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Sample records for indium 111-labeled m8

  1. Current status of indium-111 labeled bleomycin for tumor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.D.; Blahd, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of 111 In-labeled bleomycin for tumor detection are briefly mentioned. Indium-111 labeled bleomycin does localize in human tumors. However, its role in tumor detection and staging as compared with 67 Ga is still somewhat controversial

  2. Pharmacokinetics of indium-111-labeled antimyosin monoclonal antibody in murine experimental viral myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Matsumori, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J.; Kawai, C.

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of indium-111-labeled antimyosin monoclonal antibody Fab were investigated with use of murine experimental viral myocarditis as a model. The biodistribution of indium-111-labeled antimyosin antibody Fab on days 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after encephalomyocarditis virus inoculation demonstrated that myocardial uptake increased significantly on days 5, 7 and 14 (maximum on day 7) in infected versus uninfected mice (p less than 0.001). In vivo kinetics in infected mice on day 7 demonstrated that the heart to blood ratio reached a maximum 48 h after the intravenous administration of indium-111-labeled antimyosin Fab, which was considered to be the optimal time for scintigraphy. The scintigraphic images obtained with indium-111-labeled antimyosin Fab demonstrated positive uptake in the cardiac lesion in infected mice. The pathologic study demonstrated that myocardial uptake correlated well with pathologic grades of myocardial necrosis. High performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of an antigen-antibody complex in the circulation of infected mice after the injection of indium-111-labeled antimyosin Fab. This antigen bound to indium-111-labeled antimyosin Fab in the circulation might be whole myosin and this complex may decrease myocardial uptake and increase liver uptake. It is concluded that indium-111-labeled antimyosin monoclonal antibody Fab accumulates selectively in damaged heart tissue in mice with acute myocarditis and that indium-111-labeled antimyosin Fab scintigraphy may be a useful method for the visualization of acute myocarditis

  3. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

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    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus.

  4. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus

  5. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiger, L.S.; Fox, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma

  6. The clinical utility of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the diagnoses of renal transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desir, G.V.; Bia, M.; Lange, R.C.; Smith, E.O.; Flye, W.; Kashgarian, M.; Schiff, M.; Ezekowitz, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    It is demonstrated that indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy is a highly accurate test for detecting acute untreated renal allograft rejection and it is shown that changes in platelet uptake can precede signs and symptoms of rejection by at least 48 hours. (author). 34 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Indium-111-labelled leucocytes for localisation of abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, A.W.; Thakur, M.L.; Arnot, R.N.; Lavender, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Leucocytes from eight patients who were thought to have an abscess were labelled with indium-111 and reintroduced into the circulation. The distribution of radioactivity was followed by whole-body scanning and imaging with a gamma camera. Focal accumulations of radioactivity were observed in the lesion in the three patients with abscesses, in the lungs of a boy with bacterial endocarditis, in the knee of a woman with rheumatoid arthritis, and at the site of intramuscular injections in another patient. The use of radiolabelled cells for the detection of focal pathological processes would seem to be an important addition to conventional diagnostic methods. (author)

  8. Indium-111-labelled leucocytes for localisation of abscesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, A W; Thakur, M L; Arnot, R N; Lavender, J P [Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK)

    1976-11-13

    Leucocytes from eight patients who were thought to have an abscess were labelled with indium-111 and reintroduced into the circulation. The distribution of radioactivity was followed by whole-body scanning and imaging with a gamma camera. Focal accumulations of radioactivity were observed in the lesion in the three patients with abscesses, in the lungs of a boy with bacterial endocarditis, in the knee of a woman with rheumatoid arthritis, and at the site of intramuscular injections in another patient. The use of radiolabelled cells for the detection of focal pathological processes would seem to be an important addition to conventional diagnostic methods.

  9. Indium-111-labelled antimyosin antibody imaging in a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, W.H.; Bentrup, A.; Ohlmeier, H.

    1993-01-01

    The aetiology of cardiac dysfunction caused by sarcoid granulomatous inflammation may be difficult to clarify, and the potential of imaging methods is limited. We report on a patient who present with acute biventricular decompensation. Pulmonary sarcoidosis was confirmed after hospitalization. Four weeks after the initiation of corticosteroid treatment, scintigraphy with indium-111-labelled antimyosin antibody Fab fragments (AMAB) revealed distinct activity accumulation in major parts of the left ventricular wall (heart-lung ratio: 1.6) 72 h following injection. There may by a role for AMAB scintigraphy in the early detection of cardiac sacroidosis. (orig.)

  10. Diagnosis of cardiac allograft rejection with indium-111 labeled platelets in cyclosporin treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Iga, C.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    Rejection of heart transplants remains difficult to diagnose. Indium-111 (In-111) labeled lymphocytes accumulate in rat cardiac allografts when recipients are treated with Cyclosporin (Cy), even in the absence of clinical rejection. This presumably occurs because of the non-specific 'interstitial infiltration' caused by Cy. This study examines the usefulness of In-111 labeled platelets in differentiating experimental cardiac allograft rejection from Cy-induced tissue changes. The authors initially examined the migration patterns of syngeneic In-111 labeled platelets in groups of Lewis recipients of ACI cardiac allografts treated with IM Cy (10mg/kg) for 6-14 days. In addition, 10 control animals were not immunosuppressed, and 10 were treated with Cy but received Lewis cardiac isografts. Syngeneic In-111 platelets were injected IV into each animal 24 hours prior to sacrifice. Three to five rats from each group were killed at 3 ,7, 14, 21 and 28 days after transplantation and the % ID/gm in the transplanted hearts and native hearts were determined and correlated with histopathology. Untreated Lewis recipients rejected ACI hearts in 6.5 +- 0.4 days while Cy prolonged allograft survival in a variable fashion. In-111 platelet accumulation correlated well with the degree of rejection determined independently by histopathology. No significant In-111 platelet accumulation was detected in non-rejecting cardiac transplants or in native hearts in Cy treated or control animals. The results suggest that In-111 labeled platelets will be an effective agent for diagnosis of cardiac rejection, even in the presence of Cy treatment

  11. Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinical improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy

  12. Peripheral vascular investigations using indium 111 labeled platelets. Correlation between anatomical and scintigraphic data. A study of 131 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, P.J.; Bazan, M.; Laforte, C. de.

    1985-01-01

    In comparison with other arterial investigations, indium 111 labeled scintigraphy appears to be a very suitable tool for the detection and observations of small foci of thrombosis and particularly for the determination of the evolutive character of the lesion. The conservation of the functional properties of labeled platelets is a determining factor in the results obtained [fr

  13. Synthesis, characterization and theranostic evaluation of Indium-111 labeled multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolata, Hamidreza; Abbasi Davani, Fereydoun; Afarideh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled, Trastuzumab-Doxorubicin Conjugated, and APTES-PEG coated magnetic nanoparticles were designed for tumor targeting, drug delivery, controlled drug release, and dual-modal tumor imaging. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition method to obtain narrow size particles. To increase SPIONs circulation time in blood and decrease its cytotoxicity in healthy tissues, SPIONs surface was modified with 3-Aminopropyltriethoxy Silane (APTES) and then were functionalized with N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester of Polyethylene Glycol Maleimide (NHS-PEG-Mal) to conjugate with thiolated 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6, 9,-triacetic acid (PCTA) bifunctional chelator (BFC) and Trastuzumab antibody. In order to tumor SPECT/MR imaging, SPIONs were labeled with Indium-111 (T 1/2 = 2.80d). NHS ester of monoethyl malonate (MEM-NHS) was used for conjugation of Doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapeutic agent onto SPIONs surface. Mono-Ethyl Malonate allows DOX molecules to be attached to SPIONs via pH-sensitive hydrazone bonds which lead to controlled drug release in tumor region. Active and passive tumor targeting were achieved through incorporated anti-HER2 (Trastuzumab) antibody and EPR effect of solid tumors for nanoparticles respectively. In addition to in vitro assessments of modified SPIONs in SKBR3 cell lines, their theranostic effects were evaluated in HER2 + breast tumor bearing BALB/c mice via biodistribution study, dual-modal molecular imaging and tumor diameter measurements

  14. Indium-111 labeled purified granulocytes in the diagnosis of synthetic vascular graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Chowdhury, S.; Brown, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of synthetic vascular graft infection. To minimize the potential effects of labeled red blood cells and platelets on image interpretation, the authors prepared purified autologous granulocytes (PG) from 84 ml of blood using Volex enhanced gravity sedimentation and Ficoll-Hypaque double density centrifugation. The labeling efficiency of PG with In-111 tropolone was 90 +/- 9% (mean +/- SD). Imaging was performed 18-24 hours following injection of approximately 445 microcuries of In-111 PG in 26 patients with suspected infection of vascular grafts that had been implanted 12 days to 12 years prior to the study. In ten patients with proven graft infection, seven had positive In-111 PG scans. Ten of 11 patients without infection had negative scans. In five patients with clinically equivocal findings, scan results were positive in one, negative in one, and equivocal in three. A false-positive scan occurred in a patient with an uninfected inflammatory pseudoaneurysm of an aortic graft. These results confirm an earlier report that In-111 PG imaging is a useful technique in the diagnosis of synthetic vascular graft infection

  15. Distribution and dosimetry of indium-111 labeled F(ab')2 fragments in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, P.; Schwinger, R.; King, M.; Gionet, M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain quantitative biodistribution data in patients injected with the indium-111 labeled F(ab') 2 fragments of mouse monoclonal antibody. From this data dosimetric calculations were made for the individual organs. The authors also evaluated the quantitative properties of SPECT in this application and compared it with the more conventional two view planar technique in both phantom and patient studies. For one antibody (19-9) the mean dose in rads/mCi for the organs of highest accumulation, namely, the liver and kidneys was 3.2 and 2.6 respectively. Preliminary data from another antibody (OC 125) showed much higher blood levels and a significantly lower liver dose of 2.3 indicating that antibody type is another significant determinant in dosimetry. The SPECT approach particularly in the presence of background activity, was more accurate in the phantom studies and resulted in larger estimated doses in the patient studies. Also, SPECT has the added advantage of providing an index of organ volume, which has to be balanced with the fact the planar is more rapid, and does not require special hardware. 24 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  16. Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms

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    Oriuchi, N.; Korkmaz, M.; Kim, E.E.; Delpassand, E.S.; Wong, F.; Podoloff, D.A. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wallace, S. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1998-03-01

    This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of {sup 111}In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. {sup 111}In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

  17. Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriuchi, N.; Korkmaz, M.; Kim, E.E.; Delpassand, E.S.; Wong, F.; Podoloff, D.A.; Wallace, S.

    1998-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of 111 In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. 111 In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

  18. Colonic localization of indium-111 labeled leukocytes in active Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harre, R.G.; Conrad, G.R.; Seabold, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A patient with known Behcet's disease demonstrated intense colonic localization of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Gastrointestinal involvement had not been previously manifested, but extensive colonic inflammation was documented by endoscopy. This case illustrates the utility of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging for detecting active bowel disease in a debilitated patient with documented Behcet's vasculitis

  19. Indium-111 labeled leukocyte images demonstrating a lung abscess with prominent fluid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massie, J.D.; Winer-Muram, H.

    1986-01-01

    In-111 labeled leukocyte images show an abscess cavity with a fluid level on 24-hour upright images. Fluid levels, frequently seen on radiographs, are uncommon on nuclear images. This finding demonstrates rapid migration of labeled leukocytes into purulent abscess fluid

  20. Utility of the indium 111-labeled human immunoglobulin G scan for the detection of focal vascular graft infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaMuraglia, G.M.; Fischman, A.J.; Strauss, H.W.; Keech, F.; Wilkinson, R.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Rubin, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to diagnose and localize vascular graft infections has been a major challenge. Recent studies in animal models and humans with focal bacterial infection have shown that radiolabeled, polyclonal, human immunoglobulin G accumulates at the site of inflammation and can serve as the basis for an imaging technique. This study investigated this new technique for the diagnosis and localization of vascular graft infections. Twenty-five patients with suspected vascular infections involving grafts (22), atherosclerotic aneurysms (2), and subclavian vein thrombophlebitis (1) were studied. Gamma camera images of the suspected area were obtained between 5 and 48 hours after intravenous administration of 1.5 to 2.0 mCi (56 to 74 mBq) of indium 111-labeled, human, polyclonal immunoglobulin G. Scan results were interpreted without clinical information about the patient and were subsequently correlated with surgical findings, other imaging modalities, and/or clinical follow-up. In 10 of 10 patients found to have positive scan results, localized infections were confirmed at the involved sites. In 14 of 15 patients whose scan results were interpreted as negative, no vascular infections were identified at follow-up. The patient with false-negative results and recurrent bacteremia from an aortoduodenal fistula was found to have a negative scan outcome at a time when his disease was quiescent. These data suggest that nonspecific, human, indium 111-labeled immunoglobulin G scanning can be a useful noninvasive means of localizing vascular infections

  1. False-positive indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigram in a patient with a painful hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, N.; Makler, P.T. Jr.; Alavi, A.

    1986-01-01

    A Tronzo hip prosthesis is designed to elicit an inflammatory reaction in order to promote prosthesis stability. A three-phased bone scan and Ga-67 imaging in conjunction with physical examination and laboratory findings failed to demonstrate evidence for osteomyelitis in a patient with a painful hip prosthesis, in whom images obtained with In-111-labeled leukocytes were positive. This observation demonstrated that the interpretation of the latter technique in demonstrating inflammation can cause a false impression of an infectious process

  2. Utility of indium-111 labelled autologous platelets in the diagnosis of renal graft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Comin, J.; Roca, M.; Grino, J.M.; Paradell, C.; Caralps, A.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of In-111 labelled autologous platelets in the diagnosis of renal graft rejection was studied. The method is based on imaging of the graft area at 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the injection of the labelled cells. The study was done in 21 renal cadaveric transplant recipients: control group: four patients without evidence of rejection. No platelet uptake was observed in any of them. Study group: in 13 patients with acute rejection and 1 with chronic rejection graft tracer uptake was seen. In the 3 others with a non-immunological sudden impairment of renal function, no activity was detected in graft area. Changes in renal platelet trapping correlated with response to antirejection therapy

  3. Kinetic study of indium-111 labelled platelets in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiffers, J.; Vuillemin, L.; Broustet, A.; Ducassou, D.

    1982-01-01

    Labelling platelets with 111 Indium-oxine has advantages over the conventional 51 chromium method: labelling is more efficient and the radiations emitted almost exclusively consist of gamma-rays. Owing to these advantages, autologous platelets can be used for kinetic studies in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, even when thrombocytopenia is severe. 111 Indium labelling also provides accurate information on the sites of platelet destruction, which may help to predict the patient's response to splenectomy [fr

  4. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease

  5. Study of the cerebro-spinal fluid circulation indium 111 labelled DTPA. Report of 300 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, R.; Askienazy, S.; Mathieu, E.; Moretti, J.-L.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the C.S.F. circulation by intrathecal injection of radioactive tracers is a usual technique of neurological exploration. Indium-111 DTPA has numerous advantages for this type of study. It is a chelating agent, the renal clearance of which is rapid and which has no toxicity at the dose injected. Indium-111 is a cyclotron product with a half-life (2.8 days) compatible with the duration of the examination. Finally the dose of radioactivity delivered by this isotope is less than that of iodine 131, Technetium 99m, and ytterbium 169. In normal subjects after injection by the lumbar route, the average biological half-life measured by external counting lies between 20 and 28 hours. A study of the circulation of the C.S.F. is particularly useful in patients suspected of hydrocephalus. It permits finer diagnosis and shows the indication and type of by pass operation that may be necessary. An increase in the biological half-life of indium 111-DTPA seems to be a good indication for such an operation. An experience of 300 patients has shown the interest of the use of Indium 111-DTPA which now seems to be the best radio-isotope for the study of the subarachnoid space [fr

  6. A comparison of gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy and indium-111 labelled leukocyte imaging for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKillop, J.H.; Cuthbert, G.F.; Gray, H.W.; McKay, Iain; Sturrock, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary experience in comparing Gallium-67 imaging in patients with a painful prosthetic joint to the findings on Indium-111 labelled leukocyte imaging is reported. In the small series of patients so far studied, no clear advantage has emerged for either Gallium-67 or Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in terms of sensitivity or specificity for joint prosthesis infection. Should a larger group confirm the preliminary findings, Gallium-67 imaging may be preferable to Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in the patient with the painful joint prosthesis, in view of the greater simplicity of the former technique

  7. Indium-111 labelled leucocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roevekamp, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of indium-111 oxinate labelled autologous leucocytes in inflammatory disease. Chapter I provides an outline of the theoretical aspects of leucocyte labelling with indium-111 oxinate, as well as giving a description of the labelling method and scintigraphic technique and of the in-vitro and in-vivo studies performed to evaluate the method. In Chapter II details are given of the initial results obtained in a pilot study. A high false-negative rate led to modification of the labelling technique. The results obtained in patients suspected of intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal located inflammatory lesions are described in Chapter III. Chapter IV contains the description of an indium-111-leucocyte-99mTc-Sn-colloid computer-assisted subtraction technique for a better evaluation of patients suspected of an upper-abdominal inflammatory process. In Chapter V the study performed in patients after arterial reconstructive surgery is described, and the results obtained in patients suspected of an infected orthopaedic prosthesis are given in Chapter VI. Finally the characteristics of the different types of inflammatory responses is reviewed. (Auth.)

  8. Noninvasive detection of rejection of transplanted hearts with indium-111-labeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, H.J.; Eisenberg, S.B.; Saffitz, J.E.; Bolman, R.M. III; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether cardiac transplant rejection can be detected noninvasively with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled lymphocytes, we studied 11 dogs with thoracic heterotopic cardiac transplants without immunosuppression and five dogs with transplants treated with cyclosporine (10 mg/kg/day) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). All were evaluated sequentially with gamma scintigraphy after administration of 150 to 350 muCi of autologous 111 In-lymphocytes. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells (1 to 3 mCi) were used for correction of radioactivity in the blood pool attributable to circulating labeled lymphocytes. Lymphocyte infiltration was quantified as the ratio of indium in the myocardium of the transplant or native heart compared with that in blood (indium excess, IE). Results were correlated with mechanical and electrical activity of allografts and with histologic findings in sequential biopsy specimens. In untreated dogs (n = 11), IE was 15.5 +/- 7.0 (SD) in transplanted hearts undergoing rejection and 0.4 +/- 1.1 in native hearts on the day before animals were killed. In dogs treated with cyclosporine and prednisone (n = 5), IE was minimal in allografts during the course of immunosuppression (0.8 +/- 0.4) and increased to 22.9 +/- 11.1 after immunosuppression was stopped. Scintigraphic criteria of rejection (IE greater than 2 SD above that in native hearts) correlated with results of biopsies indicative of rejection and appeared before electrophysiologic or mechanical manifestations of dysfunction. Thus infiltration of labeled lymphocytes in allografts, indicative of rejection, is detectable noninvasively by gamma scintigraphy and provides a sensitive approach potentially applicable to clinical monitoring for early detection of rejection and guidance for titration of immunosuppressive measures

  9. Role of delayed indium-111 labeled leukocyte scan in the management of Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaton, G.D.; Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Texter, E.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of nine patients with Crohn's disease who had a positive delayed (24 hr) 111 indium leukocyte scan and 10 patients with negative scan showed no significant difference between the two groups for the Crohn's disease activity index, sedimentation rate, survival, complications, number of days in hospital, outpatient visits, or readmissions. Despite the apparent lack of statistical significance in Crohn's disease activity index, the scan was positive in nine of 16 patients with a Crohn's disease activity index more than 150, and none of three patients with Crohn's disease activity index less than 150. In the patients studied, there were no false-positive leukocyte scans. In nine of 10 patients with ileocolonic disease, scanning results correctly predicted the proper management. Six patients with positive scan and enteroclysis responded to medical treatment. Four patients had positive enteroclysis and negative scan; of these, three had radiographic features of chronic ileal stricture which was confirmed at operation. The results suggest that a negative delayed indium-111 leukocyte scan may be useful in diagnosis of chronic fibrotic ileal stricture

  10. Evaluation of indium-111-labeled antifibrin monoclonal antibody for the diagnosis of venous thrombotic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Faucal, P.; Peltier, P.; Planchon, B.; Dupas, B.; Touze, M.D.; Baron, D.; Scaible, T.; Berger, H.J.; Chatal, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The potential advantage of using 111 In-antifibrin ( 111 In-AF) monoclonal antibody for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was studied in 44 patients with suspected DVT (27 underwent heparin therapy before 111 In-AF injection). All patients had contrast venography (considered as the gold standard) and 111 In-AF scintigraphy within 24 hr. Two to 3 mCi of 111 In-AF were injected intravenously, and planar scintigraphy of the limbs was recorded within 10 min (17 times), 3 hr (44 times), and 18 hr (39 times). Indium-111-AF images were then interpreted without knowledge of the results of the other examinations. The DVT diagnostic accuracy of 111 In-AF was greater when interpretation was based on images recorded at different time periods after injection. Indium-111-AF sensitivity for diagnosis of DVT was 85% (29/34) and was not apparently decreased by heparin therapy. None of the 10 patients with negative contrast venography had a positive 111 In-AF scan. The results demonstrate the importance of recording serial images and the excellent accuracy of 111 In-AF for diagnosing DVT

  11. Imaging the inflammatory response to acute myocardial infarction in man using indium-111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.A.; Thakur, M.L.; Berger, H.J.; Wackers, F.J.T.; Gottschalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of imaging the inflammatory response to acute transmural myocardial infarction in man using indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled autologous leukocytes was assessed in 36 patients. Indium-111 leukocytes were injected i.v. 18 to 112 hs after the onset of chest pain. Cardiac imaging was performed 24 hs later with a mobile gamma camera. Twenty-one patients had positive images and 15 had negative images. The percent of positive images increased as the interval between infarction and 111 In-leukocyte injection shortened; all patients injected within 24 hs of infarction had positive images. Patients with positive images were injected with 111 In leukocytes earlier after infarction and were younger than those with negative images. Several other parameters that could possibly have affected the imaging results were examined and were not significantly different in patients with positive and negative images. These included peak serum creatine kinase, location of infarction, incidence of pericarditis, use of antiinflammatory drugs or membrane-active antiarrhythmic drugs, peripheral leukocyte count, and cell labeling efficiency. The function of the labeled cells was similar in patients with positive and negative images. Six patients with acute infarction serving as controls and given free 111 In-oxine and six patients with stable coronary artery disease given 111 In-leukocytes all had negative cardiac images

  12. Mathematical models for the study of the dynamics of indium-111-labelled platelets in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, S.

    1992-01-01

    Platelet kinetics in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was investigated by applying various models (compartmental and open models, and functional and uptake analyses) to data on indium-111 labelled platelets monitored with a gamma camera following intravenous injection of labelled platelets. The usefulness of the selected models was tested by relating kinetic data to pathophysiological phenomena. A comparison of the results of platelet and colloid kinetics showed that the splenic platelet kinetics in ITP patients does not seem to be primarily dependent on the reticuloendothelial system. Although closed three-compartmental analysis seemed to be superior to the other models applied, none of the methods of analysis tested in this study appears to provide a complete description of short-lived platelet dynamics, as for every model certain assumptions that are not entirely relevant have to be made; this stresses the importance of combining various methods for a comprehensive analysis of a complex phenomenon. Conclusions concerning the function of biological systems should be based on more than one dynamic model or calculation method, since applying only one model (or calculation method) may give artifactual results due to poor statistics of observed data or to inexactness of the assumptions concerning the model

  13. Scintigraphic detection of carotid atherosclerosis with indium-111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.H.; Siegel, B.A.; Sherman, L.A.; Heaton, W.A.; Naidich, T.P.; Joist, J.R.; Welch, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Using autologous platelets labeled with indium-111-oxine, we studied the localization of platelets on arterial lesions by radionuclide scintigraphy in 34 patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease. The imaging results were compared with the findings of contrast angiography in 23 patients, 16 of whom were receiving antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs during the platelet imaging study. Angiography demonstrated atherosclerotic lesions at 33 sites in the extracranial arteries of 16 of these patients. There was accumulation of 111 In-platelets at 20 of these sites (61%) and at three other sites without definite angiographic abnormalities. Lesions with stenoses 111 In-labeled autologous platelets may be useful for evaluating the pathophysiologic characteristics of atherosclerotic lesions in patients with cerebrovascular disease

  14. Acute myocardial infarct imaging with indium-111-labeled monoclonal antimyosin Fab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, B.A.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Johns, J.A.; Kanke, M.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Strauss, H.W.; Haber, E.

    1987-01-01

    Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin Fab scintigraphy was used to detect myocardial necrosis in 52 of 54 patients (96.3%) with acute myocardial infarction. Infarcts were visualized when coronary arteries were persistently occluded (n = 10), became patent after thrombolysis (n = 33), or became patent after spontaneous reperfusion (n = 7). Posteroinferolateral visualizations were obtained in two patients with clinical and enzymatic evidence of infarction but normal electrocardiograms. Of the two patients in whom no infarcts were visualized, one had an anterior myocardial infarct. This patient underwent successful thrombolytic therapy, with attendant minimization of creatine kinase release. The other patient had a small, nonreperfused inferior myocardial infarct. Five patients with a history of remote infarction and acute necrosis showed antimyosin uptake only in regions concordant with the acute episodes of infarction, and radiolabeled antimyosin Fab localized in neither old infarcts nor normal, noninfarcted myocardium. Antimyosin Fab scintigraphy, thus, appears to be a highly specific means of delineating necrotic myocardium, at least in this limited and selected group of patients

  15. Preparation of a viable population of indium-111-labelled human blood platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Pieters, H.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Duyvene de Wit, L.J.; Reenen, O.R. van; Retief, F.P.; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein; University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein

    1980-01-01

    Factors influencing labelling of human platelets with 111 Indium-8-hydroxyquinoline ([ 111 In]-oxine) in a physiological saline medium were investigated. The efficiency of labelling is influenced by time of incubation, concentration of oxine, and pH of the incubating medium. It was found that a viable platelet population could be labelled under the following conditions: (1) centrifugation of platelet rich plasma in polystyrene conical tubes at 800 g for 15 min; (2) resuspension of the platelet pellet in saline, pH 5.5; (3) incubating for 30 min at 22 0 C with [ 111 In]-oxine at a concentration of 6.25 mg oxine/litre platelet suspension; (4) washing once with platelet poor autologous plasma (PPP); and (5) finally suspending the platelets in PPP. The labelled platelets aggregated normally with collagen and ADP. Electron microscopy, done immediately after labelling, showed internal organelle reorganization characteristic of activated platelets. These ultrastructural features were reversible on incubationin PPP at 37 0 C for 30 min. The 111 In is not released from aggregated platelets and the label does not elute from incubated platelets for at least five hr. We conclude that human platelets thus labelled are suitable for in vivo kinetic studies. (orig.) [de

  16. Vessel wall and indium-111-labelled platelet response to carotid endarterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusby, R.J.; Ferrell, L.D.; Englestad, B.L.; Price, D.C.; Lipton, M.J.; Stoney, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Postendarterectomy platelet deposition and thrombus formation may play an important role not only in vessel wall healing but also in the small incidence of postoperative cerebral ischemia and postoperative stenosis. A study has been performed using a canine model to investigate the healing response to carotid endarterectomy and the validity of an in vivo indium-111 (In-111) radiotracer technique in the assessment of postendarterectomy deposition of autologous labelled platelets. Sixteen endarterectomized carotid arteries showed uptake of autologous In-111 platelets immediately after infusion, reaching a maximum by 1 hour with little increase at 24 or 48 hours. No uptake was seen in ten control vessels following platelet infusion (P less than 0.05). At autopsy, seven vessels were demonstrated to have In-111 platelet deposition immediately prior to sacrifice of the animals. Postmortem scanning confirmed the localization to the vessel lumens, and microscopy revealed thrombus formation with or without partial endothelialization. Complete reendothelialization had occurred in the vessels that failed to show platelet deposition. Delayed healing was associated with continuing platelet deposition, excessive thrombus formation, and luminal stenosis. Arteriotomy closure with a vein patch altered the healing characteristics of the vessel with segmental thrombus formation over the vein patch. A preliminary study of the postendarterectomy in vivo In-111 platelet response in humans demonstrated platelet deposition that was not influenced by the administration of antiplatelet drugs at currently prescribed levels

  17. Imaging experimental infective endocarditis with indium-111-labeled blood cellular components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, A.L.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The capability of radionuclide imaging to detect experimental aortic valve infective endocarditis was assessed with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled blood cells. Sequential cardiac imaging and tissue distribution studies were obtained in 17 rabbits with infective endocarditis after administration of 111 In-platelets and in five after 111 In-polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Forty-eight to 72 hours after platelet administration, in vivo imaging demonstrated abnormal 111 In uptake in all animals in the region of the aortic valve in an anatomically distinct pattern. Images of the excised heart showed discrete cardiac uptake conforming to the in vivo image and gross pathological examination. 111 In-platelet uptake in vegetations from the 17 animals averaged 240 +- 41 times greater than that in normal myocardium and 99 +- 15 times greater uptake in blood. In contrast, 111 In-leukocyte cardiac imaging showed no abnormal aortic valve uptake 24 hours after tracer administration and the lesion myocardium activity ratio was only 5 +- 2 (3 +- 1 for lesion/blood activity). Four normal rabbits demonstrated neither positive 111 In-platelet scintigraphs nor abnormal cardiac tissue uptake. Likewise, noncellular 111 In was not concentrated to any significant extent in three animals with infective endocarditis. This study demonstrates that 111 In-platelet, but not leukocyte cardiac imaging, is a sensitive technique for detecting experimental infective endocarditis. The imaging data conform to the cellular pathology of the infective endocarditis vegetation

  18. Biokinetics of indium-111 labeled platelets after cryotherapy of hepatic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.; Kirsch, C.-M.; Pistorius, G.; Feifel, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The present investigation was performed to evaluate mean platelet live-span and the proportion of platelet disposal in different organs in patients after hepatic cryotherapy. Seven patients with advanced colorectal cancer and liver metastases were included. Directly before the surgical procedure a blood specimen was drawn and an in vitro labeling of patients platelets with 18 MBq Indium-111 oxime was performed. Reinjection was done intraoperatively just before cryotherapy. Blood specimen were drawn at 1, 2, 3, 24 und 48 h p.i.. Whole-body scintigraphy was acquired on day two alter operation. The evaluation comprised the calculation of mean platelet live-span and of organ activities as percentage of whole-body activity. The local disposal of platelets at the site of cryotherapy ranged from 0 to 35.2 percent, the mean value was 16,2 ± 12,2 percent (mean ± SD). The mean half-time of time-activity curve gave 0.6 to 2.4 days (mean ± SD: 1.6 ± 0.6 d; normal value: 3.5-6 d), the mean platelet life-span was between 2.1 and 5.2 days corresponding to a mean value of 3.4 ± 1.0 days (normal value: 7-11 d). The evaluation of SPECT slices of large liver metastases demonstrated that platelet disposal takes place at the border zone of the metastases just around the necrotic center. We conclude that the enhanced local platelet trapping is a major cause for cryothermia-induced systemic thrombocytopenia. (author)

  19. Uptake of indium-111 labelled platelets by normal, nephrotic and transplanted kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desir, G.; Lange, R.; Smith, E.; Bia, M.; Flye, M.; Kashgarian, M.; Canganelli, A.; Ezekowitz

    1984-01-01

    To determine the role of platelets in the genesis of renal transplant (T) rejection, the authors studied 3 groups of adult patients. Group I, n=8, had normal renal function (Cr=1 +- 0.1 mg%, Mean +- SD). Group II, n=9, had nephrotic syndrome (Cr=2.4 +- 1). Group III, n=7, consisted of 5 cadaveric (C) and 2 living related donor (LRD) T. In Group II, 1 patient had received a T 4 years prior to study. Group I and II received 448 +- 101 μCi and Group III 236 +- 51 μCi of Indium-111. In Groups I and II the first image was obtained 18 +- 6 hrs after injection. In Group II the first was obtained 6 +- 2 hr after injection and 1-3 times/day thereafter for a maximum of 7 days. Renal biopsies were obtained in all patients in Group III during imaging (n=5) or within 2 - 5 days of the last image. One patient was studied twice. In Group III, 5 patients received prednisone and azothiaprine and 2 prednisone and cyclosporine. Platelet uptake index (PUI) was calculated as the ratio of uptake over the T against a reference area. Rejection was diagnosed by biopsy. In groups I and II platelet uptake was seen only in the T patient. In Group III the PUI was 1.54 +- .13 in the rejecting T (n=5), 1.42 +- .2 in the non-rejecting T (n=3), 1.62 in a LRD non-rejecting T and 1.31 (n=2) in C non-rejecting T. In the four patients studied within 5 days of T the PUI was elevated at 1.47 +- .1. The authors conclude that: 1) platelets do not accumulate in normal or nephrotic native kidneys, 2) significant uptake occurs in the first week after C and LRD whether or not rejection is present, and 3) uptake in non-rejecting kidneys cannot be ascribed to perfusion induced endothelial injury since it was present in LRD transplants

  20. The use of indium-111 labeled platelet scanning for the detection of asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis in a high risk population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.S.; Rae, J.L.; Ryan, N.L.; Edwards, C.; Fortune, W.P.; Lewis, R.J.; Reba, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Five hundred indium-111 labeled platelet imaging studies (387 donor and 113 autologous) were performed postoperatively in 473 patients who had undergone total hip replacement, total knee replacement, or internal fixation of a hip fracture to detect occult deep venous thrombosis. All patients had been anticoagulated prophylactically with aspirin, warfarin sodium (Coumadin), or dextran. Thirty-four possible cases of proximal deep venous thrombosis were identified in 28 asymptomatic patients. To verify the scan results, 31 venograms were performed in 25 patients (three refused). In 21 of 31 cases, totally occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, partially occlusive thrombi were detected; in 5 cases, no thrombus was seen. No patient who had a negative scan nor any patient who had a verified positive scan (and received appropriate heparin therapy) subsequently developed symptoms or signs of pulmonary embolism. One hundred forty-one indium study patients also underwent Doppler ultrasonography/impedance plethysmography (Doppler/IPG) as a comparative non-invasive technique. In 137 cases, the results of the indium study and Doppler/IPG studies were congruent. The indium study had no false negative results that were detected by Doppler/IPG. No patient had any clinically evident toxicity. These results suggest that indium-111 labeled platelet scanning is a safe, noninvasive means for identifying DVT in high risk patients

  1. Indium-111-labeled platelets: effect of heparin on uptake by venous thrombi and relationship to the activated partial thromboplastin time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Moser, K.M.; Moser, K.S.; Konopka, R.; Hartman, M.T.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of heparin thepapy in deep vein thrombosis is to prevent thrombus extension. The relationship between thrombus extension and the results of coagulation tests used to monitor heparin thepapy is unclear. To expose this relationship, we studied the effect of several heparin regimens on the accretion of indium-111-labeled platelets on fresh venous thrombi, as detected by gamma imaging, and monitored the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Six dogs were treated with a 300-U/kg bolus of heparin followed by a 90-U/kg/hour heparin infusion, a dose of heparin sufficient to increase the APTT to levels greater than eight times baseline (APTT ratio); platelet accretion (thrombus imaging) occurred only after the heparin effect was reversed with protamine sulfate. Nineteen dogs were treated with a 150-U/kg bolus of heparin followed by a 4-hour, 45-U/kg/hour heparin infusion; a thrombus was demonstrated only after protamine injection in 12 (mean APTT ratio 1.3 +/- 0.19) and before protamine injection in seven. In thirteen of these 19 dogs, 30 minutes separated the platelet injection from heparin therapy, while in six this duration was less than 30 minutes. In four of these six dogs, thrombi were demonstrated before protamine therapy and at APTT ratios greater than 3.0. Finally, 10 dogs were treated with a 100-U/kg bolus followed by a 3-hour, 50-U/kg/hour heparin infusion, after which the APTT was allowed to return to baseline values spontaneously. In all 10 dogs, a thrombus was demonstrated only after cessation of the heparin infusion, and at a mean APTT ratio of 1.4 +/- 0.15 times baseline. These results suggest that, except with very early platelet injection, platelet accretion by thrombi is consistently inhibited by heparin at APTT ratios greater than 2.5

  2. Total-hip arthroplasty: Periprosthetic indium-111-labeled leukocyte activity and complementary technetium-99m-sulfur colloid imaging in suspected infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Capozzi, J.D.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte images of 92 cemented total-hip arthroplasties were correlated with final diagnoses. Prostheses were divided into four zones: head (including acetabulum), trochanter, shaft, and tip. The presence (or absence) and intensity of activity in each zone was noted, and compared to the corresponding contralateral zone. Though present in all 23 infected arthroplasties, periprosthetic activity was also present in 77% of uninfected arthroplasties, and was greater than the contralateral zone 51% of the time. When analyzed by zone, head zone activity was the best criterion for infection (87% sensitivity, 94% specificity, 92% accuracy). Fifty of the arthroplasties were studied with combined labeled leukocyte/sulfur colloid imaging. Using incongruence of images as the criterion for infection, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the study were 100%, 97%, and 98%, respectively. While variable periprosthetic activity makes labeled leukocyte imaging alone unreliable for diagnosing hip arthroplasty infection, the addition of sulfur colloid imaging results in a highly accurate diagnostic procedure

  3. Indium-111 labeling of leukocytes: a detrimental effect on neutrophil and lymphocyte function and an improved method of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, A.W.; Deteix, P.; Garcia, R.; Tooth, P.; Zanelli, G.D.; Allison, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for the labeling of cells with the gamma emitter indium-111 has recently been developed. In this study the effects of the labeling procedure on some in vitro functions of human neutrophils and lymphocytes were investigated. With the standard labeling procedure, neutrophil chemotaxis was reduced to approximately 50% of normal and lymphocytes lost surface receptors and failed to respond to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The 8-hydroxyquinoline that is used to chelate the indium is toxic to lymphocytes; accordingly the relationship between the quantity of oxine, the chelation of indium, and cell labeling were investigated. Optimal conditions for In-111 cell labeling were established: 100 million cells in 10 ml Hanks' balanced salt solution are mixed with 5 μg of oxine in a mixture of 50 μl of ethanol and 200 μl of saline; they are incubated at 37 0 C for 10 min and then washed. Initially, neutrophils and lymphocytes appear functionally normal, but after 24 to 48 hr lymphocyte function is impaired as a result of radiation damage. This toxicity may limit studies by external scanning on the distribution and kinetics of lymphocytes labeled with In-111

  4. Use of Take-set system for radiopharmaceutical labelling: example of indium-111 labeled pentetreotide (Octreoscan) preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Reguiga, M.; Sinegre, M.; Besse, H.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of indium 111 radiolabelled pentetreotide preparation (Octreoscan, Covidien) depends on several factors among which the use of a special transfer needle (Sterican) especially conceived to avoid the metal impurities introduction into the reactional medium during labelling. This device, usually provided by the supplier, can exceptionally present defects (twisted needle, folded bevel...) preventing its use for the preparation. In order to manage this risk, we propose in the present technical note an alternative labelling method, based on an adaptation of the original one and using another transfer device, the Take-setSWAN system, which permits to obtain high quality Octreoscan preparations that meet the product approval specifications. (authors)

  5. In vivo quantitation of platelet deposition on human peripheral arterial bypass grafts using indium-111-labeled platelets. Effect of dipyridamole and aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumphrey, C.W.; Chesebro, J.H.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Wahner, H.W.; Hollier, L.H.; Pairolero, P.C.; Fuster, V.

