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Sample records for indium double-filled skutterudite

  1. Neutron diffraction and thermoelectric properties of indium filled In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x = 0.05, 0.2) and indium cerium filled Ce{sub 0.05}In{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesselmann, Andreas [Institute of Materials Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Hoehe, 51147 Koeln (Germany); Klobes, Benedikt [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS und Peter Gruenberg Institute PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Dasgupta, Titas [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai (India); Gourdon, Olivier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Hermann, Raphael [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS und Peter Gruenberg Institute PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Mueller, Eckhard [Institute of Materials Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Linder Hoehe, 51147 Koeln (Germany); Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    The thermoelectric properties on polycrystalline single (In) and double filled (Ce, In) skutterudites are characterized between 300 and 700 K. Powder neutron diffraction measurements of the skutterudite compositions In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x = 0.05, 0.2) and Ce{sub 0.05}In{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} as a function of temperature (12-300 K) were carried out, which gives more insight into the structural data of single and double-filled skutterudites. Results show that due to the annealing treatment, a Sb deficiency is detectable and thus verifies defects at the Sb lattice site of the skutterudite. Furthermore, we show by electron microprobe analysis that a considerable amount of indium is lost during synthesis and post-processing for the single indium filled samples, but not for the double cerium and indium skutterudite sample. In our experiments, the double-filled skutterudite is superior to the single-filled skutterudite composition due to a higher charge carrier density, a comparable lattice thermal resistivity, and a higher density of states effective mass. Furthermore, we obtained a significantly higher Einstein temperature for the double-filled skutterudite composition in comparison to the single-filled species, which reflects the high sensitivity due to filling of the void lattice position within the skutterudite crystal. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Enhancement of thermoelectric efficiency of CoSb3-based skutterudites by double filling with K and Tl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eKurosaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high-temperature thermoelectric properties of thallium (Tl and potassium (K double-filled cobalt antimonide (CoSb3-based skutterudites with nominal compositions TlxK0.3Co4Sb12 (x = 0.1–0.3 were investigated. The filling fraction of Tl in CoSb3 was enhanced by co-filling with K, which resulted in all of the samples showing the filled-skutterudite single phase. Owing to the high filling ratio, the carrier concentration in the sample with x = 0.3 was as high as 4.3 × 1020 cm−3 at room temperature. Furthermore, quite low lattice thermal conductivity (as low as 0.9 W m−1 K−1 was obtained for the sample with x = 0.3, probably because of strong phonon scattering by the Tl and K co-rattling effect, which resulted in a maximum zT of around one at 773 K.

  3. Structural, electronic, and thermal properties of indium-filled InxIr4Sb12 skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M. K.; Li, Jun; Subramanian, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    The "phonon-glass/electron-crystal" approach has been implemented through incorporation of "rattlers" into skutterudite void sites to increase phonon scattering and thus increase the thermoelectric efficiency. Indium filled IrSb3 skutterudites are reported for the first time. Polycrystalline samples of InxIr4Sb12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) were prepared by solid-state reaction under a gas mixture of 5% H2 and 95% Ar. The solubility limit of InxIr4Sb12 was found to be close to 0.18. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction refinements reveal all InxIr4Sb12 phases crystallized in body-centered cubic structure (space group : Im 3 bar) with ∼8% antimony site vacancy and with indium partially occupying the 16f site. Unlike known rattler filled skutterudites, under synthetic conditions employed, indium filling in IrSb3 significantly increases the electrical resistivity and decreases the Seebeck coefficient (n-type) while reducing the thermal conductivity by ∼30%. The resultant power factor offsets the decrease in total thermal conductivity giving rise to a substantial decrease in ZT. Principal thermoelectric properties of InxM4Sb12 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) phases are compared. As iridium is a 5d transition metal, zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization were performed to unravel the effect of spin-orbit interaction on the electronic properties. These results serve to advance the understanding of filled skutterudites, and provide additional insight on the less explored smaller "rattlers" and their influence on key thermoelectric properties.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of high pressure synthesized lithium and calcium double-filled CoSb3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium and calcium are inefficient filling elements of CoSb3 at ambient pressure, but show nice filling behavior under high pressure. In this work, we synthesized Li/Ca double-filled CoSb3 with high pressure synthesis method. The products show the skutterudite structure of Im3¯ symmetry. Thermoelectric properties were effectively enhanced through Li and Ca co-filling. For the optimal Li0.08Ca0.18Co4Sb12 sample, the power factor maintains a relatively high value over the whole measurement temperature range and peaks at 4700μWm−1K−2, meanwhile the lattice thermal conductivity is greatly suppressed, leading to a maximal ZT of 1.18 at 700 K. Current work demonstrates high pressure synthesis as an effective method to produce multiple elemental filled CoSb3 skutterudites.

  5. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleurial, J P; Caillat, T; Borshchevsky, A

    1997-07-01

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  6. Improved thermoelectric performance of n-type Ca and Ca-Ce filled skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Daniel R.; Liu, Chang; Ellison, Nicole D. [Optimal CAE, Plymouth, Michigan 48170 (United States); Salvador, James R.; Meyer, Martin S.; Haddad, Daad B. [General Motors Research and Development, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States); Wang, Hsin; Cai, W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-12-28

    Thermoelectric (TE) technology for use in automotive waste heat recovery is being advanced by General Motors with support from the US Department of Energy. Skutterudites are a very promising material for this application of TE technology due to their superior mechanical properties and good TE performance. Double-filled Yb{sub x}Ba{sub y}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} with ZT values around 1.1 at 750 K are the best performing n-type skutterudites produced on a large scale using an economically viable approach of melt spinning (MS) in conjunction with spark plasma sintering (SPS). Another economical production method on the tons scale, the melt quench annealing (MQA) technique, has been recently claimed by Treibacher Industrie AG, further information is available [G. Rogl et al., Acta Mater. 76, 434–448 (2014)]. A possible hurdle to commercial implementation of these materials is the use of rare earths as the fillers to reduce thermal conductivity and improve the electrical transport properties. It will be shown herein that skutterudites double-filled with Ca and Ce, both of which are lower-cost fillers, display markedly different TE properties depending on whether they are produced by MQA or MS + SPS synthesis techniques. Ca and Ce double-filled skutterudites prepared by MS + SPS have TE properties that are superior to the same compositions prepared by MQA and that are comparable to the best performing Yb and Ba filled materials. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that the unusually poor transport properties of MQA Ca-filled skutterudites can be ascribed to deleterious secondary phases, which is contrary to reports in the literature attempting to explain these irregularities via band structure features.

  7. Preparation and chemical properties of the skutterudites (Ce-Yb) yFe4-x(Co/Ni) xSb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berardan, D.; Alleno, E.; Godart, C.; Rouleau, O.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.

    2005-01-01

    The double-filled skutterudites Ce y/2 Yb y/2 Fe 4-x Co x Sb 12 and Ce y/2 Yb y/2 Fe 4-x Ni x Sb 12 have been synthesized as single phase materials. The evolution of the lattice parameters and of the filling fractions with substitutions on the transition metal site have been studied by X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis, respectively. Both results were compared to that of single filled series (Ce/Yb) y Fe 4-x (Co/Ni) x Sb 12 . It shows that double-filled skutterudites can be understood as a solid solution between single filled ones. The valence states of Ce and Yb in all series have been studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L 3 edges, and we discuss their relationships with structural parameters. Ce is always trivalent, whereas Yb valence state decreases as Yb fraction increases. No distortion of the environment or sub-position of Yb in the cage have been seen by neutron diffraction. The Seebeck coefficient has been measured using a home made apparatus from 120 K to 300 K. It shows a crossover from p- to n-type conductivity for Co or Ni rich skutterudites in the six series. We discuss the influence on the room temperature thermopower of valence states, filling fractions and substitution rate on the transition metal site. Thermopower seems to be only driven by charge carriers concentration

  8. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  9. Thermoelectric skutterudite compositions and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Yang, Jian; Yan, Xiao; He, Qinyu; Chen, Gang; Hao, Qing

    2014-11-11

    Compositions related to skutterudite-based thermoelectric materials are disclosed. Such compositions can result in materials that have enhanced ZT values relative to one or more bulk materials from which the compositions are derived. Thermoelectric materials such as n-type and p-type skutterudites with high thermoelectric figures-of-merit can include materials with filler atoms and/or materials formed by compacting particles (e.g., nanoparticles) into a material with a plurality of grains each having a portion having a skutterudite-based structure. Methods of forming thermoelectric skutterudites, which can include the use of hot press processes to consolidate particles, are also disclosed. The particles to be consolidated can be derived from (e.g., grinded from), skutterudite-based bulk materials, elemental materials, other non-Skutterudite-based materials, or combinations of such materials.

  10. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Banaras; Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye; Saifullah; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Khan, Imad; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX 3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures

  11. Electronic band structures of binary skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Banaras [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Aliabad, H.A. Rahnamaye [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saifullah [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Jalali-Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khan, Imad [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)

    2015-10-25

    The electronic properties of complex binary skutterudites, MX{sub 3} (M = Co, Rh, Ir; X = P, As, Sb) are explored, using various density functional theory (DFT) based theoretical approaches including Green's Function (GW) as well as regular and non-regular Tran Blaha modified Becke Jhonson (TB-mBJ) methods. The wide range of calculated bandgap values for each compound of this skutterudites family confirm that they are theoretically as challenging as their experimental studies. The computationally expensive GW method, which is generally assume to be efficient in the reproduction of the experimental bandgaps, is also not very successful in the calculation of bandgaps. In this article, the issue of the theoretical bandgaps of these compounds is resolved by reproducing the accurate experimental bandgaps, using the recently developed non-regular TB-mBJ approach, based on DFT. The effectiveness of this technique is due to the fact that a large volume of the binary skutterudite crystal is empty and hence quite large proportion of electrons lie outside of the atomic spheres, where unlike LDA and GGA which are poor in the treatment of these electrons, this technique properly treats these electrons and hence reproduces the clear electronic picture of these compounds. - Highlights: • Theoretical and experimental electronic band structures of binary skutterudites are reviewed. • The literature reveals that none of the existing theoretical results are consistent with the experiments. • GW, regular and non-regular TB-mBJ methods are used to reproduce the correct results. • The GW and regular TB-mBJ results are better than the available results in literature. • However, non-regular TB-mBJ reproduces the correct experimental band structures.

  12. Raman scattering study of filled skutterudite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, N; Kojima, R; Hasegawa, T; Takasu, Y; Udagawa, M; Kondo, T; Takeda, N; Ikeno, T; Ishikawa, K; Sugawara, H; Kikuchi, D; Sato, H; Sekine, C; Shirotani, I

    2007-01-01

    Raman scattering of skutterudite compounds RT 4 X 12 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm and Yb, T=Fe, Ru and Os, X=P and Sb) have been measured. All first-order Raman active phonons are observed and are assigned as the pnicogen vibrations. At the low energy region, the second-order phonons, due to the vibration of the rare earth ions with a flat phonon dispersion, are observed in the spectra of RRu 4 P 12 (R=La and Sm) and ROs 4 Sb 12 (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm). The appearance of the second-order phonons in the spectra is caused by an anharmonic vibrations of rare earth ions in large cage space and a large density of state due to the flat phonon dispersion. However, in spite of the similar cage space, the 2nd-order phonons are hardly observed for RFe 4 Sb 12 and RRu 4 Sb 12 . Thus, these results suggest that the dynamics of the rare earth ion is closely related to not only the cage size but also the electronic state due to the transition metals. Raman spectra of PrRu 4 P 12 show the drastic spectral change due to the metal-insulator transition. The phonon spectra and crystal field excitations due to the structural change have been assigned above and below the transition temperature

  13. Tests results of skutterudite based thermoelectric unicouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Hamed H.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Caillat, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Tests were performed of skutterudite based unicouples with (MAY-04) and without (MAR-03) metallic coating on the legs near the hot junction to quantify the effect on reducing performance degradation with operation time. The p-legs in the unicouples were made of CeFe 3.5 Co 0.5 Sb 12 and the n-legs of CoSb 3 . The MAY-04 test was performed in vacuum (∼9 x 10 -7 torr) for ∼2000 h at hot and cold junction temperatures of 892.1 ± 11.9 K and 316.1 ± 5.5 K, respectively, while the MAR-03 test was performed in argon cover gas (0.051-0.068 MPa) at 972.61 ± 10.0 K and 301.1 ± 5.1 K, respectively. The argon cover gas decreased antimony loss from the legs in the MAR-03 test, but marked degradation in performance occurred over time. Conversely, the metallic coating in the MAY-04 test was very effective in reducing performance degradation of the unicouple. Because the cross sectional areas of the legs in MAY-04 were larger than those in MAR-03, the measured electrical power of the former is much higher than that of the latter, but the Beginning of Test (BOT) open circuit voltages, V oc (204.2 mV) for both unicouples were almost the same. The peak electrical power of the MAY-04 unicouple decreased 12.35% from 1.62W e at BOT to 1.42W e after ∼2000 h of testing, while that of the MAR-03 unicouple decreased 25.37% from 0.67 to 0.5W e after 261 h of testing at the above temperatures. The estimated peak efficiency of the MAY-04 unicouple, shortly after BOT (10.65%), was only ∼0.37% points lower than the theoretical value, calculated assuming zero side heat losses and zero contact resistance per leg

  14. High-temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type skutterudites Ba0.15Yb x Co3FeSb12 and Yb y Co3FeSb9As3

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Yongkwan

    2014-08-28

    Two series of p-type polycrystalline skutterudites, Ba0.15YbxCo3FeSb12 and YbyCo3FeSb9As3 with varying Yb concentrations, were synthesized by solid-state reaction and then densified by hot pressing. The phase and stoichiometries of the resulting materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, while their high-temperature transport properties were investigated from 300 to 800 K. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities increased linearly with increasing temperature for the double-filled specimens. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities did not change very much for the As-substituted specimens. The thermal conductivity for all specimens decreased with increasing temperature up to 700 K, corresponding to the plateau in the Seebeck coefficient, and then increased again due to bipolar diffusion. We find that double filling is a more feasible approach to thermoelectric property optimization than single filling with As substitution. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  15. Exotic behaviours in the Pr-based filled skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H; Sugawara, H; Namiki, T; Saha, S R; Osaki, S; Matsuda, T D; Aoki, Y; Inada, Y; Shishido, H; Settai, R; Onuki, Y

    2003-01-01

    The exotic features of the Pr-based filled skutterudites are reviewed based on the electronic transport properties, specific heat and de Haas-van Alphen experiments, putting the emphasis on PrFe 4 P 12 and PrOs 4 Sb 12 . As references, the experiments on the related La- and Ce-filled skutterudites are also examined and discussed. Compared to their La reference compounds, the Fermi surface is very similar in PrOs 4 Sb 12 , suggesting the well localized character of 4f electrons, while it looks largely different in PrFe 4 P 12 . For the cyclotron effective mass, both PrFe 4 P 12 and PrOs 4 Sb 12 exhibit a strong enhancement, in reasonable agreement with the large specific heat coefficient

  16. Thermoelectric properties of RuSb2Te ternary skutterudites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Plecháček, T.; Drašar, Č.; Laufek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2013), s. 1864-1869 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RuSb2Te * ternary skutterudite * doping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11664-012-2451-5

  17. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  18. Fabrication of stable electrode/diffusion barrier layers for thermoelectric filled skutterudite devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Qing; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang

    2017-08-01

    Disclosed are methods for the manufacture of n-type and p-type filled skutterudite thermoelectric legs of an electrical contact. A first material of CoSi.sub.2 and a dopant are ball-milled to form a first powder which is thermo-mechanically processed with a second powder of n-type skutterudite to form a n-type skutterudite layer disposed between a first layer and a third layer of the doped-CoSi.sub.2. In addition, a plurality of components such as iron, and nickel, and at least one of cobalt or chromium are ball-milled form a first powder that is thermo-mechanically processed with a p-type skutterudite layer to form a p-type skutterudite layer "second layer" disposed between a first and a third layer of the first powder. The specific contact resistance between the first layer and the skutterudite layer for both the n-type and the p-type skutterudites subsequent to hot-pressing is less than about 10.0 .mu..OMEGA.cm.sup.2.

  19. Magnetic properties of Sm-based filled skutterudite phosphides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, R.; Sekine, C.; Shimaya, Y.; Shirotani, I.; Matsuhira, K.; Doi, Y.; Hinatsu, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Amitsuka, H

    2003-05-01

    Filled skutterudites SmFe{sub 4}P{sub 12} and SmOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} have been prepared at high temperature and high pressure. The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity in both compounds shows metallic behavior. The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements indicate that SmFe{sub 4}P{sub 12} shows a ferromagnetic ordering at 1.5 K, whereas SmOs{sub 4}P{sub 12} is an antiferromagnet with a T{sub N} of 4.6 K.

  20. Charge fluctuation in Ce-based filled-skutterudite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogi, M; Niki, H; Mukuda, H; Kitaoka, Y; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2009-01-01

    We carried out 121,123 Sb nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement on CeOs 4 Sb 12 to investigate an anomaly observed in ReOs 4 Sb 12 . The full width of half maximum of the NQR spectrum shows a step-like increase at 115 K with decreasing temperature (T). The nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate 1/T 2 also shows a divergence at the same T. These results are considered to be caused by a distribution of the electric field gradient (EFG) and its fluctuation, which might arise from a small deformation of the cage which consists of twelve Sb. It is considered that the anomaly observed in ReOs 4 Sb 12 at T ∼ 120 K is originated from an unique crystal structure of the filled skutterudite.

  1. Influence of high energy β-radiation on thermoelectric performance of filled skutterudites compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jikun, E-mail: jikunchen@seas.harvard.edu [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zha, Hao [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Xia, Xugui; Qiu, Pengfei; Li, Yulong [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Chuanjing; Han, Yunsheng [Nuctech Company Limited, Beijing (China); Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Jin, Qingxiu [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Huaibi, E-mail: chenhb@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Impact by MeV β-rays irradiation on skutterudite TE material was investigated. • Monte-Carlo simulation is used to simulate the deposited energy irradiations. • The high deposited energy does not change the TE performance. • The light irradiation does not show a significant impact on TE materials. - Abstract: The influence of MeV β-rays irradiation on the thermoelectric performance of n-type filled skutterudite material has been investigated using an electron accelerator. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation base on Fluka code, the deposited energy in the sample material from the irradiation is estimated, which shows a large power deposited around 50 W/mm. Nevertheless, the thermoelectric performances of the filled skutterudite samples are compared before and after irradiations. It indicates that the thermoelectric material will not be easily jeopardized by ‘light’ irradiations with energy lower than MeV range.

  2. Influence of high energy β-radiation on thermoelectric performance of filled skutterudites compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jikun; Zha, Hao; Xia, Xugui; Qiu, Pengfei; Li, Yulong; Wang, Chuanjing; Han, Yunsheng; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong; Jin, Qingxiu; Chen, Huaibi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact by MeV β-rays irradiation on skutterudite TE material was investigated. • Monte-Carlo simulation is used to simulate the deposited energy irradiations. • The high deposited energy does not change the TE performance. • The light irradiation does not show a significant impact on TE materials. - Abstract: The influence of MeV β-rays irradiation on the thermoelectric performance of n-type filled skutterudite material has been investigated using an electron accelerator. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation base on Fluka code, the deposited energy in the sample material from the irradiation is estimated, which shows a large power deposited around 50 W/mm. Nevertheless, the thermoelectric performances of the filled skutterudite samples are compared before and after irradiations. It indicates that the thermoelectric material will not be easily jeopardized by ‘light’ irradiations with energy lower than MeV range

  3. [Therapeutic effect of double fill nine tastes soup in treating recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) and change of immune function in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youcheng; Zhang, Lijuan; Hu, Guohua; Wang, Menghe; Tang, Xiaoyuan; Guo, Hui; Shi, Yimei; Chen, Shufang; Shi, Changchun

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of double fill nine tastes soup in treating children recurrent respiratory infection (RRTI) and the change of immune function. 77 RRTI patients were randomly selected into observation and control groups. The observation group was treated with Chinese medicine- double fill nine tastes soup,water frying points 2 times oral. The control was treated with transfer factor oral liquid,every 10 mL,2 times daily oral. Treatment periods were both two months. IgA, IgG, IgM and IL-12, TNF-alpha, INF-gamma were detected before and after treatment to assess the clinical effects and the changes of immune factors, meanwhile, a health group was established. Before treatment, compared with the health group, the serum IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE, IL-12, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma in both groups were significantly different (P soup has significant effects in treating recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) and enhance the immune function in children.

  4. Synthesis crystal stuctrure and thermoelectric properties of the ternary skutterudite Fe2Pd2Sb12

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Laufek, F.; Plecháček, T.; Plášil, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 493, 1-2 (2010), s. 50-54 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Fe2Pd2Sb12 * crystal structure * skutterudite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2010

  5. Preparation and thermopower of new mischmetal-based partially filled skutterudites Mm yFe4-x(Co/Ni) xSb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, B.; Berardan, D.; Alleno, E.; Godart, C.; Rouleau, O.; Leroy, E.

    2005-01-01

    We report on sample preparation and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) in the series Mm y Fe 4-x (Co/Ni) x Sb 12 with Mm being mischmetal. We show the possibility of preparing mischmetal-based partially filled skutterudites without any segregation of the rare-earths. Room temperature thermopower is similar in mischmetal-based skutterudites to cerium- or ytterbium-based partially filled skutterudites

  6. Phase stability and lattice thermal conductivity reduction in CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites, doped with chalcogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battabyal, M., E-mail: manjusha.battabyal@project.arci.res.in; Priyadarshini, B.; Gopalan, R. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), IIT M Research Park, Taramani, Chennai-600113 (India); Pradipkanti, L.; Satapathy, Dillip K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036 (India)

    2016-07-15

    We report a significant reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity of the CoSb{sub 3} skuttertudites, doped with chalcogen atoms. Te/Se chalcogen atoms doped CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite samples (Te{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, Se{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, Te{sub 0.05}Se{sub 0.05}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}) are processed by ball milling and spark plasma sintering. X-ray diffraction data combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectra indicate the doping of Te/Se chalcogen atoms in the skutterudite. The temperature dependent X-ray diffraction confirms the stability of the Te/Se doped CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite phase and absence of any secondary phase in the temperature range starting from 300 K to 773 K. The Raman spectroscopy reveals that different chalcogen dopant atoms cause different resonant optical vibrational modes between the dopant atom and the host CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite lattice. These optical vibrational modes do scatter heat carrying acoustic phonons in a different spectral range. It was found that among the Te/Se chalcogen atoms, Te atoms alter the host CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite lattice vibrations to a larger extent than Se atoms, and can potentially scatter more Sb related acoustic phonons. The Debye model of lattice thermal conductivity confirms that the resonant phonon scattering has important contributions to the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity in CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites doped with Te/Se chalcogen atoms. Lattice thermal conductivity ∼ 0.9 W/mK at 773 K is achieved in Te{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} skutterudites, which is the lowest value reported so far in CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites, doped with single Te chalcogen atom.

  7. On the chemical synthesis route to bulk-scale skutterudite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafti, Mohsen Y.; Saleemi, Mohsin; Han, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this article an alternative high yield route for the synthesis of CoSb3-based unfilled skutterudites is presented. Using low-melting temperature salts of the constituents, melting and mixing them homogeneously in a hydrophobic liquid with postprocessing of the powders we achieve a more intimat......, compaction of the powders with SPS technique provided a safe route to maintaining the nanopowder size and achieving low thermal conductivity (3 W/mK). The proposed method can easily be scaled up and adopted by the industry.......In this article an alternative high yield route for the synthesis of CoSb3-based unfilled skutterudites is presented. Using low-melting temperature salts of the constituents, melting and mixing them homogeneously in a hydrophobic liquid with postprocessing of the powders we achieve a more...

  8. The structure of filled skutterudites and the local vibration behavior of the filling atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaojuan [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Peng-an [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Xihong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao, Juzhou, E-mail: taoj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science, Dongguan 523808 (China); Lin, He, E-mail: linhe@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Both of atomic pair distribution function (PDF) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) experiments have been carried out on unfilled and Yb-filled skutterudites Yb{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (x=0, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25) samples. The structure refinements on PDF data confirm the large amplitude vibration of Yb atom and the dependence of Yb vibration amplitude on the filling content. Temperature dependent EXAFS experiment on filled skutterudites have been carried out at Yb L{sub Ⅲ}-edge in order to explore the local vibration behavior of filled atom. EXAFS experiments show that the Einstein temperature of the filled atom is very low (70.9 K) which agrees with the rattling behavior.

  9. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Pr-based filled skutterudites: A first principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Priya; Nautiyal, Shashank; Verma, U. P.

    2018-04-01

    Ternary skutterudites materials exhibit good electronic properties due to the unpaired d- and f- electrons of the transition and rare-earth metals, respectively. In this communication, we have performed the structural optimization of Pr-based filled skutterudite (PrCo4P12) for the first time and obtained the electronic band structure, density of states and magnetic moments by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). Our obtained magnetic moment of PrCo4P12 is ˜ 1.8 µB in which main contribution is due to Pr atom. Behavior of this material is metallic and it is most stable in body centered cubic (BCC) structure.

  10. Germanium and indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Kimball, Bryn E.; Tolcin, Amy C.; Guberman, David E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Germanium and indium are two important elements used in electronics devices, flat-panel display screens, light-emitting diodes, night vision devices, optical fiber, optical lens systems, and solar power arrays. Germanium and indium are treated together in this chapter because they have similar technological uses and because both are recovered as byproducts, mainly from copper and zinc sulfides.The world’s total production of germanium in 2011 was estimated to be 118 metric tons. This total comprised germanium recovered from zinc concentrates, from fly ash residues from coal burning, and from recycled material. Worldwide, primary germanium was recovered in Canada from zinc concentrates shipped from the United States; in China from zinc residues and coal from multiple sources in China and elsewhere; in Finland from zinc concentrates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo; and in Russia from coal.World production of indium metal was estimated to be about 723 metric tons in 2011; more than one-half of the total was produced in China. Other leading producers included Belgium, Canada, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. These five countries accounted for nearly 95 percent of primary indium production.Deposit types that contain significant amounts of germanium include volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits (including Irish-type zinc-lead deposits), Kipushi-type zinc-lead-copper replacement bodies in carbonate rocks, and coal deposits.More than one-half of the byproduct indium in the world is produced in southern China from VMS and SEDEX deposits, and much of the remainder is produced from zinc concentrates from MVT deposits. The Laochang deposit in Yunnan Province, China, and the VMS deposits of the Murchison greenstone belt in Limpopo Province, South Africa, provide excellent examples of indium-enriched deposits. The SEDEX deposits at Bainiuchang, China (located in

  11. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  12. Filled skutterudite antimonides: Validation of the electron-crystal phonon-glass approach to new thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandrus, D; Sales, B C; Keppens, V [and others

    1997-07-01

    After a brief review of the transport and thermoelectric properties of filled skutterudite antimonides, the authors present resonant ultrasound, specific heat, and inelastic neutron scattering results that establish the existence of two low-energy vibrational modes in the filled skutterudite LaFe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12}. It is likely that at least one of these modes represents the localized, incoherent vibrations of the La ion in an oversized atomic cage. These results support the usefulness of weakly bound, rattling ions for the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  13. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  14. 121Sb-NMR study of filled skutterudite CeOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogi, M.; Niki, H.; Mukuda, H.; Kitaoka, Y.; Sugawara, H.; Sato, H.

    2007-01-01

    121 Sb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of filled skutterudite compound CeOs 4 Sb 12 has been carried out to investigate a spin fluctuation below T∼25K. In spite of a powdered sample, many sharp peaks, similar to a data for single crystal, were observed because of an orientation of the sample from the anisotropy of the magnetization. A numerical calculation well reproduces resonance fields for Sb(1) sites with H parallel V zz . The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by temperature 1/T 1 T shows continuous decrease with increasing magnetic field, indicating a suppression of the spin fluctuation by the field

  15. Atomistic explanation of brittle failure of thermoelectric skutterudite CoSb3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guodong; An, Qi; Goddard, William A.; Hanus, Riley; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    CoSb 3 based skutterudite thermoelectric material has superior thermoelectric properties, but the low fracture toughness prevents its widespread commercial application. To determine the origin of its brittle failure, we examined the response of shear deformation in CoSb 3 along the most plausible slip system (010)/<100>, using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the brittle failure of CoSb 3 arises from the formation of shear bands due to the destruction of Sb4-rings and the slippage of Co-octahedraes. This leads to the breakage of Co-octahedraes and cavitation, resulting in the crack opening and mechanical failure.

  16. Indium and thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The physical and the chemical properties and methods for producing indium and its main compounds have been studied. Presented are the major fields of application of the metal, inclusive of the atomic and space engineering. Described are the natural occurrence and the types of deposits of this disseminated element. Given are the main methods for extracting In from various raw materials, the methods being also evaluated economically. It is inferred, that all the conditions being equal, the extraction technique yields In at a lesser cost, a higher recovery and higher labour productivity. Described are methods for manufacturing the frequently used In compounds, such as the antimonide, arsenide, phosphide

  17. Anelasticity of polycrystalline indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikov, K., E-mail: k.sapozhnikov@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Golyandin, S. [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kustov, S. [Dept. de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, E 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Mechanisms of anelasticity of polycrystalline indium have been studied over wide ranges of temperature (7-320 K) and strain amplitude (2 x 10{sup -7}-3.5 x 10{sup -4}). Measurements of the internal friction and Young's modulus have been performed by means of the piezoelectric resonant composite oscillator technique using longitudinal oscillations at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The stages of the strain amplitude dependence of the internal friction and Young's modulus defect, which can be attributed to dislocation - point defect and dislocation - dislocation interactions, have been revealed. It has been shown that thermal cycling gives rise to microplastic straining of polycrystalline indium due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion and to appearance of a 'recrystallization' internal friction maximum in the temperature spectra of amplitude-dependent anelasticity. The temperature range characterized by formation of Cottrell's atmospheres of point defects around dislocations has been determined from the acoustic data.

  18. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-04-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.; Kube, R.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved superconducting properties of La{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} with indium substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neha, P.; Srivastava, P. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Jha, R. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Shruti [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Patnaik, S., E-mail: spatnaik@mail.jnu.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-04-25

    We report two fold increase in superconducting transition temperature of La{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} by substituting indium at the tin site. The transition temperature of this skutterudite related compound is observed to increase from 2.5 K to 5.1 K for 10% indium substituted sample. The band structure and density of states calculations also indicate such a possibility. The compounds exhibit type-II superconductivity and the values of lower critical field (H{sub c1}), upper critical field (H{sub c2}), Ginzburg–Landau coherence length (ξ), penetration depth (λ) and GL parameter (κ) are estimated to be 0.0028 T, 0.68 T, 21.6 nm, 33.2 nm and 1.53 respectively for La{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 11.7}In{sub 1.3}. Hydrostatic external pressure leads to decrease in transition temperature and the calculated pressure coefficient is −0.311 K/GPa. Flux pinning and vortex activation energies also improved with indium addition. Only positive frequencies are observed in phonon dispersion curve that relate to the absence of charge density wave or structural instability in the normal state. - Highlights: • Superconducting transition temperature of La{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} increases two fold by indium substitution. • Band structure and all basic superconducting parameters (e.g,. H{sub c1}, H{sub c2}, ξ,λ and κ are ascertained. • Dependence of superconducting properties under external pressure is studied.

  1. Indium recovery by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Marilia Camargos Botelho

    1999-04-01

    Indium has been recovered as a byproduct from residues generated from the sulfuric acid leaching circuits in mineral plants for zinc recovery. Once its recovery comes from the slags of other metals recovery, it is necessary to separate it from the other elements which usually are present in high concentrations. Many works have been approaching this separation and indicate the solvent extraction process as the main technique used. In Brazilian case, indium recovery depends on the knowledge of this technique and its development. This paper describes the solvent extraction knowledge for the indium recovery from aqueous solutions generated in mineral plants. The results for determination of the best experimental conditions to obtain a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with di (2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) solubilized in isoparafin and exxsol has been presented. (author)

  2. Novel strongly correlated electron states in filled skutterudite lanthanide osmium antimonides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maple, M.B.; Frederick, N.A.; Ho, P.-C.; Yuhasz, W.M.; Sayles, T.A.; Butch, N.P.; Jeffries, J.R.; Taylor, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent measurements on the filled skutterudite compounds Pr(Os 1-x Ru x ) 4 Sb 12 , NdOs 4 Sb 12 , and SmOs 4 Sb 12 are discussed. Pr(Os 1-x Ru x ) 4 Sb 12 displays superconductivity for all values of x with a minimum at x=0.6, and only the compounds with x 4 Sb 12 and the BCS superconductivity of PrRu 4 Sb 12 . NdOs 4 Sb 12 is a heavy fermion ferromagnet, with a sharp transition observed at 1.0K. SmOs 4 Sb 12 is also a heavy fermion material, and it may display weak ferromagnetic behavior below 2.6K

  3. NMR study of magnetic properties in filled skutterudite compound EuRu4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magishi, Ko-ichi; Iwahashi, Yoshinori; Horimoto, Takuji; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Saito, Takahito; Koyama, Kuniyuki

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of 31 P NMR measurements on a Eu-based filled skutterudite phosphide EuRu 4 P 12 with ferromagnetic transition at T C =18K in order to investigate the magnetic properties from a microscopic point of view. The temperature dependence of the Knight shift is similar to that of the magnetic susceptibility. Also, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T 1 is practically constant at higher temperatures above 50K due to the interaction of the 31 P nucleus with fluctuating local moments at the Eu 2+ sites, but decreases rapidly at low temperatures below T C , indicating the supression of the spin fluctuations by magnetic ordering

  4. Specific heat of filled skutterudite PrOs4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhira, Kazuyuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Kihou, Kunihiro; Sekine, Chihiro; Shirotani, Ichimin

    2005-01-01

    We report the specific heat of filled skutterudite compounds PrOs 4 P 12 and LaOs 4 P 12 down to 1.8K. The specific heat divided by temperature C(T)/T in PrOs 4 P 12 shows a shoulder around 13K. This shoulder is caused by a Schottky anomaly due to a crystalline electric field effect. The electronic specific heat coefficients γ of PrOs 4 P 12 and LaOs 4 P 12 are estimated to be 56.5 and 21.6mJ/K 2 mol, respectively. The value of γ in PrOs 4 P 12 is 2.6 times larger than that in LaOs 4 P 12

  5. Low-temperature anomalies of photoinduced second harmonic generation in skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viennois, R; Kityk, I V; Terki, F; Charar, S; Muntzer, A; Kasperczyk, J; Ravot, D; Tedenac, J C

    2003-01-01

    Photoinduced second harmonic generation (PISHG) was found in skutterudite compounds of CeFe 4 Sb 12 and Ce 0.7 Fe 3.5 Ni 0.5 Sb 12 . Measurements versus temperature, pump-probe delaying time and external magnetic field were performed. The studied compounds belong to moderate heavy fermion compounds (HFC) in the ground state. The PISHG signals appear at 6.8 and 4.9 K for CeFe 4 Sb 12 and Ce 0.7 Fe 3.5 Ni 0.5 Sb 12 , respectively. We suspect that these signals are due to anharmonic electron-phonon interactions creating a charge density non-centrosymmetry. The observed effects are caused either by a possible phase transition or by drastic changes in the electron structure of the HFC with decreasing temperature

  6. Local structure investigation of Ga and Yb dopants in Co4Sb12 skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanyun; Chen, Ning; Clancy, J. P.; Salvador, James R.; Kim, Chang-Yong; Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Kim, Young-June

    2017-12-01

    We report comprehensive x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies at both the Ga K edge and Yb L2 edge to elucidate the local structure of Ga and Yb dopants in YbxGayCo4Sb12 . Our extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data confirm that Ga atoms occupy two crystallographic sites: one is the 24 g site replacing Sb, and the other is the 2 a site in the off-center void position. We find that the occupancy ratio of these two sites varies significantly as a function of the filling fraction of additional Yb, which exclusively occupies the 2 a on-center site. At low concentrations of Yb, Ga24 g and Ga2 a dopants coexist and they form a charge-compensated compound defect proposed by Qiu et al. [Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 3194 (2013), 10.1002/adfm.201202571]. The Ga24 g occupancy increases gradually with increasing Yb concentration, and almost all Ga occupies the 24 g site for the highest Yb concentration studied (x =0.4 ). In addition to the local structural evidence provided by our EXAFS data, we also present x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra, which show a small Ga K -edge energy shift as a function of Yb concentration consistent with the change from predominantly Ga2 a to Ga24 g states. Our result suggests that the increased solubility of Yb in Yb-Ga co-doped Co4Sb12 skutterudites is due to the increased Ga24 g electron acceptor, and thus provides an important strategy to optimize the carrier concentration in partially filled skutterudites.

  7. Electrical and thermal transport properties of Y bxCo4Sb12 filled skutterudites with ultrahigh carrier concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For filled skutterudites, element Yb is one of the most common and important fillers. However, the optimal carrier concentration range in Y bxCo4Sb12 filled skutterudites has not been determined as a result of the low Yb filling fraction limit. In this study, a non-equilibrium fabrication process (MS-SPS process, consisting of a melt-spinning method and a spark plasma sintering technique, has been applied to prepare Y bxCo4Sb12 samples. The Yb filling fraction is successfully extended to 0.35, which provides the possibility to clarify the optimal carrier concentration range for Yb-filled skutterudites. High carrier concentrations, with a maximum of around 1 × 1021 cm−3, were achieved in the MS-SPS Y bxCo4Sb12 samples due to the significantly enhanced Yb filling fractions. The phase compositions, lattice parameters, electrical and thermal transport properties of the MS-SPS Y bxCo4Sb12 samples with high carrier concentrations were systematically investigated. An optimal carrier concentration range of around 5 ∼ 6 × 1020 cm−3, corresponding to the actual Yb filling fraction of around 0.21∼0.26, has been determined, which displays the highest thermoelectric performance in Y bxCo4Sb12 thermoelectric materials.

  8. Indium solar neutrino experiment using superconducting grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellefon, A. de; Espigat, P.

    1984-08-01

    In this paper we would like to emphasize the revival of interest for Indium experiment in Europe. Properties of metastable superconducting indium grains are presented and our progress towards making an experiment feasible is reviewed

  9. Electronic and chemical properties of indium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayane, D.; Khardi, S.; Tribollet, B.; Broyer, M.; Melinon, P.; Cabaud, B.; Hoareau, A.

    1989-01-01

    Indium clusters are produced by the inert gas condensation technique. The ionization potentials are found higher for small clusters than for the Indium atom. This is explained by the p character of the bonding as in aluminium. Doubly charge clusters are also observed and fragmentation processes discussed. Finally small Indium clusters 3< n<9 are found very reactive with hydrocarbon. (orig.)

  10. A review of the world market of indium (Economy of indium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the current state of the world and Russian markets of indium and indium-containing products was made based on the publications of the last years. Main fields of indium application are given, in particular, its using for neutron absorbing regulating rods in nuclear reactors. The second γ-radiation resulted from neutron absorption allows using indium as a neutron detector. Indium market stabilization is expected due to supply from China and South Korea [ru

  11. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure, and transport properties of Fe substituted rhombohedral skutterudite derivatives Co4−xFexGe6Se6

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Kaya

    2014-11-01

    We report on the synthesis and low temperature transport properties of rhombohedral derivatives of the cubic skutterudite CoSb3, namely Co4-xFexGe6Se6 with x = 0, 1, 1.5. Rietveld refinement and elemental analyses were used to identify the structure and stoichiometry of the compositions. The thermal conductivity was investigated by employing the Debye model with different phonon-scattering parameters. This investigation demonstrates that Fe substitution is feasible in these skutterudite derivatives and can significantly affect the transport properties as compared with Co4Ge6Se6. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure, and transport properties of Fe substituted rhombohedral skutterudite derivatives Co4−xFexGe6Se6

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Kaya; Dong, Yongkwan; Puneet, Pooja; Tritt, Terry M.; Nolas, George S.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and low temperature transport properties of rhombohedral derivatives of the cubic skutterudite CoSb3, namely Co4-xFexGe6Se6 with x = 0, 1, 1.5. Rietveld refinement and elemental analyses were used to identify the structure and stoichiometry of the compositions. The thermal conductivity was investigated by employing the Debye model with different phonon-scattering parameters. This investigation demonstrates that Fe substitution is feasible in these skutterudite derivatives and can significantly affect the transport properties as compared with Co4Ge6Se6. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electronic and magnetic properties of quasi-skutterudite PrCo2Ga8 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbunmi, Michael O.; Sondezi, Buyisiwe M.; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Strydom, André M.

    2018-05-01

    PrCo2Ga8 is an orthorhombic quasi-skutterudite type compound which crystallizes in the CaCo2Al8 structure type, with space group Pbam (No. 55). The Pr3+ ion has a site symmetry of Cs which predicts a crystal electric field (CEF) level splitting into 9 singlets for J = 4. However, a phase transition at Tm = 1.28 K is observed in electrical resistivity and specific heat results and is reported in this paper. The electrical resistivity shows an upturn below Tm due to the superzone-gap formation. This transition is tuneable in fields and is suppressed to lower temperatures with applied magnetic fields. The electronic specific heat Cp(T) / T increases below Tm and reaches a value of 7.37 J/(mol K2) at 0.4 K. The Sommerfeld coefficient, γ extracted from the low temperature analysis of C4f(T) / T is 637 mJ/(mol K2) indicating a possible mass enhancement of the quasiparticles. The calculated entropy value of 3.05 J/(mol K) is recovered around Tm exhibiting almost 53% of Rln2, where R is the universal gas constant. Magnetic susceptibility results obeys the Curie-Weiss law for data above 100 K with an estimated effective magnetic moment, μeff = 3.37 μB/Pr and Weiss temperature, θp = -124 K.

  15. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination

  16. Aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium can exist in a number of oxyhydroxide mineral phases including corundum, diaspore, boehmite and gibbsite. The stability constants at zero ionic strength reported for Al(OH) 3 (aq) vary linearly with respect to the inverse of absolute temperature. A full suite of thermodynamic parameters is available for all aluminium phases and hydrolysis species. Gallium hydrolyses to a greater extent than aluminium, with the onset of hydrolysis reactions occurring just above a pHof 1. In fact, even though aluminium has the smallest ionic radius of this series of metals, it has the weakest hydrolysis species and oxide/hydroxide phases.This is due to the presence of stabilising d-orbitals in the heavier metals, gallium, indium and thallium(III). There are few available data for the stability constants of indium(III) hydrolysis species. Of those that are available, the range in the proposed stability constants covers many orders of magnitude.

  17. Indium flotation from hydrometallurgical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviridov, V.V.; Mal'tsev, G.I.; Petryakova, N.K.; Gomzikov, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The principal possibility of flotation of indium small quantities (10 -4 gxion/l) is established from sulphuric-acid solutions of leaching converter dusts of the copper melting production in the form of complex compounds with sodium hexametaphosphate and cation-active nitrogen-containing surfactants. It is shown that the flotation process effectiveness is determined by the molar ratio of hexametaphosphate and collector introduced into the solution, solution oxidity and surfactant nature

  18. Light forces on an indium atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeter, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis it was studied, whether indium is a possible candidate for the nanostructuration respectively atomic lithography. For this known method for the generation and stabilization of the light necessary for the laser cooling had to be fitted to the special properties of indium. The spectroscopy of indium with the 451 nm and the 410 nm light yielded first hints that the formulae for the atom-light interaction for a two-level atom cannot be directly transferred to the indium atom. By means of the obtained parameters of the present experiment predictions for a possible Doppler cooling of the indium atomic beam were calculated. Furthermore the possibility for the direct deposition of indium on a substrate was studied

  19. Extraction of indium from extremely diluted solutions; Gewinnung von Indium aus extrem verduennten Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vostal, Radek; Singliar, Ute; Froehlich, Peter [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2017-02-15

    The demand for indium is rising with the growth of the electronics industry, where it is mainly used. Therefore, a multistage extraction process was developed to separate indium from a model solution whose composition was adequate to sphalerite ore. The initially very low concentration of indium in the solution was significantly increased by several successive extraction and reextraction steps. The process described is characterized by a low requirement for chemicals and a high purity of the obtained indium oxide.

  20. Nanomechanical Characterization of Indium Nano/Microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kiran MSR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanomechanical properties of indium nanowires like structures fabricated on quartz substrate by trench template technique, measured using nanoindentation. The hardness and elastic modulus of wires were measured and compared with the values of indium thin film. Displacement burst observed while indenting the nanowire. ‘Wire-only hardness’ obtained using Korsunsky model from composite hardness. Nanowires have exhibited almost same modulus as indium thin film but considerable changes were observed in hardness value.

  1. Structure and Chemical Bond of Thermoelectric Ce-Co-Sb Skutterudites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The correlations among composition,structure,chemical bond and thermoelectric property of skutterudites CoSb3 and CeCo5Fe3Sb12 have been studied by using density function and discrete variation (DFT-DVM) method.Three models for this study were proposed and calculated by which the "rattling" pattern was described.Model 1 is with Ce in the center,model 2 is with Ce away the center and near to Sb,and model 3 is also with Ce away the center but near to Fe.The calculated results show that in model 3,the ionic bond is the strongest,but the covalent bond is the weakest.Due to the different changes between ionic and covalent bond,there is less difference in the stability among the models 1,2 and 3.Therefore,these different models can exist at the same time,or can translate from one to another more easily.In other words,the "rattling" pattern has taken place.Unfilled model of CoSb3,without Ce and Fe,is called model 4.The covalent bond of Co-Sb or Fe-Sb in models 1,2 and 3 is weaker than that of Co-Sb in model 4,as some electrical cloud of Sb takes part in the covalent bond of Ce-Sb in the filled models.The result is consistent with the experimental result that the thermal conductivity of CeCo5Fe3Sb12 is lower than that of CoSb3,and the thermoelectric property of CeCo5Fe3Sb12 is superior to that of CoSb3.

  2. Electronic structure and thermoelectricity of filled skutterudite CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, A., E-mail: amitshan2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling, 734013 (India); Rai, D.P. [Department of Physics, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl, 796001 (India); Sandeep [Condensed Matter Theory Research Group, Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl, 796004 (India); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Thapa, R.K. [Condensed Matter Theory Research Group, Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl, 796004 (India); Mandal, P.K. [Department of Physics, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling, 734013 (India)

    2016-07-05

    First-principles calculations of the energy band structure and density of states of filled skutterudite CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} have been performed to understand the origin of thermoelectricity. The calculations are carried out using the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within a framework of LDA approach. CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} is a metal with bands crossing Fermi energy level more than twice with indirect energy band gap of ∼0.09 eV above the Fermi energy level. The study of the elastic properties suggests the ductile nature of the material with covalent contribution in the atomic bonding. Our calculations performed for the density of electronic states near the Fermi energy level show that the large thermo-power at room temperature originates from the hybridized Ru-d and Sb-p orbitals. The study of the thermal transport properties suggests the high value of Seebeck coefficient with figure of merit (ZT) = 0.12, which is consistent to the values obtained for the analogous compounds. - Highlights: • CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} is ductile material with covalent contribution in bonding. • An indirect energy bandgap of 0.09 eV is present above the Fermi energy level. • The crossing of E{sub F} by the energy bands increases the number of DOS at E{sub F}. • Fermi level is situated within the valence region. • The thermal efficiency of the material is 0.12 at room temperature.

  3. Preparation and thermoelectric properties of p-Type PrzFe4-xCoxSb12 skutterudites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong-Kil; Kim, Il-Ho

    2014-01-01

    p-Type Pr z Fe 4-x Co x Sb 12 (z = 0.8, 1.0 and x = 0, 0.5, 1.0) skutterudites were synthesized by encapsulated melting and annealing and were consolidated with hot pressing. The effects of Pr filling and Co substitution for Fe (charge compensation) on the transport and the thermoelectric properties were examined. A few secondary phases, such as Sb and FeSb 2 , were formed together with the skutterudite phase, but the formation was suppressed with increasing Pr and Co contents. We confirmed that Pr filled in the voids and that Co was substituted for Fe in all specimens because the lattice constant increased with increasing Pr content and decreased with increasing Co content. The electrical conductivity decreased slightly with increasing temperature, showing degenerate semiconductor characteristics. The Hall and the Seebeck coefficients showed positive signs, indicating that the major carriers were holes (p-type conduction). The electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity were decreased due to a decrease in the carrier concentration with increasing Pr and Co contents. As a result, the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was improved by Pr filling and Co substitution, and a maximum ZT = 0.89 was obtained at 723 K for Pr 0.8 Fe 3 CoSb 12 .

