-Lee Ahn

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences of individual and small group preservice teachers' interactions with a hypermedia case. Preservice teachers' interactions with a hypermedia case were defined in terms of their (1) goals and perception of accomplishments of the goals, (2) use of features of the hypermedia case, and (3) types of questions and conflicts raised. Two individuals and two small groups of three preservice teachers participated by interacting with the hypermedia case which was developed to illustrate conceptual change science teaching in an elementary classroom. Most of the previous studies in this area have addressed large group use of hypermedia cases, and this study attempted to address the gap in the literature related to different social contexts, individuals and small groups, from the constructivist perspective. The assumptions of symbolic interactionism guided data collection from think-alouds and interviews. These multiple sources of data were used to understand the participants' construction of knowledge; data were analyzed and interpreted by a process of analytic induction. The major assertion was that the preservice teachers perceived the hypermedia case to be like a tool to link theory and practice of teaching. Three sub-assertions, and several supporting categories, also emerged from the data. These findings indicated that group learning experiences with the hypermedia case were more valuable than those of individuals. In general, preservice teachers benefited from learning how to teach with the hypermedia case in both settings. However, the individuals were not as satisfied as those in small groups, and the members of small groups interacted more actively with the hypermedia case as well as with the peers. The results of this study suggest that effective use of hypermedia cases takes place in a community of learners where the learners share the context and can draw upon the resources afforded by the

  14. CASE REVIEW (Labor Law) | Fassil | Haramaya Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian labour law seemingly adopts the presumption of 'indefinite period' of engagement for all labour contracts. The burden is then on the employer to prove otherwise i.e. recruitments for definite period or piece work. This case comment drills on the effect of phaseout of project works on labour contract attached to it ...

  15. Cytomegalovirus retinitis and HIV: Case reviews from KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    untreated, CMV retinitis can progress to retinal detachment with ... 1 Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), Doris .... [18] Ocular TB .... patients for publication of these case reviews and accompanying images.

  16. Marfan's syndrome: case report and literature review | Atipo-Tsiba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyperlaxity, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, dolichostenomelia) and cardiovascular system (aortic pathology). The severity of this disease is related to its cardiovascular damage. We proposed to carry out a review of the literature from the first case ...

  17. Anaesthetic technique during awake craniotomy. Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Madriz-Godoy

    2016-07-01

    Results: This case was managed with a scalp nerve block as local anaesthesia plus intravenous sedation without airway instrumentation. We reviewed the literature about patient management during awake craniotomy.

  18. Childhood bruxism: a clinical review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B; Marya, C M; Anegundi, R

    2010-01-01

    The present case report refers to a patient who reported to the department with the complaint of teeth grinding (Bruxism). A brief review of the literature is reported concerning the aetiology, clinical diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of the disease.

  19. Truncus arteriosus communis: report of three cases and review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In this paper, we report on three observed cases from which we looked for (in conjunction with literature review) ..... canal, in position of a transient physiological dextroposi- ... such as maternal diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2; chronic.

  20. Retroesophageal right subclavian artery: a case report and review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retroesophageal right subclavian artery: a case report and review of the literature. Anthony Ocaya. Department ... the left subclavian artery, and the left common carotid artery. Adachi first .... Vol 2, New York: Harper & Row. 1968. 13. Tubbs SR ...

  1. Family Wellbeing of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, Ami; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Families play an important role in supporting individuals with autism spectrum disorder across the lifespan. Indicators of family wellbeing can help to establish benchmarks for service provision and evaluation; however, a critical first step is a clear understanding of the construct in question. The purpose of the current scoping review was to (a)…

  2. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  3. Train the Trainer Effectiveness Trials of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals with Autism: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…

  4. Treatment of Bruxism in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; White, Pamela J.; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Kang, Soyeon; Aquilar, Jeannie; O'Reilly, Mark; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed studies involving the treatment of bruxism (i.e., teeth clenching or teeth grinding) in individuals with developmental disabilities. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 11 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participants, (b) procedures…

  5. Complex and unstable simple elbow dislocations: a review and quantitative analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Jeroen; Schep, Niels; Tuinebreijer, Wim; den Hartog, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of the literature with quantitative analysis of individual patient data was to identify the results of available treatments for complex elbow dislocations and unstable simple elbow dislocations. The secondary objective was to compare the results of patients with

  6. Teaching individuals with autism spectrum disorder to ask questions: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raulston, T.; Carnett, A.; Lang, R.B.; Tostanoski, A.; Lee, A.; Machalicek, W.A.; Sigafoos, J.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Didden, H.C.M.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of studies aimed at teaching individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to ask questions (i.e., teaching mands for information). A systematic search of databases, reference lists, and journals identified 21 studies that met predetermined

  7. Pragmatic Inference Abilities in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes studies involving pragmatic language comprehension and inference abilities in individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Systematic searches of three electronic databases, selected journals, and reference lists identified 20 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of:…

  8. Physical Exercise and Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…

  9. The Clinical Use of Robots for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Joshua J.; Schmitt, Lauren M.; Villano, Michael; Crowell, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined peer-reviewed studies in order to understand the current status of empirically based evidence on the clinical applications of robots in the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Studies are organized into four broad categories: (a) the response of individuals with ASD to robots or robot-like behavior in comparison…

  10. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review on Communication Treatments for Individuals with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman; Frymark, Tobi; Venedictov, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the research evidence related to the treatment of individuals with right hemisphere communication disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature using key words related to right hemisphere brain damage and communication treatment was conducted in 27 databases (e.g.,…

  11. Preliminary perspectives gaines from individual plant examination of external events (IPEEE) seismic and fire submittal review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.T.; Connell, E.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, every operating nuclear power reactor in the United States has performed an assessment of severe accident due to external events. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary insights gained through the review of 24 IPEEE submittals

  12. Who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems? A critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Megan A; Malla, Ashok K; Iyer, Srividya N

    2018-05-01

    Individuals with mental health problems have many support needs that are often inadequately met; however, perceptions of who should be responsible for meeting these needs have been largely unexplored. Varying perceptions may influence whether, how, and to what extent relevant stakeholders support individuals with mental health problems. To critically evaluate the literature to determine who different stakeholders believe should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems, what factors shape these perceptions, and how they relate to one another. A critical literature review was undertaken. Following an extensive literature search, the conceptual contributions of relevant works were critically evaluated. A concept map was created to build a conceptual framework of the topic. Views of individual versus societal responsibility for need provision and health; the morality of caring; and attributions of responsibility for mental illness offered valuable understandings of the review questions. Creating a concept map revealed that various interrelated factors may influence perceptions of responsibility. Varying perceptions of who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems may contribute to unmet support needs among this group. Our critical review helps build a much-needed conceptual framework of factors influencing perceptions of responsibility. Such a framework is essential as these views iteratively shape and reflect the complex divisions of mental healthcare roles and responsibilities. Understanding these perceptions can help define relevant stakeholders' roles more clearly, which can improve mental health services and strengthen stakeholder accountability.

  13. Congenital intracranial meningioma. A case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Schrøder, H D

    1993-01-01

    A case report of congenital intracranial meningioma is presented. We describe what appears to be the first fetal meningioma of the fibroblastic subtype. The literature is reviewed, and the subtype and sex distribution of fetal meningiomas is discussed.......A case report of congenital intracranial meningioma is presented. We describe what appears to be the first fetal meningioma of the fibroblastic subtype. The literature is reviewed, and the subtype and sex distribution of fetal meningiomas is discussed....

  14. Intervention modalities for targeting cognitive-motor interference in individuals with neurodegenerative disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Douglas A; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with neurodegenerative disease (NDD) commonly have elevated cognitive-motor interference, change in either cognitive or motor performance (or both) when tasks are performed simultaneously, compared to healthy controls. Given that cognitive-motor interference is related to reduced community ambulation and elevated fall risk, it is a target of rehabilitation interventions. Areas covered: This review details the collective findings of previous dual task interventions in individuals with NDD. A total of 21 investigations focusing on 4 different neurodegenerative diseases and one NDD precursor (Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia other than AD, and mild cognitive impairment) consisting of 721 participants were reviewed. Expert commentary: Preliminary evidence from interventions targeting cognitive-motor interference, both directly and indirectly, show promising results for improving CMI in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases. Methodological limitations, common to pilot investigations preclude firm conclusions. Well-designed randomized control trials targeting cognitive motor interference are warranted.

  15. Supportive care needs of rural individuals living with cancer: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughery, Joanne; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of geographic location, the cancer journey is an extremely difficult experience for both patients and their families. The aim of this literature review is to explore the impact of rural or remote residence on the supportive care needs of individuals living with cancer. This review included ten qualitative, seven quantitative, and six mixed design studies. Data collection, analysis, and evaluation were guided using a multi-domain supportive care framework based on seven domains: physical, emotional, informational, psychological, spiritual, social, and practical (Fitch, 2009). This review will suggest that there are distinct experiences that present both challenges and benefits to individuals living with cancer in rural areas. These findings will be detailed with recommendations, and grounding for future research outlined.

  16. Sex, Receptors and Attachment: A Review of Individual Factors Influencing Response to Oxytocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai S Macdonald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As discussed in the larger review in this special issue (MacDonald and Feifel, intranasal oxytocin (IN OT is demonstrating a growing potential as a therapeutic agent in psychiatry. Importantly, research suggests that a variety of individual factors may influence a person’s response to OT. In this mini-review, I provides a review of three: (1 sex and hormonal status; (2 genetic variation in aspects of the OT system (i.e. OT receptors; and (3 attachment history. Each of these factors will be important to monitor as we strive to develop a richer understanding of OT's role in human development, brain-based disease, and the potential for individualized, OT-targeted treatments.

  17. [Ataxia telangiectasia: review of 13 new cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, O; Póo, P; Campistol, J; Vernet, A; Fernández-Alvarez, E; Sierra, I; Gean, E

    1996-01-01

    We report the review of 13 patients who were diagnosed of ataxia telangiectasia before 6 years of age. All of them manifested cerebelous ataxia, oculocutaneus telangiectasias (11), sinopulmonary infections (9), dystonia (9), oculomotor apraxia (9) and Burkitt linfoma (1). We analyse the most common presentation of the disease in early stages and the complementary studies performed. The prompt diagnosis allow us a better control of infections, malignant process and finally the possibility of genetic counseling.

  18. Splenic Abscesses: Review of 29 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Shun Chiang

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscess is an unusual and potentially life-threatening disease. Due to the nonspecific clinical picture, it remains a diagnostic challenge. Splenic abscess should be suspected in febrile patients with left upper quadrant tenderness and leukocytosis, and diagnosis confirmed based mostly on imaging studies, microbiologic and/or pathologic evidence, or by response to antibiotic or antifungal treatment. We present 29 cases of splenic abscess treated in our hospital from 1990 to 2001. There were 18 male patients (62% and 11 female patients (38%. Ages ranged from 4 to 85 years, with a median of 44 years. There were five pediatric patients (17% and 24 adults (83%. The most common associated condition was leukemia. Most patients were immunocompromised (72%. The more common signs and symptoms were fever (90%, chills (41%, abdominal pain (31%, and leukocytosis (38%. Ultrasonography of the abdominal cavity was positive in 27 cases (93%; computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was used in 26 patients (90% and was positive in all patients. The abscess was solitary in 21 cases (72% and multiple in eight cases (28%. Positive blood cultures were found in only seven patients (24%. According to the literature, the treatment of choice is still splenectomy, but in our study, the success rate of 75% with antibiotics alone indicates that antibiotic therapy should be considered an important alternative treatment modality in patients not suitable for percutaneous drainage and splenectomy.

  19. Clostridium cadaveris bacteraemia: two cases and review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, R.P.; Rijn, M. Van; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Clostridium cadaveris is a strict anaerobic Gram-positive rod that is the most prominent bacterium during the decay of dead bodies. We present 2 rare cases of bacteraemia with C. cadaveris. The source of both infectious episodes was most probably of gastrointestinal origin.

  20. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma: review of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo Moreno, P.; Hernandez Moreno, L.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lafuente Martinez, J.L.; Arozamena Laso, M.

    1994-01-01

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is an uncommon lesion included in the group of soft tissue tumors. We present a case in a 19-year-old woman in which the diagnosis was not initially suspected because of the absence of clinical and radiological evidence. (Author)

  1. Radiation Retinopathy: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Lorna

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular damage from radiation treatment is a well established phenomenon. Many factors are now known to influence the incidence of radiation retinopathy, including total dosage and daily fraction size. Patients who are diabetic, hypertensive or received previous chemotherapy are more susceptible to radiation retinopathy. Case Presentation A 55 year old male was referred from the oncology department with epiphora. His medical history included Type 2 Insulin treated Diabetes Mellitus and hypertension. One year prior to presentation he had undergone a total rhinectomy with a 4 week course of post-operative radiotherapy for an aggressive sqaumous cell carcinoma of the nose. On examination the visual acuity was noted to be 6/36 left eye and 6/9 right eye. Posterior segment examination revealed marked retinal ischaemia present in the posterior pole and macular region of both eyes. The appearance was not thought to be typical of diabetic changes, radiation retinopathy being the more likely diagnosis especially in view of his history. Over the next four months the vision in both eyes rapidly deteriorated to 3/60 left eye and 1/60 right eye. Bilateral pan retinal photocoagulation was thought to be appropriate treatment at this point. Conclusion This case highlights the importance for ophthalmologists and oncologists to be aware of the close relationship between diabetes and radiation treatment and the profound rapid impact this combination of factors may have on visual function. Radiation is being used with increasing frequency for ocular and orbital disease, because of this more cases of radiation retinopathy may become prevalent. Factors which may potentiate radiation retinopathy should be well known including, increased radiation dosage, increased fraction size, concomitant systemic vascular disease and use of chemotherapy. Counselling should be offered in all cases at risk of visual loss. As no effective treatment currently exists

  2. Is standing balance altered in individuals with chronic low back pain? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenshteyn, Yevgeniy; Gibson, Kelsey; Hackett, Gavin C; Trem, Andrew B; Wilhelm, Mark

    2018-01-30

    To examine the static standing balance of individuals with chronic low back pain when compared to a healthy control group. A search of available literature was done using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Scopus databases. Studies were included if they contained the following: (1) individuals with chronic low back pain 3 months or longer; (2) healthy control group; (3) quantified pain measurement; and (4) center of pressure measurement using a force plate. Two authors independently reviewed articles for inclusion, and assessed for quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross Sectional Studies. Cohen's d effect size was calculated to demonstrate the magnitude of differences between groups. Nine articles were included in this review. Quality scores ranged from 5/8 to 8/8. Although center of pressure measures were nonhomogeneous, subjects with chronic low back pain had poorer performance overall compared to healthy controls. Despite inconsistencies in statistical significance, effect sizes were frequently large, indicating a lack of sufficient power in the included studies. Data were insufficiently reported among certain studies, limiting the ability of direct study comparison. Results suggest that balance is impaired in individuals with chronic low back pain when compared to healthy individuals. Implications for rehabilitation Static balance is affected in individuals with chronic low back pain. Balance assessments should be completed for individuals with chronic low back pain. Results from balance assessments should be used to indicate areas of improvement and help guide the course of treatment, as well as reassess as treatment progresses.

  3. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-06-01

    To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and reported in prospective, long-term, injury studies in team ball sports. A systematic search of three online databases for articles published before 2016. Publications were included if (1) they collected prospective data on musculoskeletal injuries in individual participants; (2) the study duration was >1 consecutive calendar year/season; and (3) individuals were the unit of analysis. Key study features were summarised, including definitions of injury, how multiple individual injuries were reported and results relating to multiple injuries. Of the 71 publications included, half did not specifically indicate multiple individual injuries; those that did were largely limited to reporting recurrent injuries. Eight studies reported the number/proportion of athletes with more than one injury, and 11 studies presented the mean/number of injuries per athlete. Despite it being relatively common to collect data on individuals across more than one season, the reporting of multiple injuries within individuals is much more limited. Ultimately, better addressing of multiple injuries will improve the accuracy of injury incidence studies and enable more precise targeting and monitoring of the effectiveness of preventive interventions.

  4. Facial duplication: case, review, and embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, M

    1982-04-01

    The craniofacial anatomy of an infant with facial duplication is described. There were four eyes, two noses, two maxillae, and one mandible. Anterior to the single pituitary the brain was duplicated and there was bilateral arhinencephaly. Portions of the brain were extruded into a large frontal encephalocele. Cases of symmetrical facial duplication reported in the literature range from two complete faces on a single head (diprosopus) to simple nasal duplication. The variety of patterns of duplication suggests that the doubling of facial components arises in several different ways: Forking of the notochord, duplication of the prosencephalon, duplication of the olfactory placodes, and duplication of maxillary and/or mandibular growth centers around the margins of the stomatodeal plate. Among reported cases, the female:male ratio is 2:1.

  5. Sarcoidosis: Case Presentation and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Alomá Fortún

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology in which infectious agents have been implicated, inorganic powders or organic substances, characterized by the presence of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with no accumulation of CD4 + lymphocytes and monocytes in the affected tissues. It is presented the case of a patient who went to the General University Hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima of Cienfuegos reporting dry cough, fever, chest tightness and slight weight loss three of three months evolution which did not improve despite receiving treatment in his health area. After several studies it was diagnosed a proliferative pulmonary sarcoidosis, systemic granulomatous disease whose etiology remains anonymous. Biopsy remains the basis for definitive diagnosis. As this is a difficult entity to explain and understand, besides being scarcely diagnosed in our area, it is decided to present that clinical case.

  6. Limitations of diagnostic precision and predictive utility in the individual case: a challenge for forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, David J; Michie, Christine

    2010-08-01

    Knowledge of group tendencies may not assist accurate predictions in the individual case. This has importance for forensic decision making and for the assessment tools routinely applied in forensic evaluations. In this article, we applied Monte Carlo methods to examine diagnostic agreement with different levels of inter-rater agreement given the distributional characteristics of PCL-R scores. Diagnostic agreement and score agreement were substantially less than expected. In addition, we examined the confidence intervals associated with individual predictions of violent recidivism. On the basis of empirical findings, statistical theory, and logic, we conclude that predictions of future offending cannot be achieved in the individual case with any degree of confidence. We discuss the problems identified in relation to the PCL-R in terms of the broader relevance to all instruments used in forensic decision making.

  7. Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica; Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Busaidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TPO is a rare, benign condition involving the trachea. TPO is characterised by osteocartilaginous nodules developing within the submuscosa of the trachea, sparing the posterior wall. We present the first documented case of TPO in Oman in a 25 year-old Omani male who presented with a recurrent, productive cough from which he had suffered throughout the previous two years. Diagnosis was made by characteristic computed tomography scan, bronchoscopic findings, and a histopathological examination.

  8. Adult intussusception: A case series and review

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify factors differentiating pathologic adult intussusception (AI) from benign causes and the need for an operative intervention. Current evidence available from the literature is discussed. METHODS This is a case series of eleven patients over the age of 18 and a surgical consultation for ?Intussusception? at a single veteran?s hospital over a five-year period (2011-2016). AI was diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) scan and or flexible endoscopy (colonoscopy). Surgical referrals...

  9. Biperiden Dependence: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Espi Martinez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticholinergic drugs are frequently used in psychiatry for the prophylaxis and treatment of extrapiramidal symptoms caused by neuroleptics. Abuse of anticholinergic agents has been reported in patients with psychotic disorders, on treatment with neuroleptics, and polysubstance use disorders. We are reporting the case of a patient who presented with hypoactive delirium as a consequence of biperiden dependence. The clinician must pay special attention to detect anticholinergic misuse in patients presenting with delirium of unknown cause.

  10. Testicular Microlithiasis: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Goran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Testicular microlithiasis is a condition characterized by the ultrasonographic findings with multiple microliths, with the prevalence of 0.6% to 9%. This is a condition of unknown etiology; however, in many cases it may be associated with cryptorchidism, Klinefelter syndrome, Down syndrome, varicocele, testicular torsion and male pseudohermaphroditism. Many retrospective studies point to the association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer.

  11. Development of the major trauma case review tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Mitchell, Rebecca; McCarthy, Amy; Wilson, Kellie; Van, Connie; Kennedy, Belinda; Tall, Gary; Holland, Andrew; Foster, Kim; Dickinson, Stuart; Stelfox, Henry T

    2017-02-28

    As many as half of all patients with major traumatic injuries do not receive the recommended care, with variance in preventable mortality reported across the globe. This variance highlights the need for a comprehensive process for monitoring and reviewing patient care, central to which is a consistent peer-review process that includes trauma system safety and human factors. There is no published, evidence-informed standardised tool that considers these factors for use in adult or paediatric trauma case peer-review. The aim of this research was to develop and validate a trauma case review tool to facilitate clinical review of paediatric trauma patient care in extracting information to facilitate monitoring, inform change and enable loop closure. Development of the trauma case review tool was multi-faceted, beginning with a review of the trauma audit tool literature. Data were extracted from the literature to inform iterative tool development using a consensus approach. Inter-rater agreement was assessed for both the pilot and finalised versions of the tool. The final trauma case review tool contained ten sections, including patient factors (such as pre-existing conditions), presenting problem, a timeline of events, factors contributing to the care delivery problem (including equipment, work environment, staff action, organizational factors), positive aspects of care and the outcome of panel discussion. After refinement, the inter-rater reliability of the human factors and outcome components of the tool improved with an average 86% agreement between raters. This research developed an evidence-informed tool for use in paediatric trauma case review that considers both system safety and human factors to facilitate clinical review of trauma patient care. This tool can be used to identify opportunities for improvement in trauma care and guide quality assurance activities. Validation is required in the adult population.

  12. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Maya; Krishnan, Ramesh; Chalakkal, Paul; Paul, George

    2015-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) is an infrequent multisystemic disease with an autosomal dominant trait, with complete penetrance and variable expressivity, though sporadic cases have been described. This article includes a case report and an extensive review of the GGS with regard to its history, incidence, etiology, features, investigations, diagnostic criteria, keratocystic odontogenic tumor and treatment modalities.

  13. Recovery-oriented services for individuals with mental illness and case managers' experience of professional burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Stein, Catherine H

    2013-02-01

    Present cross-sectional study examined perceptions of recovery-oriented services and reports of professional burnout and job satisfaction in a sample of 114 case managers working in community mental health centers across Ohio. The research examined the relative contribution of demographic characteristics, the structure of case management services, and case managers' beliefs about recovery-oriented services in describing their reports of professional burnout and job satisfaction. Regardless of individual characteristics of case managers and reports of the structure of their jobs, case managers who perceived their agency to offer higher levels of recovery-oriented services also reported lower levels of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion at work, and higher levels of professional accomplishment and job satisfaction. Directions for future research in the area are discussed.

  14. [Review of nursing diagnosis sedentary lifestyle in individuals with hypertension: conceptual analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venicios de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to review the components of the nursing diagnosis Sedentary Lifestyle (SL) proposed by NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association)-l in individuals with hypertension. The review was developed based on a concept analysis and supported by the Integrative Literature Review method, through which 43 articles were surveyed from five databases (LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED, SCOPUS and COCHRANE). The following combinations of descriptors and their English and Spanish equivalents were used: Sedentary Lifestyle and Hypertension and Sedentary and Hypertension. Based on the review process, we found that the SL definition has changed, some clinical indicators have been identified and other indicators have been added to the definition. The study promotes a direction for diagnostic efficiency of clinical SL indicators, contributing to the refinement and improvement of this diagnosis and its components.

  15. Traumatic Floating Clavicle: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gouse, Mohamad; Jacob, Korula Mani; Poonnoose, Pradeep Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar fracture dislocations of the clavicle are rare injuries, usually the result of high-energy direct trauma. Since the original description by Porral in 1831, only a handful of individual case reports and case series by Beckman and Sanders have been reported in the literature. Management of these injuries has remained controversial ranging from nonoperative to aggressive surgery. We report on the case of a young army cadet who had a fracture of the lateral end of the clavicle, with an an...

  16. Giant cholesteatoma: case and literature review' report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes, Leonardo Mendes Acatauassú

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cholesteatomas are cystic lesions encased by stratified squamous epithelium, filled for keratin. They are classified in congenital, about of 2-5% and acquired, which are subdivided in primary formed from a tympanic retraction and secondary, originated from epithelium migration through a tympanic perforation. They are tumeurs with an expansive capacity and of bone lysis being able to invade adjacent structures. Case Report: This work reports the case of ONV, 23 years old from Macapá/Amapá. In august 2007, he/she appeared to attendance with a case history of right chronic otorrhea, he/she also reported meningitis and progressive right peripherica facial paralysis. The mastoid tomography demonstrated an hypodense image with density of soft tissues filling the middle ear, destructing the ossicular chain, semicircular canals, cochlea and extending until next to the proximal portion of the internal auditory meatus. He/she was referred to surgery. During the trans-operative it is evidenced an extensive destruction of the cortical layer of the mastoid, which was obstructed by a mass of an yellow coloration, fetid and of the consistent aspect. After the lesion is removed it is verified the presence of fistulae of high debit with posterior fossa. It was proceeded with the fistulae closing with a bone wax and temporal muscle shred. The patient remained confined during 15 days in use wide antimicrobial schema. Currently, it is find in regular accompaniment and in a good general state. Final Comments: This work aims to call attention to the rigorous complications of these pathologies , which despite to be common and to be a benign tumoral lesion can bring severe sequelae to the patient, in the event of the diagnosis and treatment not to be prematurely performed.

  17. Supernumerary teeth: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos Lopez, Violeta

    2008-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) have been an anomaly of tooth development, this is refered to the increase in the number of pieces in the normal dentition. It can be unique, multiple, unilateral or bilateral, normal or altered form; appear erupted, impacted or retained. Both dentitions are affected, but is most common in the permanent. The literature review has covered and mentioned spanned supernumerary teeth, the definition, etiology, characteristics and classification according to number, position and shape; as diagnose, alterations or clinical sequelae - eruptive associated with them and possible treatments to be done when it occurs. The presence of mechanical accidents have been a frequent complication, within this, displacement of adjacent teeth has been the most common; is associated with different syndromes such as lip and palate cleft; however, they can not be related with pathologies; being mesiodens the most frequent. (author) [es

  18. Problems experienced by informal caregivers of individuals with heart failure: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Joan S; Graven, Lucinda J

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine and synthesize recent literature regarding problems experienced by informal caregivers when providing care for individuals with heart failure in the home. Integrative literature review. A review of current empirical literature was conducted utilizing PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Full Text, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Cochrane computerized databases. 19 qualitative, 16 quantitative, and 2 mixed methods studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Computerized databases were searched for a combination of subject terms (i.e., MeSH) and keywords related to informal caregivers, problems, and heart failure. The title and abstract of identified articles and reference lists were reviewed. Studies were included if they were published in English between January 2000 and December 2016 and examined problems experienced by informal caregivers in providing care for individuals with heart failure in the home. Studies were excluded if not written in English or if elements of caregiving in heart failure were not present in the title, abstract, or text. Unpublished and duplicate empirical literature as well as articles related to specific end-stage heart failure populations also were excluded. Methodology described by Cooper and others for integrative reviews of quantitative and qualitative research was used. Quality appraisal of the included studies was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools for cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative studies. Informal caregivers experienced four key problems when providing care for individuals with heart failure in the home, including performing multifaceted activities and roles that evolve around daily heart failure demands; maintaining caregiver physical, emotional, social, spiritual, and financial well-being; having insufficient caregiver support; and performing caregiving with uncertainty

  19. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.

  20. Superficial siderosis: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresojević Nikola D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Superficial siderosis (SS is caused by chronic subarachnoid bleeding and is characterized by free iron and hemosiderin deposition along the pial and subpial structures of central nervous system. SS leads to progressive and irreversible CNS damage. The most common causes of chronic subarachnoidal bleeding are tumors, head and spinal cord trauma, arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms. SS is characterized by clinical triad: sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellar ataxia and piramydal signs. Brain MR imaging is the investigation of choice for the diagnosis of SS. Typical findings include hypointensities seen on T2­weighted MR imaging around the brain, cerebellum, brain stem, spinal cord, VIII cranial nerve and atrophy of cerebellum and medulla. Case Outline. A 71-year­old female patient noticed hand tremor in the middle of the third decade of life, and later slowly progressive bilateral hearing loss. At the age of 64 she developed un­ steady gate, hand clumsiness and dysarthria, to became incapable of independent walking and standing five years later. Clinical course and brain MRI findings were typical for SS, but additional investigation did not reveal the couse of subarahnoidal bleeding. Conclusion. SS represents a rare and under­recognized condition that must be considered in all patients with cerebellar syndrome of unknown cause. Early diagnosis of SS in some cases with identified cause of chronic bleeding allowes therapeutic interventions that may prevent further progression of the disease. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175090

  1. [Chronic pancreatitis: Retrospective review of 121 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger F, Zoltán; Mancilla A, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a rare disease in Chile, without a clear explanation for this low prevalence. To analyze the characteristics of our patients with pancreatitis. Retrospective analysis of a database of patients with pancreatitis of a clinical hospital. Morphological proof of diagnosis (calcifications/calculi, alterations of ducts, local complication or histology) was obtained for every patient. History of acute pancreatitis was recorded and exocrine-endocrine function was assessed. We retrieved information of 121 patients with pancreatitis (86 males) in a period of 20 years. The number of cases increased markedly every five years. The calculated incidence and prevalence was 0.8/100,000/year and 6/100,000, respectively. Pancreatic calcifications were initially observed in 93 patients and became evident during the follow-up in another six patients. Severe pain or local complications occurred in 27 patients, requiring surgery in 10 or endoscopic treatment in 15. During the years of follow-up, 55 patients were free of symptoms. Exocrine and endocrine insufficiency was demonstrated and treated in 81 and 67 patients, respectively. Alcoholic etiology was evident in 40% of patients. In 29% no etiology was identified. Mapuche origin was exceptional. Late diagnosis of CP is common, since most of our patients presented with advanced stages. Even though CP is increasingly diagnosed in our hospitals, the number of cases is still far fewer when compared to other countries. Underdiagnosis alone cannot explain this difference and genetic factors might be of importance.

  2. Understanding the Self in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann X. Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When the system of self is explored in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs, it is important to measure it via both their own perceptions of the self and their understanding of others’ perceptions on themselves at a multidimensional level. This paper reviews existing research in this area using a three-dimension approach. Researchers have found that impairments in the self-system are usually correlated with these individuals’ social and cognitive functioning levels: high functioning individuals with ASD who have higher IQ are found to have better awareness of their limitations in social and communication domains than those with lower IQ. Many researchers believe that there are impairments in the psychological (but not physical self in individuals with ASD, such as theory of mind deficits due to social and communicative impairments. On the other hand, some researchers argue that individuals with ASD have selective rather than global impairments in the self. In other words, the impairment usually lies in a specific aspect of functioning in individuals with ASD. Insights from the review of existing literature on this topic may be able to shed some lights on the development of effective intervention programs to improve social communication deficits in this population.

  3. Case review analysis of operating room decisions to cancel surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ju-Hsin; Chen, Ke-Wei; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Poon, Kin-Shing; Liu, Shih-Kai

    2014-07-23

    Cancellation of surgery close to scheduled time causes a waste of healthcare resources. The current study analyzes surgery cancellations occurring after the patient has been prepared for the operating room, in order to see whether improvements in the surgery planning process may reduce the number of cancellations. In a retrospective chart review of operating room surgery cancellations during the period from 2006 to 2011, cancellations were divided into the following categories: inadequate NPO; medical; surgical; system; airway; incomplete evaluation. The relative use of these reasons in relation to patient age and surgical department was then evaluated. Forty-one percent of cancellations were for other than medical reasons. Among these, 17.7% were due to incomplete evaluation, and 8.2% were due to family issues. Sixty seven percent of cancelled cases eventually received surgery. The relative use of individual reasons for cancellation varied with patient age and surgical department. The difference between cancellations before and after anesthesia was dependent on the causes of cancellation, but not age, sex, ASA status, or follow-up procedures required. Almost half of the cancellations were not due to medical reasons, and these cancellations could be reduced by better administrative and surgical planning and better communication with the patient and/or his family.

  4. A Review of the New European Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, J.W.E. van; Alves, J.G.; Ambrosi, P.; Bartlett, D.T.; Currivan, L.; Fantuzzi, E.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the revised Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation as issued by the European Commission as Radiation Protection 160. These recommendations are aimed at all stakeholders in radiation protection dosimetry with an emphasis in the responsible technical staff of approved dosimetry services. This paper briefly touches each Chapter and ends with a more in depth section on the uncertainty evaluation of dose measurements. -- Highlights: ► Recommendations on all aspects of running an approved dosimetry service. ► Radiation protection framework. ► Metrology of personal dosimeters. ► QC and QA of individual monitoring

  5. Paraneoplastic Ischemic Stroke: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sumer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Paraneoplastic etiology is not frequent among cerebrovascular disorders. This rare disorder is interesting with different mechanisms, clinical manifestations and treatment options. Diagnosis may be overlooked for its rarity. We present a paraneoplastic ischemic stroke patient with its clinical and imaging characteristics for recalling this rare disease. CASE: A sixty years old woman with a history of ovarian and colon cancer and liver metastasis admitted with acute left sided hemiplegia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple ischemic lesions at the same age. Laboratory findings were compatible with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. She was anticoagulated but the clinical findings were not changed. She died one month after her discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Paraneoplastic ischemic stroke is rare and it should be recognized by the clinician to differentiate from other ischemic strokes by its different mechanisms, imaging characteristics and treatment modalities. Prognosis depends on the characteristics of the primary tumor

  6. Traumatic chylothorax: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wezi Sendama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chylothorax is a rare entity characterised by leakage of lymphatic fluid into the pleural cavity from the thoracic duct. We present a case of traumatic chylothorax following a traumatic fracture of the L1 vertebra. An 84-year-old lady presented to the emergency department after being found collapsed at home. She gave a preceding history of one day of diarrhoea. Chest X-ray showed a rightsided effusion. Drainage of the effusion yielded a cloudy, off-white fluid that settled in layers in the drainage container. Pleural fluid examination revealed a lymphocyte-rich transudate with high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. CT imaging of the chest, abdomen and pelvis revealed an acute left sided pulmonary embolus, and a multisegment burst fracture of the L1 vertebra. The patient was anticoagulated for the pulmonary embolus. Conservative fracture management was advised. Chylous drainage of 1l/24hr was observed. Due to ongoing chylous leak the patient was commenced on a medium-chain fatty acid diet and octreotide. Whilst chylous drainage ceased the patient died from infected pressure sores, malnutrition and acute kidney injury. Spinal trauma can rarely cause disruption of the thoracic duct and chylothorax. Diagnosis of chylothorax hinges on the typically high triglyceride content of chylous fluid and the detection of chylomicrons where the triglyceride concentration is equivocal. Management options for persistently draining chylothorax are varied and range from non-invasive medical measures to radiological and surgical interventions (although the patient in the case we present was an unsuitable candidate for surgery. We discuss pertinent diagnostic testing and put forward possible medical management strategies for chylothorax.

  7. Individual socioeconomic status and breast cancer diagnostic stages: a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Mattea; Trétarre, Brigitte; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Bessaoud, Faiza

    2016-06-01

    Health inequalities have increased over the last 30 years. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between low individual socioeconomic status and poor breast cancer prognosis. Our hypothesis was: low socioeconomic status patients have a higher risk of being diagnosed with late stage breast cancer than high socioeconomic status ones due to delayed diagnosis. We conducted a matched case-control study on 619 women with breast cancer, living in the Hérault, a French administrative area. Both Cases and Controls were recruited among invasive cases diagnosed in 2011 and 2012 and treated in Hérault care centers. Cases were defined as patients with advanced stages. Controls were composed of early stage patients. Individual socioeconomic status was assessed using a validated individual score adapted to the French population and health care system. We observed that low socioeconomic status patients have a 2-fold risk of having late stage breast cancer regardless of cancer characteristics and detection mode (screening vs. clinical signs). One reason explaining those results could be that low socioeconomic status patients have less regular follow-up which can lead to later and poorer diagnosis. Follow-up is improved for women with a better awareness of breast cancer. Health policy makers could reduce health inequalities by reducing the delay in breast cancer diagnosis for low socioeconomic status women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Postural Control Impairments in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Critical Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Ghanouni, Parisa; Shayestehfar, Monir; Ghaheri, Banafsheh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Motor impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been frequently reported. In this review, we narrow our focus on postural control impairments to summarize current literature for patterns, underlying mechanisms, and determinants of posture in this population. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was conducted through Medline, ISI web of Knowledge, Scopus and Google Scholar to include studies between 1992 and February 2013. Results: Individuals with ASD have problems in maintaining postural control in infancy that well persists into later years. However, the patterns and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Conclusions: Examining postural control as an endophenotype or early diagnostic marker of autism is a conceptual premise which should be considered in future investigations. At the end of the review, methodological recommendations on the assessment of postural control have also been provided. PMID:25520765

  9. Systematic Review of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Without Extinction for Individuals With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaul, Hannah L; Neely, Leslie C

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedures without extinction for individuals with autism. Using predetermined inclusion criteria, a total of 10 studies were included and summarized in terms of the following: (a) participant characteristics (e.g., sex, age, and diagnosis), (b) treatment setting, (c) problem behavior, (d) function, (e) alternative behavior, (f) intervention, (g) outcomes, and (h) conclusiveness of evidence. Of the 10 studies, nine demonstrated positive effects and one mixed effects. Five studies successfully reduced problem behavior by manipulating different reinforcement parameters (magnitude, immediacy, and quality) and four manipulated the schedule of reinforcement. One study had mixed results with two of the three participants requiring extinction. The findings of this review suggest that variations of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior interventions without an extinction component may be considered promising practices for the treatment of challenging behavior in individuals with autism.

  10. Review of cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Helene Ladefoged; Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff

    2016-01-01

    reported CMV manifestations in HIV‐infected individuals. Among patients with pulmonary symptoms, the prevalence of CMV pneumonitis varied from 20% to over 60%, whereas CMV was found in 0% to 14% of patients with gastrointestinal manifestations. Cytomegalovirus retinitis was found in 0% to 2.6% of examined......Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV‐infected individuals may cause end‐organ disease, which is an AIDS‐defining condition. Evidence from high‐income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end‐organ diseases. We reviewed literature...... on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. Methods: Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. Results: High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations. Retinitis, pneumonia, and colitis were the most commonly...

  11. A Systematic Review of Physical Activity Interventions in Individuals with Binge Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Claudine; Mathieu, Marie-Ève; St-Laurent, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; St-Amour, Nathalie; Drapeau, Vicky

    2018-03-01

    Our systematic review aims to assess the overall evidence available in the literature regarding the role of physical activity (PA) in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) and better understand the potential underlying mechanisms of action. Currently, the most effective and well-established psychological treatment for BED is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with a remission rate around 80%. CBT is sometimes combined with pharmacotherapy targeting comorbidities associated with BED, such as obesity and depression. Another avenue of treatment that has been less studied is PA. It has been suggested that PA addresses the underlying mechanisms of BED and, thus, increases treatment efficiency. This systematic review provides additional knowledge concerning the benefits of PA in the treatment of individuals with BED including reduction of binge eating (BE) episodes and improvement in other associated comorbidities. Potential mechanisms of action of PA include neurochemical alterations affecting the reward system, reduction of negative affect, and its anorexigenic effects.

  12. First case of bacteremia caused by Moellerella wisconsensis: case report and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardentey-Reyes, A; Jacobs, F; Struelens, M J; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H

    2009-12-01

    Moellerella wisconsensis, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is rarely isolated in clinical specimens. We report here a case of M. wisconsensis infection in a 46-year-old cirrhotic patient with acute cholecystitis. This is the first reported case of a M. wisconsensis infection in Belgium and the first reported case of human bacteremia caused by this bacterium. Our case report is followed by a review of the literature.

  13. Pachydermodactyly: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pachydermodactyly is a rare, benign form of digital fibromatosis, characterized by asymptomatic and progressive, periarticular and usually symmetrical soft tissue finger swelling, specifically on the lateral aspects of the proximal interphalangeal joints mainly of the second, third, and fourth fingers; it mostly affects young adolescents and is probably due to repeated mechanical injury of the skin (such as repeated clasping or rubbing of crossed fingers, sometimes as a result of obsessive-compulsive disorder, which must be distinguished from obsessive “chewing pads”. This paper presents a male patient aged 19, who presented with first symptoms at the age of 12, and was diagnosed with periarticular hypertrophy: localized soft tissue thickening around the proximal interphalangeal joints of all fingers except the thumbs; slight hypertrophy of the skin; absence of subjective complaints; normal joint function. Dermatological status on admission revealed: symmetrical soft tissue swelling of all fingers of both hands except the thumbs at the level of the proximal interphalangeal joints; normal appearance of the distal parts of all fingers; thickening at the level of the proximal interphalangeal joints, bilateral, almost symmetrical hypertrophy (ulnar and radial of phalanges of the affected fingers except both index fingers, affecting only the ulnar side. The skin lesions were pain-free on palpation, with homogeneous texture and elastic consistency, freely movable over underlying structures. The affected joints showed no functional deficit. The test results, sonography, radiography and histopathology confirmed our clinical diagnosis-pachydermodactyly. The review of the currently available literature, published between 1973 and 2014, including 99 papers and 160 patients, provided important insight into the characteristics and variations of the disease.

  14. Vascular hemichorea: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Martínez Alfonzo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chorea rarely complicates ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebral vascular lesions. Clinical symptoms usually involve one side of the body while the injury is situated on the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Spontaneous remission is the norm, but sometimes symptomatic treatment is required. A 58-year-old male patient who suffers from untreated high blood pressure, type II obesity, smokes 6 packs of cigarettes per year and has a moderate intake of alcohol is presented. The patient’s recent history began three days before he appeared at the Emergency Department. His symptoms were ceaseless, involuntary movements in his left arm and foot during day and night with no restriction of voluntary movements. Physical examination and laboratory tests revealed no other findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hyperintensity in the right posterolateral thalamic region consistent with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Symptomatic therapy was indicated and his underlying conditions were addressed. The importance of this case lies on the low prevalence as well as the scarcity of publications regarding vascular causes of hemichorea, including diagnosis, therapy and prognosis.