    1983-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled autologous platelets, injected 48 hours after operation, were used to evaluate the thrombogenicity of prosthetic material and the effect of platelet inhibitor therapy in vivo. Dacron double-velour (Microvel) aortofemoral artery bifurcation grafts were placed in 16 patients and unilateral polytetrafluoroethylene femoropopliteal grafts were placed in 10 patients. Half the patients in each group received platelet inhibitors before operation (dipyridamole, 100 mg 4 times a day) and after operation (dipyridamole, 75 mg, and acetylsalicylic acid, 325 mg 3 times a day); the rest of the patients served as control subjects. Five-minute scintigrams of the graft region were taken with a gamma camera interfaced with a computer 48, 72, and 96 hours after injection of the labeled platelets. Platelet deposition was estimated from the radioactivities of the grafts and expressed as counts per 100 pixels per microcurie injected. Dipyridamole and aspirin therapy significantly reduced the number of platelets deposited on Dacron grafts and prevented platelet accumulation over 3 days. With the small amount of platelet deposition on polytetrafluoroethylene femoropopliteal artery grafts even in control patients, platelet inhibitor therapy had no demonstrable effect on platelet deposition on these grafts. It is concluded that (1) platelet deposition on vascular grafts in vivo can be quantitated by noninvasive methods, and (2) dipyridamole and aspirin therapy reduced platelet deposition on Dacron aortofemoral artery grafts

  6. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scan in detection of synthetic vascular graft infection: The effect of antibiotic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.J.; Hicklin, O.A.; Payan, J.M.; Gordon, L.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the indium-111-( 111 In) labeled leukocyte scan for prosthetic vascular graft infection in patients treated with antibiotic therapy, a retrospective study was performed. Of 41 consecutive 111 In-labeled leukocyte scans performed to evaluate possible vascular graft infection, 23 scans were performed in patients treated with antibiotics. The average duration of antibiotic therapy was 21 days. Twelve positive and 11 negative scans for graft infection were found. By surgical and autopsy correlation of all positive cases, and clinical correlation (of all negative cases), there were 10 true-positive, 11 true-negative, 2 false-positive, and no false-negative scans for graft infections, for an overall sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85%

  7. The effect of ibuprofen on accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets and leukocytes in experimental myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romson, J.L.; Hook, B.G.; Rigot, V.H.; Schark, M.A.; Swanson, D.P.; Lucchesi, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the ability of ibuprofen to influence the extent of platelet aggregation and leukocyte infiltration during acute myocardial infarction, autologous indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled platelets or leukocytes were injected before 60 minutes of left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) occlusion, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion in the canine heart. Myocardial infarct size, as a percent of the area at risk, was reduced in the ibuprofen-treated group (12.5 mg/kg i.v. every 4 hours beginning 30 minutes before LCx occulsion) by 40%, from 48 +/- 4% in control animals to 29 +/- 4% in ibuprofen-treated dogs (p=0.005). Quantification of the platelet-associated 111 In radioactivity in irreversibly injured myocardium indicated that ibuprofen did not alter the accumulation of platelets in infarcted myocardium. In contrast, leukocyte accumulation in infarcted tissue was reduced significantly. In tissue samples with 0.41-0.60 gram infarct, the infarcted/normal ratio of leukocyte radioactivity was 12 +/- 2 in control dogs and 4 +/- 1 in ibuprofen-treated dogs, which represents a 67% reduction in leukocyte accumulation in ibuprofen-treated compared with control dogs. Similar reductions were found in other gram-infarct-weight categories. Although both platelets and leukocytes acumulate in infarcted canine myocardium, ibuprofen may exert its beneficial effect on ischemic myocardium by suppressing the inflammatory response associated with myocardial ischemia and infarction

  8. Effect of different aspirin doses on arterial thrombosis after canine carotid endarterectomy: a scanning electron microscope and indium-111-labeled platelet study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercius, M.S.; Chandler, W.F.; Ford, J.W.; Swanson, D.P.; Burke, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation in arterial thrombosis, the appropriate dosage of aspirin remains quite controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of aspirin (0.5 mg/kg vs. 10 mg/kg) on mural thrombus formation after carotid endarterectomy. Eighteen hours after oral aspirin administration, 20 endarterectomies were performed on mongrel dogs with the use of the operating microscope. Blood flow was then restored for 3 hours and the vessels were prepared for investigation with the scanning electron microscope. Ten endarterectomies were also performed on unmedicated dogs as controls. Five minutes before vessel unclamping, autologous indium-111-labeled platelets were administered intravenously, and the endarterectomized portions of the vessels were studied with a gamma counter system after harvesting. Group 1, the control group, revealed extensive mural thrombus consisting of platelet aggregates, fibrin, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Six of the 10 vessels in Group 2, premedicated with 0.5 mg of aspirin per kg, demonstrated varying amounts of mural thrombus. Group 3 (10 vessels), premedicated with 10 mg of aspirin per kg, revealed a platelet monolayer completely covering the exposed vessel wall media, with scattered white blood cells and infrequent fine fibrin strands overlying the platelet surface. The mean (+/- SD) radioactivity per group expressed as counts/minute/mm2 was: Group 1--2055.3 +/- 1905.5, log . 7.253 +/- 0.926; Group 2--1235.6 +/- 1234.3, log . 6.785 +/- 0.817; Group 3--526 +/- 433.06, log . 5.989 +/- 0.774

  9. Sequential use of indium-111 labeled monoclonal antibodies 96.5 and ZME-018 does not increase detection sensitivity for metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontiera, M.; Murray, J.L.; Lamki, L.

    1989-01-01

    Two indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma murine monoclonal antibodies (MAb), 96.5 and ZME-018, each recognizing separate antigens on melanoma cells, were administered intravenously to 17 patients with melanoma in a sequential fashion to determine whether: (1) additional tumor sites could be imaged with the combination compared to a single Mab; (2) the first MAb influenced the biodistribution and tumor localization of the second; and (3) significantly toxicity occurred with the combination. Patients were randomized to receive either 96.5, followed by ZME-018, ZME-018 followed by 96.5, or each MAb followed by itself (controls). Infusions of the second MAb occurred 10 days after the first infusion. Gamma camera images were obtained 72 hours after each antibody infusion. There were 139 known metastatic sites of which 72 lesions were localized by either MAb for an overall sensitivity of 52%. The detection rate was higher when lesions only greater than 1.5 cm were considered. Imaging results were independent of MAb administration sequence. When ZME-018 was given as the first infusion, when ZME-018 was given as a second infusion (p = NS). However, mean sensitivities using 96.5 as the first or second infusion were 48% and 66% respectively (p = NS). There was not a significant number of sites detected by MAb 2 that were missed by MAb 1. Human anti-murine antibody (HAMA) response occurred in seven of eight patients studied; two patients who experienced toxicity had levels of HAMA greater than 2000 ng/ml. We conclude that the use of these two murine anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies given in sequential fashion did not significantly change the imaging sensitivity from that seen with each individual antibody

  10. Clinical usage of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy in patients with total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Takashi; Uno, Kimiichi; Yuyama, Takuo; Seto, Kazuhiko; Arimizu, Noboru; Suguro, Tohru; Moriya, Hideshige; Uematsu, Sadao.

    1988-01-01

    Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy and In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were done in 13 patients with total hip replacement in order to determine the presence of prosthetic infection. Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy was done in 11 patients (12 studies). In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was done in 13 patients (14 studies). Tc-99m MDP imaging showed diffuse accumulation of the radionuclide in all of the 3 infected lesions, but focal one in 5 of the 7 noninfected lesions with a specificity of 33.3 %, sensitivity of 100 %, overall accuracy of 50 %. In-111 labeled leukocyte normally accumulates in the spleen, the liver, and the bone marrow. Before insertion of a stemmed prosthesis, the local bone marrows were reamed out in all of our cases. Thus, no radioactive accumulation would be expected in the lesions with prosthesis unless infected. However, if the prosthesis is infected, increased uptake of In-111 would be seen as a result of the accumulation of leukocyte. In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging showed abnormal accumulation of In-111 in all of the 4 infected lesions and no accumulation in all of the 10 noninfected lesions with a specificity of 100 %, sensitivity of 100 %, overall accuracy of 100 %. We conclude that In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy might be useful in evaluating prosthetic infection in a patient with total hip replacement. (author)

  11. Targeting of indium 111-labeled bivalent hapten to human melanoma mediated by bispecific monoclonal antibody conjugates: Imaging of tumors hosted in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Doussal, J.M.; Gruaz-Guyon, A.; Martin, M.; Gautherot, E.; Delaage, M.; Barbet, J.

    1990-01-01

    Antibody conjugates were prepared by coupling F(ab')2 or Fab' fragments of an antibody specific for the human high molecular weight-melanoma associated antigen to Fab' fragments of an antibody specific for indium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexes. Monovalent and bivalent haptens were synthesized by reacting the dipeptide tyrosyl-lysine with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic cyclic anhydride. In vitro, the antibody conjugate mediated binding of the 111In-labeled haptens to melanoma cells. In vivo, it allowed specific localization of the haptens in A375 tumors. The bivalent hapten exhibited much higher efficiency at targeting 111In onto cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Antibody conjugate and hapten doses (2 micrograms and 1 pmol, respectively) and the delay between antibody conjugate and tracer injections (24 h) were adjusted to maximize tumor uptake (4% injected dose/g) and tumor to normal tissue contrast (greater than 3) obtained 3 h after injection of the 111In-labeled bivalent hapten. This two-step technique, when compared to direct targeting of 111In-labeled F(ab')2 fragments, provided lower localization of injected activity into the tumor (x 0.25), but higher tumor/tissue ratios, especially with respect to liver (x 7), spleen (x 8), and kidneys (x 10). In addition, high contrast images were obtained within 3 hours, instead of days. Thus, antibody conjugate-mediated targeting of small bivalent haptens, labeled with short half-life isotopes, is proposed as a general method for improving tumor radioimmunolocalization

  12. Indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy can predict the immunological origin of fever in patients on dialysis carrying a non-functioning renal allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, D.; Lomena, F.; Piera, C.; Setoain, F.J.; Laterza, C.; Herranz, R.; Setoain, J.; Torregrosa, J.V.; Oppenheimer, F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of labelled platelet scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of a prolonged febrile syndrome (PFS) in patients on dialysis carrying a non-functioning renal allograft. We prospectively performed an indium-111 mercaptopyridine-labelled platelet scan on 91 patients (54 men, 37 women; mean age 39.6±12 years). The mean duration of PFS was 35 days (range 7-122). Forty-six of the 91 patients underwent steroid therapy (2- 10 mg/day). Platelet labelling was carried out following Thakur's method. Platelet scans were performed 48 h after reinjection of labelled platelets. The platelet uptake index (PUI) was calculated by dividing the cpm/pixel in the allograft ROI by cpm/pixel in a mirror background ROI. The final diagnosis of PFS was established depending on the outcome after treatment. In 61/91 patients the fever had an immunological origin because it disappeared after graft embolisation or transplantectomy. In 30/91 patients the PFS disappeared after antibiotic therapy (non-immunological origin). The PUI in patients with immunological PFS was 1.80±0.7, while in patients with non-immunological PFS it was 1.12±0.1 (P 111 In-labelled platelet scintigraphy can accurately predict an immunological PFS in patients on dialysis carrying a non-functioning renal allograft. Therapy with steroids could reduce the sensitivity of 111 In-labelled platelet scintigraphy in detecting immunological PFS. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of a tubular flow chamber for studying platelet interaction with biologic and prosthetic materials: deposition of indium 111-labeled platelets on collagen, subendothelium, and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badimon, L.; Turitto, V.; Rosemark, J.A.; Badimon, J.J.; Fuster, V.

    1987-01-01

    A plastic (Plexiglas) chamber for evaluating platelet deposition under controlled hemodynamic conditions has been developed. The perfusion chamber has been designed to retain the cylindrical shape typical of the vasculature, to be flexible enough to accept a variety of biologic and prosthetic materials, and to simulate a broad range of physiologic flow conditions in either an ex vivo or in vitro perfusion system. Three type of surfaces were exposed to blood flowing directly from the carotid artery of a heparinized pig through the perfusion chamber: de-endothelialized pig aorta, collagen strips from rabbit Achilles tendon, and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene material (Gore-Tex). Platelets, previously radiolabeled with indium 111 and injected into the animal, were quantified on the material surface, and the total number of deposited platelets determined for a range of blood flow rates (5 to 40 ml/min) and exposure times (0.5 to 20 minutes). The deposition rates were correlated with theory for describing the mass transport of platelets to the test surface. At the wall shear rates investigated (105 to 850 sec-1), the deposition of platelets on subendothelium was strongly dependent on the local flow conditions. Values of deposition on Gore-Tex obtained at similar flow conditions (105 to 425 sec-1) were reduced compared with that observed on subendothelium and showed a markedly weaker dependence on the shear rate. In contrast, deposition of platelets on collagen was more than an order of magnitude greater than on subendothelium and showed a dependence on flow only at the lowest flow rate studied (10 ml/min). The results indicate that collagen is much more reactive than subendothelium and Gore-Tex with respect to the growth and stability of platelet aggregates and moreover suggest that flow mechanisms for depositing platelets on various surface may be substantially different

  14. Characterization of a tubular flow chamber for studying platelet interaction with biologic and prosthetic materials: deposition of indium 111-labeled platelets on collagen, subendothelium, and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badimon, L.; Turitto, V.; Rosemark, J.A.; Badimon, J.J.; Fuster, V.

    1987-12-01

    A plastic (Plexiglas) chamber for evaluating platelet deposition under controlled hemodynamic conditions has been developed. The perfusion chamber has been designed to retain the cylindrical shape typical of the vasculature, to be flexible enough to accept a variety of biologic and prosthetic materials, and to simulate a broad range of physiologic flow conditions in either an ex vivo or in vitro perfusion system. Three type of surfaces were exposed to blood flowing directly from the carotid artery of a heparinized pig through the perfusion chamber: de-endothelialized pig aorta, collagen strips from rabbit Achilles tendon, and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene material (Gore-Tex). Platelets, previously radiolabeled with indium 111 and injected into the animal, were quantified on the material surface, and the total number of deposited platelets determined for a range of blood flow rates (5 to 40 ml/min) and exposure times (0.5 to 20 minutes). The deposition rates were correlated with theory for describing the mass transport of platelets to the test surface. At the wall shear rates investigated (105 to 850 sec-1), the deposition of platelets on subendothelium was strongly dependent on the local flow conditions. Values of deposition on Gore-Tex obtained at similar flow conditions (105 to 425 sec-1) were reduced compared with that observed on subendothelium and showed a markedly weaker dependence on the shear rate. In contrast, deposition of platelets on collagen was more than an order of magnitude greater than on subendothelium and showed a dependence on flow only at the lowest flow rate studied (10 ml/min). The results indicate that collagen is much more reactive than subendothelium and Gore-Tex with respect to the growth and stability of platelet aggregates and moreover suggest that flow mechanisms for depositing platelets on various surface may be substantially different.

  15. In vivo imaging and quantitation of renal transplant rejection using indium-111 labelled anti-lymphocyte and anti-MHC class I and II monoclonal antibodies in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutfi, I.; Batchelor, J.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    It has been described in this report, non-invasive and specific method for imaging and assessment of acute kidney transplant rejection in rat model. This model can serve as a basis for application in man using a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies with different specificities starting with monoclonal antibodies labelled with indium-111 which have been used in this technique. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  16. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites.

  17. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites

  18. Scintigraphy with In-111 labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Saito, Chihoko.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing necessity for In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (ILLS) as a routine examination, a problem of complicated labeling of leukocytes has arisen. In this study, simplified labeling of leukocytes was examined with respect to its ability to detect abscesses. Simplified labeling method yielded significantly satisfactory results for recovery and labeling rates of leukocytes, as compared with conventional recommended method. Therefore, ILLS by simplified technique was clinically applied in 58 patients with suppurative or non-suppurative diseases who gave informed consent. In an analysis of ILLS for detecting suppurative region, the sensitivity, specificity, and corrected specificity were found to be 81 %, 75 %, and 82 %, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Quantification of the sequestration of indium 111 labelled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najean, Y.; Picard, N.; Dufour, V.; Rain, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    A simple method is proposed for an accurate quantification of the splenic and/or hepatic sequestration of the 111 In-labelled platelets. It could be allow a better prediction of the efficiency of splenectomy in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura [fr

  20. Indium-111 labelled platelets: experimental and clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjerloeff Schmidt, K.

    1985-10-01

    The object of the present study became to develop a method of effective and gentle isolation and 111-In labelling of human platelets, as well as to employ these platelets in human clinical studies with the object of elucidating a number of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms and processes in which platelets take part. 111-In-oxine presents obvious advantages over 51-Cr-sodium chromate; a high labelling efficiency, and more advantageous physical properties (a half life of 68 hours (against the half life of 28 days for 51-Cr) and considerably more effective gamma emission), making external registration by means of a gamma camera possible. Considering the role played by platelets in the development of atherosclerosis and its thromboembolic complications, in the early phases of deep venous thrombosis, and in graft rejection, it is natural that attempts have been made to use 111-In-labelled platelets for scintigraphic and kinetic evaluation of thromboembolic processes. Accumulation of 111-In-labelled platelets at sites of vessel wall injury, on pulmonary emboli (presumably on deep vein thrombi as well), and on catheter material has been demonstrated. Beyond this, the number of publications concerning the use of 111-In-labelled platelets for visualization of atherosclerosis, venous thromboembolism, arterial grafts, intracardiac thrombi, aortic aneurysms, renal allograft rejection, and other situations in which platelet thromboembolism takes place, provides evidence that a tool has finally been found for the study of their nature and response to therapeutic intervention. (eg)

  1. Scintigraphic detection of thrombi using indium-111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeoka, Kiyomitsu; Todo, Yasuhiro; Konishiike, Atsushi; Fujisue, Ryu; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Yasutomi, Nagao; Tanimoto, Masaho; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Iwasaki, Tadaaki

    1985-01-01

    Intracardiac and arterial thrombi were examined by scintigraphy using In-111-oxine labeled autologous platelets. 1. In 22 cases of myocardial infarction including six with ventricular aneurysms, four had positive findings of thrombi on imaging and detected also by echocardiography. All four had ventricular aneurysms. The so-called ''moya-moya'' echoes (fuzzy echoes) were demonstrated in two of these four cases. 2. We encountered two cases with positive findings on imaging in 13 with mitral valve disease. These two had systemic embolic episodes after scintigraphic examination. ''Moya-moya'' echoes were detected in the left atrial cavity in four with negative findings on imaging. 3. Positive images were obtained in two of three with acute arterial occlusive disease, and in both cases platelet deposition was observed in the proximal site of obstruction. Though thrombectomy was performed for one of these two cases, no thrombus was detected at the site of platelet deposition. After one month, re-examination revealed only negative findings in all sites in both these patients. 4. In the six cases of aortic aneurysm, three had platelet deposition within their aneurysms, and surgery was performed for these positive cases, but one of them had no thrombus. 5. Positive images were obtained in only one of seven patients with chronic arterial occlusive disease. 6. Coagulation tests and platelet studies were investigated for patients with positive or negative platelet scans. Only the data of the thrombo-test showed a significant difference (97 +- 9 % vs 23 +- 7 %, p < 0.001). Three cases of positive imaging became negative after anticoagulant therapy. 7. We tried ECT for eight cases 24 hours after injection of In-111-oxine labeled platelets. Three cases showed clear images of thrombi, while the planar images could not detect them at an early stage. Therefore, we propose that ECT can be a useful technique for diagnosing intracardiac thrombi in early stage. (author)

  2. Use of Take-set system for radiopharmaceutical labelling: example of indium-111 labeled pentetreotide (Octreoscan) preparation; Utilisation du systeme Take-set pour le radiomarquage des medicaments radiopharmaceutiques: exemple de la preparation du pentetreotide marque a l'indium 111 (Octreoscan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Reguiga, M.; Sinegre, M. [Hopital Beaujon, Unite de Radiopharmacie, Service de Pharmacie-toxicologie, 92 - Clichy (France); Besse, H.; Stievenart, J.L.; Le Guludec, D. [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Medecine Nucleaire92 - Clichy (France)

    2009-09-15

    The quality of indium 111 radiolabelled pentetreotide preparation (Octreoscan, Covidien) depends on several factors among which the use of a special transfer needle (Sterican) especially conceived to avoid the metal impurities introduction into the reactional medium during labelling. This device, usually provided by the supplier, can exceptionally present defects (twisted needle, folded bevel...) preventing its use for the preparation. In order to manage this risk, we propose in the present technical note an alternative labelling method, based on an adaptation of the original one and using another transfer device, the Take-setSWAN system, which permits to obtain high quality Octreoscan preparations that meet the product approval specifications. (authors)

  3. Colorectal carcinoma metastases: Detection with In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody CCR 086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Levine, G.; Lamki, L.M.; Murray, J.L.; Tauxe, W.N.; Shah, A.N.; Patt, Y.Z.; Doerr, R.J.; Klein, H.A.; Gona, J.

    1990-01-01

    A phase I/II clinical trial with indium-111-labeled antimucin murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) CCR 086 was conducted. Seventeen patients with histologically proved colorectal carcinoma and known metastatic disease underwent external scintigraphy after administration of 5.5 mCi (203.5 MBq) of In-111 CCR 086 at doses of 5 and 20 mg. Of 25 known lesions, 17 were detected (sensitivity, 68%). The smallest detected lesion in the lung was 1 cm and in the liver was 1.5 cm. The serum half-life of In-111-labeled CCR 086 MoAb was approximately 64 hours. The formation of human antimouse antibody (HAMA) was detected in the serum of four of five patients who received 20 mg of MoAb. No HAMAs were detected in four patients receiving 5 mg of MoAb. No side effects were encountered. Because of effective detection of liver and lung metastases with lower doses (5-20 mg) of CCR 086 conjugated with In-111, further investigations are warranted to assess clinical and therapeutic potentials of CCR 086 in the management of colorectal cancer

  4. Detection of acute synthetic vascular graft infection with IN-111 labeled leukocyte imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Lawrence, P.; Murphy, K.; Kercher, J.; Datz, F.; Christian, P.; Taylor, A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthetic vascular graft infection is characterized by late diagnosis due to indolent and nonspecific symptoms. Reported data on accuracy of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging to identify vascular graft infection is sparse and conflicting. The purpose of this animal study was to clarify the accuracy of detection of early graft infection using a mixed population of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Twelve mongrel dogs received dacron aortic interposition grafts. Seven grafts were contaminated at surgery by topical ATCC S. aureus, 10/sup 8/ organisms per ml. Six control animals received no graft contamination Mixed population In-111 homologous leukocyte labeling was performed followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours following intravenous injection of 250 μCi In-111 leukocytes. Scans were done on Day 2 post-surgery. Infected dogs were sacrificed following Indium imaging; control dogs were rescanned at 3 weeks postop and sacrificed thereafter. Autopsy results were correlated with scans, yielding sensitivity 71%, specificity 100%, accuracy 85% for In-111 leukocyte imaging to detect early graft infection. False positive leukocyte imaging in the early postop period was not a problem. At autopsy all 5 dogs with infected grafts and positive scans had gross pus. The 2 dogs with false negative scans showed no gross pus at autopsy; cultures were positive for S. aureus in all 7 dogs. Scans at 2 days and 3 weeks post-surgery were true negatives in all 6 control dogs. These data suggest a high level of clinical reliability of leukocyte imaging for early graft infection detection

  5. In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected orthopedic prosthesis infection: comparison with other imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, J.E.; Brown, M.L.; Hauser, M.F.; Berquist, T.H.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.; Klee, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    When infection of prosthetic orthopedic implants is suspected, optimal management requires accurate confirmation or exclusion of infection. The authors retrospectively studied 98 patients with possible infection who underwent scanning with indium-111-labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and subsequently underwent surgery within 14 days. At surgery, 50 patients had infections, as determined by means of culture or histologic results. The diagnostic accuracy of In-111 scanning was compared with that of plain radiography, arthrography, three-phase bone scanning, and various clinical and laboratory findings classically associated with infection. Positive findings on In-111 WBC scans and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates were found to be the most predictive variables in the diagnosis of septic prostheses (P less than or equal to .001 and P less than or equal to .002, respectively). Likelihood ratio analysis more clearly demonstrated the superiority of In-111 WBC scanning, with positive and negative scans yielding likelihood ratios of 5.0 and 0.16, respectively

  6. In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in postoperative joint infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoji; Uetani, Masataka; Aziz, A.; Hayashi, Kuniaki

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the role of In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in the patients with suspected postoperative joint infection, 41 scintigraphic examinations were performed in 24 patients. Scintigrams were interpreted by the degree of accumulation of labeled leukocytes, and were classified into 3 groups: positive, intermediate, and negative. In the cases of positive leukocyte scans, definite diagnosis of infection was made in all cases except one. In the cases of negative scans, there was no evidence of infection. In 13 cases, leukocyte scintigrams were interpreted in conjunction with bone scintigrams. Definite diagnosis of infection was made in all of the cases with positive combined leukocyte/bone scan, and there was no evidence of infection in cases with negative combined leukocyte/bone scan. This study demonstrates that In-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is a useful method in diagnosis of postoperative joint infection, and accuracy of the examination improves when combined with bone scintigraphy. (author)

  7. Different cell moieties and white blood cell (WBC) integrity in In-111 labeled WBC preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.; Feiglin, D.H.I.; McMahon, J.T.; Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled white blood cells (WBC) have become very popular in detecting inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distribution of different types of cells in WBC preparation for In-111 oxine labeling, and also to assess the histological integrity of WBC's after labeling with In-111 oxine. Forty to fifty cc of blood was collected from each patient and WBC's were separated by sedimentation and centrifugation. After labeling with In-111 oxine, an aliquot of the WBC sample was used for cell counting and a second aliquot was used for electron microscopic (EM) examination. The different cell moieties were counted, and the mean and standard deviation of twelve determinations calculated. Cells were prepared by the standard technique for electron microscopic examination and images of the cells were obtained at different magnifications (X8,000-25,000). The EM images revealed that although minimal cytoplasmic vacuolization occurred in the WBC's due to the labeling process, the overall histological integrity of the cells remained intact. The relative labeling efficiency of WBC's is greater than those of RBC's and platelets (J Nuc) Med 25:p98, 1984) and, therefore, even a comparatively low population of WBC's gives optimal imaging due to their increased tracer uptake

  8. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labeling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111-leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  9. In-111-labeled leukocytes in the diagnosis of rejection and cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, L.A.; Loken, M.K.; Cook, A.; Chandler, R.; McCullough, J.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111-labelled (In-111) leukocytes have been shown to be useful in the localization of inflammatory processes, including renal transplant rejection. Using previously reported labelling methods, 63 studies with this agent have been performed in 53 renal transplant patients. Indications for study included suspected rejection or cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Studies were performed in 33 men and 20 women, with ages ranging from 6 to 68 years. Autologous cells were normally used for labeling, although leukocytes obtained from ABO-compatible donors were used in three subjects. Rectilinear scanner and/or scintillation camera images were obtained at 24 hours after intravenous administration of 0.1 to 0.6 mCi of In-111 leukocytes. There was abnormal uptake of In-111-leukocytes in the transplanted kidney in 11 of 15 cases of rejection. In three additional cases of increased transplant uptake, CMV infection was present in two. Abnormal lung uptake was present in 13 of 14 patients with CMV infection. In four additional cases, increased lung uptake was associated with other pulmonary inflammatory disease. Increased lung activity was not seen in patients with uncomplicated transplant rejection. These results suggest that In-111-leukocyte imaging may be useful in the differential diagnosis of rejection versus CMV infection in renal transplant patients

  10. Tracking of In-111-labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, Ali S; Chopp, Michael; Thiffault, Christine; Navia, Bradford; Victor, Stephen J; Hong, Klaudyne; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Quan; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Iskander, ASM

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase understanding of how infused cells work, it becomes important to track their initial movement, localization, and engraftment efficiency following transplantation. However, the available in vivo cell tracking techniques are suboptimal. The study objective was to determine the biodistribution of intravenously administered Indium-111 (In-111) oxine labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAo) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rats received 3 million In-111 labeled hUTC (i.v.) 48 hrs after tMCAo. Following the administration of either hUTC or equivalent dose of In-111-oxine (18.5 MBq), animals underwent SPECT imaging on days 0, 1, and 3. Radioactivity in various organs as well as in the stroke area and contralateral hemisphere was determined, decay corrected and normalized to the total (whole body including head) radioactivity on day 0. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to confirm the beneficial effects of hUTC on vascular and synaptic density, and apoptosis. Most of the radioactivity (43.36±23.07% on day 0) trafficked to the lungs immediately following IV administration of In-111 labeled hUTC (day 0) and decreased drastically to 8.81±7.75 and 4.01±4.52% on days 1 and 3 post-injection, respectively. In contrast, radioactivity measured in the lung of animals that received In-111-oxine alone remained relatively unchanged from day 0 to day 1 (18.38±5.45% at day 0 to 12.59±5.94%) and decreased to 8.34±4.25% on day 3. Significantly higher radioactivity was observed in stroke areas of animals that received In-111 labeled hUTC indicating the presence of cells at the site of injury representing approximately 1% of total administered dose. In addition, there was significant increase in vascular and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in stroke areas of rats that received In-111 labeled hUTC. The present studies showed the tracking of In-111 labeled h

  11. Platelet destruction in autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura: kinetics and clearance of indium-111-labeled autologous platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, J.R.; Ballem, P.J.; Gernsheimer, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Slichter, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Using autologous 111 In-labeled platelets, platelet kinetics and the sites of platelet destruction were assessed in 16 normal subjects (13 with and three without spleens), in 17 studies of patients with primary autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP), in six studies of patients with secondary AITP, in ten studies of patients with AITP following splenectomy, and in five thrombocytopenic patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. In normal subjects, the spleen accounted for 24 +/- 4% of platelet destruction and the liver for 15 +/- 2%. Untreated patients with primary AITP had increased splenic destruction (40 +/- 14%, p less than 0.001) but not hepatic destruction (13 +/- 5%). Compared with untreated patients, prednisone treated patients did not have significantly different spleen and liver platelet sequestration. Patients with secondary AITP had similar platelet counts, platelet survivals, and increases in splenic destruction of platelets as did patients with primary AITP. In contrast, patients with myelodysplastic syndromes had a normal pattern of platelet destruction. In AITP patients following splenectomy, the five nonresponders all had a marked increase (greater than 45%) in liver destruction compared to five responders (all less than 40%). Among all patients with primary or secondary AITP, there was an inverse relationship between the percent of platelets destroyed in the liver plus spleen and both the platelet count (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001) and the platelet survival (r = 0.86, p less than 0.001). In a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, total liver plus spleen platelet destruction, the platelet survival and the platelet turnover were all significant independent predictors of the platelet count. Thus platelet destruction is shifted to the spleen in primary and secondary AITP. Failure of splenectomy is associated with a marked elevation in liver destruction

  12. Splenic dynamics of indium-111 labeled platelets in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrjaelae, M.T.Sa.; Savolainen, S.; Nieminen, U.; Gripenberg, J.; Liewendahl, K.; Ikkala, E.

    1989-01-01

    Splenic dynamics of 111 In-labeled platelets and platelet-associated IgG in 33 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) were studied. Two half-lives were calculated for the biexponential splenic time-activity curve after i.v. injection of 111 In-labeled platelets. There was no difference in the mean half-life of the rapid component of the splenic curve (ST1) when patients with negative or slightly positive platelet suspension immunofluorescence test (PSIFT) were compared to those with strongly positive PSIFT (3.0 ± 0.7 min vs. 3.6 ± 0.4, p greater than 0.05). Mean half-life of the slow component of the splenic curve (ST2) was found to be longer in patients with a strongly positive than a negative or weakly positive PSIFT (26 ± 5 min vs. 13.2 ± 1.0 min, p less than 0.01). It seems that determination of the two components of the splenic time-activity curve provides a useful method for studying platelet kinetics in ITP

  13. The use of indium-111-labeled platelets in the management of renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzin ger, H.F.; Leithner, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors begin by explaining the role of pltelets in the pathogenesis of renal transplant rejection. During the sudden and severe immunilogical event that characterizes hyperacute rejection, when the endothelium is damaged, platelets accumulate on its surface. In chronic graft rejection, platelets liberate a growth factor that stimulates proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells, and therefore might initiate and promote obliterative arteriopathy. In the opinion of these authors, platelet scanning has contributed greatly to the understanding of the role of platelets in the different kinds of graft rejection. The important remaining question is whether platelets deposit before, concomitantly with, or after infiltration by lymphocytes

  14. Early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection by indium-111-labeled platelet scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisdale, P.L.; Collier, B.D.; Kauffman, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of 111 In-labeled platelet scintigraphy (IPS) for the early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection (TR) was undertaken. The results of IPS were compared with in vitro biochemical tests, the clinical finding of graft tenderness, and combined [/sup 99m/Tc]DTPA and [ 131 I]orthoiodohippurate scintigraphy. With a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.95, IPS provided otherwise unavailable diagnostic information. Furthermore, postoperative IPS was a good predictor of long-term allograft survival

  15. Detection of deep venous thrombosis with indium 111-labelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromholt, N.; Hesse, B. (Hilleroed County Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Clinical Physiology); Folkenborg, O. (Isotope-Pharmcy, Broenshoej (Denmark)); Selmer, J. (Novo Industri A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)); Nielsen, N.T. (Hilleroed County Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-05-01

    The administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator allows detection of areas with increased fibrinolytic activity, i.e. those with an active thrombotic lesion. Eight patients with phlebographically verified deep venous thrombosis were examined. At the time of immunoscintigraphy study they were examined receiving anticoagulant therapy. Some 75-85 MBq {sup 111}In-labelled antibody were injected, and scintigrams were obtained after 30 min and after 24 h. The precise site of the thrombus could not be visualized after 30 min due to high background activity, whereas after 24 h it was detectable in all patients. The thrombus/background ratios achieved are twice as high as those observed in a human antifibrin antibody study. These preliminary data suggest a high sensitivity of our PA-specific antibody for the detection of active deep venous thrombosis in man, and our antibody seems to offer theoretical advantages over both platelet and fibrin-specific antibodies. (orig.).

  16. Detection of deep venous thrombosis with indium 111-labelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromholt, N.; Hesse, B.; Selmer, J.; Nielsen, N.T.

    1991-01-01

    The administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against tissue plasminogen activator allows detection of areas with increased fibrinolytic activity, i.e. those with an active thrombotic lesion. Eight patients with phlebographically verified deep venous thrombosis were examined. At the time of immunoscintigraphy study they were examined receiving anticoagulant therapy. Some 75-85 MBq 111 In-labelled antibody were injected, and scintigrams were obtained after 30 min and after 24 h. The precise site of the thrombus could not be visualized after 30 min due to high background activity, whereas after 24 h it was detectable in all patients. The thrombus/background ratios achieved are twice as high as those observed in a human antifibrin antibody study. These preliminary data suggest a high sensitivity of our PA-specific antibody for the detection of active deep venous thrombosis in man, and our antibody seems to offer theoretical advantages over both platelet and fibrin-specific antibodies. (orig.)