  4. Lattice dynamics and substrate-dependent transport properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2011-10-24

    Lattice dynamics, low-temperature electrical transport, and high-temperature thermoelectric properties of (In, Yb)-doped CoSb3thin films on different substrates are reported. Pulsed laser deposition under optimized conditions yielded single-phase polycrystalline skutterudite films. Raman spectroscopy studies suggested that In and Yb dopants occupy the cage sites in the skutterudite lattice. Low-temperature electrical transport studies revealed the n-type semiconducting nature of the films with extrinsic and intrinsic conduction mechanisms, in sharp contrast to the degenerate nature reported for identical bulk samples. Calculations yielded a direct bandgap close to 50 meV with no evidence of an indirect gap. The carrier concentration of the films was identical to that reported for the bulk and increased with temperature beyond 250 K. The higher resistivity exhibited is attributed to the enhanced grain boundary scattering in films with a high concentration of grains. The maximum power factor of ∼0.68 W m−1 K−1 obtained at 660 K for the film on glass is found to be nearly four times smaller compared to that reported for the bulk. The observed difference in the power factors of the films on different substrates is explained on the basis of the diffusion of oxygen from the substrates and the formation of highly conducting CoSb2 phase upon the oxidation of CoSb3.

  5. Evaluated neutronic file for indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Chiba, S.; Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Howerton, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for elemental indium is documented. This file, extending from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV, is presented in the ENDF/B-VI format, and contains all neutron-induced processes necessary for the vast majority of neutronic applications. In addition, an evaluation of the 115 In(n,n') 116m In dosimetry reaction is presented as a separate file. Attention is given in quantitative values, with corresponding uncertainty information. These files have been submitted for consideration as a part of the ENDF/B-VI national evaluated-file system. 144 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  6. The filled skutterudite PrOs4Sb12: superconductivity and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measson, M.A.

    2005-12-01

    The filled skutterudite PrOs 4 Sb 12 is the first Pr-based heavy fermion superconductor. This thesis addresses several important open questions including the determination of the quasi-particle mass renormalisation, the nature and mechanism of superconductivity, and the intrinsic or extrinsic nature of the double superconducting transition seen in the specific heat. A fit of the specific heat with magnetic interactions between the ions Pr is proposed. We extract from it an electronic term of between 300-750 mJ/K 2 .mol(Pr). Analysis of the specific heat jump provides evidence that heavy carriers are involved in Cooper pairing and that superconductivity is strongly coupled. Extensive characterizations by specific heat, resistivity, susceptibility measurements show that a double transition appears in the best samples. Nevertheless we bring the first serious doubts on the intrinsic nature of the double transition, because we have found samples with a single sharp transition at Tc2 and because the ratio of the two specific heat jumps shows strong dispersion among the samples. Furthermore we have measured the superconducting phase diagrams with an A.C. specific heat technique under magnetic field and under pressure up to 4.2 GPa, and we show that the two transitions, Tc1 and Tc2, exhibit similar behaviours with magnetic field and pressure. We find a strong change in the pressure dependence of Tc's above 2 GPa which might be related to a change in the nature of the superconductivity under pressure (at least partially mediated by fluctuations and only by phonons at respectively low and high pressure) which may be linked to the increase of the crystal field gap of the Pr ions. Analysis of the upper critical field shows the presence of at least two superconducting bands and concludes to a singlet nature of the pairing. A strong distortion of the flux-line lattice, which is constant with temperature and field, is obtained by small angle neutron scattering measurement

  7. Tests results and performance comparisons of coated and un-coated skutterudite based segmented unicouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.; Caillat, Thierry; Sakamoto, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Skutterudite based thermoelectric unicouples are being considered for use in Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPSs) to support NASA's planetary exploration missions. For these systems, which would be much lighter than state of the art Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), it is important to ensure minimal degradation in the performance of unicouples that may be caused by material sublimation. In this work, two unicouples, JAN-04 with a thin metallic coating on the legs near the hot junction to suppress antimony sublimation and SEP-03 without coating, are tested for >1000 and 3600 h, respectively. The legs in the two unicouples are of almost the same dimensions and compositions; the p-legs are made of CeFe 3.5 Co 0.5 Sb 12 and Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 segments and the n-legs are made of CoSb 3 and Bi 2 Te 2.95 Se 0.05 segments. SEP-03 is tested at average hot and cold junction temperatures of 961.5 ± 22.0 and 296.3 ± 5.7 K, respectively, in argon gas at ∼0.068 MPa, and JAN-04 is tested at 962.8 ± 20.5 and 294.5 ± 3.3 K, respectively, initially in argon gas at the same pressure for ∼26.5 h then in vacuum ∼9.0 x 10 -7 Torr for >973.5 h. The measured open circuit voltage V oc (240 mV) and peak electrical power (1.64 W e ) for SEP-03 at the beginning of test (BOT) are higher than those for JAN-04 (188 mV and 0.84 W e , respectively). Although the argon gas effectively decreased the antimony loss from the legs of SEP-03, marked degradations in performance occurred. The estimated peak efficiency for SEP-03 decreased from 13.8% at BOT to 5.8% at end of test (EOT), and the peak power decreased from 1.64 W e at BOT to 0.48 W e at EOT, however, V oc decreased by ∼14%. The latter for JAN-04 decreased only by ∼3%, the estimated peak efficiency (∼12%) changed very little and the peak power decreased by ∼20%. Unlike SEP-03, the measured total and contact resistances of the legs in JAN-04 changed very little

  8. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Melt-Grown Bulk Indium Gallium Arsenide and Indium Arsenic Phosphide Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    spectrum, photoluminescence (PL), and refractive index measurements. Other methods such as infrared imagery and micro probe wavelength dispersing ...States. AFIT/DS/ENP/11-M02 OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT- GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ...CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT-GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ALLOYS Jean Wei, BS, MS Approved

  9. Peculiarities of the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red'kin, A.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Sokolova, E.A.; Makovej, Z.I.; Telegin, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of fusible metal alloys interaction with ammonium halogenides in vertical reactor are considered using indium-tin and indium-bismuth binary alloys. It is shown that at the end of the process the composition of metal and salt phases is determined by the equilibrium type and constant characteristic of the given salt-metal system. As a result the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium which may be used in the processes of separation or purification. A model is suggested to calculate the final concentration of salt and metal phase components

  10. Electronic and Transport Properties of LaNi4Sb12 Skutterudite: Modified Becke-Johnson Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Singh, Srishti; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2018-05-01

    We carried out an ab initio study of structural, electronic, thermodynamic, and thermoelectric properties of the lanthanum-filled skutterudite, LaNi4Sb12. Generalized gradient approximation and modified Becke-Johnson potentials were employed for the exchange-correlation potential. The electronic structure calculations display the metallic behavior of the compound. The alloy offers low lattice thermal conductivity along with a high Seebeck coefficient with a value of - 158 (μVK-1) at room temperature. The effect of high pressure and temperature on thermal properties like thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, and Grüneisen parameter are also investigated by means of a quasi-harmonic Debye model. The large Seebeck coefficient and high power factor exhibited by LaNi4Sb12 make it an attractive candidate for thermoelectric materials.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition and thermoelectric properties of In-and Yb-doped CoSb3 skutterudite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2011-07-29

    In-and Yb-doped CoSb3 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Process optimization studies revealed that a very narrow process window exists for the growth of single-phase skutterudite films. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measured in the temperature range 300-700 K revealed an irreversible change on the first heating cycle in argon ambient, which is attributed to the enhanced surface roughness of the films or trace secondary phases. A power factor of 0.68 W m-1 K-1 was obtained at ∼700 K, which is nearly six times lower than that of bulk samples. This difference is attributed to grain boundary scattering that causes a drop in film conductivity. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2011.

  12. High temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type skutterudites BaxYbyCo4-zFezSb12

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Several polycrystalline p-type skutterudites with compositions Ba xYb yCo 4-zFe zSb 12, with varying filler concentrations x and y, and z = 1 to 2, were synthesized by reacting the constituents and subsequent solid state annealing, followed by densification by hot-pressing. Their thermoelectric properties were evaluated from 300 to 820 K. The Yb filling fraction increased with Fe content while the amount of Fe substitution had little influence on the Ba filling fraction. High purity specimens were obtained when the Fe content was low. Bipolar conduction contributed to the thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. A maximum ZT value of 0.7 was obtained at 750 K for the specimen with the highest Fe content and filling fraction. The potential for thermoelectric applications is also discussed. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Indium-bridged [1]ferrocenophanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Bidraha; Sadeh, Saeid; Green, Jennifer C; Müller, Jens

    2014-02-17

    Indium-bridged [1]ferrocenophanes ([1]FCPs) and [1.1]ferrocenophanes ([1.1]FCPs) were synthesized from dilithioferrocene species and indium dichlorides. The reaction of Li2fc⋅tmeda (fc = (H4C5)2Fe) and (Mamx)InCl2 (Mamx = 6-(Me2NCH2)-2,4-tBu2C6H2) gave a mixture of the [1]FCP (Mamx)Infc (4(1)), the [1.1]FCP [(Mamx)Infc]2 (4(2)), and oligomers [(Mamx)Infc]n (4(n)). In a similar reaction, employing the enantiomerically pure, planar-chiral (Sp,Sp)-1,1'-dibromo-2,2'-diisopropylferrocene (1) as a precursor for the dilithioferrocene derivative Li2fc(iPr2), equipped with two iPr groups in the α position, gave the inda[1]ferrocenophane 5(1) [(Mamx)Infc(iPr2)] selectively. Species 5(1) underwent ring-opening polymerization to give the polymer 5(n). The reaction between Li2fc(iPr2) and Ar'InCl2 (Ar' = 2-(Me2NCH2)C6H4) gave an inseparable mixture of the [1]FCP Ar'Infc(iPr2) (6(1)) and the [1.1]FCP [Ar'Infc(iPr2)]2 (6(2)). Hydrogenolysis reactions (BP86/TZ2P) of the four inda[1]ferrocenophanes revealed that the structurally most distorted species (5(1)) is also the most strained [1]FCP. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Grain boundary engineering with nano-scale InSb producing high performance InxCeyCo4Sb12+z skutterudite thermoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric semiconductors based on CoSb3 hold the best promise for recovering industrial or automotive waste heat because of their high efficiency and relatively abundant, lead-free constituent elements. However, higher efficiency is needed before thermoelectrics reach economic viability for widespread use. In this study, n-type InxCeyCo4Sb12+z skutterudites with high thermoelectric performance are produced by combining several phonon scattering mechanisms in a panoscopic synthesis. Using melt spinning followed by spark plasma sintering (MS-SPS, bulk InxCeyCo4Sb12+z alloys are formed with grain boundaries decorated with nano-phase of InSb. The skutterudite matrix has grains on a scale of 100–200 nm and the InSb nano-phase with a typical size of 5–15 nm is evenly dispersed at the grain boundaries of the skutterudite matrix. Coupled with the presence of defects on the Sb sublattice, this multi-scale nanometer structure is exceptionally effective in scattering phonons and, therefore, InxCeyCo4Sb12/InSb nano-composites have very low lattice thermal conductivity and high zT values reaching in excess of 1.5 at 800 K.

  15. NMR study of partially filled skutterudites AxCo4Sb12 (A = Yb, Ba, Sr, Ca) and BaxYbyCo4Sb12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yefan; Sirusi, Ali; Ross, Joseph; Ballikaya, Sedat; Uher, Ctirad; Chen, Yuqi; Sekine, Chihiro

    Partially filled Co-Sb skutterudites have been of considerable interest as thermoelectric materials, particularly with multiple filling for which high ZT values can be obtained. This is due in part to control of phonon thermal conductivity, but also the change in composition leads to subtle changes in electronic behavior as well as magnetism due both to rare earth filler atoms and to native defects. We measured 59Co NMR on several partially filled AxCo4Sb12 skutterudites in order to investigate such behavior. From the T-dependent NMR shifts along with T1 relaxation times we can separate metallic shift contributions from those due to local moments. We compare the results to predicted band-edge behavior with multiple minima, and the estimated g factors, by matching this behavior to transport measurements. Also the behavior of Yb-filled samples provides an estimate of the conduction band mediation of the magnetic response, and we also find magnetic shifts in Ba-doped skutterudite which we address in terms of Co mixed-valence behavior. This work was supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation, Grant No. A-1526. Synthesis work was partly supported by the Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (No. 23340092) from the Japan Society.

  16. Polarographic determination of selenium in indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, B.Ya.; Mikheeva, V.A.; Priz, N.B.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure of determining nx10 -6 % Se in indium after concentrating in an elemental form on arsenic and sulphur has been developed. The selenium content is determined by inversion a.c. polarography on a sulphuric-acid background in the presence of Cu(2), potassium bichromate, and sodium pyrophosphate. 5.7x10 -6 % Se in metal indium has been determined by this procedure, the mean standard deviation being Sr=0.26

  17. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (≤ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.)

  18. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (/le/ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.).

  19. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  20. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  1. Sputtering of neutral and ionic indium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.; Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Von Nagy-Felsobuki, E.I.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary neutral and secondary ion cluster yields were measured during the sputtering of a polycrystalline indium surface by normally incident ∼4 keV Ar + ions. In the secondary neutral mass spectra, indium clusters as large as In 32 were observed. In the secondary ion mass spectra, indium clusters up to In 18 + were recorded. Cluster yields obtained from both the neutral and ion channel exhibited a power law dependence on the number of constituent atoms, n, in the cluster, with the exponents measured to be -5.6 and -4. 1, respectively. An abundance drop was observed at n=8, 15, and 16 in both the neutral and ion yield distributions suggesting that the stability of the ion (either secondary ion or photoion) plays a significant role in the observed distributions. In addition, our experiments suggest that unimolecular decomposition of the neutral cluster may also plays an important role in the measured yield distributions

  2. The indium-oxygen system, ch. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillen, A.J. van

    1977-01-01

    This chapter is divided into three sections: 1) a survey of the literature concerning the indiumoxygen system, 2) the adsorption of oxygen at pure and partially oxidized indium surfaces in the temperature range 20-180degC, and 3) the oxidation of indium at temperatures above 180degC. The oxygen uptake is determined volumetrically and gravimetrically. The influence of the melting point is considered and the results are compared with data from the literature. The oxide layer is amorphous at lower temperatures but above 350degC, crystallisation of In 2 O 3 takes place

  3. Labelling of bacteria with indium chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, P.; Pfister, W.; Endert, G.; Sproessig, M.

    1985-01-01

    The indium chelates were prepared by reaction of radioactive indiumchloride with 10 μg oxine, 15 μg tropolone and 3 mg acetylacetone, resp. The formed chelates have been incubated with 10 9 germs/ml for 5 minutes, with labelling outputs from 90 to 95%. Both gram-positive (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) can be labelled. The reproductive capacity of the bacteria was not impaired. The application of indium labelled bacteria allows to show the distribution of microorganisms within the living organism and to investigate problems of bacterial adherence. (author)

  4. Neutral complexes of the indium dihalides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, I.; Worrall, I.J. (Lancaster Univ. (UK))

    1982-03-15

    The neutral complexes In/sub 2/X/sub 4/.2L (X=Cl, Br, I; L 1,4-dioxan, tetrahydropyran, tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydrothiophene), In/sub 2/X/sub 4/.2L (X=Br, I; Ldimethylsulphide), In/sub 2/X/sub 4/.4L (X=Cl, Br, I; Lpiperidine, piperazine, morpholine), and In/sub 2/X/sub 4/.4L (X=Br, I; L=pyridine, dimethylsulphoxide) have been prepared. Solid state Raman spectra indicate that the compounds contain indium-indium bonds.

  5. Indium 111 leucocyte scintigraphy in abdominal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Gray, H.W.; Cuthbert, G.F.; Neilson, W.; Anderson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the clinical utility of indium 111 autologous leucocyte scintigraphy retrospectively in 45 patients presenting with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis. The sensitivity was 95% (21/22) and the specificity was 91% (21/23). Some 34 of the studies (17 positive and 17 negative) were considered helpful in furthering patient management (76%) and 8, unhelpful (18%). In 3, the study results were misleading and led to inappropriate treatment. Indium 111 scintigraphy, whether positive or negative, provides information in patients with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis upon which therapeutic decisions can be based. (orig.)

  6. Photoemission study of the skutterudite compounds CoSb sub 3 and RhSb sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, H; Fujimori, A; Nagamoto, Y; Koyanagi, T; Sofo, J O

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of the skutterudite compounds CoSb sub 3 and Co(Sb sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Te sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4) sub 3 by photoemission spectroscopy. Valence-band spectra revealed that a significant amount Sb 5p states are present near the Fermi level and are hybridized with Co 3d states just below it. The spectra are well reproduced by the band-structure calculation, suggesting that the effect of electron correlations is not important. When Te is substituted for Sb and n-type carriers are doped into CoSb sub 3 , the spectra are shifted to higher binding energies as described by the rigid-band model. From this shift and the free-electron model for the conduction and valence bands, we have estimated the band gap of CoSb sub 3 to be 0.03-0.04 eV, consistent with transport measurements. Photoemission spectra of RhSb sub 3 have also been measured and revealed expected similarities to and differences from those of CoSb sub 3. Unusual temperature dependence has been observed for the s...

  7. Thermoelectric property of fine-grained CoSb3 skutterudite compound fabricated by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weishu; Zhang Boping; Li Jingfeng; Zhao Lidong

    2007-01-01

    Skutterudite CoSb 3 polycrystalline materials were prepared using a combined process of mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The influence of SPS temperature on the thermoelectric properties was focused in this work with a special emphasis on the analysis of the size effects of grains. The average grain sizes decreased from 300 to 50 nm with decreasing SPS temperatures from 600 to 300 deg. C. The electrical resistivities of samples spark plasma sintered at 300-600 deg. C all decreased with increasing temperature, indicating a classic intrinsic conduction behaviour of semiconductors. The samples spark plasma sintered at 300-500 deg. C showed a positive Seebeck coefficient while the sample spark plasma sintered at 600 deg. C showed a negative Seebeck coefficient. The room-temperature thermal conductivities were reduced from 4.30 to 2.92 W m -1 K -1 as the grain sizes were decreased from 300 to 100 nm corresponding to SPS at 600 and 400 deg. C, respectively. The present work indicates that MA and SPS is a good combination for fabricating fine-grained CoSb 3 thermoelectric materials

  8. Implant damage and redistribution of indium in indium-implanted thin silicon-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peng; An Zhenghua; Zhu Ming; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Montgomery, Neil; Biswas, Sukanta

    2004-01-01

    The indium implant damage and diffusion behavior in thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) with a 200 nm top silicon layer were studied for different implantation energies and doses. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in the channeling mode (RBS/C) was used to characterize the implant damage before and after annealing. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to study the indium transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior in the top Si layer of the SOI structure. An anomalous redistribution of indium after relatively high energy (200 keV) and dose (1 x 10 14 cm -2 ) implantation was observed in both bulk Si and SOI substrates. However, there exist differences in these two substrates that are attributable to the more predominant out-diffusion of indium as well as the influence of the buried oxide layer in the SOI structure

  9. Synthesis of indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.M.; Marshall, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX has been prepared by refluxing suitable proportions of InCl 3 , sodium acetate, and mesoprotoporphyrin IX in glacial acetic acid. The labeled metalloporphyrin is sufficiently water-soluble for use as a scanning agent, and can also be incorporated into heme apoproteins for perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements. (author)

  10. Investigations of structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of lutetium filled skutterudite LuFe4P12 under pressure effect: FP-LMTO method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudia Keltouma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of ternary cubic filled skutterudite compound were calculated. We have computed the elastic modulus and its pressure dependence. From the elastic parameter behavior, it is inferred that this compound is elastically stable and ductile in nature. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which phononic effects are considered, the effect of pressure P (0 to 50 GPa and temperature T (0 to 3000 °C on the lattice constant, elastic parameters, bulk modulus B, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient α, internal energy U, entropy S, Debye temperature θD, Helmholtz free energy A, and Gibbs free energy G are investigated.

  11. Magnetic properties of the filled skutterudite-type structure compounds GdRu4P12 and TbRu4P12 synthesized under high pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sekine, C; Uchiumi, T; Shirotani, I; Matsuhira, kazuyuki; Sakakibara, T; Goto, T; Yagi, T

    2000-01-01

    We have succeeded in synthesizing filled skutterudite-type structure compounds GdRu4P12 and TbRu4P12 under high pressure. The magnetic properties of GdRu4P12 and TbRu4P12 have been studied by means of electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization measurements. Magnetic experiments suggest that the Gd and Tb ions in the compounds have trivalent state. The compound GdRu4P12 displays features that suggest the occurrence of antiferromagnetic ordering below TN=22 K. In TbRu4P1...

  12. Influence of Ni on the thermoelectric properties of the partially filled calcium skutterudites Ca.sub.y./sub.Co.sub.4-x./sub.Ni.sub.x./sub.Sb.sub.12./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puyet, M.; Dauscher, A.; Lenoir, B.; Bellouard, C.; Stiewe, C.; Müller, E.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Tobola, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 24 (2007), 245110/1-245110/9 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : partially filled skutterudites * thermoelectric properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  13. Electronic band structure, magnetic, transport and thermodynamic properties of In-filled skutterudites InxCo4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, J; Da Ros, V; Lenoir, B; Dauscher, A; Candolfi, C; Masschelein, P; Hejtmanek, J; Kutorasinski, K; Tobola, J; Smith, R I; Stiewe, C; Müller, E

    2013-01-01

    The thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of polycrystalline In x Co 4 Sb 12 (0.0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.26) skutterudites were investigated and analysed between 2 and 800 K by means of electrical resistivity, thermopower, thermal conductivity and specific heat measurements. Hall effect, sound velocity and thermal expansion measurements were also made in order to gain insights into the transport and elastic properties of these compounds. The impact of the In filling on the crystal structure as well as the thermal dynamics of the In atoms were tracked down to 4 K using powder neutron diffraction experiments. Analyses of the transport data were compared with the evolution of the electronic band structure with x determined theoretically within the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method with the coherent potential approximation. These calculations indicate that In gives rise to a remarkably large p-like density of states located at the conduction band edge. The electrical properties show typical trends of heavily doped semiconductors regardless of the In content. The thermal transport in CoSb 3 is strongly influenced by the presence of In in the voids of the crystal structure resulting in a drop in the lattice thermal conductivity values in the whole temperature range. The low value of the Grüneisen parameter suggests that this decrease mainly originates from enhanced mass-fluctuations and point-defect scattering mechanisms. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit ZT ∼ 1.0 at 750 K was achieved at the maximum In filling fraction, i.e. for x = 0.26. (paper)

  14. Density-functional band-structure calculations for La-, Y-, and Sc-filled CoP3-based skutterudite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevvik, O.M.; Prytz, O.

    2004-01-01

    The crystal structure, thermodynamic stability, and electronic structure of La-, Y-, and Sc-filled CoP 3 are predicted from density-functional band-structure calculations. The size of the cubic voids in the skutterudite structure is changed much less than the difference in size between the different filling atoms, and we expect that the larger rattling amplitude of the smaller Sc and Y atoms may decrease the lattice thermal conductivity of Sc- and Y-filled structures significantly compared to La-filled structures. The solubility of La, Y, and Sc in CoP 3 is calculated to be around 5, 3-6 %, and below 1% at 0 K, respectively. Based on similar systems, this is expected to increase considerably if Fe is substituted for Co. Fe substitution is also expected to compensate the increased charge carrier concentration of the filled structures that is seen in the calculated electron density of states. In conclusion, Sc- or Y-filled (FeCo)P 3 skutterudite structures are promising materials for thermoelectric applications

  15. Dependence of the superconducting transition temperature of the filled skutterudite compound PrPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12} on hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroozani, N. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Hamlin, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Schilling, J.S., E-mail: jss@wuphys.wustl.edu [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Baumbach, R.E.; Lum, I.K.; Shu, L.; Huang, K.; Maple, M.B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-02-14

    Highlights: ► Superconductivity in the filled skutterudite PrPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}. ► Dependence of T{sub c} on purely hydrostatic pressure to 0.6 GPa. ► Comparison of lattice pressure to external pressure effects on superconductivity. ► Evidence for magnetic pair-breaking effects. -- Abstract: The temperature-dependent ac susceptibility of the filled skutterudite superconductor PrPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12} has been measured under hydrostatic He-gas pressure to 0.58 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} decreases linearly with pressure P from 7.91 K at ambient pressure to 7.83 K at 0.58 GPa, giving the rate dT{sub c}/dP = −0.19 ± 0.03 K/GPa. Evidence is presented that suggests that the value of T{sub c} in this compound is slightly reduced due to magnetic pair-breaking effects from the Pr{sup 3+} cations.

  16. Thin film metrology and microwave loss characterization of indium and aluminum/indium superconducting planar resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, C. R. H.; Béjanin, J. H.; Earnest, C. T.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Deimert, C.; Thomas, J. P.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Mariantoni, M.

    2018-05-01

    Scalable architectures characterized by quantum bits (qubits) with low error rates are essential to the development of a practical quantum computer. In the superconducting quantum computing implementation, understanding and minimizing material losses are crucial to the improvement of qubit performance. A new material that has recently received particular attention is indium, a low-temperature superconductor that can be used to bond pairs of chips containing standard aluminum-based qubit circuitry. In this work, we characterize microwave loss in indium and aluminum/indium thin films on silicon substrates by measuring superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators and estimating the main loss parameters at powers down to the sub-photon regime and at temperatures between 10 and 450 mK. We compare films deposited by thermal evaporation, sputtering, and molecular beam epitaxy. We study the effects of heating in a vacuum and ambient atmospheric pressure as well as the effects of pre-deposition wafer cleaning using hydrofluoric acid. The microwave measurements are supported by thin film metrology including secondary-ion mass spectrometry. For thermally evaporated and sputtered films, we find that two-level state are the dominant loss mechanism at low photon number and temperature, with a loss tangent due to native indium oxide of ˜ 5 × 10 - 5 . The molecular beam epitaxial films show evidence of the formation of a substantial indium-silicon eutectic layer, which leads to a drastic degradation in resonator performance.

  17. Thermopower of dilute alloys of indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudenhoeffer, A.W.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a new theory of electron-diffusion thermopower is discussed. A figure of merit for this ''Nielsen--Taylor'' theory in various metals is established, and it indicates that the effect should be largest in lead, indium, thallium, and aluminum, in that order. Previous investigations have been carried out for lead and aluminum. The thermopower of indium (or any metal) changes when impurity scattering centers are introduced into it. This change in the thermopower as a function of temperature is analyzed in terms of the Nielsen--Taylor theory and in terms of the competing process known as ''phonon drag.'' Definite conclusions as to the validity of the new theory are hampered by the complex nature of this phonon drag, but the experimental data is consistent with the Nielsen--Taylor theory. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  18. Radioassay process using an indium-8-hydroxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedemans, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    There is disclosed an in vivo radioassay process in which a radioactive chelate of indium and an 8-hydroxyquinoline is introduced into a warmblooded animal having an inflammatory reaction in an area in which the chelate would not accumulate to the same extent if the inflammation were not present. The chelate gathers in the inflamed area, for instance, in a body abscess and its location is determined by radio surveying the body by an external imaging technique. (author)

  19. Preparation of trialkylindium by alkylation of metallic indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, I.V.; Danov, S.M.; Sakhipov, V.R.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation results on production of trialkyl indium by alkylation of metallic indium are presented. In contradistinction to the known techniques for the production of trialkyls on indium by alkylation it is suggested to separate the synthesis into two steps. At the first step indium is alkylated by alkylhalide to alkyl indium halide, and at the second alkylation is carried out using. Grignard reagent. The techniques for preparation of trimethyl- and triethylindium, developed on the bases of this scheme, are noted for good reproducibility, allow to preclude, agglomeration of indium during the synthesis, as well as to reduce the consumption coefficients, and amounts, of the introduced starting reagents, i.e. magnesium and alkylhalide. Refs. 16

  20. Thermoelectric flux effect in superconducting indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harlingen, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a thermoelectric effect in superconductors which provides a mechanism for studying quasiparticle relaxation and scattering processes in non-equilibrium superconductors by transport measurements. We report measurements of the thermoelecric flux effect in samples consisting of indium and lead near the In transition temperature; in this temperature range, the contribution to DELTA/sub TAU/ from the Pb is insignificant and so values of OMEGA(T) are obtained for indium. The results of our experiments may be summarized as follows: (1) we have a thermally-generated flux effect in 5 superconducting In-Pb toroidal samples, (2) experimental tests suggest that the observed effect does indeed arise from the proposed thermoelectric flux effect, (3) OMEGA(T) for indium is found to diverge as (T/sub c/ - T)/sup -3/2/ more rapidly than predicted by simple theory, (4) OMEGA(T) at T/T sub c/ = .999 is nearly 10/sup 5/ larger than initially expected, (5) OMEGA (T) roughly correlates with the magnitude of the normal state thermoelectric coefficient for our samples

  1. New indium selenite-oxalate and indium oxalate with two- and three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Junjun; Li Guodong; Chen Jiesheng

    2009-01-01

    Two new indium(III) compounds with extended structures, [In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )(H 2 O) 2 ].2H 2 O (I) and [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ][In(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ] 2 .5H 2 O (II), have been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Compound I crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a=5.2596(11) A, b=6.8649(14) A, c=9.3289(19) A, α=101.78(3) o , β=102.03(3) o , γ=104.52(3) o , while compound II crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Fdd2, with a=15.856(3) A, b=31.183(6) A, c=8.6688(17) A. In compound I, indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form two-dimensional (2D) In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers, separated by non-coordinating water molecules. In compound II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered channels. - Graphical abstract: Two new indium(III) compounds have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. In I, the indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form 2D In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers. In II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered ring channels

  2. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide

  3. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide.

  4. A study of the kinetics and mechanisms of electrocrystallization of indium oxide on an in situ prepared metallic indium electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omanovic, S.; Metikos-Hukovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms and kinetics of nucleation and growth of indium oxide film on an in situ prepared metallic indium electrode was studied in a borate buffer solution of pH 10.0 using cyclic voltammetry and chroanoamperometry techniques. It was shown that the initial stage of nucleation of the oxide film includes a three-dimensional progressive nucleation process, combined with a diffusion-controlled growth of the stable indium oxide crystals. The thermodynamic data obtained indicated a strong tendency of indium to form an indium oxide film on its surface in an aqueous solution. It was found that the rate-determining step in the nucleation and growth process is the surface diffusion of electroactive species. The nucleation rate constant, and the number of nucleation active sites were calculated independently. It was shown that between 2 and 15% of sites on the indium surface act as active nucleation centers, and that each active site represents a critical nucleus

  5. The filled skutterudite PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}: superconductivity and correlations; La skutterudite PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}: supraconductivite et correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Measson, M.A

    2005-12-15

    The filled skutterudite PrOs{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} is the first Pr-based heavy fermion superconductor. This thesis addresses several important open questions including the determination of the quasi-particle mass renormalisation, the nature and mechanism of superconductivity, and the intrinsic or extrinsic nature of the double superconducting transition seen in the specific heat. A fit of the specific heat with magnetic interactions between the ions Pr is proposed. We extract from it an electronic term of between 300-750 mJ/K{sup 2}.mol(Pr). Analysis of the specific heat jump provides evidence that heavy carriers are involved in Cooper pairing and that superconductivity is strongly coupled. Extensive characterizations by specific heat, resistivity, susceptibility measurements show that a double transition appears in the best samples. Nevertheless we bring the first serious doubts on the intrinsic nature of the double transition, because we have found samples with a single sharp transition at Tc2 and because the ratio of the two specific heat jumps shows strong dispersion among the samples. Furthermore we have measured the superconducting phase diagrams with an A.C. specific heat technique under magnetic field and under pressure up to 4.2 GPa, and we show that the two transitions, Tc1 and Tc2, exhibit similar behaviours with magnetic field and pressure. We find a strong change in the pressure dependence of Tc's above 2 GPa which might be related to a change in the nature of the superconductivity under pressure (at least partially mediated by fluctuations and only by phonons at respectively low and high pressure) which may be linked to the increase of the crystal field gap of the Pr ions. Analysis of the upper critical field shows the presence of at least two superconducting bands and concludes to a singlet nature of the pairing. A strong distortion of the flux-line lattice, which is constant with temperature and field, is obtained by small angle neutron scattering

  6. Rare-earth (R) and transition metals (d) based skutterudites RM4Sb12: new materials for thermoelectric power generation; Etude de skutterudites de terres-rares (R) et de metaux d (M) du type RM4Sb12: de nouveaux materiaux thermoelectriques pour la generation d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardan, D.

    2004-07-15

    This thesis presents the physical and thermoelectric properties of new skutterudite compounds, with general formula R{sub y-p}R'{sub p}Fe{sub 4-x}(Co/Ni){sub x}Sb{sub 12} (R and R' = Ce, Yb, Ba, La). It shows that Yb valence state decreases when Yb fraction increases. However, it does not depend on the temperature, which evidences a mixed valence state (two different valence states for two distinct crystallographic sites at a local point of view). Ce is always trivalent in these compounds. The character of the dominant interactions changes from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic when one goes from trivalent cerium or lanthanum to nearly divalent ytterbium or divalent barium. The effective paramagnetic moment has been separated into three contributions originating from Ce, Yb and [Fe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}]. The last one does not depend on the nature or on the valence state or R and R' atoms, but it decreases when Ni substitutes Fe. A magnetic transition occurs at 6.5 K for R = Yb and Ba, possibly to a spin glass state. Electrical and thermal transport properties have been determined from 5 K to 800 K, and the materials properties of the materials have been discussed concerning thermoelectric power generation. The power factor, and the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT are increased in Ce{sub y}/2Yb{sub y}/2Fe{sub 4-x}(Co/Ni){sub x}Sb{sub 12} type skutterudites as compared to R{sub y}Fe{sub 4-x}(Co/Ni){sub x}Sb{sub 12} type skutterudites. (author)

  7. Sodium enhances indium-gallium interdiffusion in copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Diego; Werner, Florian; Schwarz, Torsten; Cañero Infante, Ingrid; Fleming, Yves; Valle, Nathalie; Spindler, Conrad; Vacchieri, Erica; Rey, Germain; Guennou, Mael; Bouttemy, Muriel; Manjón, Alba Garzón; Peral Alonso, Inmaculada; Melchiorre, Michele; El Adib, Brahime; Gault, Baptiste; Raabe, Dierk; Dale, Phillip J; Siebentritt, Susanne

    2018-02-26

    Copper indium gallium diselenide-based technology provides the most efficient solar energy conversion among all thin-film photovoltaic devices. This is possible due to engineered gallium depth gradients and alkali extrinsic doping. Sodium is well known to impede interdiffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 films, thus influencing the gallium depth distribution. Here, however, sodium is shown to have the opposite effect in monocrystalline gallium-free CuInSe 2 grown on GaAs substrates. Gallium in-diffusion from the substrates is enhanced when sodium is incorporated into the film, leading to Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and Cu(In,Ga) 3 Se 5 phase formation. These results show that sodium does not decrease per se indium and gallium interdiffusion. Instead, it is suggested that sodium promotes indium and gallium intragrain diffusion, while it hinders intergrain diffusion by segregating at grain boundaries. The deeper understanding of dopant-mediated atomic diffusion mechanisms should lead to more effective chemical and electrical passivation strategies, and more efficient solar cells.

  8. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  9. Selective separation of indium by iminodiacetic acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, M.C.B.; Benedetto, J.S.; Martins, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    - Indium can be recovered by treating residues, flue dusts, slags, and metallic intermediates in zinc smelting. This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of indium and iron on an iminodiacetic acid chelating resin, Amberlite R IRC748 (Rohm and Haas Co.-USA). High concentrations of iron are always present in the aqueous feed solution of indium recovery. In addition, the chemical behaviour of iron in adsorptive systems is similar to that of indium. The metal concentrations in the aqueous solution were based on typical indium sulfate leach liquor obtained from zinc hydrometallurgical processing in a Brazilian plant. The ionic adsorption experiments were carried out by the continuous column method. Amberlite R IRC748 resin had a high affinity for indium under acidic conditions. Indium ions adsorbed onto the polymeric resin were eluted with a 0.5 mol/dm 3 sulphuric acid solution passed through the resin bed in the column. 99.5% pure indium sulfate aqueous solution was obtained using the iminodiacetic acid chelating resin Amberlite R IRC748. (author)

  10. State of rare earth impurities in gallium and indium antimonides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evgen'ev, S.B.; Kuz'micheva, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    State of rare earth impurities in indium and gallium antimonides was studied. Results of measuring density and lattice parameter of samples in GaSb-rare earth and InSb-rare earth systems are presented. It is shown that during rare earth dissolution in indium and gallium antimonides rare earth atoms occupy interstitial positions or, at least, are displaced from lattice points

  11. Fabrication, structure and mechanical properties of indium nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Budiman, Arief Suriadi; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solid and hollow cylindrical indium pillars with nanoscale diameters were prepared using electron beam lithography followed by the electroplating fabrication method. The microstructure of the solid-core indium pillars was characterized by scanning micro-X-ray diffraction, which shows that the indium pillars were annealed at room temperature with very few dislocations remaining in the samples. The mechanical properties of the solid pillars were characterized using a uniaxial microcompression technique, which demonstrated that the engineering yield stress is {approx}9 times greater than bulk and is {approx}1/28 of the indium shear modulus, suggesting that the attained stresses are close to theoretical strength. Microcompression of hollow indium nanopillars showed evidence of brittle fracture. This may suggest that the failure mode for one of the most ductile metals can become brittle when the feature size is sufficiently small.

  12. FP-LAPW calculations of the elastic, electronic and thermoelectric properties of the filled skutterudite CeRu4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, A.; Rai, D.P.; Chettri, Sandeep; Khenata, R.; Thapa, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure, elastic and thermoelectric properties of the filled skutterudite CeRu 4 Sb 12 using the density functional theory (DFT). The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within a framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) approach is used to perform the calculations presented here. The electronic structure calculation suggests an indirect band gap semiconducting nature of the material with energy band gap of 0.08 eV. The analysis of the elastic constants at relaxed positions reveals the ductile nature of the sample material with covalent contribution in the inter-atomic bonding. The narrow band gap semiconducting nature with high value of Seebeck coefficient suggests the possibility of the thermoelectric application of the material. The analysis of the thermal transport properties confirms the result obtained from the energy band structure of the material with high thermopower and dimensionless figure of merit 0.19 at room temperature.

  13. Crystal structure and high temperature transport properties of Yb-filled p-type skutterudites YbxCo2.5Fe1.5Sb12

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Yongkwan

    2014-01-01

    Partially Yb-filled Fe substituted polycrystalline p-type skutterudites with nominal compositions YbxCo2.5Fe1.5Sb 12, with varying filler concentrations x, were synthesized by reacting the constituent elements and subsequent solid state annealing, followed by densification by hot-pressing. The compositions and filling fractions were confirmed with a combination of Rietveld refinement and elemental analysis. Their thermoelectric properties were evaluated from 300 to 800 K. The Seebeck coefficients for the specimens increase with increasing temperature and plateau at around 750 K. The thermal conductivity decreases with increasing Yb filling fraction, and bipolar conduction becomes evident and increases at elevated temperatures. A maximum ZT value of 0.8 was obtained at 750 K for Yb 0.47Co2.6Fe1.4Sb12. The thermoelectric properties and potential for further optimization are discussed in light of our results. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. A quantitative study of valence electron transfer in the skutterudite compound CoP3 by combining x-ray induced Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplas, S; Prytz, Oe; Karlsen, O B; Watts, J F; Taftoe, J

    2007-01-01

    We use the sum of the ionization and Auger energy, the so-called Auger parameter, measured from the x-ray photoelectron spectrum, to study the valence electron distribution in the skutterudite CoP 3 . The electron transfer between Co and P was estimated using models relating changes in Auger parameter values to charge transfer. It was found that each P atom gains 0.24 e - , and considering the unit formula CoP 3 this is equivalent to a donation of 0.72 e - per Co atom. This is in agreement with a recent electron energy-loss spectroscopy study, which indicates a charge transfer of 0.77 e - /atom from Co to P

  15. Thermoelectric properties of In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} skutterudites with embedded PbTe or ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubilleau, C.; Lenoir, B.; Candolfi, C.; Masschelein, P. [Université de Lorraine, CNRS, UMR 7198, Institut Jean Lamour, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Dauscher, A., E-mail: anne.dauscher@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, CNRS, UMR 7198, Institut Jean Lamour, Parc de Saurupt, 54011 Nancy (France); Guilmeau, E. [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508, 6 boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Godart, C. [ICMPE-CMTR, CNRS-UMR 7182, 2-8 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication of nanostructured skutterudites ZnO or PbTe/In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12.} • Thermal conductivity modeling accounts for experimental results. • Greater lattice thermal conductivity decrease in In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} than in CoSb{sub 3}. • A max ZT of 1.05 is obtained at 700 K in a 2 wt% ZnO-containing sample. -- Abstract: Transport properties of the skutterudite compound In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} containing ZnO or PbTe nano-sized particles (2–12 wt%) were investigated by means of electrical resistivity, thermopower and thermal conductivity between 5 and 800 K. The composite powders were prepared by freeze-drying the nanoparticles with micron-sized In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} powders. Densification was achieved by spark plasma sintering. All composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. All the transport coefficients show similar temperature dependences suggesting little influence of the nature, semiconducting or insulating, of the nanoparticles. Both the electrical and the thermal conductivities decrease with increasing the PbTe or ZnO content. The impact of ZnO and PbTe on the thermal conductivity was modelled based on the Debye model taking into account a relaxation time constant reflecting phonon scattering by spherical nanoparticles. A maximum dimensionless figure of merit ZT of 1.05 at 700 K was achieved in a sample containing 2 wt% ZnO, a value quite similar to that of the reference In{sub 0.2}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} compound.

  16. Small lead and indium inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Hjemsted, K.; Schmidt, B.; Bourdelle, K.K.; Johansen, A.; Andersen, H.H.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports implantation of lead or indium into aluminum results in spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead or indium precipitates. The precipitates grow in topotactical alignment with the matrix, giving TEM images characterized by moire fringes. The size and density of the precipitates increase with increasing fluence until coalescence begins to occur. Implantation at elevated temperatures lead to formation of large precipitates with well developed facets. This is particularly significant for implantation above the bulk melting point of the implanted species. Melting and solidification have been followed by in-situ TEM heating and cooling experiments. Superheating up to ∼50 K above the bulk melting point has been observed, and the largest inclusions melt first. Melting is associated with only partial loss of facetting of the largest inclusion. Initial growth of the inclusions occurs by trapping of atoms retained in supersaturated solution. Further growth occurs by coalescence of neighboring inclusion in the liquid phase. Solidification is accompanied by a strong undercooling ∼30 K below the bulk melting point, where the smallest inclusions solidify first. Solidification is characterized by spontaneous restoration of the facets and the topotactical alignment

  17. Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy in carotid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branchereau, A.; Bernard, P.J.; Ciosi, G.; Bazan, M.; de Laforte, C.; Elias, A.; Bouvier, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five patients (35 men, 10 women) undergoing carotid surgery had Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy as part of their preoperative work-up. Imaging was performed within three hours after injection of the Indium-111. A second series of views was obtained 24 hours later and repeated at 24 hour intervals for two days. Of 54 scintigrams, 22 were positive and 32 negative. Positive results were defined as a twofold or more increase in local activity on a visualized carotid after 24 hours. The sensitivity of the method was 41%, intraoperatively, and the specificity, 100%. The low sensitivity places this method behind sonography and duplex-scanning for screening patients for surgery. We believe that indications for platelet scintigraphy are limited to: 1. Repeated transient ischemic attacks in the same territory with minimal lesions on arteriography and non-homogeneous plaque on duplex scan; 2. Symptomatic patients being treated medically as a possible argument for surgery; 3. Determining therapeutic policy for patients having experienced a transient ischemic attack with a coexisting intracardiac thrombus

  18. Properties of thin N-type Yb0.14Co4Sb12 and P-type Ce0.09Fe0.67Co3.33Sb12 skutterudite layers prepared by laser ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeipl, Radek; Walachová, Jarmila; Lorinčík, J.; Leshkov, Sergey; Josieková, M.; Jelínek, M.; Kocourek, Tomáš; Jurek, Karel; Navrátil, Jiří; Beneš, L.; Plecháček, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2010), s. 523-527 ISSN 0734-2101 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315; GA ČR GA203/07/0267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thermoelectrics * thin layers * skutterudites Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.291, year: 2010

  19. Looking Down Under for a Circular Economy of Indium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Tim T; Ciacci, Luca; Mudd, Gavin Mark; Reck, Barbara K; Northey, Stephen Alan

    2018-02-20

    Indium is a specialty metal crucial for modern technology, yet it is potentially critical due to its byproduct status in mining. Measures to reduce its criticality typically focus on improving its recycling efficiency at end-of-life. This study quantifies primary and secondary indium resources ("stocks") for Australia through a dynamic material-flow analysis. It is based on detailed assessments of indium mineral resources hosted in lead-zinc and copper deposits, respective mining activities from 1844 to 2013, and the trade of indium-containing products from 1988 to 2015. The results show that Australia's indium stocks are substantial, estimated at 46.2 kt in mineral resources and an additional 14.7 kt in mine wastes. Australian mineral resources alone could meet global demand (∼0.8 kt/year) for more than five decades. Discarded material from post-consumer products, instead, is negligible (43 t). This suggests that the resilience of Australia's indium supply can best be increased through efficiency gains in mining (such as introducing domestic indium refining capacity) rather than at the end of the product life. These findings likely also apply to other specialty metals, such as gallium or germanium, and other resource-dominated countries. Finally, the results illustrate that national circular economy strategies can differ substantially.

  20. Mn-implanted, polycrystalline indium tin oxide and indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Xu Qingyu; Buerger, Danilo; Zhou Shengqiang; Kolitsch, Andreas; Grenzer, Joerg; Helm, Manfred; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline conducting, ca. 250 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) films grown on SiO 2 /Si substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering, have been implanted with 1 and 5 at.% of Mn, followed by annealing in nitrogen or in vacuum. The effect of the post-growth treatment on the structural, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties has been studied. The roughness of implanted films ranges between 3 and 15 nm and XRD measurements revealed a polycrystalline structure. A positive MR has been observed for Mn-implanted and post-annealed ITO and IO films. It has been interpreted by considering s-d exchange. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to prove the existence of midgap electronic states in the Mn-implanted ITO and IO films reducing the transmittance below 80%.

  1. Concerted Electrodeposition and Alloying of Antimony on Indium Electrodes for Selective Formation of Crystalline Indium Antimonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, Eli; Rafson, Jessica; Lancaster, Mitchell; Maldonado, Stephen

    2017-09-19

    The direct preparation of crystalline indium antimonide (InSb) by the electrodeposition of antimony (Sb) onto indium (In) working electrodes has been demonstrated. When Sb is electrodeposited from dilute aqueous electrolytes containing dissolved Sb 2 O 3 , an alloying reaction is possible between Sb and In if any surface oxide films are first thoroughly removed from the electrode. The presented Raman spectra detail the interplay between the formation of crystalline InSb and the accumulation of Sb as either amorphous or crystalline aggregates on the electrode surface as a function of time, temperature, potential, and electrolyte composition. Electron and optical microscopies confirm that under a range of conditions, the preparation of a uniform and phase-pure InSb film is possible. The cumulative results highlight this methodology as a simple yet potent strategy for the synthesis of intermetallic compounds of interest.

  2. Muon spin relaxation and rotation studies of the filled skutterudite alloys praseodymium osmium ruthenium antimonide and praseodymium lanthanum osmium antimonide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei

    Some filled skutterudite compounds have recently been found to exhibit very interesting properties. The first Pr-based heavy-fermion superconductor, PrOs4Sb12, is an intriguing material due to the unusual properties of both its normal and superconducting states. Comprehensive muon spin rotation and relaxation studies and magnetic susceptibility measurements, described in this dissertation, have been performed to investigate the microscopic properties of PrOs4Sb12 and its Ru and La doped alloys. The temperature dependence of penetration depth measured in the vortex state of PrOs4Sb12 using transverse-field muon spin rotation (TF-muSR) is weaker than those measured by radiofrequency measurements. A scenario based on two-band superconductivity in PrOs4Sb 12, is proposed to resolve this difference. TF-muSR experiments also suggest the suppression of superfluid density with Ru doping, probably due to impurity scattering. In addition, magnetic susceptibility data as well as analysis of the muSR data in PrOs4Sb12 reveal a nearly linear relation of mu+ Knight shift vs. magnetic susceptibility. This suggests that the muon charge does not affect the crystalline electric field splitting of Pr3+ near neighbors. Additional evidence comes from the fact that the superconducting transition temperature Tc measured from muSR is consistent with the bulk superconducting values. Zero-field muon spin relaxation (ZF-muSR) experiments have been carried out in the Pr(Os1-xRux) 4Sb12 and Pr1-yLayOs 4Sb12 alloy systems to investigate the time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking found in an earlier ZF-muSR study of the end compound PrOs 4Sb12. The results from measurements at KEK, Japan, suggest that Ru doping is considerably more efficient than La doping in suppressing TRS breaking superconducting in PrOs4Sb12. However, we think that the spontaneous local field that indicates TRS breaking detected by ZF-muSR may depend on sample quality if those fields are from inhomogeneity in the

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of indium with chromazurol S and dimethyllaurylbenzylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapulinska, G.; Buhl, F.