  15. Osteopoikilsis - review and contribution with two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, R.; Balev, B.; Baleva, D.; Zonev, K.; Gadancheva, V.; Ikonomov, V.

    2007-01-01

    Osteopoikilosis (osteopathy condensans disseminata, asymptomatic bone dysplasia, spotted bone disease) is an uncommon benign sclerosing bone dysplasia with an autosomal dominant inheritance. The LEMD3 gene is responsible for this bone density disorder. Radiologically, it is characterized by the presence of numerous small (2 - 10 mm), well -defined, oval or round foci of increased radio density. The oval foci are often oriented with their long axes parallel to the shafts of tubular bones. These lesions are symmetrically distributed, and have a predilection for the epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions of long tubular bones, as well as the carpal and tar-sal bones. In the pelvis and scapulae, they are concentrated around the joint. The skull, ribs, spine and clavicles are rarely involved. These lesions may increase or decrease in size and number, or disappear with time. Histologically, these lesions are foci of compact lamellar bone within the spongiosa, with histological features identical to bone islands. We present two cases with detailed imaging examinations, demonstrating the full pattern of the disease. The radiological appearance of the disease is unique. It could resemble other bone diseases and because of that the radiologist must be familiar with it. (authors)

  16. Cemento-osseous dysplasia in Jamaica: review of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsalu, C; Miles, D

    2005-09-01

    Six cases of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) of the jaw bone in Jamaicans are reviewed. Five were documented over a 15-year period (1980-1995). These include a case of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (previously called gigantiform cementoma). Three of the initial cases were histologically diagnosed as gigantiform cementoma. There was no indication in the patient's case file whether these were familial or non-familial. The other two cases were diagnosed histologically as periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia and cementoblastoma respectively. Based on the current understanding of the nature of florid-cemento-osseous dysplasia (FLCOD), a new case was diagnosed as such solely on radiological findings. This single case of FLCOD is reported and discussed against the background of other cemento-osseous lesions. Special emphasis is placed on the radiology of COD in this paper. The confirmative role of radiology without the need for histophathology and treatment for asymptomatic FLCOD is emphasized.

  17. Cloacal Prolapse in Raptors: Review of 16 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Thomas A G; Forbes, Neil A; Carrasco, Daniel Calvo

    2016-06-01

    Sixteen cases of cloacal prolapse in raptors were reviewed in this study. Colonic prolapse was the most common presentation (56% of cases). Red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were overrepresented, comprising 66% of colonic prolapse cases. In cases of colonic prolapse, postsurgical stricture formation was a commonly identified complication after resection and anastomosis of the colon. A novel technique was used in 2 cases of colonic prolapse, in which sterile, semirigid rubber tubing was placed in the distal colon and removed per-cloaca at the end of the procedure; this facilitated a secure, fluid-tight anastomosis while maintaining sufficient intestinal lumen. Oviductal prolapse (31% of cases) was associated with the most guarded prognosis (40% treatment success). Cloacoliths were treated successfully in 2 birds (13% of cases) by minimally invasive per-cloacal manual removal.

  18. Individual differences and their measurement: A review of 100 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Paul R; Lievens, Filip; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Kuncel, Nathan R

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews 100 years of research on individual differences and their measurement, with a focus on research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. We focus on 3 major individual differences domains: (a) knowledge, skill, and ability, including both the cognitive and physical domains; (b) personality, including integrity, emotional intelligence, stable motivational attributes (e.g., achievement motivation, core self-evaluations), and creativity; and (c) vocational interests. For each domain, we describe the evolution of the domain across the years and highlight major theoretical, empirical, and methodological developments, including relationships between individual differences and variables such as job performance, job satisfaction, and career development. We conclude by discussing future directions for individual differences research. Trends in the literature include a growing focus on substantive issues rather than on the measurement of individual differences, a differentiation between constructs and measurement methods, and the use of innovative ways of assessing individual differences, such as simulations, other-reports, and implicit measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The Ethical Egoist Case for Dietary Veganism, Or The Individual Animal and His Will to Live

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Bo-Nikolai Gjerpen

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis religion - University of Agder 2017 In this thesis in applied ethics, «The ethical egoist case for dietary veganism, or the individual animal and his will to live», I argue that taking non-human animals into consideration can be argued for from an approach of ethical egoism. I argue that from the standpoint of egoism, in most cases you would be well advised to adopt a vegan diet, that means, practically speaking, a diet rid of animal products. The thesis is divided into ...

  20. Granulicatella adiacens abscess: Two rare cases and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulicatella adiacens is a nutritionally variant streptococcus species. These bacteria are rarely isolated in the laboratory due to their fastidious growth requirements. These have been mostly reported from bloodstream infections, infective endocarditis, infections of orbit, nasolacrimal duct and breast implants. Here, we are reporting two cases of subcutaneous abscesses caused by G. adiacens. In first case, it was isolated from abscess around elbow joint and second case was a suprapatellar abscess. We have also reviewed the published data concerning diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Granulicatella infections and included some Indian cases.

  1. Case Study in Public Administration: A Critical Review of Brazilian Scientific Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Guerra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical review of 47 articles published between 2006 and 2011 to identify how case studies have been applied in Brazilian research on public administration. In addition to their theoretical and methodological characteristics, four further specific topics of interest were addressed: (a what is meant by case study; (b the relationship between the phenomenon of interest and the case under investigation; (c the possibility of replication; and (d how the supposed method contributes towards the development of the field of public administration. The main inconsistencies found were: the methodological descriptions are confusing; the results are inconsistent compared with data gathering procedures and data analysis techniques; a lack of information about the number of interviewed individuals; and no descriptions of research variables. The results suggest the reviewed case studies present methodological inconsistencies and limitations, which undermine their scientific value and relevance to academic work in Brazil.

  2. The broad autism phenotype in parents of individuals with autism: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Prata Cruz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The broad autism phenotype (BAP is a milder manifestation of the defining symptoms of the syndrome in individuals without autism. This study conducted a systematic review of studies about behavioral characteristics of interpersonal relationships, communication and rigidity, as well as about three cognitive models, Theory of Mind, central coherence and executive function, in parents of individuals with autism. The indexed databases were LILACS, IBECS, Web of Science, and MEDLINE, and the studies retrieved were published between 1991 and March 2012. Parents of individuals with autism have more difficulties in interpersonal relationships and in pragmatic language use and have more rigidity traits. The inclusions of the cognitive theories in the group of BAP characteristics were inconclusive.

  3. Review of “Marked Identities. Narrating lives between social labels and individual biographies”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferrarotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a book review of the volume edited by Roberta Piazza and Alessandra Fasulo, and entitled Marked Identities. Narrating Lives Between Social Labels and Individual Biographies, Palgrave Macmillan, London-New York, 2015. The book consists of various interviews with individuals whose lives, mainly because of the group to which they belong, could be viewed as ‘marked’. The difference between the idea of ‘stigma’ and the notion ‘marked identity’ is underlined, together with the idea of ‘diversity’, which today is not necessarily something that one should hide but, quite the opposite, something one can be proud of. One of the main ideas of this text is that identity is not a rigid reality but a process, by which individuals negotiate the version of who they are with others.

  4. The importance of individual frequencies of endogenous brain oscillations for auditory cognition - A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltus, Alina; Herrmann, Christoph Siegfried

    2016-06-01

    Oscillatory EEG activity in the human brain with frequencies in the gamma range (approx. 30-80Hz) is known to be relevant for a large number of cognitive processes. Interestingly, each subject reveals an individual frequency of the auditory gamma-band response (GBR) that coincides with the peak in the auditory steady state response (ASSR). A common resonance frequency of auditory cortex seems to underlie both the individual frequency of the GBR and the peak of the ASSR. This review sheds light on the functional role of oscillatory gamma activity for auditory processing. For successful processing, the auditory system has to track changes in auditory input over time and store information about past events in memory which allows the construction of auditory objects. Recent findings support the idea of gamma oscillations being involved in the partitioning of auditory input into discrete samples to facilitate higher order processing. We review experiments that seem to suggest that inter-individual differences in the resonance frequency are behaviorally relevant for gap detection and speech processing. A possible application of these resonance frequencies for brain computer interfaces is illustrated with regard to optimized individual presentation rates for auditory input to correspond with endogenous oscillatory activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Are groups more rational than individuals? A review of interactive decision making in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Tamar; Kausel, Edgar E; Kocher, Martin G

    2012-07-01

    Many decisions are interactive; the outcome of one party depends not only on its decisions or on acts of nature but also on the decisions of others. Standard game theory assumes that individuals are rational, self-interested decision makers-that is, decision makers are selfish, perfect calculators, and flawless executors of their strategies. A myriad of studies shows that these assumptions are problematic, at least when examining decisions made by individuals. In this article, we review the literature of the last 25 years on decision making by groups. Researchers have compared the strategic behavior of groups and individuals in many games: prisoner's dilemma, dictator, ultimatum, trust, centipede and principal-agent games, among others. Our review suggests that results are quite consistent in revealing that group decisions are closer to the game-theoretic assumption of rationality than individual decisions. Given that many real-world decisions are made by groups, it is possible to argue that standard game theory is a better descriptive model than previously believed by experimental researchers. We conclude by discussing future research avenues in this area. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:471-482. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1184 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Case for Individualized Goal Attainment Scaling Measurement in Elder Abuse Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David; Lachs, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Research available to inform the development of effective community-based elder abuse protective response interventions is severely limited. Elder abuse intervention research is constrained by a lack of research capacity, including sensitive and responsive outcome measures that can assess change in case status over the course of intervention. Given the heterogeneous nature of elder abuse, standard scales can lack the flexibility necessary to capture the diverse range of individually relevant issues across cases. In this paper, we seek to address this gap by proposing the adaptation and use of an innovative measurement strategy-goal attainment scaling-in the context of elder protection. Goal attainment scaling is an individualized, client-centered outcome measurement approach that has the potential to address existing measurement challenges constraining progress in elder abuse intervention research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Capturing Crime: The Qualitative Analysis of Individual Cases for Advancing Criminological Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin A; Bouffard, Leana A

    2016-02-01

    The qualitative analysis of individual cases has a prominent place in the development of criminological theory, yet progression in the scientific study of crime has largely been viewed as a distinctly quantitative endeavor. In the process, much of the theoretical depth and precision supplied by earlier methods of criminological knowledge production have been sacrificed. The current work argues for a return to our criminological roots by supplementing quantitative analyses with the qualitative inspection of individual cases. We provide a specific example of a literature (i.e., criminal specialization/versatility) that has become increasingly quantitative and could benefit from the use of the proposed approach. We conclude by offering additional areas of research that might be advanced by our framework presented here. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Plasma exchange in small intestinal transplantation between ABO-incompatible individuals: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, QIUHUI; HU, XINGBIN; XIA, AIJUN; YI, JING; AN, QUNXING; ZHANG, XIANQING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of plasma exchange in small intestinal transplantation between ABO blood type-incompatible patients. A small intestinal transplantation case between ABO-incompatible individuals is hereby presented and analyzed. The main treatment included plasma exchange, splenectomy and immunosuppression. The patient undergoing small intestinal transplantation exhibited stable vital signs. A mild acute rejection reaction developed ~2 weeks after the s...

  9. Comparison of different criteria for periodontitis case definition in head and neck cancer individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Audrey Cristina; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Cota, Luis Otávio Miranda; Silva, Guilherme Carvalho; Magalhães, Cláudia Silami; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira

    2015-09-01

    Different periodontitis case definitions have been used in clinical research and epidemiology. The aim of this study was to determine more accurate criterion for the definition of mild and moderate periodontitis case to be applied to head and neck cancer individuals before radiotherapy. The frequency of periodontitis in a sample of 84 individuals was determined according to different diagnostic criteria: (1) Lopez et al. (2002);(2) Hujoel et al. (2006); (3) Beck et al. (1990); (4) Machtei et al. (1992); (5) Tonetti and Claffey (2005); (6) and Page and Eke (2007). All diagnosis were based on the clinical parameters obtained by a single calibrated examiner (Kw = 0.71). The individuals were evaluated before radiotherapy. They received oral hygiene instructions, and the cases diagnosed with periodontitis (Page and Eke 2007) were treated. The gold standard was the definition 6, and the others were compared by means of agreement, sensitivity (SS), specificity (SP), and the area under ROC curve. The kappa test evaluated the agreement between definitions. The frequency of periodontitis at baseline was 53.6 % (definition 1), 81.0 % (definition 2), 40.5 % (definition 3), 26.2 % (definition 4), 13.1 % (definition 5), and 70.2 % (definition 6). The kappa test showed a moderate agreement between definitions 6 and 2 (59.0 %) and definitions 6 and 1 (56.0 %). The criterion with higher SS (0.92) and SP (0.73) was definition 1. Definition 1 was the most accurate criterion to case periodontitis definition to be applied to head and neck cancer individuals.

  10. Individual Correlates of Podoconiosis in Areas of Varying Endemicity: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Yordanos B.; Le Blond, Jennifer S.; Wardrop, Nicola; Baxter, Peter; Atkinson, Peter M.; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is a non-filarial form of elephantiasis resulting in lymphedema of the lower legs. Previous studies have suggested that podoconiosis arises from the interplay of individual and environmental factors. Here, our aim was to understand the individual-level correlates of podoconiosis by comparing 460 podoconiosis-affected individuals and 707 unaffected controls. Methods/principal findings This was a case-control study carried out in six kebeles (the lowest governmental administrative unit) in northern Ethiopia. Each kebele was classified into one of three endemicity levels: ‘low’ (prevalence 5%). A total of 142 (30.7%) households had two or more cases of podoconiosis. Compared to controls, the majority of the cases, especially women, were less educated (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.2), were unmarried (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.6–4.6) and had lower income (t = −4.4, p<0.0001). On average, cases started wearing shoes ten years later than controls. Among cases, age of first wearing shoes was positively correlated with age of onset of podoconiosis (r = 0.6, t = 12.5, p<0.0001). Among all study participants average duration of shoe wearing was less than 30 years. Between both cases and controls, people in ‘high’ and ‘medium’ endemicity kebeles were less likely than people in ‘low’ endemicity areas to ‘ever’ have owned shoes (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4–0.7). Conclusions Late use of shoes, usually after the onset of podoconiosis, and inequalities in education, income and marriage were found among cases, particularly among females. There were clustering of cases within households, thus interventions against podoconiosis will benefit from household-targeted case tracing. Most importantly, we identified a secular increase in shoe-wearing over recent years, which may give opportunities to promote shoe-wearing without increasing stigma among those at high risk of podoconiosis. PMID:24340109

  11. Individual correlates of podoconiosis in areas of varying endemicity: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial form of elephantiasis resulting in lymphedema of the lower legs. Previous studies have suggested that podoconiosis arises from the interplay of individual and environmental factors. Here, our aim was to understand the individual-level correlates of podoconiosis by comparing 460 podoconiosis-affected individuals and 707 unaffected controls.This was a case-control study carried out in six kebeles (the lowest governmental administrative unit in northern Ethiopia. Each kebele was classified into one of three endemicity levels: 'low' (prevalence 5%. A total of 142 (30.7% households had two or more cases of podoconiosis. Compared to controls, the majority of the cases, especially women, were less educated (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.2, were unmarried (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.6-4.6 and had lower income (t = -4.4, p<0.0001. On average, cases started wearing shoes ten years later than controls. Among cases, age of first wearing shoes was positively correlated with age of onset of podoconiosis (r = 0.6, t = 12.5, p<0.0001. Among all study participants average duration of shoe wearing was less than 30 years. Between both cases and controls, people in 'high' and 'medium' endemicity kebeles were less likely than people in 'low' endemicity areas to 'ever' have owned shoes (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.7.Late use of shoes, usually after the onset of podoconiosis, and inequalities in education, income and marriage were found among cases, particularly among females. There were clustering of cases within households, thus interventions against podoconiosis will benefit from household-targeted case tracing. Most importantly, we identified a secular increase in shoe-wearing over recent years, which may give opportunities to promote shoe-wearing without increasing stigma among those at high risk of podoconiosis.

  12. Silent Sinus Syndrome: A Retrospective Review of 11 Cases

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    Karima DARGHAL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and radiological features of SSS, and to review therapeutic possibilities and their outcomes.Patients and Methods: Retrospective observational case series in the department of Arthur Vernes Institute between Mars 2007 and  Novembre 2012. Clinical records, including ophthalmology and otolaryngology evaluations as well as computed tomography scans and operative reports, were carefully examined. A literature review for relevant studies was performed to examine similar cases.Results: Eleven cases of  SSS were identified. Nine men and two women (sex ratio 4.5, aged between 23 and 54 years (mean, 30 years. there was 3 to 4 mm enophthalmos in 10 cases (90.9%, and hypoglobus in all cases, with no effect on visual function. In all 11 cases, the maxillary roof (orbital floor was drawn downwards, and the one or more walls of the maxilla were concave. In 4 cases septal deviation was present. 8 patients (72.7% underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, while 3 refused it. Septoplasty was performed in 4 cases (36.3%.Conclusion: The silent sinus syndrome is a rare entity. It mainly presents as unilateral enophthalmos in younger people and has very characteristic clinical and radiologic signs.This case series reports our diagnostic and therapeutic experience with this syndrome.

  13. Individualized rituximab treatment for relapsing neuromyelitis optica: a pediatric case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Yu, YunLi; Yan, WeiBo; Dai, QingQing; Xu, Zhu; Chu, Lan

    2014-08-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Current therapeutic approaches are based on small uncontrolled trials, case series, or case reports. There are only a few case reports describing rituximab for pediatric neuromyelitis optica. A 7-year-old girl with neuromyelitis optica had high disease activity with recurrent myelitis and steroid dependence. A remarkable increase of CD19(+) B-cell count in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and seropositivity for anti-aquaporin 4 antibody were detected at each attack. After induction therapy with rituximab, the CD19(+) B-cell number was significantly reduced and sustained at low levels. The level of serum anti-aquaporin 4 antibody normalized. She was relapse-free over 1-year follow-up period. An individualized maintenance therapy scheme is underway. Treatment with rituximab for relapsing neuromyelitis optica requires an individualized regimen to optimize the frequency and dosage of administration to maximize efficacy yet minimize overtreatment and cost. Personal levels of CD19(+) B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at previous attacks and responsiveness to rituximab in induction therapy may be two useful indicators in establishing individualized maintenance therapy schemes for relapsing neuromyelitis optica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual Case Analysis of Postmortem Interval Time on Brain Tissue Preservation.

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    Jeffrey A Blair

    Full Text Available At autopsy, the time that has elapsed since the time of death is routinely documented and noted as the postmortem interval (PMI. The PMI of human tissue samples is a parameter often reported in research studies and comparable PMI is preferred when comparing different populations, i.e., disease versus control patients. In theory, a short PMI may alleviate non-experimental protein denaturation, enzyme activity, and other chemical changes such as the pH, which could affect protein and nucleic acid integrity. Previous studies have compared PMI en masse by looking at many different individual cases each with one unique PMI, which may be affected by individual variance. To overcome this obstacle, in this study human hippocampal segments from the same individuals were sampled at different time points after autopsy creating a series of PMIs for each case. Frozen and fixed tissue was then examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of extended PMI on proteins, nucleic acids, and tissue morphology. In our results, immunostaining profiles for most proteins remained unchanged even after PMI of over 50 h, yet by Western blot distinctive degradation patterns were observed in different protein species. Finally, RNA integrity was lower after extended PMI; however, RNA preservation was variable among cases suggesting antemortem factors may play a larger role than PMI in protein and nucleic acid integrity.

  15. How reliable are case formulations? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Lucinda; Braham, Louise; das Nair, Roshan

    2015-09-01

    This systematic literature review investigated the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of case formulations. We considered the reliability of case formulations across a range of theoretical modalities and the general quality of the primary research studies. A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted in addition to reference list trawling to find studies that assessed the reliability of case formulation. This yielded 18 studies for review. A methodological quality assessment tool was developed to assess the quality of studies, which informed interpretation of the findings. Results indicated inter-rater reliability mainly ranging from slight (.1-.4) to substantial (.81-1.0). Some studies highlighted that training and increased experience led to higher levels of agreement. In general, psychodynamic formulations appeared to generate somewhat increased levels of reliability than cognitive or behavioural formulations; however, these studies also included methods that may have served to inflate reliability, for example, pooling the scores of judges. Only one study investigated the test-retest reliability of case formulations yielding support for the stability of formulations over a 3-month period. Reliability of case formulations is varied across a range of theoretical modalities, but can be improved; however, further research is required to strengthen our conclusions. Clinical implications: The findings from the review evidence some support for case formulation being congruent with the scientist-practitioner approach. The reliability of case formulation is likely to be improved through training and clinical experience. Limitations: The broad inclusion criteria may have introduced heterogeneity into the sample, which may have affected the results. Studies reviewed were limited to peer-reviewed journal articles written in the English language, which may represent a source of publication and selection bias. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Tubercular prosthetic joint infection: two case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloci, Sara; Mencarini, Jessica; Lagi, Filippo; Beltrami, Giovanni; Campanacci, Domenico Andrea; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo

    2018-02-01

    Tubercular prosthetic joint infection (TB-PJI) is an uncommon complication. Lack of evidence of systemic tuberculosis and clinical suspicion could bring a delay in the time of the diagnosis. The aims of this study are to underline the importance of awareness and suspicion of mycobacterial infection in the differential diagnosis in PJI and to evaluate the appropriateness of different therapeutic options. Case report and literature review. We report two cases of TB-PJI after total knee arthroplasty in Caucasian patients without prior history of tubercular disease or exposure. In both cases, the diagnosis was obtained years after the onset of symptoms. Despite that, both patients improved during antitubercular treatment (a four-drug regimen consisting of rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for 2 months, followed by rifampicin and isoniazid). Moreover, after an 18-month course of treatment, there was no need for surgical therapy. The result of the literature review allows us to identify 64 cases of TB-PJI. Many differences in both medical and surgical management have been found, among those reviewed cases. Considering our experience and the literature review, we recommend considering a conservative approach (debridement and adequate antituberculous chemotherapy) as a suitable and safe option.

  17. Effectiveness of Case Management for Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, Renée; van Luijtelaar, Maurice J. A.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D.

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on standard case management (SCM), intensive case management (ICM), assertive community treatment (ACT), and critical time intervention (CTI) for homeless adults. We searched databases for peer-reviewed English articles published from 1985 to 2011 and found 21 randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies comparing case management to other services. We found little evidence for the effectiveness of ICM. SCM improved housing stability, reduced substance use, and removed employment barriers for substance users. ACT improved housing stability and was cost-effective for mentally ill and dually diagnosed persons. CTI showed promise for housing, psychopathology, and substance use and was cost-effective for mentally ill persons. More research is needed on how case management can most effectively support rapid-rehousing approaches to homelessness. PMID:23947309

  18. Intraocular gnathostomiasis: report of a case and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Gopal S; Kumar, Anil; Radhakrishnan, Natasha; Maniyelil, Jayasree; Shafi, Tufela; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Karim, Shamsul

    2012-04-01

    Intraocular gnathostomiasis is a rare parasitic infection caused by the third-stage larvae of spiruroid nematode Gnanthostoma spp. seen mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is a food-borne zoonosis caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, all of which are known to harbor advanced third-stage larvae of Gnanthostoma spp. To date, 74 cases of intraocular gnathostomiasis have been reported from 12 different countries. Only four countries have reported more than 10 cases each, and India shares the rare distinction of being one of them, with 14 cases. Surprisingly, not a single case of cutaneous gnanthostomiasis has ever been reported from India. We present one such case of intraocular gnathostomiasis in a 41-year-old male who presented with an actively motile worm attached to the iris, and we review the pertinent literature of all such cases reported from India.

  19. It is all in their mind: A review on information processing bias in lonely individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithoven, Annette W M; Bijttebier, Patricia; Goossens, Luc

    2017-12-01

    Loneliness is a distressing emotional state that motivates individuals to renew and maintain social contact. It has been suggested that lonely individuals suffer from a cognitive bias towards social threatening stimuli. However, current models of loneliness remain vague on how this cognitive bias is expressed in lonely individuals. The current review provides an up-to-date overview of studies examining loneliness in relation to various aspects of cognitive functioning. These studies are interpreted in light of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model. A wide range of studies indicate that lonely individuals have a negative cognitive bias in all stages of SIP. More specifically, lonely individuals have an increased attention for social threatening stimuli, hold negative and hostile intent attributions, expect rejection, evaluate themselves and others negatively, endorse less promotion- and more prevention-oriented goals, and have a low self-efficacy. This negative cognitive bias seems specific to the social context. Avenues for future research and implications for clinical practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ocular manifestations of Gaucher disease: case report and literature review

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    Mejía-Turizo, Juan Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient with Gaucher disease (GD type 3b, with a homozygous GBA gene mutation (c.1448T > C p.L483P (L444P. Ocular findings characteristic of this mutation are described, including vitreous condensation and macular edema. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in Colombia with these characteristics. A review of the ocular manifestations of this disease is also presented.

  1. Functioning lipoadenoma of the parathyroid: Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleiweiss, I.J.; Harpaz, N.; Strauchen, J.A.; Wagner, R.; Biller, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Lipoadenoma of the parathyroid gland is a rare histologic variant of parathyroid adenoma that is usually functional and associated with clinical hyperparathyroidism. We report a case in which a radiolabeled thallium scan failed to demonstrate evidence of an adenoma, presumably because of the tumor's high fat content. The literature concerning this entity is reviewed. To our knowledge there are no other reported cases in which parathyroid scanning was used in diagnostic studies of parathyroid lipoadenoma. 15 references

  2. Melioidosis in Malaysia: A Review of Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsley, Paul Vijay; Leader, Mark; Nagodawithana, Nandika Suranjith; Tipre, Meghan; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2016-01-01

    Background Melioidosis is a tropical infectious disease associated with significant mortality due to early onset of sepsis. Objective We sought to review case reports of melioidosis from Malaysia. Methods We conducted a computerized search of literature resources including PubMed, OVID, Scopus, MEDLINE and the COCHRANE database to identify published case reports from 1975 to 2015. We abstracted information on clinical characteristics, exposure history, comorbid conditions, management and outc...

  3. Suprasellar paraganglioma: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naggara, O.; Oppenheim, C.; Meder, J.F. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Varlet, P. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Anatomopathology, Paris (France); Page, P. [Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neurosurgery, Paris (France)

    2005-10-01

    Paragangliomas arising in the suprasellar region are extremely rare. We report a case of suprasellar paraganglioma in a 47-year-old man who presented with amnesia and impaired visual acuity without any endocrine dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large enhancing tumour in the suprasellar area. Following subtotal surgical excision, the diagnosis of paraganglioma was confirmed by pathology. In this case report we describe the MRI pattern of suprasellar paraganglioma and review the literature of this uncommon lesion. (orig.)

  4. Scrotal dog bite: unusual case and review of pediatric literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, M; Prestipino, M; Nardi, N; Falcone, F; Appignani, A

    2009-09-01

    Animal bites to human external genitalia are rare. Only a few cases of scrotal dog bite in children have been reported. We present an additional specific case of a scrotal dog bite in a child because the lesion and its repair have not been previously reported in published pediatric studies. A traumatic resection of the right testicular vas deferens was repaired by microsurgical vasoepididymal anastomosis. A review of the published data was also performed to analyze the management of scrotal dog bite lesions.

  5. Case-only designs in pharmacoepidemiology: a systematic review.

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    Sandra Nordmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Case-only designs have been used since late 1980's. In these, as opposed to case-control or cohort studies for instance, only cases are required and are self-controlled, eliminating selection biases and confounding related to control subjects, and time-invariant characteristics. The objectives of this systematic review were to analyze how the two main case-only designs - case-crossover (CC and self-controlled case series (SCCS - have been applied and reported in pharmacoepidemiology literature, in terms of applicability assumptions and specificities of these designs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically selected all reports in this field involving case-only designs from MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 15, 2010. Data were extracted using a standardized form. The analysis included 93 reports 50 (54% of CC and 45 (48% SCCS, 2 reports combined both designs. In 12 (24% CC and 18 (40% SCCS articles, all applicable validity assumptions of the designs were fulfilled, respectively. Fifty (54% articles (15 CC (30% and 35 (78% SCCS adequately addressed the specificities of the case-only analyses in the way they reported results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our systematic review underlines that implementation of CC and SCCS designs needs to be more rigorous with regard to validity assumptions, as well as improvement in results reporting.

  6. Individual determinants of research utilization by nurses: a systematic review update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Lars

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions that have a better than random chance of increasing nurses' use of research are important to the delivery of quality patient care. However, few reports exist of successful research utilization in nursing interventions. Systematic identification and evaluation of individual characteristics associated with and predicting research utilization may inform the development of research utilization interventions. Objective To update the evidence published in a previous systematic review on individual characteristics influencing research utilization by nurses. Methods As part of a larger systematic review on research utilization instruments, 12 online bibliographic databases were searched. Hand searching of specialized journals and an ancestry search was also conducted. Randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational study designs examining the association between individual characteristics and nurses' use of research were eligible for inclusion. Studies were limited to those published in the English, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian languages. A vote counting approach to data synthesis was taken. Results A total of 42,770 titles were identified, of which 501 were retrieved. Of these 501 articles, 45 satisfied our inclusion criteria. Articles assessed research utilization in general (n = 39 or kinds of research utilization (n = 6 using self-report survey measures. Individual nurse characteristics were classified according to six categories: beliefs and attitudes, involvement in research activities, information seeking, education, professional characteristics, and socio-demographic/socio-economic characteristics. A seventh category, critical thinking, emerged in studies examining kinds of research utilization. Positive relationships, at statistically significant levels, for general research utilization were found in four categories: beliefs and attitudes, information seeking, education, and professional

  7. Individual determinants of research utilization by nurses: a systematic review update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions that have a better than random chance of increasing nurses' use of research are important to the delivery of quality patient care. However, few reports exist of successful research utilization in nursing interventions. Systematic identification and evaluation of individual characteristics associated with and predicting research utilization may inform the development of research utilization interventions. Objective To update the evidence published in a previous systematic review on individual characteristics influencing research utilization by nurses. Methods As part of a larger systematic review on research utilization instruments, 12 online bibliographic databases were searched. Hand searching of specialized journals and an ancestry search was also conducted. Randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational study designs examining the association between individual characteristics and nurses' use of research were eligible for inclusion. Studies were limited to those published in the English, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian languages. A vote counting approach to data synthesis was taken. Results A total of 42,770 titles were identified, of which 501 were retrieved. Of these 501 articles, 45 satisfied our inclusion criteria. Articles assessed research utilization in general (n = 39) or kinds of research utilization (n = 6) using self-report survey measures. Individual nurse characteristics were classified according to six categories: beliefs and attitudes, involvement in research activities, information seeking, education, professional characteristics, and socio-demographic/socio-economic characteristics. A seventh category, critical thinking, emerged in studies examining kinds of research utilization. Positive relationships, at statistically significant levels, for general research utilization were found in four categories: beliefs and attitudes, information seeking, education, and professional characteristics. The only

  8. Autoimmune thyroiditis perdating the presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus: Two cases and a review of literature

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    Dhir Rajeev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are commonly encountered in dermatology practice. While the association of two autoimmune diseases in the same individual is not unknown, it is relatively rare for the second disease to be suspected based on cutaneous manifestations. We present two such cases wherein cutaneous manifestations were the first clue to the development of lupus erythematosus in a setting of autoimmune thyroiditis. Further, we have reviewed literature on this uncommon occurrence and discuss various aspects of this association.

  9. Individual, interpersonal, and organisational factors of healthcare conflict: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sara; Bochatay, Naike; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie; Buttrick, Elizabeth; Amdahl, Chris; Kim, Laura; Frans, Elise; Mossanen, Matthew; Khandekar, Azhar; Fehr, Ryan; Lee, Young-Mee

    2017-05-01

    Unresolved conflicts among healthcare professionals can lead to difficult patient care consequences. This scoping review examines the current healthcare literature that reported sources and consequences of conflict associated with individual, interpersonal, and organisational factors. We identified 99 articles published between 2001 and 2015 from PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Excerpta Medical Database. Most reviewed studies relied on healthcare professionals' perceptions and beliefs associated with conflict sources and consequences, with few studies reporting behavioural or organisational change outcomes. Individual conflict sources included personal traits, such as self-focus, self-esteem, or worldview, as well as individuals' conflict management styles. These conflicts posed threats to one's physical, mental, and emotional health and to one's ability to perform at work. Interpersonal dynamics were hampered by colleagues' uncivil behaviours, such as low degree of support, to more destructive behaviours including bullying or humiliation. Perceptions of disrespectful working environment and weakened team collaboration were the main interpersonal conflict consequences. Organisational conflict sources included ambiguity in professional roles, scope of practice, reporting structure, or workflows, negatively affecting healthcare professionals' job satisfactions and intent to stay. Future inquiries into healthcare conflict research may target the following: shifting from research involving single professions to multiple professions; dissemination of studies via journals that promote interprofessional research; inquiries into the roles of unconscious or implicit bias, or psychological capital (i.e., resilience) in healthcare conflict; and diversification of data sources to include hospital or clinic data with implications for conflict sources.

  10. A comprehensive literature review of haplotyping software and methods for use with unrelated individuals

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    Salem Rany M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interest in the assignment and frequency analysis of haplotypes in samples of unrelated individuals has increased immeasurably as a result of the emphasis placed on haplotype analyses by, for example, the International HapMap Project and related initiatives. Although there are many available computer programs for haplotype analysis applicable to samples of unrelated individuals, many of these programs have limitations and/or very specific uses. In this paper, the key features of available haplotype analysis software for use with unrelated individuals, as well as pooled DNA samples from unrelated individuals, are summarised. Programs for haplotype analysis were identified through keyword searches on PUBMED and various internet search engines, a review of citations from retrieved papers and personal communications, up to June 2004. Priority was given to functioning computer programs, rather than theoretical models and methods. The available software was considered in light of a number of factors: the algorithm(s used, algorithm accuracy, assumptions, the accommodation of genotyping error, implementation of hypothesis testing, handling of missing data, software characteristics and web-based implementations. Review papers comparing specific methods and programs are also summarised. Forty-six haplotyping programs were identified and reviewed. The programs were divided into two groups: those designed for individual genotype data (a total of 43 programs and those designed for use with pooled DNA samples (a total of three programs. The accuracy of programs using various criteria are assessed and the programs are categorised and discussed in light of: algorithm and method, accuracy, assumptions, genotyping error, hypothesis testing, missing data, software characteristics and web implementation. Many available programs have limitations (eg some cannot accommodate missing data and/or are designed with specific tasks in mind (eg estimating

  11. A systematic review of occupational safety and health business cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos; Pulliainen, Marjo; Kankaanpää, Eila

    2009-12-01

    Business cases are commonly developed as means to rationalize investment. We systematically reviewed 26 reported cases on occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions to assess if health and productivity arguments make a good business case. To be included in the review, studies had to analyze the costs and benefits, including productivity, of an OSH intervention at the enterprise level. We searched Medline and Embase for studies and used Google search in addition. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. The intervention profitability was calculated in euros (euro in 2008) as the first year's benefits minus the total intervention costs per worker. The payback period was calculated as the intervention costs divided by the first year's benefits. We found three ex-ante and 23 ex-post cases. In 20 cases, the study design was a before-after comparison without a control group. Generally a 100% reduction of injuries or sickness absence was assumed. In two cases, productivity and quality increases were very large. The main benefit was avoided sick leave. Depreciation or discounting was applied only in a minority of cases. The intervention profitability was negative in seven studies, up to euro 500 per employee in 12 studies and more than euro 500 per employee in seven studies. The payback period was less than half a year for 19 studies. Only a few studies included sensitivity analyses. Few ex-ante business cases for management decisions on OSH are reported. Guidelines for reporting and evaluation are needed. Business cases need more sound assumptions on the effectiveness of interventions and should incorporate greater uncertainty into their design. Ex-post evaluation should be based preferably on study designs that control for trends at a time different from that of the intervention.

  12. Inter-individual Variability in CAF: A Case Study of Two Individuals and Two Pairs’ Written Productions

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    Mahboobeh Saadat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tracked the development of general measures of complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF, and specific measures of accuracy and complexity in the writings of two EFL learners writing individually, and those of two pairs of EFL learners writing in pairs within the framework of dynamic systems theory. The individuals and the pairs were similarly asked to do 7 tasks during a semester. The learners’ developmental pathways as well as the differences between individuals and pairs in terms of general and specific measures of CAF across the 7 tasks were depicted through graphs. Results indicated that the performance of learners in each of the measures was non-linear during the semester. Moreover, concerning general measures of CAF, learners writing individually outperformed in terms of fluency and complexity features. However, no clear distinction emerged in terms of general accuracy measures of their writings. Furthermore, development of general and specific accuracy measures in the writings was consistent. However, although it was found that the learners writing individually outperformed in terms of general measure of complexity, this developmental pattern was not evident in their performance in terms of specific complexity measures.

  13. Criteria Based Case Review: The Parent Child Psychological Support Program

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    Pilar Bujia-Couso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parent Child Psychological Support Program (PCPS was established in an area of South West Dublin in 2001. Since then until May 2008 it has offered its services to over 700 children and their parents. This preventative, parenting support service is available to all parents of children aged 3 to 18 months within its catchment area. During periodical visits, the infant’s development and growth are measured and parents receive specific information about their child’s progress. Parents are empowered in their parenting practices, thus promoting consistency and synchrony in parent-child interaction. Between 2001 and 2006, 538 parents and their infants participated in the Program. Out of these cases, 130 (24.16% were considered to require additional support and were included in the Monthly Meeting Case Review (MM based on initial concerns The aims of this study were: 1. to review the first five years of MM cases and to explore the socio-demographic profile of the MM cases in comparison to those not in need of additional support (non-MM and 2. To illustrate an approach to refining the case review process which will inform practice and provides the service providers with better understanding of the early detection of parent-child relation difficulties. In pursuing this goal the cases screened over five years of practice were analyzed to explore the structure of the different factors by using statistical techniques of data reduction, i.e. factor analysis. The results showed that the MM group differed on several socio-demographic dimensions from the non-MM group and there was a four factor structure underlying the case review decision process. Implications of this research are discussed.

  14. Gliomatosis peritonei. Report of two cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, L D; Jurco, S; McGavran, M H

    1982-07-01

    Gliomatosis peritonei, a rare complication of solid ovarian teratomas, is a miliary, mature glial implantation on the peritoneum or omentum. Two new cases are reported and 30 previously reported cases are reviewed. Gliomatosis peritonei is thought to be benign in almost all cases and thus deserves no treatment except for confirmatory biopsy. It must be differentiated from teratomatous implants because the latter may imply poor prognosis and require aggressive therapy. The prognostic value of serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in patients with immature ovarian teratoma is not conclusive. The presence of glial fibrillary acidic protein confirms the glial nature of the implants.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

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    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  16. Mermaid syndrome, Sirenomelia: A case report and review of literature

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    Anahita Nosrati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia is a rare anomaly of caudal region of the body presented with fusion of lower limbs in which Genito-urinary, Gastrointestinal, Cardiovascular and Neural tube anomalies are found in most cases. We introduce a case of severe oligohydramnios, which had characteristic aspects of Sirenomelia at the time of delivery and review the pertinent articles. All in all it is our aim to present another case of sirenomelia to add to existing knowledge and data about the condition in order to make an earlier diagnosis and put an end to pregnancy safely in advance.

  17. Vertebral column aggressive osteoblastoma: two cases report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Sabedotti, Valdir

    2007-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is a bone neoplasy that in most circumstances present a low aggressive aspect on radiographic studies, but in some cases may acquire an aggressive pattern, rupturing the bone cortex and invading nearby structures. Most cases occur on the vertebral column, especially at the posterior arch and occasionally involving the vertebral body. Differential diagnosis of the aggressive form is made with osteosarcomas. This review reports two cases of osteoblastomas involving vertebral column, with an aggressive pattern on radiologic studies, and their histologic confirmation. (author)

  18. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A case series and review of literatures

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    Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a rare immune mediated and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that usually affects children. It is a monophasic disorder related with multifocal neurologic symptoms. In this paper, we report seven cases of Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in pediatrics in addition; a review of literatures is presented.

  19. Renal Leiomyoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Noppadol Larbcharoensub

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyoma is an uncommon tumor of the kidney. The authors report a rare case of renal leiomyoma in a 39-year-old male patient who presented with a right flank mass. Laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed. The histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirm the diagnosis of renal leiomyoma. The review of literature in the clinicoradiopathological correlation was illustrated.

  20. Bilateral nasolabial cysts - case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Aruna R; Singh, Abhinav Pratap; Nandikoor, Shrivalli; Meganathan, Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Nasolabial cyst is a non-odontogenic, extraosseous, soft tissue cyst, commonly unilateral, located in the nasolabial fold. Bilateral nasolabial cysts are of rare occurrence. This case report describes the multimodality imaging appearance of bilateral nasolabial cysts with a review of literature

  1. Endometrial osseous metaplasia: case report with literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a rare pathological condition with mature bone in the endometrium and can be a cause for menorrhagia and infertility as bone in the endometrium acts like intrauterine contraceptive device. We report one such case with brief review of literature in a 28‑year‑old woman presenting with ...

  2. Cleidocranial dysplasia: Report of 4 cases and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Gombra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cleidocranial dysplasia commonly present with significant dental problems such as retention of multiple deciduous teeth, impaction or delay in eruption of permanent teeth and often, the presence of supernumerary teeth. We report 4 cases of 2 families presenting with cleidocranial dysplasia disorder with their clinical and radiological diagnosis and illustrating its pathogenesis and various treatment modalities, review of literatures.