  17. Dual isotope study of iodine-125 and indium-111-labeled antibody in athymic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, P.L.; Rogers, P.E.; Johnson, D.K. (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was coupled to a benzylisothiocyanate derivative of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The maximum substitution achievable without loss of immunoreactivity was three DTPA groups per immunoglobulin molecule. The resulting conjugate was labeled with {sup 111}In by brief incubation with {sup 111}InCl{sub 3}, giving a mean radiochemical yield of {sup 111}In-labeled antibody of 96%. The ({sup 111}In)B72.3 preparation was mixed with an ({sup 125}I) B72.3 preparation, obtained by the chloramine-T method, and the mixture administered to athymic mice bearing subcutaneous LS174T colon carcinoma xenografts. There were no significant differences (p greater than 0.1) in the biodistributions of the two labels at 1, 2, 5, and 7 days postinjection. These results are contrasted with prior studies showing elevated levels of {sup 111}In in liver, spleen, and kidneys using B72.3-DTPA conjugates prepared via the bicyclic anhydride. It is concluded that protein cross-linking and/or the formation of unstable chelate sites in anhydride coupled conjugates underlie these disparities.

  18. Dual isotope study of iodine-125 and indium-111-labeled antibody in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, P.L.; Rogers, P.E.; Johnson, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody B72.3 was coupled to a benzylisothiocyanate derivative of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The maximum substitution achievable without loss of immunoreactivity was three DTPA groups per immunoglobulin molecule. The resulting conjugate was labeled with 111 In by brief incubation with 111 InCl 3 , giving a mean radiochemical yield of 111 In-labeled antibody of 96%. The [ 111 In]B72.3 preparation was mixed with an [ 125 I] B72.3 preparation, obtained by the chloramine-T method, and the mixture administered to athymic mice bearing subcutaneous LS174T colon carcinoma xenografts. There were no significant differences (p greater than 0.1) in the biodistributions of the two labels at 1, 2, 5, and 7 days postinjection. These results are contrasted with prior studies showing elevated levels of 111 In in liver, spleen, and kidneys using B72.3-DTPA conjugates prepared via the bicyclic anhydride. It is concluded that protein cross-linking and/or the formation of unstable chelate sites in anhydride coupled conjugates underlie these disparities

  19. Value of blood-pool subtraction in cardiac indium-111-labeled platelet imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machac, J.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldman, M.E.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Palestro, C.; Strashun, A.; Vaquer, R.; Phillips, R.A.; Fuster, V. (Mt. Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Blood-pool subtraction has been proposed to enhance {sup 111}In-labeled platelet imaging of intracardiac thrombi. We tested the accuracy of labeled platelet imaging, with and without blood-pool subtraction, in ten subjects with cardiac thrombi of varying age, eight with endocarditis being treated with antimicrobial therapy and ten normal controls. Imaging was performed early after labeled platelet injection (24 hr or less) and late (48 hr or more). Blood-pool subtraction was carried out. All images were graded subjectively by four experienced, blinded readers. Detection accuracy was measured by the sensitivity at three fixed levels of specificity estimated from receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and tested by three-way analysis of variance. Detection accuracy was generally improved on delayed images. Blood-pool subtraction did not improve accuracy. Although blood-pool subtraction increased detection sensitivity, this was offset by decreased specificity. For this population studied, blood-pool subtraction did not improve subjective detection of abnormal platelet deposition by 111In platelet imaging.

  20. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Kimura, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using 111 In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10 6 platelets/μl. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 μM ADP but not in 5 μM ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.)

  1. Value of blood-pool subtraction in cardiac indium-111-labeled platelet imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machac, J.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Goldman, M.E.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Palestro, C.; Strashun, A.; Vaquer, R.; Phillips, R.A.; Fuster, V.

    1989-01-01

    Blood-pool subtraction has been proposed to enhance 111 In-labeled platelet imaging of intracardiac thrombi. We tested the accuracy of labeled platelet imaging, with and without blood-pool subtraction, in ten subjects with cardiac thrombi of varying age, eight with endocarditis being treated with antimicrobial therapy and ten normal controls. Imaging was performed early after labeled platelet injection (24 hr or less) and late (48 hr or more). Blood-pool subtraction was carried out. All images were graded subjectively by four experienced, blinded readers. Detection accuracy was measured by the sensitivity at three fixed levels of specificity estimated from receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and tested by three-way analysis of variance. Detection accuracy was generally improved on delayed images. Blood-pool subtraction did not improve accuracy. Although blood-pool subtraction increased detection sensitivity, this was offset by decreased specificity. For this population studied, blood-pool subtraction did not improve subjective detection of abnormal platelet deposition by 111In platelet imaging

  2. Quantitation of thrombogenicity of hemodialyzer with technetium-99m and indium-111 labeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Kapadvanjwala, Mansoor; Ruzius, Kees; Serafini, A.N.; Zilleruelo, G.E.; Sfakianakis, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The platelet thromobogenicity of a hemodialyzer was quantified with 99m Tc- and 111 In-labeled platelets. The platelets collected from blood of Beagle dogs, Yorkshire pigs and human volunteers were labeled with 111 in-tropolone (detergent-free) and 99m Tc-HMPAO. Hemodialysis was performed with a hollow-fiber dialyzer (HFD) in a flow-loop, the temperature of which was maintained at 37 o C, with flow-rates of 7, 150 and 270 mL/min; after dialysis, the HFD radioactivity was measured with an ionization chamber and imaged with a γ-camera. The radioactivity of samples of hollow-fibers taken from the top, middle and bottom of the dialyzer was determined with a γ-counter. The mean values of hemodialyzer-adherent platelet radioactivity were calculated for both radionuclides. The canine platelets were found to be more thrombogenic than porcine and human platelets. The adhesivity of porcine platelets to the biomaterial (cellulose-acetate) of the dialyzer approximated that of human platelets. The 99m Tc label underestimated the thrombus formation (P 111 In- and 99m Tc-labeled platelets suggests that both radionuclides could be used for measurement of device-induced thrombogenicity and may provide an estimation of prosthesis-induced thrombogenicity of human platelets from animal studies. (Author)

  3. Quantitation of thrombogenicity of hemodialyzer with technetium-99m and indium-111 labeled platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Kapadvanjwala, Mansoor; Ruzius, Kees; Serafini, A.N.; Zilleruelo, G.E.; Sfakianakis, G.N. (Miami Univ., FL (United States). School of Medicine Althin CD-Medical Inc., Miami Lakes, FL (United States))

    1993-07-01

    The platelet thromobogenicity of a hemodialyzer was quantified with [sup 99m]Tc- and [sup 111]In-labeled platelets. The platelets collected from blood of Beagle dogs, Yorkshire pigs and human volunteers were labeled with [sup 111]in-tropolone (detergent-free) and [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO. Hemodialysis was performed with a hollow-fiber dialyzer (HFD) in a flow-loop, the temperature of which was maintained at 37[sup o]C, with flow-rates of 7, 150 and 270 mL/min; after dialysis, the HFD radioactivity was measured with an ionization chamber and imaged with a [gamma]-camera. The radioactivity of samples of hollow-fibers taken from the top, middle and bottom of the dialyzer was determined with a [gamma]-counter. The mean values of hemodialyzer-adherent platelet radioactivity were calculated for both radionuclides. The canine platelets were found to be more thrombogenic than porcine and human platelets. The adhesivity of porcine platelets to the biomaterial (cellulose-acetate) of the dialyzer approximated that of human platelets. The [sup 99m]Tc label underestimated the thrombus formation (P < 0.01 ). The dynamic processes of thrombosis and embolization from the hemodialyzer resulted in the large standard deviations around the mean values of the adherent thrombus. In spite of this limitation of the dynamic pathology, the quantitation of comparative throbogenicity with [sup 111]In- and [sup 99m]Tc-labeled platelets suggests that both radionuclides could be used for measurement of device-induced thrombogenicity and may provide an estimation of prosthesis-induced thrombogenicity of human platelets from animal studies. (Author).

  4. Quantitation of thrombogenicity of hemodialyzer with technetium-99m and indium-111 labeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Kapadvanjwala, M.; Ruzius, K.; Serafini, A.N.; Zilleruelo, G.E.; Sfakianakis, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The platelet thrombogenicity of a hemodialyzer was quantified with 99m Tc- and 111 In-labeled platelets. The platelets collected from blood of Beagle dogs, Yorkshire pigs and humans were labeled with 111 In-tropolone (detergent-free) and 99m Tc-HMPAO. Hemodialysis was performed with a hollow-fiber dialyzer (HFD) in a flow-loop, the temperature maintained at 37 o C, with flow-rates of 7, 150 and 270 mL/min; after dialysis, HFD radioactivity was measured with an ionization chamber and imaged with a γ-camera. The dynamic processes of thrombosis and embolization from the hemodialyzer resulted in large standard deviations around the mean values of the adherent thrombus. In spite of this, the quantitation of comparative thrombogenicity with 111 In-and 99m Tc-labeled platelets suggests that both radionuclides could be used for measurement of device-induced thrombogenicity and estimation of prosthesis-induced thrombogenicity. (author)

  5. Effect of antibiotic therapy on the sensitivity of indium-111-labeled leukocyte scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.; Thorne, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Although 111 In-labeled leukocytes have been shown to be a useful technique for detecting infection, it has been postulated that antibiotic therapy may reduce the sensitivity of the leukocyte scan. Many patients with suspected bacterial infections are placed on antibiotics before a definite site of infection has been identified. Three hundred twelve leukocyte scans on 271 patients were retrospectively reviewed and classified as positive or negative, and as to whether or not they were being treated with antibiotics at the time the leukocyte scan was performed. The overall sensitivity, considering all 312 studies, was 90%. One hundred sixty-nine patient studies were on patients receiving antibiotics; 143 studies were on patients not on antibiotics. The sensitivity of the leukocyte scan was 88.7% in patients on antibiotic therapy; it was 92.1% in those who were not receiving antibiotics. The differences in sensitivity between the two groups were not significantly different (p less than 0.05). We conclude that antibiotic therapy does not affect the sensitivity of the 111 In-labeled leukocyte scan

  6. In-111-labeled leukocyte imaging: false-positive study due to acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.F.; Rudd, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    A case is reported in which In-111-labeled leukocytes accumulated in the left colon on a 24-hr delayed image. This was found to be secondary to an upper gastrointestinal bleed in progress at the time of injection of the radiolabeled leukocytes

  7. Splenic microenvironment and self recognition as factors in allograft rejection in rats. A study using indium-111-labeled cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, R.; Blanchard, J.M.; Lazda, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Splenectomy facilitates organ allograft survival in some rat strains, and in weak donor-recipient histoincompatible pairs. We have found using a heart spleen twin graft model, using ACI rats as recipients and Lewis rats as donors, that the transplanted heart will survive in most recipients after delayed host splenectomy. The presence of a viable mass of splenic tissue will allow rejection to proceed only when the transplanted spleen is of host origin, and not when it comes from the donor (i.e., when it is allogeneic). The use of 111In-labeled cells has allowed us to show that lymphocyte traffic and trapping is markedly altered in the transplanted allogeneic spleens, when compared with control transplanted syngeneic spleens. Thus, despite the presence of the splenic ''microenvironment,'' cardiac allograft rejection does not occur in the absence of syngeneic splenic tissue. We conclude that the role of the spleen in the immune response is to facilitate the recognition of self and the acquisition of alloreactivity in weak responder rat strains and donor-recipient pairs

  8. Indium-111-labeled B72. 3 monoclonal antibody in the detection and staging of breast cancer: A phase 1 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamki, L.M.; Buzdar, A.U.; Singletary, S.E.; Rosenblum, M.G.; Bhadkamkar, V.; Esparza, L.; Podoloff, D.A.; Zukiwski, A.; Hortobagyi, G.N.; Murray, J.L. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Sixteen patients with primary breast cancer were studied with a pancarcinoma monoclonal antibody B72.3, an IgG1 molecule directed against tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG-72) present in several tumors. Five millicuries of 111In was used to label 0.2 mg (six patients), or 2 mg (six patients), or 20 mg using the site-directed bifunctional DTPA method (at carbohydrate moiety). Digital, planar, and SPECT images were obtained at 2, 48, 72 and 96 hr when possible. HAMA levels were obtained before the Mab infusion and at 1, 3, and 6 wk postinfusion. Fourteen of 14 known primary breast lesions were detected by imaging (100% sensitivity). Two fibrocystic lesions were negative. Seven of 14 patients had lymph node metastases by histologic methods, but all were missed by radioimmunoscintigraphy. Tumor uptake of Mab ranged 0.00054%-0.0038% of the ID/g. The tumor-to-normal breast tissue ratio was 4.3 {plus minus} 0.91 (mean {plus minus} s.e.m.). Lymph nodes localization of 111In-B72.3 by tissue analysis was similar for tumor-bearing and normal nodes (0.0039 {plus minus} 0.0023 versus 0.0025 {plus minus} 0.0019). Pharmacokinetics revealed mean plasma half-life of 33.3-41.2 hr for the different doses. There was no statistical difference between any of the pharmacokinetic parameters of different doses. HAMA was positive only in 17% of the patients. The study suggests that this antibody has 100% sensitivity for primary breast cancers, but very poor detection rate of metastatic lesions in axillary lymph nodes; thus making it of questionable value in the initial staging process of this disease.

  9. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the detection of osteomyelitis complicated by a pre-existing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K.; Velchik, M.G.; Alavi, A.; Mandell, G.A.; Esterhai, J.L.; Goll, S.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-six patients (23M, 23F) ranging in age from 19 to 79 yr with a clinical history of a nonunion fracture, surgery, diabetes or a soft-tissue infection were studied with [ 111 In]oxine WBCs to detect osteomyelitis. There were 27 true-positive, nine true-negative, two false-positive and one false-negative. The false-positives and the false-negative occurred in patients with soft-tissue infections overlying the area of interest. All diagnoses were confirmed by intraoperative bone biopsies and cultures. Bone biopsy and scan were performed within 2 days of each other in 39 patients. The overall sensitivity was 97% (27/28), specificity, 82% (9/11) and the diagnostic accuracy, 92% (36/39). The remaining seven patients had negative [ 111 In]WBC scans several months after positive bone biopsies and definite antibiotic treatment. This suggests that [In]WBC scans become negative after appropriate therapy is undertaken. Interobserver data was obtained from four nuclear physicians of varying experience blinded to clinical information. A high degree of agreement was found in over 90% of the cases. This study demonstrates the utility of [ 111 In]WBC scans in the diagnosis and follow-up of complicated osteomyelitis and a high level of interobserver agreement in scan interpretation

  10. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in patients with suspected inflammation after failed antibiotic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Reiko; Akagi, Kiyoshi; Murata, Takashi; Uokawa, Kyousuke; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Itagaki, Yasushi

    1998-01-01

    In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigrapy (In-111 WBC scan) was performed in 16 patients with inflammation suspected on the basis of laboratory findings, symptoms, and diagnostic imaging, but who had failed antibiotic therapy. In-111 WBC scans revealed an abnormal focus of radiotracer activity (positive scans) in five of 16 patients. No correlation was found between the peripheral WBC count and accumulation of In-111 WBC. Inflammatory disease suspected on the basis of the CRP level should be considered when In-111 WBC scanning results in negative findings. Our results indicated that In-111 WBC scanning has low sensitivity after antibiotic therapy. Selection of patients on the basis of persistent elevation of CRP may be valuable. (author)

  11. Indium-granulocyte scanning in the painful prosthetic joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pring, D.J.; Henderson, R.G.; Keshavarzian, A.; Rivett, A.G.; Krausz, T.; Coombs, R.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The value of indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning to determine the presence of infection was assessed in 50 prosthetic joints (41 of which were painful) in 40 patients. Granulocytes were obtained from the patients' blood and labeled in plasma with indium 111 tropolonate. Abnormal accumulation of indium 111 in the region of the prosthesis was noted. Proven infection occurred in 11 prostheses, and all of the infections were detected by indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning. Nineteen were not infected (including nine asymptomatic controls) and only two produced false-positive scans. This represents a specificity of 89.5%, sensitivity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 93.2%. These results compare favorably with plain radiography. There was no radiologic evidence of infection in three of the infected prostheses, and 10 of the noninfected prostheses had some radiologic features that suggested sepsis. We conclude that indium-granulocyte scanning can reliably detect or exclude infection in painful prosthetic joints and should prove useful in clinical management

  12. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, D.A.; Weber, P.M.; Kang, I.Y.; dos Remedios, L.V.; Jasko, I.A.; Sawicki, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Indium- 111 -labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was applied to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Thirty-two patients observed in the hospital for possible appendicitis were prospectively studied. Scanning was done 2 hr after radiopharmaceutical injection. Thirteen scans were positive for acute appendicitis, and all but one were confirmed at laparotomy. In addition, two cases of colitis and two cases of peritonitis were detected. Of 15 negative studies, 11 had a benign course. Four patients with negative studies had laparotomy; two were found to have appendicitis and two had a normal appendix. Of 14 proven cases of appendicitis, 12 scans were positive for appendicitis with one false-positive scan, providing a sensitivity of 86%. Specificity was 93%: all negative cases except one had negative scans. Overall accuracy was 91% (29 of 32), comparing favorably with the accepted false-positive laparotomy rate of 25%. Use of In- 111 -labeled leukocyte scintigraphy serves to reduce the false-positive laparotomy rate and to shorten the clinical observation time in patients with acute appendicitis

  13. Cellular basis for accumulation of In-111-labeled leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.S.T.; Oluwole, S.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Wolff, M.; Kuromoto, N.; Satake, K.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1982-01-01

    Biodistribution and imaging studies in rats showed that In-111-labeled leukocytes and platelets accumulate progressively with time after transplantation in cardiac allografts undergoing rejection, but do not accumulate in normal syngeneic heart grafts. Maximum heart allograft-to-blood ratios of 9:1 were obtained, and allograft-to-native heart ratios of 17:1. Microscopic studies of the rejecting cardiac allografts showed that histologic findings paralleled the cellular changes predicted by the radionuclide studies. Intravenously administered Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m sulfur colloid failed to show significant accumulation in rejecting grafts. The findings suggest that cellular rejection, rather than nonspecific inflammatory changes, is the primary basis for accumulation of In-111 leukocytes and platelets in rejecting cardiac allografts

  14. Detection of pulmonary metastases in a patient with synovial cell sarcoma using In-111 labeled monoclonal antibody 19-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, J.E.; Blend, M.J.; Bekerman, C.; Das Gupta, T.K.; Greager, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    A 35-year-old man was diagnosed in 1984 as having a synovial cell sarcoma of his right wrist without evidence of metastatic spread. The patient underwent regional hyperthermic chemoperfusion, wide-field excision, post-operative radiation therapy and systemic adjuvant chemotherapy. In 1986 and in 1987, because of new lesions found on chest radiographs, the patient underwent bilateral staging thoracotomies with resection of pulmonary metastases, followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Later in 1987, a chest radiograph showed a large left hilar mass and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. Computerized tomography of the chest demonstrated a left hilar mass and two nodules in the right lower lung, raising the possibility of recurrent pulmonary metastatic cancer. As a diagnostic procedure, In-111 labeled monoclonal antibody (Mab) 19-24, produced against a human malignant fibrous histiocytoma, was infused intravenously, and 48-hour images revealed focal areas of increased uptake corresponding to the lesions seen on CT. At surgery, the lesions were confirmed to be synovial cell sarcoma. Imaging with Mabs specific for sarcoma may be particularly useful in sarcoma patients in whom there is clinical uncertainty regarding the nature of pulmonary lesions. In this case, the Mab was useful in distinguishing tumor deposits from postsurgical scarring and helped to guide subsequent surgery and treatment

  15. Yttrium-90 and indium-111 labelling, receptor binding and biodistribution of [DOTA0,d-Phe1,Tyr3[octreotide, a promising somatostatin analogue for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, M. de; Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Pluijm, M.E. van der; Bernard, B.F.; Visser, T.J.; Jermann, E.; Behe, M.; Powell, P.; Maecke, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    In vitro octreotide receptor binding of [ 111 In-DOTA 0 ,d-Phe 1 ,Tyr 3 [octreotide ( 111 In-DOTATOC) and the in vivo metabolism of 90 Y- or 111 In-labelled DOTATOC were investigated in rats in comparison with [ 111 In-DTPA 0 [octreotide [ 111 In-DTPAOC). 111 In-DOTATOC was found to have an affinity similar to octreotide itself for the octreotide receptor in rat cerebral cortex microsomes. Twenty-four hours after injection of 90 Y- or 111 In-labelled DOTATOC, uptake of radioactivity in the octreotide receptor-expressing tissues pancreas, pituitary, adrenals and tumour was a factor of 2-6 that after injection of 111 In-DTPAOC. Uptake of labelled DOTATOC in pituitary, pancreas, adrenals and tumour was almost completely blocked by pretreatment with 0.5 mg unlabelled octreotide, indicating specific binding to the octreotide receptors. These findings strongly indicate that 90 Y-DOTATOC is a promising radiopharmaceutical for radiotherapy and that 111 In-DOTATOC is of potential value for diagnosis of patients with octreotide receptor-positive lesions, such as most neuroendocrine tumours. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Effects of the Amino Acid Linkers on the Melanoma-Targeting and Pharmacokinetic Properties of Indium-111-labeled Lactam Bridge-Cyclized α-MSH Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haixun; Yang, Jianquan; Gallazzi, Fabio; Miao, Yubin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the profound effects of the amino acid linkers on the melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of novel 111In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized DOTA-[X]-CycMSHhex {1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-[X]-c[Asp-His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-CONH2, X=GlyGlyNle, GlyGluNle or NleGlyGlu} peptides. Methods Three novel DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex, DOTA-GENle-CycMSHhex and DOTA-NleGE-CycMSHhex peptides were designed and synthesized. The melanocortin-1 (MC1) receptor binding affinities of the peptides were determined in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of 111In-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex and 111In-DOTA-GENle-CycMSHhex were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Results DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex and DOTA-GENle-CycMSHhex displayed 2.1 and 11.5 nM MC1 receptor binding affinities, whereas DOTA-NleGE-CycMSHhex showed 873.4 nM MC1 receptor binding affinity. The introduction of the -GlyGly- linker maintained high melanoma uptake while decreased the renal and liver uptakes of 111In-DOTA-GlyGlyNle-CycMSHhex. The tumor uptake values of 111In-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex were 19.05 ± 5.04 and 18.6 ± 3.56 % injected dose/gram (%ID/g) at 2 and 4 h post-injection. 111In-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex exhibited 28, 32 and 42% less renal uptake values than 111In-DOTA-Nle-CycMSHhex we reported previously, and 61, 65 and 68% less liver uptake values than 111In-DOTA-Nle-CycMSHhex at 2, 4 and 24 h post-injection, respectively. Conclusion The amino acid linkers exhibited the profound effects on the melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of the 111In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized α-MSH peptides. Introduction of the -GlyGly- linker maintained high melanoma uptake while reducing the renal and liver uptakes of 111In-DOTA-GlyGlyNle-CycMSHhex, highlighting its potential as an effective imaging probe for melanoma detection, as well as a therapeutic peptide for melanoma treatment when labeled with a therapeutic radionuclide. PMID:21421725

  17. Studies on the hepatic uptake of In-111 labeled monoclonal antibodies and the method to reduce the hepatic uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Seigo

    1990-01-01

    Prolonged retention of In-111 labeled monoclonal antibody (In-111 MoAb) in the liver poses problems in radioimmunoscintigraphy. Therefore, subcellular kinetics of In-111 MoAb was investigated. In a study with In-111 225.28S in normal SD rats, the supernatant was found to be a predominant fraction of In-111 radioactivity (61% at 3 hr), with the activity decreasing with time to 21% at 72 hr; however, activity of the mitochondrial fraction was found to increase from 11% to 44%. High performance liquid chromatography for the supernatant revealed that In-111 activity at the earlier time was mainly eluted with the intact IgG peak, and that the major peak activity was thereafter reduced with associated activity peaks found in smaller moistly fractions. Such a sequential distribution change of In-111 225.28S was not found when labeled with I-125. A study with In-111 ZCE025 in mice bearing human colon cancer revealed that activity of the supernatant fraction decreased with time, but the lysosomal activity increased from 14% to 29%, as found in the experiment using normal rats. In tumors, the subcellular distribution of In-111 radioactivity almost remained unchanged throughout the study. The lysosomal fraction was not a predominant fraction of In-111 radioactivity in tumors. When 4 mg of ferric ion (Fe) was administered 48 hr before the injection of In-111 ZCE025, liver uptake of In-111 decreased as compared with the non-Fe group, but tumor uptake was unchanged. Intrahepatic lysosomal radioactivity was smaller in the Fe group than the non-Fe group. These results indicated the involvement of lysosomes in hepatic retention of In-111 MoAb. Once taken up by the liver, the MoAb was metabolized in the supernatant and In-111 ion was transchelated from DTPA onto the lysosomal substances resulting in prolonged retention in the liver. The lysosome in the liver could be saturated by Fe, resulting in a decrease of hepatic uptake without a decrease of tumor uptake. (N.K.) 53 refs

  18. A quantitative study of Indium-111-oxine platelet kinetics in acute and chronic renal transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyns, A. du P.; Pieters, H.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Wessels, P.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Pauw, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    Thirteen patients were investigated on 22 occasions at times varying from 1 day to 10 years after living family donor or cadaver renal transplantation. Platelet survival in the circulation, and in vivo platelet distribution and sites of deposition and sequestration was quantitatively determined with Indium-111-oxine (In-111-oxine) labelled platelets and a scintillation camera interfaced with a computer assisted imaging system. In all patients platelet survival was shortened and the platelet survival curve exponential. In patients with no evidence of transplant rejection and those with chronic rejection, there was no measurable or visible accumulation of labelled platelets in the kidney. The sequestration pattern of In-111 labelled platelets at the end of platelet life span was within normal limits and located in the reticuloendothelial system. In those patients with acute transplant rejection, platelet survival was shortened. Labelled platelets accumulated in the kidney: this was clearly visualized on scintigraphy and reflected by a significant increase in the radioactivity count density of the kidney. Platelets not deposited in the transplant were sequestrated in the reticuloendothelial system. This study demonstrates the diagnostic value of In-111 labelled platelet kinetics in the investigation of acute renal failure after renal transplantation. This investigation appears of limited clinical value in chronic rejection. (orig.)

  19. 0.20-m (8-in.) primary burner development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stula, R.T.; Young, D.T.; Rode, J.S.

    1977-12-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) utilize graphite-base fuels. Fluidized-bed burners are being employed successfully in the experimental reprocessing of these fuels. The primary fluidized-bed burner is a unit operation in the reprocessing flowsheet in which the graphite moderator is removed. A detailed description of the development status of the 0.20-m (8-in.) diameter primary fluidized-bed burner as of July 1, 1977 is presented. Experimental work to date performed in 0.10; 0.20; and 0.40-m (4, 8, and 16 in.) diameter primary burners has demonstrated the feasibility of the primary burning process and, at the same time, has defined more clearly the areas in which additional experimental work is required. The design and recent operating history of the 0.20-m-diameter burner are discussed, with emphasis placed upon the evolution of the current design and operating philosophy

  20. Germanium and indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Kimball, Bryn E.; Tolcin, Amy C.; Guberman, David E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Germanium and indium are two important elements used in electronics devices, flat-panel display screens, light-emitting diodes, night vision devices, optical fiber, optical lens systems, and solar power arrays. Germanium and indium are treated together in this chapter because they have similar technological uses and because both are recovered as byproducts, mainly from copper and zinc sulfides.The world’s total production of germanium in 2011 was estimated to be 118 metric tons. This total comprised germanium recovered from zinc concentrates, from fly ash residues from coal burning, and from recycled material. Worldwide, primary germanium was recovered in Canada from zinc concentrates shipped from the United States; in China from zinc residues and coal from multiple sources in China and elsewhere; in Finland from zinc concentrates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo; and in Russia from coal.World production of indium metal was estimated to be about 723 metric tons in 2011; more than one-half of the total was produced in China. Other leading producers included Belgium, Canada, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. These five countries accounted for nearly 95 percent of primary indium production.Deposit types that contain significant amounts of germanium include volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits, Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits (including Irish-type zinc-lead deposits), Kipushi-type zinc-lead-copper replacement bodies in carbonate rocks, and coal deposits.More than one-half of the byproduct indium in the world is produced in southern China from VMS and SEDEX deposits, and much of the remainder is produced from zinc concentrates from MVT deposits. The Laochang deposit in Yunnan Province, China, and the VMS deposits of the Murchison greenstone belt in Limpopo Province, South Africa, provide excellent examples of indium-enriched deposits. The SEDEX deposits at Bainiuchang, China (located in

  1. SU-E-I-14: Comparison of Iodine-Labeled and Indium-Labeled Antibody Biodistributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L [Retired from City of Hope Medical Center, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is often assumed that animal biodistributions of novel proteins are not dependent upon the radiolabel used in their determination. In units of percent injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), organ uptake results (u) may be obtained using either iodine or metal as radioactive labels. Iodination is preferred as it is a one-step process whereas metal labeling requires two chemical procedures and therefore more protein material. It is important to test whether the radioactive tag leads to variation in the uptake value. Methods: Uptakes of 3antibodies to Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) were evaluated in a nude mouse model bearing 150 to 300 mg LS174T human colon cancer xenografts. Antibodies included diabody (56 kDa), minibody (80kDa) and intact M5A (150 kDa) anti-CEA cognates. Both radioiodine and indium-111 labels were used with uptakes evaluated at 7 time(t) points out to 96 h. Ratios (R) of u(iodine-label)/u(indium-label) were determined for liver, spleen, kidneys, lung and tumor. Results: Hepatic loss was rapid for diabody and minibody; by 24 h their R values were only 2%; i.e., uptake of iodine was 2% of that of indium for these 2 antibodies. By contrast, R for the intact cognate was 50% at that time point. Splenic results were similar. Tumor uptake ratios did not depend upon the antibody type and were 50% at 24 h. Conclusions: Relatively rapid loss of iodine relative to indium in liver and spleen was observed in lower mass antibodies. Tumor ratios were larger and independent of antibody type. Aside from tumor, the R ratio of uptakes depended on the antibody type. R values decreased monotonically with time in all tissues and for all cognates. Using this ratio, one can possibly correct iodine-based u (t) results so that they resemble radiometal-derived biodistributions.

  2. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  3. Endothelial cell labeling with indium-111-oxine as a marker of cell attachment to bioprosthetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharefkin, J.B.; Lather, C.; Smith, M.; Rich, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Canine vascular endothelium labeled with indium-111-oxine was used as a marker of cell attachment to vascular prosthetic surfaces with complex textures. Primarily cultured and freshly harvested endothelial cells both took up the label rapidly. An average of 72% of a 32 micro Ci labeling dose was taken up by 1.5 X 10(6) cells in 10 min in serum-free medium. Over 95% of freshly labeled cells were viable by trypan blue tests and only 5% of the label was released after 1 h incubations at 37 degrees C. Labeled and unlabeled cells had similar rates of attachment to plastic dishes. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed that labeled cells retained their ability to spread on tissue culture dishes even at low (1%) serum levels. Labeled endothelial cells seeded onto Dacron or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular prostheses by methods used in current surgical models could be identified by autoradiography of microscopic sections of the prostheses, and the efficiency of cell attachment to the prosthesis could be measured by gamma counting. Indium-111 labeling affords a simple and rapid way to measure initial cell attachment to, and distribution on, vascular prosthetic materials. The method could also allow measurement of early cell loss from a flow surface in vivo by using external gamma imaging

  4. Measurement of infarct size and percentage myocardium infarcted in a dog preparation with single photon-emission computed tomography, thallium-201, and indium 111-monoclonal antimyosin Fab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.; Lerrick, K.S.; Coromilas, J.

    1987-01-01

    Single photon-emission tomography (SPECT) and indium 111-labeled monoclonal antimyosin Fab fragments were used to measure myocardial infarct size in 12 dogs, six subjected to balloon catheter-induced coronary artery occlusion for 6 hr (late reperfusion) and six subjected to occlusion with reperfusion at 2 hr (early reperfusion). Tomographic imaging was performed 24 hr after the intravenous injection of labeled Fab fragments with the use of a dual-head SPECT camera with medium-energy collimators. Immediately after the first tomographic scan, thallium-201 was injected into nine of 12 dogs and imaging was repeated. Estimated infarct size in grams was calculated from transaxially reconstructed, normalized, and background-corrected indium SPECT images with the use of a threshold technique for edge detection. Estimated noninfarcted myocardium in grams was calculated from obliquely reconstructed thallium SPECT images by a similar method. The animals were killed and infarct size in grams and true infarct size as a percentage of total left ventricular myocardial volume were measured by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Estimated infarct size from indium SPECT images showed an excellent correlation with true infarct size (r = .95, SEE = 4.1 g). Estimated percentage myocardium infarcted was calculated by dividing estimated infarct size from indium images by the sum of estimated infarct size plus estimated noninfarcted myocardium obtained from thallium images. Correlation between the estimated percentage of myocardium infarcted and true percentage of myocardium infarcted was excellent

  5. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  6. Indium and thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The physical and the chemical properties and methods for producing indium and its main compounds have been studied. Presented are the major fields of application of the metal, inclusive of the atomic and space engineering. Described are the natural occurrence and the types of deposits of this disseminated element. Given are the main methods for extracting In from various raw materials, the methods being also evaluated economically. It is inferred, that all the conditions being equal, the extraction technique yields In at a lesser cost, a higher recovery and higher labour productivity. Described are methods for manufacturing the frequently used In compounds, such as the antimonide, arsenide, phosphide

  7. Anelasticity of polycrystalline indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikov, K., E-mail: k.sapozhnikov@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Golyandin, S. [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kustov, S. [Dept. de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, E 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Mechanisms of anelasticity of polycrystalline indium have been studied over wide ranges of temperature (7-320 K) and strain amplitude (2 x 10{sup -7}-3.5 x 10{sup -4}). Measurements of the internal friction and Young's modulus have been performed by means of the piezoelectric resonant composite oscillator technique using longitudinal oscillations at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The stages of the strain amplitude dependence of the internal friction and Young's modulus defect, which can be attributed to dislocation - point defect and dislocation - dislocation interactions, have been revealed. It has been shown that thermal cycling gives rise to microplastic straining of polycrystalline indium due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion and to appearance of a 'recrystallization' internal friction maximum in the temperature spectra of amplitude-dependent anelasticity. The temperature range characterized by formation of Cottrell's atmospheres of point defects around dislocations has been determined from the acoustic data.

  8. Thrombus imaging with indium-111 and iodine-131-labeled fibrin-specific monoclonal antibody and its F(ab')2 and Fab fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosebrough, S.F.; Grossman, Z.D.; McAfee, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported successful imaging of fresh (2-4 hr old) and aged (1-5 days old) canine thrombi with 131 I-labeled intact monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for fibrin. We now report thrombus imaging with 131 I-labeled F(ab')2 and Fab and 111 In-labeled intact MAb, F(ab')2, and Fab. Indium-111-labeled F(ab')2 proved to be the best imaging agent due to less nonspecific binding in the liver than whole IgG. Image quality was improved by the higher administered dose permissible with 111 In and its better physical characteristics for imaging, compared to 131 I. Immunofluorescence of fresh human histologic sections showed intact MAb and F(ab')2 binding to thrombi, pulmonary emboli, and atherosclerotic plaques, strengthening the feasibility of clinical thrombus imaging

  9. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-04-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.; Kube, R.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Indium recovery by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Marilia Camargos Botelho

    1999-04-01

    Indium has been recovered as a byproduct from residues generated from the sulfuric acid leaching circuits in mineral plants for zinc recovery. Once its recovery comes from the slags of other metals recovery, it is necessary to separate it from the other elements which usually are present in high concentrations. Many works have been approaching this separation and indicate the solvent extraction process as the main technique used. In Brazilian case, indium recovery depends on the knowledge of this technique and its development. This paper describes the solvent extraction knowledge for the indium recovery from aqueous solutions generated in mineral plants. The results for determination of the best experimental conditions to obtain a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with di (2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) solubilized in isoparafin and exxsol has been presented. (author)

  12. Identification of intracardiac thrombi in stroke patients with indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, C.; Henningsen, H.; Reuther, R.; Kimmig, B.; Roesch, M.

    1987-01-01

    Platelet scintigraphy (PSC) with indium-111 labelled platelets has been confirmed as an adequate method for the detection of intracardiac thrombi in patients with heart disease. We performed PSC of the heart and the neck vessels in 27 stroke patients with suspected cardiac embolism and as control on 10 patients with atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries without evidence of heart disease. The carotid PSC was positive in 6 of 10 patients with carotid disease, and twice in the 27 with suspected cardiac embolism. In these 27 the PSC of the heart indicated pathological conditions 13 times. Pathological platelet accumulations could be visualized in 3 cases in the atrial space, in 9 cases in the region of the left ventricle, and once at the aortic valve. Scintigraphy was negative in all 10 patients with atherosclerosis of the neck vessels. The two-dimensional echocardiography revealed pathological findings in 8 of the 13 patients with positive heart PSC (3 with intraventricular thrombi, 3 with valvular disease, 2 with decreased ventricular contractility) and was normal in the 10 control patients. Open-heart surgery was performed in 2 patients with pathological PSC and revealed an intracardiac thrombus. Three of 4 patients with positive atrial PSC showed mitral or aortic valve disease. These results suggest that PSC can provide a valuable method for detecting cardiac thrombi in stroke patients

  13. Indium-111 tropolone, a new high-affinity platelet label: preparation and evaluation of labeling parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Rao, S.A.; Didisheim, P.