    1988-01-01

    The ternary system: indium-chromazurol S (CHAS)-dimethyllaurylbenzylammonium bromide (ST) was applied for determination of microgramme amounts of indium. The addition of ST enhances the sensitivity of the method; at λ max =625 nm the molar absorptivity of In-CHAS-ST complex equals 1.74 x 10 5 . The system obeyes the Lambert-Beer law in the range of indium concentration from 0.04 to 0.48 ppm. The maximal absorbance was obtained at pH 6. The complex is formed immediately and is stable during 2 hours. 3 figs., 10 refs. (author)

  4. Optical properties of indium nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagaj, V.A.; Evstigneev, A.M.; Krasiko, A.N.; Andreeva, A.F.; Malakhov, V.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    Reflection and transmission spectra of heavily doped indium nitride are studied at lambda=0.5-5 μm. Dispersion of the refractive index near the plasma resonance frequency, h.f. dielectric constant (epsilonsub(infinity)=9.3), and extinction coefficient near the transmission maximum of films have been determined from the analysis of interference pattern. The reflection spectrum exhibits maximum in the infrared range and optical effective mass is found through its position (msub(opt)*=0.11msub(0)). Free carrier absorption coefficient is shown to vary according to the law K approximately lambdasup(2.9+-0.1) which is characteristic of electron scattering by charged impurities. The analysis of absorption spectra near the threshold of interband transitions has lead to the conclusion that free carriers are localized in the lateral extremum of conduction band (or out of the center of the Brillouin zone), therefore the Burstein-Moss effect is absent

  5. Band structure dynamics in indium wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Krause, R.; Aeschlimann, S.; Gierz, I.

    2018-05-01

    One-dimensional indium wires grown on Si(111) substrates, which are metallic at high temperatures, become insulating below ˜100 K due to the formation of a charge density wave (CDW). The physics of this transition is not conventional and involves a multiband Peierls instability with strong interband coupling. This CDW ground state is readily destroyed with femtosecond laser pulses resulting in a light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition. The current understanding of this transition remains incomplete, requiring measurements of the transient electronic structure to complement previous investigations of the lattice dynamics. Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with extreme ultraviolet radiation is applied to this end. We find that the transition from the insulating to the metallic band structure occurs within ˜660 fs, which is a fraction of the amplitude mode period. The long lifetime of the transient state (>100 ps) is attributed to trapping in a metastable state in accordance with previous work.

  6. Indium antimonide based HEMT for RF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subash, T. D.; Gnanasekaran, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report on an indium antimonide high electron mobility transistor with record cut-off frequency characteristics. For high frequency response it is important to minimize parasitic resistance and capacitance to improve short-channel effects. For analog applications adequate pinch-off behavior is demonstrated. For proper device scaling we need high electron mobility and high electron density. Toward this end, the device design features and simulation are carried out by the Synopsys TCAD tool. A 30 nm InSb HEMT exhibits an excellent cut-off frequency of 586 GHz. To the knowledge of the authors, the obtained cut-off frequency is the highest ever reported in any FET on any material system. (semiconductor materials)

  7. Studies on preparation and characterization of indium doped zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The preparation of indium doped zinc oxide films is discussed. ... XRD studies have shown a change in preferential orientation from (002) to .... at grain boundaries in the form of In(OH)3, hindering the .... Angular substrate to nozzle distance.

  8. Indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Heresbach, D.; Darnault, P.; Bretagne, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper reports our experience since 1963 concerning 111-indium labeled autologous granulocytes scanning in the assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases and in the assessment of activity in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (authors). 94 refs., 3 figs

  9. Amperometric titration of indium with edta solution in propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A.M.; Talipov, Sh.T.; Khadeev, V.A.; Kostylev, V.S.; Khadeeva, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Optimum conditions have been chosen for titration of indium with EDTA solution in anhydrous propanol and its mixtures with some aprotic solvents using amperometric and point detection. A procedure is suggested of determining indium microcontents in the presence of large amounts of other elements. The procedure is based on its extraction preseparation followed by direct titration in the extract with a standard EDTA solution [ru

  10. Template synthesis of indium nanowires using anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Kitai, Adrian H

    2008-09-01

    Indium nanowires with diameters approximately 300 nm have been synthesized by a hydraulic pressure technique using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The indium melt is injected into the AAO template and solidified to form nanostructures. The nanowires are dense, continuous and uniformly run through the entire approximately 60 microm thickness of the AAO template. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the nanowires are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation. SEM is performed to characterize the morphology of the nanowires.

  11. An advanced case of indium lung disease with progressive emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Kumazoe, Hiroyuki; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Kamada, Dan; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-09-30

    To report the occurrence of an advanced case of indium lung disease with severely progressive emphysema in an indium-exposed worker. A healthy 42-year-old male smoker was employed to primarily grind indium-tin oxide (ITO) target plates, exposing him to indium for 9 years (1998-2008). In 2004, an epidemiological study was conducted on indium-exposed workers at the factory in which he worked. The subject's serum indium concentration (In-S) was 99.7 μg/l, while his serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 level was 2,350 U/ml. Pulmonary function tests showed forced vital capacity (FVC) of 4.17 l (91.5% of the JRS predicted value), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) of 3.19 l (80.8% of predicted), and an FEV 1 -to-FVC ratio of 76.5%. A high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) scan showed mild interlobular septal thickening and mild emphysematous changes. In 2008, he was transferred from the ITO grinding workplace to an inspection work section, where indium concentrations in total dusts had a range of 0.001-0.002 mg/m 3 . In 2009, the subject's In-S had increased to 132.1 μg/l, and pulmonary function tests revealed obstructive changes. In addition, HRCT scan showed clear evidence of progressive lung destruction with accompanying severe centrilobular emphysema and interlobular septal thickening in both lung fields. The subject's condition gradually worsened, and in 2015, he was registered with the Japan Organ Transplant Network for lung transplantation (LTx). Heavy indium exposure is a risk factor for emphysema, which can lead to a severity level that requires LTx as the final therapeutic option.

  12. Photoluminescence of monovalent indium centres in phosphate glass

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, Hirokazu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Shun; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Ina, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Valence control of polyvalent cations is important for functionalization of various kinds of materials. Indium oxides have been used in various applications, such as indium tin oxide in transparent electrical conduction films. However, although metastable In+ (5 s2 configuration) species exhibit photoluminescence (PL), they have attracted little attention. Valence control of In+ cations in these materials will be important for further functionalization. Here, we describe In+ species using PL ...

  13. Study on indium leaching from mechanically activated hard zinc residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes in physicochemical properties and leachability of indium from mechanically activated hard zinc residue by planetary mill were investigated. The results showed that mechanical activation increased specific surface area, reaction activity of hard zinc residue, and decreased its particle size, which had a positive effect on indium extraction from hard zinc residue in hydrochloric acid solution. Kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled and activated hard zinc residue were also investigated, respectively. It was found that temperature had an obvious effect on indium leaching rate. Two different kinetic models corresponding to reactions which are diffusion controlled, [1-(1- x1/3]2=kt and (1-2x/3-(1-x2/3=kt were used to describe the kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled sample and activated sample, respectively. Their activation energies were determined to be 17.89 kJ/mol (umilled and 11.65 kJ/mol (activated within the temperature range of 30°C to 90°C, which is characteristic for a diffusion controlled process. The values of activation energy demonstrated that the leaching reaction of indium became less sensitive to temperature after hard zinc residue mechanically activated by planetary mill.

  14. Indium-111 octreotide uptake in the surgical scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degirmenci, B.; Bekis, R.; Durak, H.; Derebeck, E. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sen, M. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1999-07-01

    Indium-111 octreotide uptake has been reported in various somatostatin receptor positive tumors, granulomas and autoimmune diseases in which activated leucocytes may play a role, subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma and angiofibroma. We present Indium-111 octreotide uptake in a surgical abdominal scar tissue 1.5 to 6 months after surgery in a patient who had been treated for recurrent carcinoid tumor in the rectosigmoid junction. Indium-111 octreotide uptake in a surgical scar may be related to the binding to somatostatin receptors in the activated lymphocytes and fibroblasts that is previously reported. (orig.) [German] In verschiedenen Somatostatinrezeptor-positiven Tumoren, Granulomen, bei Autoimmunerkrankungen, in denen aktivierte Leukozyten eine Rolle spielen, subcutanen kavernoesen Hammangiomen und Angiofibromen wurde ueber die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid berichtet. Wir berichten ueber die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid in einer chirurgischen Narbe ueber dem Abdomen nach 1,5 und 6 Monaten bei einem Patienten mit einem Rezidiv-Karzinoid im rektosigmoidalen Uebergang. Die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid in chirurgischen Narbengewebe koennte in Zusammenhang stehen mit einer Bindung an Somatostationrezeptoren in aktivierten Lymphozyten und Fibroblasten, ueber die schon berichtet wurde. (orig.)

  15. “Pesting”-like oxidation phenomenon of p-type filled skutterudite Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Pengfei [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramic and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xia, Xugui; Huang, Xiangyang; Gu, Ming [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Qiu, Yuting [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramic and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Lidong, E-mail: chenlidong@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramic and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 DingXi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}Co{sub 1}Sb{sub 12} exhibits “pesting”-like oxidation phenomenon at high temperature. • The highest oxidation rate of Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}Co{sub 1}Sb{sub 12} appears around 800 K. • Severe periodically oxide layer peeling-off behavior is observed around 800 K. • The co-existence of Fe and Co is responsible for the poor oxidation resistance. - Abstract: Oxidation behavior of p-type filled skutterudite Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12} in air was investigated and the oxidation mechanism was discussed in this study. Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12} exhibits interesting “pesting”-like oxidation phenomenon around 800 K. The bulk sample completely disintegrates into a crowd of plate-like particles under this temperature range after only 24 h exposure in air. However, this abnormal oxidation phenomenon is not observed at temperature below 750 K or above 850 K. This result is consistent with the thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry measurements which show that the oxidation rate for Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12} around 800 K is the highest among 650–900 K. Microstructure observations suggest that this “pesting”-like oxidation is related with the severe periodically oxide layer peeling-off behavior around 800 K, which makes the Ce{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12} samples are easy to be oxidized because the fresh substrate surface is always exposed to high concentration oxygen atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicated that in the oxide scale the direct contact of Fe{sup 3+}-oxide and CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 4} which possess different formation/growth rate and volume expansion coefficient should be responsible for this peculiar oxide layer peeling-off behavior around 800 K. This work can serve as an important reference for the designation of M{sub y}Fe{sub 4−x}Co{sub x}Sb{sub 12}-based skutterudite thermoelectric device.

  16. DX centers in indium aluminum arsenide heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Huseyin

    DX centers are point defects observed in many n-type doped III-V compound semi conductors. They have unique properties, which include large differences between their optical and thermal ionization energies, and a temperature dependence of the capture cross-sections. As a result of these properties DX centers exhibit a reduction in free carrier concentration and a large persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect. DX centers also lead to a shift in the threshold voltage of modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFET) structures, at low temperatures. Most of the studies on this defect have been carried out on the Ga xAl1-xAs material system. However, to date there is significantly less work on DX centers in InxAl1-xAs compounds. This is partly due to difficulties associated with the growth of defect free materials other than lattice matched In0.52Al 0.48As on InP and partly because the energy level of the DX center is in resonance with the conduction band in In0.52Al0.48As. The purpose of this dissertation is to extend the DX center investigation to InAlAs compounds, primarily in the indirect portion of the InAlAs bandgap. In this work the indium composition dependence of the DX centers in In xAl1-xAs/InyGa1-yAs-based heterostructure is studied experimentally. Different InxAl 1-xAs epitaxial layers with x = 0.10, x = 0.15, x = 0.20, and x = 0.34 in a MODFET-like heterostructure were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on (001) GaAs substrates. In order to compensate the lattice mismatch between epitaxial layers and their substrates, step-graded buffer layers with indium composition increments of x = 0.10, every 2000 A, were used. For the samples grown with different indium contents Hall measurements as a function of both temperature and different cooling biases were performed in order to determine their carrier concentrations. A self consistent Poisson-Schrodinger numerical software is used to model the heterostructures. With the help of this numerical model

  17. Work function of oxygen exposed lead and lead/indium alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, K.H.; Hellemann, H.P.; Hoelzl, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of indium in superconducting tunnel junctions with lead/indium alloy base electrodes is investigated by measuring the vacuum work function of lead, indium, and lead/indium alloy films. It is found that the anomalous decrease of the work function of lead upon exposure to oxygen, explained by the penetration of oxygen into the inner surface of the lead film, is reversed into a slight increase in work function when some indium is added to the lead. This result indicates that the addition of indium provides a protection by suppressing the penetration of oxygen (and probably other gases) into the interior of the thin film

  18. Nanoscratch characterization of indium nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Derming [Chin-Yi Univ. of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2014-01-15

    In this study we used RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy for the epitaxial growth of single-crystalline indium nitride (InN) thin films on aluminum nitride buffer layers/Si (111) substrates. We then used scratch techniques to study the influence of the c-axis orientation of the InN films and the beam interactions on the tribological performance of these samples. When grown at 440, 470, and 500 C, the coefficients of friction were 0.18, 0.22, and 0.26, respectively, under a normal force (F{sub n}) of 2000 {mu}N; 0.19, 0.23, and 0.27, respectively, under a value of Fn of 4000 {mu}N; and 0.21, 0.24, and 0.28, respectively, under a value of F{sub n} of 6000 {mu}N. These measured values increased slightly upon increasing the growth temperature because of the resulting smaller sizes of the apertures and/or pores in the inner films. The sliding resistance of the ploughed area was observed. The contact sliding line became increasingly noticeable upon increasing the value of F{sub n}; the plot of the friction with respect to the penetration depth revealed a significant relation in its adhesion properties presentation. (orig.)

  19. Fabrication challenges for indium phosphide microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwak, N P; Fan, X Z; Ghodssi, R

    2015-01-01

    From the inception of III–V microsystems, monolithically integrated device designs have been the motivating drive for this field, bringing together the utility of single-chip microsystems and conventional fabrication techniques. Indium phosphide (InP) has a particular advantage of having a direct bandgap within the low loss telecommunication wavelength (1550 nm) range, able to support passive waveguiding and optical amplification, detection, and generation depending on the exact alloy of In, P, As, Ga, or Al materials. Utilizing epitaxy, one can envision the growth of a substrate that contains all of the components needed to establish a single-chip optical microsystem, containing detectors, sources, waveguides, and mechanical structures. A monolithic InP MEMS system has, to our knowledge, yet to be realized due to the significant difficulties encountered when fabricating the integrated devices. In this paper we present our own research and consolidate findings from other research groups across the world to give deeper insight into the practical aspects of InP monolithic microsystem development: epitaxial growth of InP-based alloys, etching techniques, common MEMS structures realized in InP, and future applications. We pay special attention to shedding light on considerations that must be taken when designing and fabricating a monolithic InP MEMS device. (topical review)

  20. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, D.A.; Weber, P.M.; Kang, I.Y.; dos Remedios, L.V.; Jasko, I.A.; Sawicki, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Indium- 111 -labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was applied to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Thirty-two patients observed in the hospital for possible appendicitis were prospectively studied. Scanning was done 2 hr after radiopharmaceutical injection. Thirteen scans were positive for acute appendicitis, and all but one were confirmed at laparotomy. In addition, two cases of colitis and two cases of peritonitis were detected. Of 15 negative studies, 11 had a benign course. Four patients with negative studies had laparotomy; two were found to have appendicitis and two had a normal appendix. Of 14 proven cases of appendicitis, 12 scans were positive for appendicitis with one false-positive scan, providing a sensitivity of 86%. Specificity was 93%: all negative cases except one had negative scans. Overall accuracy was 91% (29 of 32), comparing favorably with the accepted false-positive laparotomy rate of 25%. Use of In- 111 -labeled leukocyte scintigraphy serves to reduce the false-positive laparotomy rate and to shorten the clinical observation time in patients with acute appendicitis

  1. f-electron-nuclear hyperfine-coupled multiplets in the unconventional charge order phase of filled skutterudite PrRu4P12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yuji; Namiki, Takahiro; Saha, Shanta R.; Sato, Hideyuki; Tayama, Takashi; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Shiina, Ryousuke; Shiba, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The filled skutterudite PrRu 4 P 12 is known to undergo an unconventional charge order phase transition at 63 K, below which two sublattices with distinct f-electron crystalline-electric-field ground states are formed. In this paper, we study experimentally and theoretically the properties of the charge order phase at very low temperature, particularly focusing on the nature of the degenerate triplet ground state on one of the sublattices. First, we present experimental results of specific heat and magnetization measured with high quality single crystals. In spite of the absence of any symmetry breaking, the specific heat shows a peak structure at T p =0.30 K in zero field; it shifts to higher temperatures as the magnetic field is applied. In addition, the magnetization curve has a remarkable rounding below 1 T. Then, we study the origin of these experimental findings by considering the hyperfine interaction between 4f electron and nuclear spin. We demonstrate that the puzzling behaviors at low temperatures can be well accounted for by the formation of 4f-electron-nuclear hyperfine-coupled multiplets, the first thermodynamical observation of its kind. (author)

  2. FP-LAPW calculations of the elastic, electronic and thermoelectric properties of the filled skutterudite CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, A., E-mail: amitshan2009@gmail.com [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Mizoram University, 796004 (India); Rai, D.P. [Department of Physics, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl 796001 (India); Chettri, Sandeep [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Mizoram University, 796004 (India); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Thapa, R.K. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Mizoram University, 796004 (India)

    2016-08-15

    We have investigated the electronic structure, elastic and thermoelectric properties of the filled skutterudite CeRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} using the density functional theory (DFT). The full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within a framework of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) approach is used to perform the calculations presented here. The electronic structure calculation suggests an indirect band gap semiconducting nature of the material with energy band gap of 0.08 eV. The analysis of the elastic constants at relaxed positions reveals the ductile nature of the sample material with covalent contribution in the inter-atomic bonding. The narrow band gap semiconducting nature with high value of Seebeck coefficient suggests the possibility of the thermoelectric application of the material. The analysis of the thermal transport properties confirms the result obtained from the energy band structure of the material with high thermopower and dimensionless figure of merit 0.19 at room temperature.

  3. Synthesis and photophysical properties of indium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özceşmeci, İbrahim, E-mail: ozcesmecii@itu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Gelir, Ali [Department of Physics, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Gül, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Three chloroindium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives bearing four aromatic (naphthalene or pyrene) or aliphatic (hexylthio) groups were prepared from corresponding phthalonitrile compounds. The indium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives were characterized with elemental analyses, mass, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) techniques. Quantum yields and the energy transfer from the substituents to phthalocyanine core were examined. No energy transfer was observed for 5. The energy transfer efficiency from pyrene units to indium phthalocyanine core was calculated as 0.27 for 6. Quantum yields of all samples were very small due to heavy atom effect of indium atom in the core. It was also observed that upon binding of pyrene and naphthalene units to indium phthalocyanine as substituents, the quantum yields of indium phthalocyanine parts of 5 and 6 decreased. -- Highlights: • Three chloroindium(III) phthalocyanines were prepared and characterized. • Aggregation properties of these compounds were investigated. • The energy transfer efficiency was examined. • Quantum yield of these systems were calculated.

  4. Indium-granulocyte scanning in the painful prosthetic joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pring, D.J.; Henderson, R.G.; Keshavarzian, A.; Rivett, A.G.; Krausz, T.; Coombs, R.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The value of indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning to determine the presence of infection was assessed in 50 prosthetic joints (41 of which were painful) in 40 patients. Granulocytes were obtained from the patients' blood and labeled in plasma with indium 111 tropolonate. Abnormal accumulation of indium 111 in the region of the prosthesis was noted. Proven infection occurred in 11 prostheses, and all of the infections were detected by indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning. Nineteen were not infected (including nine asymptomatic controls) and only two produced false-positive scans. This represents a specificity of 89.5%, sensitivity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 93.2%. These results compare favorably with plain radiography. There was no radiologic evidence of infection in three of the infected prostheses, and 10 of the noninfected prostheses had some radiologic features that suggested sepsis. We conclude that indium-granulocyte scanning can reliably detect or exclude infection in painful prosthetic joints and should prove useful in clinical management

  5. Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1984-03-13

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  6. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sears

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94% average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  7. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Biswal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10−3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%–70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002 to (101 planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered.

  8. Influence of nitrogen on magnetic properties of indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Vishal Dev; De, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic properties of indium oxide (In2O3) prepared by the decomposition of indium nitrate/indium hydroxide in the presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) has been investigated. Structural and optical characterizations confirm that nitrogen is incorporated into In2O3. Magnetization has been convoluted to individual diamagnetic paramagnetic and ferromagnetic contributions with varying concentration of NH4Cl. Spin wave with diverging thermal exponent dominates in both field cool and zero field cool magnetizations. Uniaxial anisotropy plays an important role in magnetization as a function of magnetic field at higher concentration of NH4Cl. Avrami analysis indicates the absence of pinning effect in the magnetization process. Ferromagnetism has been interpreted in terms of local moments induced by anion dopant and strong hybridization with host cation.

  9. Influence of nitrogen on magnetic properties of indium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, Vishal Dev; De, S K

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic properties of indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) prepared by the decomposition of indium nitrate/indium hydroxide in the presence of ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) has been investigated. Structural and optical characterizations confirm that nitrogen is incorporated into In 2 O 3 . Magnetization has been convoluted to individual diamagnetic paramagnetic and ferromagnetic contributions with varying concentration of NH 4 Cl. Spin wave with diverging thermal exponent dominates in both field cool and zero field cool magnetizations. Uniaxial anisotropy plays an important role in magnetization as a function of magnetic field at higher concentration of NH 4 Cl. Avrami analysis indicates the absence of pinning effect in the magnetization process. Ferromagnetism has been interpreted in terms of local moments induced by anion dopant and strong hybridization with host cation. (paper)

  10. Indium oxide inverse opal films synthesized by structure replication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Berghoff, Daniel; Nikitin, Andreas; Reichelt, Matthias; Wu, Xia; Meier, Torsten; Wagner, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    We present the synthesis of indium oxide (In2O3) inverse opal films with photonic stop bands in the visible range by a structure replication method. Artificial opal films made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spheres are utilized as template. The opal films are deposited via sedimentation facilitated by ultrasonication, and then impregnated by indium nitrate solution, which is thermally converted to In2O3 after drying. The quality of the resulting inverse opal film depends on many parameters; in this study the water content of the indium nitrate/PMMA composite after drying is investigated. Comparison of the reflectance spectra recorded by vis-spectroscopy with simulated data shows a good agreement between the peak position and calculated stop band positions for the inverse opals. This synthesis is less complex and highly efficient compared to most other techniques and is suitable for use in many applications.

  11. Thermal expansion and volumetric changes during indium phosphide melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Davletov, K.; Nashel'skij, A.Ya.; Mamedov, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the measurements of a thermal expansion were summed up at various temperatures as a diagram in coordinates (Δ 1/1) approximately F(t). It was shown that an appreciable deviation of the relationship (Δ1/1) approximately f(t) from the linear law corresponded to a temperature of 500-550 deg C. It was noted that the said deviation was related to an appreciable thermal decomposition of indium phosphide as temperature increased. The strength of the inter-atomic bond of indium phosphide was calculated. Investigated were the volumetric changes of indium phosphide on melting. The resultant data were analyzed with the aid of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation

  12. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  13. Recalibration of indium foil for personnel screening in criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, C; Tsujimura, N; Mikami, S

    2011-03-01

    At the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), small pieces of indium foil incorporated into personal dosemeters have been used for personnel screening in criticality accidents. Irradiation tests of the badges were performed using the SILENE reactor to verify the calibration of the indium activation that had been made in the 1980s and to recalibrate them for simulated criticalities that would be the most likely to occur in the solution process line. In addition, Monte Carlo calculations of the indium activation using the badge model were also made to complement the spectral dependence. The results lead to a screening level of 15 kcpm being determined that corresponds to a total dose of 0.25 Gy, which is also applicable in posterior-anterior exposure. The recalibration based on the latest study will provide a sounder basis for the screening procedure in the event of a criticality accident.

  14. Review of pulmonary toxicity of indium compounds to animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased production of ITO, the potential health hazards arising from occupational exposure to this material have attracted much attention. This review consists of three parts: 1) toxic effects of indium compounds on animals, 2) toxic effects of indium compounds on humans, and 3) recommendations for preventing exposure to indium compounds in the workplace. Available data have indicated that insoluble form of indium compounds, such as ITO, indium arsenide (InAs) and indium phosphide (InP), can be toxic to animals. Furthermore, InP has demonstrated clear evidence of carcinogenic potential in long-term inhalation studies using experimental animals. As for the dangers to humans, some data are available concerning adverse health effects to workers who have been exposed to indium-containing particles. The Japan Society for Occupational Health recommended the value of 3 μg/L of indium in serum as the occupational exposure limit based on biological monitoring to preventing adverse health effects in workers resulting from occupational exposure to indium compounds. Accordingly, it is essential that much greater attention is focused on human exposure to indium compounds, and precautions against possible exposure to indium compounds are most important with regard to health management among indium-handling workers.

  15. The Availability of Indium: The Present, Medium Term, and Long Term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokanc, Martin [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Eggert, Roderick [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Redlinger, Michael [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Demand for indium is likely to increase if the growth in deployment of the copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and III-V thin-film photovoltaic technologies accelerates. There are concerns about indium supply constraints since it is relatively rare element in the earth's crust and because it is produced exclusively as a byproduct.

  16. Electronic and chemical properties of barium and indium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onwuagba, B.N.

    1992-11-01

    The ground state electronic and chemical properties of divalent barium and trivalent indium are investigated in a self-consistent manner using the spin-polarized local density approximation in the framework of Density Functional Theory. A jellium model is adopted in the spirit of Gunnarsson and Lundqvist exchange and correlation energies and the calculated properties primarily associated with the s-p orbitals in barium and p orbitals in indium provide deepened insight towards the understanding of the mechanisms to the magic numbers in both clusters. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs

  17. Activation analysis of indium used as tracer in hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, S.P.; Farcasiu, O.M.; Gaspar, E.; Spiridon, S.; Nazarov, V.M.; Frontasieva, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    About 2500 samples of 18 hydro-karstic structures from Romania have been analyzed. The water flow rates were in the range of 0.05 to 2.7 m 3 /s and transit time values were from 30 h to 200 days. The quantity of indium used for a labelling was a calculated function of the emergency flow rate and the estimated transit time and varied from 1 to 100 g. The results prove that the activation analysis of indium in water samples combined with preconcentration by coprecipitation is an useful method in hydrogeological studies

  18. Stability aspects of hydrogen-doped indium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, Gabrielle; Hamri, Alexander Nordin; Köhler, Florian; Hüpkes, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxides play an important role as contact layers in various opto-electronic devices such as solar cells or LEDs. Whilst crystalline materials e.g. zinc oxide (ZnO), tin oxide (Sn2O3) or tin doped indium oxide (ITO) have already been vastly investigated and applied [1] hydrogen doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) entered the scene a while ago as a new material with a superior trade-off between electrical and optical performance. In2O3:H is commonly deposited at room temperature...

  19. Discovery of the calcium, indium, tin, and platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Gross, J.L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-four calcium, thirty-eight indium, thirty-eight tin, and thirty-nine platinum isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented. - Highlights: Documentation of the discovery of all calcium, indium, tin and platinum isotopes. → Summary of author, journal, year, place and country of discovery for each isotope. → Brief description of discovery history of each isotope.

  20. Interaction of indium trichloride with calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Toptygina, G.M.; Soklakova, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    Interaction of indium trichloride with calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions was studied, using methods of potentiometry, isothermal solubility and physicochemical computer simulating. The Gibb's energy value for crystal indium trihydroxide formation was calculated on the basis of experimental data on In(OH) 3 solubility. The value obtained was used for estimating equilibrium composition of InCl 3 -HCl-CaCO 3 -CO 2 -H 2 O system at a temperature of 25 deg C and carbon dioxide partial pressure of 0.05 to 1 at

  1. Deep subgap feature in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Evidence against reduced indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallis, Shawn; Williams, Deborah S.; Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Senger, Mikell; Woicik, Joseph C.; White, Bruce E.; Piper, Louis F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is the archetypal transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor. Despite the gains made with a-IGZO over amorphous silicon in the last decade, the presence of deep subgap states in a-IGZO active layers facilitate instabilities in thin film transistor properties under negative bias illumination stress. Several candidates could contribute to the formation of states within the band gap. Here, we present evidence against In + lone pair active electrons as the origin of the deep subgap features. No In + species are observed, only In 0 nano-crystallites under certain oxygen deficient growth conditions. Our results further support under coordinated oxygen as the source of the deep subgap states. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Deep subgap feature in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Evidence against reduced indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallis, Shawn; Williams, Deborah S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States); Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Senger, Mikell [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States); Woicik, Joseph C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20899 (United States); White, Bruce E.; Piper, Louis F.J. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States); Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is the archetypal transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor. Despite the gains made with a-IGZO over amorphous silicon in the last decade, the presence of deep subgap states in a-IGZO active layers facilitate instabilities in thin film transistor properties under negative bias illumination stress. Several candidates could contribute to the formation of states within the band gap. Here, we present evidence against In{sup +} lone pair active electrons as the origin of the deep subgap features. No In{sup +} species are observed, only In{sup 0} nano-crystallites under certain oxygen deficient growth conditions. Our results further support under coordinated oxygen as the source of the deep subgap states. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Bayandina, Yu.E.; Toptygina, G.M.; Shepot'ko, A.O.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In 2 S 3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  4. Study of 5f electron based filled skutterudite compound EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, a thermoelectric (TE) material: FP-LAPW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, A., E-mail: amitshan2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India); Rai, D.P., E-mail: dibyaprakashrai@gmail.com [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, 3 Heqing Road, Beijing 100084 (China); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modlisation Mathmatique (LPQ3M), Dpartement de Technologie, Universit de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Maibam, J. [Department of Physics, Assam University, Silchar 788011 (India); Sandeep, E-mail: sndp.chettri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India); Thapa, R.K., E-mail: r.k.thapa@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The compound EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} shows a semi-metallic behavior with pseudo gap. • The inherent dense band near E{sub F} facilitate the charge carriers. • The magnetic moment within LSDA and mBJ are underestimated. • The inclusion of onsite Coulomb repulsion (U) in LSDA has improved the result. • The results obtained from LSDA + U are consistent with the experimental data. - Abstract: We have studied the elastic, electronic and magnetic properties along with the thermoelectric properties of an undoped filled skutterudite EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The LSDA, LSDA + U and a new exchange-correlation functional called modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential based on density functional theory (DFT) were used for studying material properties. The Eu-f and Fe-d are strongly correlated elements thus the inclusion of Coulomb repulsion (U) expected to give an exact ground state properties. The exchange-splitting of Eu-4f states were analyzed to explain the ferromagnetic behavior of EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (half-metallic behavior). The numerical values of isotropic elastic parameters and related properties are estimated in the framework of the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximation. The calculation of thermal transport properties at various temperature shows the high value of Seebeck coefficient and figure of merit (ZT) = 0.25 at room temperature in consistent to the experimental results.

  5. (111)Indium Labelling of Recombinant Activated Coagulation Factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Buch, Inge; Sigvardt, Maibritt

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether (111)Indium-labelled recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa) could be a potential radiopharmaceutical for localization of bleeding sources. DTPA-conjugated rFVIIa was radiolabelled with (111)In chloride. In vitro binding efficiency of (111)In-DTPA-rFVIIa to F1A2...

  6. Diffuse pulmonary uptake of indium-111 chloride in idiopathic myelofibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieras, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Mora, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Unusual indium-111 accumulation and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the lungs of a patient with idiopathic myelofibrosis are described. The bone marrow scan taken 24 h after intravenous injection of 111 InCl 3 faithfully depicted the abnormal distribution of marrow elements as assessed histologically at autopsy, thereby supporting the usefulness of 111 InCl 3 for marrow imaging

  7. Synthesis and characterization of five-coordinated indium amidinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riahi, Yasaman

    2016-07-29

    The focus of this work is synthesis, characterization and exploring the reactivity of new indium amidinate compounds of the type R{sub 2}InX (R = R''NCR'NR''; R' = Ph, R'' = SiMe{sub 3}, iPr, dipp; X = Br, Cl) with the coordination number of five and R{sub 3}In (R = Me{sub 3}SiNCPhNSiMe{sub 3}) with the coordination number of six. By using amidinates as chelating ligands the electron deficiency of indium atom will be resolved. Additionally, by using different substituents the study of the different synthesized indium amidinates has become possible. The selected method for the synthesis allows the carbodiimides to react with organolithium compounds to get the corresponding lithium amidinates. Afterwards the resulting lithium amidinates take part in transmetalation reactions with InBr{sub 3} and InCl{sub 3}. The study of the reactivity of indium amidinate complexes including nucleophilic reactions as well as their reduction were also examined. Beside crystal structure analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis has been applied to characterize the compounds.

  8. Electron emission from individual indium arsenide semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, E.C.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Roest, A.L.; Kaiser, M.A.; Oosterkamp, T.H.; Jonge, de N.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure was developed to mount individual semiconductor indium arsenide nanowires onto tungsten support tips to serve as electron field-emission sources. The electron emission properties of the single nanowires were precisely determined by measuring the emission pattern, current-voltage curve,

  9. Acid-catalyzed kinetics of indium tin oxide etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Seong-Oh; Hilton, Diana L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Cho, Nam-Joon, E-mail: njcho@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    We report the kinetic characterization of indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching by chemical treatment in acidic and basic electrolytes. It was observed that film etching increased under more acidic conditions, whereas basic conditions led to minimal etching on the time scale of the experiments. Quartz crystal microbalance was employed in order to track the reaction kinetics as a function of the concentration of hydrochloric acid and accordingly solution pH. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy experiments determined that acid treatment increases surface hydrophilicity and porosity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments identified that film etching is primarily caused by dissolution of indium species. A kinetic model was developed to explain the acid-catalyzed dissolution of ITO surfaces, and showed a logarithmic relationship between the rate of dissolution and the concentration of undisassociated hydrochloric acid molecules. Taken together, the findings presented in this work verify the acid-catalyzed kinetics of ITO film dissolution by chemical treatment, and support that the corresponding chemical reactions should be accounted for in ITO film processing applications. - Highlights: • Acidic conditions promoted indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching via dissolution. • Logarithm of the dissolution rate depended linearly on the solution pH. • Acid treatment increased ITO surface hydrophilicity and porosity. • ITO film etching led to preferential dissolution of indium species over tin species.

  10. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  11. Indium 111 WBC scan in local and systemic fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseman, M.K.; Blake, K.; McDougall, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    We describe two patients-one with a systemic fungal infection and one with a localized form-who had strikingly abnormal indium 111 leukocyte (WBC) scans. The patient with systemic disease had an abnormal WBC scan before lesions became clinically apparent

  12. Ellipsometric investigations of pyrolytically deposited thin indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, U.

    1980-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements have been carried out of thin indium oxide films deposited pyrolytically on glass substrates. It was found that the roughness of the films affected the measuring results. Therefore, only after applying a two-layer model a reasonable interpretation of the measuring results became possible

  13. Current status of indium-111 labeled bleomycin for tumor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.D.; Blahd, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of 111 In-labeled bleomycin for tumor detection are briefly mentioned. Indium-111 labeled bleomycin does localize in human tumors. However, its role in tumor detection and staging as compared with 67 Ga is still somewhat controversial

  14. Indium-111 oxine labelling of white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.P.; Silvester, D.J.; Goldman, J.; Hammersmith Hospital, London

    1978-01-01

    Following work done by Professor John McAfee and Mathew Thakur at the MRS Cyclotron Unit a method is available for labelling cells with indium-111 which results in a stable intracellular marker. The method uses indium-111-8 hydroxyquinoline (111In oxine) which is a lipoid soluble complex which goes across the cell membrane and results in the deposition of indium into various subcellular structures. It has been applied to various preparations of white cells, platelets and also malignant cells. Autologous granulocytes have been used to identify inflammatory lesions in 35 patients. By similar means autologous lymphocytes can also be labelled and reinfused. Lymphocytes have been shown in animals to circulate from the blood via the lymphatic system and then returning to the blood once more. The same phenomenon can be seen in man using indium labelled lymphocytes. Lymph nodes become visible at between 12 and 18 hours and recirculation of labelled cells can be shown on the blood activity curves. Certain problems arise concerning cell behaviour after labelling which appear due to irradiation of cells rather than chemical toxicity. (author)

  15. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-product carbon monoxide. The catalytic feature of palladium/indium oxide can be ascribed to the formation of palladium-indium intermetallic component during the reaction as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.

  16. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2M sulfuric acid at 80°C for 10min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85-90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50-55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO2 (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90kg CO2-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium. This new strategy represents a useful approach for secondary production of indium from waste LCD panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of and occupational exposure to indium in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Roberts, Jennifer L; Andrews, Ronnee N; Jackson, Matthew V; Deddens, James A

    2013-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009-2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m(3) for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH

  18. Indium nanoparticles for ultraviolet surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Soni, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (UVSERS) has emerged as an efficient molecular spectroscopy technique for ultra-sensitive and ultra-low detection of analyte concentration. The generic SERS substrates based on gold and silver nanostructures have been extensively explored for high local electric field enhancement only in visible-NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The template synthesis of controlled nanoscale size metallic nanostructures supporting localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the UV region have been recently explored due to their ease of synthesis and potential applications in optoelectronic, catalysis and magnetism. Indium (In0) nanoparticles exhibit active surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in ultraviolet (UV) and deep-ultaviolet (DUV) region with optimal absorption losses. This extended accessibility makes indium a promising material for UV plasmonic, chemical sensing and more recently in UV-SERS. In this work, spherical indium nanoparticles (In NPs) were synthesized by modified polyol reduction method using NaBH4 having local surface plasmon resonance near 280 nm. The as-synthesized spherical In0 nanoparticles were then coated with thin silica shells of thickness ˜ 5nm by a modified Stober method protecting the nanoparticles from agglomeration, direct contact with the probed molecules as well as prevent oxidation of the nanoparticles. Morphological evolution of In0 nanoparticles and SiO2 coating were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). An enhanced near resonant shell-isolated SERS activity from thin film of tryptophan (Tryp) molecules deposited on indium coated substrates under 325nm UV excitation was observed. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is employed to comprehend the experimental results and simulate the electric field contours which showed amplified electromagnetic field localized around the nanostructures. The comprehensive analysis indicates that indium is a promising alternate

  19. Plasma Treatment to Remove Carbon from Indium UV Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Beasley, Matthew; Gantner, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    The sounding rocket experiment FIRE (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment) will improve the science community fs ability to image a spectral region hitherto unexplored astronomically. The imaging band of FIRE (.900 to 1,100 Angstroms) will help fill the current wavelength imaging observation hole existing from approximately equal to 620 Angstroms to the GALEX band near 1,350 Angstroms. FIRE is a single-optic prime focus telescope with a 1.75-m focal length. The bandpass of 900 to 1100 Angstroms is set by a combination of the mirror coating, the indium filter in front of the detector, and the salt coating on the front of the detector fs microchannel plates. Critical to this is the indium filter that must reduce the flux from Lymanalpha at 1,216 Angstroms by a minimum factor of 10(exp -4). The cost of this Lyman-alpha removal is that the filter is not fully transparent at the desired wavelengths of 900 to 1,100 Angstroms. Recently, in a project to improve the performance of optical and solar blind detectors, JPL developed a plasma process capable of removing carbon contamination from indium metal. In this work, a low-power, low-temperature hydrogen plasma reacts with the carbon contaminants in the indium to form methane, but leaves the indium metal surface undisturbed. This process was recently tested in a proof-of-concept experiment with a filter provided by the University of Colorado. This initial test on a test filter showed improvement in transmission from 7 to 9 percent near 900 with no process optimization applied. Further improvements in this performance were readily achieved to bring the total transmission to 12% with optimization to JPL's existing process.

  20. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Ubaldini, Stefano [Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering IGAG, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29300, 00015 Montelibretti, Rome (Italy); De Michelis, Ida [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [ISL Kopacek KG, Beckmanngasse 51, 1140 Wien (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca, E-mail: f.beolchini@univpm.it [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • End-of-life LCD panels represent a source of indium. • Several experimental conditions for indium leaching have been assessed. • Indium is completely extracted with 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min. • Cross-current leaching improves indium extraction and operating costs are lowered. • Benefits to the environment come from reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and reagents use. - Abstract: Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100 ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85–90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50–55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35 mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium

  1. Evolution of end-of-range damage and transient enhanced diffusion of indium in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, T.

    2002-01-01

    Correlation of evolution of end-of-range (EOR) damage and transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of indium has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. A physically based model of diffusion and defect growth is applied to the indium diffusion system. Indium implantation with 200 keV, 1×1014/cm2 through a 10 nm screen oxide into p-type Czochralski silicon wafer was performed. During postimplantation anneal at 750 °C for times ranging from 2 to 120 min, formation of dislocation loops and indium segregation into loops were observed. Simulation results of evolution of EOR defects show that there is a period that {311} defects dissolve and release free interstitials before the Ostwald ripening step of EOR dislocation loops. Our diffusion model that contains the interaction between indium and loops shows the indium pileup to the loops. Indium segregation to loops occurs at a pure growth step of loops and continues during the Ostwald ripening step. Although dislocation loops and indium segregation in the near-surface region are easily dissolved by high temperature annealing, EOR dislocation loops in the bulk region are rigid and well grown. It is considered that indium trapped by loops with a large radius is energetically stable. It is shown that modeling of the evolution of EOR defects is important for understanding indium TED.

  2. Indium sulfide buffer layers deposited by dry and wet methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, B.; Sanz, C.; Guillen, C.; Chaparro, A.M.; Gutierrez, M.T.; Herrero, J.

    2007-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In 2 S 3 ) thin films have been deposited on amorphous glass, glass coated by tin oxide (TCO) and crystalline silicon substrates by two different methods: modulated flux deposition (MFD) and chemical bath deposition (CBD). Composition, morphology and optical characterization have been carried out with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), IR-visible-UV Spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Different properties of the films have been obtained depending on the preparation techniques. With MFD, In 2 S 3 films present more compact and homogeneous surface than with CBD. Films deposited by CBD present also indium oxide in their composition and higher absorption edge values when deposited on glass

  3. Clinical evaluation of the platelet scintigraphy using indium-111 oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Nakajima, Kohtaroh; Satoh, Motohiro; Akisada, Masayoshi; Ijima, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of autologous platelets labeled with Indium-111 oxine was evaluated by scintigraphy as a diagnostic procedure for the detection of various thrombotic disorders as well as in different aneurysms. The positivity was found to be satisfactory (80.0 %) in cases of aortic aneurysm while thoracic aneurysm showed comparatively poor accumulation. High positivity was also demonstrated in deep vein thrombosis. The complimentary role of this method for intracardiac thrombi to echocardiography was noted. The labeling procedure of indium-111 oxine was fairly easy to perform and the activity of labeled platelets was sustained enough to yield good results. In one case scintigraphy was performed successfully after 19 hours of angiography when a hot area of labeled platelets was seen at the puncture site. This method was therefore varified to be a sensitive and reliable method in the assessment of thrombus activity, and as it demonstrates the activity, its helpfulness in the conservative treatment of these disorders is warranted. (author)

  4. Electrical properties of indium arsenide irradiated with fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolin, N.G.; Osvenskii, V.B.; Rytova, N.S.; Yurova, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of irradiation with fast reactor neutrons on electrical properties of indium arsenide samples with different dopant concentrations. The laws governing the formation and annealing of radiation defects in indium arsenide were found to be governed by the donor-acceptor interaction. Depending on the density of free carriers in the original crystal, irradiation could produce charged defects of predominantly donor or acceptor types. Donor defects in irradiated InAs samples were annealed practically completely, whereas a considerable fraction of residual acceptor defects was retained even after heat treatment at 900 degree C. The concentration of these residual acceptors depended on the electron density at the annealing temperature

  5. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  6. Stopping characteristics of boron and indium ions in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselov, D. S., E-mail: DSVeselov@mephi.ru; Voronov, Yu. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The mean range and its standard deviation are calculated for boron ions implanted into silicon with energies below 10 keV. Similar characteristics are calculated for indium ions with energies below 200 keV. The obtained results are presented in tabular and graphical forms. These results may help in the assessment of conditions of production of integrated circuits with nanometer-sized elements.

  7. Formation and growth of embedded indium nanoclusters by In2+ implantation in silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhana Raman, P.; Nair, K.G.M.; Kesavamoorthy, R.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Dhara, S.; Ravichandran, V.

    2007-01-01

    Indium nanoclusters are synthesized in an amorphous silica matrix using an ion-implantation technique. Indium ions (In 2+ ) with energy of 890 keV are implanted on silica to fluences in the range of 3 x 10 16 -3 x 10 17 cm -2 . The formation of indium nanoclusters is confirmed by optical absorption spectrometry and glancing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. A low frequency Raman scattering technique is used to study the growth of embedded indium nanoclusters in the silica matrix as a function of fluence and post-implantation annealing duration. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry studies show the surface segregation of implanted indium. Photoluminescence studies indicate the formation of a small quantity of indium oxide phase in the ion-implanted samples. (orig.)

  8. Light forces on an indium atonic beam; Lichtkraefte auf einen Indiumatomstrahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeter, B.

    2007-07-01

    In this thesis it was studied, whether indium is a possible candidate for the nanostructuration respectively atomic lithography. For this known method for the generation and stabilization of the light necessary for the laser cooling had to be fitted to the special properties of indium. The spectroscopy of indium with the 451 nm and the 410 nm light yielded first hints that the formulae for the atom-light interaction for a two-level atom cannot be directly transferred to the indium atom. By means of the obtained parameters of the present experiment predictions for a possible Doppler cooling of the indium atomic beam were calculated. Furthermore the possibility for the direct deposition of indium on a substrate was studied.

  9. Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Sun, Yan-Ting, E-mail: yasun@kth.se; Lourdudoss, Sebastian [Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials, Department of Materials and Nano Physics, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Pietralunga, Silvia M. [CNR-Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy); Zani, Maurizio; Tagliaferri, Alberto [Department of Physics Politecnico di Milano, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 μm/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3 μm polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III–V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  10. Annealing of defects in indium antimonide after ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogatyrev, V.A.; Kachurin, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Indium antimonide electric properties are investigated after ion bombardment of different mass (with energy of 60 and 300 keV) and isochrone annealing in the 20-450 deg C temperature range. It is shown that 100-150 deg C n- type stable layers are formed after proton irradiation at room temperature only. Indium antimonide exposure by average mass ions under the same conditions and also by helium ions of 300 keV energy brings to p-type layer formation with high hole concentration. Subsequent heating at the temperature over 150 deg C results in electron conductivity of irradiated layers. Electron volume density and mobility efficiency reaches 10 18 cm -3 and 10 4 cm 2 /Vs respectively. N-type formed layers are stable up to 350 deg C allowing its usage for n-p transition formation admitting thermal treatment. Analysis is given of defect behaviour peculiarities depending upon the irradiation and annealing conditions. Hole conductivity in irradiated indium antimonide is supposed to be stipulated by regions of disorder, while electron conductivity - by relatively simpler disorders

  11. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akiyo

    2004-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications. Although the increased use of these materials has raised concerns about occupational exposure to them, there is little information regarding the adverse health effects to workers arising from exposure to these particles. However, available data indicate these semiconductor materials can be toxic in animals. Although acute and chronic toxicity of the lung, reproductive organs, and kidney are associated with exposure to these semiconductor materials, in particular, chronic toxicity should pay much attention owing to low solubility of these materials. Between InAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, InAs was the most toxic material to the lung followed by GaAs and AlGaAs when given intratracheally. This was probably due to difference in the toxicity of the counter-element of arsenic in semiconductor materials, such as indium, gallium, or aluminium, and not arsenic itself. It appeared that indium, gallium, or aluminium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical character of the particles also contributes to toxic effect. Although there is no evidence of the carcinogenicity of InAs or AlGaAs, GaAs and InP, which are semiconductor materials, showed the clear evidence of carcinogenic potential. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of semiconductor materials

  12. Average formation number n-barOH of colloid-type indium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanowicz, T.; Szent-Kirallyine Gajda, J.

    1983-01-01

    Indium perchlorate in perchloric acid solution was titrated with sodium hydroxide solution to various pH values. Indium hydroxide colloid was removed by ultracentrifugation and supernatant solution was titrated with base to neutral pH. The two-stage titration data were used to calculate the formation number of indium hydroxide colloid, which was found to equal n-bar OH = 2.8. (author)

  13. Blocking of indium incorporation by antimony in III-V-Sb nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A M; Beltran, A M; Ben, T; Molina, S I; Beanland, R; Gass, M H; De la Pena, F; Walls, M; Taboada, A G; Ripalda, J M

    2010-01-01

    The addition of antimony to III-V nanostructures is expected to give greater freedom in bandgap engineering for device applications. One of the main challenges to overcome is the effect of indium and antimony surface segregation. Using several very high resolution analysis techniques we clearly demonstrate blocking of indium incorporation by antimony. Furthermore, indium incorporation resumes when the antimony concentration drops below a critical level. This leads to major differences between nominal and actual structures.