  3. Lumbar hernia - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Yonamine, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a case of lumbar hernia of inferior right space (Petit's triangle), classified as acquired hernia and diagnosed by clinical history and computed tomography. Lumbar hernia are quite rare. Authors have done a literature review of this disease. (author)

  4. Poland's syndrome - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Nogueira, Juliana Elen; Beze, Rodrigo Santos.

    2000-01-01

    The authors report the case of a patient with congenital anomalies of the left hand associated with total absence of the pectoralis minor muscle and partial absence of the pectoralis major muscle. The radiological findings were assessed and the literature was reviewed. (author)

  5. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianne Rahde Bischoff

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Description of a case report of Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome diagnosed in a male newborn who presented increased head circumference and bifid ribs. Mother and grandmother presented typical physical findings of the syndrome, including palmar pits, odontogenic cysts, and history of multiple skin cancer resections. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings of three relatives. A literature review is also presented.

  6. Lipomatous secretory meningioma: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebig, T.; Hoffmann, T.; Hosten, N.; Sander, B.; Lanksch, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Secretory meningioma is a rare entity which may be characterised by imaging features unusual for other subtypes of meningoma, such as low attenuation on CT, high (fat-tissue equivalent) signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI, marked surrounding oedema, and irregular contrast enhancement. We report a case of secretory meningioma and review the literature. (orig.) (orig.)

  7. Ankylosing spondylitis: a case report with review of literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A case report of a 60 year old Libyan male who has Ankylosing spondylitis and then review the available literature. Results: The patient has been having a chronic low back pain and stiffness for the last 26 years. His symptoms are most severe in morning and improve with movement. He developed ...

  8. Juvenile Fibroadenoma. A Case Report and Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, Cesar Augusto; Castano Nohora; Sara Jorge Alberto

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of a 10 year old girl who attended to our institution with a big mass in his right breast with fast growing after menarca. The diagnosis of this mass was juvenile fibroadenoma of the breast. We also review key concepts about this entity, its clinical presentation, imaging findings, differential diagnosis treatment and prognosis

  9. Snodgrass repair for distal hypospadias: a review of 75 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urologists for distal hypospadias correction. We review our cases to find out whether there was any difference in the rate of urethrocutaneous fistula after the use of single- versus double-layer tubularization, the use of thick versus thin dorsal prepuce subcutaneous flap (DPF), the use of. DPF versus the ventral dartos flap for ...

  10. Lateral subtalar dislocation : Case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, Ewout S; Steller, Ernst Ja; Wittich, Philippe; Keizer, Jort

    2016-01-01

    A case of complicated lateral subtalar dislocation is presented and the literature concerning this injury is reviewed. Subtalar joint dislocations are rare and often the result of a high-energy trauma. Complications include avascular necrosis of the talus, infection, posttraumatic osteoarthritis

  11. Geminated tooth : case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos Lopez, Violeta; Rojas Tabash, Fabiola

    2013-01-01

    A review of literature is presented about gemination. The case expounded has been of a female patient 8 years of age, with a geminated maxillary temporal canine, asymptomatic and without treatment. Topics such as definitions, clinical and radiographic characteristics, complications and treatment in the gemination are focussed [es

  12. Alveolar pulmonary proteinosis: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, Erika; Saenz, Alberto; Ojeda, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    We describe the case of a young women with primary alveolar proteinosis, with a short period of symptoms that are uncommon for this disease, without risk factors for this entity, the clinical evolution of the patient and some complications with the treatment. We review the literature for this entity.

  13. Mixture-based combinatorial libraries from small individual peptide libraries: a case study on α1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Pin; Chu, Yen-Ho

    2014-05-16

    The design, synthesis and screening of diversity-oriented peptide libraries using a "libraries from libraries" strategy for the development of inhibitors of α1-antitrypsin deficiency are described. The major buttress of the biochemical approach presented here is the use of well-established solid-phase split-and-mix method for the generation of mixture-based libraries. The combinatorial technique iterative deconvolution was employed for library screening. While molecular diversity is the general consideration of combinatorial libraries, exquisite design through systematic screening of small individual libraries is a prerequisite for effective library screening and can avoid potential problems in some cases. This review will also illustrate how large peptide libraries were designed, as well as how a conformation-sensitive assay was developed based on the mechanism of the conformational disease. Finally, the combinatorially selected peptide inhibitor capable of blocking abnormal protein aggregation will be characterized by biophysical, cellular and computational methods.

  14. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Hans-Christian; Butenschoen, Vicki Marie; Tran, Hien Tinh; Gozzer, Ernesto; Skewes, Ronald; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Farlow, Andrew

    2013-11-06

    Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save--through early response activities--resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems.The country case studies--conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the different cost components (vector control

  15. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  16. Paediatric empyema: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S J; Fenton, E; Williams, M

    2005-06-01

    To present a case of bilateral parapneumonic effusions in a child with Pneumococcal pneumonia and bacteraemia managed aggressively with early thoracotomies. The literature from peer reviewed journals is summarized and the different management strategies are discussed. Articles and reviews from peer reviewed journals on the management of empyema in children and adults. Staging of parapneumonic pleural effusions is difficult to assess clinically and radiologically. Most cases can be successfully managed with simple chest tube drainage, plus appropriate antibiotic therapy. However, based on the available evidence for children, thoracotomy with decortication and direct drainage may provide the most effective treatment in terms of length of hospital stay and duration of chest tube insertion, when compared with video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or chest tube drainage, with or without intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy. More conservative approaches to treatment of empyema may be appropriate initially to avoid the cosmetic and other disadvantages of thoracotomy. However, delayed surgical drainage increases morbidity and may potentially increase mortality.

  17. Hydroxycut hepatotoxicity: A case series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss supplements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Dare; Jennifer Hewett; Joseph Kartaik Lim

    2008-01-01

    Dietary supplements represent an increasingly common source of drug-induced liver injury. Hydroxycut is a popular weight loss supplement which has previously been linked to hepatotoxiciLy, although the individual chemical components underlying liver injury remain poorly understood. We report two cases of acute hepatitis in the seLLing of Hydroxycut exposure and describe possible mechanisms of liver injury. We also comprehensively review and summarize the existing literature on commonly used weight loss supplements,and their individual components which have demonstrated potential for liver toxicity. An increased effort to screen for and educate patients and physicians about supplement-associated hepatotoxicity is warranted.

  18. Working memory studies among individuals with intellectual disability: An integrative research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Kilberg, Esther; Vakil, Eli

    2016-12-01

    Integrative research review infers generalizations about a substantive subject, summarizes the accumulated knowledge that research has left unresolved and generates a new framework on these issues. Due to methodological issues emerging from working memory (WM) studies in the population with non-specific intellectual disability (NSID) (N=64) between 1990-2014, it is difficult to conclude on WM performance in this population. This integrative research review aimed to resolve literature conflicts on WM performance among individuals with NSID and to identify the conditions/moderators that govern their WM performance compared to controls with Typical development. We used the six stages of integrative research review: problem formulation, data collection, evaluation, data analysis, results, interpretation and discussion. The findings indicate two types of moderators that determine WM performance in the population with NSID: Participants' moderators (criteria for matching the ID and TD groups, CA and MA), and task moderators [the three WM components of Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) model and task load]. Only an interaction between the two moderators determines WM performance in this population. The findings indicate a hierarchy (from more to less preserved) in WM performance of individuals with NSID: The visuospatial tasks, then some of the executive functions tasks, and the phonological loop tasks being less preserved. Furthermore, at a low level of control, the performance of participants with NSID was preserved beyond the modality and vice versa. Modality and MA/intelligence determine WM performance of individuals with ID. Educators should prepare intervention programs take the impact of the two moderators into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Gren, D.C.; Simon, S.L.; Wrenn, M.E.; Hawthorne, H.A.; Lotz, T.M.; Stevens, W.; Till, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS

  20. Management of Anticoagulation for Portal Vein Thrombosis in Individuals with Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Huard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic portal vein thrombosis (PVT is an increasingly recognized complication of liver cirrhosis. It is often diagnosed fortuitously and can be either partial or complete. The clinical significance of PVT is not obvious except in some situations such as when patients are on the waiting list for liver transplantation. The only known therapy is anticoagulation which has been shown to permit the disappearance of thrombosis and to prevent further extension. Anticoagulation is a challenging therapy in individuals with liver cirrhosis because of the well-recognized coagulation abnormalities observed in that setting and because of the increased risk of bleeding, especially from gastrointestinal tract caused by portal hypertension. We herein review the current knowledge on that topic in order to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the currently proposed therapeutic attitudes in face of the diagnosis of PVT in individuals with cirrhosis.

  1. Individualized drug dosing using RBF-Galerkin method: Case of anemia management in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirinejad, Hossein; Gaweda, Adam E; Brier, Michael E; Zurada, Jacek M; Inanc, Tamer

    2017-09-01

    Anemia is a common comorbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is frequently associated with decreased physical component of quality of life, as well as adverse cardiovascular events. Current treatment methods for renal anemia are mostly population-based approaches treating individual patients with a one-size-fits-all model. However, FDA recommendations stipulate individualized anemia treatment with precise control of the hemoglobin concentration and minimal drug utilization. In accordance with these recommendations, this work presents an individualized drug dosing approach to anemia management by leveraging the theory of optimal control. A Multiple Receding Horizon Control (MRHC) approach based on the RBF-Galerkin optimization method is proposed for individualized anemia management in CKD patients. Recently developed by the authors, the RBF-Galerkin method uses the radial basis function approximation along with the Galerkin error projection to solve constrained optimal control problems numerically. The proposed approach is applied to generate optimal dosing recommendations for individual patients. Performance of the proposed approach (MRHC) is compared in silico to that of a population-based anemia management protocol and an individualized multiple model predictive control method for two case scenarios: hemoglobin measurement with and without observational errors. In silico comparison indicates that hemoglobin concentration with MRHC method has less variation among the methods, especially in presence of measurement errors. In addition, the average achieved hemoglobin level from the MRHC is significantly closer to the target hemoglobin than that of the other two methods, according to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical test. Furthermore, drug dosages recommended by the MRHC are more stable and accurate and reach the steady-state value notably faster than those generated by the other two methods. The proposed method is highly efficient for

  2. Individualized exercise prescription in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Martos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an individualized exercise programme on a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis case is presented. Before entering the programme the patient was treated with conventional recommendations on diet plus aerobic exercise during fourteen years, without major improvements of his analytical parameters. Two years after including him in a tailored exercise programme, aimed to fulfil the recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine, his blood markers of liver dysfunction and cardio-metabolic risk tended to improve. Consequently, our data support the idea that in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis the exercise-based therapeutic interventions should be individualized taking into account the cardio-respiratory and muscular fitness of the patient, rather than using generic behavioural recommendations.

  3. An Individualized and Everyday Life Approach to Cognitive Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia: A Case Illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-N. Levaux

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effectiveness of an individualized and everyday approach to cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia was examined in a case study. Method. After cognitive and functional assessment, concrete objectives were targeted for the person’s everyday complaints. Strategies were constructed based on an analysis of the cognitive profile, daily life functioning, and processes involved in activities. They included a memory strategy for reading, a diary to compensate memory difficulties, and working memory exercises to improve immediate processing of information when reading and following conversations. Efficacy was assessed with outcome measures. Results. The program had beneficial effects on the person’s cognitive and everyday functioning, which persisted at a 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. Findings provide suggestive evidence that an individualized and everyday approach may be a useful alternative in order to obtain a meaningfully lasting transfer of training to daily life, compared to the nomothetic ones which dominate the field.

  4. What physicians reason about during admission case review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Salina; Goldszmidt, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Research suggests that physicians perform multiple reasoning tasks beyond diagnosis during patient review. However, these remain largely theoretical. The purpose of this study was to explore reasoning tasks in clinical practice during patient admission review. The authors used a constant comparative approach-an iterative and inductive process of coding and recoding-to analyze transcripts from 38 audio-recorded case reviews between junior trainees and their senior residents or attendings. Using a previous list of reasoning tasks, analysis focused on what tasks were performed, when they occurred, and how they related to the other tasks. All 24 tasks were observed in at least one review with a mean of 17.9 (Min = 15, Max = 22) distinct tasks per review. Two new tasks-assess illness severity and patient decision-making capacity-were identified, thus 26 tasks were examined. Three overarching tasks were identified-assess priorities, determine and refine the most likely diagnosis and establish and refine management plans-that occurred throughout all stages of the case review starting from patient identification and continuing through to assessment and plan. A fourth possible overarching task-reflection-was also identified but only observed in four instances across three cases. The other 22 tasks appeared to be context dependent serving to support, expand, and refine one or more overarching tasks. Tasks were non-sequential and the same supporting task could serve more than one overarching task. The authors conclude that these findings provide insight into the 'what' and 'when' of physician reasoning during case review that can be used to support professional development, clinical training and patient care. In particular, they draw attention to the iterative way in which each task is addressed during a case review and how this finding may challenge conventional ways of teaching and assessing clinical communication and reasoning. They also suggest that further research

  5. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  6. Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Individual Rights versus Public Protection in the Case of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Lit Phua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya. 3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion.

  7. Surgical body modification and altruistic individualism: a case for cyborg ethics and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2003-12-01

    Three cases of pediatric surgical body modification--limb lengthening, normalization of genitalia, and craniofacial surgery--are considered through the moral language used by those who experience these surgeries. This language has been described as altruistic individualism. Decision making remains individualist, but it also shows considerable concern for others; egoism is complementary with altruism. The altruistic individualist is one of many incompatible identities that are predicted and described by the figure of the cyborg. Cyborgs suggest both ethics and qualitative methods appropriate to surgically shaped children.

  8. Serratia marcescens Bullous Cellulitis in a Splenectomized Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, John B; Dabiri, Ganary; Thomas, Vinod; Skowron, Gail; Carson, Polly; Falanga, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Cutaneous infection with Serratia is rare, and usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Primary cutaneous infections are uncommon, but they are typically severe and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenetic factors leading to S. marcescens infection are not fully understood, but contributing virulence factors include proteases, secreted exotoxins, and the formation of biofilm. We report a case of cellulitis occurring in a splenectomized patient, which led to multiple wound debridements and a transmetatarsal amputation. This dramatic case led us to review the published literature on soft tissue infections caused by S. marcescens. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. A case series of five individuals with asperger syndrome and sexual criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has increased in recent years and so has the focus on high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. A subset of Asperger individuals appears to have a propensity to engage in acts of violence, particularly sexual crimes, which may best be attributed to the core features of their pathology such as “mind-blindness” and paucity of central coherence. This paper is an account on five such cases encountered in our hospital for whom various assessments were done including Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, intelligence quotient assessment by Binet Kamat test of intelligence, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Ritvo Asperger's and Autism Diagnostic Scale, and Gillberg's criteria for diagnosis. These cases gained legal attention and “undeserved” outcomes. By drawing parallels from other countries, a few suggestions have been highlighted in the paper that can be considered to discard glaring deficits in the criminal law system in India in this context.

  10. Refeeding syndrome or refeeding hypophosphatemia: a systematic review of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Annalynn

    2012-02-01

    Nutrition support clinicians refer to the abnormalities in laboratory data and changes in clinical signs and symptoms that follow refeeding of starved or malnourished patients as refeeding syndrome. Theoretical descriptions of refeeding syndrome include a complex and extensive list of changes, such as hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, and vitamin deficiency--all of which are accompanied by clinical signs and symptoms. In practice, clinicians see asymptomatic refeeding hypophosphatemia more often than a full-blown syndrome with multiple laboratory and clinical abnormalities. Confusion results because there is no widely accepted or uniformly applied set of defining characteristics for diagnosing refeeding syndrome. To gain insight into the clinical characteristics of refeeding syndrome described in the literature, a systematic review of reported cases and case series was conducted. Since 2000, 20 authors described 27 cases that contained sufficient data for review. Hypophosphatemia occurred in 26 patients (96%). While 19 patients (71%) experienced at least 1 other laboratory abnormality, only 14 (51%) exhibited a consistent pattern of abnormally low phosphorus and magnesium levels. Seven patients had hypocalcemia (26%), and hyponatremia was reported in 3 patients (11%). There were no reports of hyperglycemia. Mean data reported in case series containing data from 63 patients showed that hypophosphatemia was a consistent finding but that other abnormalities were not consistently identified. Findings suggest that refeeding hypophosphatemia is not accompanied by a consistent pattern of biochemical or clinical abnormalities among case reports or case series of patients reported to have refeeding syndrome.

  11. A literature review of organisational, individual and teamwork factors contributing to the ICU discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frances; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-02-01

    It is everyday news that we need more intensive care unit (ICU) beds, thus effective use of existing resources is imperative. The aim of this literature review was to critically analyse current literature on how organizational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors influence the ICU discharge process. A better understanding of discharge practices has the potential to ultimately influence ICU resource availability. Databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, SCIENCE DIRECT were searched using key terms such as ICU discharge, discharge process, ICU guidelines and policies, discharge decision-making, ICU organisational factors, ICU and human factors, and ICU patient transfer. Articles' reference lists were also used to locate relevant literature. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. Only a small number of ICUs used written patient discharge guidelines. Consensus, rather than empirical evidence, dictates the importance of guidelines and policies. Premature discharge, discharge after hours and discharge by triage still exist due to resources constraints, even though the literature suggests these are associated with increased mortality. Teamwork and team training appear to be effective in improving efficiency and communication between professions or between clinical areas. However, this aspect has rarely been researched in relation to ICU patient discharge. Intensive care patient discharge is influenced by organisational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors. Organisational interventions are effective in reducing ICU discharge delay and shortening patient hospital stay. More rigorous research is needed to discover how these factors influence the ICU discharge process.

  12. Alignment of single-case design (SCD) research with individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing with the what Works Clearinghouse standards for SCD research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Erica; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Ge, Jin Jin; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2015-04-01

    The authors assessed the quality of single-case design (SCD) studies that assess the impact of interventions on outcomes for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH). More specifically, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for SCD research were used to assess design quality and the strength of evidence of peer-reviewed studies available in the peer-reviewed, published literature. The analysis yielded four studies that met the WWC standards for design quality, of which two demonstrated moderate to strong evidence for efficacy of the studied intervention. Results of this review are discussed in light of the benefits and the challenges to applying the WWC design standards to research with DHH individuals and other diverse, low-incidence populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Smartphone-Based Self-Assessment of Stress in Healthy Adult Individuals: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Þórarinsdóttir, Helga; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2017-02-13

    Stress is a common experience in today's society. Smartphone ownership is widespread, and smartphones can be used to monitor health and well-being. Smartphone-based self-assessment of stress can be done in naturalistic settings and may potentially reflect real-time stress level. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate (1) the use of smartphones to measure self-assessed stress in healthy adult individuals, (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales, and (3) the association between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and smartphone generated objective data. A systematic review of the scientific literature was reported and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The scientific databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, IEEE, and ACM were searched and supplemented by a hand search of reference lists. The databases were searched for original studies involving healthy individuals older than 18 years, measuring self-assessed stress using smartphones. A total of 35 published articles comprising 1464 individuals were included for review. According to the objectives, (1) study designs were heterogeneous, and smartphone-based self-assessed stress was measured using various methods (e.g., dichotomized questions on stress, yes or no; Likert scales on stress; and questionnaires); (2) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with validated stress scales was investigated in 3 studies, and of these, only 1 study found a moderate statistically significant positive correlation (r=.4; P<.05); and (3) in exploratory analyses, smartphone-based self-assessed stress was found to correlate with some of the reported smartphone generated objective data, including voice features and data on activity and phone usage. Smartphones are being used to measure self-assessed stress in different contexts. The evidence of the validity of

  14. Imported brucellosis: A case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Chamorro-Tojeiro, Sandra; Pérez-Molina, Jose-Antonio; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the main neglected zoonotic diseases. Several factors may contribute to the epidemiology of brucellosis. Imported cases, mainly in travellers but also in recently arrived immigrants, and cases associated with imported products, appear to be infrequently reported. Cases of brucellosis diagnosed at a referral unit for imported diseases in Europe were described and a review of the literature on imported cases and cases associated with contaminated imported products was performed. Most imported cases were associated with traditional risk factors such as travel/consumption of unpasteurized dairy products in endemic countries. Cases associated with importation of food products or infected animals also occurred. Although a lower disease incidence of brucellosis has been reported in developed countries, a higher incidence may still occur in specific populations, as illustrated by cases in Hispanic patients in the USA and in Turkish immigrants in Germany. Imported brucellosis appears to present with similar protean manifestations and both classical and infrequent modes of acquisition are described, leading on occasions to mis-diagnoses and diagnostic delays. Importation of Brucella spp. especially into non-endemic areas, or areas which have achieved recent control of both animal and human brucellosis, may have public health repercussions and timely recognition is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Segmented and sectional orthodontic technique: Review and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek El-Bialy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction in orthodontics has been blamed for many orthodontic-related problems in the literature. Much research as well as research and development by numerous companies have attempted to minimize friction in orthodontics. The aim of the present study was to critically review friction in orthodontics and present frictionless mechanics as well as differentiate between segmented arch mechanics (frictionless technique as compared to sectional arch mechanics. Comparison of the two techniques will be presented and cases treated by either technique are presented and critically reviewed regarding treatment outcome and anchorage preservation/loss.

  16. Autoimmune pancreatitis: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakov, Rada; DePasquale, Joseph R; Elfarra, Hossam; Spira, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AuP) is a chronic pancreatic inflammation secondary to an underlying autoimmune mechanism. After early reports of a particular type of pancreatitis associated with hypergammaglobulinemia, others asserted that there is an autoimmune mechanism involved in some patients with chronic pancreatitis. In 1995 AuP was first described as a distinct clinical entity. Since then, there have been many documented cases of AuP in Japan, and now, perhaps due to increased awareness, more cases are being reported in Europe and the United States. Herein we present our experience with 3 cases of AuP and we review the relevant literature. These 3 cases demonstrate the difficulties that exist in making the diagnosis of AuP and the impact that the diagnosis can have on patient management.

  17. Case mix planning in hospitals: a review and future agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Sebastian; Fügener, Andreas; Schoenfelder, Jan; Brunner, Jens O

    2017-06-01

    The case mix planning problem deals with choosing the ideal composition and volume of patients in a hospital. With many countries having recently changed to systems where hospitals are reimbursed for patients according to their diagnosis, case mix planning has become an important tool in strategic and tactical hospital planning. Selecting patients in such a payment system can have a significant impact on a hospital's revenue. The contribution of this article is to provide the first literature review focusing on the case mix planning problem. We describe the problem, distinguish it from similar planning problems, and evaluate the existing literature with regard to problem structure and managerial impact. Further, we identify gaps in the literature. We hope to foster research in the field of case mix planning, which only lately has received growing attention despite its fundamental economic impact on hospitals.

  18. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of sedentary behaviours in adults: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Stephanie A; Gresty, Katelin M; Reed, Jennifer L; Wright, Erica; Tremblay, Mark S; Reid, Robert D

    2014-10-21

    Adults spend the majority of their time being sedentary, and evidence suggests that those who spend more of their day engaged in sedentary activities (TV viewing, sitting, screen-based activities) are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality, regardless of whether they exercise regularly. In order to develop effective interventions to reduce sedentary time, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable factors of these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence in order to identify individual, social, environmental and policy correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours (TV time, sitting time, screen time) and total sedentary time among adults. Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all studies that report on individual, social and/or environmental correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours and total sedentary time in adults. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on modifiable individual (e.g. health behaviours and status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status), social (e.g. crime, safety, social support, climate and capital), environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, transportation environment) and policy correlates and determinants (based on study design) of sedentary behaviours in an adult population (mean age ≥18 years) will be included. Study quality and risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all correlates, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. This review will provide a comprehensive examination of evidence in the field and will serve to highlight gaps for future research on the determinants of sedentary behaviours and inform intervention

  19. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) in Individuals with Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Zaina; Laffin, Michael; Gramlich, Leah; Senior, Peter; McAlister, Finlay A

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of diabetes in surgical patients is 10-40%. It is well recognized that they have higher rates of complications, and longer stays in hospital compared to patients without diabetes. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is an evidence-based multimodal surgical care pathway that improves postoperative complications and length of stay in patients without diabetes. This review evaluates the evidence on whether individuals with diabetes would benefit from ERAS implementation. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE searched with no language restrictions applied. Conference proceedings and bibliographies were reviewed. Experts in the field were contacted, and www.clinicaltrials.gov searched for ongoing trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) looking at individuals with diabetes undergoing surgery randomized to ERAS ® or conventional care. Non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies, interrupted time series, and cohort studies with concurrent controls were also considered. Two authors independently screened studies. The electronic search yielded 437 references. After removing duplicates, 376 were screened for eligibility. Conference proceedings and bibliographies identified additional references. Searching www.clinicaltrials.gov yielded 59 references. Contacting experts in the field identified no further studies. Fourteen full articles were assessed and subsequently excluded for the following reasons: used an intervention other than ERAS ® , did not include patients with diabetes, or used an uncontrolled observational design. To date, the effects of ERAS ® on patients with diabetes have not been rigorously evaluated. This review highlights the lack of evidence in this area and provides guidance on design for future studies.

  20. Echolalia or functional repetition in conversation--a case study of an individual with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldert, Charlotta; Hartelius, Lena

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, we investigated the use of repetition in an individual with a neurogenic communication disorder. We present an analysis of interaction in natural conversations between a woman with advanced Huntington's disease (HD), whose speech had been described as sometimes characterised by echolalia, and her personal assistant. The conversational interaction is analysed on a sequential level, and recurrent patterns are explored. Although the ability of the person with HD to interact is affected by chorea, word retrieval problems and reduced comprehension, she takes an active part in conversation. The conversational partner's contributions are often adapted to her communicative ability as they are formulated as questions or suggestions that can be elaborated on or responded to with a simple 'yes' or 'no'. The person with HD often repeats the words of her conversational partner in a way that extends her contributions and shows listenership, and this use of repetition is also frequent in ordinary conversations between non-brain-damaged individuals. The results show that the conversation partners in this case cooperate in making the conversation proceed and evolve, and that verbal repetition is used in a way that works as a strategy for compensating for the impairment.

  1. Effect of upper body plyometric training on physical performance in healthy individuals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Deepika; Hussain, M Ejaz; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2018-01-01

    To determine the impact of upper body plyometric training (UBPT) on physical performance parameters such as strength, ball throwing speed, ball throw distance and power in healthy individuals. PubMed, Scopus, ResearchGate and ERIC databases were searched up to August 2017. Selection of articles was done if they described the outcomes of an upper body plyometric exercise intervention; included measures of strength, ball throwing speed, ball throw distance, or power; included healthy individuals; used a randomized control trial; and had full text available in English language. The exclusion criteria were unpublished research work and clubbing of UBPT with some other type(s) of training apart from routine sports training. PEDro scale was used to rate the quality of studies eligible for this review. Initially 264 records were identified and out of them only 11 articles met the eligibility criteria and were selected (PEDro score = 4 to 6). Though large to very small effects observed in improving ball throwing velocity, ball throwing distance, power and strength of upper limb muscles after UBPT, the results should be implemented with caution. Inconclusive results obtained preclude any strong conclusion regarding the efficacy of UBPT on physical performance in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An integrative review: understanding driving retirement decisions for individuals living with a dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Catherine; Traynor, Victoria; Iverson, Don

    2015-12-01

    To synthesise primary research exploring decision making practices used to determine the time to retire from driving for individuals living with a dementia. Driving requires complex cognitive and physical skills potentially compromised due to the progressive nature of dementia. Whilst on-road assessments are considered reliable indicators of driving capacity by clinicians, drivers with dementia disagree. Integrative literature review informed by Whittemore & Knafl (2005). Electronic database search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar 1997-2012; and incremental hand search. Primary studies published in peer reviewed journals were appraised against quality assessment criteria using CASP methodological assessment tools. A total of 43 studies were retained for synthesis. Key findings were abstracted and a themes matrix was generated to identify patterns of meaning. Six themes emerged: (i) dementia may compromise the complex task of driving; (ii) defining onset and severity of dementia is problematic; (iii) symptom progression impacts on driving skills; (iv) assessment of fitness to drive remains subjective; (v) some drivers are reluctant to accept negative assessment outcomes; and (vi) the search for effective strategies to enhance acceptance of driver retirement continues. This integrative literature review identified a large body of knowledge exploring the issues of driving cessation for drivers with dementia. However a challenge remains for practitioners, drivers and their family carers regarding how best to address this highly emotive issue. Findings could inform a structured approach to address this sensitive topic in a timely manner. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Case-mix adjustment for diabetes indicators: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsbeek, Hiske; Markhorst, Joekle G M; Voerman, Gerlienke E; Braspenning, Jozé C C

    2016-02-01

    Case-mix adjustment is generally considered indispensable for fair comparison of healthcare performance. Inaccurate results are also unfair to patients as they are ineffective for improving quality. However, little is known about what factors should be adjusted for. We reviewed case-mix factors included in adjustment models for key diabetes indicators, the rationale for their inclusion, and their impact on performance. Systematic review. This systematic review included studies published up to June 2013 addressing case-mix factors for 6 key diabetes indicators: 2 outcomes and 2 process indicators for glycated hemoglobin (A1C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure. Factors were categorized as demographic, diabetes-related, comorbidity, generic health, geographic, or care-seeking, and were evaluated on the rationale for inclusion in the adjustment models, as well as their impact on indicator scores and ranking. Thirteen studies were included, mainly addressing A1C value and measurement. Twenty-three different case-mix factors, mostly demographic and diabetes-related, were identified, and varied from 1 to 14 per adjustment model. Six studies provided selection motives for the inclusion of case-mix factors. Marital status and body mass index showed a significant impact on A1C value. For the other factors, either no or conflicting associations were reported, or too few studies (n ≤ 2) investigated this association. Scientific knowledge about the relative importance of case-mix factors for diabetes indicators is emerging, especially for demographic and diabetes-related factors and indicators on A1C, but is still limited. Because arbitrary adjustment potentially results in inaccurate quality information, meaningful stratification that demonstrates inequity in care might be a better guide, as it can be a driver for quality improvement.

  4. Pancreaticopericardial Fistula: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad S. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Pancreaticopericardial fistula (PPF is an extremely rare complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis. This paper presents a rare case of PPF and provides systematic review of existing cases from 1970 to 2014. Methods. A PubMed search using key words was performed for all the cases of PPF from January 1970 to December 2014. Fourteen cases were included in the study. The cases were reviewed for demographic characteristics, diagnostic modalities, and treatment. Descriptive analysis of these variables was performed. Results. Median age was 43 years. 78% were known alcoholics and 73.3% had chronic pancreatitis. Dyspnea was present in 78%. Cardiac tamponade was present in 53%; 75% of patients had known chronic pancreatitis (RR = 0.74. Surgery was associated with best treatment outcomes and 50% of patients who underwent endoscopic treatment survived. Conclusion. PPF is a rare disease. This paper indicates that acute cardiac tamponade in patients with history of alcoholism and chronic pancreatitis could be a sign of an existing pancreaticopericardial fistula and early surgical intervention could be life-saving.

  5. Constitutional trisomy 8 mosaicism syndrome: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayakumar, Achandira M; Al-Kindy, Adila

    2013-12-01

    Trisomy 8 mosaicism (Warkany syndrome) is a rare viable condition with variable phenotypes, ranging from mild dysmorphic features to severe malformations. Karyotyping and fluorescence in-situ hybridization potentially help detecting this low mosaic clone to confirm the diagnosis of patients with classical and unusual clinical presentations. This report reviews few previous cases to describe our case - a boy who had trisomy 8 mosaicism with severe dysmorphic features, born to a consanguineous Arabic couple. This study concludes that careful cytogenetic diagnoses of trisomy 8 mosaicism is essential for appropriate management and follow up of this rare disorder.

  6. [Cerebral gigantism. Review of the literature apropos of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, B; Caron, J; Couchot, J; Gross, A; Leutenegger, M

    The authors report a case of cerebral gigantism and review 83 cases found in the world literature. The diagnosis depends on the association of several factors, none of which alone are specific but which, on the whole, form a fairly characteristic picture. Large size at birth, leading only rarely to gigantism at adult age. Facial dysmorphia of acromegaloid type. Ecephalopathy with mental deficiency without any neuroradiological abnormality. Finally, endocrine investigations and somatotropic function were normal. No etiology has been found up to now. The most satisfactory theory is that of a hypothalamopituitary disturbance. Treatment may simple avoid excess height at adult age and is based on sex hormone therapy to accelerate bony maturation.

  7. Parathyroid Carcinoma: A Review with Three Illustrative Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Digonnet, Adelaïde Carlier, Esther Willemse, Marie Quiriny, Cécile Dekeyser, Nicolas de Saint Aubain, Marc Lemort, Guy Andry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease, which accounts for less than 1% of all case of primary hyperparathyroidism and is usually not detected until the time of surgery or thereafter. For most patients preoperative staging is not available. A radical excision remains the standard management; the place of adjuvant radiotherapy is not well established yet. Local recurrence and/or the metastases are unfortunately frequent. The present paper presents an up to date review of the literature illustrated by three clinical cases.

  8. Fetal-Maternal Hemorrhage: A Case and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Solomonia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all pregnancies include an insignificant hemorrhage of fetal blood into the maternal circulation. In some cases, the hemorrhage is large enough to compromise the fetus, resulting in fetal demise, stillbirth, or delivery of a severely anemic infant. Unfortunately, the symptoms of a significant fetal-maternal hemorrhage can be subtle, nonspecific, and difficult to identify at the time of the event. We present the case of a severely anemic newborn who was delivered in our facility with an extensive literature review.

  9. Hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report with literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahid M. Salih; F.H. Kakamad; Han Nihad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroid malignant tumors are rarely associated with hyperfunctioning thyroid. The incidence of this co-incidence is highly variable. Here we report a rare case of papillary thyroid cancer associated with hyperthyroidism with brief literature review. Case report: A 40-year-old male, presented with palpitation, excess sweating and weight loss for one month duration. There was asymmetrical swelling of the neck, more on right side, mobile. Free T3: 11.09 pmol/L, free T4: 34.41 pm...

  10. Sporotrichosis as an unusual case of osteomyelitis: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry T. Lederer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is an infection of worldwide distribution caused by the dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. Acquisition typically occurs via cutaneous inoculation with development of a localized cutaneous and/or lymphocutaneous infection. We present a rare case of osteoarticular sporotrichosis in a 39-year-old man and review the literature noting only 20 published cases since 1980. Recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this unusual infection are provided.

  11. Sporotrichosis as an unusual case of osteomyelitis: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Henry T; Sullivan, Eva; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2016-03-01

    Sporotrichosis is an infection of worldwide distribution caused by the dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. Acquisition typically occurs via cutaneous inoculation with development of a localized cutaneous and/or lymphocutaneous infection. We present a rare case of osteoarticular sporotrichosis in a 39-year-old man and review the literature noting only 20 published cases since 1980. Recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this unusual infection are provided.

  12. The transition to dementia--individual and family experiences of receiving a diagnosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Louise; Gemski, Alan; Abley, Clare; Bond, John; Keady, John; Campbell, Sarah; Samsi, Kritika; Manthorpe, Jill

    2011-09-01

    Consensus recommends early recognition of memory problems through multi-disciplinary assessment in memory clinics; however, little is known about the experiences of people accessing such services. The aim of this review was to synthesis empirical evidence on patient and carer experiences in the transition to dementia. This review updates an earlier review (Bamford et al., 2004) on the topic of disclosure of the diagnosis of dementia. Key electronic databases were searched including OVID Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Sociological Abstracts; this was supplemented by hand searching of reference lists and contact with experts in the field. Only papers published after 2003 were included. Of the 35 papers included in the review, only one study observed the process of disclosure and only two papers explored the effects on the person with dementia's health. The vast majority of people with dementia wished to know their diagnosis. The key challenges for the person with dementia were coming to terms with losses on multiple levels. Although there may be short-term distress, the majority of people with dementia do not appear to experience long-term negative effects on their psychological health. For family carers, becoming the main decision-maker and adjusting to increased responsibility were common concerns. There is still little empirical research observing the process of diagnostic disclosure in dementia. Studies exploring the views of patients and their families suggest this should be an ongoing process with the provision of support and information tailored to individual needs. The term "Alzheimer's disease" appears to have more negative connotations than the word "dementia".

  13. Bariatric surgery in individuals with severe cognitive impairment: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Cazzo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery has become the gold-standard treatment for refractory morbid obesity. Obesity is frequently associated with certain syndromes that include coexisting cognitive deficits. However, the outcomes from bariatric surgery in this group of individuals remain incompletely determined. CASE REPORT: A 25-year-old male with Prader-Willi syndrome, whose intelligence quotient (IQ was 54, was admitted with a body mass index (BMI of 55 kg/m2, associated with glucose intolerance. He underwent the Scopinaro procedure for biliopancreatic diversion, with uneventful postoperative evolution, and presented a 55% loss of excess weight one year after the surgery, with resolution of glucose intolerance, and without any manifestation of protein-calorie malnutrition. A 28-year-old male with Down syndrome, whose IQ was 68, was admitted with BMI of 41.5 kg/m2, associated with hypertension. He underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, with uneventful postoperative evolution. He presented a 90% loss of excess weight one year after the surgery, with resolution of the hypertension. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery among individuals with intellectual impairment is a controversial topic. There is a tendency among these individuals to present significant weight loss and comorbidity control, but less than what is observed in the general obese population. The severity of the intellectual impairment may be taken into consideration in the decision-making process regarding the most appropriate surgical technique. Bariatric surgery is feasible and safe among these individuals, but further research is necessary to deepen these observations.

  14. "Multiple Papillomas - a case report and review of literature"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a unique case of extensive papilIomatosis of the left buccal mucosa in an 80 year old female patient. We document and discuss the probable multifactorial etiology of the lesions and the possible involvement of a syndromic association. This report illustrates the need for careful clinical investigation and follow-up of individuals presenting with multifocal involvement of papillomas.

  15. Multifocal and metastatic hepatic hemangioendothelioma: case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Lucas Rios; Galvao Filho, Mario Melo [Hospital Sao Luiz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Timbo, Luciana Satiro; Verrastro, Carlos Gustavo Yuji; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Ribeiro, Cristiane Maria de Freitas [Laboratorio Diagnostica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare neoplasm of vascular origin whose involvement of organs such as lung, spleen, bone, breast and liver has already been reported. The clinical signs and the prognosis of this tumor are quite variable. From the present case report, the authors have sought to contribute with literature data, by reviewing clinical and radiological features which may be useful to include such a condition in the differential diagnosis of liver lesions. (author)

  16. Spinal Accessory Nerve Duplication: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Papagianni, Eleni; Kosmidou, Panagiota; Fergadaki, Sotiria; Pallantzas, Athanasios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis; Filippou, Dimitrios

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the present study is to expand our knowledge of the anatomy of the 11th cranial nerve and discuss the clinical importance and literature pertaining to accessory nerve duplication. We present one case of duplicated spinal accessory nerve in a patient undergoing neck dissection for oral cavity cancer. The literature review confirms the extremely rare diagnosis of a duplicated accessory nerve. Its clinical implication is of great importance. From this finding, a further extension to our k...

  17. Mucor irregularis-associated cutaneous mucormycosis: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandine Rammaert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for invasive fungal diseases, and are also exposed to healthcare-associated mucormycosis. Mainly causing localized cutaneous mucormycosis, Mucor irregularis infection is reported for the first time in a kidney-transplant recipient. A healthcare-associated origin was highly suspected in this case. We performed a literature review and highlight the characteristics of this very rare fungus.

  18. Maxillary double lip: A case series with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela D Desai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Double lip is a rare dental anomaly affecting either upper or lower lip or concurrently. It may be congenital or acquired. This deformity can affect the facial esthetics as it gets exaggerated while speaking, smiling, or chewing food. When it interferes with speech, double lip may cause potential functional problems. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on double lip and present a case series of maxillary double lip.

  19. Literature review of amelogenesis imperfecta with case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathy C Chanmougananda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis impertecta (Al is a diverse collection of inherited diseases that exhibit qualitative or quantitative tooth enamel defects in the absence of systemic manifestations. Also known by varied names, such as hereditary enamel dysplasia, hereditary brown opalescent teeth, this defect is entirely ectodermal, since mesodermal components of the teeth are basically normal. This article details a case of Al along with complete review which presents in his twin siblings with clinical, radiological and histopathological report.

  20. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background. The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics

  1. A case series of verrucae vulgares mimicking hyperkeratosis in individuals with diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, D R; Nauck, M A; Bechara, F G; Meier, J J

    2017-08-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication in the advanced stages of diabetes mellitus. Certain lesions may be refractory to usual treatments with prolonged healing. In these cases, differential diagnoses to classical ulcers should be considered. Although plantar warts are a common and easy-to-diagnose finding in the general population, diagnosis can be challenging in people with diabetic foot ulcers, as they mimic hyperkeratosis in these people. We report seven cases of people with diabetic foot ulcers and verrucae vulgares mimicking treatment-refractory hyperkeratosis, presenting to our centre between 2014 and 2016. Diagnosis was aided by the clinical presentation, followed by dermoscopy and punch biopsy. Treatment included topical application of 5-fluoruracil and salicylic acid (four people), cryotherapy (three people) and surgical excision (three people), all in combination with local pressure offloading. In five people, the verrucae were completely removed after a mean treatment period of 9.4 months; two individuals were lost to follow-up. Verrucae may be more common in people with diabetic foot lesions and polyneuropathy than generally assumed. Typical findings include small, pinhead-sized bleedings within and surrounding hyperkeratous lesions. These findings should alert the clinician for the potential presence of a verruca. In such cases, biopsy should be performed to enable specific diagnosis and treatment. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  2. Protective versus Conventional Ventilation for Surgery: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Barbas, Carmen S V; Beiderlinden, Martin; Biehl, Michelle; Binnekade, Jan M; Canet, Jaume; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Futier, Emmanuel; Gajic, Ognjen; Hedenstierna, Göran; Hollmann, Markus W; Jaber, Samir; Kozian, Alf; Licker, Marc; Lin, Wen-Qian; Maslow, Andrew D; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Reis Miranda, Dinis; Moine, Pierre; Ng, Thomas; Paparella, Domenico; Putensen, Christian; Ranieri, Marco; Scavonetto, Federica; Schilling, Thomas; Schmid, Werner; Selmo, Gabriele; Severgnini, Paolo; Sprung, Juraj; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Treschan, Tanja; Unzueta, Carmen; Weingarten, Toby N; Wolthuis, Esther K; Wrigge, Hermann; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies show that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes (VT) can prevent postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). The aim of this individual patient data meta-analysis is to evaluate the individual associations between VT size and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level and occurrence of PPC. Randomized controlled trials comparing protective ventilation (low VT with or without high levels of PEEP) and conventional ventilation (high VT with low PEEP) in patients undergoing general surgery. The primary outcome was development of PPC. Predefined prognostic factors were tested using multivariate logistic regression. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were included (2,127 patients). There were 97 cases of PPC in 1,118 patients (8.7%) assigned to protective ventilation and 148 cases in 1,009 patients (14.7%) assigned to conventional ventilation (adjusted relative risk, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.88; P ventilation with low VT and high PEEP levels and 63 cases in 525 patients (12%) assigned to ventilation with low VT and low PEEP levels (adjusted relative risk, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.37; P = 0.72). A dose-response relationship was found between the appearance of PPC and VT size (R2 = 0.39) but not between the appearance of PPC and PEEP level (R2 = 0.08). These data support the beneficial effects of ventilation with use of low VT in patients undergoing surgery. Further trials are necessary to define the role of intraoperative higher PEEP to prevent PPC during nonopen abdominal surgery.