    1981-01-01

    Platelets were isolated with a new neutral, lipid-soluble metal complex of indium-111 and tropolone. Unlike oxine, which must be dissolved in ethyl alcohol, tropolone is soluble saline. Platelet labeling with In-111 tropolone can be performed in both acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD)-plasma and ACD-saline media within two hours' time. Labeling efficiency has been 80-90% in ACD-saline and 60-70% in the ACD-plasma medium. Optimum concentrations for the labeling of platelets with In-111 tropolone were 5 micrograms/ml in ACD-saline and 10 micrograms/ml in ACD-plasma, using a 15-min incubation at room temperature. A kit formulation for convenient routine preparation of In-111-labeled platelets has been developed. Seven parameters of platelet labeling were studied: concentration of tropolone, citrate, plasma proteins, and calcium ions; also platelet density, temperature, and pH of incubation medium. Their effects on the mechanism of platelet labeling with lipid-soluble tracers are discussed

  14. Indium 111 ZCE-025 immunoscintigraphy in occult recurrent colorectal cancer with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, R.J.; Abdel-Nabi, H.; Merchant, B.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the utility of scanning with indium 111 labeled to monoclonal antibody in 13 patients after curative resection of colorectal cancer who had elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels and negative results of clinical workup. Each patient received 1 mg of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody type ZCE 025 labeled with 5.5 mCi of 111 In, plus 9 to 39 mg of the same antibody unlabeled. Patients underwent scanning 3 to 7 days after infusion by planar and emission computed tomography. ZCE-025 monoclonal antibody imaging detected tumor recurrence or metastasis in 11 of 13 patients. In one patient the monoclonal antibody scan gave a true-negative result, and in one patient the monoclonal antibody scan failed to disclose a metachronous cecal primary. Tumor sites identified were the pelvis (2 patients), abdominal wall (2), retroperitoneum (1), lymph nodes (3); liver (2), bone (2), and lung (1). The accurate localization of colorectal carcinoma recurrences by means of 111 In ZCE-025 monoclonal antibody demonstrates the usefulness of this diagnostic agent in the setting of elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level and negative results of clinical and radiologic workup

  15. Indium solar neutrino experiment using superconducting grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellefon, A. de; Espigat, P.

    1984-08-01

    In this paper we would like to emphasize the revival of interest for Indium experiment in Europe. Properties of metastable superconducting indium grains are presented and our progress towards making an experiment feasible is reviewed

  16. Radioactive indium labelling of the figured elements of blood. Method, results, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Nouel, J.P.

    Following the work of Thakur et al. the authors became interested in red corpuscle, leucocyte and platelet labelling with indium 111 or 113m (8 hydroxyquinolein-indium). For easier labelling of the figured elements of blood the technique described was modified. The chelate is prepared by simple contact at room temperature of indium 111 or 113m chloride and water-soluble 8 hydroxyquinolein sulphate, in the presence of 0.2M TRIS buffer. The figured element chosen suspended in physiological serum is added directly to the solution obtained, the platelets and leucocytes being separated out beforehand by differential centrifugation. While it gives results similar to those of Thabur et al. the method proposed avoids the chloroform extraction of the radioactive chelate and the use of alcohol, liable to impair the platelet regation capacity [fr

  17. Electronic and chemical properties of indium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayane, D.; Khardi, S.; Tribollet, B.; Broyer, M.; Melinon, P.; Cabaud, B.; Hoareau, A.

    1989-01-01

    Indium clusters are produced by the inert gas condensation technique. The ionization potentials are found higher for small clusters than for the Indium atom. This is explained by the p character of the bonding as in aluminium. Doubly charge clusters are also observed and fragmentation processes discussed. Finally small Indium clusters 3< n<9 are found very reactive with hydrocarbon. (orig.)

  18. A review of the world market of indium (Economy of indium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the current state of the world and Russian markets of indium and indium-containing products was made based on the publications of the last years. Main fields of indium application are given, in particular, its using for neutron absorbing regulating rods in nuclear reactors. The second γ-radiation resulted from neutron absorption allows using indium as a neutron detector. Indium market stabilization is expected due to supply from China and South Korea [ru

  19. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  20. Earthquake prediction analysis based on empirical seismic rate: the M8 algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchan, G.; Romashkova, L.

    2010-12-01

    The quality of space-time earthquake prediction is usually characterized by a 2-D error diagram (n, τ), where n is the fraction of failures-to-predict and τ is the local rate of alarm averaged in space. The most reasonable averaging measure for analysis of a prediction strategy is the normalized rate of target events λ(dg) in a subarea dg. In that case the quantity H = 1 - (n + τ) determines the prediction capability of the strategy. The uncertainty of λ(dg) causes difficulties in estimating H and the statistical significance, α, of prediction results. We investigate this problem theoretically and show how the uncertainty of the measure can be taken into account in two situations, viz., the estimation of α and the construction of a confidence zone for the (n, τ)-parameters of the random strategies. We use our approach to analyse the results from prediction of M >= 8.0 events by the M8 method for the period 1985-2009 (the M8.0+ test). The model of λ(dg) based on the events Mw >= 5.5, 1977-2004, and the magnitude range of target events 8.0 <= M < 8.5 are considered as basic to this M8 analysis. We find the point and upper estimates of α and show that they are still unstable because the number of target events in the experiment is small. However, our results argue in favour of non-triviality of the M8 prediction algorithm.

  1. Earthquake Prediction Analysis Based on Empirical Seismic Rate: The M8 Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchan, G.; Romashkova, L.

    2010-07-01

    The quality of space-time earthquake prediction is usually characterized by a two-dimensional error diagram (n,τ), where n is the rate of failures-to-predict and τ is the normalized measure of space-time alarm. The most reasonable space measure for analysis of a prediction strategy is the rate of target events λ(dg) in a sub-area dg. In that case the quantity H = 1-(n +τ) determines the prediction capability of the strategy. The uncertainty of λ(dg) causes difficulties in estimating H and the statistical significance, α, of prediction results. We investigate this problem theoretically and show how the uncertainty of the measure can be taken into account in two situations, viz., the estimation of α and the construction of a confidence zone for the (n,τ)-parameters of the random strategies. We use our approach to analyse the results from prediction of M ≥ 8.0 events by the M8 method for the period 1985-2009 (the M8.0+ test). The model of λ(dg) based on the events Mw ≥ 5.5, 1977-2004, and the magnitude range of target events 8.0 ≤ M < 8.5 are considered as basic to this M8 analysis. We find the point and upper estimates of α and show that they are still unstable because the number of target events in the experiment is small. However, our results argue in favour of non-triviality of the M8 prediction algorithm. (author)

  2. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination

  3. Aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium can exist in a number of oxyhydroxide mineral phases including corundum, diaspore, boehmite and gibbsite. The stability constants at zero ionic strength reported for Al(OH) 3 (aq) vary linearly with respect to the inverse of absolute temperature. A full suite of thermodynamic parameters is available for all aluminium phases and hydrolysis species. Gallium hydrolyses to a greater extent than aluminium, with the onset of hydrolysis reactions occurring just above a pHof 1. In fact, even though aluminium has the smallest ionic radius of this series of metals, it has the weakest hydrolysis species and oxide/hydroxide phases.This is due to the presence of stabilising d-orbitals in the heavier metals, gallium, indium and thallium(III). There are few available data for the stability constants of indium(III) hydrolysis species. Of those that are available, the range in the proposed stability constants covers many orders of magnitude.

  4. Indium flotation from hydrometallurgical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviridov, V.V.; Mal'tsev, G.I.; Petryakova, N.K.; Gomzikov, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The principal possibility of flotation of indium small quantities (10 -4 gxion/l) is established from sulphuric-acid solutions of leaching converter dusts of the copper melting production in the form of complex compounds with sodium hexametaphosphate and cation-active nitrogen-containing surfactants. It is shown that the flotation process effectiveness is determined by the molar ratio of hexametaphosphate and collector introduced into the solution, solution oxidity and surfactant nature

  5. Light forces on an indium atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeter, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis it was studied, whether indium is a possible candidate for the nanostructuration respectively atomic lithography. For this known method for the generation and stabilization of the light necessary for the laser cooling had to be fitted to the special properties of indium. The spectroscopy of indium with the 451 nm and the 410 nm light yielded first hints that the formulae for the atom-light interaction for a two-level atom cannot be directly transferred to the indium atom. By means of the obtained parameters of the present experiment predictions for a possible Doppler cooling of the indium atomic beam were calculated. Furthermore the possibility for the direct deposition of indium on a substrate was studied

  6. Extraction of indium from extremely diluted solutions; Gewinnung von Indium aus extrem verduennten Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vostal, Radek; Singliar, Ute; Froehlich, Peter [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2017-02-15

    The demand for indium is rising with the growth of the electronics industry, where it is mainly used. Therefore, a multistage extraction process was developed to separate indium from a model solution whose composition was adequate to sphalerite ore. The initially very low concentration of indium in the solution was significantly increased by several successive extraction and reextraction steps. The process described is characterized by a low requirement for chemicals and a high purity of the obtained indium oxide.

  7. Nanomechanical Characterization of Indium Nano/Microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kiran MSR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanomechanical properties of indium nanowires like structures fabricated on quartz substrate by trench template technique, measured using nanoindentation. The hardness and elastic modulus of wires were measured and compared with the values of indium thin film. Displacement burst observed while indenting the nanowire. ‘Wire-only hardness’ obtained using Korsunsky model from composite hardness. Nanowires have exhibited almost same modulus as indium thin film but considerable changes were observed in hardness value.

  8. Effect of aspirin and ticlopidine on platelet deposition in carotid atherosclerosis: assessment by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Etani, H.; Uehara, A.; Uyama, O.; Yoneda, S.; Kamada, T.; Kusunoki, M.

    1986-01-01

    The antiplatelet effects of aspirin and ticlopidine were studied by a dual-tracer method, using indium-111 labeled platelets and technetium-99m human serum albumin, in a group of 12 patients with suspected ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The magnitude of platelet accumulation at the carotid bifurcation was expressed as the ratio of radioactivity of indium-111 platelets deposited on the vascular wall to those circulating in the blood-pool (PAI, platelet accumulation index), 48 hr after injection of labeled platelets. PAI values were measured before (baseline studies) and after the antithrombotic therapies (aspirin studies: 325 mg bid for 22.3 +/- 1.3 days, ticlopidine studies: 100 mg tid for 21.8 +/- 2.1 days). At the baseline, the mean PAI value at 24 carotid bifurcations in the patient group was 15.7 +/- 15.3% (mean +/- S.D.) compared to -4.3 +/- 9.1 at 24 carotid bifurcations in 12 normal subjects (p less than 0.01). We defined the upper limit for a normal PAI (%) value to be +13.9, namely the mean PAI plus 2 SD for the carotid bifurcation in normal subjects and used this value for semiquantitative analysis. At the baseline, significant elevation of PAI (more than 13.9%; positive scintigram) was observed at 12 of 24 vessels, while 12 other regions were negative (less than 13.9%). In the lesions with positive scintigraphic results at the baseline, the mean PAI (%) value from the baseline, aspirin and ticlopidine studies was 29.5 +/- 7.0, 11.2 +/- 8.5 (p less than 0.01 versus baseline) and 21.4 +/- 21.3 (not significant from baseline), respectively

  9. Examining seismicity patterns in the 2010 M 8.8 Maule rupture zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniakos, R. S.; Bilek, S. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Draganov, D.

    2016-12-01

    The subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate along Chile has produced some of the largest earthquakes recorded on modern seismic instrumentation. These include the 1960 M 9.5 Valdivia, 2010 M 8.8 Maule, 2014 M 8.1 Iquique, and more recently the 2015 M 8.3 Illapel earthquakes. Slip heterogeneity in the 2010 Maule earthquake has been noted in various studies, with bilateral slip and peak slip of 15 m north of the epicenter. For other great subduction zone earthquakes, such as the 2004 M 9.1 Sumatra, 2010 M 8.8 Maule, and 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku, there was an increase in normal-faulting earthquakes in regions of high slip. In order to understand aftershock behavior of the 2010 Maule event, we are expanding the catalog of small magnitude earthquakes using a template-matching algorithm to find other small earthquakes in the rupture area. We use a starting earthquake catalog (magnitudes between 2.5-4.0) developed from regional and local array seismic data; these comprise our template catalog from Jan. - Dec. 2012 that we use to search through seismic waveforms recorded by a 2012 temporary seismic array in Malargüe, Argentina located 300 km east of the Maule rupture area. We use waveform cross correlation techniques in order to detect new events, and then we use HYPOINVERSE2000 (Klein, 2002) and a velocity model designed for the south-central Chilean region (Haberland et al., 2006) to locate new detections. We also determine focal mechanisms to further analyze aftershock behavior for the region. To date, over 2400 unique detections have been found, of which we have located 133 events with an RMS <1. Many of these events are located in the region of greatest coseismic slip, north of the 2010 epicenter, whereas catalog events are located north and south of the epicenter, along the regions of bilateral slip. Focal mechanisms for the new locations will also be presented.

  10. The GIS and analysis of earthquake damage distribution of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng-Tan; Jin, Xue-Shen; An, Wei-Ping; Lü, Xiao-Jian

    2004-07-01

    The geography information system of the 1303 Hongton M=8 earthquake has been established. Using the spatial analysis function of GIS, the spatial distribution characteristics of damage and isoseismal of the earthquake are studies. By comparing with the standard earthquake intensity attenuation relationship, the abnormal damage distribution of the earthquake is found, so the relationship of the abnormal distribution with tectonics, site condition and basin are analyzed. In this paper, the influence on the ground motion generated by earthquake source and the underground structures near source also are studied. The influence on seismic zonation, anti-earthquake design, earthquake prediction and earthquake emergency responding produced by the abnormal density distribution are discussed.

  11. Evaluated neutronic file for indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Chiba, S.; Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Howerton, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for elemental indium is documented. This file, extending from 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV, is presented in the ENDF/B-VI format, and contains all neutron-induced processes necessary for the vast majority of neutronic applications. In addition, an evaluation of the 115 In(n,n') 116m In dosimetry reaction is presented as a separate file. Attention is given in quantitative values, with corresponding uncertainty information. These files have been submitted for consideration as a part of the ENDF/B-VI national evaluated-file system. 144 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  12. A novel system for constructing a recombinant highly-attenuated vaccinia virus strain (LC16m8) expressing foreign genes and its application for the generation of LC16m8-based vaccines against herpes simplex virus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Natsumi; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Fujii, Hikaru; Shibamura, Miho; Inagaki, Takuya; Kato, Hirofumi; Egawa, Kazutaka; Harada, Shizuko; Yamada, Souichi; Takeyama, Haruko; Saijo, Masayuki

    2018-04-27

    A novel system was developed for generating a highly-attenuated vaccinia virus LC16m8 (m8, third generation smallpox vaccine) that expresses foreign genes. The innovations in this system are its excisable selection marker, specificity of the integration site of a gene of interest, and easy identification of clones with the fluorescent signal. Using this system, recombinant m8s, which expressed either herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein B (gB)-, gD-, or both gB and gD (gB+gD) were developed, and their efficacy was evaluated. First, the induction of a specific IgG against these HSV-2 glycoproteins in mice infected with each of these recombinant m8s was confirmed with an immunofluorescence assay. Next, mice pre-infected with each of the recombinant m8s were infected with HSV-2 at the lethal dose to examine the vaccine efficacy. The fatality rate in mice pre-infected with either of the recombinant gB+gD- or gD-expressing m8s significantly decreased in comparison with that of the control. The survival rate in both male and female mice pre-infected with either of the recombinant gB+gD- and gD-expressing m8s increased to 100 % and 60 %, respectively, while most of the control mice died. In summary, this new system might be applicable for generating a novel m8-based vaccine.

  13. Optical and Electrical Characterization of Melt-Grown Bulk Indium Gallium Arsenide and Indium Arsenic Phosphide Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    spectrum, photoluminescence (PL), and refractive index measurements. Other methods such as infrared imagery and micro probe wavelength dispersing ...States. AFIT/DS/ENP/11-M02 OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT- GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ...CHARACTERIZATION OF MELT-GROWN BULK INDIUM GALLIUM ARSENIDE AND INDIUM ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE ALLOYS Jean Wei, BS, MS Approved

  14. Peculiarities of the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red'kin, A.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Sokolova, E.A.; Makovej, Z.I.; Telegin, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of fusible metal alloys interaction with ammonium halogenides in vertical reactor are considered using indium-tin and indium-bismuth binary alloys. It is shown that at the end of the process the composition of metal and salt phases is determined by the equilibrium type and constant characteristic of the given salt-metal system. As a result the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium which may be used in the processes of separation or purification. A model is suggested to calculate the final concentration of salt and metal phase components

  15. Indium-bridged [1]ferrocenophanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Bidraha; Sadeh, Saeid; Green, Jennifer C; Müller, Jens

    2014-02-17

    Indium-bridged [1]ferrocenophanes ([1]FCPs) and [1.1]ferrocenophanes ([1.1]FCPs) were synthesized from dilithioferrocene species and indium dichlorides. The reaction of Li2fc⋅tmeda (fc = (H4C5)2Fe) and (Mamx)InCl2 (Mamx = 6-(Me2NCH2)-2,4-tBu2C6H2) gave a mixture of the [1]FCP (Mamx)Infc (4(1)), the [1.1]FCP [(Mamx)Infc]2 (4(2)), and oligomers [(Mamx)Infc]n (4(n)). In a similar reaction, employing the enantiomerically pure, planar-chiral (Sp,Sp)-1,1'-dibromo-2,2'-diisopropylferrocene (1) as a precursor for the dilithioferrocene derivative Li2fc(iPr2), equipped with two iPr groups in the α position, gave the inda[1]ferrocenophane 5(1) [(Mamx)Infc(iPr2)] selectively. Species 5(1) underwent ring-opening polymerization to give the polymer 5(n). The reaction between Li2fc(iPr2) and Ar'InCl2 (Ar' = 2-(Me2NCH2)C6H4) gave an inseparable mixture of the [1]FCP Ar'Infc(iPr2) (6(1)) and the [1.1]FCP [Ar'Infc(iPr2)]2 (6(2)). Hydrogenolysis reactions (BP86/TZ2P) of the four inda[1]ferrocenophanes revealed that the structurally most distorted species (5(1)) is also the most strained [1]FCP. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection.

  17. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V.

    1990-01-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection

  18. Polarographic determination of selenium in indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, B.Ya.; Mikheeva, V.A.; Priz, N.B.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure of determining nx10 -6 % Se in indium after concentrating in an elemental form on arsenic and sulphur has been developed. The selenium content is determined by inversion a.c. polarography on a sulphuric-acid background in the presence of Cu(2), potassium bichromate, and sodium pyrophosphate. 5.7x10 -6 % Se in metal indium has been determined by this procedure, the mean standard deviation being Sr=0.26

  19. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (≤ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.)

  20. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (/le/ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.).

  1. New insight into the 1556 M8 Huaxian earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.

    2017-12-01

    The disastrous 1556 M8 Huaxian earthquake in China took away 0.8Ma lives then as well as attracted scientists' attention. Although the Huashan front fault and Weinan plateform-front fault at the south margin of Weihe basin was responsible for this earthquake, we know less about the fault behaviors. There's evidence that the modern riverbank offset and older geomorphic scarps in Chishui river site on Weinan plateau-front fault from the Pleiades DEM. Here, we did a 3D trench excavation model using SfM work, drilling profiles and geomorphological measurement there to revive the site for multiearthquakes. It turns out two events occurred on the normal fault with pretty high offsets 9.4m and 7.8-8.0m respectively, the later one resulted from Huaxian earthquake. And we estimate that the fault slip rate approximately 1.48-1.75 mm/a. Thus, we find that the older earthquake also produced a similar fault offsets to the 1556 earthquake showing as characteristics earthquake. The paleoseismic study demonstrates that the Weinan pateform-front fault plays a role in boundary faults of Weihe basin, which can contribute to the basin evolution of regions of active faulting.

  2. The acetabulum: A prospective study of three-phase bone and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous-coated hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Anderson, J.H.; Callaghan, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Although few studies address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and indium-111-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy ( 111 In-WBC) in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous-coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen with the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and 111I n-WBC at approximately 7 days, and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the acetabulum. All 25 prostheses (144 of 144 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone-phase images. Although this activity decreased with time, 76% had persistent uptake at 24 mo. Twenty-three of 25 prostheses (126 of 140 scans) showed increased uptake on 111 In-WBC scintigraphy, invariably decreasing with time, but with 37% having significant uptake at 24 mo. Scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasty patient appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses

  3. The Wenchuan, China M8.0 Earthquake: A Lesson and Implication for Seismic Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The Wenchuan, China M8.0 earthquake caused great damage and huge casualty. 69,197 people were killed, 374,176 people were injured, and 18,341 people are still missing. The estimated direct economic loss is about 126 billion U.S. dollar. The Wenchuan earthquake again demonstrated that earthquake does not kill people, but the built environments and induced hazards, landslides in particular, do. Therefore, it is critical to strengthen the built environments, such buildings and bridges, and to mitigate the induced hazards in order to avoid such disaster. As a part of the so-called North-South Seismic Zone in China, the Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmen Shan thrust belt which forms a boundary between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan basin, and there is a long history (~4,000 years) of seismicity in the area. The historical records show that the area experienced high intensity (i.e., greater than IX) in the past several thousand years. In other words, the area is well-known to have high seismic hazard because of its tectonic setting and seismicity. However, only intensity VII (0.1 to 0.15g PGA) has been considered for seismic design for the built environments in the area. This was one of the main reasons that so many building collapses, particularly the school buildings, during the Wenchuan earthquake. It is clear that the seismic design (i.e., the design ground motion or intensity) is not adequate in the Wenchuan earthquake stricken area. A lesson can be learned from the Wenchuan earthquake on the seismic hazard and risk assessment. A lesson can also be learned from this earthquake on seismic hazard mitigation and/or seismic risk reduction.

  4. Attenuation tomography in the rupture area of the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather-Smith, Helen; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years several seismological studies have developed a detailed image of the megathrust interface between the subducting Nazca plate and and the overriding South American plate in the rupture area of the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake. Hicks et al. (2014) have published a high resolution 3D seismic tomography model and characterised the different regimes acting along the interface based on their seismic properties. A more detailed study by Moreno et al. (2014) showed that the seismic Vp/Vs ratio and inter-seismic locking determined from GPS measurements are correlated. Together these observations open up the possibility to map the rupture potential of possible future earthquakes, although the underlying processes are yet not fully understood and a more in depth analysis of other physical properties is needed. 3D seismic attenuation structure as well as seismic stress-drop distribution based on the aftershock seismicity are providing independent data sets to better constrain the physical processes acting along the subduction zone interface. As seismic attenuation is particularly sensitive to fluid saturation it opens up the possibility to study more directly the influence of fluids on aftershock activity as compared to standard velocity tomography studies. Based on our event catalogue of approximately 30,000 aftershocks we are currently selecting the most appropriate data set for the staggered 3D attenuation tomography. The inverted attenuation model will then be used to calculate seismic stress drop values for the complete aftershock catalogue. We will present our preliminary 3D attenuation model together with our stress drop estimates and compare our finding to the 3D velocity structure and slip distribution.

  5. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  6. Optimum allocation of imaging time and minimum detectable activity in dual isotope blood pool subtraction indium-111 platelet imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machac, J.; Horowitz, S.F.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1984-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled platelet imaging is a tool for detection of thrombus formation in vascular spaces. Dual isotope blood pool subtraction may help differentiate focal platelet accumulation from blood pool activity. This study used a computer model to calculate the minimum excess-to-blood pool platelet ratio (EX/BP) and the optimum dual isotope imaging times under varied conditions of lesion size. The model simulated usual human imaging doses of 500 μCi of In-111 platelets and 5mCi of Tc-99m labeled RBCs giving a reference cardiac blood pool region (100cc) of 10000 cpm for Tc-99m and 500 cpm for In-111. The total imaging time was fixed at 20 minutes, while the two isotope imaging times (TIn/TTc) were varied, as were the simulated lesion size (cc) and EX/BP. The relative error of the excess counts was calculated using propagation of error theory. At the critical level of detection, where the excess lesion counts equal 3 times the standard deviation, the optimum TIn/TTc and minimum Ex/BP were determined for each lesion size. For the smallest lesion size (0.1cc), the minimum detectable EX/BP ratio was 1.6, with the best TIn/TTC ratio of 18/2 minutes, and for large lesions, an EX/BP of 0.1, with a TIn/TTc of 16/4. This model provides an estimate of the sensitivity and optimizes imaging times in dual isotope subtraction platelet imaging. The model is adaptable to varying isotope doses, total imaging times and lesion size. This information will be helpful in future in- vivo imaging studies of intravascular thrombi in humans

  7. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  8. Sputtering of neutral and ionic indium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.; Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Von Nagy-Felsobuki, E.I.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary neutral and secondary ion cluster yields were measured during the sputtering of a polycrystalline indium surface by normally incident ∼4 keV Ar + ions. In the secondary neutral mass spectra, indium clusters as large as In 32 were observed. In the secondary ion mass spectra, indium clusters up to In 18 + were recorded. Cluster yields obtained from both the neutral and ion channel exhibited a power law dependence on the number of constituent atoms, n, in the cluster, with the exponents measured to be -5.6 and -4. 1, respectively. An abundance drop was observed at n=8, 15, and 16 in both the neutral and ion yield distributions suggesting that the stability of the ion (either secondary ion or photoion) plays a significant role in the observed distributions. In addition, our experiments suggest that unimolecular decomposition of the neutral cluster may also plays an important role in the measured yield distributions

  9. Intermediate-term medium-range earthquake prediction algorithm M8: A new spatially stabilized application in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashkova, L.L.; Kossobokov, V.G.; Peresan, A.; Panza, G.F.

    2001-12-01

    A series of experiments, based on the intermediate-term earthquake prediction algorithm M8, has been performed for the retrospective simulation of forward predictions in the Italian territory, with the aim to design an experimental routine for real-time predictions. These experiments evidenced two main difficulties for the application of M8 in Italy. The first one is due to the fact that regional catalogues are usually limited in space. The second one concerns certain arbitrariness and instability, with respect to the positioning of the circles of investigation. Here we design a new scheme for the application of the algorithm M8, which is less subjective and less sensitive to the position of the circles of investigation. To perform this test, we consider a recent revision of the Italian catalogue, named UCI2001, composed by CCI1996, NEIC and ALPOR data for the period 1900-1985, and updated with the NEIC reduces the spatial heterogeneity of the data at the boundaries of Italy. The new variant of the M8 algorithm application reduces the number of spurious alarms and increases the reliability of predictions. As a result, three out of four earthquakes with magnitude M max larger than 6.0 are predicted in the retrospective simulation of the forward prediction, during the period 1972-2001, with a space-time volume of alarms comparable to that obtained with the non-stabilized variant of the M8 algorithm in Italy. (author)

  10. The indium-oxygen system, ch. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillen, A.J. van

    1977-01-01

    This chapter is divided into three sections: 1) a survey of the literature concerning the indiumoxygen system, 2) the adsorption of oxygen at pure and partially oxidized indium surfaces in the temperature range 20-180degC, and 3) the oxidation of indium at temperatures above 180degC. The oxygen uptake is determined volumetrically and gravimetrically. The influence of the melting point is considered and the results are compared with data from the literature. The oxide layer is amorphous at lower temperatures but above 350degC, crystallisation of In 2 O 3 takes place

  11. Labelling of bacteria with indium chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, P.; Pfister, W.; Endert, G.; Sproessig, M.

    1985-01-01

    The indium chelates were prepared by reaction of radioactive indiumchloride with 10 μg oxine, 15 μg tropolone and 3 mg acetylacetone, resp. The formed chelates have been incubated with 10 9 germs/ml for 5 minutes, with labelling outputs from 90 to 95%. Both gram-positive (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) can be labelled. The reproductive capacity of the bacteria was not impaired. The application of indium labelled bacteria allows to show the distribution of microorganisms within the living organism and to investigate problems of bacterial adherence. (author)

  12. Neutral complexes of the indium dihalides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, I.; Worrall, I.J. (Lancaster Univ. (UK))

    1982-03-15

    The neutral complexes In/sub 2/X/sub 4/.2L (X=Cl, Br, I; L 1,4-dioxan, tetrahydropyran, tetrahydrofuran, tetrahydrothiophene), In/sub 2/X/sub 4/.2L (X=Br, I; Ldimethylsulphide), In/sub 2/X/sub 4/.4L (X=Cl, Br, I; Lpiperidine, piperazine, morpholine), and In/sub 2/X/sub 4/.4L (X=Br, I; L=pyridine, dimethylsulphoxide) have been prepared. Solid state Raman spectra indicate that the compounds contain indium-indium bonds.

  13. Indium 111 leucocyte scintigraphy in abdominal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Gray, H.W.; Cuthbert, G.F.; Neilson, W.; Anderson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the clinical utility of indium 111 autologous leucocyte scintigraphy retrospectively in 45 patients presenting with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis. The sensitivity was 95% (21/22) and the specificity was 91% (21/23). Some 34 of the studies (17 positive and 17 negative) were considered helpful in furthering patient management (76%) and 8, unhelpful (18%). In 3, the study results were misleading and led to inappropriate treatment. Indium 111 scintigraphy, whether positive or negative, provides information in patients with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis upon which therapeutic decisions can be based. (orig.)

  14. Implant damage and redistribution of indium in indium-implanted thin silicon-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peng; An Zhenghua; Zhu Ming; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.; Montgomery, Neil; Biswas, Sukanta

    2004-01-01

    The indium implant damage and diffusion behavior in thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) with a 200 nm top silicon layer were studied for different implantation energies and doses. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in the channeling mode (RBS/C) was used to characterize the implant damage before and after annealing. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to study the indium transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior in the top Si layer of the SOI structure. An anomalous redistribution of indium after relatively high energy (200 keV) and dose (1 x 10 14 cm -2 ) implantation was observed in both bulk Si and SOI substrates. However, there exist differences in these two substrates that are attributable to the more predominant out-diffusion of indium as well as the influence of the buried oxide layer in the SOI structure

  15. Synthesis of indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.M.; Marshall, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111 mesoprotoporphyrin IX has been prepared by refluxing suitable proportions of InCl 3 , sodium acetate, and mesoprotoporphyrin IX in glacial acetic acid. The labeled metalloporphyrin is sufficiently water-soluble for use as a scanning agent, and can also be incorporated into heme apoproteins for perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements. (author)

  16. Thin film metrology and microwave loss characterization of indium and aluminum/indium superconducting planar resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, C. R. H.; Béjanin, J. H.; Earnest, C. T.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Deimert, C.; Thomas, J. P.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Mariantoni, M.

    2018-05-01

    Scalable architectures characterized by quantum bits (qubits) with low error rates are essential to the development of a practical quantum computer. In the superconducting quantum computing implementation, understanding and minimizing material losses are crucial to the improvement of qubit performance. A new material that has recently received particular attention is indium, a low-temperature superconductor that can be used to bond pairs of chips containing standard aluminum-based qubit circuitry. In this work, we characterize microwave loss in indium and aluminum/indium thin films on silicon substrates by measuring superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators and estimating the main loss parameters at powers down to the sub-photon regime and at temperatures between 10 and 450 mK. We compare films deposited by thermal evaporation, sputtering, and molecular beam epitaxy. We study the effects of heating in a vacuum and ambient atmospheric pressure as well as the effects of pre-deposition wafer cleaning using hydrofluoric acid. The microwave measurements are supported by thin film metrology including secondary-ion mass spectrometry. For thermally evaporated and sputtered films, we find that two-level state are the dominant loss mechanism at low photon number and temperature, with a loss tangent due to native indium oxide of ˜ 5 × 10 - 5 . The molecular beam epitaxial films show evidence of the formation of a substantial indium-silicon eutectic layer, which leads to a drastic degradation in resonator performance.

  17. Thermopower of dilute alloys of indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudenhoeffer, A.W.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a new theory of electron-diffusion thermopower is discussed. A figure of merit for this ''Nielsen--Taylor'' theory in various metals is established, and it indicates that the effect should be largest in lead, indium, thallium, and aluminum, in that order. Previous investigations have been carried out for lead and aluminum. The thermopower of indium (or any metal) changes when impurity scattering centers are introduced into it. This change in the thermopower as a function of temperature is analyzed in terms of the Nielsen--Taylor theory and in terms of the competing process known as ''phonon drag.'' Definite conclusions as to the validity of the new theory are hampered by the complex nature of this phonon drag, but the experimental data is consistent with the Nielsen--Taylor theory. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  18. Radioassay process using an indium-8-hydroxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedemans, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    There is disclosed an in vivo radioassay process in which a radioactive chelate of indium and an 8-hydroxyquinoline is introduced into a warmblooded animal having an inflammatory reaction in an area in which the chelate would not accumulate to the same extent if the inflammation were not present. The chelate gathers in the inflamed area, for instance, in a body abscess and its location is determined by radio surveying the body by an external imaging technique. (author)

  19. Preparation of trialkylindium by alkylation of metallic indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, I.V.; Danov, S.M.; Sakhipov, V.R.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation results on production of trialkyl indium by alkylation of metallic indium are presented. In contradistinction to the known techniques for the production of trialkyls on indium by alkylation it is suggested to separate the synthesis into two steps. At the first step indium is alkylated by alkylhalide to alkyl indium halide, and at the second alkylation is carried out using. Grignard reagent. The techniques for preparation of trimethyl- and triethylindium, developed on the bases of this scheme, are noted for good reproducibility, allow to preclude, agglomeration of indium during the synthesis, as well as to reduce the consumption coefficients, and amounts, of the introduced starting reagents, i.e. magnesium and alkylhalide. Refs. 16

  20. Thermoelectric flux effect in superconducting indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harlingen, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a thermoelectric effect in superconductors which provides a mechanism for studying quasiparticle relaxation and scattering processes in non-equilibrium superconductors by transport measurements. We report measurements of the thermoelecric flux effect in samples consisting of indium and lead near the In transition temperature; in this temperature range, the contribution to DELTA/sub TAU/ from the Pb is insignificant and so values of OMEGA(T) are obtained for indium. The results of our experiments may be summarized as follows: (1) we have a thermally-generated flux effect in 5 superconducting In-Pb toroidal samples, (2) experimental tests suggest that the observed effect does indeed arise from the proposed thermoelectric flux effect, (3) OMEGA(T) for indium is found to diverge as (T/sub c/ - T)/sup -3/2/ more rapidly than predicted by simple theory, (4) OMEGA(T) at T/T sub c/ = .999 is nearly 10/sup 5/ larger than initially expected, (5) OMEGA (T) roughly correlates with the magnitude of the normal state thermoelectric coefficient for our samples

  1. New indium selenite-oxalate and indium oxalate with two- and three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Junjun; Li Guodong; Chen Jiesheng

    2009-01-01

    Two new indium(III) compounds with extended structures, [In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )(H 2 O) 2 ].2H 2 O (I) and [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ][In(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ] 2 .5H 2 O (II), have been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Compound I crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a=5.2596(11) A, b=6.8649(14) A, c=9.3289(19) A, α=101.78(3) o , β=102.03(3) o , γ=104.52(3) o , while compound II crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Fdd2, with a=15.856(3) A, b=31.183(6) A, c=8.6688(17) A. In compound I, indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form two-dimensional (2D) In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers, separated by non-coordinating water molecules. In compound II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered channels. - Graphical abstract: Two new indium(III) compounds have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. In I, the indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form 2D In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers. In II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered ring channels

  2. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide

  3. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide.