  14. Research on the effect of alkali roasting of copper dross on leaching rate of indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafang, Liu; Fan, Xingxiang; Shi, Yifeng; Yang, Kunbin

    2017-11-01

    The byproduct copper dross produced during refining crude lead was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), which showed that copper dross mainly contained lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, sulfur and a small amount of indium and silver etc. The mineralogical phase change of oxidation roasting of copper dross by adding sodium hydroxide was analyzed with the help of XRD and SEM. The effects of water leaching, ratio of sodium hydroxide, roasting time, and roasting temperature on leaching rate of indium were investigated mainly. The experimental results showed that phase of lead metal and sulfides of lead, copper and zinc disappeared after oxidation roasting of copper dross by adding sodium hydroxide, new phase of oxides of lead, copper, zinc and sodium salt of arsenic and antimony appeared. Water leaching could remove arsenic, and acid leaching residue obtained was then leached with acid. The leaching rate of indium was higher 6.98% compared with alkali roasting of copper dross-acid leaching. It showed that removing arsenic by water leaching and acid leaching could increase the leaching rate of indium and be beneficial to reducing subsequent acid consumption of extracting indium by acid leaching. The roasting temperature had a significant effect on the leaching rate of indium, and leaching rate of indium increased with the rise of roasting temperature. When roasting temperature ranged from 450°C to 600°C, leaching rate of indium increased significantly with the rise of roasting temperature. When roasting temperature rose from 450°C to 600°C, leaching rate of indium increased by 60.29%. The amount of sodium hydroxide had an significant effect on the leaching rate of indium, and the leaching of indium increased with the increase of the amount of sodium hydroxide, and the leaching rate of indium was obviously higher than that of copper dross blank roasting and acid leaching.

  15. Electronic structure of indium-tungsten-oxide alloys and their energy band alignment at the heterojunction to crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Dorothee; Mews, Mathias; Rech, Bernd; Korte, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structure of thermally co-evaporated indium-tungsten-oxide films is investigated. The stoichiometry is varied from pure tungsten oxide to pure indium oxide, and the band alignment at the indium-tungsten-oxide/crystalline silicon heterointerface is monitored. Using in-system photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and surface photovoltage measurements, we show that the work function of indium-tungsten-oxide continuously decreases from 6.3 eV for tungsten oxide to 4.3 eV for indium oxide, with a concomitant decrease in the band bending at the hetero interface to crystalline silicon than indium oxide.

  16. Plasma vapor deposited n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide heterojunctions for optoelectronic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, T. P.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Transparent crystalline n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide diode structures were fabricated on quartz substrates by plasma vapor deposition using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The p-n heterojunction diodes were highly transparent in the visible region and exhibited rectifying current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a good ideality factor. The sputter power during fabrication of the p-layer was found to have a profound effect on I-V characteristics, and the diode with the p-type layer deposited at a maximum power of 200 W exhibited the highest value of the diode ideality factor (η value) of 2.162, which suggests its potential use in optoelectronic applications. The ratio of forward current to reverse current exceeded 80 within the range of applied voltages of -1.5 to +1.5 V in all cases. The diode structure possessed an optical transmission of 60-70% in the visible region.

  17. Radiochemical studies of the separation of some chloro-complexes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Mani, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioisotopes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium such as tin-113, antimony-124, antimony-125, cadmium-109, cadmium-115, indium-113m and indium-111 find extensive applications as tracers in various fields. These isotopes are produced by irradiation of targets in a reactor or a cyclotron. It is usually observed that in addition to the nuclear reactions giving rise to the desired isotopes, side reactions also take place giving rise to radionuclidic contaminants. Thus, antimony-125, indium-114m and indium-114 will be present in the cyclotron produced indium-111. The authors have studied column chromatography over hydrous zirconia for the separation of antimony from tin and indium, and cadmium from indium. These studies have thrown light on the role and behaviour of antimony-125 present as an impurity in tin-113 during the preparation of tin-113-indium-113m generators and have indicated methods for the preparation of 115 Cd-sup(115m)In generators and for separation of 111 In from proton irradiated cadmium targets. (Authors)

  18. Preparation of transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films from nanocrystalline indium tin hydroxide by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Dekany, Imre

    2011-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with well-controlled layer thickness were produced by dip-coating method. The ITO was synthesized by a sol-gel technique involving the use of aqueous InCl 3 , SnCl 4 and NH 3 solutions. To obtain stable sols for thin film preparation, as-prepared Sn-doped indium hydroxide was dialyzed, aged, and dispersed in ethanol. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was applied to enhance the stability of the resulting ethanolic sols. The transparent, conductive ITO films on glass substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The ITO layer thickness increased linearly during the dipping cycles, which permits excellent controllability of the film thickness in the range ∼ 40-1160 nm. After calcination at 550 o C, the initial indium tin hydroxide films were transformed completely to nanocrystalline ITO with cubic and rhombohedral structure. The effects of PVP on the optical, morphological and electrical properties of ITO are discussed.

  19. Reduced thermal quenching in indium-rich self-organized InGaN/GaN quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Zhang, Meng

    2012-01-01

    Differences in optical and structural properties of indium rich (27), indium gallium nitride (InGaN) self-organized quantum dots (QDs), with red wavelength emission, and the two dimensional underlying wetting layer (WL) are investigated. Temperature

  20. Pharmacokinetics of indium-111-labeled antimyosin monoclonal antibody in murine experimental viral myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Matsumori, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J.; Kawai, C.

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of indium-111-labeled antimyosin monoclonal antibody Fab were investigated with use of murine experimental viral myocarditis as a model. The biodistribution of indium-111-labeled antimyosin antibody Fab on days 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after encephalomyocarditis virus inoculation demonstrated that myocardial uptake increased significantly on days 5, 7 and 14 (maximum on day 7) in infected versus uninfected mice (p less than 0.001). In vivo kinetics in infected mice on day 7 demonstrated that the heart to blood ratio reached a maximum 48 h after the intravenous administration of indium-111-labeled antimyosin Fab, which was considered to be the optimal time for scintigraphy. The scintigraphic images obtained with indium-111-labeled antimyosin Fab demonstrated positive uptake in the cardiac lesion in infected mice. The pathologic study demonstrated that myocardial uptake correlated well with pathologic grades of myocardial necrosis. High performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of an antigen-antibody complex in the circulation of infected mice after the injection of indium-111-labeled antimyosin Fab. This antigen bound to indium-111-labeled antimyosin Fab in the circulation might be whole myosin and this complex may decrease myocardial uptake and increase liver uptake. It is concluded that indium-111-labeled antimyosin monoclonal antibody Fab accumulates selectively in damaged heart tissue in mice with acute myocarditis and that indium-111-labeled antimyosin Fab scintigraphy may be a useful method for the visualization of acute myocarditis

  1. Indium phosphide space solar cell research: Where we are and where we are going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Indium phosphide is considered to be a strong contender for many photovoltaic space applications because of its radiation resistance and its potential for high efficiency. An overview of recent progress is presented, and possible future research directions for indium phosphide space solar cells are discussed. The topics considered include radiation damage studies and space flight experiments.

  2. Indium Sulfide and Indium Oxide Thin Films Spin-Coated from Triethylammonium Indium Thioacetate Precursor for n-Channel Thin Film Transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Duy Dao; Jeong, Hyun Dam [Chonnam Natioal University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of tetragonal structure and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films of cubic structure were synthesized by a spin coating method from the organometallic compound precursor triethylammonium indium thioacetate ([(Et){sub 3}NH]+ [In(SCOCH{sub 3}){sub 4}]''-; TEA-InTAA). In order to determine the electron mobility of the spin-coated TEA-InTAA films, thin film transistors (TFTs) with an inverted structure using a gate dielectric of thermal oxide (SiO{sub 2}) was fabricated. These devices exhibited n-channel TFT characteristics with a field-effect electron mobility of 10.1 cm''2 V''-1s''-1 at a curing temperature of 500 o C, indicating that the semiconducting thin film material is applicable for use in low-cost, solution-processed printable electronics.

  3. Rf reactive sputtering of indium-tin-oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvarozek, V.; Novotny, I.; Harman, R.; Kovac, J.

    1986-01-01

    Films of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) have been deposited by rf reactive diode sputtering of metallic InSn alloy targets, or ceramic ITO targets, in an Ar and Ar+0 2 atmosphere. Electrical as well as optical properties of ITO films were controlled by varying sputtering parameters and by post-deposition heat-treatment in Ar, H 2 , N 2 , H 2 +N 2 ambients. The ITO films exhibited low resistivity approx. 2 x 10 -4 Ω cm, high transmittance approx. 90% in the visible spectral region and high reflectance approx. 80% in the near infra-red region. (author)

  4. Ternary equilibria in bismuth--indium--lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, K.C.; Johnson, D.L.; Nelson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    The liquidus surface is characterized by three binary equilibria. One binary extends from the Pb--Bi peritectic to the Pb--In peritectic. The other two extend from In--Bi eutectics, merge at 50 at. percent Bi and 30 at. percent Pb, and end at the Bi--Pb eutectic. Based on analysis of ternary liquidus contours and vertical sections, it is suggested that solidification for high lead and very high indium alloys occurs from two-phase equilibria. Solidification from all other alloys occurs from three-phase equilibria. Four-phase solidification does not occur in this system

  5. Selectivity in extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants (LIX84 and D2E11PA) was described. Stechiometry of metal-organic complexes examined using the method of equimolar ratios resulted in CuR 2 and InR 3 forms of hydrophobic extracting species. A linear correlation was obtained between logarithm of distribution coefficients and chelate agents and pH, respectively. Selectivity is generally higher with higher concentrations of chelate agents in the organic phase, and is decreased with increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in feeding phase. (Original)

  6. Disappearance of superconductivity and critical resistance in thin indium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Satoshi; Nishida, Nobuhiko

    1991-01-01

    In thin granular films composed of two-dimensionally coupled indium particles, we have studied influences of average particle sizes anti d on the superconducting transition. For films with anti d=280A and 224A, superconducting transition temperature stays almost constant with increasing the sheet resistance R n in the normal state, while for a film with anti d=140A, it decreases linearly with R n . This means that the system changes to a dirty superconductor by reducing anti d. With further increasing R n , superconductivity disappears when R n exceeds the value R c of order h/4e 2 , which seems to correlate with anti d. (orig.)

  7. Research on structure and electrical parameters of indium antimonide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhametniyazova, A.; Konyaeva, V.F.; Sukhanov, S.; Ashirov, A.; Aleksanyan, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigations into the effect of conditions of formation of indium antimonide films prepared by thermal vacuum spraying on their structure, phase composition and electric parameters, are presented. The method of studying the synthesized semiconductor layers on the DRON-0.5 X-ray device with CoKsub(α)-radiation is tested. The dependence of structure, phase composition and electric properties of InSb layers 1+3 μm thick sprayed on ferrite substrates on condensation temperature, is established. Hexagonal InSb modification is found

  8. Anomalous behaviour of screw dislocations in quenched indium antimonide monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseenko, V.I.; Mostovoj, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Anomalies of screw dislocation mobility in indium antimonide single crystals quenched after annealing were detected experimentally. Taking into accout specific nature of thermal treatment an enhanced attention is paid to the technique of the experiment. It is shown that the observed peculiarities can be explained using a model of thermoactivated movement of excessive bends over stoppers at the dislocation line. Proceeding from the assumption on the nature of stoppers, the values of stopper energy barriers overcome by an excessive bend are determined on the basis of the above model of excessive bend movement

  9. Indium-111-labelled leucocytes for localisation of abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, A.W.; Thakur, M.L.; Arnot, R.N.; Lavender, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Leucocytes from eight patients who were thought to have an abscess were labelled with indium-111 and reintroduced into the circulation. The distribution of radioactivity was followed by whole-body scanning and imaging with a gamma camera. Focal accumulations of radioactivity were observed in the lesion in the three patients with abscesses, in the lungs of a boy with bacterial endocarditis, in the knee of a woman with rheumatoid arthritis, and at the site of intramuscular injections in another patient. The use of radiolabelled cells for the detection of focal pathological processes would seem to be an important addition to conventional diagnostic methods. (author)

  10. Indium-111-labelled leucocytes for localisation of abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, A W; Thakur, M L; Arnot, R N; Lavender, J P [Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK)

    1976-11-13

    Leucocytes from eight patients who were thought to have an abscess were labelled with indium-111 and reintroduced into the circulation. The distribution of radioactivity was followed by whole-body scanning and imaging with a gamma camera. Focal accumulations of radioactivity were observed in the lesion in the three patients with abscesses, in the lungs of a boy with bacterial endocarditis, in the knee of a woman with rheumatoid arthritis, and at the site of intramuscular injections in another patient. The use of radiolabelled cells for the detection of focal pathological processes would seem to be an important addition to conventional diagnostic methods.

  11. Decomposition rates of radiopharmaceutical indium chelates in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.M.; Meares, C.F.; Goodwin, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rates at which six small aminopolycarboxylate chelates of trivalent 111 In and three protein-bound chelates of 111 In deliver indium to the serum protein transferrin have been studied in sterile human serum at pH 7.3, 37 deg C. Sterically hindered chelates containing a substituent on an ethylene carbon of EDTA decompose with rates in the range 0.03 to 0.11% per day - one to two orders of magnitude slower than other chelates. Only small differences are observed between rates of decomposition for low-molecular-weight chelates and for protein-bound chelates having analogous structures. (author)

  12. Research on structure and electrical parameters of indium antimonide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhametniyazova, A; Konyaeva, V F; Sukhanov, S; Ashirov, A; Aleksanyan, S N [AN Turkmenskoj SSR, Ashkhabad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskii Inst.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigations into the effect of conditions of formation of indium antimonide films prepared by thermal vacuum spraying on their structure, phase composition and electric parameters, are presented. The method of studying the synthesized semiconductor layers on the DRON-0.5 X-ray device with CoKsub(..cap alpha..)-radiation is tested. The dependence of structure, phase composition and electric properties of InSb layers 1+3 ..mu..m thick sprayed on ferrite substrates on condensation temperature, is established. Hexagonal InSb modification is found.

  13. Analysis and calibration of transient enhanced diffusion for an indium impurity in a nanoscale semiconductor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun-Ha; Lee, Hoong-Joo

    2005-01-01

    We developed a new systematic calibration procedure which was applied to the prediction of the diffusivity, the segregation, and transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of an indium impurity. The TED of the indium impurity was studied using four different experimental conditions. Although indium is susceptible to TED, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is effective in suppressing the TED effect and maintaining a steep retrograde profile. Like boron impurities, the indium shows significant oxidation-enhanced diffusion in silicon and has segregation coefficients much less than 1 at the Si/SiO 2 interface. In contrast to boron, the segregation coefficient of indium decreases as the temperature increases. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was validated by using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data and by using the 0.13-μm device characteristics, such as V th and I dsat , for which the differences between simulation and experiment less than 5 %.

  14. Effects of a powered air-purifying respirator intervention on indium exposure reduction and indium related biomarkers among ITO sputter target manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chen, Chang-Yuh; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) worn by the workers, and to investigate the effect of this application on exposure and preclinical effects in terms of workplace measuring and biomarker monitoring in ITO sputter target manufacturing plants and workers, respectively. Fifty-four workers were recruited and investigated from 2010-2012, during which PAPRs were provided to on-site workers in September 2011. Each worker completed questionnaires and provided blood and urine samples for analysis of biomarkers of indium exposure and preclinical effects. Area and personal indium air samples were randomly collected from selected worksites and from participants. The penetration percentage of the respirator (concentration inside respirator divided by concentration outside respirator) was 6.6%. Some biomarkers, such as S-In, SOD, GPx, GST, MDA, and TMOM, reflected the decrease in exposure and showed lower levels, after implementation of PAPRs. This study is the first to investigate the efficacy of PAPRs for reducing indium exposure. The measurement results clearly showed that the implementation of PAPRs reduces levels of indium-related biomarkers. These findings have practical applications for minimizing occupational exposure to indium and for managing the health of workers exposed to indium.

  15. Secondary indium production from end-of-life liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Alessia; Rocchetti, Laura; Fonti, Viviana; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Beolchini, Francesca [Universita Politecnica of Marche, DISVA, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In 2014, the European Union identified 20 raw materials critical for economic importance and high supply risk. Indium, used in several innovative technologies, is among such critical raw materials. Generally, it is mined as a by-product of zinc from a mineral named sphalerite, with a concentration between 1 and 100 ppm. Currently, the largest producer of indium is China and about 84% of the worldwide indium consumption is used for liquid crystal display (LCD) production, in particular to form an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film with transparent conductor properties. The fast evolution of LCD technologies caused a double effect: the growth of indium demand and an increase of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Considering these two factors, the aim of this study is to make the end-of-life LCDs a secondary indium resource. With this purpose, an indium recovery process was developed carrying out an acidic leaching, followed by a zinc cementation. The first step allowed a complete indium extraction using 2M sulfuric acid at 80 C for 10 min. The problem of low indium concentration in the scraps (around 150 ppm) was overcome using a cross-current configuration in the leaching phase that allowed an increase of metal concentration and a decrease of reagents consumption. An indium recovery higher than 90% was obtained in the final cementation step, using 5 g/L of zinc powder at pH 3 and 55 C for 10 min. Considering its high efficiency, this process is promising in a context of circular economy, where a waste becomes a resource. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Theoretical Study of Indium Compounds of Interest for Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelino, B. H.; Moore, C. E.; Cardelino, C. A.; Frazier, D. O.; Backmann, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    The structural. electronic and therinochemical properties of indium compounds which are of interest in halide transport and organometallic chemical vapor deposition processes have been studied by ab initio and statistical mechanics methods. The compounds reported include: indium halides and hydrides (InF, InCl, InCl3, InH, InH2, InH3); indium clusters (In2, In3); methylindium, dimethylindium, and their hydrogen derivatives [In(CH3), In(CH3)H, In(CH3)H2, In(CH3)2, In(CH3)2H]; dimethyl-indium dimer [In2(CH3)4], trimethyl-indium [In(CH3)3]; dehydrogenated methyl, dimethyl and trimethylindium [In(CH3)2CH2, In(CH3)CH2, In(CH2)], trimethylindium adducts with ammonia, trimethylamine and hydrazine [(CH3)3In:NH3, (CH3)3In:N(CH3)3, (CH3)3In:N(H2)N(H2)]; dimethylamino-indium and methylimino-indium [In(CH3)2(NH2), In(CH3)(NH)]; indium nitride and indium nitride dimer (InN, In2N2), indium phosphide, arsenide and antimonide ([InP, InAs, InSb). The predicted electronic properties are based on density functional theory calculations; the calculated thermodynamic properties are reported following the format of the JANAF (Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force) Tables. Equilibrium compositions at two temperatures (298 and 1000 K) have been analyzed for groups of competing simultaneous reactions.

  17. Transparent indium-tin oxide/indium-gallium-zinc oxide Schottky diodes formed by gradient oxygen doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Szuheng; Yu, Hyeonggeun; So, Franky

    2017-11-01

    Amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) is promising for transparent electronics due to its high carrier mobility and optical transparency. However, most metal/a-IGZO junctions are ohmic due to the Fermi-level pinning at the interface, restricting their device applications. Here, we report that indium-tin oxide/a-IGZO Schottky diodes can be formed by gradient oxygen doping in the a-IGZO layer that would otherwise form an ohmic contact. Making use of back-to-back a-IGZO Schottky junctions, a transparent IGZO permeable metal-base transistor is also demonstrated with a high common-base gain.

  18. Catalytic property of an indium-deposited powder-type material containing silicon and its dependence on the dose of indium nano-particles irradiated by a pulse arc plasma process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yoshimura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium nano-particle irradiations onto zeolite powders were carried out using a pulse arc plasma source system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies of an indium irradiated zeolite sample revealed that indium nano-particles were successfully deposited on the sample. Besides, the sample was found to be capable of catalyzing an organic chemical reaction (i.e., Friedel-Crafts alkylation. Then, we examined whether or not the catalytic ability depends on the irradiated indium dose, having established the optimal indium dose for inducing the catalytic effect.

  19. Indium tin oxide films prepared via wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legnani, C.; Lima, S.A.M.; Oliveira, H.H.S.; Quirino, W.G.; Machado, R.; Santos, R.M.B.; Davolos, M.R.; Achete, C.A.; Cremona, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared using a wet chemical route, the Pechini method. This consists of a polyesterification reaction between an α-hydroxicarboxylate complex (indium citrate and tin citrate) with a polyalcohol (ethylene glycol) followed by a post annealing at 500 deg. C. A 10 at.% of doping of Sn 4+ ions into an In 2 O 3 matrix was successfully achieved through this method. In order to characterize the structure, the morphology as well as the optical and electrical properties of the produced ITO films, they were analyzed using different experimental techniques. The obtained films are highly transparent, exhibiting transmittance of about 85% at 550 nm. They are crystalline with a preferred orientation of [222]. Microscopy discloses that the films are composed of grains of 30 nm average size and 0.63 nm RMS roughness. The films' measured resistivity, mobility and charge carrier concentration were 5.8 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 2.9 cm 2 /V s and - 3.5 x 10 20 /cm 3 , respectively. While the low mobility value can be related to the small grain size, the charge carrier concentration value can be explained in terms of the high oxygen concentration level resulting from the thermal treatment process performed in air. The experimental conditions are being refined to improve the electrical characteristics of the films while good optical, chemical, structural and morphological qualities already achieved are maintained

  20. Selective growth of gold onto copper indium sulfide selenide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Elena; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research

    2013-05-15

    Hybrid nanostructures are interesting materials for numerous applications in chemistry, physics, and biology, due to their novel properties and multiple functionalities. Here, we present a synthesis of metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures composed of nontoxic I-III-VI semiconductor nanoparticles and gold. Copper indium sulfide selenide (CuInSSe) nanocrystals with zinc blende structure and trigonal pyramidal shape, capped with dodecanethiol, serve as an original semiconductor part of a new hybrid nanostructure. Metallic gold nanocrystals selectively grow onto vertexes of these CuInSSe pyramids. The hybrid nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Vis-absorption spectroscopy, which allowed us conclusions about their growth mechanism. Hybrid nanocrystals are generated by replacement of a sacrificial domain in the CuInSSe part. At the same time, small selenium nanocrystals form that stay attached to the remaining CuInSSe/Au particles. Additionally, we compare the synthesis and properties of CuInSSe-based hybrid nanostructures with those of copper indium disulfide (CuInS{sub 2}). CuInS{sub 2}/Au nanostructures grow by a different mechanism (surface growth) and do not show any selectivity. (orig.)

  1. Regularly arranged indium islands on glass/molybdenum substrates upon femtosecond laser and physical vapor deposition processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T., E-mail: torsten.boeck@ikz-berlin.de [Leibniz-Institute for Crystal Growth, Max-Born-Straße 2, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Krüger, J. [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, Berlin 12205 (Germany); Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M. [Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimalle 14, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Nanooptical Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany); Lux-Steiner, M. [Nanooptical Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany); Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany)

    2016-03-14

    A bottom-up approach is presented for the production of arrays of indium islands on a molybdenum layer on glass, which can serve as micro-sized precursors for indium compounds such as copper-indium-gallium-diselenide used in photovoltaics. Femtosecond laser ablation of glass and a subsequent deposition of a molybdenum film or direct laser processing of the molybdenum film both allow the preferential nucleation and growth of indium islands at the predefined locations in a following indium-based physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. A proper choice of laser and deposition parameters ensures the controlled growth of indium islands exclusively at the laser ablated spots. Based on a statistical analysis, these results are compared to the non-structured molybdenum surface, leading to randomly grown indium islands after PVD.

  2. Investigation into cathode polarization during deposition of rhodium-nickel and rhodium-indium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimova, N.V.; Byacheslavov, P.M.; Lokshtanova, O.G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of kinetic regularities experimental investigations during electrodeposition of rhodium-nickel and rhonium-indium alloys are presented. Methods of general and partial polarization curves have been used to show the nature of polarization during the rhonium-nickel and rhodium-indium alloys deposition. It is shown that indium into the rhodium-indium alloy and nickel into the rhodium-nickel alloy deposit with great depolarization ( PHIsub(In)sup(0)=-0.33B, PHIsub(Ni)sup(0)=-0.23B). Indium and nickel in pure form do not deposit from the electrolytes of the given composition (H 2 SO 4 - 50 g/l, HNH 2 SO 3 -10 g/l). The recalculation of partial polarization curve of indium precipitation into the rhodium-indium alloy in the mixed kinetics coordinates gives a straight line with 40 mV inclination angle. This corresponds to the delayed stage of the second electron addition with the imposition of diffusion limitations

  3. Recovery of indium ions by nanoscale zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen; Su, Yiming [Tongji University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse (China); Wen, Zhipan [Wuhan Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China); Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei, E-mail: zhouxuefei@tongji.edu.cn; Dai, Chaomeng, E-mail: daichaomeng@tongji.edu.cn [Tongji University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse (China)

    2017-03-15

    Indium and its compounds have plenty of industrial applications and high demand. Therefore, indium recovery from various industrial effluents is necessary. It was sequestered by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) whose size mainly ranged from 50 to 70 nm. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm, influence of pH, and ionic strength were thoroughly investigated. The reaction process was well fitted to a pseudo second-order model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of In(III) was 390 mg In(III)/g nZVI similar to 385 mg In(III)/g nZVI at 298 K calculated by Langmuir model. The mole ratio of Fe(II) released to In(III) immobilized was 3:2, which implied a special chemical process of co-precipitation combined Fe(OH){sub 2} with In(OH){sub 3}. Transmission electron microscopy with an energy-disperse X-ray (TEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize surface morphology, corrosion products, and valence state of indium precipitate formed on nanoparticles. The structural evolution changed from core-shell structure of iron oxide to sheet structure of co-precipitation, to sphere structure that hydroxide gradually dissolved as the pH decreased, and to cavity structures for the pH continually decreased. Furthermore, below pH 4.7, the In(III) enrichment was inhibited for the limited capacity of co-precipitation. Also, it was found that Ca{sup 2+} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} have more negative influence on In(III) recovery compared with Na{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. Therefore, the In(III) recovery can be described by a mechanism which consists of adsorption, co-precipitation, and reduction and was over 78% even after 3 cycles. The results confirmed that it was applicable to employ nZVI for In(III) immobilization.

  4. Interaction of cadmium and indium nitrate mixture with sodium tungstate in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousova, E E; Krivobok, V I; Gruba, A I [Donetskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of the mixture of cadmium and indium nitrates with sodium tungstate in aqueous solution is studied using the methods of ''residual concentrations'', pH potentiometry and conductometry. Independent of the ratio of components in the initial solution a mixture of coprecipitated normal tungstates of cadmium and indium is formed in the system. Heat treatment of the precipitates at 800 deg C for 50 hrs with subsequent hardening results in the formation of solid solutions on the basis of normal cadmium and indium tungstates.

  5. Polarografic study about the complex formation between indium (III) and sodium azide, in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, R.; Bertotti, M.

    1988-01-01

    The present work is a branch of the main work concerned with the complex formation between several metal cations and azide ligand in aqueous media. The polarographic behavior of indium in azide system showed the tendency of complexation. Using polarographic method to determine the half potential of indium at each analytical concentration afforded experimental data to evaluate the constants. The azide concentrations was modified from 1 m to 100 m , the ionic strength held at 2,0 M with sodium perchlorate, indium concentration 7.892 x 10 -4 M, and temperature kept constant at 25,0 0 C. (author) [pt

  6. Some studies on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) grown indium sulphide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, H.M.; Lokhande, C.D.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Amalnerkar, D.P.; Seth, T.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Indium sulphide (In 2 S 3 ) thin films were grown on amorphous glass substrate by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS) were applied to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and compositional properties of the indium sulphide thin films. Utilization of triethanolamine and hydrazine hydrate complexed indium sulphate and sodium sulphide as precursors resulted in nanocrystalline In 2 S 3 thin film. The optical band gap was found to be 2.7 eV. The film appeared to be smooth and homogeneous from SEM study

  7. Indium determination by spectral overlappings of lines in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.J.; Huicque, L. d'; Garcia Vior, L.O.

    1991-01-01

    A molybdenum hollow-cathode lamp filled with neon can be used to determine indium. Characteristic concentration for this element is 4.5 mg/L in the 325 nm spectral region for the Mo(I) 325.621 nm line. In addition, values of 0.4 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L are obtained with the Mo(I) 410.215 nm and Ne(I) 451.151 nm lines, respectively. These spectral overlappings allow the determination of indium in silver-cadmium-indium alloys. (Author) [es

  8. False positive indium-111 white blood cell scan in a closed clavicle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.J.; Gordon, L.

    1988-01-01

    Aggressive treatment of the multiply injured patient often requires early fixation of many fractures, some of which may be open. Often, patients develop postoperative fevers requiring a thorough workup to rule out infection. Recently, indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) imaging has become a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of acute infection. The patient described had a simple, closed clavicle fracture with markedly increased activity on an indium-111 WBC scan obtained for fever workup. This subsequently proved to be a normal, healing, noninfected fracture by other diagnostic techniques. Noninfected, simple closed fractures should be added to the list of causes for a false-positive indium-111 WBC scan

  9. First-principles investigation of indium diffusion in a silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwan-Sun; Hwang, Chi-Ok; Yoo, Jae-Hyun; Won, Tae-Young

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report the total energy, the minimum energy path, and the migration energy of indium in a silicon substrate by using ab-initio calculations. Stable configurations during indium diffusion were obtained from the calculation of the total energy, and we estimated the minimum energy path (MEP) with the nudged elastic band (NEB) method. After finding the MEP, we found the energy barrier for the diffusion of indium to be 0.8 eV from an exact calculation of the total energies at the minimum and the transition state.

  10. Optical and micro-structural characterizations of MBE grown indium gallium nitride polar quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison between indium rich (27%) InGaN/GaN quantum dots (QDs) and their underlying wetting layer (WL) is performed by means of optical and structural characterizations. With increasing temperature, micro-photoluminescence (μPL) study reveals the superior ability of QDs to prevent carrier thermalization to nearby traps compared to the two dimensional WL. Thus, explaining the higher internal quantum efficiency of the QD nanostructure compared to the higher dimensional WL. Structural characterization (X-ray diffraction (XRD)) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) reveal an increase in the QD indium content over the WL indium content which is due to strain induced drifts. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Polarographic determination of indium and thallium iodides in phosphor tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, G.A.; Dzhurka, G.F.; Kozhushko, G.M.; Kravtsova, K.F.; Magda, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The technique of polarographic determination of indium and thallium iodides in phosphor tablets without preliminary separation of elements was developed. Mercury-dropping electrode was used as an indicator, and saturated calomel electrode was used as an auxiliary electrode. A recording of reduction currents was performed in the potential interval from -0.25 up to 1.15 V at potential sweep speed of 200 mV/min. Optimum conditions of sample acidic decomposition and polarography were presented. A solution of ethylene diamine (0.5 M), of ammonia (0.25 M) and of potassium chloride (0.05 M) served as a background electrolyte. The suggested technique allows one to determine component contents in tablets with a satisfactory accuracy. A period of one tablet analysis constitutes 1.5 h

  12. Indium antimonide crystal defects formed by fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitovskij, N.A.; Dolgolenko, A.P.; Mashovets, T.V.; Oganesyan, O.V.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown, that indium antimonide irradiation with fast neutrons of reactor results in the formation of disorded regions with a mean radius of approximately 130 A surrounded with space charge regions forming barriers for main carriers. But the found values of defect cluster depolarization coefficient (Lsub(x)sup(n)=0.18 and Lsub(x)sup(p)=0.29) show, that the clusters have marked conductivity for main charge carriers. The found position of the Fermi level in the disorded regions Esub(F)=Esub(c)-0.085 eV does not depend on the impurity type and its concentration in an initial material. The disorded regions play the main part in charge carrier scattering at low temperatures and markedly contribute to the change of mobility at 80 K. It is found, that irradiation temperature change in the range from 77 to 300 K does not effect practically on the disorded region parameters

  13. Indium tin oxide surface smoothing by gas cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    CO sub 2 cluster ions are irradiated at the acceleration voltage of 25 kV to remove hillocks on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces and thus to attain highly smooth surfaces. CO sub 2 monomer ions are also bombarded on the ITO surfaces at the same acceleration voltage to compare sputtering phenomena. From the atomic force microscope results, the irradiation of monomer ions makes the hillocks sharper and the surfaces rougher from 1.31 to 1.6 nm in roughness. On the other hand, the irradiation of CO sub 2 cluster ions reduces the height of hillocks and planarize the ITO surfaces as smooth as 0.92 nm in roughness. This discrepancy could be explained by large lateral sputtering yield of the cluster ions and re-deposition of sputtered particles by the impact of the cluster ions on surfaces.

  14. Nonequilibrium dephasing in two-dimensional indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2001-01-01

    We report on results of resistance R and magnetoresistance in diffusive indium oxide films measured down to T=0.28K. Analyzing the data using weak-localization theory shows that the phase-coherent time τ v ar-phi increases without bound as T->0. However, this result is obtained only when the voltage applied to the sample V is sufficiently small. When V is not small, τ v ar-phi may appear to 'saturate' while R continues to increase as T->0. Possible reasons for this intriguing behavior are discussed. It is argued that in out-of-equilibrium situations R(T) and τ v ar-phi(T) need not behave similarly. We suggest a heuristic picture, involving two-level systems, which might be consistent with our observations

  15. Indium-111 tropolone, a new tracer for platelet labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Rao, S.A.; Rosemark, J.A.; Chowdhury, S.; Didisheim, P.

    1982-01-01

    Platelets have been labeled with a new neutral, lipid-soluble metal complex of indium 111 ( 111 In) and tropolone. Unlike oxine, which is soluble in ethyl alcohol, tropolone is soluble in isotonic saline. Platelet labeling with 111 In tropolone can be performed in both acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) plasma and ACD saline within two hours. Labeling efficiency has been 80% to 90%. 111 In tropolone in ACD saline and ACD plasma at tropolone concentrations of 5 and 10 micrograms/ml, respectively, and incubation of the platelets with the tracer at room temperature for 20 minutes were optimal conditions for labeling. The authors have developed an ACD-saline kit for convenient preparation of 111 In-labeled platelets. No adverse effect of 111 In tropolone on platelets has been observed in studies of biodistribution, recovery, and survival of platelets in rabbits and dogs

  16. Indium-111 tropolone, a new tracer for platelet labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Rao, S.A.; Rosemark, J.A.; Chowdhury, S.; Didisheim, P.

    1982-01-01

    Platelets have been labeled with a new neutral, lipid-soluble metal complex of indium 111 ( 111 In) and tropolone. Unlike oxine, which is soluble in ethyl alcohol, tropolone is soluble in isotonic saline. Platelet labeling with 111 In tropolone can be performed in both acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) plasma and ACD saline within two hours. Labeling efficiency has been 80% to 90%. 111 In tropolone in ACD saline and ACD plasma at tropolone concentrations of 5 to 10 μg/ml, respectively, and incubation of the platelets with the tracer at room temperature for 20 minutes were optimal conditions for labeling. The authors have developed an ACD-saline kit for convenient preparation of 111 In-labeled platelets. No adverse effect of 111 In tropolone on platelets has been observed in studies of biodistribution, recovery, and survival of platelets in rabbits and dogs

  17. Neutron Imaging with Timepix Coupled Lithium Indium Diselenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan Herrera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The material lithium indium diselenide, a single crystal neutron sensitive semiconductor, has demonstrated its capabilities as a high resolution imaging device. The sensor was prepared with a 55 μ m pitch array of gold contacts, designed to couple with the Timepix imaging ASIC. The resulting device was tested at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, demonstrating a response to cold neutrons when enriched in 95% 6 Li. The imaging system performed a series of experiments resulting in a <200 μ m resolution limit with the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI Siemens star mask and a feature resolution of 34 μ m with a knife-edge test. Furthermore, the system was able to resolve the University of Tennessee logo inscribed into a 3D printed 1 cm 3 plastic block. This technology marks the application of high resolution neutron imaging using a direct readout semiconductor.

  18. Interaction of simple indium iodides with silver- and aluminium iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, Yu.N.; Halova, N.S.; Fedorov, P.I.

    1976-01-01

    Fusibility diagrams of the systems InI-AlI 3 , InI-AgI, InI 2 -AgI, and InI 2 -AlI 3 have been studied. In the system InI-AlI 3 a compound InAlI 4 has been detected having a melting point 194 deg C and two lamination regions. In the system InI-AgI two compounds In 2 AgI 3 and InAgI 2 are formed which melt incongruently at 272 deg and 220 deg C, respectively. The formation of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray phase analysis. Specific electroconductivity of a number of alloys of the system InI-AlI 3 has been studied. The systems of eutectic type formed by diiodide of indium with iodides of silver and aluminium have been studied by thermal and X-ray analysis and by measuring electroconductivity

  19. Chemical synthesis of hexagonal indium nitride nanocrystallines at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangbiao; Shen, Qianli; Zhao, Dejian; Lu, Juanjuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Junhao; Bao, Keyan; Zhou, Quanfa

    2017-08-01

    In this study, hexagonal indium nitride nanocystallines with high crystallinity have been prepared by the reaction of InCl3·4H2O, sulfur and NaNH2 in an autoclave at 160 °C. The crystal structures and morphologies of the obtained InN sample are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. As InCl3·4H2O is substituted by In(NO3)3·4.5H2O, InN nanocrystallines could also be obtained by using the similar method. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the InN emits a broad peak positioned at 2.3 eV.

  20. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by comet test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is used for liquid crystal display (LCDs, electrochromic displays, flat panel displays, field emission displays, touch or laptop computer screens, cell phones, energy conserving architectural windows, defogging aircraft and automobile windows, heat-reflecting coatings to increase light bulb efficiency, gas sensors, antistatic window coatings, wear resistant layers on glass, nanowires and nanorods because of its unique properties of high electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical resistance.Genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was a observed at all concentrations of ITO by Comet assay. These result indicate that ITO exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  1. Gas Sensing Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyou Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium Tin Oxide (ITO nanofibers were fabricated by the electrospinning process. The morphology and crystal structure of ITO nanofibers were studied by SEM, XRD, and TEM respectively. The results showed that polycrystalline ITO nanofibers with an average diameter of 80 nm were obtained. Sensors based on these nanofibers were fabricated by collecting these nanofibers on the integrated sensor platforms. The ITO nanofiber-based sensors showed very fast and high sensor responses at both room and elevated temperatures for NO2. The ratios of resistance in NO2 over that in air were 5 at room temperature and 34 at the optimal working temperature, respectively. The ITO nanofiber-based sensor can be repeatedly used. The details for the fast, enhanced sensor responses and the optimal temperature were discussed.

  2. Multiple carrier transport in N-face indium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblmueller, Gregor; Gallinat, Chad S.; Speck, James S.; Umana-Membreno, Gilberto A.; Nener, Brett D.; Parish, Giacinta; Fehlberg, Tamara B.

    2008-01-01

    We present temperature (20-300 K) dependent multi-carrier measurements of electron species in N-face indium nitride. N-face InN samples were grown to different thicknesses (500-2000 nm) via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on C-face SiC substrates. Surface and bulk electron transport properties were extracted using a quantitative mobility spectrum analysis. Mobility of both bulk and surface electron species increase with film thickness. The temperature dependence of the mobility of both species differs to that of In-polar samples studied previously, while the mobility of surface electrons is more than twice that of In-polar samples with only a slight corresponding reduction in sheet concentration. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Amorphous Hafnium-Indium-Zinc Oxide Semiconductor Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Po Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported on the performance and electrical properties of co-sputtering-processed amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (α-HfIZO thin film transistors (TFTs. Co-sputtering-processed α-HfIZO thin films have shown an amorphous phase in nature. We could modulate the In, Hf, and Zn components by changing the co-sputtering power. Additionally, the chemical composition of α-HfIZO had a significant effect on reliability, hysteresis, field-effect mobility (μFE, carrier concentration, and subthreshold swing (S of the device. Our results indicated that we could successfully and easily fabricate α-HfIZO TFTs with excellent performance by the co-sputtering process. Co-sputtering-processed α-HfIZO TFTs were fabricated with an on/off current ratio of ~106, higher mobility, and a subthreshold slope as steep as 0.55 V/dec.

  4. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  5. AC surface photovoltage of indium phosphide nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Baskin School of Engineering; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (US). Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Advanced Studies Laboratories

    2012-06-15

    Surface photovoltage is used to study the dynamics of photogenerated carriers which are transported through a highly interconnected three-dimensional network of indium phosphide nanowires. Through the nanowire network charge transport is possible over distances far in excess of the nanowire lengths. Surface photovoltage was measured within a region 10.5-14.5 mm from the focus of the illumination, which was chopped at a range of frequencies from 15 Hz to 30 kHz. Carrier dynamics were modeled by approximating the nanowire network as a thin film, then fitted to experiment suggesting diffusion of electrons and holes at approximately 75% of the bulk value in InP but with significantly reduced built-in fields, presumably due to screening by nanowire surfaces. (orig.)

  6. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P

    2010-01-01

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  7. Infrared absorption spectra of selenate compounds of indium (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Kadoshnikova, N.V.; Tananaev, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    Obtained and discussed are infrared absorption spectra (400-4000 cm -1 ) of the following indium selenates: In 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x5H 2 O, In 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x9H 2 O, NaIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x6H 2 O, NaIn(SeO 4 ) 2 xH 2 O, MIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x4H 2 O (M=NH 4 , K, Rb), CsIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O, Na 3 In(SeO 4 ) 3 x7H 2 O, MIn(SeO 4 ) 2 (M=NH 4 , Na, K, Rb, Cs), M 2 InOH(SeO 4 ) 2 xyH 2 O (M=NH 4 , Na, K, Rb) and K 2 InOD(SeO 4 ) 2 xyD 2 O

  8. Temperature dependent structural and vibrational properties of liquid indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A. B.; Bhatt, N. K.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the temperature effect on both the structure factor and the phonon dispersion relation of liquid indium have been investigated by means of pseudopotential theory. The Percus-Yevick Hard Sphere reference system is applied to describe the structural calculation. The effective electron-ion interaction is explained by using modified empty core potential due to Hasegawa et al. along with a local field correction function due to Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU). The temperature dependence of pair potential needed at higher temperatures was achieved by multiplying the damping factor exp(- π/kBT2k F r ) in the pair potential. Very close agreement of static structure factor, particularly, at elevated temperatures confirms the validity of the local potential. A positive dispersion is found in low-q region and the correct trend of phonon dispersion branches like the experimental; shows all broad features of collective excitations in liquid metals.

  9. Preparation of Indium Pentetate Complex (111 In-DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhosseini, S.; Farshidfar, G.R.; Najafi, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is no organometallic compound of Indium know to exist naturally in the human body. However, a number of compounds prepared with 111 In have been evaluated for localization studies. The useful radioactive decay characteristics and the suitable chemical properties of the metal ion have drawn attention of many investigators resulting in the preparation of numerous 111 In labeled compounds for potential medical applications. One of them is 111 In-DTPA complex that is used for cerebral spinal fluid studies. In the present study, DTPA has been chelated with 111 In by employing various methods and then tested for its stability in vitro during storage and in human plasma. Three methods for the preparation of 11 1In-DTPA were used. In every method, labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity were determined by chromatography systems

  10. Indium doped zinc oxide thin films obtained by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G.; Guerra, D.N.; Leinen, D.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Marotti, R.E.; Dalchiele, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO thin films were obtained by co-electrodeposition (precursor and dopant) from aqueous solution. XRD analysis showed typical patterns of the hexagonal ZnO structure for both doped and undoped films. No diffraction peaks of any other structure such as In 2 O 3 or In(OH) 3 were found. The incorporation of In into the ZnO film was verified by both EDS and XPS measurements. The bandgap energy of the films varied from 3.27 eV to 3.42 eV, increasing with the In concentration in the solution. This dependence was stronger for the less cathodic potentials. The incorporation of In into the film occurs as both, an In donor state in the ZnO grains and as an amorphous In 2 O 3 at the grain boundaries

  11. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urmila, K. S.; Asokan, T. Namitha; Pradeep, B.; Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena

    2014-01-01

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe2 with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10-5 mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe2 films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (α) of 106 cm-1 at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe2 thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  12. Indium antimonide nanowires arrays for promising thermoelectric converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorokh G. G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors have theoretically substantiated the possibility to create promising thermoelectric converters based on quantum wires. The calculations have shown that the use of quantum wires with lateral dimensions smaller than quantum confinement values and high concentration and mobility of electrons, can lead to a substantial cooling of one of the contacts up to tens of degrees and to the heating of the other. The technological methods of manufacturing of indium antimonide nanowires arrays with high aspect ratio of the nanowire diameters to their length in the modified nanoporous anodic alumina matrixes were developed and tested. The microstructure and composition of the formed nanostructures were investigated. The electron microscopy allowed establishing that within each pore nanowires are formed with diameters of 35 nm and a length of 35 microns (equal to the matrix thickness. The electron probe x-ray microanalysis has shown that the atomic ratio of indium and antimony in the semiconductor nanostructures amounted to 38,26% and 61,74%, respectively. The current-voltage measurement between the upper and lower contacts of Cu/InSb/Cu structure (1 mm2 has shown that at 2.82 V negative voltage at the emitter contact, current density is 129,8 A/cм2, and the collector contact is heated up to 75 degrees during 150 sec. Thus, the experimental results confirmed the theoretical findings that the quantum wire systems can be used to create thermoelectric devices, which can be widely applied in electronics, in particular, for cooling integrated circuits (processors, thermal controlling of the electrical circuits by changing voltage value.

  13. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus.

  14. Surface characterization of sol–gel derived indium tin oxide films on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , India ... 1. Introduction. Indium tin oxide (ITO) coating on glass is an important item in the field ..... In addition, contamination of carbon from environment cannot be ruled ..... processing of ceramics, glasses and composites (eds) L L. Hench and ...

  15. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: yskim@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wiencek, T.; O' Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cheon, J.S.; Lee, B.O. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (∼50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  16. Different magnetic properties of rhombohedral and cubic Ni2+ doped indium oxide nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions doped indium oxide nanomaterials were potentially used as a kind of diluted magnetic semiconductors in transparent spintronic devices. In this paper, the influences of Ni2+ doped contents and rhombohedral or cubic crystalline structures of indium oxide on magnetic properties were investigated. We found that the magnetic properties of Ni2+ doped indium oxide could be transferred from room temperature ferromagnetisms to paramagnetic properties with increments of doped contents. Moreover, the different crystalline structures of indium oxide also greatly affected the room temperature ferromagnetisms due to different lattice constants and almost had no effects on their paramagnetic properties. In addition, both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic properties were demonstrated to be intrinsic and not caused by impurities.

  17. Calibration of differential scanning calorimeters: A comparison between indium and diphenylacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charsley, E.L.; Laye, P.G.; Markham, H.M.; Le Goff, T.

    2010-01-01

    The close proximity in melting temperature of the LGC Limited DSC standards indium and diphenylacetic acid, has enabled a direct assessment to be made of any differences resulting from the use of a metal or an organic compound in the calibration of DSC equipment. Following calibration with indium, the equilibrium fusion temperatures for diphenylacetic acid, were determined by both the stepwise heating and extrapolation to zero heating rate methods. The results were in excellent agreement with the certificate values and established that indium may be used as a calibrant when making accurate DSC measurements on organic materials in the same temperature range and that it has the advantage that it is non-volatile and can be used a number of times without significant change. Similar agreement was obtained in the measurement of the enthalpy of fusion, although the larger heat capacity change on fusion of diphenylacetic acid resulted in a greater uncertainty than with indium.

  18. New compounds of indium(III) with 2,4'-bipyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakis-Sulikowska, D.; Kaluzna-Czaplinska, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of present work was to obtain complexes of indium(III) with 2,4'-bipyridine and examine some of their physico-chemical properties (solubility, molar conductivity in methanol, IR spectra and thermal analysis)

  19. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O' Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A.; Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (~50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  20. INDIUM AND ZINC MEDIATED ONE-ATOM CARBOCYCLE ENLARGEMENT IN WATER. (R822668)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSix-, seven-, eight-membered rings are enlarged by one carbon-atom into seven-, eight- and nine-membered ring derivatives respectively, via indium or zinc mediated reactions in aqueous medium.

  1. Properties of polycrystalline indium oxide in open air and in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'eva, A.E.; Zhdanov, V.A.; Markov, V.L.; Shvangiradze, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of polycrystalline indium oxide according to annealing temperature in open air and in vacuum are investigated. It is established that the indium oxide begins to change its chemical composition during the annealing in the open air from 1200 deg C, and in the vacuum - form 800 deg C. During the annealing of the samples in ths open air in the temperature range of 1200-1450 deg C the lattice of the indium oxide loses probably, only oxygen; this process is accompanied by change of the samples color, electrophysical properties, lattice parameter density. Cation sublattice is disturbed in the vacuum beginning from 900 deg C, which is accompanied by destruction of the color centers. X-ray density and the activation energy of the reduction accounting the formation of the color centers are calculated on the base of the X-ray data and the deviation from stoichiometry of the indium oxide depending on the annealing temperature in the open air

  2. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus

  3. Diagnostic compositions containing a chelate of radioactive indium and 8-hydroxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedemans, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    There are disclosed aqueous, radioassaying solutions of a chelate of radioactive indium and an 8-hydroxyquinoline, having an essential absence of an organic solvent, e.g., alcohol or chloroform. The solutions are useful in radioassaying warmblooded animals. (author)

  4. Evaluation of indium-111 colloid for radionuclide imaging of the abdominal lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieras, F.; Hamilton, R.F.; Grissom, M.P.; Kiepffer, R.F.; Vandergrift, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental evaluation of indium-111 colloid for imaging the para-aortic lymph nodes in animals is described and preliminary results obtained in human subjects. Serial lymphatic scintigraphy performed in beagle dogs following bilateral pedal subcutaneous injections of indium-111 colloid revealed good para-aortic lymph node visualization. A normal migration pattern of indium-111 colloid was also observed in human subjects following subcutaneous injection in the feet; there was clear visualization of the ileo-inguinal and para-aortic lymph nodes. Organ distribution studies for indium-111 colloid were performed in rats following unilateral pedal subcutaneous injection in rats; these results were used for calculating radiation dose estimates to various organs. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using 111 In-colloid clinically for abdominal lymphatic scintiography for the use of sup(99m)Tc-labelled colloids results in lower radiation doses. (U.K.)