  3. Individual differences of students studying in distance (a foreign literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin Md. Akther

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distance higher education has been growing rapidly all over the world and the importance of understanding psycho-pedagogical issues of learners studying in distance education has been growing too. In this article an attempt has been made to investigate the current researches on components of individual differences like self-actualization, self-regulation, locus of control, and motivation and their influence in distance education setting. Current review of the literature indicates that physical and psychological separation of learners and teachers initiate various psycho-pedagogical issues and special attention must be given to accommodate this in content developments, pedagogical and instructional design of distance education. Moreover, distance education enhances self-regulation skills, accommodates different cognitive/learning styles, increases self-efficacy and develops internality (internal locus of control, raises intrinsic motivation, promotes learner autonomy, supports personality development, and helps to realize one’s potential and become more self-actualized person.

  4. Advance care planning with individuals experiencing homelessness: Literature review and recommendations for public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Sarah A

    2017-09-01

    Vulnerable populations in the United States experience disparities in access to advance care planning and may have significant unmet health care needs at the end of life, including unrelieved suffering. People who are homeless have increased morbidity and mortality risks, yet lack opportunities to communicate end-of-life preferences. This paper includes a narrative literature review of advance care planning interventions and qualitative investigations into end-of-life concerns among people experiencing homelessness. Trials of clinician-guided interventions with homeless individuals demonstrated effectiveness in achieving advance directive completion and surrogate decision-maker designation. End-of-life concerns among homeless persons included fears of dying alone, dying unnoticed, or remaining unidentified after death. Research participants also reported concerns regarding burial and notification of family members. Public health practitioners should facilitate advance care planning for people who are homeless by providing opportunities for education and discussion on care options and advance directives. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Echolalia in the language development of autistic individuals: a bibliographical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Andressa Gouveia de Faria; Goldfeld, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    echolalia is one of the most common symptoms among the language characteristics in Autism. to provide a detailed literature revision about the role of echolalia in the language development process of autistic individuals, and to discuss the use of this language feature in the speech-language clinical practice. The researches show classifications and analysis criterions of echolalia in a discursive context. A few of the analyzed studies are against the use of echolalia, pointing that it has no communicative function, and therefore should be discouraged. On the other hand, other studies indicate that echolalia has a communicative value and can be used as a communicative in speech-language intervention. this bibliographical review raises the issue about the importance of evaluating the conditions in which echolalia might occur before considering it as having a communicative value or not.

  6. A molecular genetic approach to roebuck individual identification in the case of poaching in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of the molecular genetic methods in forensic cases dealing with wild animals has significantly increased recently. These techniques are practically used in order to help solving four key problems : determination of kind of the wild animal, geographic origin, kinship ties and individual identification. In this work the first case of introducing the examination of polimorphism of microsatelite genetic markers within forensic analysis in the cases of poaching in Serbia is presented. The objectives of this forensic analysis was to determine if the meat confiscated during house search of the suspect comes from roebuck origin (Capreolus capreolus, which remains had been found by a game warden in the field during closed season, where the suspect denied the offense, claiming that the meat comes from other roebuck that had been shot during the previous hunting season. DNK was isolated from the skin and fur samples taken from the roebuck corpse found in the woods, as well as from the frozen meat found in the suspect’s house. Both amplification and polimorphism examination of the eight microsatelite markers (ROE01, NVHRT21, NVHRT24, NVHRT48, NVHRT73, RT7 AND RT27 were carried out. In all the examined samples, the same pattern of variability of the tested microsatelites was determined, that is it was proved that DNK profiles of the samples taken from roebuck corpse were identical to DNK profile of the meat sample found in the suspect’s house. This result clearly indicates that all the examined biological samples originate from the same animal, and consequently represents forensically valid evidence in the case of roebuck poaching. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46002

  7. Laryngeal chondrosarcoma: A systematic review of 592 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Oliver Y; Dubal, Pariket M; Sheikh, Ahmed B; Unsal, Aykut A; Park, Richard Chan Woo; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Laryngeal chondrosarcomas are rare entities that arise from the cartilaginous structures of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, and arytenoid cartilages. These tumors represent a minority of malignancies involving the larynx and can be mistaken for benign pathologies. The treatment has historically been surgical excision, often by total laryngectomy. This review investigates treatment modalities and patient outcomes. Systematic review using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE database. The databases were used to identify articles reporting cases of chondrosarcomas occurring exclusively in the larynx. Variables analyzed included patient demographics, presenting symptoms, grade, therapeutic approach, patient outcomes, and follow-up. Five hundred and ninety-two cases were identified. The average age reported was 62.5 years. There was a 3:1 male to female ratio. The most common surgical approach was local excision in 178 cases, followed by total laryngectomy in 174 cases. Nonsurgical treatment such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy was only used in 0.8% and 0.2%, respectively. Disease-specific survival rates for 1, 5, 10, and 20 years were 97.7%, 91.4%, 81.8%, and 68.0%, respectively, with no differences when comparing 5-year survival rates for location, grade, and therapy. Laryngeal chondrosarcomas are rare with a good prognosis. Various surgical approaches exist, with no difference noted in 5-year survival outcomes. Nonsurgical approaches were rarely used for these lesions. N/A. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:430-439, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Unicystic ameloblastoma: 3 case reports and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi Thankappan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The term unicystic ameloblastoma (UA refers to those cystic lesions that show clinical, radiographic, or gross features of a jaw cyst, but on histologic examination show a typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining part of the cyst cavity, with or without luminal and/or mural tumor growth. Even though the lesion is not as aggressive as the solid ameloblastoma, an accurate histopathologic diagnosis is essential for the treatment and prognosis. Here we present 3 cases of UA showing different histologic features and coming under histologic variants of UA. These cases re-establish the fact that thorough microscopic examination of the surgical specimen is necessary for the final diagnosis of UA. Also the complexity of the diagnostic process of bone pathologies increases when the lesions are present at uncommon locations. The most important aspect governing treatment modalities in these three cases are individual considerations rather than theoretical factors.

  9. Xeroderma pigmentosum: A rare case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum, or XP, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which the ability to repair DNA damage caused by ultraviolet (UV light is deficient. In extreme cases, all exposure to sunlight must be forbidden, no matter how small. As such, individuals with the disease are often colloquially referred to as ′Children of the Night′. Mutations in XP genes that regulate nucleotide excision repair, not only predispose persons with xeroderma pigmentosum to multiple malignancies, but also promote premature cutaneous and ocular ageing, and in some cases promote progressive neurodegenerative changes. There is a great involvement of many parts of the body, especially head and neck. The oral manifestations are mainly related to the occurrence of malignant tumors in the lips, tongue and buccal mucosa. This paper reports a rare case of XP in a 40-year-old female presenting with dermatological, oral and ophthalmological involvement.

  10. Robotic Gait Training for Individuals With Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Igor; Pinto, Sérgio Medeiros; Chagas, Daniel das Virgens; Praxedes Dos Santos, Jomilto Luiz; de Sousa Oliveira, Tainá; Batista, Luiz Alberto

    2017-11-01

    To identify the effects of robotic gait training practices in individuals with cerebral palsy. The search was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Medline (OvidSP), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Scopus, Compendex, IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, Academic Search Premier, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database. Studies were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) they investigated the effects of robotic gait training, (2) they involved patients with cerebral palsy, and (3) they enrolled patients classified between levels I and IV using the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The information was extracted from the selected articles using the descriptive-analytical method. The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies was used to quantitate the presence of critical components in the articles. To perform the meta-analysis, the effects of the intervention were quantified by effect size (Cohen d). Of the 133 identified studies, 10 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed positive effects on gait speed (.21 [-.09, .51]), endurance (.21 [-.06, .49]), and gross motor function in dimension D (.18 [-.10, .45]) and dimension E (0.12 [-.15, .40]). The results obtained suggest that this training benefits people with cerebral palsy, specifically by increasing walking speed and endurance and improving gross motor function. For future studies, we suggest investigating device configuration parameters and conducting a large number of randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and individuals with homogeneous impairment. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risky behavior in gambling tasks in individuals with ADHD--a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Groen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks

  12. Morbidity and mortality in homeless individuals, prisoners, sex workers, and individuals with substance use disorders in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W; Story, Alistair; Hwang, Stephen W; Nordentoft, Merete; Luchenski, Serena A; Hartwell, Greg; Tweed, Emily J; Lewer, Dan; Vittal Katikireddi, Srinivasa; Hayward, Andrew C

    2017-11-10

    Inclusion health focuses on people in extremely poor health due to poverty, marginalisation, and multimorbidity. We aimed to review morbidity and mortality data on four overlapping populations who experience considerable social exclusion: homeless populations, individuals with substance use disorders, sex workers, and imprisoned individuals. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 1, 2015. We included only systematic reviews, meta-analyses, interventional studies, and observational studies that had morbidity and mortality outcomes, were published in English, from high-income countries, and were done in populations with a history of homelessness, imprisonment, sex work, or substance use disorder (excluding cannabis and alcohol use). Studies with only perinatal outcomes and studies of individuals with a specific health condition or those recruited from intensive care or high dependency hospital units were excluded. We screened studies using systematic review software and extracted data from published reports. Primary outcomes were measures of morbidity (prevalence or incidence) and mortality (standardised mortality ratios [SMRs] and mortality rates). Summary estimates were calculated using a random effects model. Our search identified 7946 articles, of which 337 studies were included for analysis. All-cause standardised mortality ratios were significantly increased in 91 (99%) of 92 extracted datapoints and were 11·86 (95% CI 10·42-13·30; I 2 =94·1%) in female individuals and 7·88 (7·03-8·74; I 2 =99·1%) in men. Summary SMR estimates for the International Classification of Diseases disease categories with two or more included datapoints were highest for deaths due to injury, poisoning, and other external causes, in both men (7·89; 95% CI 6·40-9·37; I 2 =98·1%) and women (18·72; 13·73-23·71; I 2 =91·5%). Disease prevalence was consistently

  13. Diprosopus: a unique case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, June; Staffenberg, David A; Mulliken, John B; Shanske, Alan L

    2002-12-01

    We present a case of partial facial duplication in a male infant. The clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings for this patient are described, followed by a review of the literature. Craniofacial duplication is a rare form of conjoined twinning and presents in a wide spectrum, from dicephalus to diprosopus to partial facial duplication. Many of these cases can be diagnosed prenatally. Prenatal assessment of our patient revealed only agenesis of the corpus callosum. The pathogenesis is believed to involve duplication of the notochord. Where there are more severe associated anomalies, the prognosis is poor. Partial facial duplication, as in our case, is associated with fewer anomalies, and the prognosis is better. Symmetry and an excess of tissue, rather than deficiency, favor a positive result. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Nasal paraganglioma: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granato, Lídio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors that most commonly originate in the adrenal gland, a type that is called pheochromocytoma; however, 5-10% of paragangliomas are extra-adrenal and may arise in any area between the neck and pelvic region along the sympathetic nervous system. Those located in the head and neck comprise 3% of extra-adrenal tumors, with the majority originating in the tympanic-jugular region and carotid body. Objective: To present a rare case of nasal paraganglioma and review the literature. Case report: The patient was submitted to medial subtotal maxillectomy, and her clinical findings, diagnostic data, and treatment outcome were recorded. Conclusion: Paragangliomas are considered benign tumors, but they occasionally display a malignant character. The most important finding in this case was the need for total resection of the tumor to avoid recurrence.

  15. [Diphenhydramine addiction and detoxification. A systematic review and case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Sebastian; Bschor, Tom

    2013-07-01

    In many countries diphenhydramine (DPH) is commonly available over the counter, frequently used, and generally regarded as a harmless drug. It is used as a sedative, antiallergic or antiemetic substance. We present a systematic review of literature search in Pubmed from 1972 to 2012 describing DPH addiction. The literature search in reveals that the addictive potential of DPH can be regarded as proved, based on cases series, eight case reports, a pharmacological overview, one uncontrolled, and one randomized, placebo controlled study. In addition we report a case of an abstinent alcoholic patient treated in our department for DPH-dependency. Especially when treating patients with a history of addiction, physicians should consider and check the possibility of a DPH dependency. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Mazabraud's syndrome: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, Peter Svenssen; Salkus, Giedrius; Iyer, Victor V; Fisker, Rune Vincents

    2013-01-01

    Mazabraud's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the association of single or multiple intramuscular myxomas with fibrous dysplasia. Here, we present the first case of Mazabraud's syndrome visualized on 18F-FDG PET/CT with histopathological confirmation of the myxoma. Our case demonstrates a slightly increased FDG uptake (SUVmax 2.1) within the myxomas and a moderately to highly increased tracer uptake (SUVmax 7.0) within the fibrous dysplastic lesions. The typical histological appearance of the intramuscular myxoma confirmed the radiological diagnosis. Further, we discuss the imaging findings and the histopathological features of this rare case with a review of the related literature

  17. Radioiodine-induced thyroid storm. Case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, M.T.; Kidd, G.S.; Dodson, L.E. Jr.; Hofeldt, F.D.

    1983-08-01

    Thyroid storm developed following radioiodine therapy in a 43-year-old man with Graves' disease, weight loss, myopathy, severe thyrotoxic hypercalcemia, and a pituitary adenoma. The hypercalcemia may have been a significant, and previously unreported, predisposing factor for the radioiodine-associated thyroid storm. This case and 15 other well-documented cases of radioiodine-associated storm found in the literature are reviewed, as are several other cases of less severe exacerbations of thyrotoxicosis associated with radioiodine therapy. Although not often seen, these complications are often fatal. High-risk patients, such as the elderly, those with severe thyrotoxicosis, and those with significant underlying diseases, may benefit from preventive measures such as the judicious use of thyrostatic medications during the periods before and after isotope administration.

  18. Radioiodine-induced thyroid storm. Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, M.T.; Kidd, G.S.; Dodson, L.E. Jr.; Hofeldt, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid storm developed following radioiodine therapy in a 43-year-old man with Graves' disease, weight loss, myopathy, severe thyrotoxic hypercalcemia, and a pituitary adenoma. The hypercalcemia may have been a significant, and previously unreported, predisposing factor for the radioiodine-associated thyroid storm. This case and 15 other well-documented cases of radioiodine-associated storm found in the literature are reviewed, as are several other cases of less severe exacerbations of thyrotoxicosis associated with radioiodine therapy. Although not often seen, these complications are often fatal. High-risk patients, such as the elderly, those with severe thyrotoxicosis, and those with significant underlying diseases, may benefit from preventive measures such as the judicious use of thyrostatic medications during the periods before and after isotope administration

  19. Surgical Reconstruction of Charcot Foot Neuroarthropathy, a Case Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kučera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our case-based review focuses on limb salvage through operative management of Charcot neuroarthropathy of the diabetic foot. We describe a case, when a below-knee amputation was considered in a patient with chronic Charcot foot with a rocker-bottom deformity and chronic plantar ulceration. Conservative treatment failed. Targeted antibiotic therapy and operative management (Tendo-Achilles lengthening, resectional arthrodesis of Lisfranc and midtarsal joints, fixation with large-diameter axial screws, and plaster cast were performed. On the basis of this case, we discuss options and drawbacks of surgical management. Our approach led to healing of the ulcer and correction of the deformity. Two years after surgery, we observed a significant improvement in patient’s quality of life. Advanced diagnostic and imaging techniques, a better understanding of the biomechanics and biology of Charcot neuroarthropathy, and suitable osteosynthetic material enables diabetic limb salvage.

  20. Secondary syphilis presenting as leucoderma syphiliticum: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer-Silva, Walter de Araujo; Martins, Carlos José; Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da; Acakpovi, Giresse; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha

    2017-11-06

    Leucoderma syphiliticum (LS), originally described as syphilide pigmentaire, encompasses a spectrum of dyschromic lesions that emerge during the course of secondary syphilis. Very few case reports are available in modern biomedical databases. We present the case of a 57-year-old HIV-infected male patient who presented with several round to oval, non-scaling, slightly raised and well-demarcated hypochromic lesions scattered over the trunk, abdomen, dorsum, and arms. Prior non-treponemal tests were negative for syphilis, but novel studies yielded positive results at high titers. Skin lesions slowly regressed and the hypochromic areas repigmented a few weeks after benzathine penicillin G treatment. This is the first report of LS in an HIV-infected patient. A review of modern and ancient literature was performed. The present case report emphasizes the need for clinicians to have a heightened awareness of the varied and unusual clinical phenotypes of syphilis.

  1. A Critical Review of OSHA Heat Enforcement Cases: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbury, Sheila; Lindsley, Matthew; Hodgson, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to review the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) 2012 to 2013 heat enforcement cases, using identified essential elements of heat illness prevention to evaluate employers' programs and make recommendations to better protect workers from heat illness. (1) Identify essential elements of heat illness prevention; (2) develop data collection tool; and (3) analyze OSHA 2012 to 2013 heat enforcement cases. OSHA's database contains 84 heat enforcement cases in 2012 to 2013. Employer heat illness prevention programs were lacking in essential elements such as providing water and shade; adjusting the work/rest proportion to allow for workload and effective temperature; and acclimatizing and training workers. In this set of investigations, most employers failed to implement common elements of illness prevention programs. Over 80% clearly did not rely on national standard approaches to heat illness prevention.

  2. [Report of a case with Joubert syndrome and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ya-hui; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhong-lie; Zhou, Jian-sheng; Yao, Zhen-wei; Wang, Peng-fei; Yao, Jin-xiang

    2011-12-01

    To explore the clinical feature, imaging and their diagnostic value for Joubert syndrome (JS). The clinical data, imaging feature, and 31 references from China Biomedical literature database (CBMdise) were reviewed and analyzed. The age of onset of 32 patients including male 20 and female 12 ranged from 3 days to 6 years (mean 2.2 years). All the 32 patients with Joubert syndrome showed "slow growth" and "reduced muscle tension", 26 cases (81.3%) showed "gasp for breath", 26 cases (81.3%) showed "unusual motion of eyeball", 2 cases (6.3%) showed additional fingers (toes), 6 cases (18.8%) showed stretching tongue with agape. The typical imaging features of Joubert syndrome included "molar tooth sign", "midline cleavage" between cerebellar hemispheres and "bat-wing" like fourth ventricle, all the 32 patients with Joubert syndrome showed "midline cleavage", "molar tooth sign" was present in 29 cases (90.1%), and "bat-wing" like fourth ventricle in 30 cases (93.8%). Joubert syndrome is a rare congenital brain malformation. The typical clinical manifestations included "gasp for breath", "reduced tension of muscle", "slow growth" and "unusual motion of eyeball", and at the same time the patients had the following typical imaging features of brain: "molar tooth sign", "midline cleavage" and "bat-wing" like fourth ventricle.

  3. Intraosseous pleomorphic adenoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aver-De-Araujo, L M; Chaves-Tarquinio, S B; Neuzling-Gomes, A P; Etges, A

    2002-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common neoplasm of the salivary glands, affecting mainly the parotid gland. The preferential intraoral site of this tumor is the palate. A case of a 31-year-old woman with an intraosseous pleomorphic adenoma located in the maxilla (left paramedian region), showing an approximate evolution of one year is reported. The present intraosseous case represents a rare location, with the tumor probably originating from glandular epithelial remnants captured during embryogenesis. In a review of the literature of 142 cases of intragnathic localization (24% in the maxilla) are identified. A slight predominance of women was observed (56%), with 55% of the patients being affected during the 5th to 7th decade of life. The tumors were malignant in 94% of the cases, with special predominance of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (65%). Intraosseous pleomorphic adenomas are rare, with the present patient being the 6th case reported in the literature and the second found in the maxilla. Mean age of the 5 previously reported cases was 58.8 years.

  4. Individual polyp detection rate in routine daily endoscopy practice depends on case-mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffeld, R J L F; Liberov, B; Dekkers, P E P

    2015-07-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR), a marker of endoscopic quality, is confounded by selection bias. It is not known what the ADR is in normal daily practice. To study the polyp detection rate (PDR) in different endoscopists in the course of years. All consecutive endoscopies of the colon done in 11 years were included. Endoscopies in the regular surveillance programme after polyp removal and after surgery because of colorectal cancer or diverticular disease were scored separately. The number of yearly procedures per endoscopist and presence of polyps, anastomoses, surveillance and cancer were noted. In the period of 11 years, 14,908 consecutive endoscopies of colon and rectum were done by four endoscopists. Two endoscopists had a significantly lower PDR than the other two (p case-mix of patients presented for endoscopy. This result debates the use of the ADR as quality indicator for individual endoscopists.

  5. Anatomy of Student Models in Adaptive Learning Systems: A Systematic Literature Review of Individual Differences from 2001 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakic, Jelena; Granic, Andrina; Glavinic, Vlado

    2015-01-01

    This study brings an evidence-based review of user individual characteristics employed as sources of adaptation in recent adaptive learning systems. Twenty-two user individual characteristics were explored in a systematically designed search procedure, while 17 of them were identified as sources of adaptation in final selection. The content…

  6. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition." San Antonio, TX--NCS Pearson, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Climie, Emma A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), a newly updated individual measure of academic achievement for students in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12 (age 4 years, 0 months to 19 years, 11 months). Suitable for use in educational, clinical, and research settings, the stated purposes of the WIAT-III…

  7. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test" (3rd ed.). San Antonio, Texas--Pearson, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Adame, Cindy; McLean, Lauren; Gamez, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), which is designed to assess students' skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics. The test can identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses, assist professionals who are determining whether a student is eligible for special…

  8. A systematic review on screening for Fabry disease: prevalence of individuals with genetic variants of unknown significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tol, L.; Smid, B. E.; Poorthuis, B. J. H. M.; Biegstraaten, M.; Deprez, R. H. Lekanne; Linthorst, G. E.; Hollak, C. E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Screening for Fabry disease (FD) reveals a high prevalence of individuals with α-galactosidase A (GLA) genetic variants of unknown significance (GVUS). These individuals often do not express characteristic features of FD. A systematic review on FD screening studies was performed to interpret the

  9. The Facilitators, Obstacles and Needs of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Conditions Accessing Further and Higher Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Nicky; Hanley, Terry; Hebron, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Many young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) intend to go to college and/or university, yet research suggests that these individuals find aspects of college and university life challenging. To explore the views of individuals directly affected by these challenges, a systematic review of the existing qualitative literature in…

  10. Liver Damage Associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the characteristics and analysis of relevant factors and to give references for prevention and further study of liver damage associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (HSW, we provide a systematic review of case reports and case series about liver damage associated with HSW. Methods. An extensive search of 6 medical databases was performed up to June 2014. Case reports and case series involving liver damage associated with HSW were included. Results. This review covers a total of 450 cases in 76 articles. HSW types included raw and processed HSW decoction pieces and many Chinese patent medicines that contain HSW. Symptoms of liver damage occur mostly a month or so after taking the medicine, mainly including jaundice, fatigue, anorexia, and yellow or tawny urine. Of the 450 patients, two cases who received liver transplantation and seven who died, the remaining 441 cases recovered or had liver function improvement after discontinuing HSW products and conservative care. Conclusion. HSW causes liver toxicity and may cause liver damage in different degrees and even lead to death; most of them are much related to long-term and overdose of drugs. Liver damage associated with HSW is reversible, and, after active treatment, the majority can be cured. People should be alert to liver damage when taking HSW preparations.

  11. Egg consumption and cardiovascular disease among diabetic individuals: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran NL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nga L Tran, Leila M Barraj, Jacqueline M Heilman, Carolyn G ScraffordExponent Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Washington, DC, USABackground: This study reviewed epidemiological and experimental evidence on the relationship between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD risks among type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM individuals, and T2DM risk in nondiabetic subjects.Results: Four of the six studies that examined CVD and mortality and egg consumption among diabetics found a statistically significant association. Of the eight studies evaluating incident T2DM and egg consumption, four prospective studies found a statistically significant association. Lack of adjustment for dietary confounders was a common study limitation. A small number of experimental studies examined the relationship between egg intake and CVD risk biomarkers among diabetics or individuals with T2DM risk factors. Studies among healthy subjects found suggestive evidence that dietary interventions that include eggs may reduce the risk of T2DM and metabolic syndrome.Conclusion: Differences in study design, T2DM status, exposure measurement, subject age, control for confounders and follow-up time present significant challenges for conducting a meta-analysis. Conflicting results, coupled with small sample sizes, prevent broad interpretation. Given the study limitations, these findings need to be further investigated.Keywords: type II diabetes mellitus, diet, cardiovascular risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke

  12. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for chronic pain in individuals with HIV: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Vucovich, Lee A.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Starrels, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain occurs in as many as 85% of individuals with HIV and is associated with substantial functional impairment. Little guidance is available for HIV providers seeking to address their patients’ chronic pain. We conducted a systematic review to identify clinical trials and observational studies that examined the impact of pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic interventions on pain and/or functional outcomes among HIV-infected individuals with chronic pain in high-development countries. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and were mostly low or very low quality. Seven examined pharmacologic interventions (gabapentin, pregabalin, capsaicin, analgesics including opioids) and four examined non-pharmacologic interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, self-hypnosis, smoked cannabis). The only controlled studies with positive results were of capsaicin and cannabis, and had short-term follow-up (≤12 weeks). Among the seven studies of pharmacologic interventions, five had substantial pharmaceutical industry sponsorship. These findings highlight several important gaps in the HIV/chronic pain literature that require further research. PMID:27267445

  13. eHealth and the use of individually tailored information: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Nicholas; Webster, Clare; Smith, Blair; Wake, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    Tailored messages are those that specifically target individuals following an assessment of their unique characteristics. This systematic review assesses the evidence regarding the effectiveness of tailoring within eHealth interventions aimed at chronic disease management. OVID Medline/Embase databases were searched for randomised control trials, controlled clinical, trials, before -after studies, and time series analyses from inception - May 2014. Objectively measured clinical processes/outcomes were considered. Twenty-two papers were eligible for inclusion: 6/22 used fully tailored messaging and 16/22 used partially tailored messages. Two studies isolated tailoring as the active component. The remainder compared intervention with standard care. In all, 12/16 studies measuring clinical processes and 2/6 studies reporting clinical outcomes showed improvements, regardless of target group. Study quality was low and design did not allow for identification of interventions' active component. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. This review has demonstrated that there is a lack of evidence to suggest that tailoring within an eHealth context confers benefit over non-tailored eHealth interventions.

  14. Health Services for Management of Chronic Non-Cancer Pain in Kuwait: A Case Study Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakha, S Fatima; Pennefather, Peter; Badr, Hanan E; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The experience of chronic pain is universal, yet pain management services delivered by health professionals vary substantially, depending on the context and patient. This review is a part of a series that has examined the issue of chronic non-cancer pain services and management in different global cities. The review is structured as a case study of the availability of management services for people living with chronic non-cancer pain within the context of the Kuwaiti health systems, and the cases are built from evidence in the published literature identified through a comprehensive review process. The evolution of the organizational structure of the public and private health systems in Kuwait is described. These are discussed in terms of their impact on the delivery of comprehensive chronic pain management service by health professionals in Kuwait. This review also includes a description of chronic pain patient personas to highlight expected barriers as well as compliance issues with services likely to be encountered in Kuwait. The case study analysis and persona descriptions illustrate a need to move beyond pain symptom management towards considering the entire person and his/her individual experience of pain such that health care success is judged by enhancement of patient well-being rather than access to services. A road map for improving integrative chronic pain management in Kuwait is discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Shared sanitation versus individual household latrines: a systematic review of health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Heijnen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 761 million people rely on shared sanitation facilities. These have historically been excluded from international sanitation targets, regardless of the service level, due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this review to identify and summarize existing evidence that compares health outcomes associated with shared sanitation versus individual household latrines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Shared sanitation included any type of facilities intended for the containment of human faeces and used by more than one household, but excluded public facilities. Health outcomes included diarrhoea, helminth infections, enteric fevers, other faecal-oral diseases, trachoma and adverse maternal or birth outcomes. Studies were included regardless of design, location, language or publication status. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the STROBE guidelines. Twenty-two studies conducted in 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. Studies show a pattern of increased risk of adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation compared to individual household latrines. A meta-analysis of 12 studies reporting on diarrhoea found increased odds of disease associated with reliance on shared sanitation (odds ratio (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.18-1.76. CONCLUSION: Evidence to date does not support a change of existing policy of excluding shared sanitation from the definition of improved sanitation used in international monitoring and targets. However, such evidence is limited, does not adequately address likely confounding, and does not identify potentially important distinctions among types of shared facilities. As reliance on shared sanitation is increasing, further research is necessary to determine the circumstances, if any, under which shared sanitation can offer a safe, appropriate and acceptable alternative to individual household latrines.

  16. Applications of virtual reality in individuals with alcohol misuse: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiţă, Alexandra; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol use and misuse have been intensively studied, due to their negative consequences in the general population. Evidence-based literature emphasizes that alcohol craving plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-drinking patterns. Many individuals develop Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD); significantly, after treatment many also experience relapses, in which alcohol craving has been repeatedly implicated. Cue-exposure therapy (CET) has been widely used in the treatment of alcohol misuse, but the results are inconsistent. Virtual reality (VR) can add effectiveness to cue-exposure techniques by providing multiple variables and inputs that enable personalized alcohol use assessment and treatment. The aim of this review was to examine the applications of virtual reality in individuals who misuse alcohol. We conducted an exhaustive literature search of the Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and PsycInfo databases, using as search items terms such as "alcohol" and its derivates, and virtual reality. We identified 13 studies on alcohol craving that implemented virtual reality as an assessment or treatment tool. The studies that incorporate VR present clear limitations. First, no clinical trials were conducted to explore the efficacy of the VR as a treatment tool; nor were there any studies of the generalization of craving responses in the real world, or of the long-term effects of VR treatment. Despite these limitations, the studies included showed consistent results as regards eliciting and reducing alcohol craving. We suggest that VR shows promise as a tool for the assessment and treatment of craving among individuals with alcohol misuse. Further studies implementing VR in the field of alcohol consumption are now required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The efficacy of treadmill training on balance dysfunction in individuals with chronic stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tally, Zachary; Boetefuer, Laura; Kauk, Courtney; Perez, Gabriela; Schrand, Lorraine; Hoder, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity and exercise interventions are useful in facilitating the functional recovery of those with chronic stroke and, routinely, are gait-specific. While treadmill training has proven useful in gait performance recovery post-stroke, its efficacy on balance dysfunction has not been  systematically reviewed. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of treadmill training (TT) interventions on balance dysfunction in individuals with chronic stroke. A systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL was performed. Eligible randomized controlled trials were published between 2007 and 2016. Selected trials investigated TT interventions in persons with chronic stroke and implemented at least one objective balance measure. Methodological quality was assessed using PEDro criteria. Eight studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the qualitative analysis. Studies differed in TT implementation and use of adjunctive treatments; however, all trials demonstrated improvements in balance measures that were as effective, if not more so, than conventional physical therapy treatments, including targeted balance training. This review recognized moderate evidence in favor of TT interventions in balance and stroke rehabilitation programs. With TT, intensity may be a more critical factor than specificity and may offer additional carryover to recovery parameters of postural control and balance, beyond gait performance. It is recommended that clinicians utilizing TT incorporate objective measures of balance to assess the potential for skill transference and improvements in balance. Higher quality studies and additional research are needed to denote critical parameters by which improvements in balance may be optimized.

  18. How individuals with dementia in nursing homes maintain their dignity through life storytelling - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggestad, Anne Kari Tolo; Slettebø, Åshild

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article was to present and discuss findings on what individuals with dementia do by themselves to maintain or promote their dignity of identity when they live in a nursing home. The majority of residents living in Norwegian nursing homes suffer from dementia. Individuals who suffer from dementia are particularly vulnerable, and their dignity of identity is at risk. It is therefore of great importance to explore how we can maintain their dignity of identity. The study builds on a phenomenological and hermeneutic design. The article reports three cases or life stories based on participant observation in two different nursing homes and interviews with five residents with dementia living in these nursing homes. Fifteen residents with dementia from these nursing home wards were included in the overall study. Individuals with dementia living in nursing homes may use life storytelling or narratives to manage chaos and to find safety in their lives. Storytelling is also used as a way to present and maintain identity. We can see this as a way of maintaining dignity of identity or social dignity. Life storytelling can be seen as an important way of preserving dignity for people with dementia. It is of great importance that health care professionals are open to and listen to the life stories people with dementia tell. As nurses we have an obligation to ensure that dignity is enhanced in care for people with dementia. Knowledge about how residents with dementia use life storytelling as a way to maintain dignity is therefore of great importance to health care workers in nursing homes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adult Craniopharyngioma: Case Series, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandurand, Charlotte; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Asadi Lari, Mohammad Hossein; Akagami, Ryojo; Gooderham, Peter

    2017-12-18

    The optimal therapeutic approach for adult craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Some advocate for gross total resection (GTR), while others advocate for subtotal resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (STR + XRT). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the rate of recurrence in the follow-up of 3 yr in adult craniopharyngioma stratified by extent of resection and presence of adjuvant radiotherapy. MEDLINE (1946-July 1, 2016) and EMBASE (1980-June 30, 2016) were systematically reviewed. From1975 to 2013, 33 patients were treated with initial surgical resection for adult onset craniopharyngioma at our center and were reviewed for inclusion in this study. Data from 22 patients were available for inclusion as a case series in the systematic review. Eligible studies (n = 21) were identified from the literature in addition to a case series of our institutional experience. Three groups were available for analysis: GTR, STR + XRT, and STR. The rates of recurrence were 17%, 27%, and 45%, respectively. The risk of developing recurrence was significant for GTR vs STR (odds ratio [OR]: 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.38) and STR + XRT vs STR (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.41). Risk of recurrence after GTR vs STR + XRT did not reach significance (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-1.24, P = .18). This is the first and largest systematic review focusing on the rate of recurrence in adult craniopharyngioma. Although the rates of recurrence are favoring GTR, difference in risk of recurrence did not reach significance. This study provides guidance to clinicians and directions for future research with the need to stratify outcomes per treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  20. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Michael D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm infants requiring assisted ventilation are at significant risk of both pulmonary and cerebral injury. Inhaled Nitric Oxide, an effective therapy for pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure in the full term infant, has also been studied in preterm infants. The most recent Cochrane review of preterm infants includes 11 studies and 3,370 participants. The results show a statistically significant reduction in the combined outcome of death or chronic lung disease (CLD in two studies with routine use of iNO in intubated preterm infants. However, uncertainty remains as a larger study (Kinsella 2006 showed no significant benefit for iNO for this combined outcome. Also, trials that included very ill infants do not demonstrate significant benefit. One trial of iNO treatment at a later postnatal age reported a decrease in the incidence of CLD. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis is to confirm or refute these potentially conflicting results and to determine the extent to which patient or treatment characteristics may explain the results and/or may predict benefit from inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants. Methods/Design The Meta-Analysis of Preterm Patients on inhaled Nitric Oxide (MAPPiNO Collaboration will perform an individual patient data meta-analysis to answer these important clinical questions. Studies will be included if preterm infants receiving assisted ventilation are randomized to receive inhaled Nitric Oxide or to a control group. The individual patient data provided by the Collaborators will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis where possible. Binary outcomes will be analyzed using log-binomial regression models and continuous outcomes will be analyzed using linear fixed effects models. Adjustments for trial differences will be made by including the trial variable in the model specification. Discussion Thirteen (13 trials, with a total of 3567 infants are eligible for inclusion

  1. Orthograde endodontic retreatment of teeth with individual cast posts: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramić Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The failure of primary endodontic treatment is manifested by various clinical symptoms following endodontic therapy or, more frequently, by the development of chronic inflammatory process in the apex region without any subjective symptoms. In case of unfavorable outcome of the primary endodontic treatment, orthograde endodontic retreatment is the method of choice for a prolonged therapy. Outline of Cases. Two female patients, 47 and 44 years old, were presented at the Dental Clinic of Vojvodina for endodontic retreatment of teeth 22, 23 and 13, within the repeated prosthetic restoration. Intraradicular individual cast posts were removed using ultrasonic instruments. Remains of gutta-percha were removed by engine driven rotary re-treatment files, root canals were shaped and cleaned using the crown-down technique, and obturated with gutta-percha and epoxy-resin-based sealer using the lateral compaction technique. Conclusion. When there are metal posts or broken instruments in the root canal, the use of ultrasonic instruments is considered a safe method characterized by negligible tooth substance loss and minimal root damage causing fractures and perforations, and the entire procedure is effective and predictable. Non-surgical orthograde endodontic retreatment, when properly performed in accessible and penetrable root canals, achieves a high cure rate, good and lasting results and eliminates the need for radical procedures, such as apical surgery or tooth extraction. When nonsurgical endodontic retreatment is done, treated teeth must be restored by full coronal coverage as soon as possible, to prevent coronal leakage or fracture.

  2. Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Lallukka, Tea; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Lahelma, Eero; Nielsen, Martin L; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Shipley, Martin J; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G; Wang, Jian Li; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-05-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identified ten published cohort studies and included unpublished individual-participant data from 18 studies. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2 =45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association in Europe (1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.22), and no association in North America (0.97, 95% CI 0.70-1.34) or Australia (0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.29). Differences by other characteristics were small. Conclusions This observational evidence suggests a moderate association between long working hours and onset of depressive symptoms in Asia and a small association in Europe.

  3. Thyroid dysfunction in hepatitis C individuals treated with interferon-alpha and ribavirin: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C (HCV is now the main cause of chronic hepatic disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several extrahepatic diseases have been associated with chronic HCV infection, and in most cases appear to be directly related to the viral infection. Thyroid disorders are common in patients with chronic HCV. Some patients with chronic hepatitis C experience thyroid problems, and thyroid dysfunction may also be a side effect of interferon-based treatment. The principal risk factor for developing thyroid disease in the course of antiviral therapy is the previous positivity for anti-thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroid peroxidase especially in older women. Screening for autoantibodies and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended before, during and after interferon-alpha treatment, and patients should be informed of the risk of thyroid dysfunction. This review includes a summary of thyroid disease associated with chronic HCV infection, interferon-alpha and ribavirin for treatment of HCV and potential to induce thyroid dysfunction.