  4. A study of the kinetics and mechanisms of electrocrystallization of indium oxide on an in situ prepared metallic indium electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omanovic, S.; Metikos-Hukovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms and kinetics of nucleation and growth of indium oxide film on an in situ prepared metallic indium electrode was studied in a borate buffer solution of pH 10.0 using cyclic voltammetry and chroanoamperometry techniques. It was shown that the initial stage of nucleation of the oxide film includes a three-dimensional progressive nucleation process, combined with a diffusion-controlled growth of the stable indium oxide crystals. The thermodynamic data obtained indicated a strong tendency of indium to form an indium oxide film on its surface in an aqueous solution. It was found that the rate-determining step in the nucleation and growth process is the surface diffusion of electroactive species. The nucleation rate constant, and the number of nucleation active sites were calculated independently. It was shown that between 2 and 15% of sites on the indium surface act as active nucleation centers, and that each active site represents a critical nucleus

  5. The September 2017 M=8.1 Chiapas and M=7.1 Puebla, Mexico, earthquakes: Chain reaction or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The M=8.1 and M=7.1 events struck 12 days and 600 km apart, both with an independent probability of occurrence of 0.5% per year, based on the GEAR model [Bird et al., 2015]. Are they related? First, we calculated the static stress imparted by the M=8.1 shock to the fault that ruptured in the M=7.1, and find a tiny push that would favor rupture. But the stress increase (0.2 kPa) is less than the fault would experience from the tidal stresses, and so it should be inconsequential. We next used the México Servicio Sismológico Nacional (UNAM) online catalog to look at the quakes in the month before the M=8.1 and in the 13 days since. We calculate the completeness to be M≥4.0. There are virtually no remote aftershocks from the Chiapas rupture that extend within 250 km of the M=7.1 shock during the first week after the M=8.1. So, if anything, the M=8.1 turned off for a week or more the region that ruptured in the M=7.1. Events started turning on about 2-3 days before the M=7.1, but none of those struck within 40 km of the future M=7.1 mainshock. The seismic surface waves unleashed by great earthquakes envelop the globe in just 160 minutes, and yet triggering of remote large aftershocks during these 2-3 hours is either very rare [Pollitz et al., Nature 2012] or in dispute [Fan & Shearer, 2016 vs. Yue et al., 2017]. So, the waves must trigger tiny shocks that cascade into larger shocks after some delay. Or, perhaps the stresses conveyed by the waves pump pockets of fluids that slowly diffuse into nearby fault zones, lubricating them to the point of failure [Parsons at al., 2017]. In the cases where great earthquakes are indisputably seen to trigger aftershocks at great distances or even globally, they to do so within several days, or a week at most. Since Puebla struck 12 days later, this seems to us too long a period to be explained by dynamic triggering. Even though neither quake on their own is rare, what's the chance of independent M=8.1 and M=7.1 events just 12

  6. Rescue of Na+ and H+ binding in Na+,K+-ATPase M8 aspartate mutants by secondary mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rikke; Einholm, Anja P.; Andersen, Jens Peter

    A mutation replacing the aspartate in transmembrane segment M8 in the a3-isoform of Na,K-ATPase with asparagine has been found in patients with rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism or alternating hemiplegia of childhood. This aspartate may be a critical Na+ coordinating residue, but the crystal......-isoforms of Na,K-ATPase, and much smaller effects were seen for other mutations to the M8 aspartate, which were less disruptive of Na+ binding than mutations to other residues related to Na+ site III. The D928 (rat a1 numbering) mutations strongly diminished the cooperativity of Na+ binding. Moreover the p......H optimum of Na,K-ATPase activity was left-shifted, again with D928N being most disruptive. The reduced affinity for activating Na+ and for inhibitory protons, caused by D928N and D928A mutations, could be rescued by introduction of an additional mutation of a glutamate located far away from D928....

  7. Sodium enhances indium-gallium interdiffusion in copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombara, Diego; Werner, Florian; Schwarz, Torsten; Cañero Infante, Ingrid; Fleming, Yves; Valle, Nathalie; Spindler, Conrad; Vacchieri, Erica; Rey, Germain; Guennou, Mael; Bouttemy, Muriel; Manjón, Alba Garzón; Peral Alonso, Inmaculada; Melchiorre, Michele; El Adib, Brahime; Gault, Baptiste; Raabe, Dierk; Dale, Phillip J; Siebentritt, Susanne

    2018-02-26

    Copper indium gallium diselenide-based technology provides the most efficient solar energy conversion among all thin-film photovoltaic devices. This is possible due to engineered gallium depth gradients and alkali extrinsic doping. Sodium is well known to impede interdiffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 films, thus influencing the gallium depth distribution. Here, however, sodium is shown to have the opposite effect in monocrystalline gallium-free CuInSe 2 grown on GaAs substrates. Gallium in-diffusion from the substrates is enhanced when sodium is incorporated into the film, leading to Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and Cu(In,Ga) 3 Se 5 phase formation. These results show that sodium does not decrease per se indium and gallium interdiffusion. Instead, it is suggested that sodium promotes indium and gallium intragrain diffusion, while it hinders intergrain diffusion by segregating at grain boundaries. The deeper understanding of dopant-mediated atomic diffusion mechanisms should lead to more effective chemical and electrical passivation strategies, and more efficient solar cells.

  8. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  9. Selective separation of indium by iminodiacetic acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, M.C.B.; Benedetto, J.S.; Martins, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    - Indium can be recovered by treating residues, flue dusts, slags, and metallic intermediates in zinc smelting. This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of indium and iron on an iminodiacetic acid chelating resin, Amberlite R IRC748 (Rohm and Haas Co.-USA). High concentrations of iron are always present in the aqueous feed solution of indium recovery. In addition, the chemical behaviour of iron in adsorptive systems is similar to that of indium. The metal concentrations in the aqueous solution were based on typical indium sulfate leach liquor obtained from zinc hydrometallurgical processing in a Brazilian plant. The ionic adsorption experiments were carried out by the continuous column method. Amberlite R IRC748 resin had a high affinity for indium under acidic conditions. Indium ions adsorbed onto the polymeric resin were eluted with a 0.5 mol/dm 3 sulphuric acid solution passed through the resin bed in the column. 99.5% pure indium sulfate aqueous solution was obtained using the iminodiacetic acid chelating resin Amberlite R IRC748. (author)

  10. State of rare earth impurities in gallium and indium antimonides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evgen'ev, S.B.; Kuz'micheva, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    State of rare earth impurities in indium and gallium antimonides was studied. Results of measuring density and lattice parameter of samples in GaSb-rare earth and InSb-rare earth systems are presented. It is shown that during rare earth dissolution in indium and gallium antimonides rare earth atoms occupy interstitial positions or, at least, are displaced from lattice points

  11. Fabrication, structure and mechanical properties of indium nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Budiman, Arief Suriadi; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solid and hollow cylindrical indium pillars with nanoscale diameters were prepared using electron beam lithography followed by the electroplating fabrication method. The microstructure of the solid-core indium pillars was characterized by scanning micro-X-ray diffraction, which shows that the indium pillars were annealed at room temperature with very few dislocations remaining in the samples. The mechanical properties of the solid pillars were characterized using a uniaxial microcompression technique, which demonstrated that the engineering yield stress is {approx}9 times greater than bulk and is {approx}1/28 of the indium shear modulus, suggesting that the attained stresses are close to theoretical strength. Microcompression of hollow indium nanopillars showed evidence of brittle fracture. This may suggest that the failure mode for one of the most ductile metals can become brittle when the feature size is sufficiently small.

  12. Seismo-Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Triggered by the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jann-Yenq Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A network of 6 ground-based GPS receivers in East Asia was employed to study seismo-traveling ionospheric disturbances (STIDs triggered by an M 8.0 earthquake which occurred at Wenchuan on 12 May 2008. The network detected 5 STIDs on the south side of the epicenter area. A study on the distances of the detected STIDs to the epicenter versus their associated traveling times shows that the horizontal speed is about 600 m s-1. Applying the circle method, we find that the 5 circles intercept at a point right above the epicenter when the horizontal speed of 600 m s-1 is given. Global searches of the ray-tracing and the beam-forming techniques confirm that the STIDs are induced by vertical motions in the Earth¡¦s surface during the Wenchuan Earthquake.

  13. Small lead and indium inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Hjemsted, K.; Schmidt, B.; Bourdelle, K.K.; Johansen, A.; Andersen, H.H.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports implantation of lead or indium into aluminum results in spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead or indium precipitates. The precipitates grow in topotactical alignment with the matrix, giving TEM images characterized by moire fringes. The size and density of the precipitates increase with increasing fluence until coalescence begins to occur. Implantation at elevated temperatures lead to formation of large precipitates with well developed facets. This is particularly significant for implantation above the bulk melting point of the implanted species. Melting and solidification have been followed by in-situ TEM heating and cooling experiments. Superheating up to ∼50 K above the bulk melting point has been observed, and the largest inclusions melt first. Melting is associated with only partial loss of facetting of the largest inclusion. Initial growth of the inclusions occurs by trapping of atoms retained in supersaturated solution. Further growth occurs by coalescence of neighboring inclusion in the liquid phase. Solidification is accompanied by a strong undercooling ∼30 K below the bulk melting point, where the smallest inclusions solidify first. Solidification is characterized by spontaneous restoration of the facets and the topotactical alignment

  14. Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy in carotid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branchereau, A.; Bernard, P.J.; Ciosi, G.; Bazan, M.; de Laforte, C.; Elias, A.; Bouvier, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five patients (35 men, 10 women) undergoing carotid surgery had Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy as part of their preoperative work-up. Imaging was performed within three hours after injection of the Indium-111. A second series of views was obtained 24 hours later and repeated at 24 hour intervals for two days. Of 54 scintigrams, 22 were positive and 32 negative. Positive results were defined as a twofold or more increase in local activity on a visualized carotid after 24 hours. The sensitivity of the method was 41%, intraoperatively, and the specificity, 100%. The low sensitivity places this method behind sonography and duplex-scanning for screening patients for surgery. We believe that indications for platelet scintigraphy are limited to: 1. Repeated transient ischemic attacks in the same territory with minimal lesions on arteriography and non-homogeneous plaque on duplex scan; 2. Symptomatic patients being treated medically as a possible argument for surgery; 3. Determining therapeutic policy for patients having experienced a transient ischemic attack with a coexisting intracardiac thrombus

  15. Looking Down Under for a Circular Economy of Indium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Tim T; Ciacci, Luca; Mudd, Gavin Mark; Reck, Barbara K; Northey, Stephen Alan

    2018-02-20

    Indium is a specialty metal crucial for modern technology, yet it is potentially critical due to its byproduct status in mining. Measures to reduce its criticality typically focus on improving its recycling efficiency at end-of-life. This study quantifies primary and secondary indium resources ("stocks") for Australia through a dynamic material-flow analysis. It is based on detailed assessments of indium mineral resources hosted in lead-zinc and copper deposits, respective mining activities from 1844 to 2013, and the trade of indium-containing products from 1988 to 2015. The results show that Australia's indium stocks are substantial, estimated at 46.2 kt in mineral resources and an additional 14.7 kt in mine wastes. Australian mineral resources alone could meet global demand (∼0.8 kt/year) for more than five decades. Discarded material from post-consumer products, instead, is negligible (43 t). This suggests that the resilience of Australia's indium supply can best be increased through efficiency gains in mining (such as introducing domestic indium refining capacity) rather than at the end of the product life. These findings likely also apply to other specialty metals, such as gallium or germanium, and other resource-dominated countries. Finally, the results illustrate that national circular economy strategies can differ substantially.

  16. Mn-implanted, polycrystalline indium tin oxide and indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Xu Qingyu; Buerger, Danilo; Zhou Shengqiang; Kolitsch, Andreas; Grenzer, Joerg; Helm, Manfred; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline conducting, ca. 250 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) films grown on SiO 2 /Si substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering, have been implanted with 1 and 5 at.% of Mn, followed by annealing in nitrogen or in vacuum. The effect of the post-growth treatment on the structural, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties has been studied. The roughness of implanted films ranges between 3 and 15 nm and XRD measurements revealed a polycrystalline structure. A positive MR has been observed for Mn-implanted and post-annealed ITO and IO films. It has been interpreted by considering s-d exchange. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to prove the existence of midgap electronic states in the Mn-implanted ITO and IO films reducing the transmittance below 80%.

  17. Concerted Electrodeposition and Alloying of Antimony on Indium Electrodes for Selective Formation of Crystalline Indium Antimonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, Eli; Rafson, Jessica; Lancaster, Mitchell; Maldonado, Stephen

    2017-09-19

    The direct preparation of crystalline indium antimonide (InSb) by the electrodeposition of antimony (Sb) onto indium (In) working electrodes has been demonstrated. When Sb is electrodeposited from dilute aqueous electrolytes containing dissolved Sb 2 O 3 , an alloying reaction is possible between Sb and In if any surface oxide films are first thoroughly removed from the electrode. The presented Raman spectra detail the interplay between the formation of crystalline InSb and the accumulation of Sb as either amorphous or crystalline aggregates on the electrode surface as a function of time, temperature, potential, and electrolyte composition. Electron and optical microscopies confirm that under a range of conditions, the preparation of a uniform and phase-pure InSb film is possible. The cumulative results highlight this methodology as a simple yet potent strategy for the synthesis of intermetallic compounds of interest.

  18. Essential role of transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) in a model of acute cold-induced urinary urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvin, Pieter; Franken, Jan; Pinto, Silvia; Rietjens, Roma; Grammet, Luc; Deruyver, Yves; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Talavera, Karel; Vennekens, Rudi; Everaerts, Wouter; De Ridder, Dirk; Voets, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Acute exposure of part of the skin to cold stimuli can evoke urinary urgency, a phenomenon termed acute cold-induced urgency (ACIU). Despite its high prevalence, particularly in patients with overactive bladder, little is known about the mechanisms that induce ACIU. To develop an animal model of ACIU and test the involvement of cold-activated ion channels transient receptor potential (TRP) M8 and TRPA1. Intravesical pressure and micturition were monitored in female mice (wild-type C57BL/6J, Trpa1(-/-), Trpm8(+/+), and Trpm8(-/-)) and Sprague Dawley rats. An intravesical catheter was implanted. Localized cooling of the skin was achieved using a stream of air or topical acetone. The TRPM8 antagonist (N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-{[(3-methylphenyl) methyl]oxy}-N-(2-thienylmethyl)benzamide (AMTB) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally. Frequencies of bladder contractions and voids in response to sensory stimuli were compared using the Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis test. Brief, innocuously cold stimuli applied to different parts of the skin evoked rapid bladder contractions and voids in anesthetized mice and rats. These responses were strongly attenuated in Trpm8(-/-) mice and in rats treated with AMTB. As rodent bladder physiology differs from that of humans, it is difficult to directly extrapolate our findings to human patients. Our findings indicate that ACIU is an evolutionarily conserved reflex rather than subconscious conditioning, and provide a useful in vivo model for further investigation of the underlying mechanisms. Pharmacological inhibition of TRPM8 may be useful for treating ACIU symptoms in patients. Brief cold stimuli applied to the skin can evoke a sudden desire to urinate, which can be highly bothersome in patients with overactive bladder. We developed an animal model to study this phenomenon, and found that it depends on a specific molecular cold sensor, transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8). Pharmacological inhibition of TRPM8 may alleviate acute cold

  19. The Gaia-ESO Survey: dynamics of ionized and neutral gas in the Lagoon nebula (M 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, F.; Bonito, R.; Prisinzano, L.; Zwitter, T.; Bayo, A.; Kalari, V.; Jiménez-Esteban, F. M.; Costado, M. T.; Jofré, P.; Randich, S.; Flaccomio, E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Lardo, C.; Morbidelli, L.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: We present a spectroscopic study of the dynamics of the ionized and neutral gas throughout the Lagoon nebula (M 8), using VLT-FLAMES data from the Gaia-ESO Survey. The new data permit exploration of the physical connections between the nebular gas and the stellar population of the associated star cluster NGC 6530. Methods: We characterized through spectral fitting emission lines of Hα, [N II] and [S II] doublets, [O III], and absorption lines of sodium D doublet, using data from the FLAMES-Giraffe and UVES spectrographs, on more than 1000 sightlines toward the entire face of the Lagoon nebula. Gas temperatures are derived from line-width comparisons, densities from the [S II] doublet ratio, and ionization parameter from Hα/[N II] ratio. Although doubly-peaked emission profiles are rarely found, line asymmetries often imply multiple velocity components along the same line of sight. This is especially true for the sodium absorption, and for the [O III] lines. Results: Spatial maps for density and ionization are derived, and compared to other known properties of the nebula and of its massive stars 9 Sgr, Herschel 36 and HD 165052 which are confirmed to provide most of the ionizing flux. The detailed velocity fields across the nebula show several expanding shells, related to the cluster NGC 6530, the O stars 9 Sgr and Herschel 36, and the massive protostar M 8East-IR. The origins of kinematical expansion and ionization of the NGC 6530 shell appear to be different. We are able to put constrains on the line-of-sight (relative or absolute) distances between some of these objects and the molecular cloud. The data show that the large obscuring band running through the middle of the nebula is being compressed by both sides, which might explain its enhanced density. We also find an unexplained large-scale velocity gradient across the entire nebula. At larger distances, the transition from ionized to neutral gas is studied using the sodium lines. Based on observations

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of indium with chromazurol S and dimethyllaurylbenzylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapulinska, G.; Buhl, F.

    1988-01-01

    The ternary system: indium-chromazurol S (CHAS)-dimethyllaurylbenzylammonium bromide (ST) was applied for determination of microgramme amounts of indium. The addition of ST enhances the sensitivity of the method; at λ max =625 nm the molar absorptivity of In-CHAS-ST complex equals 1.74 x 10 5 . The system obeyes the Lambert-Beer law in the range of indium concentration from 0.04 to 0.48 ppm. The maximal absorbance was obtained at pH 6. The complex is formed immediately and is stable during 2 hours. 3 figs., 10 refs. (author)

  1. Seismogenic ionospheric anomalies associated with the strong Indonesian earthquake occurred on 11 April 2012 (M = 8.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Uma; Singh, Ashutosh K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with a major earthquake (EQ) (M = 8.5) which occurred in India-Oceania region are investigated by monitoring subionospheric propagation of VLF signals transmitted from the NWC transmitter (F = 19.8 kHz), Australia to a receiving station at Varanasi (geographic lat. 25.3°N, long 82.99°E), India. The EQ occurred on 11 April 2012 at 08:38:35 h UT (magnitude ≈ 8.5, depth = 10 km, and lat. = 2.3°N, long. = 93.0°E). A significant increase of few days before the EQ has been observed by using the VLF nighttime amplitude fluctuation method (fixed frequency transmitter signal). The analysis of total electron contents (TEC) derived from the global positioning system (GPS) at three different stations namely, Hyderabad (latitude 17.38°N, longitude 78.48°E), Singapore (latitude 1.37°N, longitude 103.84°E) and Port Blair (latitude 11.62°N, longitude 92.72°E) due to this EQ has also been presented. Significant perturbation in TEC data (enhancements and depletion) is noted before and after the main shock of the EQ. The possible mechanisms behind these perturbations due to EQ have also been discussed.

  2. Optical properties of indium nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagaj, V.A.; Evstigneev, A.M.; Krasiko, A.N.; Andreeva, A.F.; Malakhov, V.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    Reflection and transmission spectra of heavily doped indium nitride are studied at lambda=0.5-5 μm. Dispersion of the refractive index near the plasma resonance frequency, h.f. dielectric constant (epsilonsub(infinity)=9.3), and extinction coefficient near the transmission maximum of films have been determined from the analysis of interference pattern. The reflection spectrum exhibits maximum in the infrared range and optical effective mass is found through its position (msub(opt)*=0.11msub(0)). Free carrier absorption coefficient is shown to vary according to the law K approximately lambdasup(2.9+-0.1) which is characteristic of electron scattering by charged impurities. The analysis of absorption spectra near the threshold of interband transitions has lead to the conclusion that free carriers are localized in the lateral extremum of conduction band (or out of the center of the Brillouin zone), therefore the Burstein-Moss effect is absent

  3. Band structure dynamics in indium wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Krause, R.; Aeschlimann, S.; Gierz, I.

    2018-05-01

    One-dimensional indium wires grown on Si(111) substrates, which are metallic at high temperatures, become insulating below ˜100 K due to the formation of a charge density wave (CDW). The physics of this transition is not conventional and involves a multiband Peierls instability with strong interband coupling. This CDW ground state is readily destroyed with femtosecond laser pulses resulting in a light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition. The current understanding of this transition remains incomplete, requiring measurements of the transient electronic structure to complement previous investigations of the lattice dynamics. Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with extreme ultraviolet radiation is applied to this end. We find that the transition from the insulating to the metallic band structure occurs within ˜660 fs, which is a fraction of the amplitude mode period. The long lifetime of the transient state (>100 ps) is attributed to trapping in a metastable state in accordance with previous work.

  4. Indium antimonide based HEMT for RF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subash, T. D.; Gnanasekaran, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report on an indium antimonide high electron mobility transistor with record cut-off frequency characteristics. For high frequency response it is important to minimize parasitic resistance and capacitance to improve short-channel effects. For analog applications adequate pinch-off behavior is demonstrated. For proper device scaling we need high electron mobility and high electron density. Toward this end, the device design features and simulation are carried out by the Synopsys TCAD tool. A 30 nm InSb HEMT exhibits an excellent cut-off frequency of 586 GHz. To the knowledge of the authors, the obtained cut-off frequency is the highest ever reported in any FET on any material system. (semiconductor materials)

  5. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in mammals, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Sofia; Smith, Nick G C

    2005-11-10

    Adaptive evolution appears to be a common feature of reproductive proteins across a very wide range of organisms. A promising way of addressing the evolutionary forces responsible for this general phenomenon is to test for adaptive evolution in the same gene but among groups of species, which differ in their reproductive biology. One can then test evolutionary hypotheses by asking whether the variation in adaptive evolution is consistent with the variation in reproductive biology. We have attempted to apply this approach to the study of a female reproductive protein, zona pellucida C (ZPC), which has been previously shown by the use of likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) to be under positive selection in mammals. We tested for evidence of adaptive evolution of ZPC in 15 mammalian species, in 11 avian species and in six fish species using three different LRTs (M1a-M2a, M7-M8, and M8a-M8). The only significant findings of adaptive evolution came from the M7-M8 test in mammals and fishes. Since LRTs of adaptive evolution may yield false positives in some situations, we examined the properties of the LRTs by several different simulation methods. When we simulated data to test the robustness of the LRTs, we found that the pattern of evolution in ZPC generates an excess of false positives for the M7-M8 LRT but not for the M1a-M2a or M8a-M8 LRTs. This bias is strong enough to have generated the significant M7-M8 results for mammals and fishes. We conclude that there is no strong evidence for adaptive evolution of ZPC in any of the vertebrate groups we studied, and that the M7-M8 LRT can be biased towards false inference of adaptive evolution by certain patterns of non-adaptive evolution.

  6. Studies on preparation and characterization of indium doped zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The preparation of indium doped zinc oxide films is discussed. ... XRD studies have shown a change in preferential orientation from (002) to .... at grain boundaries in the form of In(OH)3, hindering the .... Angular substrate to nozzle distance.

  7. Indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, A.; Moisan, A.; Heresbach, D.; Darnault, P.; Bretagne, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper reports our experience since 1963 concerning 111-indium labeled autologous granulocytes scanning in the assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases and in the assessment of activity in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (authors). 94 refs., 3 figs

  8. Amperometric titration of indium with edta solution in propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A.M.; Talipov, Sh.T.; Khadeev, V.A.; Kostylev, V.S.; Khadeeva, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Optimum conditions have been chosen for titration of indium with EDTA solution in anhydrous propanol and its mixtures with some aprotic solvents using amperometric and point detection. A procedure is suggested of determining indium microcontents in the presence of large amounts of other elements. The procedure is based on its extraction preseparation followed by direct titration in the extract with a standard EDTA solution [ru

  9. Template synthesis of indium nanowires using anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Kitai, Adrian H

    2008-09-01

    Indium nanowires with diameters approximately 300 nm have been synthesized by a hydraulic pressure technique using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The indium melt is injected into the AAO template and solidified to form nanostructures. The nanowires are dense, continuous and uniformly run through the entire approximately 60 microm thickness of the AAO template. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the nanowires are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation. SEM is performed to characterize the morphology of the nanowires.

  10. An advanced case of indium lung disease with progressive emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Kumazoe, Hiroyuki; Wakamatsu, Kentaro; Kamada, Dan; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-09-30

    To report the occurrence of an advanced case of indium lung disease with severely progressive emphysema in an indium-exposed worker. A healthy 42-year-old male smoker was employed to primarily grind indium-tin oxide (ITO) target plates, exposing him to indium for 9 years (1998-2008). In 2004, an epidemiological study was conducted on indium-exposed workers at the factory in which he worked. The subject's serum indium concentration (In-S) was 99.7 μg/l, while his serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 level was 2,350 U/ml. Pulmonary function tests showed forced vital capacity (FVC) of 4.17 l (91.5% of the JRS predicted value), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) of 3.19 l (80.8% of predicted), and an FEV 1 -to-FVC ratio of 76.5%. A high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT) scan showed mild interlobular septal thickening and mild emphysematous changes. In 2008, he was transferred from the ITO grinding workplace to an inspection work section, where indium concentrations in total dusts had a range of 0.001-0.002 mg/m 3 . In 2009, the subject's In-S had increased to 132.1 μg/l, and pulmonary function tests revealed obstructive changes. In addition, HRCT scan showed clear evidence of progressive lung destruction with accompanying severe centrilobular emphysema and interlobular septal thickening in both lung fields. The subject's condition gradually worsened, and in 2015, he was registered with the Japan Organ Transplant Network for lung transplantation (LTx). Heavy indium exposure is a risk factor for emphysema, which can lead to a severity level that requires LTx as the final therapeutic option.

  11. Photoluminescence of monovalent indium centres in phosphate glass

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, Hirokazu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Shun; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Ina, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Valence control of polyvalent cations is important for functionalization of various kinds of materials. Indium oxides have been used in various applications, such as indium tin oxide in transparent electrical conduction films. However, although metastable In+ (5 s2 configuration) species exhibit photoluminescence (PL), they have attracted little attention. Valence control of In+ cations in these materials will be important for further functionalization. Here, we describe In+ species using PL ...

  12. Study on indium leaching from mechanically activated hard zinc residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes in physicochemical properties and leachability of indium from mechanically activated hard zinc residue by planetary mill were investigated. The results showed that mechanical activation increased specific surface area, reaction activity of hard zinc residue, and decreased its particle size, which had a positive effect on indium extraction from hard zinc residue in hydrochloric acid solution. Kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled and activated hard zinc residue were also investigated, respectively. It was found that temperature had an obvious effect on indium leaching rate. Two different kinetic models corresponding to reactions which are diffusion controlled, [1-(1- x1/3]2=kt and (1-2x/3-(1-x2/3=kt were used to describe the kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled sample and activated sample, respectively. Their activation energies were determined to be 17.89 kJ/mol (umilled and 11.65 kJ/mol (activated within the temperature range of 30°C to 90°C, which is characteristic for a diffusion controlled process. The values of activation energy demonstrated that the leaching reaction of indium became less sensitive to temperature after hard zinc residue mechanically activated by planetary mill.

  13. Indium-111 octreotide uptake in the surgical scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degirmenci, B.; Bekis, R.; Durak, H.; Derebeck, E. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sen, M. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1999-07-01

    Indium-111 octreotide uptake has been reported in various somatostatin receptor positive tumors, granulomas and autoimmune diseases in which activated leucocytes may play a role, subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma and angiofibroma. We present Indium-111 octreotide uptake in a surgical abdominal scar tissue 1.5 to 6 months after surgery in a patient who had been treated for recurrent carcinoid tumor in the rectosigmoid junction. Indium-111 octreotide uptake in a surgical scar may be related to the binding to somatostatin receptors in the activated lymphocytes and fibroblasts that is previously reported. (orig.) [German] In verschiedenen Somatostatinrezeptor-positiven Tumoren, Granulomen, bei Autoimmunerkrankungen, in denen aktivierte Leukozyten eine Rolle spielen, subcutanen kavernoesen Hammangiomen und Angiofibromen wurde ueber die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid berichtet. Wir berichten ueber die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid in einer chirurgischen Narbe ueber dem Abdomen nach 1,5 und 6 Monaten bei einem Patienten mit einem Rezidiv-Karzinoid im rektosigmoidalen Uebergang. Die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid in chirurgischen Narbengewebe koennte in Zusammenhang stehen mit einer Bindung an Somatostationrezeptoren in aktivierten Lymphozyten und Fibroblasten, ueber die schon berichtet wurde. (orig.)

  14. PHARMACOKINETICS AND SCINTIGRAPHY OF INDIUM-111-DTPA-MOC-31 IN SMALL-CELL LUNG-CARCINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOSTERINK, JGW; DEJONGE, MWA; SMIT, EF; PIERS, DA; KENGEN, RAM; POSTMUS, PE; SHOCHAT, D; GROEN, HJM; THE, HT; DELEIJ, L

    1995-01-01

    Radiolabeled MOC-31 retains its immunoreactivity and shows good in vivo immunolocalization to human SCLC xenografted in nude rats. Methods: We evaluated the immunotargeting properties and safety of In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) MOC-31 (125 MBq, 5 mg) in six patients with histologically

  15. Preliminary Report Summarizes Tsunami Impacts and Lessons Learned from the September 7, 2017, M8.1 Tehuantepec Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Dengler, L. A.; Miller, K.; LaDuke, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The preliminary tsunami impacts from the September 7, 2017, M8.1 Tehuantepec Earthquake have been summarized in the following report: https://www.eeri.org/wp-content/uploads/EERI-Recon-Rpt-090717-Mexico-tsunami_fn.pdf. Although the tsunami impacts were not as significant as those from the earthquake itself (98 fatalities and 41,000 homes damaged), the following are highlights and lessons learned: The Tehuantepec earthquake was one of the largest down-slab normal faulting events ever recorded. This situation complicated the tsunami forecast since forecast methods and pre-event modeling are primarily associated with megathrust earthquakes where the most significant tsunamis are generated. Adding non-megathrust source modeling to the tsunami forecast databases of conventional warning systems should be considered. Offshore seismic and tsunami hazard analyses using past events should incorporate the potential for large earthquakes occurring along sources other than the megathrust boundary. From an engineering perspective, initial reports indicate there was only minor tsunami damage along the Mexico coast. There was damage to Marina Chiapas where floating docks overtopped their piles. Increasing pile heights could reduce the potential for damage to floating docks. Tsunami warning notifications did not get to the public in time to assist with evacuation. Streamlining the messaging in Mexico from the warning system directly to the public should be considered. And, for local events, preparedness efforts should place emphasis on responding to feeling the earthquake and not waiting to be notified. Although the U.S. tsunami warning centers were timely with their international and domestic messaging, there were some issues with how those messages were presented and interpreted. The use of a "Tsunami Threat" banner on the new main warning center website created confusion with emergency managers in the U.S. where no tsunami threat was expected to exist. Also, some U.S. states and

  16. DETERMINING HEATING RATES IN RECONNECTION FORMED FLARE LOOPS OF THE M8.0 FLARE ON 2005 MAY 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenjuan; Qiu Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Caspi, Amir [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We analyze and model an M8.0 flare on 2005 May 13 observed by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to determine the energy release rate from magnetic reconnection that forms and heats numerous flare loops. The flare exhibits two ribbons in UV 1600 A emission. Analysis shows that the UV light curve at each flaring pixel rises impulsively within a few minutes, and decays slowly with a timescale longer than 10 minutes. Since the lower atmosphere (the transition region and chromosphere) responds to energy deposit nearly instantaneously, the rapid UV brightening is thought to reflect the energy release process in the newly formed flare loop rooted at the footpoint. In this paper, we utilize the spatially resolved (down to 1'') UV light curves and the thick-target hard X-ray emission to construct heating functions of a few thousand flare loops anchored at the UV footpoints, and compute plasma evolution in these loops using the enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops model. The modeled coronal temperatures and densities of these flare loops are then used to calculate coronal radiation. The computed soft X-ray spectra and light curves compare favorably with those observed by RHESSI and by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite X-ray Sensor. The time-dependent transition region differential emission measure for each loop during its decay phase is also computed with a simplified model and used to calculate the optically thin C IV line emission, which dominates the UV 1600 A bandpass during the flare. The computed C IV line emission decays at the same rate as observed. This study presents a method to constrain heating of reconnection-formed flare loops using all available observables independently, and provides insight into the physics of energy release and plasma heating during the flare. With this method, the lower limit of the total energy used to heat the flare loops in

  17. DX centers in indium aluminum arsenide heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Huseyin

    DX centers are point defects observed in many n-type doped III-V compound semi conductors. They have unique properties, which include large differences between their optical and thermal ionization energies, and a temperature dependence of the capture cross-sections. As a result of these properties DX centers exhibit a reduction in free carrier concentration and a large persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect. DX centers also lead to a shift in the threshold voltage of modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFET) structures, at low temperatures. Most of the studies on this defect have been carried out on the Ga xAl1-xAs material system. However, to date there is significantly less work on DX centers in InxAl1-xAs compounds. This is partly due to difficulties associated with the growth of defect free materials other than lattice matched In0.52Al 0.48As on InP and partly because the energy level of the DX center is in resonance with the conduction band in In0.52Al0.48As. The purpose of this dissertation is to extend the DX center investigation to InAlAs compounds, primarily in the indirect portion of the InAlAs bandgap. In this work the indium composition dependence of the DX centers in In xAl1-xAs/InyGa1-yAs-based heterostructure is studied experimentally. Different InxAl 1-xAs epitaxial layers with x = 0.10, x = 0.15, x = 0.20, and x = 0.34 in a MODFET-like heterostructure were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on (001) GaAs substrates. In order to compensate the lattice mismatch between epitaxial layers and their substrates, step-graded buffer layers with indium composition increments of x = 0.10, every 2000 A, were used. For the samples grown with different indium contents Hall measurements as a function of both temperature and different cooling biases were performed in order to determine their carrier concentrations. A self consistent Poisson-Schrodinger numerical software is used to model the heterostructures. With the help of this numerical model

  18. Work function of oxygen exposed lead and lead/indium alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, K.H.; Hellemann, H.P.; Hoelzl, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of indium in superconducting tunnel junctions with lead/indium alloy base electrodes is investigated by measuring the vacuum work function of lead, indium, and lead/indium alloy films. It is found that the anomalous decrease of the work function of lead upon exposure to oxygen, explained by the penetration of oxygen into the inner surface of the lead film, is reversed into a slight increase in work function when some indium is added to the lead. This result indicates that the addition of indium provides a protection by suppressing the penetration of oxygen (and probably other gases) into the interior of the thin film

  19. Nanoscratch characterization of indium nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Derming [Chin-Yi Univ. of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2014-01-15

    In this study we used RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy for the epitaxial growth of single-crystalline indium nitride (InN) thin films on aluminum nitride buffer layers/Si (111) substrates. We then used scratch techniques to study the influence of the c-axis orientation of the InN films and the beam interactions on the tribological performance of these samples. When grown at 440, 470, and 500 C, the coefficients of friction were 0.18, 0.22, and 0.26, respectively, under a normal force (F{sub n}) of 2000 {mu}N; 0.19, 0.23, and 0.27, respectively, under a value of Fn of 4000 {mu}N; and 0.21, 0.24, and 0.28, respectively, under a value of F{sub n} of 6000 {mu}N. These measured values increased slightly upon increasing the growth temperature because of the resulting smaller sizes of the apertures and/or pores in the inner films. The sliding resistance of the ploughed area was observed. The contact sliding line became increasingly noticeable upon increasing the value of F{sub n}; the plot of the friction with respect to the penetration depth revealed a significant relation in its adhesion properties presentation. (orig.)

  20. Fabrication challenges for indium phosphide microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwak, N P; Fan, X Z; Ghodssi, R

    2015-01-01

    From the inception of III–V microsystems, monolithically integrated device designs have been the motivating drive for this field, bringing together the utility of single-chip microsystems and conventional fabrication techniques. Indium phosphide (InP) has a particular advantage of having a direct bandgap within the low loss telecommunication wavelength (1550 nm) range, able to support passive waveguiding and optical amplification, detection, and generation depending on the exact alloy of In, P, As, Ga, or Al materials. Utilizing epitaxy, one can envision the growth of a substrate that contains all of the components needed to establish a single-chip optical microsystem, containing detectors, sources, waveguides, and mechanical structures. A monolithic InP MEMS system has, to our knowledge, yet to be realized due to the significant difficulties encountered when fabricating the integrated devices. In this paper we present our own research and consolidate findings from other research groups across the world to give deeper insight into the practical aspects of InP monolithic microsystem development: epitaxial growth of InP-based alloys, etching techniques, common MEMS structures realized in InP, and future applications. We pay special attention to shedding light on considerations that must be taken when designing and fabricating a monolithic InP MEMS device. (topical review)

  1. Synthesis and photophysical properties of indium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özceşmeci, İbrahim, E-mail: ozcesmecii@itu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Gelir, Ali [Department of Physics, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Gül, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Three chloroindium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives bearing four aromatic (naphthalene or pyrene) or aliphatic (hexylthio) groups were prepared from corresponding phthalonitrile compounds. The indium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives were characterized with elemental analyses, mass, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) techniques. Quantum yields and the energy transfer from the substituents to phthalocyanine core were examined. No energy transfer was observed for 5. The energy transfer efficiency from pyrene units to indium phthalocyanine core was calculated as 0.27 for 6. Quantum yields of all samples were very small due to heavy atom effect of indium atom in the core. It was also observed that upon binding of pyrene and naphthalene units to indium phthalocyanine as substituents, the quantum yields of indium phthalocyanine parts of 5 and 6 decreased. -- Highlights: • Three chloroindium(III) phthalocyanines were prepared and characterized. • Aggregation properties of these compounds were investigated. • The energy transfer efficiency was examined. • Quantum yield of these systems were calculated.

  2. Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1984-03-13

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  3. TEM EDS analysis of epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Sears

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxially-grown self-assembled indium nanostructures, or islands, show promise as nanoantennas. The elemental composition and internal structure of indium islands grown on gallium arsenide are explored using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. Several sizes of islands are examined, with larger islands exhibiting high (>94% average indium purity and smaller islands containing inhomogeneous gallium and arsenic contamination. These results enable more accurate predictions of indium nanoantenna behavior as a function of growth parameters.

  4. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Biswal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10−3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%–70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002 to (101 planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered.