  5. Indium--tin oxide films radio frequency sputtered from specially formulated high density indium--tin oxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Bayard, M.

    1991-01-01

    High density ITO (indium--tin oxide) targets doped with Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 manufactured in the Tektronix Ceramics Division have been used to rf sputter ITO films of various thicknesses on borosilicate glass substrates. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in forming gas, resulted in ITO films exhibiting 90% transmission at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω/sq for a thickness of 1100 A. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in air increased sheet resistance without a large effect on the transmission. Films sputtered in argon gas alone were transparent in the visible and the sheet resistance was found to be 100--180 Ω/sq for the same thickness, without annealing

  6. Kinetic study of indium-111 labelled platelets in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiffers, J.; Vuillemin, L.; Broustet, A.; Ducassou, D.

    1982-01-01

    Labelling platelets with 111 Indium-oxine has advantages over the conventional 51 chromium method: labelling is more efficient and the radiations emitted almost exclusively consist of gamma-rays. Owing to these advantages, autologous platelets can be used for kinetic studies in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, even when thrombocytopenia is severe. 111 Indium labelling also provides accurate information on the sites of platelet destruction, which may help to predict the patient's response to splenectomy [fr

  7. Elastic properties of zinc, cadmium, bismuth, thallium, tin, lead and their binary alloys with indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magomedov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Rates of propagation of longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves in samples as well as density of Tl, Pb, Sn, Bi, Cd, Zn and their binary alloys with indium are determined. The results obtained are used for calculation of elasticity constants of these materials. It is stated that concentration dependences of elasticity constants for indium alloys have non-linear character; negative deflection from the additive line is observed

  8. Polyol-mediated synthesis of copper indium sulphide by solvothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, S.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2005-01-01

    A simple polyol-mediated solvothermal method has been proposed to synthesize copper indium sulphide. XRD studies reveal that the products are well crystallized. SEM indicates rod-like (with different aspect ratio) and star-shaped flake-like morphology of the products. The products are also characterized by optical studies and compositional analysis (XRF). XRF results show the formation of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric copper indium sulphides depending on the reaction conditions

  9. Tin–indium/graphene with enhanced initial coulombic efficiency and rate performance for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hongxun; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid was firstly synthesized. • Indium in the hybrid reduces charge transfer resistance of electrode. • Graphene can accommodate the volume change of nanoparticles during cycling. • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid shows enhanced initial coulombic efficiency. • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid shows enhanced rate capability. -- Abstract: Tin is an attractive anode material replacing the current commercial graphite for the next generation lithium ion batteries because of its high theoretical storage capacity and energy density. However, poor capacity retention caused by large volume changes during cycling, and low rate capability frustrate its practical application. In this study, a new ternary composite based on tin–indium alloy (Sn–In) and graphene nanosheet (GNS) was prepared via a facile solvothermal synthesis followed by thermal treatment in hydrogen and argon at 550 °C. Characterizations show that the tin–indium nanoparticles with about 100 nm in size were wrapped between the graphene nanosheets. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the Sn–In/GNS composite exhibits a remarkably improved electrochemical performance in terms of lithium storage capacity (865.6 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 rate), initial coulombic efficiency (78.6%), cycling stability (83.9% capacity retention after 50 cycles), and rate capability (493.2 mAh g −1 at 600 mA g −1 rate after 25 cycles) compared to Sn/GNS and Sn–In electrode. This improvement is attributed to the introduction of lithium activity metal, indium, which reduces the charge transfer resistance of electrode, and the graphene nanosheet which accommodates the volume change of tin–indium nanoparticles during cycling and improves electrical conductivity of material

  10. Laser- and gamma-induced transformations of optical spectra of indium-doped sodium borate glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kopyshinsky, O V; Zelensky, S E; Danilchenko, B A; Shakhov, O P

    2003-01-01

    The optical absorption and luminescence properties of indium-doped sodium borate glass irradiated by gamma-rays and by powerful UV lasers within the impurity-related absorption band are investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that both the laser- and gamma-irradiation cause similar transformations of optical spectra in the UV and visible regions. The changes of the spectra observed are described with the use of a model which includes three types of impurity centres formed by differently charged indium ions.

  11. Indium oxide octahedrons based on sol–gel process enhance room temperature gas sensing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Xiaohui [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Chen, Changlong, E-mail: chem.chencl@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Han, Liuyuan [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Shao, Baiqi [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wei, Yuling [Instrumental Analysis Center, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Liu, Qinglong; Zhu, Peihua [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • In{sub 2}O{sub 3} octahedron films are prepared based on sol–gel technique for the first time. • The preparation possesses merits of low temperature, catalyst-free and large production. • It was found that the spin-coating process in film fabrication was key to achieve the octahedrons. • The In{sub 2}O{sub 3} octahedrons could significantly enhance room temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensing performance. - Abstract: Indium oxide octahedrons were prepared on glass substrates through a mild route based on sol–gel technique. The preparation possesses characteristics including low temperature, catalyst-free and large production, which is much distinguished from the chemical-vapor-deposition based methods that usually applied to prepare indium oxide octahedrons. Detailed characterization revealed that the indium oxide octahedrons were single crystalline, with {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed. It was found that the spin-coating technique was key for achieving the indium oxide crystals with octahedron morphology. The probable formation mechanism of the indium oxide octahedrons was proposed based on the experiment results. Room temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensing measurements exhibited that the indium oxide octahedrons could significantly enhance the sensing performance in comparison with the plate-like indium oxide particles that prepared from the dip-coated gel films, which was attributed to the abundant sharp edges and tips as well as the special {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed that the former possessed. Such a simple wet-chemical based method to prepare indium oxide octahedrons with large-scale production is promising to provide the advanced materials that can be applied in wide fields like gas sensing, solar energy conversion, field emission, and so on.

  12. Isotope release cytotoxicity assay applicable to human tumors: the use of 111-indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, P; Wiltrout, R; Maciorowski, Z; Rose, N R

    1977-01-01

    We have demonstrated that human tumors can be labelled efficiently with the 111indium-oxine chelate. Subsequently, this isotope can be released by cytotoxic lymphoid cells. Both natural and induced cytotoxicity can be demonstrated utilizing this isotope release method. Because of the slow spontaneous release of 111indium and its efficient labelling of human tumor cells, this isotope release assay can be utilized in long-term cytotoxic assays in the study of human tumor immunology.

  13. Indium oxide octahedrons based on sol–gel process enhance room temperature gas sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Xiaohui; Chen, Changlong; Han, Liuyuan; Shao, Baiqi; Wei, Yuling; Liu, Qinglong; Zhu, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In 2 O 3 octahedron films are prepared based on sol–gel technique for the first time. • The preparation possesses merits of low temperature, catalyst-free and large production. • It was found that the spin-coating process in film fabrication was key to achieve the octahedrons. • The In 2 O 3 octahedrons could significantly enhance room temperature NO 2 gas sensing performance. - Abstract: Indium oxide octahedrons were prepared on glass substrates through a mild route based on sol–gel technique. The preparation possesses characteristics including low temperature, catalyst-free and large production, which is much distinguished from the chemical-vapor-deposition based methods that usually applied to prepare indium oxide octahedrons. Detailed characterization revealed that the indium oxide octahedrons were single crystalline, with {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed. It was found that the spin-coating technique was key for achieving the indium oxide crystals with octahedron morphology. The probable formation mechanism of the indium oxide octahedrons was proposed based on the experiment results. Room temperature NO 2 gas sensing measurements exhibited that the indium oxide octahedrons could significantly enhance the sensing performance in comparison with the plate-like indium oxide particles that prepared from the dip-coated gel films, which was attributed to the abundant sharp edges and tips as well as the special {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed that the former possessed. Such a simple wet-chemical based method to prepare indium oxide octahedrons with large-scale production is promising to provide the advanced materials that can be applied in wide fields like gas sensing, solar energy conversion, field emission, and so on

  14. Positive indium-III bone marrow scan in metastatic breast carcinoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaManna, M.M.; Hyzinski, M.; Swami, V.K.; Parker, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Indium is generally presumed to localize in the bone marrow within the erythroid cell line. Fibrosis, inflammation, lymphoma, extended field radiation, chemotherapy, or combinations of both treatment modalities generally depress the uptake of indium by the marrow in a complex fashion. We report a case of metastatic breast carcinoma and pancytopenia in which the In-111 scan appeared qualitatively similar to a Tc-99m MDP bone scan. Findings were confirmed by bone marrow biopsy

  15. High-Pressure Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Ge-Substituted Filled Skutterudite Compounds; LnxCo4Sb12−yGey, Ln = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fukuoka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new Ge-substituted skutterudite compounds with the general composition of LnxCo4Sb12−yGey, where Ln = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, is prepared by high-pressure and high-temperature reactions at 7 GPa and 800 °C. They have a cubic unit cell and the lattice constant for each compound is 8.9504 (3, 8.94481 (6, 8.9458 (3, and 8.9509 (4 Å for the La, Ce, Pr, and Nd derivatives, respectively. Their chemical compositions, determined by electron prove microanalysis, are La0.57Co4Sb10.1Ge2.38, Ce0.99Co4Sb9.65Ge2.51, Pr0.97Co4Sb9.52Ge2.61, and Nd0.87Co4Sb9.94Ge2.28. Their structural parameters are refined by Rietveld analysis. The guest atom size does not affect the unit cell volume. The Co–Sb/Ge distance mainly determines the unit cell size as well as the size of guest atom site. The valence state of lanthanide ions is 3+.

  16. Copper-assisted shape control in colloidal synthesis of indium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selishcheva, Elena; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.kolny@uni-oldenburg.de [University of Oldenburg, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Indium oxide is an important n-type transparent semiconductor, finding application in solar cells, sensors, and optoelectronic devices. We present here a novel non-injection synthesis route for the preparation of colloidal indium oxide nanocrystals by using oleylamine (OLA) as ligand and as solvent. Indium oxide with cubic crystallographic structure is formed in a reaction between indium acetate and OLA, the latter is converted to oleylamide during the synthesis. The shape of the nanocrystals can be influenced by the addition of copper ions. When only indium (III) acetate is used as precursor flower-shaped indium oxide nanoparticles are obtained. Addition of copper salts such as copper (I) acetate, copper (II) acetate, copper (II) acetylacetonate, or copper (I) chloride, under otherwise identical reaction conditions changes the shape of nanoparticles to quasi-spherical or elongated. The anions, except for chloride, do not influence the shape of the resulting nanocrystals. This finding suggests that adsorption of copper ions on the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface during the nanoparticles growth is responsible for shape control, whereas changes in the reactivity of the In cations caused by the presence of different anions play a secondary role. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and UV-Vis-absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the samples.

  17. Copper-assisted shape control in colloidal synthesis of indium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selishcheva, Elena; Parisi, Jürgen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Indium oxide is an important n-type transparent semiconductor, finding application in solar cells, sensors, and optoelectronic devices. We present here a novel non-injection synthesis route for the preparation of colloidal indium oxide nanocrystals by using oleylamine (OLA) as ligand and as solvent. Indium oxide with cubic crystallographic structure is formed in a reaction between indium acetate and OLA, the latter is converted to oleylamide during the synthesis. The shape of the nanocrystals can be influenced by the addition of copper ions. When only indium (III) acetate is used as precursor flower-shaped indium oxide nanoparticles are obtained. Addition of copper salts such as copper (I) acetate, copper (II) acetate, copper (II) acetylacetonate, or copper (I) chloride, under otherwise identical reaction conditions changes the shape of nanoparticles to quasi-spherical or elongated. The anions, except for chloride, do not influence the shape of the resulting nanocrystals. This finding suggests that adsorption of copper ions on the In 2 O 3 surface during the nanoparticles growth is responsible for shape control, whereas changes in the reactivity of the In cations caused by the presence of different anions play a secondary role. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and UV–Vis-absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the samples.

  18. Polarographic studies about indium (III) behaviour in aqueous media of sodium azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, R.

    1988-01-01

    The present study shows some polarographic behavior of indium (III) in azide media that is close those observed in a thiocyanate solution. The presence of azide ligand decreases the overpotential in the discharge of indium whose catalytic character can be explained by formation of an azide bridge between electrode and indium (III) increasing the speed of electron transfer. The discharge of indium in azide media is diffusion controlled. As the azide concentration is increased the half wave potential displaces in the cathodic direction. This displacement is due to complex formation. The number of electrons, n, involved in the total process was estimates by the reversible polarographic equation to be 2,7. The potentiostatic coulometry of indium in azide/hydrazoic acid buffer showed a catalytic process where the chemistry regeneration was performed by reaction of hydrazoic acid and indium amalgam. The electrochemistry evidence was the constancy of current as the electrolysis proceeded. The chemistry aspect was the presence of ammonium cation in electrolysed solution. The catalytic process with chemistry regeneration and the formation of a bridge by azide could explain the higher value of current in azide media compared to perchlorate solution. (author) [pt

  19. The effect of annealing ambient on surface segregation in indium implanted sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.K.; Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne; Zhou, W.; Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne; Academia Sinica, Shanghai Institute of Metallurgy; Cao, D.X.; Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne; Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH

    1991-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of annealing ambient on both indium surface segregation and lattice damage recovery of single crystal Al 2 O 3 has been done by performing 1 hour anneals at 800 deg C for the samples identically implanted with indium ions at 100keV energy to a high dose of 5x10 16 ions/cm 2 . Following solid phase epitaxial re-crystallization of amorphous layer, the indium dopant shows rapid thermal migration. The indium redistribution consists of 2 parts: 1. appreciable broadening corresponding to diffusion within the amorphous layer, and 2. indium segregation to the free surface to form In 2 O 3 , or escape out of the surface to sublime into the surrounding ambient. Lattice damage recovery depends on indium concentration profile in amorphous layer of Al 2 O 3 which is directly influenced by the annealing ambient. It is confirmed that the presence of moisture or oxygen in annealing ambient results in In 2 O 3 formation on the surface. (author). 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Synthesis of indium nanoclusters and formation of thin film contacts on plastic substrates for organic and flexible electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Frank F; Bulkowski, Michal; Hsieh, K C

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we described the processes of synthesizing free-standing indium nanoclusters using inverse micelles and microemulsions as well as synthesizing organic-encapsulated indium nanoclusters using alkanethiols as the organic encapsulants. The synthesized organic-encapsulated indium nanoclusters have demonstrated the feasibilities to be used as plastic compatible soft metal contacts for emerging organic devices. The homogeneously distributed indium nanoclusters with sizes of 10-30 nm have been fabricated on a few different plastic substrates. By changing the alkanethiol carbon chain length and the sizes of the indium nanoclusters, the annealing temperature required to form low-resistance indium thin film conductors has been reduced to 80-100 deg. C, which is acceptable for a variety of organic thin films

  1. Indium recovery from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction with D2EHPA: a statistical approach to the experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes M.C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work presents the optimization results of obtaining a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with D2EHPA solubilized in isoparaffin and exxsol. The variables studied in the extraction step were D2EHPA concentration, acidity of the aqueous phase and time of contact between phases. Different hydrochloric and sulfuric acid concentrations were studied for the stripping step. The optimum experimental conditions resulted in a solution with 99% indium extraction and less than 4% iron. The construction of a McCabe-Thiele diagram indicated two theoretical countercurrent stages for indium extraction and at least six stages for indium stripping. Finally, the influence of associated metals found in typical sulfate leach liquors from zinc plants was studied. Under the experimental conditions for maximum indium extraction, 96% indium extraction was obtained, iron extraction was about 4% and no Ga, Cu and Zn were co-extracted.

  2. Spectral analysis of the fifth spectrum of indium: In V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swapnil; Tauheed, A.

    2016-01-01

    The fifth spectrum of indium (In V) has been investigated in the grazing and normal incidence wavelength regions. In"4"+ is a Rh-like ion with the ground configuration 4p"64d"9 and first excited configurations of the type 4p"64d"8nℓ (n≥4). The theoretical predications for this ion were made by Cowan's quasi-relativistic Hartree–Fock code with superposition of configurations involving 4p"64d"8(5p+6p+7p+4f+5f+6f), 4p"54d"1"0, 4p"64d"75s(5p+4f) for the odd parity matrix and 4p"64d"8 (5s+6s+7s+5d+6d), 4p"64d"7(5s"2+5p"2) for the even parity system. The spectra used for this work were recorded on 10.7 m grazing and normal incidence spectrographs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA) and also on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at Antigonish (Canada). The sources used were a sliding spark and a triggered spark respectively. Two hundred and thirty two energy levels based on the identification of 873 spectral lines have been established, forty six being new. Least squares fitted parametric calculations were used to interpret the observed level structure. The energy levels were optimized using a level optimization computer program (LOPT). Our wavelength accuracy for sharp and unblended lines is estimated to be within ±0.005 Å for λ below 400 Å and ±0.006 Å up to 1200 Å. - Highlights: • Indium spectra were recorded on both grazing and normal incidence spectrographs. • Calculations were made with Cowan's quasi-relativistic Hartree–Fock code. • New atomic transitions of In V were identified with newly found energy levels. • Uncertainties and Ritz wavelengths of all observed transitions were calculated. • Weighted transition probabilities (gA) were calculated.

  3. Investigation of an Electrochemical Method for Separation of Copper, Indium, and Gallium from Pretreated CIGS Solar Cell Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. K. Gustafsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of the semiconductor material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS is important to ensure a future supply of indium and gallium, which are relatively rare and therefore expensive elements. As a continuation of our previous work, where we recycled high purity selenium from CIGS waste materials, we now show that copper and indium can be recycled by electrodeposition from hydrochloric acid solutions of dissolved selenium-depleted material. Suitable potentials for the reduction of copper and indium were determined to be −0.5 V and −0.9 V (versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode, respectively, using cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition of first copper and then indium from a solution containing the dissolved residue from the selenium separation and ammonium chloride in 1 M HCl gave a copper yield of 100.1 ± 0.5% and an indium yield of 98.1 ± 2.5%. The separated copper and indium fractions contained no significant contamination of the other elements. Gallium remained in solution together with a small amount of indium after the separation of copper and indium and has to be recovered by an alternative method since electrowinning from the chloride-rich acid solution was not effective.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation of indium halides as substitudes of mercury in low pressure discharges for lighting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briefi, Stefan

    2012-05-22

    Low pressure discharges with indium halides as radiator are discussed as substitutes for hazardous mercury in conventional fluorescent lamps. In this work, the applicability of InBr and InCl in a low pressure discharge light source is investigated. The aim is to identify and understand the physical processes which determine the discharge characteristics and the efficiency of the generated near-UV emission of the indium halide molecule and of the indium atom which is created due to dissociation processes in the plasma. As discharge vessels sealed cylindrical quartz glass tubes which contain a defined amount of indium halide and a rare gas are used. Preliminary investigations showed that for a controlled variation of the indium halide density a well-defined cold spot setup is mandatory. This was realized in the utilized experimental setup. The use of metal halides raises the issue, that power coupling by internal electrodes is not possible as the electrodes would quickly be eroded by the halides. The comparison of inductive and capacitive RF-coupling with external electrodes revealed that inductively coupled discharges provide higher light output and much better long term stability. Therefore, all investigations are carried out using inductive RF-coupling. The diagnostic methods optical emission and white light absorption spectroscopy are applied. As the effects of absorption-signal saturation and reabsorption of emitted radiation within the plasma volume could lead to an underestimation of the determined population densities by orders of magnitude, these effects are considered in the data evaluation. In order to determine the electron temperature and the electron density from spectroscopic measurements, an extended corona model as population model of the indium atom has been set up. A simulation of the molecular emission spectra has been implemented to investigate the rovibrational population processes of the indium halide molecules. The impact of the cold spot

  5. A Solid-Contact Indium(III) Sensor based on a Thiosulfinate Ionophore Derived from Omeprazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mohammad Nooredeen; Hend Samy Amer [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    A novel solid-contact indium(III)-selective sensor based on bis-(1H-benzimidazole-5-methoxy-2-[(4-methoxy-3, 5-dimethyl-1-pyridinyl) 2-methyl]) thiosulfinate, known as an omeprazole dimer (OD) and a neutral ionophore, was constructed, and its performance characteristics were evaluated. The sensor was prepared by applying a membrane cocktail containing the ionophore to a graphite rod pre-coated with polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) conducting polymer as the ion-to-electron transducer. The membrane contained 3.6% OD, 2.3% oleic acid (OA) and 62% dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as the solvent mediator in PVC and produced a good potentiometric response to indium(III) ions with a Nernstian slope of 19.09 mV/decade. The constructed sensor possessed a linear concentration range from 3 Χ 10{sup -7} to 1 Χ 10{sup -2} M and a lower detection limit (LDL) of 1 Χ 10{sup -7} M indium(III) over a pH range of 4.0-7.0. It also displayed a fast response time and good selectivity for indium(III) over several other ions. The sensor can be used for longer than three months without any considerable divergence in potential. The sensor was utilized for direct and flow injection potentiometric (FIP) determination of indium(III) in alloys. The parameters that control the flow injection method were optimized. Indium(III) was quantitatively recovered, and the results agreed with those obtained using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as confirmed by the f and t values. The sensor was also utilized as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of fluoride in the presence of chloride, bromide, iodide and thiocyanate ions using indium(III) nitrate as the titrant.

  6. Alterations in an indium-111 Fab' under conditions of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, S.E.; Sudora, E.; Tarburton, J.P.; Hagar, P.

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate alterations that occur in an indium/111 Fab' of a monoclonal antibody following its in vivo administration. Patients were infused with 111 In-Fab' of the monoclonal antibody ZCE-025. Serum and urine specimens were collected from these pateients. Starting materials, serum, urine and controls samples were studied by electrophoresis. Animal distribution studies were performed in normal Balb/c mice and, in some cases, nude mice bearing a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/producing human colon tumour since the antibody targets CEA. The studies indicated that the molecule circulated almost totally intact for at least 4 h and to a considerable extent for 24 h, with some evidence for in vivo fragmentation by 24 h. Evidence was also obtained suggesting the formation of a high molecular weight species in some patients. Shortly after infusion, some of the 111 In in the urine appeared as the intact Fab', but within hours the majority migrated electro-phoretically as low molecular weight species. We conclude that while the majority of the 111 In-Fab' of this particular antibody remains intact and immunoreactive following its administration, the molecule is structurally changed to some degree shortly after its infusion into humans. Since each monoclonal antibody is unique, the degree and rapidity of degradation of its Fab' in vivo could vary markedly from the above and possibly adversely effect its utility as a radiopharmaceutical. (orig.)

  7. Polycrystalline Mn-alloyed indium tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Schmidt, Heidemarie; Xu, Qingyu; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Kolitsch, Andreas; Helm, Manfred; Iacomi, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic ITO films are interesting for integrating ITO into magneto-optoelectronic devices. We investigated n-conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) films with different Mn doping concentration which have been grown by chemical vapour deposition using targets with the atomic ratio In:Sn:Mn=122:12:0,114:12:7, and 109:12:13. The average film roughness ranges between 30 and 50 nm and XRD patterns revealed a polycrystalline structure. Magnetotransport measurements revealed negative magnetoresistance for all the samples, but high field positive MR can be clearly observed at 5 K with increasing Mn doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used to prove the existence of midgap states in the Mn-alloyed ITO films revealing a transmittance less than 80%. A reasonable model for the ca. 250 nm thick Mn-alloyed ITO films has been developed to extract optical constants from SE data below 3 eV. Depending on the Mn content, a Lorentz oscillator placed between 1 and 2 eV was used to model optical absorption below the band gap

  8. Surface energy for electroluminescent polymers and indium-tin-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhiyou; Yin Sheng; Liu Chen; Zhong Youxin; Zhang Wuxing; Shi Dufang; Wang Chang'an

    2003-01-01

    The contact angles on the thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) were measured by the sessile-drop technique. The surface energies of the films were calculated using the Owens-Wendt (OW) and van Oss-Chaudhury-Good (vOCG) approaches. The overall total surface energies of MEH-PPV and the as-received ITO were 30.75 and 30.07 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Both approaches yielded almost the same surface energies. The surface energies were mainly contributed from the dispersion interactions or Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) interactions for both MEH-PPV and ITO. The changes in the contact angles and surface energies of the ITO films, due to different solvent cleaning processes and oxygen plasma treatments, were analyzed. Experimental results revealed that the total surface energy of the ITO films increased after various cleaning processes. In comparison with different solvents used in this study, we found that methanol is an effective solvent for ITO cleaning, as a higher surface energy was observed. ITO films treated with oxygen plasma showed the highest surface energy. This work demonstrated that contact angle measurement is a useful method to diagnose the cleaning effect on ITO films

  9. 111indium-antimyosin immunoscintigraphy in suspected myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.; Schuemichen, C.; Joseph, A.; Moser, E.; Zeiher, A.

    1991-01-01

    111 Indium-monoclonal antimyosin scans were carried out in 21 patients with suspected myocarditis, confirmed by reduced ejection volume, pericardial effusion and clinical follow up in 12 patients. Coronary heart disease was excluded angiographically in all cases. Quantitative evaluation of myocardial 111 In-antimyosin accumulation 48 hours after injection showed a pathological uptake in 10/12 patients with increased heart/lung ratios (Q 48 >1,58). Ratios were also elevated in 2 patients with cardiomyopathy, 2 suffering from vasculitis and 1 with dermatomyositis. Four patients without proven cardiac disease had normal ratios (Q 48 ≤1,58). Examination after 24 hours was of limited value, depending on the residual blood pool activity. Visual analysis of the scans showed a high interobserver variation despite a positive correlation with quantitative analysis (48 h p.i.: r=0,72; p 111 In-antimyosin scan as a screening method prior to myocardial biopsy. However, scintigraphy cannot definitely elucidate the cause of myocardial damage. Therefore, myocardial biopsy is still recommended after positive antimyosin scans. (orig.) [de

  10. Supramolecular compounds of indium sulfates with nitrogen-containing cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyants, S.P.; Ilyukhin, A.B.; Ketsko, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Compounds with a general formula [Cat][In(H 2 O) n (SO 4 ) 2 ] x · mH 2 O (where Cat = C(NH 2 ) 3 , H(2,2'-Bipy), H 2 (4,4'-Bipy), H 2 [Py(CH 2 ) 3 Py], and H 3 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 3 ) were synthesized and identified from the elemental analysis, IR, and thermogravimetric analysis data. X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline [C(NH 2 ) 3 ][In(H 2 O) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 ] complex has shown that the polymer chains of In aqua sulfate form ensembles with guanidinium ions. The structure of [H 2 (4,4'-Bipy)][In 2 (H 2 O) 6 (SO 4 ) 4 ] · 2H 2 O consists of the dimeric anions of indium sulfate. The coordination sphere of In includes three O atoms of three SO 4 groups and three O atoms of water molecules. The dimers are united into framework by diprotonated Bipy cations [ru

  11. Band gap engineering of indium zinc oxide by nitrogen incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J.J., E-mail: jjosila@hotmail.com [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo la Bufa, Fracc. Progreso, C.P. 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Doctorado Institucional de Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78270 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M.A.; Alarcón, G. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Legaría, Calz. Legaría No. 694, Col. Irrigación, C.P. 11500 México D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional campus Zacatenco, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360 México D.F. (Mexico); and others

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • IZON thin films were deposited by RF reactive sputtering at room temperature. • The effects of nitrogen on physical properties of IZO were analyzed. • Optical properties of IZON were studied by SE and UV–vis spectroscopy. • Adachi and classical parameters were quantitative and qualitatively congruent. • Nitrogen induces a gradual narrowing band gap from 3.5 to 2.5 eV on IZON films. - Abstract: The effects of nitrogen incorporation in indium zinc oxide films, as grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering, on the structural, electrical and optical properties were studied. It was determined that the variation of the N{sub 2}/Ar ratio, in the reactive gas flux, was directly proportional to the nitrogen percentage measured in the sample, and the incorporated nitrogen, which substituted oxygen in the films induces changes in the band gap of the films. This phenomenon was observed by measurement of absorption and transmission spectroscopy in conjunction with spectral ellipsometry. To fit the ellipsometry spectra, the classical and Adachi dispersion models were used. The obtained optical parameters presented notable changes related to the increment of the nitrogen in the film. The band gap narrowed from 3.5 to 2.5 eV as the N{sub 2}/Ar ratio was increased. The lowest resistivity obtained for these films was 3.8 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 5.1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}.

  12. Band gap engineering of indium zinc oxide by nitrogen incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J.J.; Aguilar-Frutis, M.A.; Alarcón, G.; Falcony, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • IZON thin films were deposited by RF reactive sputtering at room temperature. • The effects of nitrogen on physical properties of IZO were analyzed. • Optical properties of IZON were studied by SE and UV–vis spectroscopy. • Adachi and classical parameters were quantitative and qualitatively congruent. • Nitrogen induces a gradual narrowing band gap from 3.5 to 2.5 eV on IZON films. - Abstract: The effects of nitrogen incorporation in indium zinc oxide films, as grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering, on the structural, electrical and optical properties were studied. It was determined that the variation of the N 2 /Ar ratio, in the reactive gas flux, was directly proportional to the nitrogen percentage measured in the sample, and the incorporated nitrogen, which substituted oxygen in the films induces changes in the band gap of the films. This phenomenon was observed by measurement of absorption and transmission spectroscopy in conjunction with spectral ellipsometry. To fit the ellipsometry spectra, the classical and Adachi dispersion models were used. The obtained optical parameters presented notable changes related to the increment of the nitrogen in the film. The band gap narrowed from 3.5 to 2.5 eV as the N 2 /Ar ratio was increased. The lowest resistivity obtained for these films was 3.8 × 10 −4 Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 5.1 × 10 20 cm −3

  13. Indium(III) complexes with some salicylidene aromatic Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.R.; Issa, I.M.; El-Gyar, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    In(III) complexes with salicylidene aromatic Schiff bases have been prepared. The nature of the complexes has been studied by microanalysis of the solid complexes, conductometric titration, uv and ir spectrophotometric measurements. The complexes are of the type 1 : 1 and 2 : 1 [Ligand : In(III)] depending upon the Schiff base. The tendency of the salicylidene Schiff base molecule towards complex formation with In(III) is found to depend largely on the strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bound established between the aldehydic OH group and C = N. Furthermore, it is concluded that these Schiff bases coordinate to In(III) as tri- or bidentate ligands depending upon the molecular structure of the Schiff base (not as monodentate ligand as previously described). The high molar absorbance of the 1 : 2 In(II) complex with salicylidene-o-hydroxyaniline I (17,800 mo1 -1 cm 2 ) can be applied for the micro determination of small amounts of Indium as low as 0.57 anti g/m1 solution. (author)

  14. Electrical and optical properties of amorphous indium zinc oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, N.; Sato, Y.; Song, P.K.; Kaijio, A.; Inoue, K.; Shigesato, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Valence electron control and electron transport mechanisms on the amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) films were investigated. The amorphous IZO films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering using an oxide ceramic IZO target (89.3 wt.% In 2 O 3 and 10.7 wt.% ZnO). N-type impurity dopings, such as Sn, Al or F, could not lead to the increase in carrier density in the IZO. Whereas, H 2 introduction into the IZO deposition process was confirmed to be effective to increase carrier density. By 30% H 2 introduction into the deposition process, carrier density increased from 3.08 x 10 2 to 7.65 x 10 2 cm -3 , which must be originated in generations of oxygen vacancies or interstitial Zn 2+ ions. Decrease in the transmittance in the near infrared region and increase in the optical band gap were observed with the H 2 introduction, which corresponded to the increase in carrier density. The lowest resistivity of 3.39 x 10 -4 Ω cm was obtained by 10% H 2 introduction without substrate heating during the deposition

  15. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott, C. IV; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111 In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results

  16. The angular distributions of sputtered indium atoms at different temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiping; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Pan Jisheng

    1993-01-01

    The effect of temperature and surface topography on the angular distribution of indium atoms was studied under bombardment by 2T KeV Ar + ions at normal incidence. Experiments were carried out on two samples, A and B, at 25 o C and 70 o C respectively. The function Y(θ) = a cosθ + b cos n θ, where θ is the sputtering angle, was found to fit the experimental data. The term (a cos θ) corresponds to the cosine distribution predicted by random collision cascade theory, and the term (b cos n θ) is dependent on factors such as the surface topography. For sample A, a∼b, whereas for sample B a< b. The surface of A consisted of flat and pebble like regions of almost equal area while the surface of B was more cratered. An explanation of the fitting values of a,b and n is given in terms of the shielding effects of the different structures. (UK)

  17. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah Jane O.; Hussain, Fatima A.; Hemond, Harold F.; Sacco, Sarah A.; Shine, James P.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.

    2017-01-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~ 3, indium concentrations are 6–29 μg/L (10,000 × those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45 μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to > 8, and > 99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45 μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium.

  18. The mobility of indium and gallium in groundwater systems: constraining the role of sorption in sand column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, I.; Ringering, K.; Yecheskel, Y.; Berkowitz, B.

    2017-12-01

    The mobility of indium and gallium in groundwater environments was studied via laboratory experiments using quartz sand as a porous medium. Indium and gallium are metals of very low abundance in the Earth's crust and, correspondingly, the biosphere is only adapted to very small concentrations of these elements. However, in modern semiconductor industries, both elements play a central role and are incorporated in devices of mass production such as smartphones and digital cameras. The resulting considerable increase in production, use and discharge of indium and gallium throughout the last two decades, with a continuous and fast increase in the near future, raises questions regarding the fate of both elements in the environment. However, the transport behavior of these two metals in soils and groundwater systems remains poorly understood to date. Because of the low solubility of both elements in aqueous solutions, trisodium citrate was used as a complexation agent to stabilize the solutions, enabling investigation of the transport of these metals at neutral pH. Column experiments showed different binding capacities for indium and gallium, where gallium is much more mobile compared to indium and both metals are substantially retarded in the column. Different affinities were also confirmed by examining sorption isotherms of indium and gallium in equilibrium batch systems. The effect of natural organic matter on the mobility of indium and gallium was also studied, by addition of humic acid. For both metals, the presence of humic acid affects the sorption dynamics: for indium, sorption is strongly inhibited leading to much higher mobility, whereas gallium showed a slightly higher sorption affinity and very similar mobility compared to the same setup without humic acid addition. However, in all cases, the binding capacity of gallium to quartz is much weaker than that of indium. These results are consistent with the assumption that indium and gallium form different types

  19. Effect of Indium Doping on the Sensitivity of SnO2 Gas Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharni; Sayono

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of sensitivity f SnO 2 gas sensors on indium concentration has been studied. Undoped and indium-doped SnO 2 gas sensors have been prepared by DC sputtering technique with following parameters i.e : electrode voltage of 3 kV, current 20 mA, vacuum pressure 1.8 × 10 -1 torr, deposition time 60 minutes and temperature of 200℃. The effect of weight variations of indium in order of 0.0370; 0.0485 and 0.0702 grams into SnO 2 thin film gas sensor for optimum result were investigated. The measurement of resistance, sensitivity and response time for various temperature for detecting of carbon monoxide (CO), Ammonia (NH 3 ) and acetone (CH 3 COCH 3 ) gas for indium doped has been done. From the analysis result shows that for indium doped 0.0702 g on the SnO 2 the resistance can be decreased from 832.0 kΩ to 3.9 kΩ and the operating temperature from 200℃ to 90℃ and improving the sensitivity from 15.92% to 40.09% and a response time from 30 seconds to 10 seconds for CO. (author)

  20. Selectivity enhancement of indium-doped SnO2 gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, A.

    2002-01-01

    Indium doping was used to enhance the selectivity of SnO 2 gas sensor. Both indium-doped and undoped SnO 2 gas sensors fabricated with different deposition techniques were investigated. The changes in the sensitivity of the sensors caused by selective gases (hydrogen and wood smoke) ranging from 500 to 3000 ppm were measured at different temperatures from 50 to 300 deg. C. The sensitivity peaks of the samples exhibit different values for selective gases with a response time of approximately 0.5 s. Thermally evaporated indium-doped SnO 2 gas sensor shows a considerable increase in the sensitivity peak of 27% in response to wood smoke, whereas it shows a sensitivity peak of 7% to hydrogen. This is in contrast to the sputter deposited indium-doped SnO 2 gas sensor, which exhibits a much lower sensitivity peak of approximately 2% to hydrogen and wood smoke compared to undoped SnO 2 gas sensors fabricated by chemical vapor deposition and spray pyrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy shows that different deposition techniques result in different porosity of the films. It is observed that the thermally evaporated indium-doped SnO 2 gas sensor shows high porosity, while the sputtered sample exhibits almost no porosity

  1. Synthesis of Indium Nanowires by Galvanic Displacement and Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Greg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Single crystalline indium nanowires were prepared on Zn substrate which had been treated in concentrated sulphuric acid by galvanic displacement in the 0.002 mol L−1In2(SO43-0.002 mol L−1SeO2-0.02 mol L−1SDS-0.01 mol L−1citric acid aqueous solution. The typical diameter of indium nanowires is 30 nm and most of the nanowires are over 30 μm in length. XRD, HRTEM, SAED and structural simulation clearly demonstrate that indium nanowires are single-crystalline with the tetragonal structure, the growth direction of the nanowires is along [100] facet. The UV-Vis absorption spectra showed that indium nanowires display typical transverse resonance of SPR properties. The surfactant (SDS and the pretreatment of Zn substrate play an important role in the growth process. The mechanism of indium nanowires growth is the synergic effect of treated Zn substrate (hard template and SDS (soft template.

  2. Evidence for atomic scale disorder in indium nitride from perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, R; Shrestha, S K; Byrne, A P; Ridgway, M C; Edge, A V J; Vianden, R; Penner, J; Timmers, H

    2005-01-01

    The crystal lattice of bulk grains and state-of-the-art films of indium nitride was investigated at the atomic scale with perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy using the 111 In/Cd radioisotope probe. The probe was introduced during sample synthesis, by diffusion and by ion implantation. The mean quadrupole interaction frequency ν Q = 28 MHz was observed at the indium probe site in all types of indium nitride samples with broad frequency distributions. The observed small, but non-zero, asymmetry parameter indicates broken symmetry around the probe atoms. Results have been compared with theoretical calculations based on the point charge model. The consistency of the experimental results and their independence of the preparation technique suggest that the origin of the broad frequency distribution is inherent to indium nitride, indicating a high degree of disorder at the atomic scale. Due to the low dissociation temperature of indium nitride, furnace and rapid thermal annealing at atmospheric pressure reduce the lattice disorder only marginally

  3. Electrochemical removal of indium ions from aqueous solution using iron electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Huang, Yen-Hsiang

    2009-01-01

    The removal of indium ions from aqueous solution was carried out by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Various operating parameters that could potentially affect the removal efficiency were investigated, including the current density, pH variation, supporting electrolyte, initial concentration, and temperature. The optimum current density, supporting electrolyte concentration, and temperature were found to be 6.4 mA/cm 2 , 0.003N NaCl, and 298 K, respectively. When the pH values lower than 6.1, the removal efficiencies of indium ions via electrocoagulation were up to 5 times greater than those by adding sodium hydroxide. The indium ion removal efficiency decreased with an increase in the initial concentration. Results for the indium ion removal kinetics at various current densities show that the kinetic rates conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with good correlation. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models for describing the electrocoagulation process. The adsorption of indium ions preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules.

  4. Electrochemical removal of indium ions from aqueous solution using iron electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34 Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yen-Hsiang [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34 Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-15

    The removal of indium ions from aqueous solution was carried out by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Various operating parameters that could potentially affect the removal efficiency were investigated, including the current density, pH variation, supporting electrolyte, initial concentration, and temperature. The optimum current density, supporting electrolyte concentration, and temperature were found to be 6.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.003N NaCl, and 298 K, respectively. When the pH values lower than 6.1, the removal efficiencies of indium ions via electrocoagulation were up to 5 times greater than those by adding sodium hydroxide. The indium ion removal efficiency decreased with an increase in the initial concentration. Results for the indium ion removal kinetics at various current densities show that the kinetic rates conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with good correlation. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models for describing the electrocoagulation process. The adsorption of indium ions preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules.

  5. On the impact of indium distribution on the electronic properties in InGaN nanodisks

    KAUST Repository

    Benaissa, M.

    2015-03-09

    We analyze an epitaxially grown heterostructure composed of InGaN nanodisks inserted in GaN nanowires in order to relate indium concentration to the electronic properties. This study was achieved with spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy using monochromated electrons to probe optical excitations - plasmons - at nanometer scale. Our findings show that each nanowire has its own indium fluctuation and therefore its own average composition. Due to this indium distribution, a scatter is obtained in plasmon energies, and therefore in the optical dielectric function, of the nanowire ensemble. We suppose that these inhomogeneous electronic properties significantly alter band-to-band transitions and consequently induce emission broadening. In addition, the observation of tailing indium composition into the GaN barrier suggests a graded well-barrier interface leading to further inhomogeneous broadening of the electro-optical properties. An improvement in the indium incorporation during growth is therefore needed to narrow the emission linewidth of the presently studied heterostructures.

  6. The steady-state and time-resolved photophysical properties of a dimeric indium phthalocyanine complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Araki, Yasuyuki; Dini, Danilo; Liu Ying; Ito, Osamu; Fujitsuka, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved photophysical properties and some molecular orbital calculation results of a dimeric indium phthalocyanine complex with an indium-indium bond, i.e., [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed, have been described. The results regarding triplet excited state lifetimes can be ascribed to strong intramolecular interactions existing only in the excited state of this dimer because no significant difference in the absorption spectra of the tBu 4 PcInCl monomer and the [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed dimer is observed, suggesting that no ground-state interaction can be assessed. The deactivation processes of the excited singlet state of [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed are apparently faster than that of μ-oxo-bridged PcIn dimer [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 O. Molecular orbital calculation on the PcIn dimer shows no node between two indium atoms was found in the HOMO - 2 of the PcIn-InPc dimer, suggesting that bonding electrons distribute between two indium atoms

  7. Optoelectronic properties of sprayed transparent and conducting indium doped zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S S; Shinde, P S; Bhosale, C H; Rajpure, K Y

    2008-01-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are grown onto Corning glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of doping concentration on the structural, electrical and optical properties of IZO thin films is studied. X-ray diffraction studies show a change in preferential orientation from the (0 0 2) to the (1 0 1) crystal planes with increase in indium doping concentration. Scanning electron microscopy studies show polycrystalline morphology of the films. Based on the Hall-effect measurements and analysis, impurity scattering is found to be the dominant mechanism determining the diminished mobility in ZnO thin films having higher indium concentration. The addition of indium also induces a drastic decrease in the electrical resistivity of films; the lowest resistivity (4.03 x 10 -5 Ω cm) being observed for the film deposited with 3 at% indium doping. The effect of annealing on the film properties has been reported. Films deposited with 3 at% In concentration have relatively low resistivity with 90% transmittance at 550 nm and the highest value of figure of merit 7.9 x 10 -2 □ Ω -1

  8. On the impact of indium distribution on the electronic properties in InGaN nanodisks

    KAUST Repository

    Benaissa, M.; Sigle, W.; Ng, Tien Khee; El Bouayadi, R.; van Aken, P. A.; Jahangir, S.; Bhattacharya, P.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze an epitaxially grown heterostructure composed of InGaN nanodisks inserted in GaN nanowires in order to relate indium concentration to the electronic properties. This study was achieved with spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy using monochromated electrons to probe optical excitations - plasmons - at nanometer scale. Our findings show that each nanowire has its own indium fluctuation and therefore its own average composition. Due to this indium distribution, a scatter is obtained in plasmon energies, and therefore in the optical dielectric function, of the nanowire ensemble. We suppose that these inhomogeneous electronic properties significantly alter band-to-band transitions and consequently induce emission broadening. In addition, the observation of tailing indium composition into the GaN barrier suggests a graded well-barrier interface leading to further inhomogeneous broadening of the electro-optical properties. An improvement in the indium incorporation during growth is therefore needed to narrow the emission linewidth of the presently studied heterostructures.

  9. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Cao, Yaan, E-mail: caoyaan@yahoo.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV–vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO{sub 2} in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O–In–Cl{sub x} (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO{sub 2}, the narrowness of band gap of TiO{sub 2} doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O–In–Cl{sub x} (x = 1 or 2) and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO{sub 2}, boron doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}–B) and indium doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}–In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  11. Development of an Indium Bump Bond Process for Silicon Pixel Detectors at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Brönnimann, C; Gobrecht, J; Heising, S; Horisberger, M; Horisberger, R P; Kästli, H C; Lehmann, J; Rohe, T; Streuli, S; Broennimann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high energy physics experiments currently under construction use a three dimensional connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100um, required in these applications, cannot be fullfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflown indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R&D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflown afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a seco...

  12. Synthesis and decomposition of a novel carboxylate precursor to indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Andras, Maria T.; Duraj, Stan A.; Clark, Eric B.; Hehemann, David G.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Fanwick, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    Reaction of metallic indium with benzoyl peroxide in 4-1 methylpyridine (4-Mepy) at 25 C produces an eight-coordinate mononuclear indium(III) benzoate, In(eta(sup 2)-O2CC6H5)3(4-Mepy)2 4H2O (I), in yields of up to 60 percent. The indium(III) benzoate was fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography; (I) exists in the crystalline state as discrete eight-coordinate molecules; the coordination sphere around the central indium atom is best described as pseudo-square pyramidal. Thermogravimetric analysis of (I) and X-ray diffraction powder studies on the resulting pyrolysate demonstrate that this new benzoate is an inorganic precursor to indium oxide. Decomposition of (I) occurs first by loss of 4-methylpyridine ligands (100 deg-200 deg C), then loss of benzoates with formation of In2O3 at 450 C. We discuss both use of carboxylates as precursors and our approach to their preparation.

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang; Cao, Yaan

    2013-01-01

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV–vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO 2 in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O–In–Cl x (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO 2 , the narrowness of band gap of TiO 2 doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O–In–Cl x (x = 1 or 2) and B 2 O 3 species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO 2 showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO 2 , boron doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 –B) and indium doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 –In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  14. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang; Cao, Yaan

    2013-05-01

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV-vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO2 in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O-In-Clx (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO2, the narrowness of band gap of TiO2 doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O-In-Clx (x = 1 or 2) and B2O3 species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO2 showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO2, boron doped TiO2 (TiO2-B) and indium doped TiO2 (TiO2-In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  15. Lithium indium diselenide: A new scintillator for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukosi, Eric, E-mail: elukosi@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel; Lee, Kyung-Min [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wiggins, Brenden [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trtik, Pavel [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Penumadu, Dayakar; Young, Stephen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Santodonato, Louis; Bilheux, Hassina [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burger, Arnold; Matei, Liviu [Fisk University, Nashville, TN (United States); Stowe, Ashley C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-11

    Lithium indium diselenide, {sup 6}LiInSe{sub 2} or LISe, is a newly developed neutron detection material that shows both semiconducting and scintillating properties. This paper reports on the performance of scintillating LISe crystals for its potential use as a converter screen for cold neutron imaging. The spatial resolution of LISe, determined using a 10% threshold of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), was found to not scale linearly with thickness. Crystals having a thickness of 450 µm or larger resulted in an average spatial resolution of 67 µm, and the thinner crystals exhibited an increase in spatial resolution down to the Nyquist frequency of the CCD. The highest measured spatial resolution of 198 µm thick LISe (27 µm) outperforms a commercial 50 µm thick ZnS(Cu):{sup 6}LiF scintillation screen by more than a factor of three. For the LISe dimensions considered in this study, it was found that the light yield of LISe did not scale with its thickness. However, absorption measurements indicate that the {sup 6}Li concentration is uniform and the neutron absorption efficiency of LISe as a function of thickness follows general nuclear theory. This suggests that the differences in apparent brightness observed for the LISe samples investigated may be due to a combination of secondary charged particle escape, scintillation light transport in the bulk and across the LISe-air interface, and variations in the activation of the scintillation mechanism. Finally, it was found that the presence of {sup 115}In and its long-lived {sup 116}In activation product did not result in ghosting (memory of past neutron exposure), demonstrating potential of LISe for imaging transient systems.