  4. Between individualism and social solidarity in vaccination policy: the case of the 2013 OPV campaign in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Hagai; Rosenthal, Anat; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 2013, after samples of poliomyelitis virus were found in sewage, Israel launched an intensive national oral polio vaccine (OPV) campaign. The clinical objective of the campaign was rather clear. With not a single case of infantile paralysis and with a population already highly protected with IPV (a dead version of the vaccine), the goal was to foster collective immunity so that risk populations could also be protected. This, however, entailed a rather unusual issue: how to persuade parents whose children already received an IPV to re-vaccinate their children, now with a live yet attenuated version of the virus that was excluded from the national vaccination program in 2004. The challenge therefore was a call for social solidarity - asking parents to vaccinate their children mainly for the sake of protecting unknown at risk populations and to take part in the larger global goals of the polio eradication program. This challenge stands at the core of our investigation. We see the OPV campaign of summer 2013 as a good case study of the tension between individualism and social solidarity in seeking the cooperation of the public. We draw on a qualitative study that included participant observation, document reviews and interviews with policy-makers, parents, journalists, public health experts and community leaders. These data were analyzed in order to unravel the ways in which self-interest, community and solidarity were conceived by different agents during the vaccination campaign. The family as a metaphor for social solidarity was the main discursive item in the public campaign. Tensions, dissonances and inconsistencies were found between different registers and agencies as to what is at stake and what is required. We discuss the ethical and social implications of our findings in order to better understand how persuasion was used in the current case and for its future role in similar events, within and outside Israel, when global efforts to

  5. [Rib cage ostheosynthesis. Literature review and case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quijano, Andrés; Varón-Cotés, Juan Carlos; García-Herreros-Hellal, Luis Gerardo; Espinosa-Moya, Beatriz; Rivero-Rapalino, Oscar; Salazar-Marulanda, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the chest wall include sternum and rib fractures. Traditionally they are managed conservatively due to the anatomy of the rib cage that allows most of them to remain stable and to form a callus that unites the fractured segments. In spite of this management, some patients present with chronic pain or instability of the wall which makes them require some type of fixation. The present article performs a literature review based on 4 cases. The first case was a 61 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, with a great deformity of the chest wall associated with subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax. The second case was a 51 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, initially managed at another institution, who despite treatment, had persistent pain and dyspnoea. The third case was a 30 year-old man that suffered a motor vehicle accident, with resulting pain and crepitation of the rib cage and with diagnostic images showing multiple rib fractures. The last case is a 62 year-old man that fell down the stairs, with blunt chest trauma with high intensity pain, dyspnoea and basal ipsilateral hypoventilation. Rib fracture fixation offers a good alternative in selected patients to decrease associated morbidity, leading to a patient's fast return to his or her working life. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Page's kidney report in six cases and paper review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haifeng; Zhao Zhongwen; Song Yufeng

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnosis and treatment method of Page's kidney. Methods: The clinical materials in 6 cases of this disease combined with the paper review were analyzed. Results: The chief complaint of all cases were loin and abdominal pain in right side. Four cases were correctly diagnosed by ultrasound and CT examination before operation. Two cases were treated by the transepidermal renal puncture and withdrew the liquid, but the result was not good: the perirenal hematoma and symptom recurred after three days. The incision and drainage of renal capsule were performed in 6 cases, the result was good. Conclusion: The blunt trauma in the right renal abdominal region is the main reason. The chief complaint of the patient are loin pain and abdominal pain. Ultrasonic examination is the basic method, and the computed tomography is a main method. The result of transepidermal renal puncture and withdrawing the liquid is not good, for in the short period, the perirenal hematoma and symptom will recur. If the patient has the clinical symptoms, the incision and drainage of renal capsule is the method which has the good result. The nephrectomy is unnecessary, because the patient's renal function does not have been damaged

  7. Deep neck abscess. A 42-case retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaki, Masaru; Saiki, Tadahiko; Matsumoto, Shuichi; Watanabe, Futoshi

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed 42 cases of deep neck abscess drained surgically or treated conservatively between February 2001 and August 2008, based on age, gender, primary focus, main symptom, abscess location, systemic disease, pathogenic bacteria, hospital treatment, hospitalization length, complications and long-term hospitalization. Of the 42, 26 were men and 16 women aged 14 to 80 (central age: 54.5 years). Abscess was caused most by tonsil inflammation (38.1%). Main symptom were sore throat (54.8%) and neck swelling (35.7%). Abscesses were found in the supra- and infrahyoid region in 30 cases and extended to the mediastinum in 2. Of the 42, 14 (33.3%) had hypertension and 11 (26.2%) diabetes mellitus (DM). Inflammation was due to aerobic bacteria (mainly Streptococcus milleri) in 23 cases (54.8%) and to anaerobic bacteria (mainly Peptostreptococcus) in 11 cases (26.2%). Flexible fiberscopic examination was important in evaluating pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosal disorders and enhanced computed tomography was useful in both diagnosis and postoperative observation. Of the 42, 38 required surgical drainage and 4 were cured using needle aspiration and antibiotics. Of the 38 undergoing surgery-tracheostomy was required in 22. Hospitalization for those with tracheostomy and DM was longer than in those without these factors. Complications included 2 cases each of, mediastinal abscess, sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute renal failure, severe pneumonia, upper digestive tract bleeding and swallowing disorder. Early surgical drainage and intravenous antibiotic administration are thus essential for treating deep neck abscesses. (author)

  8. Diprosopus: Systematic review and report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidondo, María Paz; Groisman, Boris; Tardivo, Agostina; Tomasoni, Fabián; Tejeiro, Verónica; Camacho, Inés; Vilas, Mariana; Liascovich, Rosa; Barbero, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Diprosopus is a subtype of symmetric conjoined twins with one head, facial duplication and a single trunk. Diprosopus is a very rare congenital anomaly. This is a systematic review of published cases and the presentation of two new cases born in Argentina. We estimated the prevalence of conjoined twins and diprosopus using data from the National Network of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC). The prevalence of conjoined twins in RENAC was 19 per 1,000,000 births (95% confidence interval, 12-29). Diprosopus prevalence was 2 per 1,000,000 births (95% confidence interval, 0.2-6.8). In the systematic review, we identified 31 diprosopus cases. The facial structures more frequently duplicated were nose and eyes. Most frequent associated anomalies were: anencephaly, duplication of cerebral hemispheres, craniorachischisis, oral clefts, spinal abnormalities, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, thoracic and/or abdominal visceral laterality anomalies. One of the RENAC cases and three cases from the literature had another discordant nonmalformed twin. The conjoined twins prevalence was similar to other studies. The prevalence of diprosopus was higher. The etiology is still unknown. The presence of visceral laterality anomalies may indicate the link between diprosopus and the alteration or duplication of the primitive node in the perigastrulation period (12-15 days postfertilization). Pregnancies of more than two embryos may be a risk factor for diprosopus. Given the low prevalence of this defect, it would be useful to perform studies involving several surveillance systems and international consortiums. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:993-1007, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Thaís C.; Turci, Aline M.; Pinheiro, Carina F.; Sousa, Letícia M.; Grossi, Débora B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. METHOD: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. RESULTS: Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients. PMID:25590441

  10. [Enterococcus faecium lung abscess: one case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiang-Qun; Liu, You-Ning

    2010-02-01

    to study the diagnosis and treatment of enterococcus faecium lung abscess. a retrospective analysis of one case of Enterococcus faecium lung abscess and literature review was conducted. this patient suffered from cough and sputum over 6 months and complicated with hemoptysis over 3 months. Pulmonary embolism and lung cancer were suspected initially. After 2 times of CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy the diagnosis of pneumonia was made in other hospitals. However, the consolidation in the lung progressed and cavity appeared although antibiotic therapy was conducted. After admission to our hospital, CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy was made and the lung tissue was sent for bacterial culture. Enterococcus faecium was cultured and it was susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. The disease improved significantly after treatment with these 3 antibiotics in turn. In addition, 13 cases of enterococcus pneumonia or lung abscess were reviewed, including 3 cases of enterococcus faecium lung abscess. enterococcus faecium is rarely a pathogen for lung abscess. The diagnosis of enterococcus faecium lung abscess could be confirmed by lung biopsy and bacterial culture of lung tissue which could also provide the susceptibility of antibiotics and guide the antibiotic therapy.

  11. Pediatric Nonfracture Acute Compartment Syndrome: A Review of 39 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kristin; Glotzbecker, Michael; Miller, Patricia E; Hresko, Michael T; Hedequist, Daniel; Shore, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome in the absence of fracture is rare and poorly described within the pediatric literature. The purpose of this study was to report the varying etiologies, risk factors, and treatment outcomes associated with pediatric nonfracture acute compartment syndrome (NFACS). We conducted a retrospective chart review on 37 children who suffered a NFACS and were treated at a single pediatric trauma center between 1997 and 2013. Demographic, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome characteristics were reviewed. Five causal groups were generated: trauma, exercise related (acute presentation after exercise without trauma), infectious, vascular, and postoperative (in the absence of osteotomy). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors of NFACS. P-values 39 cases of NFRCS in 37 children [6 females, 31 males, mean age of 11.7 y (SD+7.2 y)]. The leg was the most commonly involved limb (29 cases, 74%). Diagnosis of NFRCS was made either by compartment pressure monitoring [59%, 23/39 cases, mean pressure 66 mm Hg (SD+28)] or by clinical examination. According to etiology, vascular was most common (11/39, 28%), followed by trauma (10/39, 26%) and postoperative (8/39, 21%), with exertion and infection representing a small proportion (6/39, 15% and 4/39, 10%, respectively). Pain was present in 33 cases (85%), swelling in 28 cases (72%), paresthesias in 13 cases (33%), motor deficit in 12 cases (31%), and poor perfusion in 11 cases (28%). Average time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 48 hours (IQR, 9 to 96 h). At surgery, 21 patients (54%) had evidence of myonecrosis. Children required an average of 3 surgeries for wound closure. The median time to follow-up was 232 days (IQR, 73 to 608 d). A total of 54% made a full recovery, whereas 31% suffered a persistent neurological or functional deficit. NFACS in children is associated with a delay in diagnosis and a high rate of myonecrosis. Timely assessment with high clinical suspicion is

  12. Fungal endocarditis in paediatrics: a review of 192 cases (1971-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Vithiya; Ponnusamy, Shunmuga Sundaram; Sundaramurthy, Raja

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this article were to review the published literature on fungal endocarditis in children and to discuss the aetiology and diagnosis, with emphasis on non-invasive methods and various treatment regimes. We systematically reviewed published cases and case series of fungal endocarditis in children. We searched the literature, including PubMed and individual references for publications of original articles, single cases, or case series of paediatric fungal endocarditis, with the following keywords: "fungal endocarditis", "neonates", "infants", "child", and "cardiac vegetation". There have been 192 documented cases of fungal endocarditis in paediatrics. The highest number of cases was reported in infants (93/192, 48%) including 60 in neonates. Of the neonatal cases, 57 were premature with a median gestational age of 27 weeks and median birth weight of 860 g. Overall, 120 yeast - fungus that grows as a single cell - infections and 43 mould - fungus that grows in multicellular filaments, hyphae - infections were reported. With increasing age, there was an increased infection rate with moulds. All the yeast infections were detected by blood culture. In cases with mould infection, diagnosis was mainly established by culture or histology of emboli or infected valves after invasive surgical procedures. There have been a few recent cases of successful early diagnosis by non-invasive methods such as blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for moulds. The overall mortality for paediatric fungal endocarditis was 56.25%. The most important cause of death was cardiac complications due to heart failure. Among the various treatment regimens used, none of them was significantly associated with better outcome. Non-invasive methods such as PCR tests can be used to improve the chances of detecting and identifying the aetiological agent in a timely manner. Delays in the diagnosis of these infections may result in high mortality and morbidity. No significant difference was noted

  13. Primary Lymphoma of the Liver: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzjosef Schweiger

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a previously healthy man who developed primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the liver is presented. Biopsy confirmed that the tumour was of the diffuse large cell type and was of apparent T-cell origin. The diagnosis of these rare tumours is suggested by the presence of a hepatic mass without lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly or bone marrow involvement, as well as normal carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein levels. However, histological examination of tissue is essential to confirm the diagnosis. The response to treatment varies, but surgical resection and/or chemotherapy can result in prolonged remissions. The literature on this topic is briefly reviewed.

  14. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia: review and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Y M Y; Osman, Y I; Norval, E J G

    2010-10-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous condition that can be seen in dentate and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however follow-up is essential due to the possibility that focal cemento-osseous dysplasia can progress to a condition called florid osseous dysplasia that involves multiple sites. A case report is presented here, along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  15. Tungiasis: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Wen Chen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tungiasis is a cutaneous parasitic infection caused by the sand flea Tunga penetrans. This infection is endemic to Central and South America, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa and is more prevalent in resource-poor communities. Increased air travel, emigration from, and immigration to these countries can lead to the import of T. penetrans to travelers’ hometowns. In recent times, dermatologists have encountered many such tropical cutaneous infections, and they should promptly diagnose the condition to prevent complications. We report a case of tungiasis imported from Brazil and review the related literature.

  16. Paresthesia during orthodontic treatment: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, André da Costa; Martins, Renato Parsekian; Martins, Isabela Parsekian; Martins, Lídia Parsekian

    2011-10-01

    Paresthesia of the lower lip is uncommon during orthodontic treatment. In the present case, paresthesia occurred during orthodontic leveling of an extruded mandibular left second molar. It was decided to remove this tooth from the appliance and allow it to relapse. A reanatomization was then performed by grinding. The causes and treatment options of this rare disorder are reviewed and discussed. The main cause of paresthesia during orthodontic treatment may be associated with contact between the dental roots and inferior alveolar nerve, which may be well observed on tomography scans. Treatment usually involves tooth movement in the opposite direction of the cause of the disorder.

  17. CONGENITAL EYELID EVERSION - A CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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    Chinmayee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital eversion of the eyelids, a condition usually seen shortly after birth is a rare condition affecting one or both eyelids of the eye. Many etiologies have been described but no specific cause has been identified. We report a case of congenital eve rsion of eyelids which was managed conservatively with spontaneous correction seen in 6 days. KEYMESSAGE: Congenital eversion of the eyelids is a rare easily identifiable and potentially treatable condition. Decision of surgical intervention has to be take n with care and must be individualized for each case. Congenital eversion must be differentiated from congenital ectropion due to causes like ichthyosis as the treatment widely differs. All ophthalmologists need to be aware of this condition as it can be e asily managed on an outpatient basis

  18. A case of bladder leiomyoma with literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Sihui; Chen Zhiguang; Liang Biling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Preliminarily analysis of the MRI features of bladder leiomyoma. Methods: The MRI manifestations were analyzed with review of previous released literatures in a case of bladder leiomyoma, which was confirmed by pathology. Results: The lesion manifested homogeneous intermediate signal intensity both on non-enhanced T 1 WI and T 2 WI, and intermediate enhancement on contrast enhanced T 1 WI. There was no pedicle on the tumor and the tumor-bladder junction had an acute angle, indicating its benign nature. Conclusion: Non-epithelial tumor has characteristic signals in non-enhanced MRI, in which the leiomyoma of bladder is the most frequent benign neoplasm encountered. Considering enhanced MRI findings, the morphology and growth pattern of the tumor, accurate diagnosis can be made in some cases of bladder leiomyoma, providing valuable informations for surgical planning. (authors)

  19. Concomitant prostatic schistosomiasis and sdenocarcinoma: case report and review

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    Carlos Alberto Basílio-de-Oliveira

    Full Text Available The term schistosomiasis encompasses a group of infectious disorders caused by five species of the genus Schistosoma, a blood trematode of outstanding importance in tropical areas. Some of these disorders have long been associated with malignant neoplasia, the most striking association being between disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium, the predominant etiological agent of urinary schistosomiasis, and squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder, a relatively uncommon vesical cancer in non-endemic areas. Four cases of simultaneous adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis of the prostate have been previously reported (S. haematobium in three and S. mansoni in one. We report a fifth case of concomitant adenocarcinoma and schistosomiasis of the prostate in a 68-year-old Brazilian patient infected with S. mansoni. We also review the medical literature on the association between schistosomiasis and cancer.

  20. Sturge Weber Syndrome: review of literature with case illustration

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    Satyarthee Guru Dutta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS also called as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is a sporadically occurring rare neuro-cutaneous syndrome, characterized by vascular malformation with capillary venous angiomas involving face, choroidal layer of eye globe and leptomeninges responsible for ophthamological as well as neurological signs and symptoms. Authors report an interesting case, a six year old girl, who presented with seizures, facial port wine stain and normal psychomotor development. CT scan showed left cerebral hemiatrophy, left frontal and parieto occipital calcification with cortical calcification in left high frontal convexity. Cranial MRI scan also confirmed finding of left cerebral hemiatrophy and also revealed presence of gyriform cortical calcification, prominent flow voids seen in left basal ganglia. Her seizure is well controlled with antiepileptic medication. The pertinent literature is reviewed and management of such cases is discussed briefly.

  1. [Juvenile xanthogranuloma: 3 cases report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-qin; Liu, Rong; Shi, Xiao-dong; Li, Jing-xian; Zou, Ji-zhen

    2011-09-01

    To report the clinical characteristics and treatment of 3 patients with juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). A retrospective review of the medical records of 3 patients with JXG. JXG was characterized by solitary or multiple yellowish cutaneous nodules, or eye involvement . It could also affect pituitary. JXG was easily misdiagnosed as Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Treatment for JXG was surgical excision of a solitary skin lesion and some cases might be, spontaneous regression. In cases with multisystem involvement, chemotherapy regimens used to treat LCH may be effective. JXG is one of the more common non-Langerhans histiocytic proliferations and is frequently seen in infants and children. LCH-like chemotherapy is effective for patients with symptomatic multisystem JXG.

  2. Helminthic infections mimicking malignancy: a review of published case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilsczek, Florian H

    2010-08-04

    Infectious diseases, including infections with helminths, can initially present similarly to malignancies. The goal of the article is to review reports of helminthic infections that are initially diagnosed as malignancy. The database PubMed was searched for English language references published as of July 2009. The following published case reports and case series, mainly from Asia and Africa, were identified: Nematodes: 8 publications (1 patient with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, 2 Stronglyloides stercoralis, 1 Toxocara species, 1 Dioctophyma renale, 1 Ascaris species, 1 Gnathostoma spinigerum, 1 Dirofilaria repens); Trematodes: 7 publications (46 patients with Schistosoma species, 2 Fasciola hepatica, 1 Paragonimus westermani); Cestodes: 6 publications (10 patients with Echinococcus species, 1 Sparganum mansoni). To avoid unnecessary investigations and treatment, physicians should be aware when diagnosing patients from Asia or Africa that a large number of helminthic infections can present similar to malignancies.

  3. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dierickx

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a very rare tumor deriving from remnants of the mesonephric duct. Differential diagnosis from other cervical carcinomas is difficult and little is known regarding its biological behavior, prognosis, and the optimal management strategy. We present a case of a mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix with a comprehensive review of the existing literature. In this case a 66-year-old woman presented with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. She was diagnosed with a FIGO stage IIB mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix and treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and a Wertheim hysterectomy. The recovery from surgery was uneventful and the patient remains with no evidence of disease with 2 years of follow-up.

  4. Imported melioidosis in Japan: a review of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, Yoshiro

    2018-01-01

    Fourteen cases of reported melioidosis in Japan were reviewed. The mean age was 52.4 years (33-69 years), and all patients were male. All of the presumed exposures originated in Southeast Asia. The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus, including those patients with impaired glucose tolerance (n=8). As for mode of onset, 13 patients had acute infections and one had chronic infection. Of these 14 patients, the most common infection site on admission was lung (n=8), followed by bone (n=5), skin (n=4), gastrointestinal abscess formation (n=3), urinary tract (n=3), aorta (n=2), mediastinal lymph node swelling (n=1), and central nervous system (n=1). Bacteremia was observed in nine patients, and Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates were mostly susceptible to ceftazidime and carbapenem. Overall mortality was 14.3%. Melioidosis is a rare infection in Japan, with all known cases to date having been imported from Southeast Asia. Diabetes was a common risk factor.

  5. Herpes Simplex Mastitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Holly Brown

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common sites of herpes simplex virus (HSV infection are around the oral cavity and the genitalia. However, HSV can infect any skin or mucous membrane surface. One uncommon site of HSV infection is the breast. Reports of herpetic breast infections are predominantly cases of transmission from a systemically HSV-infected neonate to the mother during breast-feeding. A review of the literature identified only six reports suggesting HSV breast lesions acquired by means other than through an infected infant. Of these, only one report suggests HSV transmission to the breast from a male sexual partner. A second case of clinically unsuspected symptomatic herpes mastitis presumably acquired from sexual contact in a 46-year-old woman is presented. Herpes simplex type 1 was isolated by using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymerization techniques. The purpose of this report is to alert physicians to HSV mastitis.

  6. Anesthetic and Obstetric Management of Syringomyelia During Labor and Delivery: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gráinne Patricia; Wasade, Vibhangini S; Murphy, Kellie E; Balki, Mrinalini

    2017-09-01

    Syringomyelia is a rare, slowly progressive neurological condition characterized by the presence of a syrinx within the spinal cord. Consensus regarding the safest mode of delivery and anesthetic management in patients with syringomyelia remains controversial and presents management dilemmas. This study reviews the cases of syringomyelia at our institution and provides a systematic review of the literature to guide decisions regarding labor and delivery management. A retrospective review of cases at our hospital from 2002 to 2014 and a systematic review of the literature from 1946 to 2014 were undertaken. Hospital records and electronic databases were interrogated using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes and the keywords "syringomyelia," "syringobulbia," and "pregnancy." Data regarding demographics, diagnosis, radiology reports, neurological symptoms, mode of delivery, anesthetic management, and maternal-fetal outcomes were collected. We collected and analyzed data on a total of 43 pregnancies in 39 patients. The most common location for syrinx was in the cervicothoracic region (41.9%). The large majority of patients (n = 34; 87%) demonstrated signs and symptoms associated with syringomyelia before delivery. Syringomyelia associated with Arnold Chiari malformation was documented in 49% (n = 21) cases. General anesthesia was the most commonly used (n = 21/30, 70%) anesthetic technique for cesarean delivery. The majority (n = 9/13, 69%) of patients had an epidural sited for labor analgesia. There were no maternal or neonatal complications associated with neuraxial anesthesia; however, 3 cases (14%) raised concerns regarding general anesthesia including difficult intubation, transient worsening of neurological symptoms postpartum, and prolonged muscle paralysis after atracurium. Despite concerns regarding aggravation of the syrinx with vaginal delivery, this mode of delivery has never caused any documented long-term worsening of neurological

  7. Case-based ethics instruction: the influence of contextual and individual factors in case content on ethical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Thiel, Chase E; Johnson, James F; Connelly, Shane; Harkrider, Lauren N; Devenport, Lynn D; Mumford, Michael D

    2013-09-01

    Cases have been employed across multiple disciplines, including ethics education, as effective pedagogical tools. However, the benefit of case-based learning in the ethics domain varies across cases, suggesting that not all cases are equal in terms of pedagogical value. Indeed, case content appears to influence the extent to which cases promote learning and transfer. Consistent with this argument, the current study explored the influences of contextual and personal factors embedded in case content on ethical decision-making. Cases were manipulated to include a clear description of the social context and the goals of the characters involved. Results indicated that social context, specifically the description of an autonomy-supportive environment, facilitated execution of sense making processes and resulted in greater decision ethicality. Implications for designing optimal cases and case-based training programs are discussed.

  8. The effects of aquatic therapy on mobility of individuals with neurological diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho-Buzelli, Andresa R; Bonnyman, Alison M; Verrier, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    To summarize evidence on the effects of aquatic therapy on mobility in individuals with neurological diseases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CENTRAL, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, PsycBITE and OT Seeker were searched from inception to 15 September 2014. Hand-searching of reference lists was performed in the selected studies. The search included randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies that investigated the use of aquatic therapy and its effect on mobility of adults with neurological diseases. One reviewer screened titles and abstracts of retrieved studies from the search strategy. Two reviewers independently examined the full texts and conducted the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. A narrative synthesis of data was applied to summarize information from included studies. The Downs and Black Scale was used to assess methodological quality. A total of 116 articles were obtained for full text eligibility. Twenty studies met the specified inclusion criteria: four Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), four non-randomized studies and 12 before-and-after tests. Two RCTs (30 patients with stroke in the aquatic therapy groups), three non-randomized studies and three before-and-after studies showed "fair" evidence that aquatic therapy increases dynamic balance in participants with some neurological disorders. One RCT (seven patients with stroke in the aquatic therapy group) and two before-and-after tests (20 patients with multiple sclerosis) demonstrated "fair" evidence on improvement of gait speed after aquatic therapy. Our synthesis showed "fair" evidence supporting the use of aquatic therapy to improve dynamic balance and gait speed in adults with certain neurological conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Active Video Games as a Training Tool for Individuals With Chronic Respiratory Diseases: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stacey J; Lee, Annemarie L; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina

    2018-02-26

    Exercise is an effective treatment for reducing symptom severity and improving quality of life for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Active video games offer a new and enjoyable way to exercise and have gained popularity in a rehabilitation setting. However, it is unclear whether they achieve comparable physiological and clinical effects as traditional exercise training. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies that included an active video game component as a form of exercise training and a comparator group in chronic respiratory disease. Two assessors independently reviewed study quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and extracted data for exercise capacity, quality of life, and preference of exercise model. Six studies were included in this review. Because of the heterogeneity of the populations, study designs, length of intervention, and outcome measures, meta-analysis could not be performed. Active video game training resulted in comparable training maximal heart rate and dyspnea levels to those achieved when exercising using a treadmill or cycle (n = 5). There was insufficient evidence (n = 3) to determine whether active video game training improved exercise capacity as measured by 6-min walk test or treadmill endurance walking. Although the quality of evidence was low, in a small number of studies active video games induced peak heart rates and dyspnea levels comparable with traditional exercise training. Larger and longer-term randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the impact of video game training for individuals with chronic respiratory diseases.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  10. 42 CFR 431.988 - Eligibility case review completion deadlines and submittal of reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Eligibility case review completion deadlines and submittal of reports. (a)(1) States must complete and report...) States must submit a summary report of the active case eligibility and payment review findings to CMS by... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility case review completion deadlines and...

  11. 42 CFR 431.816 - Case review completion deadlines and submittal of reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... completion deadlines and submittal of reports. (a) The agency must complete case reviews and submit reports..., the agency must complete case reviews and submit reports of findings to CMS in accordance with... eligibility reviews—MAO stratum. (i) The agency must complete case eligibility reviews and report the findings...

  12. Mucormycosis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen Z. Abidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare and often fatal invasive fungal infection mostly seen in immune-compromised individuals. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary, so that effective preemptive therapy can be started, as timely intervention is crucial. In this series we present three cases of invasive mucormycosis in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease that had received therapy with immunomodulators prior to the infection. All three had varied clinical manifestations. We also review the literature of invasive mucormycosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutler, Bryce D., E-mail: brycebeutler@hotmail.com [School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 1060 Wiegand Road, Encinitas, CA 92024 (United States); Cohen, Philip R., E-mail: brycebeutler@hotmail.com [Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, 10991 Twinleaf Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis.

  14. Determinants of hepatotoxicity after repeated supratherapeutic paracetamol ingestion: systematic review of reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Paul; Thomas, Simon H L

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the role of reported daily dose, age and other risk factors, and to assess the value of quantifying serum transaminase activity and paracetamol (acetaminophen) concentration at initial assessment for identifying patients at risk of hepatotoxicity following repeated supratherapeutic paracetamol ingestion (RSPI). Systematic literature review with collation and analysis of individual-level data from reported cases of RSPI associated with liver damage. In 199 cases meeting the selection criteria, severe liver damage (ALT/AST ≥1000 IU l(-1) , liver failure or death) was reported in 186 (93%) cases including 77/78 (99%) children aged ≤6 years. Liver failure occurred in 127 (64%) cases; of these 49 (39%) died. Maximum ingested daily paracetamol doses were above UK recommendations in 143 (72%) patients. US-Australasian thresholds for repeated supratherapeutic ingestions requiring intervention were not met in 71 (36%) cases; of these 35 (49%) developed liver failure and 10 (14%) died. No cases developing liver damage had paracetamol concentration Paracetamol concentrations <20 mg l(-1) with normal serum ALT/AST activity on initial assessment suggests a low risk of subsequent liver damage. These findings are, however, limited by low patient numbers, publication bias and the accuracy of the histories in reported cases. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder: a case report review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Khalil, Rami; Richa, Sami

    2012-12-01

    Apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder (BIID) denotes a syndrome in which a person is preoccupied with the desire to amputate a healthy limb. In this report, we review the available case reports in the literature in order to enhance psychiatrists' and physicians' comprehension of this disorder. A search for the case reports available via MEDLINE was done since the first case report published by Money et al in 1977 till May 2011, using the following terms: apotemnophilia, self-demand amputation, body integrity identity disorder, and BIID. In all, 14 case reports were found relevant to our search. The desire to amputate one's healthy limb seems to be related to a major disturbance in the person's perception of one's own identity, where limb amputation can relieve temporarily the patient's feeling of distress without necessarily and uniformly adjusting the patient's own identity misperception. More investigations are needed in this domain in order to develop noninvasive treatment strategies that approach this aspect of the patient's distress within a globalist perspective. In addition, the health professionals' awareness regarding this disorder is required to ensure professional management of patients' suffering.

  16. Systematic review of case reports of antiphospholipid syndrome following infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, N; Lopez-Olivo, M A; Pinto-Patarroyo, G P; Suarez-Almazor, M E

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of case reports documenting the development of antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid syndrome-related features after an infection. We searched Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed ePubs, and The Cochrane Library - CENTRAL through March 2015 without restrictions. Studies reporting cases of antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid syndrome-related features following an infection were included. Two hundred and fifty-nine publications met inclusion criteria, reporting on 293 cases. Three different groups of patients were identified; group 1 included patients who fulfilled the criteria for definitive antiphospholipid syndrome (24.6%), group 2 included patients who developed transient antiphospholipid antibodies with thromboembolic phenomena (43.7%), and group 3 included patients who developed transient antiphospholipid antibodies without thromboembolic events (31.7%). The most common preceding infection was viral (55.6%). In cases that developed thromboembolic events Human immunodeficiency and Hepatitis C viruses were the most frequently reported. Parvovirus B19 was the most common in cases that developed antibodies without thromboembolic events. Hematological manifestations and peripheral thrombosis were the most common clinical manifestations. Positive anticardiolipin antibodies were the most frequent antibodies reported, primarily coexisting IgG and IgM isotypes. Few patients in groups 1 and 2 had persistent antiphospholipid antibodies for more than 6 months. Outcome was variable with some cases reporting persistent antiphospholipid syndrome features and others achieving complete resolution of clinical events. Development of antiphospholipid antibodies with all traditional manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome were observed after variety of infections, most frequently after chronic viral infections with Human immunodeficiency and Hepatitis C. The causal relationship between infection

  17. Kinematic measures for assessing gait stability in elderly individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, D; Singh, N B; Van Dieën, J H; Heller, M O; Taylor, W R

    2011-12-07

    Falls not only present a considerable health threat, but the resulting treatment and loss of working days also place a heavy economic burden on society. Gait instability is a major fall risk factor, particularly in geriatric patients, and walking is one of the most frequent dynamic activities of daily living. To allow preventive strategies to become effective, it is therefore imperative to identify individuals with an unstable gait. Assessment of dynamic stability and gait variability via biomechanical measures of foot kinematics provides a viable option for quantitative evaluation of gait stability, but the ability of these methods to predict falls has generally not been assessed. Although various methods for assessing gait stability exist, their sensitivity and applicability in a clinical setting, as well as their cost-effectiveness, need verification. The objective of this systematic review was therefore to evaluate the sensitivity of biomechanical measures that quantify gait stability among elderly individuals and to evaluate the cost of measurement instrumentation required for application in a clinical setting. To assess gait stability, a comparative effect size (Cohen's d) analysis of variability and dynamic stability of foot trajectories during level walking was performed on 29 of an initial yield of 9889 articles from four electronic databases. The results of this survey demonstrate that linear variability of temporal measures of swing and stance was most capable of distinguishing between fallers and non-fallers, whereas step width and stride velocity prove more capable of discriminating between old versus young (OY) adults. In addition, while orbital stability measures (Floquet multipliers) applied to gait have been shown to distinguish between both elderly fallers and non-fallers as well as between young and old adults, local stability measures (λs) have been able to distinguish between young and old adults. Both linear and nonlinear measures of foot

  18. Imbalance in individual researcher's peer review activities quantified for four British Ecological Society journals, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchey, Owen L; Fox, Jeremy W; Haddon, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Researchers contribute to the scientific peer review system by providing reviews, and "withdraw" from it by submitting manuscripts that are subsequently reviewed. So far as we are aware, there has been no quantification of the balance of individual's contributions and withdrawals. We compared the number of reviews provided by individual researchers (i.e., their contribution) to the number required by their submissions (i.e. their withdrawals) in a large and anonymised database provided by the British Ecological Society. The database covered the Journal of Ecology, Journal of Animal Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, and Functional Ecology from 2003-2010. The majority of researchers (64%) did not have balanced contributions and withdrawals. Depending on assumptions, 12% to 44% contributed more than twice as much as required; 20% to 52% contributed less than half as much as required. Balance, or lack thereof, varied little in relation to the number of years a researcher had been active (reviewing or submitting). Researchers who contributed less than required did not lack the opportunity to review. Researchers who submitted more were more likely to accept invitations to review. These finding suggest overall that peer review of the four analysed journals is not in crisis, but only due to the favourable balance of over- and under-contributing researchers. These findings are limited to the four journals analysed, and therefore cannot include researcher's other peer review activities, which if included might change the proportions reported. Relatively low effort was required to assemble, check, and analyse the data. Broader analyses of individual researcher's peer review activities would contribute to greater quality, efficiency, and fairness in the peer review system.

  19. Single case design studies in music therapy: resurrecting experimental evidence in small group and individual music therapy clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Kamile; Hitchcock, John H

    2014-01-01

    The profession would benefit from greater and routine generation of causal evidence pertaining to the impact of music therapy interventions on client outcomes. One way to meet this goal is to revisit the use of Single Case Designs (SCDs) in clinical practice and research endeavors in music therapy. Given the appropriate setting and goals, this design can be accomplished with small sample sizes and it is often appropriate for studying music therapy interventions. In this article, we promote and discuss implementation of SCD studies in music therapy settings, review the meaning of internal study validity and by extension the notion of causality, and describe two of the most commonly used SCDs to demonstrate how they can help generate causal evidence to inform the field. In closing, we describe the need for replication and future meta-analysis of SCD studies completed in music therapy settings. SCD studies are both feasible and appropriate for use in music therapy clinical practice settings, particularly for testing effectiveness of interventions for individuals or small groups. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águida Foerster

    Full Text Available Introduction Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been used to modify cortical excitability and promote motor learning. Objective To systematically review published data to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning in healthy individuals. Methods Randomized or quasi-randomized studies that evaluated the tDCS effects on motor learning were included and the risk of bias was examined by Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. The following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL with no language restriction. Results It was found 160 studies; after reading the title and abstract, 17 of those were selected, but just 4 were included. All studies involved healthy, right-handed adults. All studies assessed motor learning by the Jebsen Taylor Test or by the Serial Finger Tapping Task (SFTT. Almost all studies were randomized and all were blinding for participants. Some studies presented differences at SFTT protocol. Conclusion The result is insufficient to draw conclusions if tDCS influences the motor learning. Furthermore, there was significant heterogeneity of the stimulation parameters used. Further researches are needed to investigate the parameters that are more important for motor learning improvement and measure whether the effects are long-lasting or limited in time.

  1. Individuals with bipolar disorder and their relationship with the criminal justice system: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovet, Thomas; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Vaiva, Guillaume; Adins, Catherine; Thomas, Pierre; Amad, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and prevalent psychiatric disease. Poor outcomes include a high frequency of criminal acts, imprisonments, and repeat offenses. This critical review of the international literature examined several aspects of the complex relationship between individuals with bipolar disorder and the criminal justice system: risk factors for criminal acts, features of bipolar patients' incarceration, and their postrelease trajectories. Publications were obtained from the PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases by using the following MeSH headings: prison, forensic psychiatry, criminal law, crime, and bipolar disorder. Among patients with bipolar disorder, the frequency of violent criminal acts is higher than in the general population (odds ratio [OR]=2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.8-4.3). The frequency is higher among patients with bipolar disorder and a comorbid substance use disorder than among those without either disorder (OR=10.1, CI=5.3-19.2). As a result, the prevalence of bipolar disorder among prisoners is high (2%-7%). In prison, patients' bipolar disorder symptoms can complicate their relationship with prison administrators, leading to an increased risk of multiple incarcerations. Moreover, the risk of suicide increases for these prisoners. Criminal acts are common among patients with bipolar disorder and are often associated with problems such as addiction. Thus it is important to improve the diagnosis and treatment of inmates with bipolar disorder.

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dropout rates in individual psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Hallford, David J; Rice, Simon M; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Gersh, Hannah; Gersh, Benji; McCarty, Carolyn A

    2017-12-01

    Despite being a relatively prevalent and debilitating disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is the second least studied anxiety disorder and among the most difficult to treat. Dropout from psychotherapy is concerning as it is associated with poorer outcomes, leads to service inefficiencies and can disproportionately affect disadvantaged populations. No study to date has calculated a weighted mean dropout rate for GAD and explored associated correlates. A systematic review was conducted using PsycINFO, Medline and Embase databases, identifying studies investigating individual psychotherapies for adults with GAD. Forty-five studies, involving 2224 participants, were identified for meta-analysis. The weighted mean dropout rate was 16.99% (95% confidence interval 14.42%-19.91%). The Q-statistic indicated significant heterogeneity among studies. Moderator analysis and meta-regressions indicated no statistically significant effect of client age, sex, symptom severity, comorbidity, treatment type, study type (randomized trial or not), study quality, number of sessions or therapist experience. In research investigating psychotherapy for GAD, approximately one in six clients can be expected to drop out of treatment. Dropout rate was not significantly moderated by the client, therapist or treatment variables investigated. Future research should specify the definition of dropout, reasons for dropout and associated correlates to assist the field's progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social cognition and individual effectiveness in interpersonal scenarios: A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilamadhab Kar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition, the ability to act wisely in social interaction, is being actively researched in various fields besides the clinical, behavioral, and psychological sciences. The objectives of this paper are to review the conceptual basis of social cognition and its applicability in the areas of social competence and effectiveness in interpersonal environments. Social cognitive skills enable understanding of social situations. The relationship between social cognitive skills and ability of emotional decoding of self and others has been explored. The paper discusses various processes that are operative in the interactional scenarios and have relevance in individual effectiveness. Concepts such as emotional intelligence, trait transference, person-perception, categorical thinking, and knowledge construction have been discussed in relation to social cognition and effectiveness. The role of thoughts, feelings, expectations, and relational schemas in interpersonal situations has been linked to performances. In addition, effectiveness is influenced by motivated social cognitions, ego-tasks, global, and context-specific goals. Various strategies such as cognitive and social problem-solving and proactive-coping have been elaborated which lead to better outcomes in interpersonal environments.

  4. Online-based interventions for sexual health among individuals with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Sun; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Seong Man; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2018-03-07

    Online interventions have the advantages of being widely available, accessible, comfortable, cost effective, and they can provide tailored information and support. Despite these benefits, the effects of specifically devised online intervention programs for cancer patients' sexual problems are somewhat unclear. The aim of this review is to describe online-based interventions and to assess their effects on sexual health among cancer survivors and/or their partners. We investigated the effects of online sexual interventions among individuals with cancer or their partners. Among these, we considered 4 eligible articles. Despite the diversity of contents of the interventions, the identified modes of delivery among most of the interventions were as follows: education, interactive methods, cognitive behavior therapy, tailored information, and self-monitoring. Methods of monitoring the interventions, including the utilization of the web site and post-treatment program rating, were reported. All the online intervention programs incorporated a focus on physical, psychological, cognitive, and social aspects of sexual health. Significant effects on patient sexual function and interest and the psychological aspect of sexual problems were reported. This study provides evidence that online-based interventions would be effective in improving the psycho-sexual problems of cancer survivors and their partners.

  5. Histological Stains: A Literature Review and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturkistani, Hani A; Tashkandi, Faris M; Mohammedsaleh, Zuhair M

    2015-06-25

    The history of histology indicates that there have been significant changes in the techniques used for histological staining through chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques, collectively referred to as histochemistry. Early histologists used the readily available chemicals to prepare tissues for microscopic studies; these laboratory chemicals were potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden cellular tissues. Staining techniques used were carmine, silver nitrate, Giemsa, Trichrome Stains, Gram Stain and Hematoxylin among others. The purpose of this research was to assess past and current literature reviews, as well as case studies, with the aim of informing ways in which histological stains have been improved in the modern age. Results from the literature review has indicated that there has been an improvement in histopathology and histotechnology in stains used. There has been a rising need for efficient, accurate and less complex staining procedures. Many stain procedures are still in use today, and many others have been replaced with new immunostaining, molecular, non-culture and other advanced staining techniques. Some staining methods have been abandoned because the chemicals required have been medically proven to be toxic. The case studies indicated that in modern histology a combination of different stain techniques are used to enhance the effectiveness of the staining process. Currently, improved histological stains, have been modified and combined with other stains to improve their effectiveness.

  6. Review of extended producer responsibility: A case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupt, Yamini; Sahay, Samraj

    2015-07-01

    Principles of extended producer responsibility have been the core of most of the recent policies and legislation dealing with the end-of-life management of recyclable goods. This article makes an exploratory review of 27 cases of extended producer responsibility from developed and developing economies with and without informal recycling, to ascertain the most important aspect of extended producer responsibility. A comparative analysis of the cases with respect to role of stakeholders in the upstream and downstream stages of the extended producer responsibility has been carried out. Further, the study uses exploratory factor analysis to determine the important aspects of the extended producer responsibility in practice using 13 variables identified from the review. Findings of the comparative analysis reveal that financial responsibility of the producers and separate collecting and recycling agencies contributed significantly to the success of the extended producer responsibility-based environmental policies. Regulatory provisions, take-back responsibility and financial flow come out to be the three most important aspects of the extended producer responsibility. Presence of informal sector had a negative impact on the regulatory provisions. The outcomes of this study could serve as a guideline for designing of effective extended producer responsibility-based policies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Case report and literature review of adamantinoma of long bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhenhua; Chen Yingming; Guan Jian; Meng Junfei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical, imaging and pathological features of adamantinoma of long bone to aid preoperative diagnosis. Methods: A case of adamantinoma of long bone was reported and the related literature was reviewed. Results: Literature review showed that long bone ameloblastoma was more common in young adults older than 20 years of age (86.3%) and occurred mainly in the tibial shaft (90%). The clinical, imaging and pathological features in our patient were consistent with those reported in the literature. Among 39 cases in the Chinese literature, radiographic findings included uni-or multi-cystic bone destruction with well-defined borders (87.2%), bone expansion (61.8%), partial loss of cortical bone (26.5%), bone sclerosis (38.2%), and no periosteal new bone reaction (100%). Pathology showed epithelial and fibrous differentiation. Conclusion: Adamantinoma of long bone should be considered in patients older than 20 years of age with tibial lesions that have imaging characteristics of benign bone tumors or some malignant features. (authors)

  8. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Case-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen H. Reynolds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is a condition of increased microbial load in the small intestine. The microbes feed on dietary carbohydrates and starches via fermentation, leading to gas production, inflammation and damage to the lining of the small intestine. Clinical presentation is varied, including abdominal pain, bloating, malabsorption and systemic symptoms. SIBO is associated with many challenging and chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and chronic pain syndromes, and has been shown to be a causative factor in two out of three cases of irritable bowel syndrome. Symptoms improve with antimicrobial treatment, but recurrence is common. Many providers may not be aware of SIBO. This narrative review highlights a clinical case and the most recent literature regarding SIBO, including history, clinical presentation, prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, treatment and prevention. Integrative medicine approaches, including diet, supplements and manual therapies, are also reviewed. SIBO can be a challenging condition and requires an integrative, patient-centered approach. Further studies are needed to guide clinicians in the workup and treatment of SIBO.