  5. Influence of nitrogen on magnetic properties of indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Vishal Dev; De, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic properties of indium oxide (In2O3) prepared by the decomposition of indium nitrate/indium hydroxide in the presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) has been investigated. Structural and optical characterizations confirm that nitrogen is incorporated into In2O3. Magnetization has been convoluted to individual diamagnetic paramagnetic and ferromagnetic contributions with varying concentration of NH4Cl. Spin wave with diverging thermal exponent dominates in both field cool and zero field cool magnetizations. Uniaxial anisotropy plays an important role in magnetization as a function of magnetic field at higher concentration of NH4Cl. Avrami analysis indicates the absence of pinning effect in the magnetization process. Ferromagnetism has been interpreted in terms of local moments induced by anion dopant and strong hybridization with host cation.

  6. Influence of nitrogen on magnetic properties of indium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, Vishal Dev; De, S K

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic properties of indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) prepared by the decomposition of indium nitrate/indium hydroxide in the presence of ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) has been investigated. Structural and optical characterizations confirm that nitrogen is incorporated into In 2 O 3 . Magnetization has been convoluted to individual diamagnetic paramagnetic and ferromagnetic contributions with varying concentration of NH 4 Cl. Spin wave with diverging thermal exponent dominates in both field cool and zero field cool magnetizations. Uniaxial anisotropy plays an important role in magnetization as a function of magnetic field at higher concentration of NH 4 Cl. Avrami analysis indicates the absence of pinning effect in the magnetization process. Ferromagnetism has been interpreted in terms of local moments induced by anion dopant and strong hybridization with host cation. (paper)

  7. Indium oxide inverse opal films synthesized by structure replication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrehn, Sabrina; Berghoff, Daniel; Nikitin, Andreas; Reichelt, Matthias; Wu, Xia; Meier, Torsten; Wagner, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    We present the synthesis of indium oxide (In2O3) inverse opal films with photonic stop bands in the visible range by a structure replication method. Artificial opal films made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spheres are utilized as template. The opal films are deposited via sedimentation facilitated by ultrasonication, and then impregnated by indium nitrate solution, which is thermally converted to In2O3 after drying. The quality of the resulting inverse opal film depends on many parameters; in this study the water content of the indium nitrate/PMMA composite after drying is investigated. Comparison of the reflectance spectra recorded by vis-spectroscopy with simulated data shows a good agreement between the peak position and calculated stop band positions for the inverse opals. This synthesis is less complex and highly efficient compared to most other techniques and is suitable for use in many applications.

  8. Thermal expansion and volumetric changes during indium phosphide melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Davletov, K.; Nashel'skij, A.Ya.; Mamedov, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the measurements of a thermal expansion were summed up at various temperatures as a diagram in coordinates (Δ 1/1) approximately F(t). It was shown that an appreciable deviation of the relationship (Δ1/1) approximately f(t) from the linear law corresponded to a temperature of 500-550 deg C. It was noted that the said deviation was related to an appreciable thermal decomposition of indium phosphide as temperature increased. The strength of the inter-atomic bond of indium phosphide was calculated. Investigated were the volumetric changes of indium phosphide on melting. The resultant data were analyzed with the aid of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation

  9. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  10. Recalibration of indium foil for personnel screening in criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, C; Tsujimura, N; Mikami, S

    2011-03-01

    At the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), small pieces of indium foil incorporated into personal dosemeters have been used for personnel screening in criticality accidents. Irradiation tests of the badges were performed using the SILENE reactor to verify the calibration of the indium activation that had been made in the 1980s and to recalibrate them for simulated criticalities that would be the most likely to occur in the solution process line. In addition, Monte Carlo calculations of the indium activation using the badge model were also made to complement the spectral dependence. The results lead to a screening level of 15 kcpm being determined that corresponds to a total dose of 0.25 Gy, which is also applicable in posterior-anterior exposure. The recalibration based on the latest study will provide a sounder basis for the screening procedure in the event of a criticality accident.

  11. Review of pulmonary toxicity of indium compounds to animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Shiratani, Masaharu; Koga, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increased production of ITO, the potential health hazards arising from occupational exposure to this material have attracted much attention. This review consists of three parts: 1) toxic effects of indium compounds on animals, 2) toxic effects of indium compounds on humans, and 3) recommendations for preventing exposure to indium compounds in the workplace. Available data have indicated that insoluble form of indium compounds, such as ITO, indium arsenide (InAs) and indium phosphide (InP), can be toxic to animals. Furthermore, InP has demonstrated clear evidence of carcinogenic potential in long-term inhalation studies using experimental animals. As for the dangers to humans, some data are available concerning adverse health effects to workers who have been exposed to indium-containing particles. The Japan Society for Occupational Health recommended the value of 3 μg/L of indium in serum as the occupational exposure limit based on biological monitoring to preventing adverse health effects in workers resulting from occupational exposure to indium compounds. Accordingly, it is essential that much greater attention is focused on human exposure to indium compounds, and precautions against possible exposure to indium compounds are most important with regard to health management among indium-handling workers.

  12. The Availability of Indium: The Present, Medium Term, and Long Term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokanc, Martin [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Eggert, Roderick [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Redlinger, Michael [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Demand for indium is likely to increase if the growth in deployment of the copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) and III-V thin-film photovoltaic technologies accelerates. There are concerns about indium supply constraints since it is relatively rare element in the earth's crust and because it is produced exclusively as a byproduct.

  13. Electronic and chemical properties of barium and indium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onwuagba, B.N.

    1992-11-01

    The ground state electronic and chemical properties of divalent barium and trivalent indium are investigated in a self-consistent manner using the spin-polarized local density approximation in the framework of Density Functional Theory. A jellium model is adopted in the spirit of Gunnarsson and Lundqvist exchange and correlation energies and the calculated properties primarily associated with the s-p orbitals in barium and p orbitals in indium provide deepened insight towards the understanding of the mechanisms to the magic numbers in both clusters. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs

  14. Activation analysis of indium used as tracer in hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, S.P.; Farcasiu, O.M.; Gaspar, E.; Spiridon, S.; Nazarov, V.M.; Frontasieva, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    About 2500 samples of 18 hydro-karstic structures from Romania have been analyzed. The water flow rates were in the range of 0.05 to 2.7 m 3 /s and transit time values were from 30 h to 200 days. The quantity of indium used for a labelling was a calculated function of the emergency flow rate and the estimated transit time and varied from 1 to 100 g. The results prove that the activation analysis of indium in water samples combined with preconcentration by coprecipitation is an useful method in hydrogeological studies

  15. Stability aspects of hydrogen-doped indium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, Gabrielle; Hamri, Alexander Nordin; Köhler, Florian; Hüpkes, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxides play an important role as contact layers in various opto-electronic devices such as solar cells or LEDs. Whilst crystalline materials e.g. zinc oxide (ZnO), tin oxide (Sn2O3) or tin doped indium oxide (ITO) have already been vastly investigated and applied [1] hydrogen doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) entered the scene a while ago as a new material with a superior trade-off between electrical and optical performance. In2O3:H is commonly deposited at room temperature...

  16. Discovery of the calcium, indium, tin, and platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Gross, J.L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-four calcium, thirty-eight indium, thirty-eight tin, and thirty-nine platinum isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented. - Highlights: Documentation of the discovery of all calcium, indium, tin and platinum isotopes. → Summary of author, journal, year, place and country of discovery for each isotope. → Brief description of discovery history of each isotope.

  17. Interaction of indium trichloride with calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Toptygina, G.M.; Soklakova, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    Interaction of indium trichloride with calcium carbonate in aqueous solutions was studied, using methods of potentiometry, isothermal solubility and physicochemical computer simulating. The Gibb's energy value for crystal indium trihydroxide formation was calculated on the basis of experimental data on In(OH) 3 solubility. The value obtained was used for estimating equilibrium composition of InCl 3 -HCl-CaCO 3 -CO 2 -H 2 O system at a temperature of 25 deg C and carbon dioxide partial pressure of 0.05 to 1 at

  18. Deep subgap feature in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Evidence against reduced indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallis, Shawn; Williams, Deborah S.; Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Senger, Mikell; Woicik, Joseph C.; White, Bruce E.; Piper, Louis F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is the archetypal transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor. Despite the gains made with a-IGZO over amorphous silicon in the last decade, the presence of deep subgap states in a-IGZO active layers facilitate instabilities in thin film transistor properties under negative bias illumination stress. Several candidates could contribute to the formation of states within the band gap. Here, we present evidence against In + lone pair active electrons as the origin of the deep subgap features. No In + species are observed, only In 0 nano-crystallites under certain oxygen deficient growth conditions. Our results further support under coordinated oxygen as the source of the deep subgap states. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Deep subgap feature in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Evidence against reduced indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallis, Shawn; Williams, Deborah S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States); Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Senger, Mikell [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States); Woicik, Joseph C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20899 (United States); White, Bruce E.; Piper, Louis F.J. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States); Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, 13902 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is the archetypal transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor. Despite the gains made with a-IGZO over amorphous silicon in the last decade, the presence of deep subgap states in a-IGZO active layers facilitate instabilities in thin film transistor properties under negative bias illumination stress. Several candidates could contribute to the formation of states within the band gap. Here, we present evidence against In{sup +} lone pair active electrons as the origin of the deep subgap features. No In{sup +} species are observed, only In{sup 0} nano-crystallites under certain oxygen deficient growth conditions. Our results further support under coordinated oxygen as the source of the deep subgap states. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetkova, N.V.; Bayandina, Yu.E.; Toptygina, G.M.; Shepot'ko, A.O.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In 2 S 3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  1. (111)Indium Labelling of Recombinant Activated Coagulation Factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Buch, Inge; Sigvardt, Maibritt

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether (111)Indium-labelled recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa) could be a potential radiopharmaceutical for localization of bleeding sources. DTPA-conjugated rFVIIa was radiolabelled with (111)In chloride. In vitro binding efficiency of (111)In-DTPA-rFVIIa to F1A2...

  2. Diffuse pulmonary uptake of indium-111 chloride in idiopathic myelofibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieras, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Mora, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Unusual indium-111 accumulation and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the lungs of a patient with idiopathic myelofibrosis are described. The bone marrow scan taken 24 h after intravenous injection of 111 InCl 3 faithfully depicted the abnormal distribution of marrow elements as assessed histologically at autopsy, thereby supporting the usefulness of 111 InCl 3 for marrow imaging

  3. Synthesis and characterization of five-coordinated indium amidinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riahi, Yasaman

    2016-07-29

    The focus of this work is synthesis, characterization and exploring the reactivity of new indium amidinate compounds of the type R{sub 2}InX (R = R''NCR'NR''; R' = Ph, R'' = SiMe{sub 3}, iPr, dipp; X = Br, Cl) with the coordination number of five and R{sub 3}In (R = Me{sub 3}SiNCPhNSiMe{sub 3}) with the coordination number of six. By using amidinates as chelating ligands the electron deficiency of indium atom will be resolved. Additionally, by using different substituents the study of the different synthesized indium amidinates has become possible. The selected method for the synthesis allows the carbodiimides to react with organolithium compounds to get the corresponding lithium amidinates. Afterwards the resulting lithium amidinates take part in transmetalation reactions with InBr{sub 3} and InCl{sub 3}. The study of the reactivity of indium amidinate complexes including nucleophilic reactions as well as their reduction were also examined. Beside crystal structure analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis has been applied to characterize the compounds.

  4. Electron emission from individual indium arsenide semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, E.C.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Roest, A.L.; Kaiser, M.A.; Oosterkamp, T.H.; Jonge, de N.

    2007-01-01

    A procedure was developed to mount individual semiconductor indium arsenide nanowires onto tungsten support tips to serve as electron field-emission sources. The electron emission properties of the single nanowires were precisely determined by measuring the emission pattern, current-voltage curve,

  5. Acid-catalyzed kinetics of indium tin oxide etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Seong-Oh; Hilton, Diana L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Cho, Nam-Joon, E-mail: njcho@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    We report the kinetic characterization of indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching by chemical treatment in acidic and basic electrolytes. It was observed that film etching increased under more acidic conditions, whereas basic conditions led to minimal etching on the time scale of the experiments. Quartz crystal microbalance was employed in order to track the reaction kinetics as a function of the concentration of hydrochloric acid and accordingly solution pH. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy experiments determined that acid treatment increases surface hydrophilicity and porosity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments identified that film etching is primarily caused by dissolution of indium species. A kinetic model was developed to explain the acid-catalyzed dissolution of ITO surfaces, and showed a logarithmic relationship between the rate of dissolution and the concentration of undisassociated hydrochloric acid molecules. Taken together, the findings presented in this work verify the acid-catalyzed kinetics of ITO film dissolution by chemical treatment, and support that the corresponding chemical reactions should be accounted for in ITO film processing applications. - Highlights: • Acidic conditions promoted indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching via dissolution. • Logarithm of the dissolution rate depended linearly on the solution pH. • Acid treatment increased ITO surface hydrophilicity and porosity. • ITO film etching led to preferential dissolution of indium species over tin species.

  6. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  7. Indium 111 WBC scan in local and systemic fungal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haseman, M.K.; Blake, K.; McDougall, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    We describe two patients-one with a systemic fungal infection and one with a localized form-who had strikingly abnormal indium 111 leukocyte (WBC) scans. The patient with systemic disease had an abnormal WBC scan before lesions became clinically apparent

  8. Ellipsometric investigations of pyrolytically deposited thin indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, U.

    1980-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements have been carried out of thin indium oxide films deposited pyrolytically on glass substrates. It was found that the roughness of the films affected the measuring results. Therefore, only after applying a two-layer model a reasonable interpretation of the measuring results became possible

  9. Indium-111 oxine labelling of white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.P.; Silvester, D.J.; Goldman, J.; Hammersmith Hospital, London

    1978-01-01

    Following work done by Professor John McAfee and Mathew Thakur at the MRS Cyclotron Unit a method is available for labelling cells with indium-111 which results in a stable intracellular marker. The method uses indium-111-8 hydroxyquinoline (111In oxine) which is a lipoid soluble complex which goes across the cell membrane and results in the deposition of indium into various subcellular structures. It has been applied to various preparations of white cells, platelets and also malignant cells. Autologous granulocytes have been used to identify inflammatory lesions in 35 patients. By similar means autologous lymphocytes can also be labelled and reinfused. Lymphocytes have been shown in animals to circulate from the blood via the lymphatic system and then returning to the blood once more. The same phenomenon can be seen in man using indium labelled lymphocytes. Lymph nodes become visible at between 12 and 18 hours and recirculation of labelled cells can be shown on the blood activity curves. Certain problems arise concerning cell behaviour after labelling which appear due to irradiation of cells rather than chemical toxicity. (author)

  10. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-product carbon monoxide. The catalytic feature of palladium/indium oxide can be ascribed to the formation of palladium-indium intermetallic component during the reaction as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.

  11. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2M sulfuric acid at 80°C for 10min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85-90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50-55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO2 (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90kg CO2-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium. This new strategy represents a useful approach for secondary production of indium from waste LCD panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of and occupational exposure to indium in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Roberts, Jennifer L; Andrews, Ronnee N; Jackson, Matthew V; Deddens, James A

    2013-01-01

    Indium use has increased greatly in the past decade in parallel with the growth of flat-panel displays, touchscreens, optoelectronic devices, and photovoltaic cells. Much of this growth has been in the use of indium tin oxide (ITO). This increased use has resulted in more frequent and intense exposure of workers to indium. Starting with case reports and followed by epidemiological studies, exposure to ITO has been linked to serious and sometimes fatal lung disease in workers. Much of this research was conducted in facilities that process sintered ITO, including manufacture, grinding, and indium reclamation from waste material. Little has been known about indium exposure to workers in downstream applications. In 2009-2011, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) contacted 89 potential indium-using companies; 65 (73%) responded, and 43 of the 65 responders used an indium material. Our objective was to identify current workplace applications of indium materials, tasks with potential indium exposure, and exposure controls being used. Air sampling for indium was either conducted by NIOSH or companies provided their data for a total of 63 air samples (41 personal, 22 area) across 10 companies. Indium exposure exceeded the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.1 mg/m(3) for certain methods of resurfacing ITO sputter targets, cleaning sputter chamber interiors, and in manufacturing some inorganic indium compounds. Indium air concentrations were low in sputter target bonding with indium solder, backside thinning and polishing of fabricated indium phosphide-based semiconductor devices, metal alloy production, and in making indium-based solder pastes. Exposure controls such as containment, local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and tool-mounted LEV can be effective at reducing exposure. In conclusion, occupational hygienists should be aware that the manufacture and use of indium materials can result in indium air concentrations that exceed the NIOSH

  13. Indium nanoparticles for ultraviolet surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Soni, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (UVSERS) has emerged as an efficient molecular spectroscopy technique for ultra-sensitive and ultra-low detection of analyte concentration. The generic SERS substrates based on gold and silver nanostructures have been extensively explored for high local electric field enhancement only in visible-NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The template synthesis of controlled nanoscale size metallic nanostructures supporting localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the UV region have been recently explored due to their ease of synthesis and potential applications in optoelectronic, catalysis and magnetism. Indium (In0) nanoparticles exhibit active surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in ultraviolet (UV) and deep-ultaviolet (DUV) region with optimal absorption losses. This extended accessibility makes indium a promising material for UV plasmonic, chemical sensing and more recently in UV-SERS. In this work, spherical indium nanoparticles (In NPs) were synthesized by modified polyol reduction method using NaBH4 having local surface plasmon resonance near 280 nm. The as-synthesized spherical In0 nanoparticles were then coated with thin silica shells of thickness ˜ 5nm by a modified Stober method protecting the nanoparticles from agglomeration, direct contact with the probed molecules as well as prevent oxidation of the nanoparticles. Morphological evolution of In0 nanoparticles and SiO2 coating were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM). An enhanced near resonant shell-isolated SERS activity from thin film of tryptophan (Tryp) molecules deposited on indium coated substrates under 325nm UV excitation was observed. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is employed to comprehend the experimental results and simulate the electric field contours which showed amplified electromagnetic field localized around the nanostructures. The comprehensive analysis indicates that indium is a promising alternate

  14. Plasma Treatment to Remove Carbon from Indium UV Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Beasley, Matthew; Gantner, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    The sounding rocket experiment FIRE (Far-ultraviolet Imaging Rocket Experiment) will improve the science community fs ability to image a spectral region hitherto unexplored astronomically. The imaging band of FIRE (.900 to 1,100 Angstroms) will help fill the current wavelength imaging observation hole existing from approximately equal to 620 Angstroms to the GALEX band near 1,350 Angstroms. FIRE is a single-optic prime focus telescope with a 1.75-m focal length. The bandpass of 900 to 1100 Angstroms is set by a combination of the mirror coating, the indium filter in front of the detector, and the salt coating on the front of the detector fs microchannel plates. Critical to this is the indium filter that must reduce the flux from Lymanalpha at 1,216 Angstroms by a minimum factor of 10(exp -4). The cost of this Lyman-alpha removal is that the filter is not fully transparent at the desired wavelengths of 900 to 1,100 Angstroms. Recently, in a project to improve the performance of optical and solar blind detectors, JPL developed a plasma process capable of removing carbon contamination from indium metal. In this work, a low-power, low-temperature hydrogen plasma reacts with the carbon contaminants in the indium to form methane, but leaves the indium metal surface undisturbed. This process was recently tested in a proof-of-concept experiment with a filter provided by the University of Colorado. This initial test on a test filter showed improvement in transmission from 7 to 9 percent near 900 with no process optimization applied. Further improvements in this performance were readily achieved to bring the total transmission to 12% with optimization to JPL's existing process.

  15. In vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of a Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 treatment in a murine melanoma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade Edvaldo S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and the most rapidly expanding cancer in terms of worldwide incidence. Chemotherapeutic approaches to treat melanoma have had only marginal success. Previous studies in mice demonstrated that a high diluted complex derived from Calcarea carbonica (M8 stimulated the tumoricidal response of activated lymphocytes against B16F10 melanoma cells in vitro. Methods Here we describe the in vitro inhibition of invasion and the in vivo anti-metastatic potential after M8 treatment by inhalation in the B16F10 lung metastasis model. Results We found that M8 has at least two functions, acting as both an inhibitor of cancer cell adhesion and invasion and as a perlecan expression antagonist, which are strongly correlated with several metastatic, angiogenic and invasive factors in melanoma tumors. Conclusion The findings suggest that this medication is a promising non-toxic therapy candidate by improving the immune response against tumor cells or even induce direct dormancy in malignancies.

  16. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases CTX-M-8 and CTX-M-2-Producing Salmonella Serotypes from Clinical and Nonhuman Isolates in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sueli Aparecida; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Francisco, Gabriela Rodrigues; Bueno, Maria Fernanda Campagnari; Garcia, Doroti Oliveira; Doi, Yohei; Casas, Monique Ribeiro Tiba

    2017-07-01

    We characterized extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) enzymes among Salmonella strains isolated in Brazil from 2009 to 2014. Salmonella recovered from both clinical and nonhuman (food, poultry, and environment) sources were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. β-lactamases genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction/sequencing; plasmid profiles and transferability were assessed by S1-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genetic diversity was evaluated by XbaI-PFGE. Out of 630 Salmonella strains screened, 46 displayed ESBL phenotype, distributed across 11 different serotypes. bla CTX-M-8 and bla CTX-M-2 genes were detected at frequencies of 47% and 41%, respectively. bla SHV-5 and bla SHV-2 were also detected but in lower frequencies (4%, 2%). bla TEM-1 gene was detected in 22% of the strains. Most of the ESBL genes were transferable by conjugation, and the respective bla ESBL gene was detected in the recipient strain, indicating the location of ESBL determinants on transferable plasmids. XbaI-PFGE revealed genomic diversity of Salmonella Typhimurium bearing bla CTX-M-2 , bla CTX-M-8 , bla TEM-1 , and bla SHV-2 genes. Salmonella Muenchen (harboring bla CTX-M-2 ) and Salmonella Corvallis (bla CTX-M-8 and bla SHV-5 ) showed clonal relatedness within respective serotypes. Our findings underscore the occurrence of diverse ESBL genes in several Salmonella serotypes, reinforcing the need for continuous surveillance of resistance genes circulating in human and nonhuman sources.

  17. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Ubaldini, Stefano [Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering IGAG, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29300, 00015 Montelibretti, Rome (Italy); De Michelis, Ida [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [ISL Kopacek KG, Beckmanngasse 51, 1140 Wien (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca, E-mail: f.beolchini@univpm.it [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • End-of-life LCD panels represent a source of indium. • Several experimental conditions for indium leaching have been assessed. • Indium is completely extracted with 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min. • Cross-current leaching improves indium extraction and operating costs are lowered. • Benefits to the environment come from reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and reagents use. - Abstract: Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100 ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85–90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50–55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35 mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium

  18. OCTSL3M8D

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — On August 17, 1996, the Japanese Space Agency (NASDA - National Space Development Agency) launched the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS). ADEOS was in a...

  19. Evolution of end-of-range damage and transient enhanced diffusion of indium in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, T.

    2002-01-01

    Correlation of evolution of end-of-range (EOR) damage and transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of indium has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. A physically based model of diffusion and defect growth is applied to the indium diffusion system. Indium implantation with 200 keV, 1×1014/cm2 through a 10 nm screen oxide into p-type Czochralski silicon wafer was performed. During postimplantation anneal at 750 °C for times ranging from 2 to 120 min, formation of dislocation loops and indium segregation into loops were observed. Simulation results of evolution of EOR defects show that there is a period that {311} defects dissolve and release free interstitials before the Ostwald ripening step of EOR dislocation loops. Our diffusion model that contains the interaction between indium and loops shows the indium pileup to the loops. Indium segregation to loops occurs at a pure growth step of loops and continues during the Ostwald ripening step. Although dislocation loops and indium segregation in the near-surface region are easily dissolved by high temperature annealing, EOR dislocation loops in the bulk region are rigid and well grown. It is considered that indium trapped by loops with a large radius is energetically stable. It is shown that modeling of the evolution of EOR defects is important for understanding indium TED.

  20. Indium sulfide buffer layers deposited by dry and wet methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, B.; Sanz, C.; Guillen, C.; Chaparro, A.M.; Gutierrez, M.T.; Herrero, J.

    2007-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In 2 S 3 ) thin films have been deposited on amorphous glass, glass coated by tin oxide (TCO) and crystalline silicon substrates by two different methods: modulated flux deposition (MFD) and chemical bath deposition (CBD). Composition, morphology and optical characterization have been carried out with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), IR-visible-UV Spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Different properties of the films have been obtained depending on the preparation techniques. With MFD, In 2 S 3 films present more compact and homogeneous surface than with CBD. Films deposited by CBD present also indium oxide in their composition and higher absorption edge values when deposited on glass

  1. Clinical evaluation of the platelet scintigraphy using indium-111 oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Nakajima, Kohtaroh; Satoh, Motohiro; Akisada, Masayoshi; Ijima, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of autologous platelets labeled with Indium-111 oxine was evaluated by scintigraphy as a diagnostic procedure for the detection of various thrombotic disorders as well as in different aneurysms. The positivity was found to be satisfactory (80.0 %) in cases of aortic aneurysm while thoracic aneurysm showed comparatively poor accumulation. High positivity was also demonstrated in deep vein thrombosis. The complimentary role of this method for intracardiac thrombi to echocardiography was noted. The labeling procedure of indium-111 oxine was fairly easy to perform and the activity of labeled platelets was sustained enough to yield good results. In one case scintigraphy was performed successfully after 19 hours of angiography when a hot area of labeled platelets was seen at the puncture site. This method was therefore varified to be a sensitive and reliable method in the assessment of thrombus activity, and as it demonstrates the activity, its helpfulness in the conservative treatment of these disorders is warranted. (author)

  2. Electrical properties of indium arsenide irradiated with fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolin, N.G.; Osvenskii, V.B.; Rytova, N.S.; Yurova, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of irradiation with fast reactor neutrons on electrical properties of indium arsenide samples with different dopant concentrations. The laws governing the formation and annealing of radiation defects in indium arsenide were found to be governed by the donor-acceptor interaction. Depending on the density of free carriers in the original crystal, irradiation could produce charged defects of predominantly donor or acceptor types. Donor defects in irradiated InAs samples were annealed practically completely, whereas a considerable fraction of residual acceptor defects was retained even after heat treatment at 900 degree C. The concentration of these residual acceptors depended on the electron density at the annealing temperature

  3. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  4. Stopping characteristics of boron and indium ions in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselov, D. S., E-mail: DSVeselov@mephi.ru; Voronov, Yu. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The mean range and its standard deviation are calculated for boron ions implanted into silicon with energies below 10 keV. Similar characteristics are calculated for indium ions with energies below 200 keV. The obtained results are presented in tabular and graphical forms. These results may help in the assessment of conditions of production of integrated circuits with nanometer-sized elements.

  5. Formation and growth of embedded indium nanoclusters by In2+ implantation in silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhana Raman, P.; Nair, K.G.M.; Kesavamoorthy, R.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Dhara, S.; Ravichandran, V.

    2007-01-01

    Indium nanoclusters are synthesized in an amorphous silica matrix using an ion-implantation technique. Indium ions (In 2+ ) with energy of 890 keV are implanted on silica to fluences in the range of 3 x 10 16 -3 x 10 17 cm -2 . The formation of indium nanoclusters is confirmed by optical absorption spectrometry and glancing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. A low frequency Raman scattering technique is used to study the growth of embedded indium nanoclusters in the silica matrix as a function of fluence and post-implantation annealing duration. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry studies show the surface segregation of implanted indium. Photoluminescence studies indicate the formation of a small quantity of indium oxide phase in the ion-implanted samples. (orig.)

  6. Light forces on an indium atonic beam; Lichtkraefte auf einen Indiumatomstrahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeter, B.

    2007-07-01

    In this thesis it was studied, whether indium is a possible candidate for the nanostructuration respectively atomic lithography. For this known method for the generation and stabilization of the light necessary for the laser cooling had to be fitted to the special properties of indium. The spectroscopy of indium with the 451 nm and the 410 nm light yielded first hints that the formulae for the atom-light interaction for a two-level atom cannot be directly transferred to the indium atom. By means of the obtained parameters of the present experiment predictions for a possible Doppler cooling of the indium atomic beam were calculated. Furthermore the possibility for the direct deposition of indium on a substrate was studied.

  7. Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Sun, Yan-Ting, E-mail: yasun@kth.se; Lourdudoss, Sebastian [Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials, Department of Materials and Nano Physics, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Pietralunga, Silvia M. [CNR-Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy); Zani, Maurizio; Tagliaferri, Alberto [Department of Physics Politecnico di Milano, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 μm/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3 μm polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III–V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  8. Annealing of defects in indium antimonide after ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogatyrev, V.A.; Kachurin, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Indium antimonide electric properties are investigated after ion bombardment of different mass (with energy of 60 and 300 keV) and isochrone annealing in the 20-450 deg C temperature range. It is shown that 100-150 deg C n- type stable layers are formed after proton irradiation at room temperature only. Indium antimonide exposure by average mass ions under the same conditions and also by helium ions of 300 keV energy brings to p-type layer formation with high hole concentration. Subsequent heating at the temperature over 150 deg C results in electron conductivity of irradiated layers. Electron volume density and mobility efficiency reaches 10 18 cm -3 and 10 4 cm 2 /Vs respectively. N-type formed layers are stable up to 350 deg C allowing its usage for n-p transition formation admitting thermal treatment. Analysis is given of defect behaviour peculiarities depending upon the irradiation and annealing conditions. Hole conductivity in irradiated indium antimonide is supposed to be stipulated by regions of disorder, while electron conductivity - by relatively simpler disorders

  9. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akiyo

    2004-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications. Although the increased use of these materials has raised concerns about occupational exposure to them, there is little information regarding the adverse health effects to workers arising from exposure to these particles. However, available data indicate these semiconductor materials can be toxic in animals. Although acute and chronic toxicity of the lung, reproductive organs, and kidney are associated with exposure to these semiconductor materials, in particular, chronic toxicity should pay much attention owing to low solubility of these materials. Between InAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, InAs was the most toxic material to the lung followed by GaAs and AlGaAs when given intratracheally. This was probably due to difference in the toxicity of the counter-element of arsenic in semiconductor materials, such as indium, gallium, or aluminium, and not arsenic itself. It appeared that indium, gallium, or aluminium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical character of the particles also contributes to toxic effect. Although there is no evidence of the carcinogenicity of InAs or AlGaAs, GaAs and InP, which are semiconductor materials, showed the clear evidence of carcinogenic potential. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of semiconductor materials

  10. Arginine substitution of a cysteine in transmembrane helix M8 converts Na+,K+-ATPase to an electroneutral pump similar to H+,K+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Rikke; Khandelwal, Jaanki; Einholm, Anja P; Andersen, Jens P; Artigas, Pablo; Vilsen, Bente

    2017-01-10

    Na + ,K + -ATPase and H + ,K + -ATPase are electrogenic and nonelectrogenic ion pumps, respectively. The underlying structural basis for this difference has not been established, and it has not been revealed how the H + ,K + -ATPase avoids binding of Na + at the site corresponding to the Na + -specific site of the Na + ,K + -ATPase (site III). In this study, we addressed these questions by using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with enzymatic, transport, and electrophysiological functional measurements. Replacement of the cysteine C932 in transmembrane helix M8 of Na + ,K + -ATPase with arginine, present in the H + ,K + -ATPase at the corresponding position, converted the normal 3Na + :2K + :1ATP stoichiometry of the Na + ,K + -ATPase to electroneutral 2Na + :2K + :1ATP stoichiometry similar to the electroneutral transport mode of the H + ,K + -ATPase. The electroneutral C932R mutant of the Na + ,K + -ATPase retained a wild-type-like enzyme turnover rate for ATP hydrolysis and rate of cellular K + uptake. Only a relatively minor reduction of apparent Na + affinity for activation of phosphorylation from ATP was observed for C932R, whereas replacement of C932 with leucine or phenylalanine, the latter of a size comparable to arginine, led to spectacular reductions of apparent Na + affinity without changing the electrogenicity. From these results, in combination with structural considerations, it appears that the guanidine + group of the M8 arginine replaces Na + at the third site, thus preventing Na + binding there, although allowing Na + to bind at the two other sites and become transported. Hence, in the H + ,K + -ATPase, the ability of the M8 arginine to donate an internal cation binding at the third site is decisive for the electroneutral transport mode of this pump.

  11. Average formation number n-barOH of colloid-type indium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanowicz, T.; Szent-Kirallyine Gajda, J.

    1983-01-01

    Indium perchlorate in perchloric acid solution was titrated with sodium hydroxide solution to various pH values. Indium hydroxide colloid was removed by ultracentrifugation and supernatant solution was titrated with base to neutral pH. The two-stage titration data were used to calculate the formation number of indium hydroxide colloid, which was found to equal n-bar OH = 2.8. (author)

  12. Blocking of indium incorporation by antimony in III-V-Sb nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A M; Beltran, A M; Ben, T; Molina, S I; Beanland, R; Gass, M H; De la Pena, F; Walls, M; Taboada, A G; Ripalda, J M

    2010-01-01

    The addition of antimony to III-V nanostructures is expected to give greater freedom in bandgap engineering for device applications. One of the main challenges to overcome is the effect of indium and antimony surface segregation. Using several very high resolution analysis techniques we clearly demonstrate blocking of indium incorporation by antimony. Furthermore, indium incorporation resumes when the antimony concentration drops below a critical level. This leads to major differences between nominal and actual structures.

  13. Research on the effect of alkali roasting of copper dross on leaching rate of indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafang, Liu; Fan, Xingxiang; Shi, Yifeng; Yang, Kunbin

    2017-11-01

    The byproduct copper dross produced during refining crude lead was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), which showed that copper dross mainly contained lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, sulfur and a small amount of indium and silver etc. The mineralogical phase change of oxidation roasting of copper dross by adding sodium hydroxide was analyzed with the help of XRD and SEM. The effects of water leaching, ratio of sodium hydroxide, roasting time, and roasting temperature on leaching rate of indium were investigated mainly. The experimental results showed that phase of lead metal and sulfides of lead, copper and zinc disappeared after oxidation roasting of copper dross by adding sodium hydroxide, new phase of oxides of lead, copper, zinc and sodium salt of arsenic and antimony appeared. Water leaching could remove arsenic, and acid leaching residue obtained was then leached with acid. The leaching rate of indium was higher 6.98% compared with alkali roasting of copper dross-acid leaching. It showed that removing arsenic by water leaching and acid leaching could increase the leaching rate of indium and be beneficial to reducing subsequent acid consumption of extracting indium by acid leaching. The roasting temperature had a significant effect on the leaching rate of indium, and leaching rate of indium increased with the rise of roasting temperature. When roasting temperature ranged from 450°C to 600°C, leaching rate of indium increased significantly with the rise of roasting temperature. When roasting temperature rose from 450°C to 600°C, leaching rate of indium increased by 60.29%. The amount of sodium hydroxide had an significant effect on the leaching rate of indium, and the leaching of indium increased with the increase of the amount of sodium hydroxide, and the leaching rate of indium was obviously higher than that of copper dross blank roasting and acid leaching.

  14. Electronic structure of indium-tungsten-oxide alloys and their energy band alignment at the heterojunction to crystalline silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Dorothee; Mews, Mathias; Rech, Bernd; Korte, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The electronic structure of thermally co-evaporated indium-tungsten-oxide films is investigated. The stoichiometry is varied from pure tungsten oxide to pure indium oxide, and the band alignment at the indium-tungsten-oxide/crystalline silicon heterointerface is monitored. Using in-system photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and surface photovoltage measurements, we show that the work function of indium-tungsten-oxide continuously decreases from 6.3 eV for tungsten oxide to 4.3 eV for indium oxide, with a concomitant decrease in the band bending at the hetero interface to crystalline silicon than indium oxide.

  15. Plasma vapor deposited n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide heterojunctions for optoelectronic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, T. P.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Transparent crystalline n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide diode structures were fabricated on quartz substrates by plasma vapor deposition using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The p-n heterojunction diodes were highly transparent in the visible region and exhibited rectifying current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a good ideality factor. The sputter power during fabrication of the p-layer was found to have a profound effect on I-V characteristics, and the diode with the p-type layer deposited at a maximum power of 200 W exhibited the highest value of the diode ideality factor (η value) of 2.162, which suggests its potential use in optoelectronic applications. The ratio of forward current to reverse current exceeded 80 within the range of applied voltages of -1.5 to +1.5 V in all cases. The diode structure possessed an optical transmission of 60-70% in the visible region.