  16. Charge carrier transport mechanisms in nanocrystalline indium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsh, E.A.; Marikutsa, A.V.; Martyshov, M.N.; Forsh, P.A.; Rumyantseva, M.N.; Gaskov, A.M.; Kashkarov, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The charge transport properties of nanocrystalline indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) are studied. A number of nanostructured In 2 O 3 samples with various nanocrystal sizes are prepared by sol–gel method and characterized using various techniques. The mean nanocrystals size varies from 7–8 nm to 18–20 nm depending on the conditions of their preparation. Structural characterizations of the In 2 O 3 samples are performed by means of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The analysis of dc and ac conductivity in a wide temperature range (T = 50–300 K) shows that at high temperatures charge carrier transport takes place over conduction band and at low temperatures a variable range hopping transport mechanism can be observed. We find out that the temperature of transition from one mechanism to another depends on nanocrystal size: the transition temperature rises when nanocrystals are bigger in size. The average hopping distance between two sites and the activation energy are calculated basing on the analysis of dc conductivity at low temperature. Using random barrier model we show a uniform hopping mechanism taking place in our samples and conclude that nanocrystalline In 2 O 3 can be regarded as a disordered system. - Highlights: • In 2 O 3 samples with various nanocrystal sizes are prepared by sol–gel method. • The mean nanocrystal size varies from 7–8 nm to 18–20 nm. • At high temperatures charge carrier transport takes place over conduction band. • At low temperatures a variable range hopping transport mechanism can be observed. • We show a uniform hopping mechanism taking place in our samples

  17. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  18. Imaging experimental coronary artery thrombosis with indium-111 platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, A.L.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of cardiac scintigraphy with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled platelets to detect coronary artery thrombosis (CAT) was assessed in a canine model. Cardiac imaging and tissue distribution studies were performed shortly after administering 111 In-labeled platelets to 12 dogs (group 1) with acute CAT. Four dogs (group 2) with acute CAT were studied 2 and 22 hours after administering 111 In platelets. In addition, four dogs (group 3) with 24-hour-old CAT were similarly evaluated. In all group 1 animals, in vivo imaging 1 to 2 hours after 111 In platelet administration revealed intense uptake in the region of thrombus-containing left anterior descending arteries that was readily discernible from background blood pool activity. Sequential imaging of the four group 2 animals over a 22-hour period revealed no change in the scintigraphic pattern of the thrombosed arteries. In contrast, 111 In platelet imaging in the four group 3 animals with 24-hour-old CAT failed to reveal enhanced activity within the region of the thrombus-containing coronary artery. In the 12 group 1 animals, the CAT accumulated 69 +- 10 (mean +- SEM) times greater activity than present in blood and 651 +- 135 times greater activity than normal left ventricular myocardium. There was 24 +- 7 times greater 111 In activity in the damaged left anterior descending arteries compared with normal circumflex arteries. Similar uptake ratios were seen in group 2 animals. The 24-hour old thrombi from group 3 animals showed no enhanced 111 In uptake. This study demonstrates that experimental acute CAT can be detected readily with 111 In platelet cardiac scintigraphy

  19. Decay studies of the highly neutron-deficient indium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    An extension of the experimentally known nuclidic mass surface to nuclei far from the region of beta-stability is of fundamental interest in providing a better determination of the input parameters for the various nuclear mass formulae, allowing a more accurate prediction of the ultimate limits of nuclear stability. In addition, a study of the shape of the mass surface in the vicinity of the doubly-closed nuclide 100 Sn provides initial information on the behavior of the shell closure to be expected when Z = N = 50. Experiments measuring the decay energies of 103 105 In by β-endpoint measurements are described with special attention focused on the development of a plastic scintillator β-telescope coupled to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer). An attempt to measure the β-endpoint energy of 102 In is also briefly described. The experimentally determined decay energies and derived masses for 103 105 In are compared with the predictions of different mass models to identify which models are more successful in this region. Furthermore, the inclusion in these comparisons of the available data on the neutron-rich indium nuclei permits a systematic study of their ground state mass behavior as a function of the neutron number between the shell closures at N = 50 and N = 82. These analyses indicate that the binding energy of 103 In is 1 MeV larger than predicted by the majority of the mass models. An examination of the Q/sub EC/ surface and the single- and two-neutron separation energies in the vicinity of 103 105 In is also performed to investigate further the deviation and other possible systematic variations in the mass surface in a model-independent way

  20. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Lim, Jong-Wook; Kim, Han-Ki; Alford, T. L.; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2012-01-01

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive

  1. An Indium-Free Anode for Large-Area Flexible OLEDs: Defect-Free Transparent Conductive Zinc Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Masis, M.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Dabirian, A.; Lifka, H.; Gierth, R.; Ruske, M.; Moet, D.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible large-area organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) require highly conductive and transparent anodes for efficient and uniform light emission. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is the standard anode in industry. However, due to the scarcity of indium, alternative anodes that eliminate its use are

  2. Solvent extraction studies of indium-mixed chelates with β-diketones in benzene media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudersanan, M.; Sundaram, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    Mixed chelate formation of indium with several β-diketones has been studied in benzene media. The extraction of indium by benzoyltrifluoroacetone (BFA) and furoyltrifluoroacetone (FFA) has been carried out as a function of pH and concentration of the ligand to ascertain the nature of the complexes. The extraction of indium by a mixture of β-diketones, viz., BFA-benzoylacetone(BA), BFA-dibenzoylmethene (DBM), FFA-BA, FFA-DBM, FFA-BFA and DBM-BA has also been studied as a function of the solution parameters. The nature of the mixed complexes formed as well as their equilibrium constants, statistical and stabilisation constants have been evaluated. (author)

  3. Radioactive indium labelling of the figured elements of blood. Method, results, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Nouel, J.P.

    Following the work of Thakur et al. the authors became interested in red corpuscle, leucocyte and platelet labelling with indium 111 or 113m (8 hydroxyquinolein-indium). For easier labelling of the figured elements of blood the technique described was modified. The chelate is prepared by simple contact at room temperature of indium 111 or 113m chloride and water-soluble 8 hydroxyquinolein sulphate, in the presence of 0.2M TRIS buffer. The figured element chosen suspended in physiological serum is added directly to the solution obtained, the platelets and leucocytes being separated out beforehand by differential centrifugation. While it gives results similar to those of Thabur et al. the method proposed avoids the chloroform extraction of the radioactive chelate and the use of alcohol, liable to impair the platelet regation capacity [fr

  4. Effect of ion indium implantation on InP photoluminescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyshnaya, N.B.; Radautsan, S.I.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Ursaki, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectra of indium phosphide single crystals implanted by indium after annealing under the protective Al 2 O 3 film in a nitrogen flow are investigated. As a result of implantation and annealing in photoluminescence spectra of crystals there appeared a new band with the maximum at 1.305 eV (T=6 K) which is connected with the free electron transition at the level of the antistructure defect of In p - lying by 0.115 eV above the valent zone ceiling. With large doses of the implanted indium in the photoluminescence spectrum a long-wave band with the maximum at 0.98-0.99 eV is also observed caused, apparently, by the strong lattice disorder

  5. Use of activable cations as tracers in groundwater hydrology. The case of DTPA-Indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumu, Badimbayi Matu.

    1978-01-01

    The possibilities of EDTA, CDTA and DTPA metallic complexes use as activable groundwater, tracers are discussed. Indium, which has good nuclear caracteristics for activation analysis and forms complexes of great stability with polyamino carboxylic acid has been for Laboratory and field studies. For corporative studies, Rhodomine B, a fluorescent tracer have been studied together with Indium complexes. In laboratory retention studies have been carried with In-EDTA, Iodine 131 and Rhodomine B, as tracers and bentonite, zeolite 13X and Dowex-1 and Dowex-50 as sorbents. As field studies, drainage evolution flow and resident time distribution of tracers substances in water, have been carried, under artificial rain conditions realized by aspersion. Results from field studies showed good characteristics of Indium Complexes especially in very absorbent medium (argilaceous limon) where their restitution balance were superior to that of Rhodomine B

  6. Short-range order in amorphous thin films of indium selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.P.; Poltavtsev, Yu.G.; Sheremet, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure of the short-range order and a character of interatomic interactions in indium selenides Insub(1-x)Sesub(x) with 0.333 <= x <= 0.75, obtained in the form of amorphous films 0.05-0.80 μm thick are studied using electron diffraction method. It is found out that mostly tetrahedrical coordination of nearest neighbours in the vicinity of indium atoms is characteristic for studied amorphous films, and coordination of selenium atoms is different. Amorphous film with x=0.75 posesses a considereably microheterogeneous structure of the short-range order, which is characterized by the presence of microunclusions of amorphous selenium and atoms of indium, octohedrically coordinated by selenium atoms

  7. Chemical composition of cadmium selenochromite crystals doped with indium, silver and gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'skij, N.K.; Ochertyanova, L.I.; Shabunina, G.G.; Aminov, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The high accuracy chemical analysis Which allows one to observe doping effect on the cadmium selenochromite crystal composition is performed. The problem on the possibility of impurity atom substitution for basic element is considered on the basis of data of atomic-absorption analysis of doped crystals. The crystals of cadmium selenochromite doped with indium by chromium to cadmium ratio are distributed into two groups and probably two types of substitution take place. At 0.08-1.5 at.% indium concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio >2. One can assume that indium preferably takes cadmium tetrahedral positions whereas at 1.5-2.5 at. % concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio =2 and cadmium is substituted for silver which does not contradict crystallochemical and physical properties of this compound. In crystals with gallium the Cr/Cd ratio <2. Gallium preferably substitutes chromium

  8. Optical investigations on indium oxide nano-particles prepared through precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetha, M.; Bharathi, S.; Dhayal Raj, A.; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.

    2009-01-01

    Visible light emitting indium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method. Sodium hydroxide dissolved in ethanol was used as a precipitating agent to obtain indium hydroxide precipitates. Precipitates, thus formed were calcined at 600 deg. C for 1 h to obtain indium oxide nanoparticles. The structure of the particles as determined from the X-Ray diffraction pattern was found to be body centered cubic. The phase transformation of the prepared nanoparticles was analyzed using thermogravimetry. Surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was analyzed using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the analysis show cube-like aggregates of size around 50 nm. It was found that the nanoparticles have a strong emission at 427 nm and a weak emission at 530 nm. These emissions were due to the presence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies and the nature of the defect was confirmed through Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis.

  9. Anodic behavior of Al-Zn-In sacrificial anodes at different concentration of zinc and indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyvani, Ahmad [Shahrekord Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials; Saremi, Mohsen [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials; Saeri, Mohammad Reza [Shahrekord Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2012-12-15

    Al-Zn-In anodes show better performance due to the beneficial effects of Zn and In on prevention of aluminum passivity and producing a homogeneous structure for uniform corrosion of the anodes. However, there are different views about the optimum concentration of each element in the anode. In this study, the anodic behavior of Al-Zn-In alloy with different concentrations of zinc from 1 to 6wt.% and indium from 0.01 to 0.05wt.% are studied. The NACE efficiency test and polarization are used in 3wt.% NaCl solution for corrosion characterization. The results showed that zinc and indium change the anode potential to more active potentials and improve the microstructure uniformity of anodes. The latter leads to more uniform corrosion. Optimum concentrations of zinc (5wt.%) and indium (0.02wt.%) were found in this respect. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, T.J.; Thompson, L.; Grogan, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The detection of musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following joint replacement, continues to be a challenging problem. Often, even with invasive diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of infection remains uncertain. This is a report on the first 55 Indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) images performed in 39 patients for the evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis. There were 40 negative and 15 positive Indium-111 WBC images. These were correlated with operative culture and tissue pathology, aspiration culture, and clinical findings. Thirty-eight images were performed for the evaluation of possible total joint sepsis (8 positive and 30 negative images); 17 for the evaluation of nonarthroplasty-related musculoskeletal sepsis (7 positive and 10 negative images). Overall, there were 13 true-positive, 39 true-negative, two false-positive, and one false-negative images. Indium-111 WBC imaging is a sensitive and specific means of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following total joint replacement

  11. TEM and XANES study of MOVPE grown InAIN layers with different indium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kret, S; Wolska, A; Klepka, M T; Letrouit, A; Ivaldi, F; Szczepańska, A; Carlin, J-F; Kaufmann, N A K; Grandjean, N

    2011-01-01

    We present structure and spatially resolved composition studies by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) of InAIN MOVPE (Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy) epilayers containing 16-27 at% of indium. Investigations of the In L 3 edge by synchrotron radiation absorption show a significant change of the post-edge structure depending on the indium content. We attribute this to the solubility limit and phase separation in this system. Our measurements suggest that the critical composition is 18% for our growth conditions. HRTEM cross-sectional and EDX investigations confirm such phase separation as well as the changing of the structure from 2D growth to columnar like growth for the sample with the highest indium content.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of two layered indium oxalates with 12-membered apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenxia; Zhou Yaming; Weng Linhong; Zhang Haoyu; Zhao Dongyuan

    2003-01-01

    Two layered indium oxalates, In(C 2 O 4 ) 2.5 (C 3 N 2 H 12 )(H 2 O) 3 , I, and In(C 2 O 4 ) 1.5 (H 2 O) 3 , II, have been hydrothermally synthesized. In I, the linkage between indium and oxalate units gives rise to a sheet with a rectangular 12-membered aperture (six indium atoms and six oxalate units). Indium atom of II has an unusual pentagonal bipyramidal coordination arrangement. The connectivity between indium and oxalate units forms a neutral puckered layer with 12- (along a-axis) and eight-membered (along b-axis) apertures. Crystal data for these two indium oxalates are as follows: I, triclinic, space group: P-1 (No. 2), a=8.725(3) A, b=9.170(3) A, c=9.901(3) A, α=98.101(4) deg. , β=97.068(4) deg. , γ=102.403(4) deg. , V=756.3(4) A 3 , Z=2, M=463.0(5), ρ calc =2.042 g/cm 3 , R 1 =0.0377, wR 2 =0.0834. II, monoclinic, space group: P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=10.203(5) A, b=6.638(1) A, c=11.152(7) A, β=95.649(4) deg. , V=751.7(4)A 3 , Z=4, M=300.9(0), ρ calc =2.659 g/cm 3 , R 1 =0.0229, wR 2 =0.0488. TG analyses indicate the water molecules of I can be removed at 150 deg. C. The dehydrated product retains structural integrity

  13. Determination of gold and indium in sea water by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio; Ohta, Naoichi

    1979-01-01

    A combination of electrodeposition on graphite with neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of gold and indium in sea water. At a potential of -0.70 V vs. the silver-silver chloride electrode, gold and indium were electrolyzed on to a graphite electrode (1.1 cm phi x 0.2 cm) from 100 ml of 0.5 M sodium chloride. Recovery yield of gold was constant at pH from 1 to 3 and was independent of the initial concentration of gold, (0.01 -- 1) ppb. For a 72-h electrolysis at pH 2 the recovery yield of gold was 92%, while that of indium was 32%. The graphite electrode was exposed to a thermal neutron flux of 5.1 x 10 11 or 1.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 : 5 min exposure for indium and 6 to 12 h for gold. After appropriate decay periods the activities of 198 Au and sup(116m)In were measured for 2000 s and 300 s, respectively, with a 4000-channel pulse-height analyser and a Ge(Li) detector. The total amount of gold in 1 l of a sea water sample (Tokyo Bay) was (0.023 +- 0.001)μg, in which nonelectrolyzable gold was estimated to be 0.005 μg. Indium concentration in the sample was too low to be determined by the present method. Detection limit for indium was 1 ppb. (author)

  14. Nanostructured antistatic and antireflective thin films made of indium tin oxide and silica over-coat layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Hong, Jeong-Jin; Yang, Seung-Man; Choi, Chul-Jin

    2010-08-01

    Stable dispersion of colloidal indium tin oxide nanoparticles was prepared by using indium tin oxide nanopowder, organic solvent, and suitable dispersants through attrition process. Various comminution parameters during the attrition step were studied to optimize the process for the stable dispersion of indium tin oxide sol. The transparent and conductive films were fabricated on glass substrate using the indium tin oxide sol by spin coating process. To obtain antireflective function, partially hydrolyzed alkyl silicate was deposited as over-coat layer on the pre-fabricated indium tin oxide film by spin coating technique. This double-layered structure of the nanostructured film was characterized by measuring the surface resistance and reflectance spectrum in the visible wavelength region. The final film structure was enough to satisfy the TCO regulations for EMI shielding purposes.

  15. Pyrolytically grown indium sulfide sensitized zinc oxide nanowires for solar water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komurcu, Pelin; Can, Emre Kaan; Aydin, Erkan; Semiz, Levent [Micro and Nanotechnology Graduate Program, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Gurol, Alp Eren; Alkan, Fatma Merve [Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Sankir, Mehmet; Sankir, Nurdan Demirci [Micro and Nanotechnology Graduate Program, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, sensitized with spray pyrolyzed indium sulfide, were obtained by chemical bath deposition. The XRD analysis indicated dominant evolution of hexagonal ZnO phase. Significant gain in photoelectrochemical current using ZnO nanowires is largely accountable to enhancement of the visible light absorption and the formation of heterostructure. The maximum photoconversion efficiency of 2.77% was calculated for the indium sulfide sensitized ZnO nanowire photoelectrodes. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Growth and Characterization of Indium Doped ZnO Nano wires Using Thermal Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrar Ismardi; Dee, C.F.; Majlis, B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO nano wires were grown on silicon substrate using vapor thermal deposition method without using any catalyst. Morphological structures were extensively investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and show that the nano wires have uniformly hexagonal nano structures with diameters less than 100 nm and lengths from one to a few microns. The sample was measured for elemental composition with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Zn, In and O elements were found on the sample. XRD spectrum of indium doped ZnO nano wires revealed that the nano wires have a high crystalline structure. (author)

  17. Atomic layer epitaxy of hematite on indium tin oxide for application in solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Riha, Shannon; Guo, Peijun; Emery, Jonathan D.

    2016-07-12

    A method to provide an article of manufacture of iron oxide on indium tin oxide for solar energy conversion. An atomic layer epitaxy method is used to deposit an uncommon bixbytite-phase iron (III) oxide (.beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3) which is deposited at low temperatures to provide 99% phase pure .beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 thin films on indium tin oxide. Subsequent annealing produces pure .alpha.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 with well-defined epitaxy via a topotactic transition. These highly crystalline films in the ultra thin film limit enable high efficiency photoelectrochemical chemical water splitting.

  18. The density of molten indium at temperatures up to 600 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alchagirov, B.B.; Khatsukov, A.M.; Mozgovoj, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The liquid indium density measurement is carried out through the pycnometric method within the temperature range of 434-600 K both by heating and cooling. The totality of the obtained results was processed through the approximating equation. The root-mean-square deviation of the experimental data from the approximating equation does not exceed ±0.01%. The high accuracy of the obtained results is noted. The deviation of the existing data on the liquid indium density from the approximating equation is shown graphically [ru

  19. Indium Tin Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells: Toward Commercial Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Krebs, Frederik C

    2014-01-01

    Polymer solar cell (PSC) is the latest of all photovoltaic technologies which currently lies at the brink of commercialization. The impetus for its rapid progress in the last decade has come from low-cost high throughput production possibility which in turn relies on the use of low-cost materials...... and vacuum-free manufacture. Indium tin oxide (ITO), the commonly used transparent conductor, imposes the majority of the cost of production of PSCs, limits flexibility, and is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning industry due to indium scarcity and the resulting large price fluctuations. As such...

  20. Post-deposition annealing effects in RF reactive magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M A; Herrero, J; Gutierrez, M T [Inst. de Energias Renovables (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    1992-05-01

    Indium tin oxide films have been grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of the deposition parameters on the properties of the films has been investigated and optimized, obtaining a value for the figure of merit of 6700 ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. As-grown indium tin oxide films were annealed in vacuum and O{sub 2} atmosphere. After these heat treatments the electro-optical properties were improved, with values for the resistivity of 1.9x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and the figure of merit of 26700 ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. (orig.).

  1. Phosphasalen indium complexes showing high rates and isoselectivities in rac-lactide polymerizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Dominic; White, Andrew J.P. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Forsyth, Craig M. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Bown, Mark [CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Williams, Charlotte K. [Department of Chemistry, Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-02

    Polylactide (PLA) is the leading bioderived polymer produced commercially by the metal-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactide. Control over tacticity to produce stereoblock PLA, from rac-lactide improves thermal properties but is an outstanding challenge. Here, phosphasalen indium catalysts feature high rates (30±3 m{sup -1} min{sup -1}, THF, 298 K), high control, low loadings (0.2 mol %), and isoselectivity (P{sub i}=0.92, THF, 258 K). Furthermore, the phosphasalen indium catalysts do not require any chiral additives. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. An optimized antibody-chelator conjugate for imaging of carcinoembryonic antigen with indium-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerdon, G.A.; Rogers, P.E.; Lombardo, C.M.; Schnobrich, K.E.; Melvin, S.L.; Tribby, I.I.E.; Stroupe, S.D.; Johnson, D.K.; Hobart, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen showing minimal cross-reactivity with blood cells and normal tissues was derivatized with benzylisothiocyanate derivatives of EDTA and DTPA. Seven chelators per immunoglobulin could be incorporated without loss of immunoreactivity. The resulting conjugates, labeled with indium-111, showed low liver uptake in animals. A cold kit, comprising the DTPA conjugate at a molarity of antibody bound chelator exceeding 1 x 10 -4 M, gave radiochemical yields of indium labeled antibody of ≥ 95% and was stable for 1 yr. (author)

  3. Effect of fabrication conditions on the properties of indium tin oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wei

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that indium tin oxide (ITO) crystalline powders are prepared by coprecipitation method. Fabrication conditions mainly as sintering temperature and Sn doping content are correlated with the phase, microstructure, infrared emissivity in and powder resistivity of indium tin oxides by means of x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and transmission electron microscope. The optimum sintering temperature of 1350°C and Sn doping content 6∼8wt% are determined. The application of ITO in the military camouflage field is proposed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease

  5. Continuum modelling of silicon diffusion in indium gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Henry Lee, Jr.

    A possible method to overcome the physical limitations experienced by continued transistor scaling and continue improvements in performance and power consumption is integration of III-V semiconductors as alternative channel materials for logic devices. Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) is such a material from the III-V semiconductor family, which exhibit superior electron mobilities and injection velocities than that of silicon. In order for InGaAs integration to be realized, contact resistances must be minimized through maximizing activation of dopants in this material. Additionally, redistribution of dopants during processing must be clearly understood and ultimately controlled at the nanometer-scale. In this work, the activation and diffusion behavior of silicon, a prominent n-type dopant in InGaAs, has been characterized and subsequently modelled using the Florida Object Oriented Process and Device Simulator (FLOOPS). In contrast to previous reports, silicon exhibits non-negligible diffusion in InGaAs, even for smaller thermal budget rapid thermal anneals (RTAs). Its diffusion is heavily concentration-dependent, with broadening "shoulder-like" profiles when doping levels exceed 1-3x1019cm -3, for both ion-implanted and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-grown cases. Likewise a max net-activation value of ˜1.7x1019cm -3 is consistently reached with enough thermal processing, regardless of doping method. In line with experimental results and several ab-initio calculation results, rapid concentration-dependent diffusion of Si in InGaAs and the upper limits of its activation is believed to be governed by cation vacancies that serve as compensating defects in heavily n-type regions of InGaAs. These results are ultimately in line with an amphoteric defect model, where the activation limits of dopants are an intrinsic limitation of the material, rather than governed by individual dopant species or their methods of incorporation. As a result a Fermi level dependent point

  6. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors based on indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhard, T.

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this work is a systematic study of quantum dot infrared photodetectors based on indium-phosphide substrate by means of various spectroscopic and electronic measurement methods in order to understand the physical and technological processes. This enables a concise definition of strategies in order to realize next generation devices in this material system and to gain overall progress in the research field of quantum dot infrared photodetectors. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by analytical and numerical simulations. The samples, grown by collaboration partners, were characterized using differential transmission and fast Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, with a special emphasis on the latter one. Therefore, samples both in wedged waveguide geometry and samples with gold coated mesa structures have been processed. A large part of the discussion is dedicated to the current voltage characteristic of the devices, due to its large importance for device optimization, i.e. the reduction of the dark current plays a crucial role in the research field of high temperature infrared photon-detection. Further, results of photoluminescence measurements, performed by collaboration partners, have been used in order to attain a more complete picture of the samples' electronic band structure and in order to obtain complementary information with respect to other measurement methods applied within the experimental work and the simulation of the structures. In agreement to the simulations, a photocurrent response was observed at 6 and at 12 μm up to a temperature of 80 K, depending on the samples' design. The principle of parameter scaling was applied to the samples, in order to assign physical effects either to details in the samples' design or to technological quality aspects, i.e. the doping level and the thickness of the capping layer was varied. In addition to that a quantum well was introduced within a series of samples in order to

  7. Influence of indium concentration and substrate temperature on the physical characteristics of chemically sprayed ZnO:In thin films deposited from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, L; Morales-Saavedra, O G; Cheang-Wong, J C; Acosta, D R; Banuelos, J G; Maldonado, A; Olvera, M de la L

    2006-01-01

    Chemically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:In) were deposited on glass substrates starting from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate. The influence of both the dopant concentration in the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the transport, morphology, composition, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the ZnO:In thin films were studied. The structure of all the ZnO:In thin films was polycrystalline, and variation in the preferential growth with the indium content in the solution was observed: from an initial (002) growth in films with low In content, switching to a predominance of (101) planes for intermediate dopant regime, and finally turning to a (100) growth for heavily doped films. The crystallite size was found to decrease with doping concentration and range from 36 to 23 nm. The film composition and the dopant concentration were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; these results showed that the films are almost stoichiometric ZnO. The optimum deposition conditions leading to conductive and transparent ZnO:In thin films were also found. In this way a resistivity of 4 x 10 -3 Ω cm and an average transmittance in the visible spectra of 85%, with a (101) preferential growth, were obtained in optimized ZnO:In thin films

  8. Generic Top-Functionalization of Patterned Antifouling Zwitterionic Polymers on Indium Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Giesbers, M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel surface engineering approach that combines photochemical grafting and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to attach zwitterionic polymer brushes onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The photochemically grafted hydroxyl-terminated organic

  9. Indium oxide thin film based ammonia gas and ethanol vapour sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    acetone and dried under an electric lamp (100 W). Thin films of indium oxide ... A λ-19, UV–VIS Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer, USA) was used for measuring .... tion of ammonia is observed through glowing of LED. LM3914, LED driver is ...

  10. Electrical properties of vacuum-annealed titanium-doped indium oxide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium-doped indium oxide (ITiO) films were deposited on Corning glass 2000 substrates at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering followed by vacuum post-annealing. With increasing deposition power, the as-deposited films showed an increasingly crystalline nature. As-deposited

  11. Vibrational spectra of the cyanodimethylmetal complexes of magnesium, aluminium, gallium, and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Schmock, F.; Klopsch, A.; Dehnicke, K.

    1975-01-01

    Tetramethylammonium cyanide reacts with an ethereal solution of dimethylmagnesium to form [NMe 4 ] 4 [Me 2 MgCN] 4 , the complex anion of which is isoelectronic with the known tetrameric dimethylaluminium cyanide [Me 2 AlCN] 4 . The vibrational spectra are reported together with those of the corresponding gallium and indium compounds. (orig.) [de

  12. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiger, L.S.; Fox, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma

  13. The measurement of the amplitude of de Haas-van Alphen oscillations in indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, J. de; Meredith, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A flux-gate magnetometer incorporating a superconducting flux transformer is described and its application to the measurement of de Haas-van Alphen oscillation amplitude is compared with conventional techniques. Measurements on the third zone Fermi surface of indium in magnetic fields of up to 4 T are given to show the advantages of the method. (author)

  14. Indium extraction by an acidic extractant associated or not with synergetic agents: importance of inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz-Grandmont, G.; Taheri, M.; Brunette, J.P.; Leroy, M.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Thermodynamic data are presented for indium extraction from low acidity media (pH value between 1 and 4) and at low concentration by a chelating extractant alone or associated to a solvatant or a lipophylic ammonium salt. Modifications in the nature and/or concentration of inorganic anions can transform the extraction process and allow to change metal distribution between phases [fr

  15. Effect of indium doping on zinc oxide films prepared by chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique which leads to the introduction of defects in ZnO. Indium doping ... elements like Al, Ga and In can be used as n-type dopant. (Kato et al 2002) .... (α is the absorption coefficient and hν the photon energy).

  16. Seasonal variability in the input of lead, barium and indium to Law Dome, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn-Nunes...[], L.J.; Vallelonga, Paul Travis; Loss, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been determined at monthly resolution in five Law Dome (coastal Eastern Antarctica) ice core sections dated from similar to 1757 AD to similar to 1898 AD. 'Natural' background Pb concentrations...

  17. Progress Report: Feasibility Study of an Indium Scintillator Solar Neutrino Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellefon, A. de; Barloutaud, R.; Borg, A.; Ernwein, J.; Mosca, L.

    1989-09-01

    In this document, we report on the progress made to demonstrate the feasibility of an experiment which would measure for the first time the two line sources of solar neutrinos resulting from electron capture by 7 Be and from the p-e-p reaction inside the sun. The detector under study consists of scintillator containing 10 tons of Indium

  18. The clinical utility of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the diagnoses of renal transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desir, G.V.; Bia, M.; Lange, R.C.; Smith, E.O.; Flye, W.; Kashgarian, M.; Schiff, M.; Ezekowitz, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    It is demonstrated that indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy is a highly accurate test for detecting acute untreated renal allograft rejection and it is shown that changes in platelet uptake can precede signs and symptoms of rejection by at least 48 hours. (author). 34 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Efficient Indium-Mediated Dehalogenation of Aromatics in Ionic Liquid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia C. Zacconi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient indium-mediated dehalogenation reaction of haloaromatics and haloheteroaromatics in ionic liquids has been studied. This method is simple and effective in the presence of [bmim]Br. Furthermore, this methodology is environmentally friendly compared with conventional ones.

  20. Modified method for labeling human platelets with indium-111 oxine using albumin density-gradient separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunting, R.W.; Callahan, R.J.; Finkelstein, S.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    When labeling platelets with indium-111 oxine, albumin density-gradient separation minimizes the time spent to resuspend those platelets that have been centrifuged against a hard surface. Labeling efficiency or platelet viability, as measured by platelet survival or aggregation with adenosine diphosphate, are not adversely affected

  1. Physical properties of pyrolytically sprayed tin-doped indium oxide coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitjema, H.; Elich, J.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide coatings obviously depend on a number of production parameters. This dependence has been studied to obtain a more general insight into the relationships between the various coating properties. The coatings have been produced by spray

  2. Preparation of imaging kits locally using indium-113 as a suitable short-lived generator product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Hamid Seidna

    1999-05-01

    In this study forty patients are selected to do brain , lung , bone , liver and spleen imaging. Patients were selected carefully in the bases of the imaging history disorders. Kits prepared and kept frozen in (- 20 degree C) eluent the generator and indium 113 products were added to each kit and imaging sorted out using gamma camera and analysed statistically

  3. Recovery of galium and indium from liquid crystal displays and CIGS photovailtaic modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisselink, R.; Steeghs, W.; Brouwer, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The increasing amount of electronics, such as consumer products and green technologies (e.g. solar PV cells) increases the demand of metals such as indium and gallium. This increasing demand together with the dependency on import of these metals drive research on recycling of waste

  4. First-principles analysis of structural and opto-electronic properties of indium tin oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Madhvendra Nath; Shida, Kazuhito; Sahara, Ryoji; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2012-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and DFT + U (DFT with on-site Coulomb repulsion corrections) calculations have been carried out to study the structural and opto-electronic properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) for both the oxidized and reduced environment conditions. Some of the results obtained by DFT calculations differ from the experimental observations, such as uncertain indication for the site preference of tin atom to replace indium atom at b-site or d-site, underestimation of local inward relaxation in the first oxygen polyhedra around tin atom, and also the improper estimation of electronic density of states and hence resulting in an inappropriate optical spectra of ITO. These discrepancies of theoretical outcomes with experimental observations in ITO arise mainly due to the underestimation of the cationic 4d levels within standard DFT calculations. Henceforth, the inclusion of on-site corrections within DFT + U framework significantly modifies the theoretical results in better agreement to the experimental observations. Within this framework, our calculations show that the indium b-site is preferential site over d-site for tin atom substitution in indium oxide under both the oxidized and reduced conditions. Moreover, the calculated average inward relaxation value of 0.16 Å around tin atom is in good agreement with the experimental value of 0.18 Å. Furthermore, DFT + U significantly modify the electronic structure and consequently induce modifications in the calculated optical spectra of ITO.

  5. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show

  6. First heats of cerium solution in liquid aluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamshchikov, L.F.; Lebedev, V.A.; Nichkov, I.F.; Raspopin, S.P.; Shein, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Cerium solution heats in liquid alluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth are determined in high temperature mixing calorimeter with an isothermal shell. The statistical analysis carried out proves that values of cerium solution heat in fusible metals obtained by the methods of electric motive forces and calorimety give a satisfactory agreement

  7. Study of the cerebro-spinal fluid circulation indium 111 labelled DTPA. Report of 300 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, R.; Askienazy, S.; Mathieu, E.; Moretti, J.-L.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the C.S.F. circulation by intrathecal injection of radioactive tracers is a usual technique of neurological exploration. Indium-111 DTPA has numerous advantages for this type of study. It is a chelating agent, the renal clearance of which is rapid and which has no toxicity at the dose injected. Indium-111 is a cyclotron product with a half-life (2.8 days) compatible with the duration of the examination. Finally the dose of radioactivity delivered by this isotope is less than that of iodine 131, Technetium 99m, and ytterbium 169. In normal subjects after injection by the lumbar route, the average biological half-life measured by external counting lies between 20 and 28 hours. A study of the circulation of the C.S.F. is particularly useful in patients suspected of hydrocephalus. It permits finer diagnosis and shows the indication and type of by pass operation that may be necessary. An increase in the biological half-life of indium 111-DTPA seems to be a good indication for such an operation. An experience of 300 patients has shown the interest of the use of Indium 111-DTPA which now seems to be the best radio-isotope for the study of the subarachnoid space [fr

  8. Ion implantation of Indium in Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destefanis, G.L.

    1984-05-01

    In this paper, the author shows that it is possible to produce n-p junctions in Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te by ion implantation and in which the N zone is not induced by the irradiation defects but by the electrically activated (annealing) indium trace amounts [fr

  9. Growth of CdS thin films on indium coated glass substrates via chemical bath deposition and subsequent air annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Kumar, Kamlesh; Singh, Balwant Kr; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata, E-mail: neillohit@yahoo.co.in

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS film grown on indium coated glass substrates via CBD and subsequent annealing. • Disappearance of the indium (1 1 2) peak confirms interdiffusion at 300 °C. • SIMS indicates the subsequent interdiffusion at progressively higher temperature. • Composite In–CdS layer showed lower photosensitivity compared to pure CdS. - Abstract: In the present work attempts were made to synthesize indium doped CdS films by fabricating In/CdS bilayers using CBD-CdS on vacuum evaporated In thin films and subsequent air annealing. 135 nm CdS films were grown onto 20 nm and 35 nm indium coated glass substrate employing chemical bath deposition technique. The In/CdS bilayers thus formed were subjected to heat treatment at the temperatures between 200 and 400 °C for 4 min in the muffle furnace to facilitate indium to diffuse into the CdS films. XRD pattern ascertained no noticeable shift in lattice constant implying grain boundary metal segregation, while secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the diffusion profile of indium into CdS matrices. Mass spectrometry results showed that substantial diffusion of indium had been taken place within CdS at 400 °C. Dark and photocurrent with different illumination time were measured to ascertain the photosensitivity of pure and composite CdS films.

  10. Gas chromatography of indium in macroscopic and carrier-free amounts using quartz and gold as stationary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serov, A.; Eichler, R.; Tuerler, A.; Wittwer, D.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Radiochemie und Umweltchemie; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. fuer Chemie und Biochemie; Dressler, R.; Piguet, D.; Voegele, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Radiochemie und Umweltchemie

    2011-07-01

    The chemical investigation of E113 is likely to become soon feasible. The determination of chemical properties of carrier-free amounts of the lighter homologues of element 113, especially indium and thallium, allows designing experimental set-ups and selecting experimental conditions suitable for performing these studies. Here, we present investigations of the interaction of indium species with quartz and gold surfaces. Deposition temperatures as well as enthalpies of adsorption were determined for indium T{sub dep} = 739 {+-} 20 C (-{delta}H{sub ads}(In) = 227 {+-} 10 kJ mol{sup -1}) and for indium hydroxide T{sub dep} = 250 {+-} 20 C (-{delta}H{sub ads}(InOH)= 124 {+-}10 kJ mol{sup -1}) respectively, on quartz. In case of adsorption of indium on a gold surface only a lower limit of the deposition temperature was established T{sub dep} > 980 C (-{delta}H{sub ads}(In) {>=} 315 {+-} 10 kJ mol{sup -1}). Investigations of macroscopic amounts of indium in thermosublimation experiments at similar experimental conditions were instrumental to establish a tentative speciation of the observed indium species. (orig.)

  11. Effect of heat treatment on anodic activation of aluminium by trace element indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graver, Brit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Nisancioglu, Kemal, E-mail: kemal.nisancioglu@material.ntnu.n [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Indium segregation activates AlIn alloy surface anodically in chloride solution. {yields} Enrichment of In on Al surface can occur thermally by heat treatment at 300 {sup o}C. {yields} Increasing temperature homogenises indium in aluminium reducing anodic activation. {yields} Indium can activate AlIn surface by segregating through dealloying of aluminium. {yields} Anodic activation is caused by AlIn amalgam formation at aluminium surface. - Abstract: The presence of trace elements in Group IIIA-VA is known to activate aluminium anodically in chloride environment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface segregation of trace element In by heat treatment and resulting surface activation. Model binary AlIn alloys, containing 20 and 1000 ppm by weight of In, were characterized after heat treatment at various temperatures by use of glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, electron microscopy and electrochemical polarization. Heat treatment for 1 h at 300 {sup o}C gave significant segregation of discrete In particles (thermal segregation), which activated the surface. Indium in solid solution with aluminium, obtained by 1 h heat treatment at 600 {sup o}C, also activated by surface segregation of In on alloy containing 1000 ppm In, resulting from the selective dissolution of the aluminium component during anodic oxidation (anodic segregation). The effect of anodic segregation was reduced by decreasing indium concentration in solid solution; it had negligible effect at the 20 ppm level. The segregated particles were thought to form a liquid phase alloy with aluminium during anodic polarization, which in turn, together with the chloride in the solution destabilized the oxide.

  12. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2012-05-22

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive layer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, a power conversion efficiency of 3.67% was obtained, a value comparable to devices having sputtered ITO electrode. Surface roughness and optical efficiency are improved when using the mixed TiO2−x–ITO electrode. The consumption of less indium allows for lower fabrication cost of such mixed thin filmelectrode.

  13. [Mechanism of renal elimination of 2 elements of group IIIA of the periodic table : aluminum and indium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, P

    1981-01-05

    Aluminium and indium, two elements of group IIIA of the periodic table, are concentrated by the kidney inside lysosomes of proximal tubule cell. In these lysosomes, aluminium and indium are precipitated as non-soluble phosphate salts and these precipitates are then expelled in the tubular lumen and eliminated with the urinary flow. These data have been visualized by analytical microscopy (ion microscopy and X ray microanalysis). Local acid phosphatases are assumed to permit the concentration of aluminium and indium salts inside the lysosomes.

  14. Indium telluride nanotubes: Solvothermal synthesis, growth mechanism, and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liyan [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan, Shancheng, E-mail: yansc@njupt.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Lu, Tao; Shi, Yi; Wang, Jianyu [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Fan [School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2014-03-15

    hydrogen storage, compared with the nanowires. The nanotube device also has a broad light detection range from 300 nm to 1100 nm, covering the UV–visible–NIR region. This good performance of In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes may enable significant advancements of new photodetection and photosensing applications. Highlights: • The In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotube device also has a broad light detection range from 300 nm to 1100 nm. • The nanotube is 137.85 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which makes it suitable for gas sensing and hydrogen storage. • A possible growth mechanism of the indium telluride nanotubes was proposed. • In addition, no In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes have been reported until now.

  15. A novel electrode surface fabricated by directly attaching gold nanoparticles onto NH2+ ions implanted-indium tin oxide substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenyao; Jiao Jiao; Chen Qunxia; Xia Ji; Li Shuoqi; Hu Jingbo; Li Qilong

    2010-01-01

    A new type of gold nanoparticle attached to a NH 2 + ion implanted-indium tin oxide surface was fabricated without using peculiar binder molecules, such as 3-(aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane. A NH 2 /indium tin oxide film was obtained by implantation at an energy of 80 keV with a fluence of 5 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The gold nanoparticle-modified film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques and compared with a modified bare indium tin oxide surface and 3-(aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane linked surface, which exhibited a relatively low electron transfer resistance and high electrocatalytic activity. The results demonstrate that NH 2 + ion implanted-indium tin oxide films can provide an important route to immobilize nanoparticles, which is attractive in developing new biomaterials.

  16. Determination of indium in geological materials by electrothermal-atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with a tungsten-impregnated graphite furance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Meier, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The sample is fused with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 15% (v/v) hydrobromic acid. Iron(III) is reduced with ascorbic acid to avoid its coextraction with indium as the bromide into methyl isobutyl ketone. Impregnation of the graphite furnace with sodium tungstate, and the presence of lithium metaborate and ascorbic acid in the reaction medium improve the sensitivity and precision. The limits of determination are 0.025-16 mg kg-1 indium in the sample. For 22 geological reference samples containing more than 0.1 mg kg-1 indium, relative standard deviations ranged from 3.0 to 8.5% (average 5.7%). Recoveries of indium added to various samples ranged from 96.7 to 105.6% (average 100.2%). ?? 1984.

  17. Prediction of crack density and electrical resistance changes in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    We present unified predictions for the crack onset strain, evolution of crack density, and changes in electrical resistance in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading. We propose a damage mechanics model to quantify and predict

  18. Advanced characterization techniques of nonuniform indium distribution within InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, D.; Florescu, D.I.; Lee, D.S.; Ramer, J.C.; Parekh, A.; Merai, V.; Li, S.; Begarney, M.J.; Armour, E.A.; Gardner, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nonuniform indium distribution within InGaN/GaN single quantum well (SQW) structures with nanoscale islands grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been characterized by advanced characterization techniques. Robinson backscattered electron (BSE) measurements show cluster-like BSE contrast of high brightness regions, which are not centered at small dark pits in a SQW structure of spiral growth mode. By comparing with the secondary electron (SE) images, the bright cluster areas from the BSE images were found to have higher indium content compared to the surrounding dark areas. Temperature dependant photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows typical ''S-shape'' curve, which shows good correlation with nonuniform indium distribution from BSE measurement. Optical evaluation of the samples show increased PL slope efficiency of the spiral mode SQW, which can be attributed to the presence of Indium inhomogeneities. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Epitaxy-enabled vapor-liquid-solid growth of tin-doped indium oxide nanowires with controlled orientations

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde; Turner, Stuart G.; Yang, Ping; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Lebedev, Oleg I.; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    challenges in reliably achieving these goals of orientation-controlled nanowire synthesis and assembly. Here we report that growth of planar, vertical and randomly oriented tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires can be realized on yttria-stabilized zirconia

  20. Heat-up synthesis of Ag–In–S and Ag–In–S/ZnS nanocrystals: Effect of indium precursors on their optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Siqi; Ahmadiantehrani, Mojtaba; Zhao, Jialong; Zhu, Shaihong; Mamalis, Athanasios G.; Zhu, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-free I–III–VI nanocrystals (NCs) have recently attracted much research interests due to their excellent optical properties and low toxicity. In this work, with a simple heat-up synthetic system to prepare high quality Ag–In–S (AIS) NCs and their core/shell structures (AIS/ZnS NCs), we investigated the effect of different indium precursors (indium acetate and indium chloride) on NC optical properties. The measurements on photoluminescence spectra of AIS NCs show that the photoluminescence peak-wavelength of AIS NCs using indium acetate is in the range from 596 to 604 nm, and that of AIS NCs using indium chloride is from 641 to 660 nm. AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium acetate present around 15% and 40% QYs, and both AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium chloride present around 31% QYs. The photoluminescence decay study indicates that the lifetime parameters of AIS and AIS/ZnS using indium chloride are 2–4 times larger than those of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium acetate. Moreover, AIS NCs using indium chloride have a slower photobleaching dynamics than AIS NCs using indium acetate, and ZnS shell coating on both types of AIS NCs significantly enhances their photostability against UV exposure. We believe that the unique optical properties of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs will open an avenue for these materials to be employed in broad electronic or biomedical applications. - Highlights: • High quality of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs were prepared by heat-up. • Different indium precursors in AIS synthesis can impact AIS optical properties. • The impacted optical properties include emission colors, brightness and life time. • The reason why different indium precursors impact optical properties was explored. • The prepared NCs may have broad electronic and biomedical applications.

  1. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, Cheonan 331-717 (Korea, Republic of); Fatih Kilicaslan, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu (Turkey); Lee, Jong-Hyeon [Graduate School of Green Energy Technology and Department of Nanomaterials Engineering, Chungnam National University, 79 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Dajeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hyun-Seon [Advanced Materials and Processing Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Yongin 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, Cheonan 331-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► In this study, we recovered indium from a waste LCD panel. ► The ITO glass was milled to obtain micron size particles in a HEBM machine. ► Effect of particle size of ITO glass on the amount of dissolved In was investigated. ► In a very short time, a considerable amount of In was recovered. ► Amount of HCl in acid solution was decreased to 40 vol.%. - Abstract: In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigation on indium tin oxide films under cathodic polarization in NaOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wenjiao; Cao, Si; Yang, Yanze; Wang, Hao; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of indium tin oxide (ITO) films under the cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The as-received and the cathodically polarized ITO films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction for morphological, compositional and structural studies. The results showed that ITO films underwent a corrosion process during the cathodic polarization and the main component of the corrosion products was body-centered cubic indium. The electrochemical impedance parameters were related to the effect of the cathodic polarization on the ITO specimens. The capacitance of ITO specimens increased, while the charge transfer resistance and the inductance decreased with the increase of the polarization time. The proposed mechanism indicated that the corrosion products (metallic indium) were firstly formed during the cathodic polarization and then absorbed on the surface of the ITO film. As the surface was gradually covered by indium particles, the corrosion process was suppressed. - Highlights: ► Cathodic polarization of indium tin oxide (ITO) in 0.1 M NaOH. ► Cathodic polarization studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ► ITO underwent a corrosion attack during cathodic polarization, indium was observed. ► Electrochemical parameters of ITO were obtained using equivalent electrical circuit. ► A corrosion mechanism is proposed.

  3. Synthesis of indium oxide cubic crystals by modified hydrothermal route for application in room temperature flexible ethanol sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetha, M., E-mail: seetha.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram Dt 603 203 (India); Meena, P. [Department of Physics, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [DRDO-BU Centre for Life Sciences, Bharathiar University Campus, Coimbatore (India); Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 014 (India); Masuda, Yoshitake [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Senthil, K. [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Suwon Campus), Cheoncheon-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time HMT is used in the preparation of indium oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HMT itself acts as base for the precursor and results in cubic indium hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified hydrothermal route used for the preparation of cubic indium oxide crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As a new approach a composite film synthesized with prepared indium oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Film showed good response to ethanol vapours with quick response and recovery times. - Abstract: Indium oxide cubic crystals were prepared by using hexamethylenetetramine and indium chloride without the addition of any structure directing agents. The chemical route followed in the present work was a modified hydrothermal synthesis. The average crystallite size of the prepared cubes was found to be 40 nm. A blue emission at 418 nm was observed at room temperature when the sample was excited with a 380 nm Xenon lamp. This emission due to oxygen vacancies made the material suitable for gas sensing applications. The synthesized material was made as a composite film with polyvinyl alcohol which was more flexible than the films prepared on glass substrates. This flexible film was used as a sensing element and tested with ethanol vapours at room temperature. The film showed fast response as well as recovery to ethanol vapours with a sensor response of about 1.4 for 100 ppm of the gas.

  4. Unusual tensile behaviour of fibre-reinforced indium matrix composite and its in-situ TEM straining observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xin; Peng, Jianchao; Zandén, Carl; Yang, Yanping; Mu, Wei; Edwards, Michael; Ye, Lilei; Liu, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Indium-based thermal interface materials are superior in thermal management applications of electronic packaging compared to their polymer-based counterparts. However, pure indium has rather low tensile strength resulting in poor reliability. To enhance the mechanical properties of such a material, a new composite consisting of electrospun randomly oriented continuous polyimide fibres and indium was fabricated. The composite has been characterised by tensile tests and in-situ transmission electron microscopy straining observations. It is shown that the composite's ultimate tensile strength at 20 °C is five times higher than that of pure indium, and the strength of the composite exceeds the summation of strengths of the individual components. Furthermore, contrary to most metallic matrix materials, the ultimate tensile strength of the composite decreases with the increased strain rate in a certain range. The chemical composition and tensile fracture of the novel composite have been analysed comprehensively by means of scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A strengthening mechanism based on mutually reinforcing structures formed by the indium and surrounding fibres is also presented, underlining the effect of compressing at the fibre/indium interfaces by dislocation pileups and slip pinning.