  9. Electron Beam Melting Manufacturing Technology for Individually Manufactured Jaw Prosthesis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suska, Felicia; Kjeller, Göran; Tarnow, Peter; Hryha, Eduard; Nyborg, Lars; Snis, Anders; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-08-01

    In the field of maxillofacial reconstruction, additive manufacturing technologies, specifically electron beam melting (EBM), offer clinicians the potential for patient-customized design of jaw prostheses, which match both load-bearing and esthetic demands. The technique allows an innovative, functional design, combining integrated porous regions for bone ingrowth and secondary biological fixation with solid load-bearing regions ensuring the biomechanical performance. A patient-specific mandibular prosthesis manufactured using EBM was successfully used to reconstruct a patient's mandibular defect after en bloc resection. Over a 9-month follow-up period, the patient had no complications. A short operating time, good esthetic outcome, and high level of patient satisfaction as measured by quality-of-life questionnaires-the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (30-item quality-of-life core questionnaire) and H&N35 (head and neck cancer module)-were reported for this case. Individually planned and designed EBM-produced prostheses may be suggested as a possible future alternative to fibular grafts or other reconstructive methods. However, the role of porosity, the role of geometry, and the optimal combination of solid and porous parts, as well as surface properties in relation to soft tissues, should be carefully evaluated in long-term clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Melioidosis in Malaysia: A Review of Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Paul Vijay; Leader, Mark; Nagodawithana, Nandika Suranjith; Tipre, Meghan; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2016-01-01

    Background Melioidosis is a tropical infectious disease associated with significant mortality due to early onset of sepsis. Objective We sought to review case reports of melioidosis from Malaysia. Methods We conducted a computerized search of literature resources including PubMed, OVID, Scopus, MEDLINE and the COCHRANE database to identify published case reports from 1975 to 2015. We abstracted information on clinical characteristics, exposure history, comorbid conditions, management and outcome. Results Overall, 67 cases were reported with 29 (43%) deaths; the median age was 44 years, and a male preponderance (84%) was noted. Forty-one cases (61%) were bacteremic, and fatal septic shock occurred in 13 (19%) within 24–48 hours of admission; nine of the 13 cases were not specifically treated for melioidosis as confirmatory evidence was available only after death. Diabetes mellitus (n = 36, 54%) was the most common risk factor. Twenty-six cases (39%) had a history of exposure to contaminated soil/water or employment in high-risk occupations. Pneumonia (n = 24, 36%) was the most common primary clinical presentation followed by soft tissue abscess (n = 22, 33%). Other types of clinical presentations were less common—genitourinary (n = 5), neurological (n = 5), osteomyelitis/septic arthritis (n = 4) and skin (n = 2); five cases had no evidence of a focus of infection. With regard to internal foci of infection, abscesses of the subcutaneous tissue (n = 14, 21%) was the most common followed by liver (18%); abscesses of the spleen and lung were the third most common (12% each). Seven of 56 males were reported to have prostatic abscesses. Mycotic pseudoaneurysm occurred in five cases. Only one case of parotid abscess was reported in an adult. Of the 67 cases, 13 were children (≤ 18 years of age) with seven deaths; five of the 13 were neonates presenting primarily with bronchopneumonia, four of whom died. Older children had a similar presentation as adults; no case of

  11. Melioidosis in Malaysia: A Review of Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Paul Vijay; Leader, Mark; Nagodawithana, Nandika Suranjith; Tipre, Meghan; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2016-12-01

    Melioidosis is a tropical infectious disease associated with significant mortality due to early onset of sepsis. We sought to review case reports of melioidosis from Malaysia. We conducted a computerized search of literature resources including PubMed, OVID, Scopus, MEDLINE and the COCHRANE database to identify published case reports from 1975 to 2015. We abstracted information on clinical characteristics, exposure history, comorbid conditions, management and outcome. Overall, 67 cases were reported with 29 (43%) deaths; the median age was 44 years, and a male preponderance (84%) was noted. Forty-one cases (61%) were bacteremic, and fatal septic shock occurred in 13 (19%) within 24-48 hours of admission; nine of the 13 cases were not specifically treated for melioidosis as confirmatory evidence was available only after death. Diabetes mellitus (n = 36, 54%) was the most common risk factor. Twenty-six cases (39%) had a history of exposure to contaminated soil/water or employment in high-risk occupations. Pneumonia (n = 24, 36%) was the most common primary clinical presentation followed by soft tissue abscess (n = 22, 33%). Other types of clinical presentations were less common-genitourinary (n = 5), neurological (n = 5), osteomyelitis/septic arthritis (n = 4) and skin (n = 2); five cases had no evidence of a focus of infection. With regard to internal foci of infection, abscesses of the subcutaneous tissue (n = 14, 21%) was the most common followed by liver (18%); abscesses of the spleen and lung were the third most common (12% each). Seven of 56 males were reported to have prostatic abscesses. Mycotic pseudoaneurysm occurred in five cases. Only one case of parotid abscess was reported in an adult. Of the 67 cases, 13 were children (≤ 18 years of age) with seven deaths; five of the 13 were neonates presenting primarily with bronchopneumonia, four of whom died. Older children had a similar presentation as adults; no case of parotid abscess was reported among

  12. Melioidosis in Malaysia: A Review of Case Reports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vijay Kingsley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is a tropical infectious disease associated with significant mortality due to early onset of sepsis.We sought to review case reports of melioidosis from Malaysia.We conducted a computerized search of literature resources including PubMed, OVID, Scopus, MEDLINE and the COCHRANE database to identify published case reports from 1975 to 2015. We abstracted information on clinical characteristics, exposure history, comorbid conditions, management and outcome.Overall, 67 cases were reported with 29 (43% deaths; the median age was 44 years, and a male preponderance (84% was noted. Forty-one cases (61% were bacteremic, and fatal septic shock occurred in 13 (19% within 24-48 hours of admission; nine of the 13 cases were not specifically treated for melioidosis as confirmatory evidence was available only after death. Diabetes mellitus (n = 36, 54% was the most common risk factor. Twenty-six cases (39% had a history of exposure to contaminated soil/water or employment in high-risk occupations. Pneumonia (n = 24, 36% was the most common primary clinical presentation followed by soft tissue abscess (n = 22, 33%. Other types of clinical presentations were less common-genitourinary (n = 5, neurological (n = 5, osteomyelitis/septic arthritis (n = 4 and skin (n = 2; five cases had no evidence of a focus of infection. With regard to internal foci of infection, abscesses of the subcutaneous tissue (n = 14, 21% was the most common followed by liver (18%; abscesses of the spleen and lung were the third most common (12% each. Seven of 56 males were reported to have prostatic abscesses. Mycotic pseudoaneurysm occurred in five cases. Only one case of parotid abscess was reported in an adult. Of the 67 cases, 13 were children (≤ 18 years of age with seven deaths; five of the 13 were neonates presenting primarily with bronchopneumonia, four of whom died. Older children had a similar presentation as adults; no case of parotid abscess was reported among

  13. Isolated pulmonary vasculitis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Leyre; Zurbano, Felipe; Gómez-Román, Javier; Martínez-Meñaca, Amaya; López, Marta; Hernández, Miguel A; Pina, Trinitario; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Single-organ vasculitis has been reported to affect the skin, kidneys, central nervous system, peripheral nerves, genitourinary tract, calf muscles, aorta, coronary arteries, retina, or gastrointestinal tract. However, isolated pulmonary vasculitis is a very rare entity. Our aims were to describe a case of localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels and review the literature. A patient with localized pulmonary vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels that presented as pulmonary arterial hypertension is described. A MEDLINE database search of cases with localized pulmonary vasculitis was also conducted. A 30-year-old man presented with pulmonary hypertension due to isolated pulmonary medium-sized vessel vasculitis that was confirmed histologically. Initially he responded to corticosteroids and vasodilator treatment, but therapy eventually lost efficacy. Treatment with rituximab was not effective, and as the clinical situation worsened, lung transplant was performed. Isolated large pulmonary vessel disease, often related to Takayasu disease or giant cell arteritis, may present as pulmonary artery hypertension, thus mimicking chronic thromboembolic disease. Medium- and small-vessel pulmonary vasculitis usually develops in the context of a systemic disease. Some cases of isolated small-vessel vasculitis have been reported presenting as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. In contrast, our case developed pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to medium-sized vessels vasculitis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of lung transplantation in isolated pulmonary vasculitis. Pulmonary isolated vasculitis is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension but it must be taken into consideration after more common disorders are excluded. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Otomastoiditis caused by Sphingomonas paucimobilis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Gabriel Nuncio; Hein, Noely; Lo, Denise Swei; Ferronato, Angela Esposito; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta; Yoshioka, Cristina Ryoka Miyao; Hirose, Maki; Cardoso, Debora Morais; Regina Dos Santos, Silvia; Gilio, Alfredo Elias

    2014-01-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis is an aerobic Gram-negative bacillus that, although rare in humans, most commonly infects immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Among the 59 pediatric cases of S. paucimobilis infection reported in the literature, the most common diagnosis involves isolated bacteremia. These cases are related to sporadic or epidemic infections. Death related to this infection occurred in only one case. The authors report a case of an 11-year-old boy with the diagnosis of Sphingomonas paucimobilis otomastoiditis and a thorough review of the literature on this infection in pediatrics. The patient presented a 20-day history of fever, otalgia, otorrhea, and progressive retroauricular swelling with protrusion of the left ear; despite 15 days of amoxicillin regimen. His past medical history included chronic bilateral otitis media, but no cause of immunosuppression was found. A brain computed tomography scan showed left otomastoiditis associated with a large circumscribed fluid collection with deep involvement of the soft tissues of the temporal region, including the subperiosteal space. Blood tests showed neutrophilia and elevated C-reactive protein. Surgical manipulation of the cited collection drained a large amount of a fetid purulent secretion. Ceftazidime and clindamycin were empirically initiated. The outcome was favorable, with fever defervescence and resolution of the scalp deformation. Culture of the drained secretion was positive for S. paucimobilis . Ciprofloxacin was scheduled for a further 10 days after discharge. The follow-up showed complete recovery. As far as we know, this is the first case of S. paucimobilis otomastoiditis, complicated with subperiosteal abscess in an immunocompetent child. The authors call attention to the increasing number of reports on S. paucimobilis infection over the years, and therefore to the importance of this pathogen, which was previously underestimated.

  15. Otomastoiditis caused by Sphingomonas paucimobilis: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nuncio Benevides

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomonas paucimobilis is an aerobic Gram-negative bacillus that, although rare in humans, most commonly infects immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Among the 59 pediatric cases of S. paucimobilis infection reported in the literature, the most common diagnosis involves isolated bacteremia. These cases are related to sporadic or epidemic infections. Death related to this infection occurred in only one case. The authors report a case of an 11-year-old boy with the diagnosis of Sphingomonas paucimobilis otomastoiditis and a thorough review of the literature on this infection in pediatrics. The patient presented a 20-day history of fever, otalgia, otorrhea, and progressive retroauricular swelling with protrusion of the left ear; despite 15 days of amoxicillin regimen. His past medical history included chronic bilateral otitis media, but no cause of immunosuppression was found. A brain computed tomography scan showed left otomastoiditisassociated with a large circumscribed fluid collection with deep involvement of the soft tissues of the temporal region, including the subperiosteal space. Blood tests showed neutrophilia and elevated C-reactive protein. Surgical manipulation of the cited collection drained a large amount of a fetid purulent secretion. Ceftazidime and clindamycin were empirically initiated. The outcome was favorable, with fever defervescence and resolution of the scalp deformation. Culture of the drained secretion was positive for S. paucimobilis. Ciprofloxacin was scheduled for a further 10 days after discharge. The follow-up showed complete recovery. As far as we know, this is the first case of S. paucimobilis otomastoiditis, complicated with subperiosteal abscess in an immunocompetent child. The authors call attention to the increasing number of reports on S. paucimobilis infection over the years, and therefore to the importance of this pathogen, which was previously underestimated.

  16. True aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenzhuan; Gandhi, Chirag D; Quinn, John; Karimi, Reza; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2011-01-01

    To review and analyze systematically the reported cases of "true" posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm. A retrospective review of the published literature was performed, and a meta-analysis of individual patient data was conducted. Pooled data showed that "true" PCoA aneurysms represent about 1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8%, 1.7%) of all intracranial aneurysms and 6.8% (95% CI 4.3%, 9.2%) of all PCoA aneurysms. Mean patient age was 53.5 years (53.5 years ± 15.4), and age range was 23-79 years. Of the 49 patients reported in the literature, 44 (89.8%) were reported as ruptured, and 4 (10.2%) were reported as unruptured. There were no significant differences in ruptured status between age (P = 0.321), left vs right aneurysm (P = 0.537), and shape of aneurysm (P = 0.408). No significant differences in complication rates were found between rupture status (P = 0.27), and operative modalities (P = 0.878). The mean ages of patients who had no complications and patients who had complications were 53 years (53 years ± 2.59) vs 53.2 years (53.2 years ± 5.02) (P = 0.972). "True" PCoA aneurysms represent about 1.3% of all intracranial aneurysms and 6.8% of all PCoA aneurysms. They are more prone to rupture compared with their counterpart junctional aneurysms. When surgical management is indicated, a good understanding of the location and configuration of the aneurysm neck before surgical treatment is critical in the successful treatment of these lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychiatric disorders in the parents of individuals with infantile autism: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2007-01-01

    The rates and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in the parents of individuals with infantile autism (IA).......The rates and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in the parents of individuals with infantile autism (IA)....

  18. A Japanese case of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) and a review of AAG cases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Michiyuki; Ishii, Yuko

    2009-03-12

    A 29-year-old woman presented with acute, pure autonomic (both sympathetic and parasympathetic) failure and positive antibody to ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; the diagnosis was autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). She had typical symptoms of AAG, although the patient also had coughing episodes and psychiatric symptoms, which are not typical of AAG in Western countries but are common in AAG cases in Japan. In a review of the Japanese literature, 29 cases of AAG had been reported. AAG patients in Japan were younger and more male predominant than in Western countries. Of the patients in these 29 cases, 10 (34.5%) had coughing episodes and 12 (41.4%) had psychiatric symptoms.

  19. Regulatory review of safety cases and safety assessments for near surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nys, V.

    2003-01-01

    The activities of the ASAM Regulatory Review Working Group are presented. Regulatory review of the safety assessment is made. It includes the regulatory review of post-closure safety assessment; safety case development and confidence building. The ISAM methodology is reviewed and SA system description is presented. Recommendations on the review process management are given

  20. Individual Tariffs for Mobile Services: Theoretical Framework and a Computational Case in Mobile Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hong; Pau, Louis-François

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces individual tariffs at service and content bundle level in mobile communications. It gives a theoretical framework (economic, sociological) as well as a computational game solution method. The user can be an individual or a community. Individual tariffs are decided through interactions between the user and the supplier. A numerical example from mobile music illustrates the concepts.

  1. Humanitarian logistics: Review and case study of Zimbabwean experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and presents findings on mini-case studies done on the difficulties and problems faced by humanitarian organisations in running logistics systems in Zimbabwe. Document analysis was done and this was complemented by mini-case studies and semi-structured interviews and site visits. Mini-case studies of the operations of the World Food Programme, the International Red Cross Society and the Zimbabwe Red Cross Society, the World Health Organisation, the United Nations Children's Fund and the Zimbabwean Civil Protection Organisation in Zimbabwe are discussed. These clarify the difficulties and problems faced such as the lack of trained logistics personnel, lack of access to specialised humanitarian logistics courses and research information, the difficulty in using and adapting existing logistics systems in attending to humanitarian logistics and the lack of collaborative efforts that address the area specifically. This study seeks to use primary and secondary information to inform decision-making in humanitarian logistics with possible lessons for neighbouring countries, other regions in Africa and beyond. Activities on collaborative networks that are beneficial to humanitarian logistics are also suggested.

  2. Urinothorax: Case report and systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Casallas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinothorax, the presence of urine in the pleural space, is a rare cause of pleural effusion, usually associated with obstructive uropathy, or urinary trauma. We present the case of a 3 year-old boy and a systematic review of the literature of the 44 cases encountered. After resection of a Wilm's tumour in the right kidney our patient presented acute respiratory distress associated with radiographically confirmed pleural effusion. With the initial diagnosis of pneumonia or malignant pleural effusion, a closed thoracotomy was performed. The liquid obtained suggested urine, which was confirmed by the laboratory. Cystoscopy with retrograde pyelography detected a fistula on the posterior wall of the right kidney. The report of cases worldwide is low, probably due to its low incidence but also to underdiagnosis. Respiratory symptoms are not always present and urological symptoms usually predominate. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and is confirmed by the main biochemical marker: The ratio >1 .0 pleural fluid creatinine and creatinine serum.

  3. Non-allergic rhinitis: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Lew D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rhinitis is characterized by rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal congestion, nasal itch and/or postnasal drip. Often the first step in arriving at a diagnosis is to exclude or diagnose sensitivity to inhalant allergens. Non-allergic rhinitis (NAR comprises multiple distinct conditions that may even co-exist with allergic rhinitis (AR. They may differ in their presentation and treatment. As well, the pathogenesis of NAR is not clearly elucidated and likely varied. There are many conditions that can have similar presentations to NAR or AR, including nasal polyps, anatomical/mechanical factors, autoimmune diseases, metabolic conditions, genetic conditions and immunodeficiency. Here we present a case of a rare condition initially diagnosed and treated as typical allergic rhinitis vs. vasomotor rhinitis, but found to be something much more serious. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining an appropriate differential diagnosis for a complaint routinely seen as mundane. The case presentation is followed by a review of the potential causes and pathogenesis of NAR.

  4. Ovarian tumours in children : A review of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelouhab Ammor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : To review the experience of Children′s Hospital of Rabat in managing ovarian tumours in children. Materials and Methods: There were 18 patients between 2 and 15 years of age who presented with an ovarian tumour at Children′s Hospital of Rabat between January 2000 and December 2008. Data collected from the hospital medical records included age at diagnosis, patient′s history, presenting complaints, radiological examination, tumour markers, management, operative procedure, histopathological examination and outcome of the patients. Results : The most common presenting complaint was abdominal pain in 10 (55% patient. 77% of ovarian tumours were germ cell tumours; 71% of these were teratomas which were benign in 66% of cases. Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the most common surgical procedure performed in 15 patients (83% through laparotomy. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy was carried out in 2 (11% patients with benign cystic teratoma. Of the 7 (39% patients with malignant tumours, three received postoperative chemotherapy. Outcome was good in most cases. There were no cases of resistance to treatment, or death. Conclusion : Early diagnosis of ovarian tumours in children and adolescents is important. Since most of these tumours are benign, surgical treatment should be conservative to minimise the risk of subsequent infertility, while the treatment of malignant tumours should include complete staging, resection of the tumour, postoperative chemotherapy when indicated, to give the patient a chance for future childbearing.

  5. Long working hours and depressive symptoms: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, M.; Jokela, M.; Madsen, I. E.; Magnusson Hanson, L. L.; Lallukka, T.; Nyberg, S. T.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, D.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Dragano, N.; Erbel, R.; Ferrie, J. E.; Heikkilä, K.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published prospective cohort studies and included available cohorts with unpublished individual-participant data. We used a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate summary estimates across studies. Results We identi...

  6. Case-Crossover Analysis of Air Pollution Health Effects: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Taracido, Margarita; Tobias, Aurelio; Saez, Marc; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background Case-crossover is one of the most used designs for analyzing the health-related effects of air pollution. Nevertheless, no one has reviewed its application and methodology in this context. Objective We conducted a systematic review of case-crossover (CCO) designs used to study the relationship between air pollution and morbidity and mortality, from the standpoint of methodology and application. Data sources and extraction A search was made of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Reports were classified as methodologic or applied. From the latter, the following information was extracted: author, study location, year, type of population (general or patients), dependent variable(s), independent variable(s), type of CCO design, and whether effect modification was analyzed for variables at the individual level. Data synthesis The review covered 105 reports that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 24 addressed methodological aspects, and the remainder involved the design’s application. In the methodological reports, the designs that yielded the best results in simulation were symmetric bidirectional CCO and time-stratified CCO. Furthermore, we observed an increase across time in the use of certain CCO designs, mainly symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. The dependent variables most frequently analyzed were those relating to hospital morbidity; the pollutants most often studied were those linked to particulate matter. Among the CCO-application reports, 13.6% studied effect modification for variables at the individual level. Conclusions The use of CCO designs has undergone considerable growth; the most widely used designs were those that yielded better results in simulation studies: symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. However, the advantages of CCO as a method of analysis of variables at the individual level are put to little use. PMID:20356818

  7. Everyday Decision Making in Individuals with Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rebecca; Ziomkowski, Mary K; Veltkamp, Amy

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) demonstrate fluctuation in cognitive abilities that can affect their ability to make decisions. Everyday decision making encompasses the types of decisions about typical daily activities, such as what to eat, what to do, and what to wear. Everyday decisions are encountered many times per day by individuals with AD/dementia and their caregivers. However, not much is known about the ability of individuals with AD/dementia to make these types of decisions. The purpose of the current literature review was to synthesize the evidence regarding everyday decision making in individuals with early-stage AD/dementia. Findings from the review indicate there is beginning evidence that individuals with early to moderate stages of AD/dementia desire to have input in daily decisions, have the ability to state their wishes consistently at times, and having input in decision making is important to their selfhood. The literature revealed few interventions to assist individuals with AD/dementia in everyday decision making. Findings from the review are discussed with implications for nursing practice and research. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(5):240-247.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Home foreclosure, health, and mental health: a systematic review of individual, aggregate, and contextual associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    Full Text Available The U.S. foreclosure crisis intensified markedly during the Great Recession of 2007-09, and currently an estimated five percent of U.S. residential properties are more than 90 days past due or in the process of foreclosure. Yet there has been no systematic assessment of the effects of foreclosure on health and mental health.I applied systematic search terms to PubMed and PsycINFO to identify quantitative or qualitative studies about the relationship between home foreclosure and health or mental health. After screening the titles and abstracts of 930 publications and reviewing the full text of 76 articles, dissertations, and other reports, I identified 42 publications representing 35 unique studies about foreclosure, health, and mental health. The majority of studies (32 [91%] concluded that foreclosure had adverse effects on health or mental health, while three studies yielded null or mixed findings. Only two studies examined the extent to which foreclosure may have disproportionate impacts on ethnic or racial minority populations.Home foreclosure adversely affects health and mental health through channels operating at multiple levels: at the individual level, the stress of personally experiencing foreclosure was associated with worsened mental health and adverse health behaviors, which were in turn linked to poorer health status; at the community level, increasing degradation of the neighborhood environment had indirect, cross-level adverse effects on health and mental health. Early intervention may be able to prevent acute economic shocks from eventually developing into the chronic stress of foreclosure, with all of the attendant benefits this implies for health and mental health status. Programs designed to encourage early return of foreclosed properties back into productive use may have similar health and mental health benefits.

  9. Report on the individual review of the annual submission of Spain submitted in 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Paciornik, Newton; Romano, Daniela

    This report covers the review of the 2016 annual submission of Spain organized by the UNFCCC secretariat, in accordance with the “Guidelines for review under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol” (decision 22/CMP.1, as revised by decision 4/CMP.11). As indicated in the Article 8 review guidelines...

  10. Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis: Case Reports and an Up-to-Date Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbi Lulsegged

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe 2 cases of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. Methods. We report of 2 cases of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in 2 individuals from 2 different backgrounds with emphasis on their presentation and treatment. We also conducted a literature search to put together an update review of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. Results. A 47-year-old Chinese and 28-year-old Caucasian male presented with profound yet reversible weakness associated with hypokalemia on admission bloods and thyrotoxicosis. Both were given definitive therapy to prevent recurrence of attacks with any future relapse of thyrotoxicosis. Conclusion. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a rare but potentially serious complication of thyrotoxicosis resulting in temporary but severe muscle weakness. Recent discovery of a novel mutation in the KCNJ18 gene which codes for an inwardly rectifying potassium channel and is controlled by thyroid hormones may provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of TPP.

  11. Inquilinus limosus in pulmonary disease: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Kelsey E; Rhoads, Daniel D; Wilson, Deborah A; Highland, Kristin B; Richter, Sandra S; Procop, Gary W

    2016-12-01

    Inquilinus limosus is a slow growing, gram-negative, oxidase-positive, non-fermentative bacillus that is rarely isolated from clinical samples. When clinically identified, I. limosus is almost exclusively isolated from the respiratory tracts of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We report the first case of I. limosus isolation from a pulmonary specimen in an individual without a diagnosis of CF. A review of the English-language literature has been made and shows 33 cases (excluding the present report) in which I. limosus was isolated from the respiratory tracts of patients. Our patient, at 60years of age, is more than two decades older than the any previously reported patient. Similar to previous reports, the I. limosus isolated from her lungs demonstrated intrinsic multidrug resistance. The pathogenicity, clinical relevance, and optimal therapeutic management of I. limosus remains largely unknown due to its infrequent recovery from clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Yield of diagnostic tests for celiac disease in individuals with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Chey, William D; Talley, Nicholas J; Malhotra, Ashish; Spiegel, Brennan M R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2009-04-13

    Individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) report abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea, symptoms similar to those in celiac disease. Studies suggest that the prevalence of celiac disease is increased in individuals with IBS; however, evidence is conflicting, and current guidelines do not always recommend screening for celiac disease in these individuals. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate prevalence of celiac disease in unselected adults who met diagnostic criteria for IBS. MEDLINE (1950 to May 31, 2008) and EMBASE (1980 to May 31, 2008) were searched. Case series and case-control studies that used serologic tests for celiac disease were eligible for inclusion. Prevalence of positive serologic indications of celiac disease and biopsy-proved celiac disease were extracted and pooled for all studies and were compared between cases and controls using an odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Fourteen studies were identified comprising 4204 individuals, of whom 2278 (54%) met diagnostic criteria for IBS. Pooled prevalence of positive IgA-class antigliadin antibodies, either positive endomysial antibodies or tissue transglutaminase, and biopsy-proved celiac disease were 4.0% (95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.2), 1.63% (0.7-3.0), and 4.1% (1.9-7.0), respectively. Pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for positive IgA-class antigliadin antibodies, either positive endomysial antibodies or tissue transglutaminase, and biopsy-proved celiac disease in cases meeting diagnostic criteria for IBS compared with controls without IBS were 3.40 (1.62-7.13), 2.94 (1.36-6.35), and 4.34 (1.78-10.6). Prevalence of biopsy-proved celiac disease in cases meeting diagnostic criteria for IBS was more than 4-fold that in controls without IBS.

  13. Hyperphagic short stature: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Varsha S.; Sarathi, Vijaya; Lila, Anurag R.; Bukan, Amol P.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A 5½-year-old adopted girl was referred to us in view of short stature. After ruling out systemic illness, she was evaluated for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) by stimulation tests. The peak value was 3.47 ng/ml. She was then started on growth hormone (GH). At the end of 6 months of GH therapy, her height velocity was only 3 cm/year. There was a lack of attachment between the mother and the child. She had history of hyperphagia, stealing, and hoarding food. Psychiatry consultation confirmed that the child had appetite disorder, and hence was diagnosed as hyperphagic short stature (HSS). The girl and her parents are undergoing psychiatric therapy for the same. Psychosocial dwarfism seems to originate from serious disturbances in the mother–child relationship. These children mimic patients with GHD, but have poor response to GH therapy. This case underscores the importance of social environment in the growth of the individual. PMID:22837929

  14. Educational data mining: a sample of review and study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pena, Rafael Domínguez, Jose de Jesus Medel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to encourage the research in a novel merged field: Educational data mining (EDM. Thereby, twosubjects are outlined: The first one corresponds to a review of data mining (DM methods and EDM applications. Thesecond topic represents an EDM study case. As a result of the application of DM in Web-based Education Systems (WBES,stratified groups of students were found during a trial. Such groups reveal key attributes of volunteers that deserted orremained during a WBES experiment. This kind of discovered knowledge inspires the statement of correlational hypothesisto set relations between attributes and behavioral patterns of WBES users. We concluded that: When EDM findings aretaken into account for designing and managing WBES, the learning objectives are improved

  15. Syndromic odontogenic keratocyst: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Fazil

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) may occur in two different forms, either as solitary (nonsyndromic OKCs) or as multiple OKCs (syndromic OKCs). Multiple OKCs usually occur as one of the findings in Gorlin–Goltz syndrome with other features such as skin carcinomas and rib, eye, and neurologic abnormalities. We report a rare case of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in a 20-year-old male patient who presented with a slow growing swelling on lower right and left back teeth region since 2 months. Apart from these, other findings were frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, ocular hypertelorism, prominent supra orbital ridge, and mild mandibular prognathism. Excision was done and microscopic study revealed OKC and the follow-up could not be carried out for the complete management. We also presented a review of its pathogenesis, criterion, and differences between syndromic and nonsyndromic OKCs and suggest to thoroughly examine any patient who presents with multiple OKCs to rule out syndromic variety. PMID:27011939

  16. Oral submucous fibrosis-Review and case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostehy, M. R. E.; AlJassem, A. A.; ElMahmeed, B. E.

    1989-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis is a disease that involves the oral mucosa and produces fibrous changes in several sites of the mouth. It could lead to severe oral deformities with inability to open the mouth, tongue depapillation, and sometimes horseness of voice. Clinical importance of the disease is due to two reasons, namely: (1) it is a disease that results from the use of betel-nut chewing in Indians as well as other nationalities adopting the oral habit of betel-nut chewing, (2) it is generally accepted to be a premalignant condition of the oral cavity.This paper reviews the disease and presents a severe case of this malady recorded in an Indian who chews pan-supari. (author)

  17. Jaguar Attack on a Child: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iserson, Kenneth V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jaguar attacks on humans rarely occur in the wild. When they do, they are often fatal. We describe a jaguar attack on a three-year-old girl near her home deep in a remote area of the Guyanese jungle. The patient had a complex but, relatively, rapid transport to a medical treatment facility for her life-threatening injuries. The child, who suffered typical jaguar-inflicted injury patterns and survived, is highlighted. We review jaguar anatomy, environmental status, hunting and killing behaviors, and discuss optimal medical management, given the resource-limited treatment environment of this international emergency medicine case. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:303–309.

  18. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  19. Cardiorespiratory Failure in Thyroid Storm: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Qiang; Ansari, Mohammad; Pak, Stella; Tian, Yufei; Amzad-Hossain, Mohammed; Zhang, Yanhong; Lou, Yali; Sen, Shuvendu; Islam, Mohammed

    2018-04-01

    Thyroid storm is a potentially fatal manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. Cardiopulmonary failure is the most common cause of death in thyroid storm. Clinicians should keep in mind that thyroid storm complicated with cardiopulmonary failure can be the first presentation of thyrotoxicosis. As early intervention is associated with improved patient outcome, prompt diagnosis based on clinical grounds is of paramount importance in the management of thyrotoxicosis. A high index of suspicion and the ability of early recognition of impending thyroid storm depends on a thorough knowledge of both the typical and atypical clinical features of this illness. Herein, we report a case of thyroid storm presenting as cardiopulmonary failure in a 51-year-old woman with undiagnosed Grave's disease. Additionally, we review the pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary failure associated with thyrotoxicosis and various treatment modalities for thyroid storm.

  20. [A new case of "olfactory schwannoma"; presentation and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soto, L; Alfaro-Baca, R; Torrecilla-Sardón, M V; Fernández-Vallejo, B; Ferreira-Muñóz, R; De Diego, T

    2009-06-01

    We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented at the Emergency Department with intense headache of 6-days duration and sporadic nominal dysphasia. He did not present anosmia and the rest of the examination was normal. The emergency CT and the posterior cerebral MR showed a great subfrontal extra-axial mass of 7 x 6 x 5 cm, over the right side of the cribiform plate, hetereogeneously enhancing after gadolinium administration. Preoperative diagnosis was olfactory groove meningioma. After total removal by bifrontal craniotomy the histopathological diagnosis was schwannoma of the conventional type. Owing to the unusual frequency of this kind of tumors (26 to the date), we review the literature, the possible radiological differences with olfactory groove meningiomas and the different theories about their origin.

  1. Facial hemiatrophy: Review of literature and a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha S Tijare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of hemifacial atrophy is presented in this paper. It is also known as Parry-Romberg syndrome, is an uncommon degenerative and poorly understood condition. It is characterized by progressive atrophy of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, cartilage or bone; the condition can leave a marked deformity on one side of the face. The incidence and the cause of this alteration is debatable. The most common complications that appear in association to this health disorder are: trigeminal neuritis, facial paresthesia, severe headache and epilepsy. Now, plastic surgery with graft of autogenous fat can be performed, after stabilization of the disease, to correct the deformity. Orthodontic treatment can help in the correction of any associated malformation. This presentation gives a review of concern literature about the etiology, physiopathology, differential diagnosis and treatment of hemifacial atrophy.

  2. Cardiorespiratory Failure in Thyroid Storm: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Qiang; Ansari, Mohammad; Pak, Stella; Tian, Yufei; Amzad-Hossain, Mohammed; Zhang, Yanhong; Lou, Yali; Sen, Shuvendu; Islam, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a potentially fatal manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. Cardiopulmonary failure is the most common cause of death in thyroid storm. Clinicians should keep in mind that thyroid storm complicated with cardiopulmonary failure can be the first presentation of thyrotoxicosis. As early intervention is associated with improved patient outcome, prompt diagnosis based on clinical grounds is of paramount importance in the management of thyrotoxicosis. A high index of suspicion and the ability of early recognition of impending thyroid storm depends on a thorough knowledge of both the typical and atypical clinical features of this illness. Herein, we report a case of thyroid storm presenting as cardiopulmonary failure in a 51-year-old woman with undiagnosed Grave’s disease. Additionally, we review the pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary failure associated with thyrotoxicosis and various treatment modalities for thyroid storm. PMID:29511425

  3. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, S; Kitaya, T; Kodama, T; Hasebe, T; Mukai, K

    1997-08-01

    We report a case of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis in a 35-year-old Japanese woman, who came to our hospital complaining of a tender mass in her right breast. Because the results of initial aspiration cytology were considered highly suspicious for carcinoma, modified radical mastectomy was performed. However, the final histological diagnosis was granulomatous lobular mastitis with no evidence of malignancy. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare inflammatory breast disease of unknown etiology. Since the clinical manifestations are similar to those of mammary carcinoma, this condition has been misdiagnosed as carcinoma and treated as such. A review of the literature revealed that idiopathic granulomatous mastitis has tended to occur in young patients with a history of childbirth or oral contraceptive usage. Clinical or imaging diagnosis has often been difficult. Complete resection or corticosteroid therapy can be recommended as the optimal treatment. Since 38% of patients experience recurrence, long-term follow-up is indicated.

  4. Individual capacity-building approaches in a global pharmaceutical systems strengthening program: a selected review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduri, Niranjan; Rauscher, Megan; Wang, Shiou-Chu Judy; Malpica-Llanos, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Medicines use related challenges such as inadequate adherence, high levels of antimicrobial resistance and preventable adverse drug reactions have underscored the need to incorporate pharmaceutical services to help achieve desired treatment outcomes, and protect patients from inappropriate use of medicines. This situation is further constrained by insufficient numbers of pharmaceutical personnel and inappropriate skill mix. Studies have addressed individual capacity building approaches of logistics, supply chain or disease specific interventions but few have documented those involving such pharmacy assistants/professionals, or health workers/professionals charged with improving access and provision of pharmaceutical services. We examined how different training modalities have been employed and adapted to meet country-specific context and needs by a global pharmaceutical systems strengthening program in collaboration with a country's Ministry of Health and local stakeholders. Structured, content analysis of training approaches from twelve selected countries and a survey among conveniently selected trainees in Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Case-based learning, practice and feedback, and repetitive interventions such as post-training action plan, supportive supervision and mentoring approaches are effective, evidence-based training techniques. In Ethiopia and Bangladesh, over 94% of respondents indicated that they have improved or developed skills or competencies as a result of the program's training activities. Supportive supervision structures and mentorship have been institutionalized with appropriate management structures. National authorities have been sensitized to secure funding from domestic resources or from the global fund grants for post-training follow-up initiatives. The Pharmaceutical Leadership Development Program is an effective, case-based training modality that motivates staff to develop quality-improvement interventions and solve specific challenges

  5. Addison's Disease in Evolution: An Illustrative Case and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Laura E; Kline, Gregory A; Dias, Valerian C

    2014-09-01

    To present a case of symptomatic autoimmune adrenal insufficiency with initially normal serum cortisol and to caution about limitations of the current diagnostic algorithm for adrenal insufficiency, which does not reflect the pathophysiology of early disease. We describe the clinical presentation and relevant investigations of a patient ultimately found to have Addison's disease, which is followed by a focused review of the literature. A 41-year-old Caucasian woman with autoimmune hypothyroidism, premature ovarian failure, and microscopic colitis presented with nausea, salt craving, increased skin pigmentation, and postural hypotension. Initial bloodwork revealed a normal morning cortisol of level of 19.2 μg/dL (normal, 7.2 to 25 μg/dL) but an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level 10 times normal, at 513.6 pg/mL (normal, <52.5 pg/mL). Her potassium was normal, but her aldosterone level was 4.12 ng/dL (normal, 12.3 to 62.5 ng/dL) and her renin activity was increased (23.0 mg/dL/hour; normal, <6.0 mg/dL/hour). Six weeks after initial presentation, she was found to have anti-adrenal antibodies. It was not until 10 weeks after her initial symptomatic presentation that her morning cortisol level was found to be subnormal and a formal diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency was made. The present case and literature review reveal that common diagnostic approaches will miss patients with (possibly symptomatic) early adrenal insufficiency. We suggest that serum ACTH level testing or tests of mineralocorticoid function be included in the initial step of investigation for suspected primary adrenal insufficiency.

  6. Left-sided appendicitis: review of 95 published cases and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Sami; Ulku, Abdullah; Senol, Ayhan; Tas, Mahmut; Yagmur, Yusuf

    2010-11-28

    To give an overview of the literature on left-sided acute appendicitis (LSAA) associated with situs inversus totalis (SIT) and midgut malrotation (MM). We present a new case of LSAA with SIT and a literature review of studies published in the English language on LSAA, accessed via PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Ninety-five published cases of LSAA were evaluated and a 25-year-old female, who presented to our clinic with left lower abdominal pain caused by LSAA, is reported. In the reviewed literature, fifty-seven patients were male and 38 were female with an age range of 8 to 82 years and a median age of 29.1 ± 15.9 years. Sixty-six patients had SIT, 23 had MM, three had cecal malrotation, and two had a previously unnoted congenital abnormality. Fifty-nine patients had presented to the hospital with left lower, 14 with right lower and seven with bilateral lower quadrant pain, and seven subjects complained of left upper quadrant pain. The diagnosis was established preoperatively in 49 patients, intraoperatively in 19, and during the postoperative period in five; 14 patients were aware of having this anomaly. The data of eight patients were not unavailable. Eleven patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy, which was combined with cholecystectomy in two cases. Histopathological examination of the appendix specimens revealed adenocarcinoma in only two of 95 patients. The diagnosis of left lower quadrant pain is based on well-established clinical symptoms, physical examination and physician's experience.

  7. Ethics policy review: a case study in quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolic, Andrea Nadine; Drolet, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    Policy work is often cited as one of the primary functions of Hospital Ethics Committees (HECs), along with consultation and education. Hospital policies can have far reaching effects on a wide array of stakeholders including, care providers, patients, families, the culture of the organisation and the community at large. In comparison with the wealth of information available about the emerging practice of ethics consultation, relatively little attention has been paid to the policy work of HECs. In this paper, we hope to advance the development of best practices in HEC policy work by describing the quality improvement process that we undertook at Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In the first section of the paper we describe the context of our HEC policy work, and the shortcomings of our historical review process. In subsequent sections, we detail the quality improvement project we undertook in 2010, the results of the project and the specific tools we developed to enhance the quality of HEC policy work. Our goal in sharing this organisational case study is to prompt other HECs to publish qualitative descriptions of their policy work, in order to generate a body of knowledge that can inform the development of best practices for ethics policy review.

  8. Analytical review of 664 cases of penetrating buttock trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive review of data has not yet been provided as penetrating injury to the buttock is not a common condition accounting for 2-3% of all penetrating injuries. The aim of the study is to provide the as yet lacking analytical review of the literature on penetrating trauma to the buttock, with appraisal of characteristics, features, outcomes, and patterns of major injuries. Based on these results we will provide an algorithm. Using a set of terms we searched the databases Pub Med, EMBASE, Cochran, and CINAHL for articles published in English between 1970 and 2010. We analysed cumulative data from prospective and retrospective studies, and case reports. The literature search revealed 36 relevant articles containing data on 664 patients. There was no grade A evidence found. The injury population mostly consists of young males (95.4%) with a high proportion missile injury (75.9%). Bleeding was found to be the key problem which mostly occurs from internal injury and results in shock in 10%. Overall mortality is 2.9% with significant adverse impact of visceral or vascular injury and shock (P colon, or rectum injuries leading in shot wounds, whilst vascular injury leads in stab wounds (P trauma. In conclusion, penetrating buttock trauma should be regarded as a life-threatening injury with impact beyond the pelvis until proven otherwise. PMID:21995834

  9. Analytical review of 664 cases of penetrating buttock trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte Klaus-Martin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive review of data has not yet been provided as penetrating injury to the buttock is not a common condition accounting for 2-3% of all penetrating injuries. The aim of the study is to provide the as yet lacking analytical review of the literature on penetrating trauma to the buttock, with appraisal of characteristics, features, outcomes, and patterns of major injuries. Based on these results we will provide an algorithm. Using a set of terms we searched the databases Pub Med, EMBASE, Cochran, and CINAHL for articles published in English between 1970 and 2010. We analysed cumulative data from prospective and retrospective studies, and case reports. The literature search revealed 36 relevant articles containing data on 664 patients. There was no grade A evidence found. The injury population mostly consists of young males (95.4% with a high proportion missile injury (75.9%. Bleeding was found to be the key problem which mostly occurs from internal injury and results in shock in 10%. Overall mortality is 2.9% with significant adverse impact of visceral or vascular injury and shock (P P

  10. [Compulsive buying disorder: a review and a case vignette].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Hermano; Lobo, Daniela Sabbatini S; Fuentes, Daniel; Black, Donald W

    2008-05-01

    Compulsive buying disorder was first described as a psychiatric syndrome in the early twentieth century. Its classification remains elusive, and investigators have debated its potential relationship to mood, substance use, obsessive-compulsive, and impulse control disorders. The objective of this study is to present a review of compulsive buying disorder and present a case vignette. Two databases were reviewed (Medline and PsycINFO) in search for articles published in the last 40 years. Selected terms included oniomania, compulsive buying, and compulsive shopping. Other relevant articles were also identified through reference lists. Compulsive buying disorder is a prevalent and chronic condition that is found worldwide, sharing commonalities with impulse control disorders. In clinical samples, women make up more than 80% of subjects. Its etiology is unknown, but neurobiologic and genetic mechanisms have been proposed. The disorder is highly comorbid with mood, substance use, eating and impulse control disorders. Treatment recommendations derived from the literature and clinical experience suggest that problem shoppers can benefit from psychosocial interventions. Cognitive-behavioral group models appear promising. Medication trials have reported mixed results. The identification and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity is also a key aspect of treatment. In order to determine the validity of compulsive buying disorder, future work should focus on psychopathology and neurobiological findings unique to the syndrome.