  16. Radiochemical studies of the separation of some chloro-complexes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Mani, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioisotopes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium such as tin-113, antimony-124, antimony-125, cadmium-109, cadmium-115, indium-113m and indium-111 find extensive applications as tracers in various fields. These isotopes are produced by irradiation of targets in a reactor or a cyclotron. It is usually observed that in addition to the nuclear reactions giving rise to the desired isotopes, side reactions also take place giving rise to radionuclidic contaminants. Thus, antimony-125, indium-114m and indium-114 will be present in the cyclotron produced indium-111. The authors have studied column chromatography over hydrous zirconia for the separation of antimony from tin and indium, and cadmium from indium. These studies have thrown light on the role and behaviour of antimony-125 present as an impurity in tin-113 during the preparation of tin-113-indium-113m generators and have indicated methods for the preparation of 115 Cd-sup(115m)In generators and for separation of 111 In from proton irradiated cadmium targets. (Authors)

  17. Preparation of transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films from nanocrystalline indium tin hydroxide by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Dekany, Imre

    2011-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with well-controlled layer thickness were produced by dip-coating method. The ITO was synthesized by a sol-gel technique involving the use of aqueous InCl 3 , SnCl 4 and NH 3 solutions. To obtain stable sols for thin film preparation, as-prepared Sn-doped indium hydroxide was dialyzed, aged, and dispersed in ethanol. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was applied to enhance the stability of the resulting ethanolic sols. The transparent, conductive ITO films on glass substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The ITO layer thickness increased linearly during the dipping cycles, which permits excellent controllability of the film thickness in the range ∼ 40-1160 nm. After calcination at 550 o C, the initial indium tin hydroxide films were transformed completely to nanocrystalline ITO with cubic and rhombohedral structure. The effects of PVP on the optical, morphological and electrical properties of ITO are discussed.

  18. Some statistical features of the seismic activity related to the recent M8.2 and M7.1 earthquakes in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, L.; Baeza-Blancas, E.; Reyes, I.; Angulo Brown, F.; Rudolf Navarro, A.

    2017-12-01

    By studying the magnitude earthquake catalogs, previous studies have reported evidence that some changes in the spatial and temporal organization of earthquake activity is observedbefore and after of a main-shock. These previous studies have used different approach methods for detecting clustering behavior and distance-events density in order topoint out the asymmetric behavior of before shocks and aftershocks. Here, we present a statistical analysis of the seismic activity related to the M8.2 and M7.1 earthquakes occurredon Sept. 7th and Sept. 19th, respectively. First, we calculated the interevent time and distance for the period Sept. 7th 2016 until Oct. 20th 2017 for each seismic region ( a radius of 150 km centeredat coordinates of the M8.1 and M7.1). Next, we calculated the "velocity" of the walker as the ratio between the interevent distance and interevent time, and similarly, we also constructed the"acceleration". A slider pointer is considered to estimate some statistical features within time windows of size τ for the velocity and acceleration sequences before and after the main shocks. Specifically, we applied the fractal dimension method to detect changes in the correlation (persistence) behavior of events in the period before the main events.Our preliminary results pointed out that the fractal dimension associated to the velocity and acceleration sequences exhibits changes in the persistence behavior before the mainshock, while thescaling dimension values after the main events resemble a more uncorrelated behavior. Moreover, the relationship between the standard deviation of the velocity and the local mean velocity valuefor a given time window-size τ is described by an exponent close to 1.5, and the cumulative distribution of velocity and acceleration are well described by power law functions after the crash and stretched-exponential-like distribution before the main shock. On the other hand, we present an analysis of patterns of seismicquiescence

  19. Reduced thermal quenching in indium-rich self-organized InGaN/GaN quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Zhang, Meng

    2012-01-01

    Differences in optical and structural properties of indium rich (27), indium gallium nitride (InGaN) self-organized quantum dots (QDs), with red wavelength emission, and the two dimensional underlying wetting layer (WL) are investigated. Temperature

  20. Ionospheric F2-layer Perturbations Observed After the M8.8 Chile Earthquake on February 27, 2010, at Long Distance from the Epicenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Hegai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The F2-layer critical frequency (foF2 data from several ionosondes are employed to study the long-distance effect of the M8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010, on the F2 layer. Significant perturbations of the peak F2-layer electron density have been observed following the earthquake at two South African stations, Hermanus and Madimbo, which are located at great circle distances of ~8,000 and ~10,000 km from the earthquake epicenter, respectively. Simplified estimates demonstrate that the observed ionospheric perturbations can be caused by a long-period acoustic gravity wave produced in the F-region by the earthquake.

  1. The Great 1787 Earthquake (M 8.6) and Tsunami along The Mexican Subduction Zone - History, Geology and Tsunami Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M. T.; Lagos, M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Caballero, M.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Suarez, G.; Ortuño, M.

    2017-12-01

    The 1787 great earthquake (M 8.6) triggered a deadly tsunami that poured over the coast of Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Chiapas, along more than 500 km of the Mexican Pacific coast and up to 6 km inland. This tsunami, according with historical documents, destroyed mostly farmlands and livestock, and damaged few villages since the density of population was sparse at the time. We report first on geological evidence from the Corralero lagoon and adjacent coastal plain that seem in agreement with historical accounts. The deposit left by the 1787 tsunami can be traced along a transect of cores and test pits from the coastline and up to 1.6 km inland. The test pits showed an anomalous sand layer that was deposited in a single event in the swales of a series of beach ridges. The anomalous layer is almost continuous along the transect, about a 1000 m-long, and is formed of coarse to medium sand, at variable depths, with variable thickness, and pinching up with the distance from the coastline. We used stratigraphy, grain size, microfossils (foraminifera and diatoms), magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility proxies to reveal the nature of this anomalous sand layer. Stratigraphy, abrupt contacts, and magnetic properties support a sudden and rapid event, consisting of sands transported most probably by an extreme sea-wave far inland. Furthermore, based on the accounts of the 1787 earthquake (M 8.6) and tsunami, and estimates from 210Pb sedimentation rates, we suggest that this is the tsunami deposit left by the 1787 event. Tsunami modeling will further enhance the hazard and risk assessment of this area in Mexico.

  2. Indium phosphide space solar cell research: Where we are and where we are going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R. K.; Flood, D. J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1995-01-01

    Indium phosphide is considered to be a strong contender for many photovoltaic space applications because of its radiation resistance and its potential for high efficiency. An overview of recent progress is presented, and possible future research directions for indium phosphide space solar cells are discussed. The topics considered include radiation damage studies and space flight experiments.

  3. Indium Sulfide and Indium Oxide Thin Films Spin-Coated from Triethylammonium Indium Thioacetate Precursor for n-Channel Thin Film Transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Duy Dao; Jeong, Hyun Dam [Chonnam Natioal University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of tetragonal structure and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films of cubic structure were synthesized by a spin coating method from the organometallic compound precursor triethylammonium indium thioacetate ([(Et){sub 3}NH]+ [In(SCOCH{sub 3}){sub 4}]''-; TEA-InTAA). In order to determine the electron mobility of the spin-coated TEA-InTAA films, thin film transistors (TFTs) with an inverted structure using a gate dielectric of thermal oxide (SiO{sub 2}) was fabricated. These devices exhibited n-channel TFT characteristics with a field-effect electron mobility of 10.1 cm''2 V''-1s''-1 at a curing temperature of 500 o C, indicating that the semiconducting thin film material is applicable for use in low-cost, solution-processed printable electronics.

  4. Rf reactive sputtering of indium-tin-oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvarozek, V.; Novotny, I.; Harman, R.; Kovac, J.

    1986-01-01

    Films of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) have been deposited by rf reactive diode sputtering of metallic InSn alloy targets, or ceramic ITO targets, in an Ar and Ar+0 2 atmosphere. Electrical as well as optical properties of ITO films were controlled by varying sputtering parameters and by post-deposition heat-treatment in Ar, H 2 , N 2 , H 2 +N 2 ambients. The ITO films exhibited low resistivity approx. 2 x 10 -4 Ω cm, high transmittance approx. 90% in the visible spectral region and high reflectance approx. 80% in the near infra-red region. (author)

  5. Ternary equilibria in bismuth--indium--lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, K.C.; Johnson, D.L.; Nelson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    The liquidus surface is characterized by three binary equilibria. One binary extends from the Pb--Bi peritectic to the Pb--In peritectic. The other two extend from In--Bi eutectics, merge at 50 at. percent Bi and 30 at. percent Pb, and end at the Bi--Pb eutectic. Based on analysis of ternary liquidus contours and vertical sections, it is suggested that solidification for high lead and very high indium alloys occurs from two-phase equilibria. Solidification from all other alloys occurs from three-phase equilibria. Four-phase solidification does not occur in this system

  6. Selectivity in extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants (LIX84 and D2E11PA) was described. Stechiometry of metal-organic complexes examined using the method of equimolar ratios resulted in CuR 2 and InR 3 forms of hydrophobic extracting species. A linear correlation was obtained between logarithm of distribution coefficients and chelate agents and pH, respectively. Selectivity is generally higher with higher concentrations of chelate agents in the organic phase, and is decreased with increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in feeding phase. (Original)

  7. Disappearance of superconductivity and critical resistance in thin indium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Satoshi; Nishida, Nobuhiko

    1991-01-01

    In thin granular films composed of two-dimensionally coupled indium particles, we have studied influences of average particle sizes anti d on the superconducting transition. For films with anti d=280A and 224A, superconducting transition temperature stays almost constant with increasing the sheet resistance R n in the normal state, while for a film with anti d=140A, it decreases linearly with R n . This means that the system changes to a dirty superconductor by reducing anti d. With further increasing R n , superconductivity disappears when R n exceeds the value R c of order h/4e 2 , which seems to correlate with anti d. (orig.)

  8. Research on structure and electrical parameters of indium antimonide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhametniyazova, A.; Konyaeva, V.F.; Sukhanov, S.; Ashirov, A.; Aleksanyan, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigations into the effect of conditions of formation of indium antimonide films prepared by thermal vacuum spraying on their structure, phase composition and electric parameters, are presented. The method of studying the synthesized semiconductor layers on the DRON-0.5 X-ray device with CoKsub(α)-radiation is tested. The dependence of structure, phase composition and electric properties of InSb layers 1+3 μm thick sprayed on ferrite substrates on condensation temperature, is established. Hexagonal InSb modification is found

  9. Anomalous behaviour of screw dislocations in quenched indium antimonide monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseenko, V.I.; Mostovoj, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Anomalies of screw dislocation mobility in indium antimonide single crystals quenched after annealing were detected experimentally. Taking into accout specific nature of thermal treatment an enhanced attention is paid to the technique of the experiment. It is shown that the observed peculiarities can be explained using a model of thermoactivated movement of excessive bends over stoppers at the dislocation line. Proceeding from the assumption on the nature of stoppers, the values of stopper energy barriers overcome by an excessive bend are determined on the basis of the above model of excessive bend movement

  10. Decomposition rates of radiopharmaceutical indium chelates in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.M.; Meares, C.F.; Goodwin, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The rates at which six small aminopolycarboxylate chelates of trivalent 111 In and three protein-bound chelates of 111 In deliver indium to the serum protein transferrin have been studied in sterile human serum at pH 7.3, 37 deg C. Sterically hindered chelates containing a substituent on an ethylene carbon of EDTA decompose with rates in the range 0.03 to 0.11% per day - one to two orders of magnitude slower than other chelates. Only small differences are observed between rates of decomposition for low-molecular-weight chelates and for protein-bound chelates having analogous structures. (author)

  11. Research on structure and electrical parameters of indium antimonide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhametniyazova, A; Konyaeva, V F; Sukhanov, S; Ashirov, A; Aleksanyan, S N [AN Turkmenskoj SSR, Ashkhabad. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskii Inst.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigations into the effect of conditions of formation of indium antimonide films prepared by thermal vacuum spraying on their structure, phase composition and electric parameters, are presented. The method of studying the synthesized semiconductor layers on the DRON-0.5 X-ray device with CoKsub(..cap alpha..)-radiation is tested. The dependence of structure, phase composition and electric properties of InSb layers 1+3 ..mu..m thick sprayed on ferrite substrates on condensation temperature, is established. Hexagonal InSb modification is found.

  12. Analysis and calibration of transient enhanced diffusion for an indium impurity in a nanoscale semiconductor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun-Ha; Lee, Hoong-Joo

    2005-01-01

    We developed a new systematic calibration procedure which was applied to the prediction of the diffusivity, the segregation, and transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of an indium impurity. The TED of the indium impurity was studied using four different experimental conditions. Although indium is susceptible to TED, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is effective in suppressing the TED effect and maintaining a steep retrograde profile. Like boron impurities, the indium shows significant oxidation-enhanced diffusion in silicon and has segregation coefficients much less than 1 at the Si/SiO 2 interface. In contrast to boron, the segregation coefficient of indium decreases as the temperature increases. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was validated by using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data and by using the 0.13-μm device characteristics, such as V th and I dsat , for which the differences between simulation and experiment less than 5 %.

  13. Effects of a powered air-purifying respirator intervention on indium exposure reduction and indium related biomarkers among ITO sputter target manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chen, Chang-Yuh; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) worn by the workers, and to investigate the effect of this application on exposure and preclinical effects in terms of workplace measuring and biomarker monitoring in ITO sputter target manufacturing plants and workers, respectively. Fifty-four workers were recruited and investigated from 2010-2012, during which PAPRs were provided to on-site workers in September 2011. Each worker completed questionnaires and provided blood and urine samples for analysis of biomarkers of indium exposure and preclinical effects. Area and personal indium air samples were randomly collected from selected worksites and from participants. The penetration percentage of the respirator (concentration inside respirator divided by concentration outside respirator) was 6.6%. Some biomarkers, such as S-In, SOD, GPx, GST, MDA, and TMOM, reflected the decrease in exposure and showed lower levels, after implementation of PAPRs. This study is the first to investigate the efficacy of PAPRs for reducing indium exposure. The measurement results clearly showed that the implementation of PAPRs reduces levels of indium-related biomarkers. These findings have practical applications for minimizing occupational exposure to indium and for managing the health of workers exposed to indium.

  14. Secondary indium production from end-of-life liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Alessia; Rocchetti, Laura; Fonti, Viviana; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Beolchini, Francesca [Universita Politecnica of Marche, DISVA, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In 2014, the European Union identified 20 raw materials critical for economic importance and high supply risk. Indium, used in several innovative technologies, is among such critical raw materials. Generally, it is mined as a by-product of zinc from a mineral named sphalerite, with a concentration between 1 and 100 ppm. Currently, the largest producer of indium is China and about 84% of the worldwide indium consumption is used for liquid crystal display (LCD) production, in particular to form an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film with transparent conductor properties. The fast evolution of LCD technologies caused a double effect: the growth of indium demand and an increase of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Considering these two factors, the aim of this study is to make the end-of-life LCDs a secondary indium resource. With this purpose, an indium recovery process was developed carrying out an acidic leaching, followed by a zinc cementation. The first step allowed a complete indium extraction using 2M sulfuric acid at 80 C for 10 min. The problem of low indium concentration in the scraps (around 150 ppm) was overcome using a cross-current configuration in the leaching phase that allowed an increase of metal concentration and a decrease of reagents consumption. An indium recovery higher than 90% was obtained in the final cementation step, using 5 g/L of zinc powder at pH 3 and 55 C for 10 min. Considering its high efficiency, this process is promising in a context of circular economy, where a waste becomes a resource. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Theoretical Study of Indium Compounds of Interest for Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelino, B. H.; Moore, C. E.; Cardelino, C. A.; Frazier, D. O.; Backmann, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    The structural. electronic and therinochemical properties of indium compounds which are of interest in halide transport and organometallic chemical vapor deposition processes have been studied by ab initio and statistical mechanics methods. The compounds reported include: indium halides and hydrides (InF, InCl, InCl3, InH, InH2, InH3); indium clusters (In2, In3); methylindium, dimethylindium, and their hydrogen derivatives [In(CH3), In(CH3)H, In(CH3)H2, In(CH3)2, In(CH3)2H]; dimethyl-indium dimer [In2(CH3)4], trimethyl-indium [In(CH3)3]; dehydrogenated methyl, dimethyl and trimethylindium [In(CH3)2CH2, In(CH3)CH2, In(CH2)], trimethylindium adducts with ammonia, trimethylamine and hydrazine [(CH3)3In:NH3, (CH3)3In:N(CH3)3, (CH3)3In:N(H2)N(H2)]; dimethylamino-indium and methylimino-indium [In(CH3)2(NH2), In(CH3)(NH)]; indium nitride and indium nitride dimer (InN, In2N2), indium phosphide, arsenide and antimonide ([InP, InAs, InSb). The predicted electronic properties are based on density functional theory calculations; the calculated thermodynamic properties are reported following the format of the JANAF (Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force) Tables. Equilibrium compositions at two temperatures (298 and 1000 K) have been analyzed for groups of competing simultaneous reactions.

  16. Transparent indium-tin oxide/indium-gallium-zinc oxide Schottky diodes formed by gradient oxygen doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Szuheng; Yu, Hyeonggeun; So, Franky

    2017-11-01

    Amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) is promising for transparent electronics due to its high carrier mobility and optical transparency. However, most metal/a-IGZO junctions are ohmic due to the Fermi-level pinning at the interface, restricting their device applications. Here, we report that indium-tin oxide/a-IGZO Schottky diodes can be formed by gradient oxygen doping in the a-IGZO layer that would otherwise form an ohmic contact. Making use of back-to-back a-IGZO Schottky junctions, a transparent IGZO permeable metal-base transistor is also demonstrated with a high common-base gain.

  17. Catalytic property of an indium-deposited powder-type material containing silicon and its dependence on the dose of indium nano-particles irradiated by a pulse arc plasma process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yoshimura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium nano-particle irradiations onto zeolite powders were carried out using a pulse arc plasma source system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic studies of an indium irradiated zeolite sample revealed that indium nano-particles were successfully deposited on the sample. Besides, the sample was found to be capable of catalyzing an organic chemical reaction (i.e., Friedel-Crafts alkylation. Then, we examined whether or not the catalytic ability depends on the irradiated indium dose, having established the optimal indium dose for inducing the catalytic effect.

  18. Indium tin oxide films prepared via wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legnani, C.; Lima, S.A.M.; Oliveira, H.H.S.; Quirino, W.G.; Machado, R.; Santos, R.M.B.; Davolos, M.R.; Achete, C.A.; Cremona, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared using a wet chemical route, the Pechini method. This consists of a polyesterification reaction between an α-hydroxicarboxylate complex (indium citrate and tin citrate) with a polyalcohol (ethylene glycol) followed by a post annealing at 500 deg. C. A 10 at.% of doping of Sn 4+ ions into an In 2 O 3 matrix was successfully achieved through this method. In order to characterize the structure, the morphology as well as the optical and electrical properties of the produced ITO films, they were analyzed using different experimental techniques. The obtained films are highly transparent, exhibiting transmittance of about 85% at 550 nm. They are crystalline with a preferred orientation of [222]. Microscopy discloses that the films are composed of grains of 30 nm average size and 0.63 nm RMS roughness. The films' measured resistivity, mobility and charge carrier concentration were 5.8 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 2.9 cm 2 /V s and - 3.5 x 10 20 /cm 3 , respectively. While the low mobility value can be related to the small grain size, the charge carrier concentration value can be explained in terms of the high oxygen concentration level resulting from the thermal treatment process performed in air. The experimental conditions are being refined to improve the electrical characteristics of the films while good optical, chemical, structural and morphological qualities already achieved are maintained

  19. Selective growth of gold onto copper indium sulfide selenide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Elena; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research

    2013-05-15

    Hybrid nanostructures are interesting materials for numerous applications in chemistry, physics, and biology, due to their novel properties and multiple functionalities. Here, we present a synthesis of metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures composed of nontoxic I-III-VI semiconductor nanoparticles and gold. Copper indium sulfide selenide (CuInSSe) nanocrystals with zinc blende structure and trigonal pyramidal shape, capped with dodecanethiol, serve as an original semiconductor part of a new hybrid nanostructure. Metallic gold nanocrystals selectively grow onto vertexes of these CuInSSe pyramids. The hybrid nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and UV-Vis-absorption spectroscopy, which allowed us conclusions about their growth mechanism. Hybrid nanocrystals are generated by replacement of a sacrificial domain in the CuInSSe part. At the same time, small selenium nanocrystals form that stay attached to the remaining CuInSSe/Au particles. Additionally, we compare the synthesis and properties of CuInSSe-based hybrid nanostructures with those of copper indium disulfide (CuInS{sub 2}). CuInS{sub 2}/Au nanostructures grow by a different mechanism (surface growth) and do not show any selectivity. (orig.)

  20. Regularly arranged indium islands on glass/molybdenum substrates upon femtosecond laser and physical vapor deposition processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringleb, F.; Eylers, K.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T., E-mail: torsten.boeck@ikz-berlin.de [Leibniz-Institute for Crystal Growth, Max-Born-Straße 2, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Symietz, C.; Bonse, J.; Andree, S.; Krüger, J. [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, Berlin 12205 (Germany); Heidmann, B.; Schmid, M. [Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimalle 14, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Nanooptical Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany); Lux-Steiner, M. [Nanooptical Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany); Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, Berlin 14109 (Germany)

    2016-03-14

    A bottom-up approach is presented for the production of arrays of indium islands on a molybdenum layer on glass, which can serve as micro-sized precursors for indium compounds such as copper-indium-gallium-diselenide used in photovoltaics. Femtosecond laser ablation of glass and a subsequent deposition of a molybdenum film or direct laser processing of the molybdenum film both allow the preferential nucleation and growth of indium islands at the predefined locations in a following indium-based physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. A proper choice of laser and deposition parameters ensures the controlled growth of indium islands exclusively at the laser ablated spots. Based on a statistical analysis, these results are compared to the non-structured molybdenum surface, leading to randomly grown indium islands after PVD.

  1. Investigation into cathode polarization during deposition of rhodium-nickel and rhodium-indium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimova, N.V.; Byacheslavov, P.M.; Lokshtanova, O.G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of kinetic regularities experimental investigations during electrodeposition of rhodium-nickel and rhonium-indium alloys are presented. Methods of general and partial polarization curves have been used to show the nature of polarization during the rhonium-nickel and rhodium-indium alloys deposition. It is shown that indium into the rhodium-indium alloy and nickel into the rhodium-nickel alloy deposit with great depolarization ( PHIsub(In)sup(0)=-0.33B, PHIsub(Ni)sup(0)=-0.23B). Indium and nickel in pure form do not deposit from the electrolytes of the given composition (H 2 SO 4 - 50 g/l, HNH 2 SO 3 -10 g/l). The recalculation of partial polarization curve of indium precipitation into the rhodium-indium alloy in the mixed kinetics coordinates gives a straight line with 40 mV inclination angle. This corresponds to the delayed stage of the second electron addition with the imposition of diffusion limitations

  2. Recovery of indium ions by nanoscale zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen; Su, Yiming [Tongji University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse (China); Wen, Zhipan [Wuhan Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering (China); Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei, E-mail: zhouxuefei@tongji.edu.cn; Dai, Chaomeng, E-mail: daichaomeng@tongji.edu.cn [Tongji University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse (China)

    2017-03-15

    Indium and its compounds have plenty of industrial applications and high demand. Therefore, indium recovery from various industrial effluents is necessary. It was sequestered by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) whose size mainly ranged from 50 to 70 nm. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm, influence of pH, and ionic strength were thoroughly investigated. The reaction process was well fitted to a pseudo second-order model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of In(III) was 390 mg In(III)/g nZVI similar to 385 mg In(III)/g nZVI at 298 K calculated by Langmuir model. The mole ratio of Fe(II) released to In(III) immobilized was 3:2, which implied a special chemical process of co-precipitation combined Fe(OH){sub 2} with In(OH){sub 3}. Transmission electron microscopy with an energy-disperse X-ray (TEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize surface morphology, corrosion products, and valence state of indium precipitate formed on nanoparticles. The structural evolution changed from core-shell structure of iron oxide to sheet structure of co-precipitation, to sphere structure that hydroxide gradually dissolved as the pH decreased, and to cavity structures for the pH continually decreased. Furthermore, below pH 4.7, the In(III) enrichment was inhibited for the limited capacity of co-precipitation. Also, it was found that Ca{sup 2+} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} have more negative influence on In(III) recovery compared with Na{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. Therefore, the In(III) recovery can be described by a mechanism which consists of adsorption, co-precipitation, and reduction and was over 78% even after 3 cycles. The results confirmed that it was applicable to employ nZVI for In(III) immobilization.

  3. Interaction of cadmium and indium nitrate mixture with sodium tungstate in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousova, E E; Krivobok, V I; Gruba, A I [Donetskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of the mixture of cadmium and indium nitrates with sodium tungstate in aqueous solution is studied using the methods of ''residual concentrations'', pH potentiometry and conductometry. Independent of the ratio of components in the initial solution a mixture of coprecipitated normal tungstates of cadmium and indium is formed in the system. Heat treatment of the precipitates at 800 deg C for 50 hrs with subsequent hardening results in the formation of solid solutions on the basis of normal cadmium and indium tungstates.

  4. Polarografic study about the complex formation between indium (III) and sodium azide, in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, R.; Bertotti, M.

    1988-01-01

    The present work is a branch of the main work concerned with the complex formation between several metal cations and azide ligand in aqueous media. The polarographic behavior of indium in azide system showed the tendency of complexation. Using polarographic method to determine the half potential of indium at each analytical concentration afforded experimental data to evaluate the constants. The azide concentrations was modified from 1 m to 100 m , the ionic strength held at 2,0 M with sodium perchlorate, indium concentration 7.892 x 10 -4 M, and temperature kept constant at 25,0 0 C. (author) [pt

  5. Some studies on successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) grown indium sulphide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, H.M.; Lokhande, C.D.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Amalnerkar, D.P.; Seth, T.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Indium sulphide (In 2 S 3 ) thin films were grown on amorphous glass substrate by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS) were applied to study the structural, optical, surface morphological and compositional properties of the indium sulphide thin films. Utilization of triethanolamine and hydrazine hydrate complexed indium sulphate and sodium sulphide as precursors resulted in nanocrystalline In 2 S 3 thin film. The optical band gap was found to be 2.7 eV. The film appeared to be smooth and homogeneous from SEM study

  6. Indium determination by spectral overlappings of lines in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.J.; Huicque, L. d'; Garcia Vior, L.O.

    1991-01-01

    A molybdenum hollow-cathode lamp filled with neon can be used to determine indium. Characteristic concentration for this element is 4.5 mg/L in the 325 nm spectral region for the Mo(I) 325.621 nm line. In addition, values of 0.4 mg/L and 0.3 mg/L are obtained with the Mo(I) 410.215 nm and Ne(I) 451.151 nm lines, respectively. These spectral overlappings allow the determination of indium in silver-cadmium-indium alloys. (Author) [es

  7. False positive indium-111 white blood cell scan in a closed clavicle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.J.; Gordon, L.

    1988-01-01

    Aggressive treatment of the multiply injured patient often requires early fixation of many fractures, some of which may be open. Often, patients develop postoperative fevers requiring a thorough workup to rule out infection. Recently, indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) imaging has become a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of acute infection. The patient described had a simple, closed clavicle fracture with markedly increased activity on an indium-111 WBC scan obtained for fever workup. This subsequently proved to be a normal, healing, noninfected fracture by other diagnostic techniques. Noninfected, simple closed fractures should be added to the list of causes for a false-positive indium-111 WBC scan

  8. First-principles investigation of indium diffusion in a silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwan-Sun; Hwang, Chi-Ok; Yoo, Jae-Hyun; Won, Tae-Young

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report the total energy, the minimum energy path, and the migration energy of indium in a silicon substrate by using ab-initio calculations. Stable configurations during indium diffusion were obtained from the calculation of the total energy, and we estimated the minimum energy path (MEP) with the nudged elastic band (NEB) method. After finding the MEP, we found the energy barrier for the diffusion of indium to be 0.8 eV from an exact calculation of the total energies at the minimum and the transition state.

  9. Optical and micro-structural characterizations of MBE grown indium gallium nitride polar quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison between indium rich (27%) InGaN/GaN quantum dots (QDs) and their underlying wetting layer (WL) is performed by means of optical and structural characterizations. With increasing temperature, micro-photoluminescence (μPL) study reveals the superior ability of QDs to prevent carrier thermalization to nearby traps compared to the two dimensional WL. Thus, explaining the higher internal quantum efficiency of the QD nanostructure compared to the higher dimensional WL. Structural characterization (X-ray diffraction (XRD)) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) reveal an increase in the QD indium content over the WL indium content which is due to strain induced drifts. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Monitoring shallow resistivity changes prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Xie, Tao; Li, Mei; Wang, Yali; Ren, Yuexia; Gao, Shude; Wang, Lanwei; Zhao, Jialiu

    2016-04-01

    An active source measurement of shallow resistivity using fixed-electrode quasi-Schlumberger arrays has been conducted at Pixian, Jiangyou and Wudu stations on the Longmen Shan tectonic zone in western China, with the hope of detecting earthquake-associated changes. For the duration of the monitoring experiment, a gradual decrease of apparent resistivity of up to 6.7% several years prior to the 12 May 2008 M 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake had been recorded clearly at Pixian station, approximately 35 km from the epicenter. The change of apparent resistivity was monitored with a fixed Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 736 m/226 m in the direction of N57.5°E, giving precisions in measured daily averages of 0.16% or less. A coseismic resistivity drop of up to 5.3% was observed at Jiangyou station, using a Schlumberger array of AB/MN spacings of 710 m/90 m in the direction of N10°E. No fluctuation of resistivity was detected at Wudu station at the time of the Wenchuan mainshock. While the focus of this paper is on monitoring or tracking resistivity variations prior to, during, and after the Wenchuan earthquake, we also aim to compare resistivity records of the Wenchuan earthquake to those of the M 7.8 Tangshan and M 7.2 Songpan earthquakes of 1976. Attempts to explain the observed resistivity variations have been made. The results show that the resistivity variations observed at all three stations are in approximate agreement with resistivity-stress behavior deduced from in situ experiments, focal mechanisms, a simplified dynamical model, static stress analyses, and field investigations from along the Longmen Shan fault zone.

  11. Polarographic determination of indium and thallium iodides in phosphor tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, G.A.; Dzhurka, G.F.; Kozhushko, G.M.; Kravtsova, K.F.; Magda, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The technique of polarographic determination of indium and thallium iodides in phosphor tablets without preliminary separation of elements was developed. Mercury-dropping electrode was used as an indicator, and saturated calomel electrode was used as an auxiliary electrode. A recording of reduction currents was performed in the potential interval from -0.25 up to 1.15 V at potential sweep speed of 200 mV/min. Optimum conditions of sample acidic decomposition and polarography were presented. A solution of ethylene diamine (0.5 M), of ammonia (0.25 M) and of potassium chloride (0.05 M) served as a background electrolyte. The suggested technique allows one to determine component contents in tablets with a satisfactory accuracy. A period of one tablet analysis constitutes 1.5 h

  12. Indium antimonide crystal defects formed by fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitovskij, N.A.; Dolgolenko, A.P.; Mashovets, T.V.; Oganesyan, O.V.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown, that indium antimonide irradiation with fast neutrons of reactor results in the formation of disorded regions with a mean radius of approximately 130 A surrounded with space charge regions forming barriers for main carriers. But the found values of defect cluster depolarization coefficient (Lsub(x)sup(n)=0.18 and Lsub(x)sup(p)=0.29) show, that the clusters have marked conductivity for main charge carriers. The found position of the Fermi level in the disorded regions Esub(F)=Esub(c)-0.085 eV does not depend on the impurity type and its concentration in an initial material. The disorded regions play the main part in charge carrier scattering at low temperatures and markedly contribute to the change of mobility at 80 K. It is found, that irradiation temperature change in the range from 77 to 300 K does not effect practically on the disorded region parameters

  13. Indium tin oxide surface smoothing by gas cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    CO sub 2 cluster ions are irradiated at the acceleration voltage of 25 kV to remove hillocks on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces and thus to attain highly smooth surfaces. CO sub 2 monomer ions are also bombarded on the ITO surfaces at the same acceleration voltage to compare sputtering phenomena. From the atomic force microscope results, the irradiation of monomer ions makes the hillocks sharper and the surfaces rougher from 1.31 to 1.6 nm in roughness. On the other hand, the irradiation of CO sub 2 cluster ions reduces the height of hillocks and planarize the ITO surfaces as smooth as 0.92 nm in roughness. This discrepancy could be explained by large lateral sputtering yield of the cluster ions and re-deposition of sputtered particles by the impact of the cluster ions on surfaces.

  14. Nonequilibrium dephasing in two-dimensional indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2001-01-01

    We report on results of resistance R and magnetoresistance in diffusive indium oxide films measured down to T=0.28K. Analyzing the data using weak-localization theory shows that the phase-coherent time τ v ar-phi increases without bound as T->0. However, this result is obtained only when the voltage applied to the sample V is sufficiently small. When V is not small, τ v ar-phi may appear to 'saturate' while R continues to increase as T->0. Possible reasons for this intriguing behavior are discussed. It is argued that in out-of-equilibrium situations R(T) and τ v ar-phi(T) need not behave similarly. We suggest a heuristic picture, involving two-level systems, which might be consistent with our observations

  15. Indium-111 tropolone, a new tracer for platelet labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Rao, S.A.; Rosemark, J.A.; Chowdhury, S.; Didisheim, P.

    1982-01-01

    Platelets have been labeled with a new neutral, lipid-soluble metal complex of indium 111 ( 111 In) and tropolone. Unlike oxine, which is soluble in ethyl alcohol, tropolone is soluble in isotonic saline. Platelet labeling with 111 In tropolone can be performed in both acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) plasma and ACD saline within two hours. Labeling efficiency has been 80% to 90%. 111 In tropolone in ACD saline and ACD plasma at tropolone concentrations of 5 and 10 micrograms/ml, respectively, and incubation of the platelets with the tracer at room temperature for 20 minutes were optimal conditions for labeling. The authors have developed an ACD-saline kit for convenient preparation of 111 In-labeled platelets. No adverse effect of 111 In tropolone on platelets has been observed in studies of biodistribution, recovery, and survival of platelets in rabbits and dogs

  16. Indium-111 tropolone, a new tracer for platelet labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Rao, S.A.; Rosemark, J.A.; Chowdhury, S.; Didisheim, P.

    1982-01-01

    Platelets have been labeled with a new neutral, lipid-soluble metal complex of indium 111 ( 111 In) and tropolone. Unlike oxine, which is soluble in ethyl alcohol, tropolone is soluble in isotonic saline. Platelet labeling with 111 In tropolone can be performed in both acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) plasma and ACD saline within two hours. Labeling efficiency has been 80% to 90%. 111 In tropolone in ACD saline and ACD plasma at tropolone concentrations of 5 to 10 μg/ml, respectively, and incubation of the platelets with the tracer at room temperature for 20 minutes were optimal conditions for labeling. The authors have developed an ACD-saline kit for convenient preparation of 111 In-labeled platelets. No adverse effect of 111 In tropolone on platelets has been observed in studies of biodistribution, recovery, and survival of platelets in rabbits and dogs

  17. Neutron Imaging with Timepix Coupled Lithium Indium Diselenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan Herrera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The material lithium indium diselenide, a single crystal neutron sensitive semiconductor, has demonstrated its capabilities as a high resolution imaging device. The sensor was prepared with a 55 μ m pitch array of gold contacts, designed to couple with the Timepix imaging ASIC. The resulting device was tested at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, demonstrating a response to cold neutrons when enriched in 95% 6 Li. The imaging system performed a series of experiments resulting in a <200 μ m resolution limit with the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI Siemens star mask and a feature resolution of 34 μ m with a knife-edge test. Furthermore, the system was able to resolve the University of Tennessee logo inscribed into a 3D printed 1 cm 3 plastic block. This technology marks the application of high resolution neutron imaging using a direct readout semiconductor.

  18. Interaction of simple indium iodides with silver- and aluminium iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, Yu.N.; Halova, N.S.; Fedorov, P.I.

    1976-01-01

    Fusibility diagrams of the systems InI-AlI 3 , InI-AgI, InI 2 -AgI, and InI 2 -AlI 3 have been studied. In the system InI-AlI 3 a compound InAlI 4 has been detected having a melting point 194 deg C and two lamination regions. In the system InI-AgI two compounds In 2 AgI 3 and InAgI 2 are formed which melt incongruently at 272 deg and 220 deg C, respectively. The formation of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray phase analysis. Specific electroconductivity of a number of alloys of the system InI-AlI 3 has been studied. The systems of eutectic type formed by diiodide of indium with iodides of silver and aluminium have been studied by thermal and X-ray analysis and by measuring electroconductivity

  19. Chemical synthesis of hexagonal indium nitride nanocrystallines at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangbiao; Shen, Qianli; Zhao, Dejian; Lu, Juanjuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Junhao; Bao, Keyan; Zhou, Quanfa

    2017-08-01

    In this study, hexagonal indium nitride nanocystallines with high crystallinity have been prepared by the reaction of InCl3·4H2O, sulfur and NaNH2 in an autoclave at 160 °C. The crystal structures and morphologies of the obtained InN sample are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. As InCl3·4H2O is substituted by In(NO3)3·4.5H2O, InN nanocrystallines could also be obtained by using the similar method. The photoluminescence spectrum shows that the InN emits a broad peak positioned at 2.3 eV.