  5. Synthesis of indium oxide cubic crystals by modified hydrothermal route for application in room temperature flexible ethanol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetha, M.; Meena, P.; Mangalaraj, D.; Masuda, Yoshitake; Senthil, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► For the first time HMT is used in the preparation of indium oxide. ► HMT itself acts as base for the precursor and results in cubic indium hydroxide. ► Modified hydrothermal route used for the preparation of cubic indium oxide crystals. ► As a new approach a composite film synthesized with prepared indium oxide. ► Film showed good response to ethanol vapours with quick response and recovery times. - Abstract: Indium oxide cubic crystals were prepared by using hexamethylenetetramine and indium chloride without the addition of any structure directing agents. The chemical route followed in the present work was a modified hydrothermal synthesis. The average crystallite size of the prepared cubes was found to be 40 nm. A blue emission at 418 nm was observed at room temperature when the sample was excited with a 380 nm Xenon lamp. This emission due to oxygen vacancies made the material suitable for gas sensing applications. The synthesized material was made as a composite film with polyvinyl alcohol which was more flexible than the films prepared on glass substrates. This flexible film was used as a sensing element and tested with ethanol vapours at room temperature. The film showed fast response as well as recovery to ethanol vapours with a sensor response of about 1.4 for 100 ppm of the gas.

  6. Related electrical, superconducting and structural characteristics of low temperature indium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belevtsev, B.I.; Pilipenko, V.V.; Yatsuk, L.Ya.

    1981-01-01

    Reported are results of a complex study of electrical, superconducting and structural properties of indium films vacuum evaporated onto a liquid helium-cooled substrate. Structural electron diffraction investigations gave a better insight into the general features of the annealing during the warming-up of cold-deposited films. It is found that the annealing of indium films to about 80 to 100 K entails an irreversible growth of interplanar separations due to decreasing inhomogeneous microstresses. As the films are warmed from 100 to 300 K, the principal annealing processes are determined by crystallite growth and development of dominating orientation. The changes in the residual resistance and in Tsub(c) with warming the cold-deported films are explained on the base of structural data obtained. In particular, a direct relationship is revealed between the crystallite size and Tsub(c) [ru

  7. Optical emission spectroscopy during fabrication of indium-tin-oxynitride films by RF-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koufaki, M.; Sifakis, M.; Iliopoulos, E.; Pelekanos, N.; Modreanu, M.; Cimalla, V.; Ecke, G.; Aperathitis, E.

    2006-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and indium-tin-oxynitride (ITON) films have been deposited on glass by rf-sputtering from an ITO target, using Ar plasma and N 2 plasma, respectively, and different rf-power. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed to identify the species present in the plasma and to correlate them with the properties of the ITO and ITON thin films. Emission lines of ionic In could only be detected in N 2 plasma, whereas in the Ar plasma additional lines corresponding to atomic In and InO, were detected. The deposition rate of thin films was correlated with the In species, rather than the nitrogen species, emission intensity in the plasma. The higher resistivity and lower carrier concentration of the ITON films, as compared to the respective properties of the ITO films, were attributed to the incorporation of nitrogen, instead of oxygen, in the ITON structure

  8. Extraction of aluminium, gallium and indium by tri-n-octylamine from citric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shova, T.A.; Kaplunova, A.M.; Ershova, N.I.; Varshal, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on aluminium, gallium and indium distribution in triocylam ine(toa)-citric acid system depending on pH of aqueous solution, concentration of components and foreign electrolytes. The methods of equilibrium shift, compe ting ions and isomolar series were used to find the component ratio in toa: Me: citric acid complexes equal to 3:1:2. The equation describing the extraction of citrate gallium, indium and aluminium complexes by trioctylamine was suggested. Using the difference in extraction behavior of the elements of aluminium, yttri um and lanthanum subgroup the extraction-chromatographic method of their separat ion, applied for the analysis of optical glasses was developed. The method is c haracterized by satisfactory reproduction, simplicity and expre

  9. Indium-oxide nanoparticles for RRAM devices compatible with CMOS back-end-off-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Pérez, Edgar A. A.; Guenery, Pierre-Vincent; Abouzaid, Oumaïma; Ayadi, Khaled; Brottet, Solène; Moeyaert, Jérémy; Labau, Sébastien; Baron, Thierry; Blanchard, Nicholas; Baboux, Nicolas; Militaru, Liviu; Souifi, Abdelkader

    2018-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) devices based on nanoparticles in MIM structures. Our approach is based on the use of indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix using CMOS-full-compatible fabrication processes in view of back-end-off-line integration for non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. A bipolar switching behavior has been observed using current-voltage measurements (I-V) for all devices. Very high ION/IOFF ratios have been obtained up to 108. Our results provide insights for further integration of In2O3 nanoparticles-based devices for NVM applications. He is currently a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Institute of Nanotechnologies of Lyon (INL), INSA de Lyon, France, in the Electronics Department. His current research include indium oxide nanoparticles for non-volatile memory applications, and the integrations of these devices in CMOS BEOL.

  10. Effect of Temperature on Nucleation of Nanocrystalline Indium Tin Oxide Synthesized by Electron-Beam Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Zhao, Yujun; Shen, Jianxing; Xu, Xiangang

    2017-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely applied as a transparent conductive layer and optical window in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and touch screens. In this paper, crystalline nano-sized ITO dendrites are obtained using an electron-beam evaporation technique. The surface morphology of the obtained ITO was studied for substrate temperatures of 25°C, 130°C, 180°C, and 300°C. Nano-sized crystalline dendrites were synthesized only at a substrate temperature of 300°C. The dendrites had a cubic structure, confirmed by the results of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of the nano-crystalline dendrites could be explained by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth model. The catalysts of the VLS process were indium and tin droplets, confirmed by varying the substrate temperature, which further influenced the nucleation of the ITO dendrites.

  11. Compton scattering studies of the electron momentum distribution in indium phosphide

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, A; Guin, R; Chatterjee, A K

    1999-01-01

    The electron momentum anisotropy of indium phosphide has been studied by measuring the directional Compton profiles of indium phosphide single crystals with the use of radiation from an sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am gamma source. Three different samples, cut along the [100], [110] and [111] planes, were used. The experimental anisotropy has been compared with the results based on the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO) method. The agreement is very good with our theoretical results. It is found that the extrema appearing in the dependences on q of the anisotropies have an intimate connection with the bonding properties of the semiconductor. A self-consistent, all-electron, local density calculation for the partial density of states, total density of states and the charge analysis is also presented here.

  12. Indium-defect interactions in FCC and BCC metals studied using the modified embedded atom method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics, Geology, and Engineering Technology (United States)

    2016-12-15

    With the aim of developing a transferable potential set capable of predicting defect formation, defect association, and diffusion properties in a wide range of intermetallic compounds, the present study was undertaken to test parameterization strategies for determining empirical pair-wise interaction parameters in the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) developed by Baskes and coworkers. This report focuses on indium-solute and indium-vacancy interactions in FCC and BCC metals, for which a large set of experimental data obtained from perturbed angular correlation measurements is available for comparison. Simulation results were found to be in good agreement with experimental values after model parameters had been adjusted to reproduce as best as possible the following two sets of quantities: (1) lattice parameters, formation enthalpies, and bulk moduli of hypothetical equiatomic compounds with the NaCl crystal structure determined using density functional theory and (2) dilute solution enthalpies in metals as predicted by Miedema’s semi-empirical model.

  13. Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. [Deptartmento de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Ave Inb Battouta, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-11-27

    Spray pyrolysis process has been used to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin-doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, structural and optical properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrate. The morphology of the surface as a function of the substrate temperature has been studied using atomic force microscopy. XRD has shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have a preferred orientation (4 0 0). Indium tin oxide layers with low resistivity values around 4x10{sup -5} {Omega} cm and transmission coefficients in the visible and near-infrared range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained

  14. Transparent indium zinc oxide thin films used in photovoltaic cells based on polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besleaga, Cristina; Ion, L.; Ghenescu, Veta; Socol, G.; Radu, A.; Arghir, Iulia; Florica, Camelia; Antohe, S.

    2012-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were obtained using pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared by ablation of targets with In concentrations, In/(In + Zn), of 80 at.%, at low substrate temperatures under reactive atmosphere. IZO films were used as transparent electrodes in polymer-based – poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 1:1 blend – photovoltaic cells. The action spectra measurements revealed that IZO-based photovoltaic structures have performances comparable with those using indium–tin–oxide as transparent electrode. - Highlights: ► Indium zinc oxide films were grown by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. ► The films had large free carrier density and reasonably high mobility. ► These films fit for transparent electrodes in polymer-based photovoltaic cells.

  15. Silver-indium-cadmium control rod behaviour during a severe reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.; Jenkins, R.A.; Nichols, A.L.; Rowe, N.A.; Simpson, J.A.H.

    1986-04-01

    An alloy of silver, indium and cadmium is commonly used as control rod material in pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The behaviour of this alloy has been studied in a series of experiments using an induction furnace to achieve temperatures up to 1900K. The aerosols released from overheated clad and unclad control rod samples have been characterised in both steam and inert atmospheres. Mass balance experiments have been undertaken to determine the distribution of the control rod alloy constituents following rupture of the cladding, and this work has been supported by thermogravimetric studies of silver-indium mixtures. Metallographic studies were also undertaken to assess the failure mode of the stainless steel cladding and the interaction of the molten alloy with Zircaloy. The results of this work are discussed in terms of aerosol/vapour behaviour during severe reactor accidents. (author)

  16. On the deposition parameters of indium oxide (IO) and tin oxide (TO) by reactive evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.; Abdullah, A.H.; Salam, R.

    1990-01-01

    Thin films of tin oxide (TO) and indium oxide (IO) are prepared by the reactive evaporation technique, where indium or tin sources are evaporated and made to react with oxygen gas injected close to the substrate. In both depositions a substrate temperature of 380 0 C and a chamber pressure of 2x10 -5 mbar are utilized, but however different oxygen flow rates has been maintained. For TO, the deposition rate is found to be constant up to about 55 minutes of deposition time with a deposition rate of about 0.10 A/s, but for longer deposition time the deposition rate increases rapidly up to about 0.30 A/s. The IO displays a higher deposition rate of about 0.80 A/s over a deposition time 30 minutes, beyond which the deposition rate increases gradually

  17. Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis using autologous indium-III-labelled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, A.; Hussey, J.K.; Smith, F.W.; Dendy, P.P.; Bennett, B.; Douglas, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-eight patients who had undergone surgical reduction of a fractured neck of femur or in whom deep vein thrombosis was suspected clinically were studied by ascending phlebography and imaging after injection of autologous indium-III-labelled platelets to assess the accuracy and value of the radioisotopic technique in diagnosing deep vein thrombosis. Imaging was performed with a wide-field gammacamera linked with data display facilities. Phlebography showed thrombi in 26 out of 54 limbs examined and a thrombus in the inferior vena cava of one patient; imaging the labelled platelets showed the thrombi in 24 of the 26 limbs and the thrombus in the inferior vena cava. The accumulation of indium-III at sites corresponding to those at which venous thrombi have been shown phlebographically indicates that this radioisotopic technique is a useful addition to methods already available for the detection of deep vein thrombosis. (author)

  18. Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis using autologous indium-III-labelled platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenech, A.; Hussey, J.K.; Smith, F.W.; Dendy, P.P.; Bennett, B.; Douglas, A.S. (Aberdeen Univ. (UK))

    1981-03-28

    Forty-eight patients who had undergone surgical reduction of a fractured neck of femur or in whom deep vein thrombosis was suspected clinically were studied by ascending phlebography and imaging after injection of autologous indium-III-labelled platelets to assess the accuracy and value of the radioisotopic technique in diagnosing deep vein thrombosis. Imaging was performed with a wide-field gamma camera linked with data display facilities. Phlebography showed thrombi in 26 out of 54 limbs examined and a thrombus in the inferior vena cava of one patient; imaging the labelled platelets showed the thrombi in 24 of the 26 limbs and the thrombus in the inferior vena cava. The accumulation of indium-III at sites corresponding to those at which venous thrombi have been shown phlebographically indicates that this radioisotopic technique is a useful addition to methods already available for the detection of deep vein thrombosis.

  19. A sol-gel method to synthesize indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhua Li; Xiujuan xu; Xin Yin; Chunzhong Li; Jianrong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel sol-gel method.Granulated indium and tin were dissolved in HNO3 and partially complexed with citric acid.A sol-gel process was induced when tertiary butyl alcohol was added dropwise to the above solution.ITO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 18.5 nm and surface area of 32.6 m2/g were obtained after the gel was heat-treated at 700 C.The ITO nanoparticles showed good sinterability,the starting sintering temperature decreased sharply to 900 C,and the 1400 C sintered pellet had a density of 98.1 % of theoretical density (TD).

  20. Mass measurements of neutron-rich indium isotopes toward the N =82 shell closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, C.; Klawitter, R.; Leistenschneider, E.; Lascar, D.; Barquest, B. R.; Finlay, A.; Foster, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Hunt, P.; Kootte, B.; Lan, Y.; Paul, S. F.; Phan, M. L.; Reiter, M. P.; Schultz, B.; Short, D.; Andreoiu, C.; Brodeur, M.; Dillmann, I.; Gwinner, G.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K. G.; Dilling, J.

    2018-02-01

    Precise mass measurements of the neutron-rich In-130125 isotopes have been performed with the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer. TITAN's electron beam ion trap was used to charge breed the ions to charge state q =13 + thus providing the necessary resolving power to measure not only the ground states but also isomeric states at each mass number. In this paper, the properties of the ground states are investigated through a series of mass differentials, highlighting trends in the indium isotopic chain as compared to its proton-magic neighbor, tin (Z =50 ). In addition, the energies of the indium isomers are presented. The (8-) level in 128In is found to be 78 keV lower than previously thought and the (21 /2- ) isomer in 127In is shown to be lower than the literature value by more than 150 keV.

  1. Ab-initio modelling of thermodynamics and kinetics of point defects in indium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoston, Peter; Klein, Andreas; Albe, Karsten; Erhart, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The electrical and optical properties of indium oxide films strongly vary with the processing parameters. Especially the oxygen partial pressure and temperature determine properties like electrical conductivity, composition and transparency. Since this material owes its remarkable properties like the intrinsic n-type conductivity to its defect chemistry, it is important to understand both, the equilibrium defect thermodynamics and kinetics of the intrinsic point defects. In this contribution we present a defect model based on DFT total energy calculations using the GGA+U method. Further, the nudged elastic band method is employed in order to obtain a set of migration barriers for each defect species. Due to the complicated crystal structure of indium oxide a Kinetic Monte-Carlo algorithm was implemented, which allows to determine diffusion coefficients. The bulk tracer diffusion constant is predicted as a function of oxygen partial pressure, Fermi level and temperature for the pure material

  2. Optoelectronic and magnetic properties of Mn-doped indium tin oxide: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath Tripathi, Madhvendra; Saeed Bahramy, Mohammad; Shida, Kazuhito; Sahara, Ryoji; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2012-10-01

    The manganese doped indium tin oxide (ITO) has integrated magnetics, electronics, and optical properties for next generation multifunctional devices. Our first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the manganese atom replaces b-site indium atom, located at the second coordination shell of the interstitial oxygen in ITO. It is also found that both anti-ferromagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviors are realizable. The calculated magnetic moment of 3.95μB/Mn as well as the high transmittance of ˜80% for a 150 nm thin film of Mn doped ITO is in good agreement with the experimental data. The inclusion of on-site Coulomb repulsion corrections via DFT + U methods turns out to improve the optical behavior of the system. The optical behaviors of this system reveal its suitability for the magneto-opto-electronic applications.

  3. Electrical, optical and photoelectric properties of cadmium sulfide monocrystals doped by indium and irradiated by electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Davidyuk, G E; Manzhara, V S

    2002-01-01

    One studied effect of irradiation by E = 1.2 MeV energy and PHI = 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 dose fast electrons on electrical, optical and photoelectrical CdS single-crystals doped by In. On the basis of analysis of the experimental results one makes conclusions about decomposition and, in this case, indium atoms occurring in cation sublattice nodes are knocked out by cadmium atoms. In CdS:In irradiated specimens one detected new centres of slow recombination with occurrence of maximums of photoconductivity optical suppression within lambda sub M sub sub 1 = 0.75 mu m and lambda sub M sub sub 2 = 1.03 mu m range. It is assumed that complexes containing cadmium vacancies and indium atoms are responsible for recombination new centres

  4. Surface enhanced Raman scattering in organic thin films covered with silver, indium and magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvan, Georgeta; Zahn, Dietrich R.T.; Paez, Beynor

    2004-01-01

    In situ resonant Raman spectroscopy was applied for the investigation of the interface formation between silver, indium and magnesium with polycrystalline organic semiconductor layers of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetra-carboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA). The spectral region of internal as well as external vibrational modes was recorded in order to achieve information related to the chemistry and the structure of the interface as well as to morphology of the metal layer. The experiments benefit from a strong enhancement of the internal mode scattering intensities which is induced by the rough morphology of deposited metals leading to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The external modes, on the other hand, are attenuated at different rates indicating that the diffusion of the metal atoms into the crystalline layers is highest for indium and lowest for magnesium

  5. Scaling behaviors of magnetoconductivity in amorphous indium oxide near the metal-insulator transition

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y J; Kim, Y S

    2000-01-01

    Magnetoconductivity is measured in an amorphous indium-oxide sample which is in the microscopic region. Two different scaling behaviors are observed for the magnetoconductivity The scaling behavior is determined by either the localization or the electron correlation effects, whichever becomes stronger more rapidly at a given temperature and magnetic field. Qualitative explanations are given for the observed scaling behaviors. A curve of a function of H/T sup 2 sup / sup 3 exists on which all our magnetoconductivity data lie.

  6. Acid indium strontium phosphate SrIn2[PO3(OH)]4: synthesis and crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusakov, D.A.; Bobylev, A.P.; Komissarova, L.N.; Filaretov, A.A.; Danilov, V.P.

    2007-01-01

    Acid indium-strontium phosphate SrIn 2 [PO 3 (OH)] 4 is synthesized and characterized. Crystal structure and lattice parameters ate determined. In atoms in SrIn 2 [PO 3 (OH)] 4 structure are in distorted InO 6 octahedrons and form with PO 3 (OH) tetrahedrons mixed paraskeleton {In 2 [PO 3 (OH)] 4 } 3∞ 2- with emptinesses occupied by big Sr 2+ cations. The compound is thermally stable up to 400 Deg C [ru

  7. Synthesis and characterization ligand tris-(2-thiosalicylamidoethyl)amine and its iron complexes and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra-Garcia, Pedro Pablo; Valle Bourrouet, Grettel

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of coordination chemistry ligand tris-(2-tiosalicilamidoetil)amine is presented within the framework of study of tripod ligands, the corresponding complexes of iron and indium. Also, its spectroscopic characterization by proton magnetic resonance is showed; so the influence of ligand on a redox active metal and an inactive is compared. Electrochemical methods have been used. The presence of sulfur atoms modifies the redox and magnetic behavior of iron ion (III), as has been found in other similar ligands [es

  8. Characteristics of indium zinc oxide films deposited using the facing targets sputtering method for OLEDs applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited on polyethersulfone (PES) and glass substrates using the facing targets sputtering (FTS) system. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the IZO thin films deposited as functions of sputtering parameters on the glass and PES substrates. An optimal IZO deposition condition is fabricated for organic light-emitting device (OLED) based on glass and PES. The amorphous IZO anode-based OLEDs show superior current density and luminance characteristics.

  9. Laser-spectroscopic nuclear-structure studies on radioactive silver and indium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinger, U.

    1988-05-01

    Neutron-deficient silver and neutron-rich indium isotopes were studied by collinear laser spectroscopy. The neutron-deficient nuclei 101 , 103 , 104 , 105 , 105m , 106m Ag were produced as evaporation-residual nuclei in heavy-ion fusion reactions at the mass separator of the GSI in Darmstadt. The fourteen studied indium isotopes and isomers with even mass number in the range 112-126 In were produced by 600-MeV-proton induced fission of a uranium carbide target at the ISOLDE separator in Geneva. The mass-separated ion beam was subsequently deviated electrostatically, neutralized in a sodium vapor and superposed with a c w dye laser. A photon counting system detected the resonance fluorescence of the induced transitions. The hyperfine structure and the isotope shift of the 4d 9 5s 2 2 D 5/2 → 4d 10 6p 2 P 3/2 transition (λ=547.7 nm) in silver and the 5p 2 P 1/2,3/2 → 6s 2 s 1/2 transition (λ=410 respectively 451 nm) in indium were measured. While in indium for the analysis of the data earlier work could be referred to, in silver a detailed analysis of the isotope shift and hyperfine structure was performed by means of ab initio calculations and semi-empirical procedures. Thereby the configuration interactions were especially considered. The nuclear moments were discussed in the framework of existing nuclear models regarding nuclear-spectroscopic informations. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Nuclear structure studies on indium and tin isotope chains by means of laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberz, J.

    1986-11-01

    In a collaboration with GSI in Darmstadt and ISOLDE in Geneva the hyperfine structure (HFS) and the isotope shift (IS) of the indium isotopes from 104 In - 127 In in their ground and isomeric states could be studied. Additionally the tin isotopes 109 Sn and 111 Sn could be measured. In tin the transition 5p 2 1 S 0 → 5p6s 3 P 1 with λ = 563 nm was studied. In indium the transition 5p 2 P 1/2 → 6s 2 S 1/2 with λ = 410 nm and 5p 2 P 3/2 → 6s 2 S 1/2 with λ = 451 nm could be measured. The magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments determined from the measurements of the HFS can be sufficiently explained in the framework of the single-particle model. From the moments the configurations and spins of the studied nuclear states can be stated. In 109 Sn the nuclear spin was determined to I = 5/2. The measurement of the IS in two lines in 108 In allowed regarding the coupling rules for nuclear moments the determination of the nuclear spin. The spin of the 40 m isomers of the 108m In can be stated to I = 2. The mean square nuclear charge radius exhibits a parabolic slope the quadratic part of which with a maximum in the shell center at N = 66 between the neutron numbers N = 50 and N = 82 can be understood as sum of contributions of a surface correlation, i.e. a quadrupole deformation as well as eventually present higher order terms or a change of the surface skin density. The deformation determinable by this description is both for tin and for indium essentially larger than the deformation from the B(E2) values of tin or from the intrinsic quadrupole moments in indium derived from the HFS. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Determination of indium(III) with 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorogallein and cetylpyridinium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Itsuo; Fujita, Yoshikazu; Ida, Masako; Enoki, Takehisa

    1976-01-01

    Rapid and highly sensitive methods have been developed for the spectrophotometric and titrimetric determination of indium(III) with 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorogallein(3,4,5,6-T. Cl, Gal.) and cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC) in aqueous solutions of pH 4.2--5.2. The absorbance of the indium(III)-3,4,5,6-T. Cl. Gal. complex at 620 nm and the color change (pure blue - weak violetish red) were used to indicate the end point in the EDTA titration. The calibration curve for the spectrophotometry was linear in the range 0--45.0 μg In(III)/10 ml. According to Sandell's expression, the sensitivity was 0.0032 μg In(III)/cm 2 for an absorbance of 0.001. To the solution containing less than 45.0 μg of indium(III), 2.0 ml of 1.0x10 -2 M CPC solution, 3.0 ml of Walpole buffer solution(pH 4.4; acetic acid-sodium acetate), and 2.0 ml of 1.0x10 -3 M 3,4,5,6-T.Cl.Gal. methanol solution were added and the volume was made up to 10.0 ml with water. The solution was kept at (20--25) 0 C for 30 minutes and then the absorbance was measured at 620 nm against the reagent blank. The mole ratio of indium(III), 3,4,5,6-T.Cl.Gal. and CPC in the complex was estimated to be 1 : 2 : 2 by the continuous variation and the mole ratio methods. (auth.)

  12. SU-E-I-14: Comparison of Iodine-Labeled and Indium-Labeled Antibody Biodistributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L [Retired from City of Hope Medical Center, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is often assumed that animal biodistributions of novel proteins are not dependent upon the radiolabel used in their determination. In units of percent injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), organ uptake results (u) may be obtained using either iodine or metal as radioactive labels. Iodination is preferred as it is a one-step process whereas metal labeling requires two chemical procedures and therefore more protein material. It is important to test whether the radioactive tag leads to variation in the uptake value. Methods: Uptakes of 3antibodies to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) were evaluated in a nude mouse model bearing 150 to 300 mg LS174T human colon cancer xenografts. Antibodies included diabody (56 kDa), minibody (80kDa) and intact M5A (150 kDa) anti-CEA cognates. Both radioiodine and indium-111 labels were used with uptakes evaluated at 7 time(t) points out to 96 h. Ratios (R) of u(iodine-label)/u(indium-label) were determined for liver, spleen, kidneys, lung and tumor. Results: Hepatic loss was rapid for diabody and minibody; by 24 h their R values were only 2%; i.e., uptake of iodine was 2% of that of indium for these 2 antibodies. By contrast, R for the intact cognate was 50% at that time point. Splenic results were similar. Tumor uptake ratios did not depend upon the antibody type and were 50% at 24 h. Conclusions: Relatively rapid loss of iodine relative to indium in liver and spleen was observed in lower mass antibodies. Tumor ratios were larger and independent of antibody type. Aside from tumor, the R ratio of uptakes depended on the antibody type. R values decreased monotonically with time in all tissues and for all cognates. Using this ratio, one can possibly correct iodine-based u (t) results so that they resemble radiometal-derived biodistributions.

  13. Properties of epitaxial films of indium phosphides alloyed with erbium in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, V.I.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Korobkin, V.A.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Lopatin, V.V.; Lyubchenko, V.E.; Telegin, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature dependences of specific resistance and free charge-carrier mobility at low temperatures for indium phosphide films grown by liquid-phase epitaxial method with erbium additions (0.01-0.1 mass%). The main mechanisms of scattering for different temperature regions: scattering on ionized impurities in the rage from 20 to 40 K and lattice scattering at the temperature above 90 K are determined. The current density dependences on applied electric field strength are presented

  14. Optical second harmonic generation phase measurement at interfaces of some organic layers with indium tin oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngah Demon, Siti Zulaikha; Miyauchi, Yoshihiro; Mizutani, Goro; Matsushima, Toshinori; Murata, Hideyuki

    2014-08-01

    We observed phase shift in optical second harmonic generation (SHG) from interfaces of indium tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ITO/pentacene. Phase correction due to Fresnel factors of the sample was taken into account. The phase of SHG electric field at the ITO/pentacene interface, ϕinterface with respect to the phase of SHG of bare substrate ITO was 160°, while the interface of ITO/CuPc had a phase of 140°.

  15. Optical second harmonic generation phase measurement at interfaces of some organic layers with indium tin oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Ngah Demon, Siti Zulaikha; Miyauchi, Yoshihiro; Mizutani, Goro; Matsushima, Toshinori; Murata, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    We observed phase shift in optical second harmonic generation (SHG) from interfaces of indium tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ITO/pentacene. Phase correction due to Fresnel factors of the sample was taken into account. The phase of SHG electric field at the ITO/pentacene interface, ϕ_ with respect to the phase of SHG of bare substrate ITO was 160°, while the interface of ITO/CuPc had a phase of 140°.

  16. Indium-111 labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roevekamp, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of indium-111 oxinate labelled autologous leucocytes in inflammatory disease. Chapter I provides an outline of the theoretical aspects of leucocyte labelling with indium-111 oxinate, as well as giving a description of the labelling method and scintigraphic technique and of the in-vitro and in-vivo studies performed to evaluate the method. In Chapter II details are given of the initial results obtained in a pilot study. A high false-negative rate led to modification of the labelling technique. The results obtained in patients suspected of intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal located inflammatory lesions are described in Chapter III. Chapter IV contains the description of an indium-111-leucocyte-99mTc-Sn-colloid computer-assisted subtraction technique for a better evaluation of patients suspected of an upper-abdominal inflammatory process. In Chapter V the study performed in patients after arterial reconstructive surgery is described, and the results obtained in patients suspected of an infected orthopaedic prosthesis are given in Chapter VI. Finally the characteristics of the different types of inflammatory responses is reviewed. (Auth.)

  17. Sol–gel synthesis of nanostructured indium tin oxide with controlled morphology and porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kőrösi, László, E-mail: ltkorosi@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632 Pécs (Hungary); Scarpellini, Alice [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Petrik, Péter [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Konkoly-Thege út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Papp, Szilvia [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632 Pécs (Hungary); Dékány, Imre [MTA-SZTE Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group, University of Szeged, Dóm tér 8, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ITO thin films and powders were prepared by a sol–gel method. • The nature of the compounds used for hydrolysis plays a key role in the morphology. • Hydrolysis of In{sup 3+}/Sn{sup 4+} with EA led to a rod-like morphology. • Monodisperse spherical ITO nanoparticles were obtained on the use of AC. • ITO{sub E}A was highly porous, while ITO{sub A}C contained densely packed nanocrystals. - Abstract: Nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) powders and thin films differing in morphology and porosity were prepared by a sol–gel method. In{sup 3+} and Sn{sup 4+} were hydrolyzed in aqueous medium through the use of ethanolamine (EA) or sodium acetate (AC). X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated that both EA and AC furnished indium tin hydroxide, which became nanocrystalline after aging for one day. The indium tin hydroxide samples calcined at 550 °C afforded ITO with a cubic crystal structure, but the morphology differed significantly, depending on the agent used for hydrolysis. Electron microscopy revealed the formation of round monodisperse nanoparticles when AC was used, whereas the application of EA led to rod-like ITO nanoparticles. Both types of nanoparticles were suitable for the preparation of transparent and conductive ITO thin films. The influence of the morphology and porosity on the optical properties is discussed.

  18. Charge mobility increase in indium-molybdenum oxide thin films by hydrogen doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalán, S.; Álvarez-Fraga, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salas, E. [Spline CRG, ESRF, 38043 Grenoble (France); Ramírez-Jiménez, R. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida Universidad 30, Leganés, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Palomo, A.; Andrés, A. de [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, C., E-mail: cprieto@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The charge mobility in IMO films is correlated with its hydrogen content. • The mobility behavior is explained by the presence of OH{sup −} groups in IMO films. • Mo{sup 4+} is identified in transparent conductive IMO by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. - Abstract: The increase of charge mobility in transparent conductive indium molybdenum oxide (IMO) films is correlated with the presence of hydroxyl groups. The introduction of H{sub 2} in the chamber during sputtering deposition compensates the excess charge introduced by cationic Mo doping of indium oxide either by oxygen or hydroxyl interstitials. Films present a linear increase of carrier mobility correlated with H{sub 2} content only after vacuum annealing. This behavior is explained because vacuum annealing favors the removal of oxygen interstitials over that of hydroxyl groups. Since hydroxyl groups offer lower effective charge and smaller lattice distortions than those associated with interstitial oxygen, this compensation mechanism offers the conditions for the observed increase in mobility. Additionally, the short-range order around molybdenum is evaluated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, showing that Mo{sup 4+} is placed at the In site of the indium oxide.

  19. Voltammetry and coulometry of indium in two-side thin-layer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, L.V.; Kabanova, O.L.

    1980-01-01

    An electrochemical behaviour of In and possibilities for its determination have been investigated, using halide background solutions, by voltametry in the thin solution layer thin mercury film system. It has been shown that the maximum current of indium (3) is directly proportional to its concentration over a range of 1x10 -4 - 5x10 -3 M and the maximum current of indium oxidation from the amalgam over a range of 5x10 -7 - 1x10 -4 M. Examined were the effects of halide ion concentration, pH, electrode potential change rate on current maximum value, product efficiency of reducing indium (3) and oxidizing its amalgam, on maximum current potential and half-peak width. The analytical signal has been found to be directly proportional to chloride ion concentration over a range of 0.1 - 3.0 M, bromide and iodide ion concentration over a range of 0.1 - 1.0 M. This makes it possible to use the method for determination of halide ions

  20. Composition dependence of the thermodynamic activity and lattice parameter of zeta nickel-indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, B.; Masson, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    The vapor pressure of indium over six alloys in the zeta phase of the nickel-indium system was measured by the method of atomic absorption. Values of thermodynamic activity were calculated from the vapor pressure, and partial heat and entropy of indium were calculated from the temperature coefficients. The lattice parameters of the hexagonal B8 2 unit cell of all alloys were calculated from X-ray diffraction powder patterns. It was found that the a lattice parameter passed through a minimum at the same composition that the excess chemical potential showed a sharp change of slope, when graphed as a function of composition. These effects were similar to those observed previously which have been attributed to overlap by the Fermi surface of a Brillouin zone face. In the present case they were attributed to overlap of the Fermi surface across faces tentatively identified as the [110] faces of the Brillouin zone of the B8 2 structure. The influence of substitutional disorder was also considered as a cause of the thermodynamic effects, but this was rejected because it does not explain the minimum in lattice parameter. (Auth.)

  1. In-Situ Growth and Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide Nanocrystal Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO nanocrystal rods were synthesized in-situ by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS method and electron beam evaporation technique. When the electron-beam gun bombarded indium oxide (In2O3 and tin oxide (SnO2 mixed sources, indium and tin droplets appeared and acted as catalysts. The nanocrystal rods were in-situ grown on the basis of the metal catalyst point. The nanorods have a single crystal structure. Its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. During the evaporation, a chemical process was happened and an In2O3 and SnO2 solid solution was formed. The percentage of doped tin oxide was calculated by Vegard’s law to be 3.18%, which was in agreement with the mixture ratio of the experimental data. The single crystal rod had good semiconductor switch property and its threshold voltage of single rod was approximately 2.5 V which can be used as a micro switch device. The transmission rate of crystalline nanorods ITO film was over 90% in visible band and it was up to 95% in the blue green band as a result of the oxygen vacancy recombination luminescence.

  2. Studies on the optoelectronic properties of the thermally evaporated tin-doped indium oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ko-Ying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Liang-Da [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Li-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Han C., E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-05-15

    Indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanorods, nanotowers and tin-doped (Sn:In = 1:100) indium oxide (ITO) nanorods have been fabricated by thermal evaporation. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of these three nanoproducts are characterized by FE-SEM, HRTEM and XPS. To further investigate the optoelectronic properties, the I–V curves and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are measured. The electrical resistivity of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods, nanotowers and ITO nanorods are 1.32 kΩ, 0.65 kΩ and 0.063 kΩ, respectively. CL spectra of these three nanoproducts clearly indicate that tin-doped (Sn:In = 1:100) indium oxide (ITO) nanorods cause a blue shift. No doubt ITO nanorods obtain the highest performance among these three nanoproducts, and this also means that Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures would be the best way to enhance the optoelectronic properties. Additionally, the growing mechanism and the optoelectronic properties of these three nanostructures are discussed. This study is beneficial to the applications of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods, nanotowers and ITO nanorods in optoelectronic nanodevices.

  3. Improved field emission from indium decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreekanth, M.; Ghosh, S., E-mail: santanu1@physics.iitd.ernet.in; Biswas, P.; Kumar, S.; Srivastava, P.

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Improved field emission properties have been achieved for Indium (In) decorated MWCNTs and are shown using the schematic of field emission set up with In/CNT cathode, and a plot of J-E characteristics for pristine and In decorated CNTs. - Highlights: • Field emission (FE) properties have been studied for the first time from Indium (In) decorated MWCNT films. • Observed increased density of states near the Fermi level for In decorated films. • Superior field emission properties have been achieved for In decorated CNT films. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films were grown using thermal chemical vapor deposition (T-CVD) process and were decorated with indium metal particles by thermal evaporation technique. The In metal particles are found to get oxidized. The In decorated films show 250% enhancement in the FE current density, lower turn-on and threshold fields, and better temporal stability as compared to their undecorated counterpart. This improvement in field emission properties is primarily attributed to increased density of states near the Fermi level. The presence of O 2p states along with a small contribution from In 5s states results in the enhancement of density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi level.

  4. Influence of disorder on the superconducting critical temperature in indium-opal nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchuk, I.; Januzaj, A.; Mikhailin, N. Yu.; Traito, K. B.; Chernyaev, A. V.; Romanov, S. G.; Safonchik, M.; Shamshur, D. V.; Lähderanta, E.

    2018-06-01

    Transport properties of bulk indium-opal and indium-porous glass superconducting nanocomposites possessing moderate and strong disorder are investigated. A strongly nonmonotonous dependence of the global critical temperature Tc versus normal state conductivity of samples is found. The maximum, which is observed at moderate disorder, has Tc higher than that of clean bulk indium. The increasing part can be explained by the Eliashberg equations with disorder and an additional mechanism of interaction between superconducting and dielectric granules. The descending part of the maximum at higher disorder can be explained by the increasing of long-range Coulomb repulsion due to diffusion of charges. Negative slope in magnetic field dependence of resistivity and a peak in the temperature dependence of resistivity, observed in the sample near the proximity to the disorder-induced superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). A large difference between the onset temperature of superconducting fluctuations, Tcon , and global critical temperature Tc is found and considered in the framework of the weak multifractal theory. Slow time-logarithmic relaxation of the resistivity between Tc and Tcon is observed, which assumes existence of the precursor state near the SIT. This unusual state is discussed in the scope of the many-body localization theory.

  5. Perturbed angular correlation study of the ion exchange of indium into silicalite zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramallo-Lopez, J.M., E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Requejo, F.G., E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Renteria, M., E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Bibiloni, A.G. [UNLP, Programa TENAES (CONICET) and Departamento de Fisica, Faculdad Cs Ex (Argentina)], E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Miro, E.E. [UNL, INCAPE (CONICET) and Faculdad Ing. Quimica (Argentina)

    1999-09-15

    Two indium-containing silicalite zeolites (In/H-ZSM5) catalysts prepared by wet impregnation and ionic exchange were characterized by the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique using {sup 111}In as probe to determine the nature of the indium species. Some of these species take part in the catalytic reaction of the selective reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} with methane. PAC experiments were performed at 500 deg. C in air before and after reduction-reoxidation treatments on the catalysts in order to determine the origin of the different hyperfine interactions and then the degree of ionic exchange. Complementary catalytic activity characterizations were also performed.PAC experiments performed on the catalyst obtained by wet impregnation showed that all In-atoms form In{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites while almost 70% of In-atoms form In{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the catalyst obtained by ionic exchange. The PAC experiments of both catalysts performed after the reduction-reoxidation treatment revealed the presence of two hyperfine interactions, different from those corresponding to indium in In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These hyperfine interactions should be associated to disperse In species responsible of the catalytic activity located in the ionic exchange-sites of the zeolites.

  6. Perturbed angular correlation study of the ion exchange of indium into silicalite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramallo-Lopez, J.M.; Requejo, F.G.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Miro, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two indium-containing silicalite zeolites (In/H-ZSM5) catalysts prepared by wet impregnation and ionic exchange were characterized by the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique using 111 In as probe to determine the nature of the indium species. Some of these species take part in the catalytic reaction of the selective reduction (SCR) of NO x with methane. PAC experiments were performed at 500 deg. C in air before and after reduction-reoxidation treatments on the catalysts in order to determine the origin of the different hyperfine interactions and then the degree of ionic exchange. Complementary catalytic activity characterizations were also performed.PAC experiments performed on the catalyst obtained by wet impregnation showed that all In-atoms form In 2 O 3 crystallites while almost 70% of In-atoms form In 2 O 3 in the catalyst obtained by ionic exchange. The PAC experiments of both catalysts performed after the reduction-reoxidation treatment revealed the presence of two hyperfine interactions, different from those corresponding to indium in In 2 O 3 . These hyperfine interactions should be associated to disperse In species responsible of the catalytic activity located in the ionic exchange-sites of the zeolites

  7. Thermodynamic Considerations for a Pyrometallurgical Extraction of Indium and Silver from a Jarosite Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Steinlechner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indium and silver are technologically important, critical metals, and in the majority of cases, they are extracted as a by-product of another carrier metal. The importance of indium has seen recent growth, and for technological reasons, these metals can be found in industrial residues from primary zinc production, such as the iron precipitate—jarosite. To secure the supply of such metals in Europe, and with the idea of a circular economy and the sustainable use of raw materials, the recycling of such industrial residues is coming into focus. Due to the low value of jarosite, the focus must lie simultaneously on the recovery of valuable metals and the production of high-quality products in order to pursue an economical process. The objective of this article is to give the fundamentals for the development of a successful process to extract the minor elements from roasted jarosite. As such, we use thermodynamic calculations to show the behavior of indium and silver, leading to a recommendation for the required conditions for a successful extraction process. In summary, the formation of chlorine compounds shows high potential to meet the challenge of simultaneously recovering these metals together with zinc at the lowest possible energy input.

  8. Measurement of the indium segregation in InGaN based LEDs with single atom sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinschek, Joerg; Kisielowski, Christian; Van Dyck, Dirk; Geuens, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In light emitting diodes (LED) consisting of GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs), the exact indium distribution inside the wells of the active region affects the performance of devices. Indium segregation can take place forming small InGaN clusters of locally varying composition. In the past, we used a local strain analysis from single HRTEM lattice images to determine the In composition inside the InGaN QWs with a resolution of 0.5 nm x 0.3 nm. Truly atomic resolution can be pursued by exploitation of intensity dependencies on the atomic number (Z) of the electron exit-wave (EW). In microscopes with sufficient sensitivity, local variations of amplitude and phase are found to be discrete with sample thickness, which allows for counting the number of atoms in each individual column of ∼0.08 nm diameter. In QW s of ∼17 percent of average indium concentration it is possible to discriminate between pure Ga columns and columns containing 1, 2, 3, or more In atoms because phase changes are discrete and element specific. The preparation of samples with atomically flat surfaces is a limiting factor for the application of the procedure

  9. Synthesis of indium nanoparticles at ambient temperature; simultaneous phase transfer and ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghazadeh Meshgi, Mohammad; Kriechbaum, Manfred [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Austria); Biswas, Subhajit; Holmes, Justin D., E-mail: j.holmes@ucc.ie [University College Cork, Materials Chemistry and Analysis Group, Department of Chemistry and the Tyndall National Institute (Ireland); Marschner, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.marschner@tugraz.at [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Austria)

    2016-12-15

    The synthesis of size-monodispersed indium nanoparticles via an innovative simultaneous phase transfer and ripening method is reported. The formation of nanoparticles occurs in a one-step process instead of well-known two-step phase transfer approaches. The synthesis involves the reduction of InCl{sub 3} with LiBH{sub 4} at ambient temperature and although the reduction occurs at room temperature, fine indium nanoparticles, with a mean diameter of 6.4 ± 0.4 nm, were obtained directly in non-polar n-dodecane. The direct synthesis of indium nanoparticles in n-dodecane facilitates their fast formation and enhances their size-monodispersity. In addition, the nanoparticles were highly stable for more than 2 months. The nanoparticles were characterised by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to determine their morphology, structure and phase purity.

  10. Anomalous electrical properties of Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te layers with indium impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gejman, K.I.; Drabkin, I.A.; Matveenko, A.V.; Mozhaev, E.A.; Parfen'ev, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    Galvanomagnetic properties of indium doped (5x10 -3 -2x10 -1 at.% In) Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te monocrystal layers of n-type (x=0.1 - 0.22) sprayed on the (3) spalls of BaF 2 have been investigated. The layers with In display high homogeneity and lower electron density at 77 K, than the layers without In. With decreasing temperature below 20 K in the indium doped Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te layers an anomalous sharp increase of the electron density calculated from the Hall coefficient and reduction in electron mobility have been observed. The phenomenon under observation is related to the behaviour of indium under conditions of a possible structural phase transition initiated by introducing tin into PbTe. Investigation of the Shubnikov-de Gaas (SG) oscillations confirms the anomalous temperature dependence of the electron density. Distinctive features have been revealed in the SG oscillations of magnetoresistance in the Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te layers with In and without it, caused by deformations occurring in the films due to different coefficients of linear expansion of the material and a substrate. The splitting energy in the conduction band of the Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te layers has been determined, and the shift constant of the deformation potential has been estimated

  11. Compositional influence on the electrical performance of zinc indium tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsal, A.; Carreras, P.; Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Galindo, S.; Alcubilla, R.; Bertomeu, J.; Antony, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, zinc indium tin oxide layers with different compositions are used as the active layer of thin film transistors. This multicomponent transparent conductive oxide is gaining great interest due to its reduced content of the scarce indium element. Experimental data indicate that the incorporation of zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies, which results in a higher free carrier density. In thin-film transistors this effect leads to a higher off current and threshold voltage values. The field-effect mobility is also strongly degraded, probably due to coulomb scattering by ionized defects. A post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen vacancies and improves the field-effect mobility by orders of magnitude. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the fabricated thin-film transistors have been analyzed to estimate the density of states in the gap of the active layers. These measurements reveal a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band edge that could be attributed to oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies in zinc indium tin oxide transistors. • Post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen. • Density of states reveals a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band

  12. Concentration dependence of surface properties and molar volume of multicomponent system indium-tin-lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashev, R; Kutuev, R [Complex Science Research Institute of the Science Academy of the Chechen Republic, 21 Staropromisl. shosse, Grozny 364096 (Russian Federation); Elimkhanov, D [Science Academy of the Chechen Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: edzhabrail@mail.ru

    2008-02-15

    The results of an experimental research of surface properties of the four-component system indium-tin-lead-bismuth are presented. The researches under discussion were carried out in a combined device in which the surface tension ({sigma}) is measured by the method of maximum pressure in a drop, and density ({rho}) is measured by advanced aerometry. Measurement errors are 0.7 % for surface tension measurement, and 0.2 % for density measurement. The study of the concentration dependence of {sigma} in this system has revealed the influence of the third and fourth components upon the characteristics of surface tension isotherms of the binary system indium-tin. It was found out that with an increase in the content of the third and fourth components the depth of the minimum on the surface tension isotherms of the indium-tin system {sigma} decreases. On the basis of the concentration dependence of the phenomenon of concentration bufferity is revealed. It is shown that despite the complex character, isotherms of {sigma} on beam sections of a multicomponent system do not contain qualitatively new features in comparison with the isotherms of these properties in lateral binary systems.

  13. Indium 111 scintigraphy in the exploration of the erythropoietic marrow (relative to 42 observations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, G.C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The bone marrow is difficult to explore as a whole because of its wide non-uniform distribution, variable with the hematopoietic and supporting tissue sites. 111 indium-transferrine bone marrow scintigraphy is a new technique which partly overcomes these difficulties and gives an idea of the overall distribution and richness of the erythropoietic marrow, thus showing up the erythropoiesis sites at a given moment. The properties of indium as medullary tracer are bound up with the characteristics of its metabolism which, to some extent at least resembles that of iron. The two main features are: - its fixation on transferrine (or siderophiline); - its binding to reticulocytes. Moreover indium 111 fulfils the physico-chemical criteria necessary for scintigraphic practice (long half-life, emission detectable by conventional scintigraphs, moderate irradiation of the patient). The properties of this radioelement and the technical conditions of use are examined in turn, then scintigraphic data are compared with the results of traditional bone marrow investigations: medullary biopsy and blood cell counts with reticulocyte fraction. This comparison concerns 42 scintigraphs carried out on patients suffering from various hematological diseases, with prospects of serious development in common [fr

  14. Preparation and nonlinear optical properties of indium nanocrystals in sodium borosilicate glass by the sol–gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Zhao, Haijun; Chen, Zhaoping; Liang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenguang; Chen, Guoxin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel methods. And the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal system have formed uniformly in the glass, and the average diameter of indium nanocrystals is about 30 nm. The third-order optical nonlinear refractive index γ, absorption coefficient β, and susceptibility χ (3) of the glass are determined to be −4.77 × 10 −16 m 2 /W, 2.67 × 10 −9 m/W, and 2.81 × 10 −10 esu, respectively. Highlights: ► Indium nanocrystals embedded in glass matrix have been prepared by sol–gel route. ► The crystal structure and composition are investigated by XRD and XPS. ► Size and distribution of indium nanocrystals is determined by TEM. ► The third-order optical nonlinearity is investigated by using Z-scan technique. -- Abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel route. The thermal stability behavior of the stiff gel is investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analysis. The crystal structure of the glass is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Particle composition is determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Size and distribution of the nanocrystals are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Results show that the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal structure have formed in glass, and the average diameter is about 30 nm. Further, the glass is measured by Z-scan technique to investigate the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The third-order NLO coefficient χ (3) of the glass is determined to be 2.81 × 10 −10 esu. The glass with large third-order NLO coefficient is promising materials for applications in optical devices.