  11. Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma: a case series and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathiraja, P; Dhar, S; Haldar, K

    2013-01-01

    Minimal uterine serous cancer (MUSC) or serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) has been described by many different names since 1998. There have been very few cases reported in literature since EIC/MUSC was recognized as a separate entity. The World health Organization (WHO) Classification favors the term serous EIC. Although serous EIC is confined to the uterine endometrium at initial histology diagnosis, a significant number of patients could have distal metastasis at diagnosis, without symptoms. Serous EIC is considered as being the precursor of uterine serous cancer (USC), but pure serous EIC also has an aggressive behavior similar to USC. It is therefore prudent to have an accurate diagnosis and appropriate surgical staging. There are very few published articles in literature that discuss the pure form of serous EIC. The aim of this series is to share our experience and review evidence for optimum management of serous EIC. We report a series of five women treated in our institute in the last 3 years. We reviewed the relevant literature on serous EIC and various management strategies, to recommend best clinical practice. Pure serous EIC is a difficult histopathological diagnosis, which requires ancillary immunohistochemical staining. It can have an aggressive clinical behavior with early recurrence and poor survival. Optimum surgical staging, with appropriate adjuvant treatment, should be discussed when treating these patients

  12. Thoracic Epidural Teratoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Quon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Spinal teratomas comprise a rare subset of spinal cord tumors, and here, we describe an even rarer childhood thoracic extradural-intracanalicular teratoma. The clinical presentation, management, and pathophysiology of these tumors are reviewed to promote recognition and guide treatment of these lesions. Methods We report the case of a 21-month-old boy who presented with marked spasticity, as well as failure to ambulate and meet motor milestones. Additionally, we provide a literature review of spinal teratomas, including their clinical presentation, work-up, pathophysiology, and underlying genetics. Results An MRI of the spine revealed a large dorsal epidural tumor extending from T3 to T10 with heterogeneous contrast enhancement and severe spinal cord compression. The tumor was resected revealing a cystic mass with tissue resembling hair, muscle, as well as cartilage; pathology confirmed the diagnosis of teratoma. Gross total resection was achieved, and the child eventually gained ambulatory function. Conclusions Given that spinal teratomas are rare entities that can present with significant neurologic compromise, they must remain on clinicians’ differentials. Unfortunately, the exact origin of these tumors remains inconclusive and requires further investigation.

  13. Necrotizing fasciitis: 11-year retrospective case review in South Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulasegaran, Suheelan; Cribb, Benjamin; Vandal, Alain C; McBride, Stephen; Holland, David; MacCormick, Andrew D

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this paper were to review our experience with necrotizing fasciitis at Middlemore Hospital and to define the trends in incidence, inpatient mortality and microbiological profile. A computerized search of the electronic medical records was undertaken to identify adult patients with a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis between January 2000 and December 2010. A retrospective review of the clinical records was performed. Of the 138 patients with necrotizing fasciitis identified, 129 had their diagnosis confirmed at operation. The mortality at 30 days was 20.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9%-28.0%). There was a significant reduction in hospital mortality in each successive year of the study period with an odds ratio of 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-0.98, P = 0.03). A pattern of increasing incidence was noted until February 2004 (95% CI September 2002-July 2005). This was followed by a significant decrease in incidence. The empirical antibiotic regime of clindamycin, gentamicin and penicillin provides satisfactory cover against 95% of the causative pathogens. This represents the largest single-centre published case series in New Zealand. Despite concerns of increasing incidence and mortality associated with necrotizing fasciitis in New Zealand, the experience in South Auckland shows a decrease in incidence of necrotizing fasciitis since 2004 and a statistically significant decreasing trend in hospital mortality. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Balance of individuals at different age involved in physical activity – review of publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Winiarska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Balance is what we call the ability to control the center of gravity over the support plane in a given environment (also defined as the ability to maintain a vertical position of the body without the help of another person and the ability of regaining  balance during and after motion. Not only is inner ear responsible for mandating balance but also proprioceptors, cerebellum,  properly functioning nervous system and well-trained movement organs or efficient effector.  Postural control also is also affected by genetic conditions and primitive reactive strategies. Included to them are ankle strategy, that is restoring the center of gravity only by movements of the hocks, the hip strategy which is restoring the center of gravity by violent hip movements and step-by-step strategy in which making a step is required to restore the center of gravity. The balance system is quite complex. Damage to even on of the element of this system causes postural instability. In the case of disturbance of balance system , it can be indirectly influenced by nervous system through feedback, priming motion and motor control learning. Improved balance can be achieved with equivalent training. The aim of the study was to analyze different authors’ research on athlete balance. Five selected research articles on athletes have been analyzed. The authors have demonstrated a high level of effectiveness in balance training in the process of developing and improving the sense of balance. Individuals who have been in the past or are physically active now retain a better body balance.

  15. Paget's disease of the vulva: A review of 89 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry O. Onaiwu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a series of women with Paget's disease of the vulva. A retrospective review was performed of 89 women with Paget's disease of the vulva evaluated at a single institution between 1966 and 2010. Medical records were reviewed for demographic information, clinical data, pathologic findings, treatment modalities and outcomes. We found that the primary treatment was surgery for 74 (83.1% patients, with positive margins noted in 70.1% of cases. Five patients (5.6% underwent topical treatment with imiquimod and/or 5-fluorouracil, one patient (1.1% underwent laser ablation and treatment was unknown in 9 patients (10.1%. The majority of patients had multiple recurrences, with 18% having four or more recurrences. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates between patients who underwent surgery and those who did not. Furthermore, there was no association between positive margins following primary surgery and recurrence. Forty-one patients (46.1% were diagnosed with 53 synchronous or metachronous cancers. Seven patients (7.9% were found to have invasive vulvar cancer with 1 mm or more depth of invasion, but none of the patients died of Paget's disease or associated vulvar/vaginal cancer. Our findings suggest that the majority of patients with Paget's disease of the vulva develop multiple recurrences regardless of treatment modality or margin status. Alternatives to surgery are needed to better care for women with this disease.

  16. Uptake of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data in clinical practice guidelines: descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vale, C.L.; Rydzewska, L.H.; Rovers, M.M.; Emberson, J.R.; Gueyffier, F.; Stewart, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the extent to which systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) are being used to inform the recommendations included in published clinical guidelines. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Database maintained by the Cochrane IPD Meta-analysis

  17. The effects of work-related and individual factors on the Work Ability Index: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); L.A.M. Elders (Leo); B.C.H. Zwart, de; A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper systematically reviews the scientific literature on the effects of individual and work-related factors on the Work Ability Index (WAI). Studies on work ability published from 1985 to 2006 were identified through a structured search in PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were

  18. Neurocognitive Outcomes of Individuals with a Sex Chromosome Trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY--A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Victoria; Jacobs, Patricia; Nation, Kate; Scerif, Gaia; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). Method: A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. Results: We identified 35…

  19. Sexuality Education and Implications for Quality of Care for Individuals with Adult Onset Disability: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseder, Kate; Webb, Sheridan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the need for sexuality education for individuals with adult onset physical disabilities as it relates to quality of life and to identify current trends in the provision of sexuality education by health care providers relating to quality of care. Data Sources: Literature review from January 1986 to December 2016. Study…

  20. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, Rene; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply on the long-term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related

  1. The Effects of DSM-5 Criteria on Number of Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Isaac C.; Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has raised concerns about the number of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to DSM-IV-TR who may no longer qualify for diagnoses under the new DSM-5 criteria, published in May 2013. The current study systematically reviews 25 articles evaluating samples according to both DSM-IV-TR and…

  2. Presbycusis: a human temporal bone study of individuals with downward sloping audiometric patterns of hearing loss and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik G; Hinojosa, Raul

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case review was to identify patterns of cochlear element degeneration in individuals with presbycusis exhibiting downward sloping audiometric patterns of hearing loss and to correlate these findings with those reported in the literature to clarify conflicting concepts regarding the association between hearing loss and morphologic abnormalities. Archival human temporal bones from individuals with presbycusis were selected on the basis of strict audiometric criteria for downward-sloping audiometric thresholds. Twenty-one temporal bones that met these criteria were identified and compared with 10 temporal bones from individuals with normal hearing. The stria vascularis volumes, spiral ganglion cell populations, inner hair cells, and outer hair cells were quantitatively evaluated. The relationship between the severity of hearing loss and the degeneration of cochlear elements was analyzed using univariate linear regression models. Outer hair cell loss and ganglion cell loss was observed in all individuals with presbycusis. Inner hair cell loss was observed in 18 of the 21 individuals with presbycusis and stria vascularis loss was observed in 10 of the 21 individuals with presbycusis. The extent of degeneration of all four of the cochlear elements evaluated was highly associated with the severity of hearing loss based on audiometric thresholds at 8,000 Hz and the pure-tone average at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 Hz. The extent of ganglion cell degeneration was associated with the slope of the audiogram. Individuals with downward-sloping audiometric patterns of presbycusis exhibit degeneration of the stria vascularis, spiral ganglion cells, inner hair cells, and outer hair cells that is associated with the severity of hearing loss. This association has not been previously reported in studies that did not use quantitative methodologies for evaluating the cochlear elements and strict audiometric criteria for selecting cases.

  3. Cystoisospora belli Infection of the Gallbladder in Immunocompetent Patients: A Clinicopathologic Review of 18 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Keith K; Goyne, Hannah E; Hernandez-Gonzalo, David; Miller, Kennon A; Tuohy, Marion; Procop, Gary W; Lamps, Laura W; Patil, Deepa T

    2016-08-01

    Cystoisospora belli, previously known as Isospora belli, is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that is most often associated with gastrointestinal disease in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we detail the clinicopathologic features of 18 cases of Cystoisospora infection affecting the gallbladder in immunocompetent individuals and compare them with a control group. Each case was reviewed for cholecystitis (none, acute, chronic), epithelial disarray, presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes (none, rare [≤5 per 20 epithelial cells], present [>5 per 20 epithelial cells]), architectural distortion, intramucosal eosinophilia, and mural thickening/serositis. The mean age of patients with Cystoisospora infection was 33 years and the male to female ratio 1:4.3. Cholecystectomy was performed for biliary dyskinesia (n=7), abdominal pain (n=7), suspected cholelithiasis (n=5), and cholecystitis (n=3). In 2 cases, Cystoisospora was found in donor gallbladders resected at the time of liver transplantation. Each case was characterized by eosinophilic, oval or banana-shaped intraepithelial parasites within perinuclear parasitophorous vacuoles. Most cases showed epithelial disarray and minimal intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Of the 11 cases with an average follow-up of 15 months, none had evidence of disease related to Cystoisospora infection within the biliary tract or elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. We present the largest series of gallbladder cystoisosporiasis in immunocompetent patients to date. Cystoisospora infection is underrecognized in the gallbladders of immunocompetent patients, in part due to the subtle findings in routine cholecystectomy specimens. On the basis of the clinical follow-up, gallbladder cystoisosporiasis in immunocompetent individuals appears to be a self-limited infection.

  4. Case Reports of Cat Scratch Disease with Typical and Atypical Clinical Manifestations: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Umbreen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is the most well-known zoonotic disease spread by domestic animals like cats. Cats are the source of Bartonella henselae. Most patients more than ninety percent 3-12 days after a scratch from a cat, undoubtedly a little cat with insects present with one or more erythematous injuries at the site of inoculation, the sore is typically a crusted papule or, once in a while, a pustule. More than half of cases in one study show that the systemic indications went with the lymphadenopathy. These may incorporate fever, discomfort, migraine and anorexia and frequently happen in immunocompromised patients. Atypically clinical manifestations happen are altered mental status, perplexity, prolonged fever, respiratory protestations (atypical pneumonitis, Joint pain, synovitis, Back agony is uncommon. The hypothesis of the study to find out that cat scratch disease cause typical and atypical clinical manifestation. Study was conducted July 2015 to September 2015. The methodology sections of a review article are listed all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of Science and PubMed and any individual journals that were searched. Various case reports were mentioned in the study. Case reports of cat scratch diseases with typical and atypical clinical manifestation included in the study. The objective of review of these reporting cases is to make physicians aware about cat scratch diseases and also need to create awareness about cat scratch disease in pet owner. Although it is self-limiting needs to report to health authorities. There are few cases reported in which mostly cases reported in twain, japan, Brazil, Texas, United States, Dhaka, Spain with typical and atypical clinical manifestation

  5. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of individual participant data: the PRISMA-IPD Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lesley A; Clarke, Mike; Rovers, Maroeska; Riley, Richard D; Simmonds, Mark; Stewart, Gavin; Tierney, Jayne F

    2015-04-28

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) aim to collect, check, and reanalyze individual-level data from all studies addressing a particular research question and are therefore considered a gold standard approach to evidence synthesis. They are likely to be used with increasing frequency as current initiatives to share clinical trial data gain momentum and may be particularly important in reviewing controversial therapeutic areas. To develop PRISMA-IPD as a stand-alone extension to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement, tailored to the specific requirements of reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of IPD. Although developed primarily for reviews of randomized trials, many items will apply in other contexts, including reviews of diagnosis and prognosis. Development of PRISMA-IPD followed the EQUATOR Network framework guidance and used the existing standard PRISMA Statement as a starting point to draft additional relevant material. A web-based survey informed discussion at an international workshop that included researchers, clinicians, methodologists experienced in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of IPD, and journal editors. The statement was drafted and iterative refinements were made by the project, advisory, and development groups. The PRISMA-IPD Development Group reached agreement on the PRISMA-IPD checklist and flow diagram by consensus. Compared with standard PRISMA, the PRISMA-IPD checklist includes 3 new items that address (1) methods of checking the integrity of the IPD (such as pattern of randomization, data consistency, baseline imbalance, and missing data), (2) reporting any important issues that emerge, and (3) exploring variation (such as whether certain types of individual benefit more from the intervention than others). A further additional item was created by reorganization of standard PRISMA items relating to interpreting results. Wording

  6. Nasal myiasis: report of a case and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Romero, Karen Eliana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the infection of animal or human tissues or organs by larvae of Diptera. It may affect individuals of any age, but is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. Nasal myiasis, an infection of the nasal and paranasal cavities by such larvae, is a common disease in tropical and developing countries. Reported cases of nasal myiasis have been caused by several different species, such as Lucilia sericata in Korea and Iran, Estro ovis in Algeria and France, Lucilia cuprina and Phaenicia sericata in Malaysia, Cochliomyia hominivorax in French Guiana, Drosophila melanogaster in Turkey, Eristalis tenax in Iran and Oestrus ovis in Israel. Signs and symptoms are related to the presence and movement of the larvae, and include foreign body sensation, bloody or muco-purulent nasal discharge. Prevention may be done with insect repellent. Treatment is based on antiparasitic drugs and techniques for removal of larvae, but may include the use of prophylactic topical or systemic antibiotics for possible secondary infections. We report a case of nasal and left maxillary sinus myiasis in an elderly woman, who responded favorably to treatment.

  7. Hemochromatosis and diabetes mellitus: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Biavatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemochromatosis is a disorder characterized by iron storage amended. The acquired form of the disease can be caused by iron overload, alcoholism, infection by  C virus hepatitis, non-alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease. The hereditary form can be caused by different mutations, being the C282Y and H63D the most frequent, 83% of cases are homozigotous for C282Y and 4% are compound heterozygous (C282Y/H63D. Hemochromatosis is a condition that can affect several organs, including: heart, joints, liver, hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas and gonads. The aim of this study was to report a case of hemochromatosis and review the literature, with special attention to the association of hemochromatosis and diabetes mellitus. Patient 53 years, male presented to the doctor with arthralgia metacarpophalangeal, ankles, knees, coxofemoral right, and cervical and lumbar, complaints of fatigue and weight loss. Between 3 brothers, one of them had a diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis, with PCR demonstrating homozygous for C282Y. Labs: GOT 128 U/L, ALT 231 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 258 U/L, abdominal ultrasound with hepatomegaly and spleen at the upper limit of normal. Liver biopsy demonstrated portal fibrosis extension with hemosiderosis intense. It also made the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. The research confirmed the same mutation of the changing family: homozygous for C282Y

  8. GIANT GLUTEAL LIPOMA: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASHANT HOMBAL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Lipoma is one of the most common benign mesenchymal tumor which can occur in almost in all organs of the body where fat normally exists, so called as universal tumor or ubiquitous tumor. Lipomas are slow growing that rarely reach a size more than 2-3cms. Lesions larger than 5cms, so called giant lipomas are seldom found inside the muscle compressing nervous-vascular structures. The large and deep seated lipomas represent a real diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Case report: We report a case of 48 year old man with a giant lipoma involving his left gluteal and thigh region. The patient was managed by wide local excision of the lesion. The key issues surrounding the intramuscular lipoma with literature review is discussed. Conclusion: Intramuscular Giant lipomas are rare and even though they are typical in their presentation, especially when they are large and show findings that can be confused with a well-differentiated low grade liposarcoma, but when they occur an appropriate workup must be done. This should be followed by adequate open surgical excision and repeat examination over time to monitor for recurrence.

  9. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: Review of 408 biopsy-confirmed cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitong Zou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF has now been virtually eliminated by the discovery of its association with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs and the consequent reduced use of GBCA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in severe renal failure patients. This review of 408 biopsy-confirmed cases shows how to minimize NSF risk when performing GBCA-enhanced MRI or magnetic resonance angiography. The absence of any NSF cases in patients less than 8 years old or greater than 87 years old suggests that infants and elderly patients are already protected. Limiting GBCA dose to a maximum of 0.1 mMol/kg, dialyzing dialysis patients quickly following GBCA administration, delaying administration of GBCA in acute renal failure until after renal function returns or dialysis is initiated, and avoiding nonionic linear GBCA in renal failure patients, especially when there are pro-inflammatory conditions, appear to have reduced NSF risk to the point where safe GBCA-enhanced MRI is possible in most patients.

  10. Gorlin and goltz syndrome: a case report with surgical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdeoraoji Bahadure, Rakesh; Surendraji Jain, Eesha; P Badole, Gautam

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin and Goltz syndrome are a very complex syndrome and a multisystemic process that is characterized by the presence of multiple pigmented basocellular carcinomas, keratocysts in the jaws, palmar and/or plantar pits and calcification of the falx cerebri. Along with these major features a great number minor features have also been described which involves numerous skeletical, dermatology related, neurological, ophthalmological and reproductive anomalies. It exhibits high penetrance and variable expressivity. Presented here is the case of Gorlin-Goltz in a 12 years old male patient which was diagnosed through its oral and maxillofacial manifestations. Treatment of odontogenic keratocyst was done by enucleation without primary suturing. Iodoform dressing was kept to enhance the healing and to reduce the recurrence of the lesion. It is important to provide the early diagnosis for detection of clinical and radiological manifestations in young patients and for provision of advice concerning preventive treatment like protection of the skin from the sunlight and genetic sensitivity testing so that possible complications associated with this syndrome can be prevented. How to cite this article: Bahadure RN, Jain ES, Badole GP. Gorlin and Goltz Syndrome: A Case Report with Surgical Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):104-108.

  11. Imported melioidosis in Japan: a review of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Mary’s Hospital, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan Abstract: Fourteen cases of reported melioidosis in Japan were reviewed. The mean age was 52.4 years (33–69 years, and all patients were male. All of the presumed exposures originated in Southeast Asia. The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus, including those patients with impaired glucose tolerance (n=8. As for mode of onset, 13 patients had acute infections and one had chronic infection. Of these 14 patients, the most common infection site on admission was lung (n=8, followed by bone (n=5, skin (n=4, gastrointestinal abscess formation (n=3, urinary tract (n=3, aorta (n=2, mediastinal lymph node swelling (n=1, and central nervous system (n=1. Bacteremia was observed in nine patients, and Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates were mostly susceptible to ceftazidime and carbapenem. Overall mortality was 14.3%. Melioidosis is a rare infection in Japan, with all known cases to date having been imported from Southeast Asia. Diabetes was a common risk factor. Keywords: melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Japan, Southeast Asia 

  12. Ear replanatation: a case report and literature review

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    Krešimir Božikov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total ear amputation is a rare accident. The most common causes are traffic accidents (33 %, followed by fights (28 %. In 1980, Pennington et al. reported the first successful microsurgical ear replantation in a 29-year old man.Methods: An English literature review of trauma cases of total ear amputation showed only 13 successful replantations with arterial and venous microanastomoses. We present a case report of successful total ear replantation with arterial and vein microanastomoses in a 17-year old boy.Results: Our ear replantation with both arterial and venous anastomoses performed was successful and we achieved an excellent aesthetic outcome.Conclusion: The reason for such a low number of successful ear replantations is technical challenge due to small vessel diameter, difficult vessel identification, vessel approach and concomitant avulsion injury. The best aesthetic result in ear reconstruction is achieved by microsurgical replantation. The surgical technique depends on the intraoperative findings. Since ear replantation is a very challenging procedure, a microsurgeon needs to discuss with the patient the risk of partial/total necrosis of the replanted ear and the possibilities of other reconstructive options.

  13. Cytomorphologic features of myxopapillary ependymoma: a review of 13 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hidehiro; Kosarac, Ognjen; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2009-01-01

    To describe the cytologic features of myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) on intraoperative smears, to analyze cytomorphologic parameters that may help in reaching the diagnosis and to discuss differential diagnosis. Touch imprint smears of 13 MPE cases were reviewed and graded semiquantitatively for 14 cytomorphologic parameters; cellularity, myxoid background, isolated/dispersed tumor cells, "hyaline globules (HGs)," fibrillary cytoplasmic processes, papillary structures, perivascular pseudorosettes, epithelioid tumor cells (ETCs), intracytoplasmic mucin, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, mitosis, cytologic atypia and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Cytologic examination revealed variably cellular specimens composed of isolated and loosely aggregated tumor cells with round to oval or occasionally spindle-shaped nuclei; evenly distributed, finely granular chromatin; and fibrillary processes admixed with occasional ETCs. Most of the cases showed prominent fibrillary processes and occasional ETCs with at least a focal myxoid background. HGs and hemosiderin-laden macrophages were often seen. Papillary structure, a histologic hallmark of MPE, was rarely observed. Dual glial and epithelioid properties of tumor cells, well-known features of "regular" ependymomas, and a distinctive myxoid background with HGs strongly support a diagnosis of MPE and are of great help in excluding other mimics (e.g., other variants of ependymoma, metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and chordoma).

  14. Streptococcal necrotizing myositis: a case report and clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourmozdi, Justin J; Hawley, Dean A; Hadi, Christiane M; Tahir, Bilal; Seupaul, Rawle A

    2014-03-01

    Streptococcal necrotizing myositis, also known as gangrenous myositis, is a very rare and severe soft tissue infection that predominately involves skeletal muscle and, eventually, superficial fascia and surrounding tissues. The presentation is often nonspecific until the rapidly progressing clinical course becomes apparent. A high morbidity and mortality rate has been reported in the small number of cases since 1900. Despite several attempts to better define the different entities causing necrotizing myositis, no single definitive causal relationship has been defined. A review of the literature is presented here to help clinicians distinguish those with necrotizing myositis from those with nonnecrotizing myositis when the clinician is at all confronted with the suspicion for such an infection. The case presented is that of a 48-year-old woman who had streptococcal necrotizing myositis. She died roughly 72 h after admission. After the patient's death, the clinical team sought consent for autopsy. Hospital staff made contact with family, and information was obtained from the family that the onset of the patient's symptoms was allegedly temporally related to her acquisition of a new tattoo on the right back, where the tattoo process allegedly included injection of cremated ashes of a pet dog. A high level of suspicion for necrotizing myositis must be maintained for a patient with unexplained severe muscle pain and soft tissue swelling accompanied by systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal filicide in a cohort of English Serious Case Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Peter; Retzer, Ameeta

    2018-03-02

    A national mixed-methods study of English Serious Case Reviews (SCRs) was carried out to better understand the characteristics and circumstances of maternally perpetrated filicides, to compare these with paternally perpetrated cases, and to identify learning points for mental health professionals. Published reports for all SCRs of children in England dying as a result of abuse or neglect from 2011 to 2014 were subject to qualitative analysis using a system of layered reading and inductive thematic analysis, along with descriptive and comparative quantitative analysis. There were 86 deaths directly attributable to child maltreatment within the immediate family. The mother was the suspected perpetrator in 20. Twelve of the mother perpetrators were victims of domestic violence, while 15 of the father perpetrators were known to be perpetrators of domestic violence. Those deaths resulting from impulsive violence or severe, persistent cruelty are almost exclusively perpetrated by males, while those with an apparent intent to kill the child are slightly more likely to be perpetrated by mothers. Four key themes were identified through the qualitative analysis: domestic violence, maternal mental illness, separation and maternal isolation, and the invisibility of the child. These findings highlight the important role of domestic violence and its interaction with maternal mental health. Professionals working with mothers with mental health problems need to adopt a supportive but professionally curious stance, to be alert to signs of escalating stress or worsening mental ill-health, and to provide supportive and accessible structures for at-risk families.

  16. Postpartum electroconvulsive therapy: a systematic review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressier, Florence; Rotenberg, Samuel; Cazas, Odile; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression can have devastating consequences on the mother and child. Prompt treatment is challenging. Whereas electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be an effective treatment modality in severe depression and brings about rapid clinical improvement, little is known about ECT during the postpartum period. We systematically reviewed the literature on the use of ECT during the postpartum period using PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases until September 2014, using the search terms "electroconvulsive therapy" or "ECT" and "postpartum". Then, we described the successful treatment with ECT and the joint mother-baby hospitalization of a woman with severe depression. Eight case reports and 8 studies were identified. All of the studies reported that ECT is effective in the postpartum period. It is well tolerated, provides a fast response and allows for breastfeeding. In addition, our case report showed the benefits of the hospitalization of the mother-baby unit. Combined ECT and joint mother-baby hospitalization could be a valuable treatment by targeting both the mother-infant relationship and the maternal depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontaneous Heterotopic Pregnancy: Dual Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Chadee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare complication usually seen in populations at risk for ectopic pregnancy or those undergoing fertility treatments. It is a potentially dangerous condition occurring in only 1 in 30,000 spontaneous pregnancies. With the advent of Assisted Reproduction Techniques (ART and ovulation induction, the overall incidence of heterotopic pregnancy has risen to approximately 1 in 3,900 pregnancies. Other risk factors include a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal damage, pelvic surgery, uterine Mullerian abnormalities, and prior tubal surgery. Heterotopic pregnancy is a potentially fatal condition, rarely occurring in natural conception cycles. Most commonly, heterotopic pregnancy is diagnosed at the time of rupture when surgical management is required. Case. This paper represents two cases of heterotopic pregnancies as well as a literature review. Conclusion. Heterotopic pregnancy should be suspected in patients with an adnexal mass, even in the absence of risk factors. Clinicians must be alert to the fact that confirming an intrauterine pregnancy clinically or by ultrasound does not exclude the coexistence of an ectopic pregnancy. A high index of suspicion in women is needed for early and timely diagnosis, and management with laparotomy or laparoscopy can result in a favorable and successful obstetrical outcome.

  18. Carcinosarcoma of the Pancreas: Case Report With Comprehensive Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruess, Dietrich A; Kayser, Claudia; Neubauer, Jakob; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Hopt, Ulrich T; Wittel, Uwe A

    2017-10-01

    Carcinosarcomas are rare biphasic neoplasms with distinct malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. Most commonly, carcinosarcomas arise in the uterus as malignant mixed müllerian tumors, but also infrequently appear in other organs such as the ovaries and breast, the prostate and urinary tract, the lungs, or in the gastrointestinal system, among others. Pancreatic carcinosarcomas are exceedingly rare; only a few cases are reported in the English literature. Their pathogenesis remains to be fully clarified. We present here the case of a pancreatic carcinosarcoma with evidence for monoclonality via determination of Kras mutational status after microdissection and suggest a common origin of the 2 tumor components. Comprehensive review of the available literature allows the conclusion that most pancreatic carcinosarcomas appear to be of monoclonal origin and seem to have arisen from a carcinoma via metaplastic transformation of 1 part or subclone of the tumor, probably by epithelial-mesenchymal transition. All reported patients were treated with surgery. Adjuvant therapy, if administered, consisted predominantly of gemcitabine. Prognosis for this neoplasm occurs to be similar or even worse compared with classic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite the lack of evidence-based recommendations for its treatment, resection should be performed, if possible.

  19. The review of 134 cases colon and rectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chung Kyu; Choi, Byung Sook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-10-15

    Barium Enema study for colon examination is of great importance in the health care of our people and its value can be increased by a wide understanding of the attendant difficulties and limitation. Since the incidence of the colon and rectal carcinoma is increasing, the barium enema examination is more valuable. Radiologically diagnosed 134 cases of colon and rectal carcinoma from January 1964 to June 1970 have been reviewed at Yensei Univ., College of Medicine. Among the total admission during these years, the ratio of the colon and rectal carcinoma was 0.29 percent, and the incidence among barium enema examination was 5.3%. The peak age range was between 40 and 50 years. The average age of the patients was 46 years. It was more common in male. The clinical picture was rather vague in some cases, especially in the lesions of right colon. The large number of cases has bowel habit change, tarry or bloody stool and abdominal pain. About 60% of the lesions were located in rectum and 40% was proximal portion from the rectum, which could not be completely diagnosed only by digital examination and proctosigmoidoscopy. On roentgenogram, the most common form was encircling type, next was fungating. The positivity for accuracy of the barium enema examination was 90%. Majority of cancers of the colon, particularly those that produce symptoms are relative gross lesions. In daily practise we have to eager to find out small lesions by repeat and complete barium enema examination, including double contrast study. Early diagnosis is an aid immediate, logical objective in attempts to decrease the morbidity and mortality from carcinoma of colon.

  20. The review of 134 cases colon and rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Kyu; Choi, Byung Sook

    1971-01-01

    Barium Enema study for colon examination is of great importance in the health care of our people and its value can be increased by a wide understanding of the attendant difficulties and limitation. Since the incidence of the colon and rectal carcinoma is increasing, the barium enema examination is more valuable. Radiologically diagnosed 134 cases of colon and rectal carcinoma from January 1964 to June 1970 have been reviewed at Yensei Univ., College of Medicine. Among the total admission during these years, the ratio of the colon and rectal carcinoma was 0.29 percent, and the incidence among barium enema examination was 5.3%. The peak age range was between 40 and 50 years. The average age of the patients was 46 years. It was more common in male. The clinical picture was rather vague in some cases, especially in the lesions of right colon. The large number of cases has bowel habit change, tarry or bloody stool and abdominal pain. About 60% of the lesions were located in rectum and 40% was proximal portion from the rectum, which could not be completely diagnosed only by digital examination and proctosigmoidoscopy. On roentgenogram, the most common form was encircling type, next was fungating. The positivity for accuracy of the barium enema examination was 90%. Majority of cancers of the colon, particularly those that produce symptoms are relative gross lesions. In daily practise we have to eager to find out small lesions by repeat and complete barium enema examination, including double contrast study. Early diagnosis is an aid immediate, logical objective in attempts to decrease the morbidity and mortality from carcinoma of colon

  1. The effects of environmental and individual quality on reproductive performance : A case study on blue tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Birds have specific energetic requirements which likely depend on the habitat type they inhabit and on specific individual traits. Here, I investigated the effects of environmental quality (habitat quality and ambient temperature) and individual quality (age and/or lifespan) on features of

  2. Evolution of Individuality: A Case Study in the Volvocine Green Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Hanschen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While numerous criteria have been proposed in definitions of biological individuality, it is not clear whether these criteria reflect the evolutionary processes that underlie transitions in individuality. We consider the evolution of individuality during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. We assume that “individuality” (however it is defined has changed in the volvocine green algae lineage during the transition from single cells, to simple multicellular colonies with four to one hundred cells, to more complex multicellular organisms with thousands of differentiated cells. We map traits associated with the various proposed individuality criteria onto volvocine algae species thought to be similar to ancestral forms arising during this transition in individuality. We find that the fulfillment of some criteria, such as genetic homogeneity and genetic uniqueness, do not change across species, while traits underpinning other aspects of individuality, including degrees of integration, group-level fitness and adaptation, and group indivisibility, change dramatically. We observe that different kinds of individuals likely exist at different levels of organization (cell and group in the same species of algae. Future research should focus on the causes and consequences of variation in individuality.

  3. Adverse effects of aromatherapy: a systematic review of case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Alotaibi, Amani; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review was aimed at critically evaluating the evidence regarding the adverse effects associated with aromatherapy. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant case reports and case series. Forty two primary reports met our inclusion criteria. In total, 71 patients experienced adverse effects of aromatherapy. Adverse effects ranged from mild to severe and included one fatality. The most common adverse effect was dermatitis. Lavender, peppermint, tea tree oil and ylang-ylang were the most common essential oils responsible for adverse effects. Aromatherapy has the potential to cause adverse effects some of which are serious. Their frequency remains unknown. Lack of sufficiently convincing evidence regarding the effectiveness of aromatherapy combined with its potential to cause adverse effects questions the usefulness of this modality in any condition.

  4. Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ashley Carvalho,1,2 Irene Maeve Rea,2 Tanyalak Parimon,3,4 Barry J Cusack3,51Department of Public Health, 2School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK; 3Research and Development Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, ID, USA; 4Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 5Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USABackground: It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition.Methods: Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age.Results: Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation.Conclusion: The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine

  5. Leptotrichia endocarditis: report of two cases from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) database and review of previous cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caram, L. B.; Linefsky, J. P.; Read, K. M.; Murdoch, D. R.; Lalani, T.; Woods, C. W.; Reller, L. B.; Kanj, S. S.; Premru, M. M.; Ryan, S.; Al-Hegelan, M.; Donnio, P. Y.; Orezzi, C.; Paiva, M. G.; Tribouilloy, C.; Watkin, R.; Harris, O.; Eisen, D. P.; Corey, G. R.; Cabell, C. H.; Petti, C. A.; Gordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncion; Mestres, Carlos A.; Paré, Carlos; de la Maria, Cristina Garcia; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miró, José M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jiménez-Expósito, Maria Jesús; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falcó, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Leptotrichia species typically colonize the oral cavity and genitourinary tract. We report the first two cases of endocarditis secondary to L. goodfellowii sp. nov. Both cases were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Review of the English literature revealed only two other cases of

  6. [Clinical experience in facial nerve tumors: a review of 27 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yucheng; Dai, Chunfu; Chi, Fanglu; Zhou, Liang; Chen, Bing; Li, Huawei

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the clinical manifestations and the diagnosis of the facial nerve tumor according to the clinical information, and evaluate the different surgical approaches depending on tumor location. Twenty-seven cases of facial nerve tumors with general clinical informations available from 1999.9 to 2006.12 in the Shanghai EENT Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty (74.1%) schwannomas, 4 (14.8%) neurofibromas ,and 3 (11.1%) hemangiomas were identified with histopathology postoperatively. During the course of the disease, 23 patients (85.2%) suffered facial paralysis, both hearing loss and tinnitus affected 11 (40.7%) cases, 5 (18.5%) manifested infra-auricular mass and the others showed some of otalgia or vertigo or ear fullness or facial numbness/twitches. CT or/and MRI results in 24 cases indicated that the tumors originated from the facial nerve. Intra-operative findings showed that 24 (88.9%) cases involved no less than 2 segments of the facial nerve, of these 24 cases 87.5% (21/24) involved the mastoid portion, 70.8% (17/24) involved the tympanic portion, 62.5% (15/24) involved the geniculate ganglion, only 4.2% (1/24) involved the internal acoustic canal (IAC), and 3 cases (11.1%) had only one segments involved. In all of these 27 cases, the tumors were completely excised, of which 13 were resected followed by an immediate facial nerve reconstruction, including 11 sural nerve cable graft, 1 facial nerve end-to-end anastomosis and 1 hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end anastomosis. Tumors were removed with preservation of facial nerve continuity in 2 cases. Facial nerve tumor is a rare and benign lesion, and has numerous clinical manifestations. CT and MRI can help surgeons to make a right diagnosis preoperatively. When and how to give the patients an operation depends on the patients individually.

  7. Using Regression Equations Built from Summary Data in the Psychological Assessment of the Individual Case: Extension to Multiple Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John R.; Garthwaite, Paul H.; Denham, Annie K.; Chelune, Gordon J.

    2012-01-01

    Regression equations have many useful roles in psychological assessment. Moreover, there is a large reservoir of published data that could be used to build regression equations; these equations could then be employed to test a wide variety of hypotheses concerning the functioning of individual cases. This resource is currently underused because…

  8. Alopecia in association with lamotrigine use : an analysis of individual case safety reports in a global database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tengstrand, Maria; Star, Kristina; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; Hill, Richard

    BACKGROUND: The WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring, maintained by the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC), has more than 90 member countries contributing individual case safety reports (ICSRs) from their existing national pharmacovigilance systems; these reports are stored in the WHO global

  9. The individual in mainstream health economics: a case of Persona Non-grata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John B; McMaster, Robert

    2007-09-01

    This paper is motivated by Davis' [14] theory of the individual in economics. Davis' analysis is applied to health economics, where the individual is conceived as a utility maximiser, although capable of regarding others' welfare through interdependent utility functions. Nonetheless, this provides a restrictive and flawed account, engendering a narrow and abstract conception of care grounded in Paretian value and Cartesian analytical frames. Instead, a richer account of the socially embedded individual is advocated, which employs collective intentionality analysis. This provides a sound foundation for research into an approach to health policy that promotes health as a basic human right.

  10. Sibling Involvement in Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Carolyn M.; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have studied various interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Occasionally, siblings will be included in intervention studies, participating in programs designed to address a number of challenges faced by individuals with ASD. Although sibling involvement in such interventions is not a new phenomenon,…

  11. Tobacco Use among Individuals with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Marc L.; Heimlich, Laura; Williams, Jill M.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Although few tobacco control efforts target individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities, this population may be especially vulnerable to the deleterious effects of tobacco use and dependence. Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities…

  12. Does Pain in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis Affect Employment? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Shahrbanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS experience some of the highest unemployment rates among all groups of chronic illnesses. Pain has been found to be a common reason for sick leave or early retirement in healthy populations or other groups with chronic illness; however, there is little awareness regarding the effect of pain on the work status of individuals with MS.

  13. Individual Development of Professionalism in Educational Peer Group Supervision: A Multiple Case Study of GPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holge-Hazelton, B.; Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Background. Research has shown that peer-group supervision can strengthen GPs' professionalism, but little is known about the individual learning processes. To establish professionalism beyond professional behaviour, identity and idealism need to be included. The inner attitudinal values of profe......Background. Research has shown that peer-group supervision can strengthen GPs' professionalism, but little is known about the individual learning processes. To establish professionalism beyond professional behaviour, identity and idealism need to be included. The inner attitudinal values...

  14. Remote Iliac Artery Endarterectomy: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekken, Joost A; de Boer, Sanne W; van der Sluijs, Rogier; Jongsma, Hidde; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Fioole, Bram

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of remote iliac artery endarterectomy (RIAE) in 2 vascular referral centers and review existing literature. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 109 consecutive patients (mean age 64.2±10.7 years; 72 men) who underwent 113 RIAE procedures for lower limb ischemia from January 2004 to August 2015 at 2 vascular centers. The majority of limbs (82, 72.6%) had TASC II D lesions (31 TASC II C). Primary outcome measures were primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify all English-language studies published after 1990 reporting the results of RIAE. Technical success was achieved in 95 (84.1%) of the 113 procedures. The complication rate was 13.7%, and 30-day mortality was 0%. At 5 years, primary patency was 78.2%, assisted primary patency was 83.4%, and secondary patency was 86.7%. Hemodynamic success was obtained in 91.7% of patients, and clinical improvement was observed in 95.2%. Freedom from major amputation was 94.7% at 5 years. The systematic review comprised 6 studies including 419 RIAEs, and pooled data showed results similar to the current study. For external iliac artery occlusions extending into the common femoral artery, RIAE appears to be a valuable hybrid treatment option. It combines acceptable morbidity and low mortality with good long-term patency. It has some advantages over an open surgical iliofemoral bypass or complete endovascular revascularization and could be the best treatment option in selected cases.

  15. Hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Abdulwahid M; Kakamad, F H; Nihad, Han

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid malignant tumors are rarely associated with hyperfunctioning thyroid. The incidence of this co-incidence is highly variable. Here we report a rare case of papillary thyroid cancer associated with hyperthyroidism with brief literature review. A 40-year-old male, presented with palpitation, excess sweating and weight loss for one month duration. There was asymmetrical swelling of the neck, more on right side, mobile. Free T3: 11.09pmol/L, free T4: 34.41pmol/L, TFT: less than 0.005mIU/ml, Neck ultrasound showed features of background thyroiditis. Left lobe contained 9×7×5mm nodule with irregular outline and multiple dots of calcification, other nodules are of the same features. Under ultrasound guide, fine needle aspiration cytology showed features of papillary carcinoma. After preparation, total thyrodectomy done and the result of histopathological examination confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient was put on 0.2mg thyroxine daily. Literature review has showed an increasing number of papers reporting the association of high level of thyroid function tests and thyroid malignancy. The cause of high level of TH in thyroid malignancy is thought to be due to an active mutation of the gene of TH receptor. Niepomniszcze and colleagues found that a combination of TSH receptor mutations and Ki-RAS was the main etiological factor for hyperfunction of the thyroid malignancy. Although the coexistence of them is rare, thyroid malignancy should be put in the differential diagnosis of hyperthyroid goiter. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic Review of Theory-Based Interventions Aimed at Increasing Physical Activity in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jereme; Knowlden, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approximately 200,000 individuals have a spinal cord injury (SCI) and more than 12,000 new cases are diagnosed each year in the United States. Lowered physical functioning caused by SCI often leads to a sedentary lifestyle, increasing risk for chronic diseases, secondary medical conditions, and lower quality of life. Purpose: The aim…

  17. Examining Preservice Teachers' Decision Behaviors and Individual Differences in Three Online Case-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the impact of three types of case-based methods (case-based reasoning, worked example, and faded worked example) on preservice teachers' (n = 71) interaction with decision tasks and whether decision related measures (task difficulty, mental effort, decision making performance) were associated with the differences in student…

  18. Running for your life: A review of physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Claire; Karelis, Antony D; Stip, Emmanuel; Abdel-Baki, Amal

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have a greater risk for cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g. central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidaemia), cardiovascular diseases and mortality. This risky profile may be explained by the adverse effects of antipsychotic medications and an unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. smoking, poor nutrition and low physical activity). In the general population, physical activity has been shown to be the optimal strategy to improve both cardiometabolic parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Accordingly, an emerging literature of non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy, diet and physical activity) has been studied in individuals with schizophrenia. Therefore, the purpose of this review was 1) to conduct a critical literature review of non-pharmacological interventions that included some kind of physical activity (including supervised and unsupervised exercise training) and target cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with schizophrenia. 2) To describe the contribution of physical activity alone by reviewing trials of supervised exercise training programmes only. A literature review via systematic keyword search for publications in Medline, PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO was performed. Many non-pharmacological interventions are efficient in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors when combined with physical activity. Supervised physical activity has been successful in decreasing cardiovascular disease risk, and aerobic interval training appears to provide more benefits by specifically targeting cardiorespiratory fitness levels. In conclusion, physical activity is an effective strategy for addressing cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with schizophrenia. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of exercise training programmes in individuals with schizophrenia.

  19. Candida-induced prosthetic joint infection. A literature review including 72 cases and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; López, Enrique M; Jiménez, Gemma; Sampedro, Antonio; Aliaga-Martínez, Luis; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2017-02-01

    The clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by Candida species is described, including 72 cases in the literature and a case of Candida glabrata infection handled at the present centre. We describe one patient and using the key words 'fungal prosthetic joint infection' and 'candida prosthetic joint infection' we searched MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane systematic review databases for case reports of this condition. Out of the 73 patients, 38 were female; mean age at diagnosis was 65.7 (± SD 18) yrs; 50 had risk factors for candidal infection such as systemic disease (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus) and/or immunosuppressive therapy in 18 (24.6%) cases, diabetes mellitus in 14 (19.1%), immunosuppression due to malignant or chronic disease in 24 (32.8%) and long-term antibiotic use in four (5.4%) patients. Infection site was the knee in 36 patients and hip in 35; pain was present in 43 patients and swelling in 23 and the mean surgery-diagnosis interval was 32 months. The most frequent species was C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis. The diagnosis was obtained from joint fluid aspirate in 33 cases and intra-operative samples in 16. Susceptibility to antifungals was tested in only 21 isolates. The most frequently used antifungals were fluconazole and amphotericin B. Two-stage exchange arthroplasty was performed in 30 patients and resection arthroplasty in 31; 56 patients were cured with a combination of medical and surgical treatment; one patient died from the infection. PJI caused by Candida requires a high index of suspicion; surgery with long-term antifungal therapy is recommended.

  20. Interchromosomal insertions. Identification of five cases and a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemel, J O; Eussen, H J

    2000-11-01

    In five families with questionable chromosome rearrangements, we identified an interchromosomal insertion by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In case 1 with a dir ins (5;11)(p14;q14q24) in three generations, the mentally retarded and microcephalic proband showed a 5p14-->pter deletion. In case 2, a duplication (13)(q21.31--> q31.2) combined with a deletion (11)(q14-->q22) segregated from a reciprocal ins(11;13)(q14q122)(q21.32q31.2), causing a mixed phenotype with psychomotor retardation, caput quadratum, choanal atresia, and pes equinovarus. In case 3, a dir ins (18;5)(q21.3;p13.1p14) was associated with spontaneous abortions, in case 4, the proband with mental retardation, microcephaly, and a heart defect showed a pure trisomy of (12)(q13-->q15), which had segregated from a carrier of an ins (18;12)(p11.3;q13q15). In case 5, a duplication of (10)(q26.3-->q25.2) segregated from an inv ins(5;10)(q15;q26.3q25.2), which was passed on directly from a mother to her son,with mental retardation. In all families the elucidation of the insertional translocation (IT) considerably increased the associated genetic risks of carriers. For the review, we collected data from 81 articles on 87 IT probands on ascertainment, origin, familial transmittance, progeny, and genetic risks of IT carriers. We also discussed the recombinant chromosomes and complex rearrangements associated with ITs, and listed chromosome regions occurring solely as deletions, or solely as duplications, or as both to facilitate genotype/phenotype correlations. We conclude that ITs are rare chromosomal rearrangements with an 1:80,000 incidence, of which nearly 80% were referred because of congenital abnormalities and mental retardation. A maternal origin was seen in 59.5%, a paternal origin in 26.6%, and 13.9% were de novo. No notable difference in fertility between male and female IT carriers was noticed. Bias of ascertainment was excluded in 15 familial cases and led to an estimate of the genetic

  1. Cutaneous Cancers in Nigerian Albinos: A Review of 22 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Olasupo Awe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Albinism is an inherited disorder of hypopigmentation involving the skin, eyes, and hair. This disorder results in the absence or reduction in melanin production. There are two main types of albinism which are ocular albinism and oculocutaneous albinism. It could also be classified as syndromic or nonsyndromic the melanin, which protects from the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation of the sun on the normal skin, is deficient in the albino, predisposing them more, to cutaneous malignancies. Aim: This study is to highlight the epidemiology of cutaneous cancers in albinos in sub-urban Nigeria. Methodology: This is a retrospective review of all albinos with histological diagnoses of cutaneous malignancies that presented to Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua Edo State, Nigeria between September 2010 and August 2016. The following details were extracted from the patients' case-notes, operation register, and the histopathology register. These data include age, gender, site of the lesion, the diagnosis, no of lesions excised, and duration of the lesion (s. These were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: There were 22 albinos with histopathologically diagnosed cutaneous malignancies. There were 11 males and 11 females with male:female of 1. The age range is from 25 to 55 years with the mean of 34.68. Conclusion: Albinism is one of the most common causes of cutaneous malignancies, and majority of them present with locally advanced lesions that will need excision biopsy resulting in disfigurement. This problem can be prevented in many cases with proper community education, support, and free health care. There is also need for them to present early whenever they noticed any skin changes.

  2. [Anthrax meningoencephalitis: a case report and review of Turkish literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metan, Gökhan; Uysal, Burcu; Coşkun, Ramazan; Perçin, Duygu; Doğanay, Mehmet

    2009-10-01

    The incidence of anthrax is decreasing in Turkey, however, it is still endemic in some regions of the country. Although central nervous system involvement is rare in cases with anthrax, high mortality rates are significant. Here, we report a 46-years old woman who was anthrax meningoencephalitis. The patient was from Yozgat located in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Her history revealed that following peeling the skin of sheeps and consuming their meat a week ago, a lesion developed in her left forearm and she had been treated with penicilin G with the diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax in a local health center. The patient was admitted to the emergency room of our hospital due to increased headache and loss of conciousness and diagnosed as anthrax meningitis. Crytallized penicilin G (24 MU/day IV) and vancomycin (2 g/day IV) were initiated. The macroscopy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample was haemorrhagic, white blood cell count was 40/mm3 (80% of neutrophil) and Gram staining of CSF yielded abundant gram-positive bacilli. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Bacillus anthracis from CSF culture. Although the isolate was susceptible to penicillin and dexamethasone was added to the treatment, the patient died. Review of the Turkish literature revealed seven cases of anthrax with central nervous system involvement between 1980-2008. One of the patients was an 11-years old boy and the others were adults aged between 19 and 64 years. The source of the infection was skin in four patients and inhalation in one patient. The most common findings in all of the patients were inhabitance in rural area, haemorrhagic CSF and loss of all patients despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. In conclusion, anthrax meningitis and meningoencephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of haemorrhagic meningitis in areas where anthrax is endemic and high rate of mortality despite appropriate therapy should always be kept in mind.

  3. Does asymptomatic septal agenesis exist? A review of 34 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhocine, Ouardia; Andre, Christine; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Radiology Department, Paris (France)

    2005-04-01

    Primary septal agenesis (PSA) is a rare brain malformation that can be isolated or part of developmental brain abnormalities (holoprosencephaly, septo-optic dysplasia or cortical malformation). Such associated malformation can be subtle, leading to difficulties in the prenatal management of PSA. Moreover, the neurological prognosis of isolated PSA remains debatable. The aims of the study were to specify the patterns and frequency of brain malformations associated with septal agenesis (SA), to identify the clinical prognosis, and to discuss the aetiology of PSA with the new insights provided by molecular genetics. The study consisted of a 14-year retrospective review of brain MRI in 34 patients having PSA (mean age, 5 years). Chiasm and optic nerves were not evaluated. Post-hydrocephalus SA or incomplete data were excluded. The clinical data were correlated to the MRI patterns. The study disclosed 82.5% associated lesions with MRI (28/34): 11 neuronal migration disorders, 9 holoprosencephalies (HP), 7 pituitary stalk interruptions, 1 corpus callosum partial agenesis; 17.5% (6/34) of cases were apparently isolated PAS. Clinically, the patients had motor dysfunction in 68% (23/34), mental retardation in 65% (22/34), blindness in 24% (8/34), endocrinological defects in 21% (7/34) and epilepsy in 18% (6/34) of cases. Nine percent of patients (3/34) were neurologically normal (including one with scoliosis and two infants younger than 2 years at the last follow-up). Patients with bilateral cortical anomalies and HP (even if mild) had the worst neurological prognosis. A severe motor impairment was present without evidence of hemispheric anomaly in 12% of patients (4/34). Interestingly, the frontal lobes were involved in 90% of cortical anomalies and HP, supporting the malformative aetiology of PSA. PSA rarely appears isolated and severe psychomotor impairment may occur in apparently isolated forms. These unfavourable results should be highlighted and need to be confirmed

  4. Parasagittal meningiomas – literature review and a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Papacocea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are tumors that can develop anywhere along the neuraxis, but with increased concentration in some specific areas. Parasagittal meningiomas have the dural attachment on the external layer of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS and invade the parasagittal angle displacing brain away from its normal position. Among meningiomas, the parasagittal location is the most common (22%. Taking into account their anatomic insertion along SSS, parasagittal meningiomas can have their dural attachment in the anterior, the middle or the posterior third of the SSS. Most frequently parasagittal meningiomas are located in the middle third of the superior sagittal sinus (between coronal suture and lambdoid suture. The clinical picture of parasagittal meningiomas depends on the tumor location along the SSS and so is the attitude towards ligation and reconstruction of the sinus. Controversial issues regarding surgical management of parasagittal meningiomas concerning leaving a tumor remnant that invades the SSS instead attempting total resection, or the attitude in the case of totally occluded segment of a sinus are summarized in this paper. The special care for the venous system is emphasized. The recurrence matter is also approached underlining the importance of adjuvant radiosurgery for the management of residual tumors. Results described in the main papers of the literature are reviewed. Conclusions are referring to the historical evolution regarding the surgical management of parasagittal meningiomas: aggressiveness of resection, sinus reconstruction, importance of adjuvant techniques: radiosurgery, endovascular surgery and to the importance of microsurgery and careful and meticulous planning of the approach in order to avoid interference with venous collaterals. A suggestive clinical case from the authors experience is presented.

  5. Distress in unaffected individuals who decline, delay or remain ineligible for genetic testing for hereditary diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Louise; Butow, Phyllis N; Price, Melanie A; Charles, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Reviews on the psychosocial aspects of genetic testing for hereditary diseases typically focus on outcomes for carriers and non-carriers of genetic mutations. However, the majority of unaffected individuals from high-risk families do not undergo predictive testing. The aim of this review was to examine studies on psychosocial distress in unaffected individuals who delay, decline or remain ineligible for predictive genetic testing. Systematic searches of Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PubMed and handsearching of related articles published between 1990 and 2012 identified 23 articles reporting 17 different studies that were reviewed and subjected to quality assessment. Findings suggest that definitions of delaying and declining are not always straightforward, and few studies have investigated psychological distress among individuals who remain ineligible for testing. Findings related to distress in delayers and decliners have been mixed, but there is evidence to suggest that cancer-related distress is lower in those who decline genetic counselling and testing, compared with testers, and that those who remain ineligible for testing experience more anxiety than tested individuals. Psychological, personality and family history vulnerability factors were identified for decliners and individuals who are ineligible for testing. The small number of studies and methodological limitations preclude definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, subgroups of those who remain untested appear to be at increased risk for psychological morbidity. As the majority of unaffected individuals do not undergo genetic testing, further research is needed to better understand the psychological impact of being denied the option of testing, declining and delaying testing. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Individuals with chronic ankle instability exhibit dynamic postural stability deficits and altered unilateral landing biomechanics: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffrey D; Stewart, Ethan M; Macias, David M; Chander, Harish; Knight, Adam C

    2018-06-13

    To evaluate the literature regarding unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Four online databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and SportDiscus) were searched from the earliest records to 31 January 2018, as well as reference sections of related journal articles, to complete the systematic search. Studies investigating the influence of CAI on unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability were systematically reviewed and evaluated. Twenty articles met the criteria and were included in the systematic review. Individuals with CAI were found to have deficits in dynamic postural stability on the affected limb with medium to large effect sizes and altered lower extremity kinematics, most notably in the ankle and knee, with medium to large effect sizes. Additionally, greater loading rates and peak ground reaction forces, in addition to reductions in ankle muscle activity were also found in individuals with CAI during unilateral jump-landing tasks. Individuals with CAI demonstrate dynamic postural stability deficits, lower extremity kinematic alterations, and reduced neuromuscular control during unilateral jump-landings. These are likely factors that contribute recurrent lateral ankle sprain injuries during dynamic activity in individuals with CAI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Methadone induced torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation: A case review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Khalesi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methadone is a synthetic opioid, which has been successfully used in treating heroin addiction and chronic pain syndrome in palliative care for more than 30 years. This drug is a potent blocker of the delayed rectifier potassium ion channel, which may result in corrected QT (QTc interval prolongation and increased risk of torsades de pointes (TdP in susceptible individuals. CASE REPORT: We describe here a case of methadone-induced TdP that deteriorated into ventricular fibrillation, which was resolved after treatment with IV magnesium, potassium, and Lidocaine. Our purpose in this case review was to highlight the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, in particular QTc interval prolongation leading to TdP in a heroin-dependent patient receiving methadone substitution therapy, and then to present a perspective on treatment and prevention strategies of methadone induced prolonged QTc. CONCLUSION: Methadone-induced TdP is a potentially fatal complication of methadone therapy. As the popularity of methadone use grows, clinicians will encounter more cases of methadone induced TdP, especially in our region, Iran. Hence, a thorough patient history and electrocardiogram monitoring are essential for patients treated with this agent, and alterations in treatment options may be necessary.    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  8. Agranulocytosis Associated with Topiramate: A Case Report and Review of Published Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Lohani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female presented to the hospital with sore throat and shortness of breath. She was hypoxic with an oxygen saturation of 87% in room air. Physical examination revealed swollen uvula with exudates. She had been started on topiramate for treatment of migraine few months ago. The dose of topiramate was increased to 100 mg twice daily 2 weeks ago. Complete blood count revealed an absolute neutrophil count (ANC of 8 c/mm3. She was intubated and started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. She was transferred to our hospital on the fifth day of hospitalization. On arrival, her absolute neutrophil count was 10 c/mm3. Her agranulocytosis was attributed to topiramate after ruling out other possible causes. ANC improved after topiramate was stopped. ANC increased to 1000 after 5 days of stopping topiramate. We also reviewed published cases of topiramate-associated agranulocytosis. Agranulocytosis is a rare side effect of topiramate, and only 3 case reports have been published so far. In all cases, agranulocytosis developed after months of topiramate therapy and when dose was increased to 200 mg daily suggesting a dose-dependent effect. Next steps would be further research on the pathogenesis of agranulocytosis associated with topiramate and creation of registry for data synthesis.

  9. Can trust in politicians explain individuals' support for climate policy? The case of CO2 tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, Henrik; Jagers, Sverker C.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the support for public policies from a trust perspective. The empirical focus is on the use of a tax on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a policy tool aimed at coordinating national emissions targets in Sweden. Among economists and experts in the field of climate policy, a CO 2 tax is viewed as a cost-effective policy. The policy problem is that public support for CO 2 taxes is very low, leaving policy makers with high-cost options. Apart from traditional explanatory variables such as demographic factors, level of education, ideology and self-interest, what can explain this public opposition? Using individual level data, we analyse whether support for increases in the CO 2 tax on gasoline can be explained by citizens' generalized trust in other individuals (who they do not necessarily know) or by their trust in politicians. We find that only the latter measure gains support in a regression analysis. Moreover, when splitting the sample into high-trusting and low-trusting individuals, we find that high-trusting individuals who have access to a car (compared with those without access) are statistically no more likely to resist increases in CO 2 taxes than people without access to a car. Rather, it is individuals with access to a car and who do not trust their politicians who are likely to resist CO 2 taxes. (Author)

  10. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  11. Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Liza J M; de Kogel, Catharina H; Nijman, Henk L I; Raine, Adrian; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Hyperphagic short stature: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha S Jagtap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 5½-year-old adopted girl was referred to us in view of short stature. After ruling out systemic illness, she was evaluated for growth hormone deficiency (GHD by stimulation tests. The peak value was 3.47 ng/ml. She was then started on growth hormone (GH. At the end of 6 months of GH therapy, her height velocity was only 3 cm/year. There was a lack of attachment between the mother and the child. She had history of hyperphagia, stealing, and hoarding food. Psychiatry consultation confirmed that the child had appetite disorder, and hence was diagnosed as hyperphagic short stature (HSS. The girl and her parents are undergoing psychiatric therapy for the same. Psychosocial dwarfism seems to originate from serious disturbances in the mother-child relationship. These children mimic patients with GHD, but have poor response to GH therapy. This case underscores the importance of social environment in the growth of the individual.

  13. Impacted foreign bodies in orbital region: review of nine cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Orbital injuries with a foreign body may result in severe structural and functional damage to the eye or orbital contents. Management and prognosis depend on the composition and location of the foreign body and whether there is secondary infection. Metallic objects and glass are the most frequently encountered and well-tolerated, whereas organic foreign bodies can elicit an inflammatory reaction and lead to serious complications. Despite the modern imaging methods, it is often difficult to identify and locate organic intraorbital foreign bodies. This paper presents a review of nine cases of impacted foreign bodies in the orbital region and discusses the diagnosis and treatment of this kind of injury. The following data were collected: age, gender, etiology of injury, occurrence of fracture, anatomical location of fracture, type of object, signs and symptoms, type of imaging exam used, approach, transoperative complication and occurrence of death. Foreign body injuries in the orbital region can be treated with a combination of clinical suspicion, basic knowledge and diagnostic tests and depend on the skill and experience of the surgeon, thereby decreasing the surgical risk of iatrogenic injury in relation to the inherent risk of retaining an organic intraorbital foreign body.

  14. Congenital Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Chin Taw Cheong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital temporomandibular joint (TMJ ankylosis is an uncommon condition that presents itself at or soon after birth in the absence of acquired factors that could have contributed to the ankylosis such as infection and trauma. The experience of managing one such case is reported in light of a review of the literature on this condition. Key management principles include adequate removal of the ankylotic mass, costochondral grafting, and post-op physiotherapy. Most patients reported in the literature with the condition experienced relapse. This echoes our own experience where there was recurrence of the ankylosis. However, after removal of the ankylotic mass, the patient maintains a satisfactory maximal incisal opening (MIO till the present day. The additional challenges faced in the congenital form in addition to the already complex management of acquired paediatric temporomandibular joint ankylosis are (1 much earlier insult to the TMJ, (2 reduced opportunity for neuromuscular development of the muscles of mastication, and (3 reduced compliance with postoperative physiotherapy programmes due to the younger age of these patients.

  15. Celiac Disease and Concomitant Conditions: A Case-based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad Uzair; Stammann, Tracy; Kuzel, Aaron R; Syed, Intekhab Askari; Ishtiaq, Rizwan; Rahim, Mustafa

    2018-02-02

    Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disease with genetic predisposition, triggered by the ingestion of gluten. It has a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic forms to classic presentation of malabsorption with diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Celiac disease can also present with several other concomitant disorders (at the time of diagnosis or during the course of celiac disease) such as: type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disorders, nutritional deficiencies, and gram-negative sepsis. We present a 57-year-old female with past medical history of rheumatoid arthritis, who presented to the emergency department with a complaint of chronic diarrhea, complicated by gram-negative sepsis. The family history of the patient was significant for celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. The patient was closely monitored and treated appropriately. In this case-based review, we explore different associated conditions of celiac disease in the literature, as well as the patient's risk of developing malignancy.

  16. Recessive omodysplasia: five new cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcioglu, Nursel H.; Gustavson, Karl H.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.; Yueksel-Apak, Memune; Spranger, Juergen W.

    2004-01-01

    Autosomal recessive omodysplasia (MIM 258315) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe congenital micromelia with shortening and distal tapering of the humeri and femora to give a club-like appearance. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the literature so far. The purpose of this study was to more clearly describe the clinical and radiographic phenotypes and their changes with age. Five new patients, including two sibs, with autosomal recessive omodysplasia are presented. Clinical features are rhizomelic dwarfism with limited extension of elbows and knees and a distinct face with a short nose, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, midline haemangiomas in infants and cryptorchidism in males. Radiological findings are distal hypoplasia of the short humerus and femur with characteristic radial dislocation and radioulnar diastasis. Based on a review of these and 16 previously reported patients, the regressive nature of the humerofemoral changes and the obvious male predominance are stressed. Phenotypic similarities with the atelosteogenesis group of disorders and with diastrophic dysplasia suggest common pathogenetic mechanisms. (orig.)

  17. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  18. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Laura J; Jernigan, Amelia M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  19. Focal achalasia – case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUTUIAN, RADU

    2018-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is a primary smooth muscle motility disorder specified by aperistalsis of the tubular esophagus in combination with a poorly relaxing and occasionally hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES). These changes occur secondary to the destruction of the neural network coordinating esophageal peristalsis and LES relaxation (plexus myentericus). There are limited data on segmental involvement of the esophagus in adults. We report on the case of a 54-year-old man who presented initially with complete aperistalsis limited to the distal esophagus. After a primary good response to BoTox-infiltration of the distal esophagus the patient relapsed two years later. The manometric recordings documented now a progression of the disease with a poorly relaxing hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter and complete aperistalsis of the tubular esophagus (type III achalasia according to the Chicago 3.0 classification system). This paper also reviews diagnostic findings (including high resolution manometry, CT scan, barium esophagram, upper endoscopy and upper endoscopic ultrasound data) in patients with achalasia and summarizes the therapeutic options (including pneumatic balloon dilatation, botulinum toxin injection, surgical or endoscopic myotomy). PMID:29440962

  20. Ganglioneuroblastoma: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, S; Grignani, M; Carone, L

    2011-06-01

    Neuroblastoma are among the most important tumors of extracranial origin in pediatric patients. They arise from embryonal cells involved in the development of the sympathetic nervous system, whose differentiation has been arrested [1,2]. They are the tumors most frequently diagnosed during the first decade of life. Their evolution is unpredictable, ranging from progression to spontaneous regression or maturation, and their location and metastatic potential vary. Little is known about the cause of these tumors and the risk factors associated with their development. This article describes a typical case of ganglioneuroblastoma and provides a review of the literature on this type of tumor.Sommario Il neuroblastoma è uno dei più importanti tumori pediatrici di derivazione extracranica; esso origina dalle cellule embrionali coinvolte nello sviluppo del sistema nervoso simpatico a causa di un blocco nel loro processo di differenziamento [1,2]. È la più frequente neoplasia della prima decade di vita; la sua progressione biologica è imprevedibile, regressione spontanea, maturazione a ganglioneuroma, localizzazione e metastatizzazione variabili. Poco è noto a riguardo dei fattori di rischio e della sua eziopatogenesi. Viene presentato un caso tipico di ganglioneuroblastoma e riesaminata la letteratura su questa neoplasia.

  1. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ito

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We report a case of acute amebic appendicitis in a 31-year-old woman and review the ages at presentation, causative factors, treatments, and outcomes of 11 cases reported in Japan between 1995 and 2013.

  2. Individually specific call feature is not used to neighbour-stranger discrimination: the corncrake case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Budka

    Full Text Available In various contexts, animals rely on acoustic signals to differentiate between conspecifics. Currently, studies examining vocal signatures use two main approaches. In the first approach, researchers search for acoustic characteristics that have the potential to be individual specific. This approach yields information on variation in signal parameters both within and between individuals and generates practical tools that can be used in population monitoring. In the second approach, playback experiments with natural calls are conducted to discern whether animals are capable of discriminating among the vocal signatures of different individuals. However, both approaches do not reveal the exact signal characteristics that are being used in the discrimination process. In this study, we tested whether an individual-specific call characteristic--namely the length of the intervals between successive maximal amplitude peaks within syllables (PPD--is crucial in neighbour-stranger discrimination by males of the nocturnal and highly secretive bird species, the corncrake (Crex crex. We conducted paired playback experiments in which corncrakes (n = 47 were exposed to artificial calls with PPD characteristics of neighbour and stranger birds. These artificial calls differed only in PPD structure. The calls were broadcast from a speaker, and we recorded the birds' behavioural responses. Although corncrakes have previously been experimentally shown to discriminate between neighbours and strangers, we found no difference in the responses to the artificial calls representing neighbours versus strangers. This finding demonstrates that even if vocal signatures are individual specific within a species, it does not automatically mean that said signatures are being crucial in discrimination among individuals. At the same time, the birds' aggressive responses to the artificial calls indicated that the information transmitted by PPDs is important in species

  3. Resection of large invasive pituitary adenomas with individualized approach under neuronavigator guidance:a report of 17 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-min CHENG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the operative method and therapeutic efficacy of surgical resection of large invasive pituitary adenomas with individualized approach under neuronavigator guidance.Methods Seventeen patients(10 males and 7 females,aged from 22 to 78 years with a mean of 39.2±9.2 years suffering from large invasive pituitary adenoma of higher than Hardy IV grade hospitalized from 2004 to 2009 were involved in the present study.All procedures were performed with the assistance of neuronavigator via individualized pterion approach,subfrontal extradural approach,trans-sphenoidal approach,or combined approach.The dispersedly invasive pituitary adenomas were resected under the guidance of neuronavigator by fully utilizing the natural anatomical cleavages.All the patients received follow-up CT scanning 3 days after operation,MRI scanning 1 to 3 months after operation,and clinical follow-up ranged from 6 to 72 months.The resection extent and outcome were assessed by imaging examination and clinical results.Results Total tumor removal was achieved in 15 cases,subtotal removal in 1 case,and extensive partial removal in 1 case.The visual impairment and headache were ameliorated in most cases,but in 1 patient they were worsened.Transient diabetes insipidus occurred in 8 cases,electrolyte disturbances were observed in 2 cases,leakage of cerebrospinal fluid appeared in 2 cases,hyposmia in 2 cases,visual impairment aggravated in 1 case,oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve paralysis on the operative side in 1 case,epidural hematoma in occipital and parietal regions in 1 case.No patient died during the follow-up period.Conclusions Individualized surgical approach designed according to the growth direction of tumor under neuronavigator guidance is helpful for the operators to identify the vessels and nerves in the operative field distinctly during the operation,thus the total removal rate is improved,safely of the operation to remove large invasive pituitary

  4. Mental Toughness and Individual Differences in Learning, Educational and Work Performance, Psychological Well-being, and Personality: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Mutz, Julian; Clough, Peter J; Papageorgiou, Kostas A

    2017-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is an umbrella term that entails positive psychological resources, which are crucial across a wide range of achievement contexts and in the domain of mental health. We systematically review empirical studies that explored the associations between the concept of MT and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, personality, and other psychological attributes. Studies that explored the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in MT are also reviewed. The findings suggest that MT is associated with various positive psychological traits, more efficient coping strategies and positive outcomes in education and mental health. Approximately 50% of the variation in MT can be accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, the associations between MT and psychological traits can be explained mainly by either common genetic or non-shared environmental factors. Taken together, our findings suggest a 'mental toughness advantage' with possible implications for developing interventions to facilitate achievement in a variety of settings.

  5. Review article: Environmental heatstroke and long-term clinical neurological outcomes: A literature review of case reports and case series 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emily M; Pearce, Helen; Gabb, Genevieve M

    2018-05-31

    Global temperatures are rising; extreme environmental heat can result in adverse health effects including heatstroke. Acute effects of heat are well recognised, but there is less understanding of potential long-term adverse outcomes. Our aim was to review recent medical literature for clinical cases of environmental heatstroke with a focus on neurological outcome. Structured search strategies were designed to retrieve publications of heatstroke case reports using Ovid Medline and Embase (2000-2016). One thousand and forty-nine abstracts were identified, and after application of exclusion criteria 71 articles deemed relevant. Ninety cases were identified from 71 articles. 100% presented with acute neurological symptoms; 87.8% presented with non-neurological symptoms. 44.4% patients recovered fully, 23.3% died, 23.3% suffered convalescent or long-term neurological sequelae, and in 8.9% no long-term follow up was available. 57.1% of the patients who died or had a neurological deficit had no documented co-morbidity. Patterns of neurological deficits included 66.7% patients with motor dysfunction, 9.5% cognitive impairment, 19% both motor and cognitive impairment and 4.7% other. In total 71.4% of the impaired patients had long-term cerebellar dysfunction. Adverse long-term neurological outcomes were common in surviving patients presenting with environmental heatstroke. Permanent neurological deficits were present in 34.4% of survivors where outcome was known; many were young, healthy individuals. Cerebellar injury was common suggesting cerebellar structures are vulnerable to heat. These findings highlight that people of all ages and pre-morbid states are at risk of severe heat-related illness. In the face of climate change, effective interventions for heat-related illness, including both treatment and prevention are necessary. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. ESR/tooth enamel dosimetry application to Chernobyl case: individual retrospective dosimetry of the liquidators and wild animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugai, A.; Baryakchtar, V.G.; Baran, N.

    1996-01-01

    ESR/tooth enamel dosimetry technique was used for individual retrospective dosimetry of the servicemen who had worked in 1986-1987 at the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. For 18 investigated cases, the values varied from 0,10 (sensitivity limit) to 1,75 Gy. The same technique was used for individual dosimetry of wild animals boars, red deers, elks) hunted at contaminated 30-km area around the Chernobyl Power Plant. Measured values varied from 0,20 to 5,0 Gy/year and were compared with calculated for external and internal irradiation

  7. Psychiatric disorders in individuals diagnosed with infantile autism as children: A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with psychiatric disorders in 336 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish...

  8. An individual-centered approach to multidimensional poverty: The cases of Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco-Correa, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of selecting the unit of analysis in multidimensional poverty analyses, which is a central decision to take, both from academic and normative points of view. The paper compares the results of an individual-level Multidimensional Poverty Index for Chile, Colombia,

  9. 26 CFR 1.270-1 - Limitation on deductions allowable to individuals in certain cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cultivates, operates, or manages a farm for gain or profit, either as owner or tenant. An individual who... provisions relating to activities not engaged in for profit applicable to taxable years beginning after... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.270-1 Limitation...

  10. Successful Strategies of Individuals with Dyslexia in the Field of Music: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kent Peter

    2014-01-01

    Many of the symptoms of dyslexia--such as difficulties with decoding written symbols, phonemic awareness, physical coordination, and readable handwriting--may adversely affect music learning. Despite challenges, some individuals with dyslexia succeed in music. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of five professional musicians…

  11. Exploring Individual Factors Affecting Business Students' Willingness to Study Abroad: A Case Study from the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Arleen; Fernández-Morales, Leticia M.; Vega-Vilca, José C.; Córdova-Claudio, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Despite a low rate of student participation in study abroad programs in the Caribbean, there is insufficient research about the individual factors that help determine business students' willingness to study or to participate in internship programs abroad. This study aims to explore business students' attitudes toward study abroad. The positive…

  12. Recognising Opportunities : A Case Study on Fostering a Culture of Innovation Through Individual and Collective Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhof, Lysanne; van Vuuren, Mark; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Every innovation in organisations starts with recognising the opportunity to improve one’s way of working. Feeling psychological ownership for such innovative work behaviours can be identified for individuals (i.e. ‘this task is mine’) and collectives (i.e. ‘this task is ours’). Our question was how

  13. Delay discounting differences in brain activation, connectivity, and structure in individuals with addiction: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Max M; Amlung, Michael T; Beach, Steven R H; Sweet, Lawrence H; MacKillop, James

    2017-07-11

    Delayed reward discounting (DRD), the degree to which future rewards are discounted relative to immediate rewards, is used as an index of impulsive decision-making and has been associated with a number of problematic health behaviors. Given the robust behavioral association between DRD and addictive behavior, there is an expanding literature investigating the differences in the functional and structural correlates of DRD in the brain between addicted and healthy individuals. However, there has yet to be a systematic review which characterizes differences in regional brain activation, functional connectivity, and structure and places them in the larger context of the DRD literature. The objective of this systematic review is to summarize and critically appraise the existing literature examining differences between addicted and healthy individuals in the neural correlates of DRD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A systematic search strategy will be implemented that uses Boolean search terms in PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO, as well as manual search methods, to identify the studies comprehensively. This review will include studies using MRI or fMRI in humans to directly compare brain activation, functional connectivity, or structure in relation to DRD between addicted and healthy individuals or continuously assess addiction severity in the context of DRD. Two independent reviewers will determine studies that meet the inclusion criteria for this review, extract data from included studies, and assess the quality of included studies using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Then, narrative review will be used to explicate the differences in structural and functional correlates of DRD implicated by the literature and assess the strength of evidence for this conclusion. This review will provide a needed critical exegesis of the MRI studies that have been conducted investigating

  14. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F: Report of a case and review of Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofuku, Yukari; Nobeyama, Yoshimasa; Kamide, Ryoichi; Moriwaki, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2015-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by extraordinary sensitivity to sunlight, resulting in cutaneous malignant tumors. Among XP, XP-F presents relatively uniquely in Japanese. To clarify the characteristics of this group, we describe a case of XP-F and review Japanese cases previously reported. A 50-year-old Japanese woman was referred to us with multiple, variously sized, light- or dark-brown macules on the face and sunlight-exposed extremities. She had experienced bulla formation with approximately 10 min of sunlight exposure during her elementary school years. Her parents had been first cousins, and her mother and sister had photosensitivity. She showed no neurological or developmental abnormalities. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation testing revealed normal levels for minimal erythema dose with UV-A and UV-B. Sensitivity to UV-C and DNA repair ability in the patient's fibroblasts were indicated between that in normal individuals and that in an XP-A patient. Complementation assay revealed that transfection of the XPF gene led most efficient DNA repair compared with the other XP genes. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with XP-F. Twenty-three cases of Japanese patients (six males, 17 females) with XP-F have been reported, including the present case. Our review suggested a relatively high prevalence of 50% (11/22) for cutaneous malignant tumors. A significant difference was evident in the mean age at first medical consultation between patients with cutaneous malignant tumors (53.6 years) and patients without such tumors (30.8 years). This suggests that cutaneous malignant tumors could occur in the age range of 30-50 years in XP-F patients. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review.

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    Costa, Rosalia; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect) for the hormonal treatment-induced better mental well-being. In conclusion, this review indicates that gender dysphoria-related mental distress may benefit from hormonal treatment intervention, suggesting a transient reaction to the nonsatisfaction connected to the incongruent body

  16. Individual vulnerability to insomnia, excessive sleepiness and shift work disorder amongst healthcare shift workers. A systematic review.

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    Booker, Lauren A; Magee, Michelle; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Sletten, Tracey L; Howard, Mark E

    2018-03-27

    Shift workers often experience reduced sleep quality, duration and/or excessive sleepiness due to the imposed conflict between work and their circadian system. About 20-30% of shift workers experience prominent insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness consistent with the circadian rhythm sleep disorder known as shift work disorder. Individual factors may influence this vulnerability to shift work disorder or sleep-related impairment associated with shift work. This paper was registered with Prospero and was conducted using recommended standards for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Published literature that measured sleep-related impairment associated with shift work including reduced sleep quality and duration and increased daytime sleepiness amongst healthcare shift workers and explored characteristics associated with individual variability were reviewed. Fifty-eight studies were included. Older age, morning-type, circadian flexibility, being married or having children, increased caffeine intake, higher scores on neuroticism and lower on hardiness were related to a higher risk of sleep-related impairment in response to shift work, whereas physical activity was a protective factor. The review highlights the diverse range of measurement tools used to evaluate the impact of shift work on sleep. Use of standardised and validated tools would enable cross-study comparisons. Longitudinal studies are required to establish causal relationships between individual factors and the development of shift work disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychosocial Interventions for Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Michaela C. Pascoe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Depressive and anxiety symptoms are common amongst individuals with chronic kidney disease and are known to affect quality of life adversely. Psychosocial interventions have been shown to decrease depressive and anxiety symptoms in various chronic diseases, but few studies have examined their efficacy in people with chronic kidney disease and no meta-analysis has been published. Thus, the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial interventions on depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as quality of life in individuals diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and/or their carers.Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we included published randomized controlled trials comparing psychosocial interventions versus usual care for impacting depressive and anxiety symptoms and quality of life.Results: Eight studies were included in the systematic review and six of these were subjected to meta-analysis. Psychosocial interventions were associated with a medium effect size for reduction in depressive symptoms and a small effect size for improved quality of life in the in individuals with chronic-kidney-disease and their carers. Some evidence suggested a reduction in anxiety.Conclusion: Psychosocial interventions appear to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with chronic-kidney-disease and their carers and to have some beneficial impact on anxiety. However, the small number of identified studies indicates a need for further research in this field.

  18. Leiomyosarcoma of the Prostate: Case Report and Review of 54 Previously Published Cases

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    Gerasimos P. Vandoros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate leiomyosarcoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive neoplasm that accounts for less than 0.1% of primary prostate malignancies. We present a patient with primary leiomyosarcoma of the prostate and review 54 cases reported in the literature to discuss the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this uncommon tumor. Median survival was estimated at 17 months (95% C.I. 20.7–43.7 months and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates were 68%, 34%, and 26%, respectively. The only factors predictive of long-term survival were negative surgical margins and absence of metastatic disease at presentation. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for appropriate management of this dire entity.

  19. Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

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    Avgerinos, Konstantinos I; Spyrou, Nikolaos; Bougioukas, Konstantinos I; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2018-07-15

    Creatine is a supplement used by sportsmen to increase athletic performance by improving energy supply to muscle tissues. It is also an essential brain compound and some hypothesize that it aids cognition by improving energy supply and neuroprotection. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of oral creatine administration on cognitive function in healthy individuals. A search of multiple electronic databases was performed for the identification of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) examining the cognitive effects of oral creatine supplementation in healthy individuals. Six studies (281 individuals) met our inclusion criteria. Generally, there was evidence that short term memory and intelligence/reasoning may be improved by creatine administration. Regarding other cognitive domains, such as long-term memory, spatial memory, memory scanning, attention, executive function, response inhibition, word fluency, reaction time and mental fatigue, the results were conflicting. Performance on cognitive tasks stayed unchanged in young individuals. Vegetarians responded better than meat-eaters in memory tasks but for other cognitive domains no differences were observed. Oral creatine administration may improve short-term memory and intelligence/reasoning of healthy individuals but its effect on other cognitive domains remains unclear. Findings suggest potential benefit for aging and stressed individuals. Since creatine is safe, future studies should include larger sample sizes. It is imperative that creatine should be tested on patients with dementias or cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ovarian metastasis in colorectal cancer: retrospective review of 180 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omranipour R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Routine oophorectomy in women with colorectal cancer is under debate, the aim of this study is to determine incidence, clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors of ovarian involvement in primary colorectal cancer (CRC and to clear the role of prophylactic oophorectomy."n"nMethods: Data from primary CRC women treated between years 1990 and 2004 were retrieved and clinical and pathologic features of those who had undergone oophorectomy during CRC surgery were reviewed."n"nResults: One hundred eighty cases (mean age 47.5 years were included. In 120(66.6%, ovaries were preserved and 60(33.3% cases underwent bilateral oophorectomy in addition to primary CRC resection. Reasons for oophorectomy were prophylactic in 22(36.6%, abnormal morphology in 35(58.3%, and undetermined in 3(5% cases. There were five metastatic carcinomas, eight primary ovarian tumors and 47 normal ovaries in pathologic evaluation. No complication directly related to oophorectomy was noted. Patients with ovarian metastases had higher stages of tumor. Ovarian metastases were not related to menstrual status, CRC location, size, differentiation, and mucin production, as well as abnormal morphology of ovary. The global prevalence of