  15. Effect of Indium nano-sandwiching on the structural and optical performance of ZnSe films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Al Garni

    Full Text Available In the current study, we attempted to explore the effects of the Indium nanosandwiching on the mechanical and optical properties of the physically evaporated ZnSe thin films by means of X-ray diffractions and ultraviolet spectrophotometry techniques. While the thickness of each layer of ZnSe was fixed at 1.0 μm, the thickness of the nanosandwiched Indium thin films was varied in the range of 25–100 nm. It was observed that the as grown ZnSe films exhibits cubic and hexagonal nature of crystallization as those of the ZnSe powders before the film deposition. The cubic phases weighs ∼70% of the structure. The analysis of this phases revealed that there is a systematic variation process presented by the decreasing of; the lattice constant, compressing strain, stress, stacking faults and dislocation intensity and increasing grain size resulted from increasing the Indium layer thickness in the range of 50–100 nm. In addition, the nanosandwiching of Indium between two layers of ZnSe is observed to enhance the absorbability of the ZnSe. Particularly, at incident photon energy of 2.38 eV the absorbability of the ZnSe films which are sandwiched with 100 nm Indium is increased by 13.8 times. Moreover, increasing the thickness of the Indium layer shrinks the optical energy band gap. These systematic variations in mechanical and optical properties are assigned to the better recrystallization process that is associated with Indium insertion which in turn allows total internal energy redistribution in the ZnSe films through the enlargement of grains. Keywords: ZnSe, Nanosandwiching, Mechanical, Optical gap

  16. Effect of aluminum doping on the high-temperature stability and piezoresistive response of indium tin oxide strain sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Otto J.; You, Tao; Crisman, Everett E.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic strain sensors based on reactively sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films doped with aluminum are being considered to improve the high-temperature stability and response. Ceramic strain sensors were developed to monitor the structural integrity of components employed in aerospace propulsion systems operating at temperatures in excess of 1500 deg C. Earlier studies using electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) studies indicated that interfacial reactions between ITO and aluminum oxide increase the stability of ITO at elevated temperature. The resulting ESCA depth files showed the presence of two new indium-indium peaks at 448.85 and 456.40 eV, corresponding to the indium 3d5 and 3d3 binding energies. These binding energies are significantly higher than those associated with stoichiometric indium oxide. Based on these studies, a combinatorial chemistry approach was used to screen large numbers of possible concentrations to optimize the stability and performance of Al-doped ceramic strain sensors. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the combinatorial libraries in which varying amounts of aluminum were incorporated into ITO films formed by cosputtering from multiple targets. Electrical stability and piezoresistive response of these films were compared to undoped ITO films over the same temperature range

  17. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Barik, U.K.

    2006-01-01

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10 0 -10 -3 Ωcm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  18. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, A; Barik, U K [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Chennai (India)

    2006-07-15

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup -3} {omega}cm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  19. Ion beam synthesis of indium-oxide nanocrystals for improvement of oxide resistive random-access memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafos, C.; Benassayag, G.; Cours, R.; Pécassou, B.; Guenery, P. V.; Baboux, N.; Militaru, L.; Souifi, A.; Cossec, E.; Hamga, K.; Ecoffey, S.; Drouin, D.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the direct ion beam synthesis of a delta-layer of indium oxide nanocrystals (In2O3-NCs) in silica matrices by using ultra-low energy ion implantation. The formation of the indium oxide phase can be explained by (i) the affinity of indium with oxygen, (ii) the generation of a high excess of oxygen recoils generated by the implantation process in the region where the nanocrystals are formed and (iii) the proximity of the indium-based nanoparticles with the free surface and oxidation from the air. Taking advantage of the selective diffusivity of implanted indium in SiO2 with respect to Si3N4, In2O3-NCs have been inserted in the SiO2 switching oxide of micrometric planar oxide-based resistive random access memory (OxRAM) devices fabricated using the nanodamascene process. Preliminary electrical measurements show switch voltage from high to low resistance state. The devices with In2O3-NCs have been cycled 5 times with identical operating voltages and RESET current meanwhile no switch has been observed for non implanted devices. This first measurement of switching is very promising for the concept of In2O3-NCs based OxRAM memories.

  20. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Huang, Kai-Yu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20 V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30 V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  1. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships for Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloys with minor additions of cadmium, indium or tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Minor amounts of cadmium, indium or tin were added to a baseline alloy with the nominal composition of Al-2.4Cu-2.4Li-0.15Zr. These elements were added in an attempt to increase the age-hardening response of the material such that high strengths could be achieved through heat-treatment alone, without the need for intermediate mechanical working. The alloy variant containing indium achieved a higher peak hardness in comparison to the other alloy variations, including the baseline material, when aged at temperatures ranging from 160 C to 190 C. Tensile tests on specimens peak-aged at 160 indicated the yield strength of the indium-bearing alloy increased by approximately 15 percent compared to that of the peak-aged baseline alloy. In addition, the yield strength obtained in the indium-bearing alloy was comparable to that reported for similar baseline material subjected to a 6 percent stretch prior to peak-aging at 190 C. The higher strength levels obtaied for the indium-bearing alloy are attributed to increased number densities and homogeneity of both the T1 and theta-prime phases, as determined by TEM studies.

  2. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou0388@hotmail.com [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kai-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20 V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30 V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  3. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The vacuum pyrolysis–vacuum chlorinated separation system was proposed to recover the waste LCD panel. • The system can recycle the whole waste LCD panels efficiently without negative effects to environment. • The 82.03% of the organic materials was reclaimed. All pyrolysis products can be utilized by a reasonable way. • The separation of indium was optimized by the central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). • The recovery ratio of indium was further increased to 99.97%. -- Abstract: In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300 °C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH{sub 4}Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450 °C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly.

  4. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors with indium-zinc-tin oxide/Ag/indium-zinc-tin oxide multilayer electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-08-01

    Transparent indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were fabricated on glass substrates using a tilted dual-target radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes exhibited a high optical transmittance in a visible region. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the on/off-current ratio of the TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were enhanced in comparison with those of the TFTs with ITO electrodes. The source/drain contact resistance of the IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes was smaller than that of the IZTO TFTs with ITO electrodes, resulting in enhancement of their electrical characteristics.

  5. A novel 3D framework indium phosphite-oxalate based on a pcu-type topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Mengmeng; Zhou, Mingdong; Hu, Dianwen; Gao, Fan; Dong, Sijie; Huang, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    A new inorganic–organic hybrid indium phosphite-oxalate, formulated as H[In 5 (HPO 3 ) 6 (H 2 PO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 2 ]·(C 4 N 2 H 11 ) 2 ·H 2 O 1 has been hydrothermally synthesized in the presence of piperazine acting as a structure directing agent (SDA). The single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that compound 1 shows three-dimensional open-framework with intersecting 12-ring channels along the [010] and [001] directions, which is constructed from strictly alternating double 6-ring units (D6Rs), [C 2 O 4 ] 2− groups and [H 2 PO 3 ] − pseudo-pyramids. It is noted that the classical D6R SBU is firstly reported in main metal phosphite/phosphite-oxalate. By regarding D6R as the 6-connected nodes, the inorganic–organic hybrid framework is based on a pcu-type topology. The as-synthesized product was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ICP-AES and elemental analyses. - Graphical abstract: A 3D open-framework indium phosphite-oxalate has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. A classical SBU, D6R, is present in the structure. By regarding D6R as the 6-connected nodes, the inorganic–organic hybrid framework is based on a pcu-type topology. - Highlights: • A new indium phosphite-oxalate based on a pcu-type topology has been synthesized. • A classical SBU, D6R, is present in the structure. • The classical SBU is firstly reported in main metal phosphite/phosphite-oxalate.

  6. Noninvasive detection of rejection of transplanted hearts with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, H.J.; Eisenberg, S.B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Bolman, R.M. III; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether cardiac transplant rejection can be detected noninvasively with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled lymphocytes, we studied 11 dogs with thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplants without immunosuppression and five dogs with transplants treated with cyclosporine (10 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). All were evaluated sequentially with gamma scintigraphy after administration of 150 to 350 muCi of autologous 111 In-lymphocytes. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (1 to 3 mCi) were used for correction of radioactivity in the blood pool attributable to circulating labeled lymphocytes. Lymphocyte infiltration was quantified as the ratio of indium in the myocardium of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood (indium excess, IE). Results were correlated with mechanical and electrical activity of allografts and with histologic findings in sequential biopsy specimens. In untreated dogs (n = 11), IE was 15.5 +/- 7.0 (SD) in transplanted hearts undergoing rejection and 0.4 +/- 1.1 in native hearts on the day before animals were killed. In dogs treated with cyclosporine and prednisone (n = 5), IE was minimal in allografts during the course of immunosuppression (0.8 +/- 0.4) and increased to 22.9 +/- 11.1 after immunosuppression was stopped. Scintigraphic criteria of rejection (IE greater than 2 SD above that in native hearts) correlated with results of biopsies indicative of rejection and appeared before electrophysiologic or mechanical manifestations of dysfunction. Thus infiltration of labeled lymphocytes in allografts, indicative of rejection, is detectable noninvasively by gamma scintigraphy and provides a sensitive approach potentially applicable to clinical monitoring for early detection of rejection and guidance for titration of immunosuppressive measures

  7. The solvent extraction of zinc, iron, and indium from chloride solutions by neutral organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.S.; Du Preez, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The preparation of several neutral organophosphorus compounds and their evaluation as selective extractants for zinc in chloride media are described. The compounds belong to the series trialkyl phosphates (RO) 3 PO, dialkyl alkylphosphonates R'PO(OR) 2 , alkyl dialkylphosphinates R 2 'PO(OR), and trialkyl-phosphine oxides R 3 'PO. They were characterized by measurement of their physical properties (melting and boiling points, refractive indices, and densities), and their purities were confirmed by osmometric determination of their molecular masses; by carbon and hydrogen microanalysis; by the titrimetric determination of acidic impurities; and, for liquid products, by comparison of their experimental molar refractivities with empirical values. Metal-distribution equilibria were determined for solutions of the extractants in xylene and aqueous phase containing 0,5 to 5,0 M sodium chloride. Moderately good selectivities were shown for zinc(II) over iron(III), and excellent selectivities were shown for zinc(II) over iron(II), copper(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II). The extraction of indium(III) was similar to that of zinc(II). The extraction of zinc(III), iron(III), and indium(III) increased markedly through the series. (RO) 3 PO 2 2 'PO(OR) 3 'PO. The incorporation of phenyl groups into the compounds led to weaker extraction. The extracted complexes of zinc(II), iron(III), and indium(III) have the stoichiometries ZnCl 2 L 2 ,FeCl 3 L 2 (H 2 O), and InCl 3 L 2 (H 2 O) respectively, where L represents the neutral organophosphorus compound

  8. Extraction chromatography of indium (III) on silica gel impregnated with high molecular weight carboxylic acid and its analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.S.; Ray, U.S.

    1991-01-01

    Indium(III) was separated by extraction chromatography with Versatic 10 as a stationary phase on a column of silica gel from acetic acid and sodium acetate solution (pH 4.5-6.0). The optimum condition for extraction was studied based on the critical study of the relevant factors as effects of pH, flow rate on extraction and elution. Role of stripping agents on the elution was studied. The separation of indium from a number of elements was carried out. Indium(III) was separated from Alsup(III), Gasup(III), Tlsup(III), Zrsup(IV) and trivalent lanthanides which interfere under the recommended extraction condition by exploiting the differences in their stripping behaviour. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  9. Highly Sensitive ZnO(Ga, In for Sub-ppm Level NO2 Detection: Effect of Indium Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vorobyeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline ZnO, ZnO(Ga, and ZnO(Ga, In samples with different indium contents were prepared by wet-chemical method and characterized in detail by ICP-MS and XRD methods. Gas sensing properties toward NO2 were studied at 150–450 °C by DC conductance measurements. The optimal temperature for gas sensing experiments was determined. The dependence of the ZnO(Ga, In sensor signal to NO2 at 250 °C correlates with the change of conductivity of the samples. The introduction of indium into the system leads to an increase in the values of the sensor signal in the temperature range T < 250 °C. The investigation of the local sample conductivity by scanning spreading resistance microscopy demonstrates that, at high indium content, the sensor properties are determined by the In–Ga–Zn–O layer that forms on the ZnO surface.

  10. Growth and shape of indium islands on molybdenum at micro-roughened spots created by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Schramm, H.-P.; Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M.; Krüger, J.; Boeck, T.

    2017-10-01

    Indium islands on molybdenum coated glass can be grown in ordered arrays by surface structuring using a femtosecond laser. The effect of varying the molybdenum coated glass substrate temperature and the indium deposition rate on island areal density, volume and geometry is investigated and evaluated in a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. The joined impact of growth conditions and spacing of the femtosecond laser structured spots on the arrangement and morphology of indium islands is demonstrated. The results yield a deeper understanding of the island growth and its precise adjustment to industrial requirements, which is indispensable for a technological application of such structures at a high throughput, for instance as precursors for the preparation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 micro concentrator solar cells.

  11. Upscaling of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan

    Polymer solar cells (PSCs) aim to produce clean energy that is cost-competitive to energy produced by fossil fuel-based conventional energy sources. From an environmental perspective, PSCs already compares favorably to other solar cell technologies in terms of fewer emissions of greenhouse gases......, represents majority of the share of cost and energy footprint in terms of materials and processing in a conventional PSC module. Furthermore, the scarcity of indium is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning PSC industry and its brittle nature is an obstacle for fast processing of PSCs on flexible...

  12. Cyclic etching of tin-doped indium oxide using hydrogen-induced modified layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akiko; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nagahata, Kazunori; Li, Hu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2018-06-01

    The rate of etching of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and the effects of a hydrogen-induced modified layer on cyclic, multistep thin-layer etching were investigated. It was found that ITO cyclic etching is possible by precisely controlling the hydrogen-induced modified layer. Highly selective etching of ITO/SiO2 was also investigated, and it was suggested that cyclic etching by selective surface adsorption of Si can precisely control the etch rates of ITO and SiO2, resulting in an almost infinite selectivity for ITO over SiO2 and in improved profile controllability.

  13. Electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide/epoxy composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xia; Guo Chun-Wei; Chen Yu; Su Zhi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The electrical and optical properties of the indium tin oxide (ITO)/epoxy composite exhibit dramatic variations as functions of the ITO composition and ITO particle size. Sharp increases in the conductivity in the vicinity of a critical volume fraction have been found within the framework of percolation theory. A conductive and insulating transition model is extracted by the ITO particle network in the SEM image, and verified by the resistivity dependence on the temperature. The dependence of the optical transmittance on the particle size was studied. Further decreasing the ITO particle size could further improve the percolation threshold and light transparency of the composite film. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  14. Deposition of indium tin oxide films on acrylic substrates by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, B.S.; Hsieh, S.T.; Wu, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto acrylic substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. Low substrate temperature (< 80 C) and low rf power (< 28 W) were maintained during sputtering to prevent acrylic substrate deformation. The influence of sputtering parameters, such as rf power, target-to-substrate distance, and chamber pressure, on the film deposition rate, the electrical properties, as well as the optical properties of the deposited films was investigated. Both the refractive index and the extinction coefficient were derived. The high reflection at wavelengths greater than 3 μm made these sputtered ITO films applicable to infrared mirrors

  15. Effect of Target Density on Microstructural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guisheng; Zhi, Li; Yang, Huijuan; Xu, Huarui; Yu, Aibing

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, indium tin oxide (ITO) targets with different densities were used to deposit ITO thin films. The thin films were deposited from these targets at room temperature and annealed at 750°C. Microstructural, electrical, and optical properties of the as-prepared films were studied. It was found that the target density had no effect on the properties or deposition rate of radiofrequency (RF)-sputtered ITO thin films, different from the findings for direct current (DC)-sputtered films. Therefore, when using RF sputtering, the target does not require a high density and may be reused.

  16. Significantly enhanced thermal conductivity of indium arsenide nanowires via sulfur passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yucheng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Yang, Juekuan; Xu, Dongyan

    2017-10-16

    In this work, we experimentally investigated the effect of sulfur passivation on thermal transport in indium arsenide (InAs) nanowires. Our measurement results show that thermal conductivity can be enhanced by a ratio up to 159% by sulfur passivation. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were performed on both unpassivated and S-passivated InAs nanowires to understand the mechanism of thermal conductivity enhancement. We observed a remarkable improvement in electrical conductivity upon sulfur passivation and a significant contribution of electrons to thermal conductivity, which account for the enhanced thermal conductivity of the S-passivated InAs nanowires.

  17. Investigations on the structural and optical properties of sphere-shaped indium nitride (InN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagavath, C.; Kumar, J. [Anna University, Crystal Growth Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Nasi, L. [IMEM-CNR, Parma (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Indium nitride (InN) sphere-shaped micro crystals and nano crystals were made using sol-gel method. The crystalline size of the samples were calculated using X-ray diffraction, which were found to increase with the increase of nitridation temperature and time. High resolution-transmission electron microscopy images exhibited the distinct sphere shape of InN with different size of micro and nanometers. The calculated band gap of InN spheres using photo luminescence and UV-visible absorption spectra, was found to be 1.2 eV. Optical phonon modes of InN were determined from micro-Raman studies. (orig.)

  18. Dry Etching Characteristics of Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yanbin; Li Guang; Wang Wenlong; Li Xiuchang; Jiang Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) backplane technology is the best candidate for flat panel displays (FPDs). In this paper, a-IGZO TFT structures are described. The effects of etch parameters (rf power, dc-bias voltage and gas pressure) on the etch rate and etch profile are discussed. Three kinds of gas mixtures are compared in the dry etching process of a-IGZO thin films. Lastly, three problems are pointed out that need to be addressed in the dry etching process of a-IGZO TFTs. (plasma technology)

  19. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li Qiang, E-mail: guoliqiang@ujs.edu.cn; Ding, Jian Ning; Huang, Yu Kai [Micro/Nano Science & Technology Center, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO{sub 2} electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO{sub 2} electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  20. Paired-pulse facilitation achieved in protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide synaptic transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiang Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuromorphic devices with paired pulse facilitation emulating that of biological synapses are the key to develop artificial neural networks. Here, phosphorus-doped nanogranular SiO2 electrolyte is used as gate dielectric for protonic/electronic hybrid indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO synaptic transistor. In such synaptic transistors, protons within the SiO2 electrolyte are deemed as neurotransmitters of biological synapses. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF behaviors for the analogous information were mimicked. The temperature dependent PPF behaviors were also investigated systematically. The results indicate that the protonic/electronic hybrid IGZO synaptic transistors would be promising candidates for inorganic synapses in artificial neural network applications.

  1. Transparent heaters based on solution-processed indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Kiju [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of TNB Nanoelec Co. Ltd., Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyoungah [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jonghyun [Research Institute of TNB Nanoelec Co. Ltd., Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sangsig, E-mail: sangsig@korea.ac.k [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-03

    We demonstrate transparent heaters constructed on glass substrates using solution-processed indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (NPs) and their heating capability. The heat-generating characteristics of the heaters depended significantly on the sintering temperature at which the ITO NPs deposited on a glass substrate by spin-coating were transformed thermally into a solid film. The steady-state temperature of the ITO NP film sintered at 400 {sup o}C was 163 {sup o}C at a bias voltage of 20 V, and the defrosting capability of the film was confirmed by using dry-ice.

  2. Near infrared photodetector based on polymer and indium nitride nanorod organic/inorganic hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Wei-Jung; Li, Shao-Sian; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Chiang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2010-01-01

    We propose a nanostructured near infrared photodetector based on indium nitride (InN) nanorod/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrids. The current-voltage characteristic of the hybrid device demonstrates the typical p-n heterojunction diode behavior, consisting of p-type polymer and n-type InN nanorods. The device shows a photoresponse range of 900-1260 nm under various reverse biases. An external quantum efficiency of 3.4% at 900 nm operated at -10 V reverse bias was obtained, which is comparable with devices based on lead sulfide and lead selenide hybrid systems.

  3. Indium oxide deposition on glass by aerosol pyrolysis (Pyrosol (R) process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandenet, G.; Lagarde, Y.; Spitz, J.

    1975-01-01

    The pyrosol (R) process involves the pyrolysis of an aerosol generated by ultrasonic nebulisation from a solution of organic or inorganic compounds. This technique was used to deposit transparent n-conducting indium oxide films on glass. The electrical and optical properties of these films were studied as a function of the deposition temperature and doping (using tin or fluorine). A deposition temperature of 480 deg C and a Sn/In ratio of about 5% gave the best results. In this case, the transmission in the visible range was 92%, the infrared reflection 84% and the electrical resistivity 1.7x10 -4 ohm.cm [fr

  4. Hyperfine enhanced nuclear magnetic cooling of PrCu6 pressed in indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.D.

    1976-06-01

    Pressing of PrCu 6 in In was studied as part of the study of the preparation of nuclear coolants. Problems of low thermal conductivity through the bulk sample appear to be solved using this method. Indium was shown to be useful as a matrix ''glue'' owing to its low heat capacity and desirable mechanical properties. The eddy current heating increase observed in the PrCu 6 --In sample was not excessive. The study also showed that the quality of demagnetization samples depends on preparation techniques. 12 figures, 28 references

  5. The new barium mercuride BaHg6 and ternary indium and gallium derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendorff, Marco; Röhr, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The new binary Hg-rich mercuride BaHg 6 crystallizes with a singular structure type. ► Ternary In substituted compounds are isotypic, whereas Ga substituted compounds are only structurally related. ► Structure relation to other Hg-rich alkali and alkaline earth mercurides. ► Discussion of covalent and metallic bonding aspects, as found by structure features and band structure calculations. - Abstract: The new binary barium mercuride BaHg 6 and the derived ternary indium and gallium containing compounds BaIn 1.2 Hg 4.8 and BaGa 0.8 Hg 5.2 were synthesized from melts of the elements, which were slowly cooled from 500 to 200 °C. Their crystal structures have been determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. The binary mercuride BaHg 6 (Pnma, a = 1338.9(3), b = 519.39(13), c = 1042.6(4) pm, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0885) and the isotypic indium substituted compound BaIn 1.2 Hg 4.8 as well as the structurally related gallium mercuride BaGa 0.8 Hg 5.2 (Cmcm, a = 729.77(7), b = 1910.1(2), c = 507.48(5) pm, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0606) crystallize with new structure types. Common features of both structures are planar nets of five- and eight-membered Hg rings, stacked perpendicular to the shortest axes. According to their lengths, the Hg–Hg bonds can be classified into three groups: strong, short ones (I, 285–292 pm), which are only found inside the nets, and longer distances (II), still carrying bond critical points, around 300 pm. Further contacts (III) serve to complete the coordination spheres of Hg/M (320–358 pm). The overall coordination numbers of Hg/M range from 10 to 13. The Ba cations are positioned in the centers of the octagons of the Hg/M nets, thus exhibiting a 5:8:5, i.e. 18, coordination by Hg/M atoms. DFT calculations of the electronic band structure of pure BaHg 6 and ordered models of the indium ( ′ BaInHg 5 ′ ) and the gallium ( ′ BaGaHg 5 ′ ) mercurides were performed using the FP-LAPW method. The calculated Bader charges

  6. Fast-neutron total and elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Broad-resolution neutron total cross sections of elemental indium were measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 3.8 MeV at intervals of approx. = 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles in the range 20 to 160 degrees. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V

  7. Ultrasonography and indium 111 white blood cell scanning for the detection of intraabdominal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, B.; Silverman, P.M.; Goodwin, D.A.; McDougall, I.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasound and indium 111 white blood cell scanning were performed on 163 patients with suspected intraabdominal abscesses. In all but one case, intraabdominal abscesses were correctly identified by one or both tests; conversely, no patient was falsely diagnosed by both tests to have an abscess. Sonography was useful in those patients with focal symptoms, and frequently identified nonabscess causes for fever. White cell scanning was valuable when focal signs were absent, and frequently identified extraabdominal sources of sepsis. The two imaging modalities are complementary and provide a highly accurate and sensitive means of intraabdominal abscess detection

  8. Influence of air flow rate on structural and electrical properties of undoped indium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzapour, S.; Rozati, S.M.; Takwale, M.G.; Marathe, B.R.; Bhide, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    Using the spray pyrolysis technique thin films of indium oxide were prepared on Corning glass (7059) at a substrate temperature of 425 C at different flow rates. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The Hall measurements at room temperature showed that the films prepared in an air flow rate of 7 litre min -1 have the highest mobility of 47 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and a minimum resistivity of 1.125 x 10 -3 Ω cm. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the films have a preferred orientation of [400] which peaks at the air flow rate of 7 litre min -1 . (orig.)

  9. Determination of cytotoxicity in vivo using 111Indium-labelled human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockshin, Arnold; Giovanella, B.C.; Kolielski, Tony; Stehlin, J.S. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Loss of radioactivity from nude mice was determined after inoculation of human tumor cells prelabelled with ( 111 In)indium oxine ( 111 InOx). Elimination of 111 In was increased somewhat by treating the mice with diphtheria toxin (DT), which is toxic selectively for human cells compared to mice. Calcium disodium edetate (CaNa 2 EDTA), a metal chelating agent, facilitated elimination of 111 In and increased the difference in the rates of loss of radioactivity from mice bearing viable compared to DT-killed cells. (author)

  10. Indium-111-labelled antimyosin antibody imaging in a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, W.H.; Bentrup, A.; Ohlmeier, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aetiology of cardiac dysfunction caused by sarcoid granulomatous inflammation may be difficult to clarify, and the potential of imaging methods is limited. We report on a patient who present with acute biventricular decompensation. Pulmonary sarcoidosis was confirmed after hospitalization. Four weeks after the initiation of corticosteroid treatment, scintigraphy with indium-111-labelled antimyosin antibody Fab fragments (AMAB) revealed distinct activity accumulation in major parts of the left ventricular wall (heart-lung ratio: 1.6) 72 h following injection. There may by a role for AMAB scintigraphy in the early detection of cardiac sacroidosis. (orig.)

  11. Preparation and characterization of indium tin oxide thin films for their application as gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishnav, V.S.; Patel, P.D.; Patel, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    The structural and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (In 2 O 3 /SnO 2 ) thin films grown using direct evaporation technique on various substrates at different temperatures were studied. The effect of annealing, of films with different weight percent concentration of SnO 2 in In 2 O 3 and of different thickness on the structural and electrical properties were studied and optimized for use as gas sensor. The stability of the films against time and temperature variations was studied. The effect of the catalytic layers on the sensor microstructure and its performance towards the gas sensing application was observed

  12. Characterization of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)--indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, K.; Sayer, M.; Laursen, T.; Whitton, J.L.; Pascual, R.; Johnson, D.J.; Amm, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the interface between ultrathin sputtered lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films and a conductive electrode (indium tin oxide-ITO) is investigated. Structural and compositional changes at the PZT-ITO interface have been examined by surface analysis and depth profiling techniques of glancing angle x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), SIMS, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Studies indicate significant interdiffusion of lead into the underlying ITP layer and glass substrate with a large amount of residual stress at the interface. Influence of such compositional deviations at the interface is correlated to an observed thickness dependence in the dielectric properties of PZT films

  13. Standard specification for nuclear-grade silver-indium-cadmium alloy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers silver-indium-cadmium alloy for use as a control material in light-water nuclear reactors. 1.2 The scope of this specification excludes the use of this material in applications where material strength of this alloy is a prime requisite. Also, this material must be protected from the primary water by a corrosion and wear resistant cladding. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  14. Penetration of a magnetic field into superconducting lead and lead-indium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egloff, C.; Raychaudhuri, A.K.; Rinderer, L.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the magnetic field penetration depth of superconducting lead and lead-indium alloys has been studied over the temperature range between about 2 K and T/sub c/. Data are analyzed in terms of the microscopic theory. The difficulties of a unique analysis of the penetration data are pointed out and a strategy for the analysis is discussed. The penetration depth at T = 0K for pure lead is determined as 522 A. This value, though higher than the previously accepted value for lead, is nevertheless consistent with the strong coupling character of lead

  15. Gold island films on indium tin oxide for localized surface plasmon sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Praig, Vera G; Manesse, Mael; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2008-01-01

    Mechanically, chemically and optically stable gold island films were prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by direct thermal evaporation of thin gold films (2-6 nm) without the need for pre- or post-coating. The effect of mild thermal annealing (150 deg. C, 12 h) or short high temperature annealing (500 deg. C, 1 min) on the morphology of the gold nanostructures was investigated. ITO covered with 2 nm gold nanoislands and annealed at 500 deg. C for 1 min was investigated for its ability to detect the adsorption of biotinylated bovine serum albumin using local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), and its subsequent molecular recognition of avidin

  16. The non-ideal associated species model applied to the system copper-indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    The liquid copper-indium system displays complex thermochemical behavior. Deviations from Raoult's law change from positive to negative, and the integral heat of mixing also varies from positive to strongly negative and is markedly dependent on temperature. This behavior was successfully modelled, over the entire composition range and for a temperature range of 400 K, using the non-ideal associated-species concept, with InCu 3 as the associated species. Independent evidence exists for association at the composition InCu 3 , from measurements of magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity and Hall effect. In this paper, the applicability of the model to other systems is discussed

  17. Production and investigation of galvanomagnetic properties of indium antimonide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, S; Allaberenov, O; Annaberdyev, R; Mukhametniyazova, A B; Tudzhanova, I N [AN Tadzhikskoj SSR, Khorog. Pamirskij Biologicheskij Inst.

    1978-01-01

    The method of thermal evaporation in vacuum from 1 to 3x10/sup 5/ Tor was used to obtain thin films of indium antimonide on dielectric and ferrite substrates. At dusting of films the substrates had the temperature about 570 K. The rate of film growth reached 1000 AxC/sup -1/. Based on the Hall measurements, the specific electrical conductivity, mobility and concentration of spare film carriers were determined. Their dependences on the temperature (77-400 K) and on the magnetic fields in the range of 0-6500 e were studied.

  18. Low Reflectivity and High Flexibility of Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Nanofiber Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hui

    2011-01-12

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) has found widespread use in solar cells, displays, and touch screens as a transparent electrode; however, two major problems with ITO remain: high reflectivity (up to 10%) and insufficient flexibility. Together, these problems severely limit the applications of ITO films for future optoelectronic devices. In this communication, we report the fabrication of ITO nanofiber network transparent electrodes. The nanofiber networks show optical reflectivity as low as 5% and high flexibility; the nanofiber networks can be bent to a radius of 2 mm with negligible changes in the sheet resistance. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Indium-tin oxide surface treatments: Effects on the performance of liquid crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmen, A.; Romdhane, F.F.; Ben Ouada, H.; Gharbi, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate cleaning on the surface properties. Wettability technique was used to measure the contact angle and the surface energy of the different treated ITO substrates. It is found that treatment with the methanol without dehydration gives the lowest water contact angle (most hydrophilic surface) and the highest surface energy compared to other solvents. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements performed on nematic liquid crystal cells with ITO electrodes. Indeed, we check the decrease of ionic entities in the interface ITO/liquid crystal. The polarity and dielectric parameters of the used solvents explain the obtained results

  20. Indium-tin oxide surface treatments: Effects on the performance of liquid crystal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahmen, A. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie des interfaces, Faculte des sciences, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia)]. E-mail: asma_abderrahmen@yahoo.fr; Romdhane, F.F. [Laboratoire de la matiere molle, Faculte des sciences, Tunis (Tunisia); Ben Ouada, H. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie des interfaces, Faculte des sciences, 5000, Monastir (Tunisia); Gharbi, A. [Laboratoire de la matiere molle, Faculte des sciences, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2006-03-15

    In this work, we investigate the effect of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate cleaning on the surface properties. Wettability technique was used to measure the contact angle and the surface energy of the different treated ITO substrates. It is found that treatment with the methanol without dehydration gives the lowest water contact angle (most hydrophilic surface) and the highest surface energy compared to other solvents. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements performed on nematic liquid crystal cells with ITO electrodes. Indeed, we check the decrease of ionic entities in the interface ITO/liquid crystal. The polarity and dielectric parameters of the used solvents explain the obtained results.

  1. Tailor-made surface plasmon polaritons above the bulk plasma frequency: a design strategy for indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, S; Abram, R A; Kaliteevski, M A

    2010-01-01

    A simple phase-matching approach is employed as a design aid to engineer surface plasmon polariton states at the interface of an indium tin oxide layer on the top of a Bragg reflector. By altering the details of the reflector, and in particular the ordering of the layers and the thickness of the layer adjacent to the indium tin oxide, it is possible to readily adjust the energy of these states. Examples of structures engineered to give rise to distinctive features in the reflectivity spectra above the bulk screened plasma frequency for states of both possible polarizations are presented.

  2. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, J; Charas, A; Matos, M; Alcacer, L; Cacialli, F

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide.

  3. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, Jorge; Barbagallo, Nunzio; Charas, Ana; Matos, Manuel; Alcacer, Luis; Cacialli, Franco

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide

  4. Solvent effects on extraction of aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III), with decanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiromichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Fujii, Yukio; Mizuta, Masateru

    1986-01-01

    Extraction of aluminum(III) and indium(III) with decanoic acid in 1-octanol was carried out at 25 deg C and at an aqueous ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm -3 (NaClO 4 ). Monomeric and tetrameric aluminum(III) decanoates and monomeric indium(III) decanoate are responsible for the extraction. From a comparison of the present results with those obtained from the previous works, the polymerization of the extracted species was found to be more extensive in benzene than in 1-octanol, and the metal decanoates were highly polymerized in the following order in both solvents: Al > Ga > In. (author)

  5. Synthesis, characterization and theranostic evaluation of Indium-111 labeled multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolata, Hamidreza; Abbasi Davani, Fereydoun; Afarideh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled, Trastuzumab-Doxorubicin Conjugated, and APTES-PEG coated magnetic nanoparticles were designed for tumor targeting, drug delivery, controlled drug release, and dual-modal tumor imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition method to obtain narrow size particles. To increase SPIONs circulation time in blood and decrease its cytotoxicity in healthy tissues, SPIONs surface was modified with 3-Aminopropyltriethoxy Silane (APTES) and then were functionalized with N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester of Polyethylene Glycol Maleimide (NHS-PEG-Mal) to conjugate with thiolated 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6, 9,-triacetic acid (PCTA) bifunctional chelator (BFC) and Trastuzumab antibody. In order to tumor SPECT/MR imaging, SPIONs were labeled with Indium-111 (T 1/2 = 2.80d). NHS ester of monoethyl malonate (MEM-NHS) was used for conjugation of Doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapeutic agent onto SPIONs surface. Mono-Ethyl Malonate allows DOX molecules to be attached to SPIONs via pH-sensitive hydrazone bonds which lead to controlled drug release in tumor region. Active and passive tumor targeting were achieved through incorporated anti-HER2 (Trastuzumab) antibody and EPR effect of solid tumors for nanoparticles respectively. In addition to in vitro assessments of modified SPIONs in SKBR3 cell lines, their theranostic effects were evaluated in HER2 + breast tumor bearing BALB/c mice via biodistribution study, dual-modal molecular imaging and tumor diameter measurements

  6. Surface modification of indium tin oxide for direct writing of silver nanoparticulate ink micropatterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vunnam, Swathi; Ankireddy, Krishnamraju; Kellar, Jon; Cross, William

    2013-01-01

    Surface treatment techniques were deployed to alter the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) samples to attain a favorable interface between printed nano-inks and ITO surface. Surface free energy components of treated ITO substrates were calculated for each treatment using the van Oss–Chaudhury–Good method. The surface treatments of ITO changed the Lifshitz–van der Waals and Lewis acid–base components, and contact angle hysteresis significantly. Among all the surface treatments, air plasma treated samples showed high polar in nature, whereas dodecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer treated sample showed the lowest. In addition to the polarity and homogeneity, the surface roughness of the ITO was studied with respect to the surface treatment. Silver nanoparticulate ink was printed on treated ITO surfaces using aerosol jet printing system. Printed silver nano-ink line width and morphology strongly depended on the surface treatment of the ITO, ink properties and printing parameters. - Highlights: ► Surface treatments on indium tin oxide (ITO) altered its surface free energy. ► Surface free energies were studied in terms of acid–base components. ► ITO surface morphology and roughness were changed with the surface treatment. ► Silver ink was printed on treated ITO samples using aerosol jet printing system. ► Line widths of printed patterns clearly depended on the surface free energy of ITO

  7. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, V.; Aleksandrova, M.; Stefanov, P.; Grechnikov, A.; Gadjanova, V.; Dilova, T.; Angelov, Ts

    2014-12-01

    A study of NO2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO2 concentration >= 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO2 concentration. When the NO2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO2 in the air at room temperature.

  8. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  9. Thermal transport properties of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Toru; Miyamura, Amica; Oka, Nobuto; Sato, Yasushi; Shigesato, Yuzo; Yagi, Takashi; Taketoshi, Naoyuki; Baba, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films with a thickness of 200 nm has been characterized quantitatively by subnanosecond laser pulse irradiation and thermoreflectance measurement. ITO films sandwiched by molybdenum (Mo) films were prepared on a fused silica substrate by dc magnetron sputtering using an oxide ceramic ITO target (90 wt %In 2 O 3 and 10 wt %SnO 2 ). The resistivity and carrier density of the ITO films ranged from 2.9x10 -4 to 3.2x10 -3 Ω cm and from 1.9x10 20 to 1.2x10 21 cm -3 , respectively. The thermal diffusivity of the ITO films was (1.5-2.2)x10 -6 m 2 /s, depending on the electrical conductivity. The thermal conductivity carried by free electrons was estimated using the Wiedemann-Franz law. The phonon contribution to the heat transfer in ITO films with various resistivities was found to be almost constant (λ ph =3.95 W/m K), which was about twice that for amorphous indium zinc oxide films

  10. Surface modification of indium tin oxide for direct writing of silver nanoparticulate ink micropatterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vunnam, Swathi, E-mail: swathi.vunnam@mines.sdsmt.edu [Nanoscience and Nanoengineering Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD-57701 (United States); Ankireddy, Krishnamraju; Kellar, Jon; Cross, William [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD-57701 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Surface treatment techniques were deployed to alter the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) samples to attain a favorable interface between printed nano-inks and ITO surface. Surface free energy components of treated ITO substrates were calculated for each treatment using the van Oss–Chaudhury–Good method. The surface treatments of ITO changed the Lifshitz–van der Waals and Lewis acid–base components, and contact angle hysteresis significantly. Among all the surface treatments, air plasma treated samples showed high polar in nature, whereas dodecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer treated sample showed the lowest. In addition to the polarity and homogeneity, the surface roughness of the ITO was studied with respect to the surface treatment. Silver nanoparticulate ink was printed on treated ITO surfaces using aerosol jet printing system. Printed silver nano-ink line width and morphology strongly depended on the surface treatment of the ITO, ink properties and printing parameters. - Highlights: ► Surface treatments on indium tin oxide (ITO) altered its surface free energy. ► Surface free energies were studied in terms of acid–base components. ► ITO surface morphology and roughness were changed with the surface treatment. ► Silver ink was printed on treated ITO samples using aerosol jet printing system. ► Line widths of printed patterns clearly depended on the surface free energy of ITO.

  11. Liver scanning using indium-113m at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulaisho, C [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; Mumba, K N [Radio-isotope Research Unit, National Council for Scientific Research, Lusaka, Zambia

    1981-11-21

    Liver scanning using the radio-isotope indium-113m, can now be routinely perfomed at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. The dose used is 1 - 4 mCi. Liver scans have been performed on 48 subjects, including 10 healthy individuals 16 patients with histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 with clinical and laboratory evidence of portal hypertension and 11 with miscellaneous illnesses. Seven representative scans are illustrated. The procedure is easy, and gives a fairly accurate functional estimate of Kupffer cell mass. In hepatoma the scan may be either larger than or smaller than normal and reflects more accurately the residual function of the Kupffer cells. In cirrhosis of the liver with portal hypertention, residual Kupffer cell mass is small. Consequently, most of the indium-113m is taken up by the splenic reticulo-endothelial system, resulting in a large spleen scan. This technique, although fraught with major limitations, is a useful additional diagnostic tool in the management of chronic liver disease.

  12. Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yuming; Ge, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silane coupling agent of KH550 was used to connect the ITO and polyurethanes. ► Infrared emissivity values of the hybrids were compared and analyzed. ► Interfacial synergistic action and orderly secondary structure were the key factors. -- Abstract: Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide and racemic polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposites (LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO) were prepared by grafting the organics onto the surfaces of modified ITO nanoparticles. LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO composites based on the chiral and racemic tyrosine were characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the infrared emissivity values (8–14 μm) were investigated in addition. The results indicated that the polyurethanes had been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of ITO without destroying the crystalline structure. Both composites possessed the lower infrared emissivity values than the bare ITO nanoparticles, which indicated that the interfacial interaction had great effect on the infrared emissivity. Furthermore, LPU@ITO based on the optically active polyurethane had the virtue of regular secondary structure and more interfacial synergistic actions between organics and inorganics, thus it exhibited lower infrared emissivity value than RPU@ITO based on the racemic polyurethane.

  13. Bone-marrow imaging with indium-111 chloride in aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayle, B.A.; Helmer, R.E.; Birdsong, B.A.; Balachandran, S.; Gardner, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with aplastic anemia and 11 patients with myelofibrosis were evaluated with indium-111 chloride bone-marrow imaging, ferrokinetics, and bone-marrow core biopsies. There was good correlation between the erythrocyte cellularity of the marrow and the In-111 bone-marrow scan grades in most patients. In some, the overall scan grade tended to underestimate the erythroid elements because the core biopsy had been taken from the area of the greatest radionuclide concentration on the scan. In patients with aplastic anemia, there was good correlation between the plasma iron clearance t1/2 and the scan grade. Less agreement was found in the comparison between the Fe-59 sacral and organ counts and the red-cell iron utilization. In patients with myelofibrosis, there was poor correlation between the surface counts over the sacrum and the red-cell iron utilization. Plasma iron clearances were abnormally short and were unrelated to the transferrin saturation levels. Eighteen patients were studied several times to evaluate their responses to steroid therapy. In all, there was good correlation between the bone-marrow imaging, the erythrocyte cellularity, ferrokinetics, and the patient's response to therapy. Indium-111 bone-marrow imaging is useful both in evaluating marrow erythroid activity and in following the response to therapy in patients with these diseases

  14. Effect of indium and antimony doping in SnS single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, Sunil H., E-mail: sunilchaki@yahoo.co.in; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M.P.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single crystals growth of pure SnS, indium doped SnS and antimony doped SnS by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. • Doping of In and Sb occurred in SnS single crystals by cation replacement. • The replacement mechanism ascertained by EDAX, XRD and substantiated by Raman spectra analysis. • Dopants concentration affects the optical energy bandgap. • Doping influences electrical transport properties. - Abstract: Single crystals of pure SnS, indium (In) doped SnS and antimony (Sb) doped SnS were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. Two doping concentrations of 5% and 15% each were employed for both In and Sb dopants. Thus in total five samples were studied viz., pure SnS (S1), 5% In doped SnS (S2), 15% In doped SnS (S3), 5% Sb doped SnS (S4) and 15% Sb doped SnS (S5). The grown single crystal samples were characterized by evaluating their surface microstructure, stoichiometric composition, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy, optical and electrical transport properties using appropriate techniques. The d.c. electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power variations with temperature showed semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The room temperature Hall Effect measurements further substantiated the semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The obtained results are deliberated in detail.

  15. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Cr-doped Indium Oxide Thick Film Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Chavan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of In1-xCrxO3 composites, with x ranging from 0.01 to 0.5wt% were prepared by mechanochemically starting from InCl3 and CrO3. Structural and micro structural characteristics of the sample were investigated by XRD, SEM with EDAX. Thick films of pure Indium Oxide and composites were prepared by standard screen printing technique. The gas sensitivity of these thick films was tested for various gases. The pure Indium Oxide thick film (x=0 shows maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapour (80 ppm at 350 oC, but composite-A (x=0.01 thick film shows maximum sensitivity to H2S gas (40 ppm at 250 oC, composite-B (x=0.1 thick film shows higher sensitivity to NH3 gas (80 ppm at 250 oC and composite-C (x=0.5 thick film shows maximum sensitivity to Cl2 gas (80 ppm at 350 oC. A systematic study of gas sensing performance of the sensors indicates the key role played by concentration variation of Cr doped species. The sensitivity, selectivity and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  16. Synthesis of Chromane Derivatives via Indium-mediated Intramolecular Allenylation and Allylation to Imines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han Young; Yu, Yeon Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The results of preparing chromans by intramolecular allylation are shown in Table 2. The results indicated that the indium-mediated allylation was not as efficient as the allenylation. About 10-20% decrease in yields was observed. As mentioned above, in each case only a single isomer was observed, and the stereochemistry of the product was determined as cis by analysis of 1 H NMR and NOE spectra. There are, however, still some limitations in these transformations. Especially, in the case of allylation mixtures of cis and trans isomers are always produced in about 2 : 1 ratio (cis/trans). The ratio was not improved under the various reaction conditions we attempted. Since the indium-mediated addition to carbonyl groups has been successful, it occurred to us that it would be worthwhile to test the addition to carbon-nitrogen double bonds, that is, imine groups. We wish to report here the results of the investigations on allylation and allenylation to C=N bond to provide the chromane structures. The whole transformations

  17. Electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and electronic mobility in indium antimonide at different magnetic fields and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Madan; Prasad, Vijay; Singh, Amita

    1995-01-01

    The electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and electronic mobility of n-type and p-type crystals of indium antimonide have been measured from 25 degC-100 degC temperature range. It has been found by this measurement that indium antimonide is a compound semiconductor with a high mobility 10 6 cm 2 /V.S. The Hall coefficient R H was measured as a function of magnetic field strength H for a number of samples of both p and n-type using fields up to 12 kilo gauss. The Hall coefficient R h decreases with increasing magnetic fields as well as with increase in temperature of the sample. The electric field is more effective on samples with high mobilities and consequently the deviations from linearity are manifested at comparatively low values of the electric field. The measurement of R H in weak and strong magnetic fields makes it possible to determine the separate concentration of heavy and light holes. Measured values of Hall coefficient and electrical resistivity show that there is a little variation of ρ and R h with temperatures as well as with magnetic fields. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Role of delayed indium-111 labeled leukocyte scan in the management of Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaton, G.D.; Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Texter, E.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of nine patients with Crohn's disease who had a positive delayed (24 hr) 111 indium leukocyte scan and 10 patients with negative scan showed no significant difference between the two groups for the Crohn's disease activity index, sedimentation rate, survival, complications, number of days in hospital, outpatient visits, or readmissions. Despite the apparent lack of statistical significance in Crohn's disease activity index, the scan was positive in nine of 16 patients with a Crohn's disease activity index more than 150, and none of three patients with Crohn's disease activity index less than 150. In the patients studied, there were no false-positive leukocyte scans. In nine of 10 patients with ileocolonic disease, scanning results correctly predicted the proper management. Six patients with positive scan and enteroclysis responded to medical treatment. Four patients had positive enteroclysis and negative scan; of these, three had radiographic features of chronic ileal stricture which was confirmed at operation. The results suggest that a negative delayed indium-111 leukocyte scan may be useful in diagnosis of chronic fibrotic ileal stricture

  19. Work function tuning of tin-doped indium oxide electrodes with solution-processed lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow-Yang, C.W., E-mail: cleva@sabanciuniv.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Nanotechnology Application Center, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Jia, J. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Aytun, T. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Zamboni, M.; Turak, A. [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8 (Canada); Saritas, K. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Shigesato, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)

    2014-05-30

    Solution-processed lithium fluoride (sol-LiF) nanoparticles synthesized in polymeric micelle nanoreactors enabled tuning of the surface work function of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films. The micelle reactors provided the means for controlling surface coverage by progressively building up the interlayer through alternating deposition and plasma etch removal of the polymer. In order to determine the surface coverage and average interparticle distance, spatial point pattern analysis was applied to scanning electron microscope images of the nanoparticle dispersions. The work function of the sol-LiF modified ITO, obtained from photoelectron emission yield spectroscopy analysis, was shown to increase with surface coverage of the sol-LiF particles, suggesting a lateral depolarization effect. Analysis of the photoelectron emission energy distribution in the near threshold region revealed the contribution of surface states for surface coverage in excess of 14.1%. Optimization of the interfacial barrier was achieved through contributions from both work function modification and surface states. - Highlights: • Work function of indium tin oxide increased with LiF nanoparticle coverage. • Work function was analyzed via photoelectron emission yield (PEYS). • At higher surface coverage, the energy distribution of PEYS increased. • Pre-threshold increase in PEYS consistent with emission from surface states.

  20. A study of the characteristics of indium tin oxide after chlorine electro-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moonsoo; Kim, Jongmin; Cho, Jaehee; Kim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Nayoung; Choi, Byoungdeog, E-mail: bdchoi@skku.edu

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The presence of Chlorine in the outer surface resulted in a highly electro-negative surface states and an increase in the vacuum energy level. - Highlights: • We investigated the influence of chlorine surface treatment on ITO properties. • Chlorination induced the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface. • Chlorine electro-chemical treatment of ITO is a simple, fast and effective technique. - Abstract: In this work, we investigate the influence of a chlorine-based electro-chemical surface treatment on the characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) including the work function, chemical composition, and phase transition. The treated ITOs were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), 4-point probe measurements, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD). We confirmed a change of the chemical composition in the near-surface region of the ITO and the formation of indium-chlorine (In-Cl) bonds and surface dipoles (via XPS). In particular, the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface was caused by chlorination. Due to the vacuum-level shift after the electro-chemical treatment in a dilute hydrochloric acid, the ITO work function was increased by ∼0.43 eV (via UPS); furthermore, the electro-negativity of the chlorine anions attracted electrons to emit them from the hole transport layer (HTL) to the ITO anodes, resulting in an increase of the hole-injection efficiency.