  20. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by comet test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is used for liquid crystal display (LCDs, electrochromic displays, flat panel displays, field emission displays, touch or laptop computer screens, cell phones, energy conserving architectural windows, defogging aircraft and automobile windows, heat-reflecting coatings to increase light bulb efficiency, gas sensors, antistatic window coatings, wear resistant layers on glass, nanowires and nanorods because of its unique properties of high electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical resistance.Genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was a observed at all concentrations of ITO by Comet assay. These result indicate that ITO exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  1. Gas Sensing Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyou Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium Tin Oxide (ITO nanofibers were fabricated by the electrospinning process. The morphology and crystal structure of ITO nanofibers were studied by SEM, XRD, and TEM respectively. The results showed that polycrystalline ITO nanofibers with an average diameter of 80 nm were obtained. Sensors based on these nanofibers were fabricated by collecting these nanofibers on the integrated sensor platforms. The ITO nanofiber-based sensors showed very fast and high sensor responses at both room and elevated temperatures for NO2. The ratios of resistance in NO2 over that in air were 5 at room temperature and 34 at the optimal working temperature, respectively. The ITO nanofiber-based sensor can be repeatedly used. The details for the fast, enhanced sensor responses and the optimal temperature were discussed.

  2. Multiple carrier transport in N-face indium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblmueller, Gregor; Gallinat, Chad S.; Speck, James S.; Umana-Membreno, Gilberto A.; Nener, Brett D.; Parish, Giacinta; Fehlberg, Tamara B.

    2008-01-01

    We present temperature (20-300 K) dependent multi-carrier measurements of electron species in N-face indium nitride. N-face InN samples were grown to different thicknesses (500-2000 nm) via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on C-face SiC substrates. Surface and bulk electron transport properties were extracted using a quantitative mobility spectrum analysis. Mobility of both bulk and surface electron species increase with film thickness. The temperature dependence of the mobility of both species differs to that of In-polar samples studied previously, while the mobility of surface electrons is more than twice that of In-polar samples with only a slight corresponding reduction in sheet concentration. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Amorphous Hafnium-Indium-Zinc Oxide Semiconductor Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Po Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported on the performance and electrical properties of co-sputtering-processed amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (α-HfIZO thin film transistors (TFTs. Co-sputtering-processed α-HfIZO thin films have shown an amorphous phase in nature. We could modulate the In, Hf, and Zn components by changing the co-sputtering power. Additionally, the chemical composition of α-HfIZO had a significant effect on reliability, hysteresis, field-effect mobility (μFE, carrier concentration, and subthreshold swing (S of the device. Our results indicated that we could successfully and easily fabricate α-HfIZO TFTs with excellent performance by the co-sputtering process. Co-sputtering-processed α-HfIZO TFTs were fabricated with an on/off current ratio of ~106, higher mobility, and a subthreshold slope as steep as 0.55 V/dec.

  4. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  5. AC surface photovoltage of indium phosphide nanowire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Baskin School of Engineering; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (US). Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Advanced Studies Laboratories

    2012-06-15

    Surface photovoltage is used to study the dynamics of photogenerated carriers which are transported through a highly interconnected three-dimensional network of indium phosphide nanowires. Through the nanowire network charge transport is possible over distances far in excess of the nanowire lengths. Surface photovoltage was measured within a region 10.5-14.5 mm from the focus of the illumination, which was chopped at a range of frequencies from 15 Hz to 30 kHz. Carrier dynamics were modeled by approximating the nanowire network as a thin film, then fitted to experiment suggesting diffusion of electrons and holes at approximately 75% of the bulk value in InP but with significantly reduced built-in fields, presumably due to screening by nanowire surfaces. (orig.)

  6. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P

    2010-01-01

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  7. Infrared absorption spectra of selenate compounds of indium (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Kadoshnikova, N.V.; Tananaev, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    Obtained and discussed are infrared absorption spectra (400-4000 cm -1 ) of the following indium selenates: In 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x5H 2 O, In 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x9H 2 O, NaIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x6H 2 O, NaIn(SeO 4 ) 2 xH 2 O, MIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x4H 2 O (M=NH 4 , K, Rb), CsIn(SeO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O, Na 3 In(SeO 4 ) 3 x7H 2 O, MIn(SeO 4 ) 2 (M=NH 4 , Na, K, Rb, Cs), M 2 InOH(SeO 4 ) 2 xyH 2 O (M=NH 4 , Na, K, Rb) and K 2 InOD(SeO 4 ) 2 xyD 2 O

  8. Temperature dependent structural and vibrational properties of liquid indium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A. B.; Bhatt, N. K.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the temperature effect on both the structure factor and the phonon dispersion relation of liquid indium have been investigated by means of pseudopotential theory. The Percus-Yevick Hard Sphere reference system is applied to describe the structural calculation. The effective electron-ion interaction is explained by using modified empty core potential due to Hasegawa et al. along with a local field correction function due to Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU). The temperature dependence of pair potential needed at higher temperatures was achieved by multiplying the damping factor exp(- π/kBT2k F r ) in the pair potential. Very close agreement of static structure factor, particularly, at elevated temperatures confirms the validity of the local potential. A positive dispersion is found in low-q region and the correct trend of phonon dispersion branches like the experimental; shows all broad features of collective excitations in liquid metals.

  9. Preparation of Indium Pentetate Complex (111 In-DTPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhosseini, S.; Farshidfar, G.R.; Najafi, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is no organometallic compound of Indium know to exist naturally in the human body. However, a number of compounds prepared with 111 In have been evaluated for localization studies. The useful radioactive decay characteristics and the suitable chemical properties of the metal ion have drawn attention of many investigators resulting in the preparation of numerous 111 In labeled compounds for potential medical applications. One of them is 111 In-DTPA complex that is used for cerebral spinal fluid studies. In the present study, DTPA has been chelated with 111 In by employing various methods and then tested for its stability in vitro during storage and in human plasma. Three methods for the preparation of 11 1In-DTPA were used. In every method, labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity were determined by chromatography systems

  10. Indium doped zinc oxide thin films obtained by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G.; Guerra, D.N.; Leinen, D.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Marotti, R.E.; Dalchiele, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO thin films were obtained by co-electrodeposition (precursor and dopant) from aqueous solution. XRD analysis showed typical patterns of the hexagonal ZnO structure for both doped and undoped films. No diffraction peaks of any other structure such as In 2 O 3 or In(OH) 3 were found. The incorporation of In into the ZnO film was verified by both EDS and XPS measurements. The bandgap energy of the films varied from 3.27 eV to 3.42 eV, increasing with the In concentration in the solution. This dependence was stronger for the less cathodic potentials. The incorporation of In into the film occurs as both, an In donor state in the ZnO grains and as an amorphous In 2 O 3 at the grain boundaries

  11. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urmila, K. S.; Asokan, T. Namitha; Pradeep, B.; Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena

    2014-01-01

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe2 with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10-5 mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe2 films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (α) of 106 cm-1 at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe2 thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  12. Indium antimonide nanowires arrays for promising thermoelectric converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorokh G. G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors have theoretically substantiated the possibility to create promising thermoelectric converters based on quantum wires. The calculations have shown that the use of quantum wires with lateral dimensions smaller than quantum confinement values and high concentration and mobility of electrons, can lead to a substantial cooling of one of the contacts up to tens of degrees and to the heating of the other. The technological methods of manufacturing of indium antimonide nanowires arrays with high aspect ratio of the nanowire diameters to their length in the modified nanoporous anodic alumina matrixes were developed and tested. The microstructure and composition of the formed nanostructures were investigated. The electron microscopy allowed establishing that within each pore nanowires are formed with diameters of 35 nm and a length of 35 microns (equal to the matrix thickness. The electron probe x-ray microanalysis has shown that the atomic ratio of indium and antimony in the semiconductor nanostructures amounted to 38,26% and 61,74%, respectively. The current-voltage measurement between the upper and lower contacts of Cu/InSb/Cu structure (1 mm2 has shown that at 2.82 V negative voltage at the emitter contact, current density is 129,8 A/cм2, and the collector contact is heated up to 75 degrees during 150 sec. Thus, the experimental results confirmed the theoretical findings that the quantum wire systems can be used to create thermoelectric devices, which can be widely applied in electronics, in particular, for cooling integrated circuits (processors, thermal controlling of the electrical circuits by changing voltage value.

  13. Rapid Seismic Deployment for Capturing Aftershocks of the September 2017 Tehuantepec, Mexico (M=8.1) and Morelos-Puebla (M=7.1), Mexico Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A. A.; Karplus, M. S.; Dena, O.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Husker, A. L.; Perez-Campos, X.; Calo, M.; Valdes, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The September 7 Tehuantepec, Mexico (M=8.1) and the September 19 Morelos-Puebla, Mexico (M=7.1) earthquakes ruptured with extensional faulting within the Cocos Plate at 70-km and 50-km depth, as it subducts beneath the continental North American Plate. Both earthquakes caused significant damage and loss of life. These events were followed by a M=6.1 extensional earthquake at only 10-km depth in Oaxaca on September 23, 2017. While the Morelos-Puebla earthquake was likely too far away to be statically triggered by the Tehuantepec earthquake, initial Coulomb stress analyses show that the M=6.1 event may have been an aftershock of the Tehuantepec earthquake. Many questions remain about these earthquakes, including: Did the Cocos Plate earthquakes load the upper plate, and could they possibly trigger an equal or larger earthquake on the plate interface? Are these the result of plate bending? Do the aftershocks migrate to the locked zone in the subduction zone? Why did the intermediate depth earthquakes create so much damage? Are these earthquakes linked by dynamic stresses? Is it possible that a potential slow-slip event triggered both events? To address some of these questions, we deployed 10 broadband seismometers near the epicenter of the Tehuantepec, Mexico earthquake and 51 UTEP-owned nodes (5-Hz, 3-component geophones) to record aftershocks and augment networks deployed by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). The 10 broadband instruments will be deployed for 6 months, while the nodes were deployed 25 days. The relative ease-of-deployment and larger numbers of the nodes allowed us to deploy them quickly in the area near the M=6.1 Oaxaca earthquake, just a few days after that earthquake struck. We deployed them near the heavily-damaged cities of Juchitan, Ixtaltepec, and Ixtepec as well as in Tehuantepec and Salina Cruz, Oaxaca in order to test their capabilities for site characterization and aftershock studies. This is the first test of these

  14. Surface characterization of sol–gel derived indium tin oxide films on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , India ... 1. Introduction. Indium tin oxide (ITO) coating on glass is an important item in the field ..... In addition, contamination of carbon from environment cannot be ruled ..... processing of ceramics, glasses and composites (eds) L L. Hench and ...

  15. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: yskim@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wiencek, T.; O' Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cheon, J.S.; Lee, B.O. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (∼50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  16. Different magnetic properties of rhombohedral and cubic Ni2+ doped indium oxide nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Sun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions doped indium oxide nanomaterials were potentially used as a kind of diluted magnetic semiconductors in transparent spintronic devices. In this paper, the influences of Ni2+ doped contents and rhombohedral or cubic crystalline structures of indium oxide on magnetic properties were investigated. We found that the magnetic properties of Ni2+ doped indium oxide could be transferred from room temperature ferromagnetisms to paramagnetic properties with increments of doped contents. Moreover, the different crystalline structures of indium oxide also greatly affected the room temperature ferromagnetisms due to different lattice constants and almost had no effects on their paramagnetic properties. In addition, both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic properties were demonstrated to be intrinsic and not caused by impurities.

  17. Calibration of differential scanning calorimeters: A comparison between indium and diphenylacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charsley, E.L.; Laye, P.G.; Markham, H.M.; Le Goff, T.

    2010-01-01

    The close proximity in melting temperature of the LGC Limited DSC standards indium and diphenylacetic acid, has enabled a direct assessment to be made of any differences resulting from the use of a metal or an organic compound in the calibration of DSC equipment. Following calibration with indium, the equilibrium fusion temperatures for diphenylacetic acid, were determined by both the stepwise heating and extrapolation to zero heating rate methods. The results were in excellent agreement with the certificate values and established that indium may be used as a calibrant when making accurate DSC measurements on organic materials in the same temperature range and that it has the advantage that it is non-volatile and can be used a number of times without significant change. Similar agreement was obtained in the measurement of the enthalpy of fusion, although the larger heat capacity change on fusion of diphenylacetic acid resulted in a greater uncertainty than with indium.

  18. New compounds of indium(III) with 2,4'-bipyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakis-Sulikowska, D.; Kaluzna-Czaplinska, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of present work was to obtain complexes of indium(III) with 2,4'-bipyridine and examine some of their physico-chemical properties (solubility, molar conductivity in methanol, IR spectra and thermal analysis)

  19. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O' Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A.; Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (~50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  20. INDIUM AND ZINC MEDIATED ONE-ATOM CARBOCYCLE ENLARGEMENT IN WATER. (R822668)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSix-, seven-, eight-membered rings are enlarged by one carbon-atom into seven-, eight- and nine-membered ring derivatives respectively, via indium or zinc mediated reactions in aqueous medium.

  1. Properties of polycrystalline indium oxide in open air and in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'eva, A.E.; Zhdanov, V.A.; Markov, V.L.; Shvangiradze, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of polycrystalline indium oxide according to annealing temperature in open air and in vacuum are investigated. It is established that the indium oxide begins to change its chemical composition during the annealing in the open air from 1200 deg C, and in the vacuum - form 800 deg C. During the annealing of the samples in ths open air in the temperature range of 1200-1450 deg C the lattice of the indium oxide loses probably, only oxygen; this process is accompanied by change of the samples color, electrophysical properties, lattice parameter density. Cation sublattice is disturbed in the vacuum beginning from 900 deg C, which is accompanied by destruction of the color centers. X-ray density and the activation energy of the reduction accounting the formation of the color centers are calculated on the base of the X-ray data and the deviation from stoichiometry of the indium oxide depending on the annealing temperature in the open air

  2. Diagnostic compositions containing a chelate of radioactive indium and 8-hydroxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedemans, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    There are disclosed aqueous, radioassaying solutions of a chelate of radioactive indium and an 8-hydroxyquinoline, having an essential absence of an organic solvent, e.g., alcohol or chloroform. The solutions are useful in radioassaying warmblooded animals. (author)

  3. Evaluation of indium-111 colloid for radionuclide imaging of the abdominal lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieras, F.; Hamilton, R.F.; Grissom, M.P.; Kiepffer, R.F.; Vandergrift, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental evaluation of indium-111 colloid for imaging the para-aortic lymph nodes in animals is described and preliminary results obtained in human subjects. Serial lymphatic scintigraphy performed in beagle dogs following bilateral pedal subcutaneous injections of indium-111 colloid revealed good para-aortic lymph node visualization. A normal migration pattern of indium-111 colloid was also observed in human subjects following subcutaneous injection in the feet; there was clear visualization of the ileo-inguinal and para-aortic lymph nodes. Organ distribution studies for indium-111 colloid were performed in rats following unilateral pedal subcutaneous injection in rats; these results were used for calculating radiation dose estimates to various organs. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using 111 In-colloid clinically for abdominal lymphatic scintiography for the use of sup(99m)Tc-labelled colloids results in lower radiation doses. (U.K.)

  4. Indium--tin oxide films radio frequency sputtered from specially formulated high density indium--tin oxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Bayard, M.

    1991-01-01

    High density ITO (indium--tin oxide) targets doped with Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 manufactured in the Tektronix Ceramics Division have been used to rf sputter ITO films of various thicknesses on borosilicate glass substrates. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in forming gas, resulted in ITO films exhibiting 90% transmission at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω/sq for a thickness of 1100 A. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in air increased sheet resistance without a large effect on the transmission. Films sputtered in argon gas alone were transparent in the visible and the sheet resistance was found to be 100--180 Ω/sq for the same thickness, without annealing

  5. Elastic properties of zinc, cadmium, bismuth, thallium, tin, lead and their binary alloys with indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magomedov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Rates of propagation of longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves in samples as well as density of Tl, Pb, Sn, Bi, Cd, Zn and their binary alloys with indium are determined. The results obtained are used for calculation of elasticity constants of these materials. It is stated that concentration dependences of elasticity constants for indium alloys have non-linear character; negative deflection from the additive line is observed

  6. Polyol-mediated synthesis of copper indium sulphide by solvothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, S.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2005-01-01

    A simple polyol-mediated solvothermal method has been proposed to synthesize copper indium sulphide. XRD studies reveal that the products are well crystallized. SEM indicates rod-like (with different aspect ratio) and star-shaped flake-like morphology of the products. The products are also characterized by optical studies and compositional analysis (XRF). XRF results show the formation of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric copper indium sulphides depending on the reaction conditions

  7. Tin–indium/graphene with enhanced initial coulombic efficiency and rate performance for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hongxun; Li, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid was firstly synthesized. • Indium in the hybrid reduces charge transfer resistance of electrode. • Graphene can accommodate the volume change of nanoparticles during cycling. • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid shows enhanced initial coulombic efficiency. • Tin–indium/graphene hybrid shows enhanced rate capability. -- Abstract: Tin is an attractive anode material replacing the current commercial graphite for the next generation lithium ion batteries because of its high theoretical storage capacity and energy density. However, poor capacity retention caused by large volume changes during cycling, and low rate capability frustrate its practical application. In this study, a new ternary composite based on tin–indium alloy (Sn–In) and graphene nanosheet (GNS) was prepared via a facile solvothermal synthesis followed by thermal treatment in hydrogen and argon at 550 °C. Characterizations show that the tin–indium nanoparticles with about 100 nm in size were wrapped between the graphene nanosheets. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the Sn–In/GNS composite exhibits a remarkably improved electrochemical performance in terms of lithium storage capacity (865.6 mAh g −1 at 100 mA g −1 rate), initial coulombic efficiency (78.6%), cycling stability (83.9% capacity retention after 50 cycles), and rate capability (493.2 mAh g −1 at 600 mA g −1 rate after 25 cycles) compared to Sn/GNS and Sn–In electrode. This improvement is attributed to the introduction of lithium activity metal, indium, which reduces the charge transfer resistance of electrode, and the graphene nanosheet which accommodates the volume change of tin–indium nanoparticles during cycling and improves electrical conductivity of material

  8. Laser- and gamma-induced transformations of optical spectra of indium-doped sodium borate glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kopyshinsky, O V; Zelensky, S E; Danilchenko, B A; Shakhov, O P

    2003-01-01

    The optical absorption and luminescence properties of indium-doped sodium borate glass irradiated by gamma-rays and by powerful UV lasers within the impurity-related absorption band are investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that both the laser- and gamma-irradiation cause similar transformations of optical spectra in the UV and visible regions. The changes of the spectra observed are described with the use of a model which includes three types of impurity centres formed by differently charged indium ions.

  9. Indium oxide octahedrons based on sol–gel process enhance room temperature gas sensing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Xiaohui [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Chen, Changlong, E-mail: chem.chencl@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Han, Liuyuan [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Shao, Baiqi [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wei, Yuling [Instrumental Analysis Center, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353, Shandong (China); Liu, Qinglong; Zhu, Peihua [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • In{sub 2}O{sub 3} octahedron films are prepared based on sol–gel technique for the first time. • The preparation possesses merits of low temperature, catalyst-free and large production. • It was found that the spin-coating process in film fabrication was key to achieve the octahedrons. • The In{sub 2}O{sub 3} octahedrons could significantly enhance room temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensing performance. - Abstract: Indium oxide octahedrons were prepared on glass substrates through a mild route based on sol–gel technique. The preparation possesses characteristics including low temperature, catalyst-free and large production, which is much distinguished from the chemical-vapor-deposition based methods that usually applied to prepare indium oxide octahedrons. Detailed characterization revealed that the indium oxide octahedrons were single crystalline, with {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed. It was found that the spin-coating technique was key for achieving the indium oxide crystals with octahedron morphology. The probable formation mechanism of the indium oxide octahedrons was proposed based on the experiment results. Room temperature NO{sub 2} gas sensing measurements exhibited that the indium oxide octahedrons could significantly enhance the sensing performance in comparison with the plate-like indium oxide particles that prepared from the dip-coated gel films, which was attributed to the abundant sharp edges and tips as well as the special {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed that the former possessed. Such a simple wet-chemical based method to prepare indium oxide octahedrons with large-scale production is promising to provide the advanced materials that can be applied in wide fields like gas sensing, solar energy conversion, field emission, and so on.

  10. Isotope release cytotoxicity assay applicable to human tumors: the use of 111-indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, P; Wiltrout, R; Maciorowski, Z; Rose, N R

    1977-01-01

    We have demonstrated that human tumors can be labelled efficiently with the 111indium-oxine chelate. Subsequently, this isotope can be released by cytotoxic lymphoid cells. Both natural and induced cytotoxicity can be demonstrated utilizing this isotope release method. Because of the slow spontaneous release of 111indium and its efficient labelling of human tumor cells, this isotope release assay can be utilized in long-term cytotoxic assays in the study of human tumor immunology.

  11. Indium oxide octahedrons based on sol–gel process enhance room temperature gas sensing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Xiaohui; Chen, Changlong; Han, Liuyuan; Shao, Baiqi; Wei, Yuling; Liu, Qinglong; Zhu, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In 2 O 3 octahedron films are prepared based on sol–gel technique for the first time. • The preparation possesses merits of low temperature, catalyst-free and large production. • It was found that the spin-coating process in film fabrication was key to achieve the octahedrons. • The In 2 O 3 octahedrons could significantly enhance room temperature NO 2 gas sensing performance. - Abstract: Indium oxide octahedrons were prepared on glass substrates through a mild route based on sol–gel technique. The preparation possesses characteristics including low temperature, catalyst-free and large production, which is much distinguished from the chemical-vapor-deposition based methods that usually applied to prepare indium oxide octahedrons. Detailed characterization revealed that the indium oxide octahedrons were single crystalline, with {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed. It was found that the spin-coating technique was key for achieving the indium oxide crystals with octahedron morphology. The probable formation mechanism of the indium oxide octahedrons was proposed based on the experiment results. Room temperature NO 2 gas sensing measurements exhibited that the indium oxide octahedrons could significantly enhance the sensing performance in comparison with the plate-like indium oxide particles that prepared from the dip-coated gel films, which was attributed to the abundant sharp edges and tips as well as the special {1 1 1} crystal facets exposed that the former possessed. Such a simple wet-chemical based method to prepare indium oxide octahedrons with large-scale production is promising to provide the advanced materials that can be applied in wide fields like gas sensing, solar energy conversion, field emission, and so on

  12. Positive indium-III bone marrow scan in metastatic breast carcinoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaManna, M.M.; Hyzinski, M.; Swami, V.K.; Parker, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Indium is generally presumed to localize in the bone marrow within the erythroid cell line. Fibrosis, inflammation, lymphoma, extended field radiation, chemotherapy, or combinations of both treatment modalities generally depress the uptake of indium by the marrow in a complex fashion. We report a case of metastatic breast carcinoma and pancytopenia in which the In-111 scan appeared qualitatively similar to a Tc-99m MDP bone scan. Findings were confirmed by bone marrow biopsy

  13. Copper-assisted shape control in colloidal synthesis of indium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selishcheva, Elena; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.kolny@uni-oldenburg.de [University of Oldenburg, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Indium oxide is an important n-type transparent semiconductor, finding application in solar cells, sensors, and optoelectronic devices. We present here a novel non-injection synthesis route for the preparation of colloidal indium oxide nanocrystals by using oleylamine (OLA) as ligand and as solvent. Indium oxide with cubic crystallographic structure is formed in a reaction between indium acetate and OLA, the latter is converted to oleylamide during the synthesis. The shape of the nanocrystals can be influenced by the addition of copper ions. When only indium (III) acetate is used as precursor flower-shaped indium oxide nanoparticles are obtained. Addition of copper salts such as copper (I) acetate, copper (II) acetate, copper (II) acetylacetonate, or copper (I) chloride, under otherwise identical reaction conditions changes the shape of nanoparticles to quasi-spherical or elongated. The anions, except for chloride, do not influence the shape of the resulting nanocrystals. This finding suggests that adsorption of copper ions on the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface during the nanoparticles growth is responsible for shape control, whereas changes in the reactivity of the In cations caused by the presence of different anions play a secondary role. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and UV-Vis-absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the samples.

  14. Copper-assisted shape control in colloidal synthesis of indium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selishcheva, Elena; Parisi, Jürgen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Indium oxide is an important n-type transparent semiconductor, finding application in solar cells, sensors, and optoelectronic devices. We present here a novel non-injection synthesis route for the preparation of colloidal indium oxide nanocrystals by using oleylamine (OLA) as ligand and as solvent. Indium oxide with cubic crystallographic structure is formed in a reaction between indium acetate and OLA, the latter is converted to oleylamide during the synthesis. The shape of the nanocrystals can be influenced by the addition of copper ions. When only indium (III) acetate is used as precursor flower-shaped indium oxide nanoparticles are obtained. Addition of copper salts such as copper (I) acetate, copper (II) acetate, copper (II) acetylacetonate, or copper (I) chloride, under otherwise identical reaction conditions changes the shape of nanoparticles to quasi-spherical or elongated. The anions, except for chloride, do not influence the shape of the resulting nanocrystals. This finding suggests that adsorption of copper ions on the In 2 O 3 surface during the nanoparticles growth is responsible for shape control, whereas changes in the reactivity of the In cations caused by the presence of different anions play a secondary role. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and UV–Vis-absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the samples.

  15. Polarographic studies about indium (III) behaviour in aqueous media of sodium azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, R.

    1988-01-01

    The present study shows some polarographic behavior of indium (III) in azide media that is close those observed in a thiocyanate solution. The presence of azide ligand decreases the overpotential in the discharge of indium whose catalytic character can be explained by formation of an azide bridge between electrode and indium (III) increasing the speed of electron transfer. The discharge of indium in azide media is diffusion controlled. As the azide concentration is increased the half wave potential displaces in the cathodic direction. This displacement is due to complex formation. The number of electrons, n, involved in the total process was estimates by the reversible polarographic equation to be 2,7. The potentiostatic coulometry of indium in azide/hydrazoic acid buffer showed a catalytic process where the chemistry regeneration was performed by reaction of hydrazoic acid and indium amalgam. The electrochemistry evidence was the constancy of current as the electrolysis proceeded. The chemistry aspect was the presence of ammonium cation in electrolysed solution. The catalytic process with chemistry regeneration and the formation of a bridge by azide could explain the higher value of current in azide media compared to perchlorate solution. (author) [pt

  16. The effect of annealing ambient on surface segregation in indium implanted sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.K.; Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne; Zhou, W.; Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne; Academia Sinica, Shanghai Institute of Metallurgy; Cao, D.X.; Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne; Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH

    1991-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of annealing ambient on both indium surface segregation and lattice damage recovery of single crystal Al 2 O 3 has been done by performing 1 hour anneals at 800 deg C for the samples identically implanted with indium ions at 100keV energy to a high dose of 5x10 16 ions/cm 2 . Following solid phase epitaxial re-crystallization of amorphous layer, the indium dopant shows rapid thermal migration. The indium redistribution consists of 2 parts: 1. appreciable broadening corresponding to diffusion within the amorphous layer, and 2. indium segregation to the free surface to form In 2 O 3 , or escape out of the surface to sublime into the surrounding ambient. Lattice damage recovery depends on indium concentration profile in amorphous layer of Al 2 O 3 which is directly influenced by the annealing ambient. It is confirmed that the presence of moisture or oxygen in annealing ambient results in In 2 O 3 formation on the surface. (author). 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Synthesis of indium nanoclusters and formation of thin film contacts on plastic substrates for organic and flexible electronics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Frank F; Bulkowski, Michal; Hsieh, K C

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we described the processes of synthesizing free-standing indium nanoclusters using inverse micelles and microemulsions as well as synthesizing organic-encapsulated indium nanoclusters using alkanethiols as the organic encapsulants. The synthesized organic-encapsulated indium nanoclusters have demonstrated the feasibilities to be used as plastic compatible soft metal contacts for emerging organic devices. The homogeneously distributed indium nanoclusters with sizes of 10-30 nm have been fabricated on a few different plastic substrates. By changing the alkanethiol carbon chain length and the sizes of the indium nanoclusters, the annealing temperature required to form low-resistance indium thin film conductors has been reduced to 80-100 deg. C, which is acceptable for a variety of organic thin films

  18. Indium recovery from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction with D2EHPA: a statistical approach to the experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes M.C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work presents the optimization results of obtaining a high indium concentration solution and minimum iron poisoning by solvent extraction with D2EHPA solubilized in isoparaffin and exxsol. The variables studied in the extraction step were D2EHPA concentration, acidity of the aqueous phase and time of contact between phases. Different hydrochloric and sulfuric acid concentrations were studied for the stripping step. The optimum experimental conditions resulted in a solution with 99% indium extraction and less than 4% iron. The construction of a McCabe-Thiele diagram indicated two theoretical countercurrent stages for indium extraction and at least six stages for indium stripping. Finally, the influence of associated metals found in typical sulfate leach liquors from zinc plants was studied. Under the experimental conditions for maximum indium extraction, 96% indium extraction was obtained, iron extraction was about 4% and no Ga, Cu and Zn were co-extracted.

  19. Spectral analysis of the fifth spectrum of indium: In V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swapnil; Tauheed, A.

    2016-01-01

    The fifth spectrum of indium (In V) has been investigated in the grazing and normal incidence wavelength regions. In"4"+ is a Rh-like ion with the ground configuration 4p"64d"9 and first excited configurations of the type 4p"64d"8nℓ (n≥4). The theoretical predications for this ion were made by Cowan's quasi-relativistic Hartree–Fock code with superposition of configurations involving 4p"64d"8(5p+6p+7p+4f+5f+6f), 4p"54d"1"0, 4p"64d"75s(5p+4f) for the odd parity matrix and 4p"64d"8 (5s+6s+7s+5d+6d), 4p"64d"7(5s"2+5p"2) for the even parity system. The spectra used for this work were recorded on 10.7 m grazing and normal incidence spectrographs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA) and also on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at Antigonish (Canada). The sources used were a sliding spark and a triggered spark respectively. Two hundred and thirty two energy levels based on the identification of 873 spectral lines have been established, forty six being new. Least squares fitted parametric calculations were used to interpret the observed level structure. The energy levels were optimized using a level optimization computer program (LOPT). Our wavelength accuracy for sharp and unblended lines is estimated to be within ±0.005 Å for λ below 400 Å and ±0.006 Å up to 1200 Å. - Highlights: • Indium spectra were recorded on both grazing and normal incidence spectrographs. • Calculations were made with Cowan's quasi-relativistic Hartree–Fock code. • New atomic transitions of In V were identified with newly found energy levels. • Uncertainties and Ritz wavelengths of all observed transitions were calculated. • Weighted transition probabilities (gA) were calculated.

  20. Investigation of an Electrochemical Method for Separation of Copper, Indium, and Gallium from Pretreated CIGS Solar Cell Waste Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. K. Gustafsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of the semiconductor material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS is important to ensure a future supply of indium and gallium, which are relatively rare and therefore expensive elements. As a continuation of our previous work, where we recycled high purity selenium from CIGS waste materials, we now show that copper and indium can be recycled by electrodeposition from hydrochloric acid solutions of dissolved selenium-depleted material. Suitable potentials for the reduction of copper and indium were determined to be −0.5 V and −0.9 V (versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode, respectively, using cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition of first copper and then indium from a solution containing the dissolved residue from the selenium separation and ammonium chloride in 1 M HCl gave a copper yield of 100.1 ± 0.5% and an indium yield of 98.1 ± 2.5%. The separated copper and indium fractions contained no significant contamination of the other elements. Gallium remained in solution together with a small amount of indium after the separation of copper and indium and has to be recovered by an alternative method since electrowinning from the chloride-rich acid solution was not effective.

  1. Spectroscopic investigation of indium halides as substitudes of mercury in low pressure discharges for lighting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briefi, Stefan

    2012-05-22

    Low pressure discharges with indium halides as radiator are discussed as substitutes for hazardous mercury in conventional fluorescent lamps. In this work, the applicability of InBr and InCl in a low pressure discharge light source is investigated. The aim is to identify and understand the physical processes which determine the discharge characteristics and the efficiency of the generated near-UV emission of the indium halide molecule and of the indium atom which is created due to dissociation processes in the plasma. As discharge vessels sealed cylindrical quartz glass tubes which contain a defined amount of indium halide and a rare gas are used. Preliminary investigations showed that for a controlled variation of the indium halide density a well-defined cold spot setup is mandatory. This was realized in the utilized experimental setup. The use of metal halides raises the issue, that power coupling by internal electrodes is not possible as the electrodes would quickly be eroded by the halides. The comparison of inductive and capacitive RF-coupling with external electrodes revealed that inductively coupled discharges provide higher light output and much better long term stability. Therefore, all investigations are carried out using inductive RF-coupling. The diagnostic methods optical emission and white light absorption spectroscopy are applied. As the effects of absorption-signal saturation and reabsorption of emitted radiation within the plasma volume could lead to an underestimation of the determined population densities by orders of magnitude, these effects are considered in the data evaluation. In order to determine the electron temperature and the electron density from spectroscopic measurements, an extended corona model as population model of the indium atom has been set up. A simulation of the molecular emission spectra has been implemented to investigate the rovibrational population processes of the indium halide molecules. The impact of the cold spot

  2. A Solid-Contact Indium(III) Sensor based on a Thiosulfinate Ionophore Derived from Omeprazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mohammad Nooredeen; Hend Samy Amer [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    A novel solid-contact indium(III)-selective sensor based on bis-(1H-benzimidazole-5-methoxy-2-[(4-methoxy-3, 5-dimethyl-1-pyridinyl) 2-methyl]) thiosulfinate, known as an omeprazole dimer (OD) and a neutral ionophore, was constructed, and its performance characteristics were evaluated. The sensor was prepared by applying a membrane cocktail containing the ionophore to a graphite rod pre-coated with polyethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT) conducting polymer as the ion-to-electron transducer. The membrane contained 3.6% OD, 2.3% oleic acid (OA) and 62% dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as the solvent mediator in PVC and produced a good potentiometric response to indium(III) ions with a Nernstian slope of 19.09 mV/decade. The constructed sensor possessed a linear concentration range from 3 Χ 10{sup -7} to 1 Χ 10{sup -2} M and a lower detection limit (LDL) of 1 Χ 10{sup -7} M indium(III) over a pH range of 4.0-7.0. It also displayed a fast response time and good selectivity for indium(III) over several other ions. The sensor can be used for longer than three months without any considerable divergence in potential. The sensor was utilized for direct and flow injection potentiometric (FIP) determination of indium(III) in alloys. The parameters that control the flow injection method were optimized. Indium(III) was quantitatively recovered, and the results agreed with those obtained using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as confirmed by the f and t values. The sensor was also utilized as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of fluoride in the presence of chloride, bromide, iodide and thiocyanate ions using indium(III) nitrate as the titrant.

  3. Alterations in an indium-111 Fab' under conditions of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, S.E.; Sudora, E.; Tarburton, J.P.; Hagar, P.

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate alterations that occur in an indium/111 Fab' of a monoclonal antibody following its in vivo administration. Patients were infused with 111 In-Fab' of the monoclonal antibody ZCE-025. Serum and urine specimens were collected from these pateients. Starting materials, serum, urine and controls samples were studied by electrophoresis. Animal distribution studies were performed in normal Balb/c mice and, in some cases, nude mice bearing a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/producing human colon tumour since the antibody targets CEA. The studies indicated that the molecule circulated almost totally intact for at least 4 h and to a considerable extent for 24 h, with some evidence for in vivo fragmentation by 24 h. Evidence was also obtained suggesting the formation of a high molecular weight species in some patients. Shortly after infusion, some of the 111 In in the urine appeared as the intact Fab', but within hours the majority migrated electro-phoretically as low molecular weight species. We conclude that while the majority of the 111 In-Fab' of this particular antibody remains intact and immunoreactive following its administration, the molecule is structurally changed to some degree shortly after its infusion into humans. Since each monoclonal antibody is unique, the degree and rapidity of degradation of its Fab' in vivo could vary markedly from the above and possibly adversely effect its utility as a radiopharmaceutical. (orig.)

  4. Polycrystalline Mn-alloyed indium tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Schmidt, Heidemarie; Xu, Qingyu; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Kolitsch, Andreas; Helm, Manfred; Iacomi, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic ITO films are interesting for integrating ITO into magneto-optoelectronic devices. We investigated n-conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) films with different Mn doping concentration which have been grown by chemical vapour deposition using targets with the atomic ratio In:Sn:Mn=122:12:0,114:12:7, and 109:12:13. The average film roughness ranges between 30 and 50 nm and XRD patterns revealed a polycrystalline structure. Magnetotransport measurements revealed negative magnetoresistance for all the samples, but high field positive MR can be clearly observed at 5 K with increasing Mn doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used to prove the existence of midgap states in the Mn-alloyed ITO films revealing a transmittance less than 80%. A reasonable model for the ca. 250 nm thick Mn-alloyed ITO films has been developed to extract optical constants from SE data below 3 eV. Depending on the Mn content, a Lorentz oscillator placed between 1 and 2 eV was used to model optical absorption below the band gap

  5. Surface energy for electroluminescent polymers and indium-tin-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhiyou; Yin Sheng; Liu Chen; Zhong Youxin; Zhang Wuxing; Shi Dufang; Wang Chang'an

    2003-01-01

    The contact angles on the thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) were measured by the sessile-drop technique. The surface energies of the films were calculated using the Owens-Wendt (OW) and van Oss-Chaudhury-Good (vOCG) approaches. The overall total surface energies of MEH-PPV and the as-received ITO were 30.75 and 30.07 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Both approaches yielded almost the same surface energies. The surface energies were mainly contributed from the dispersion interactions or Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) interactions for both MEH-PPV and ITO. The changes in the contact angles and surface energies of the ITO films, due to different solvent cleaning processes and oxygen plasma treatments, were analyzed. Experimental results revealed that the total surface energy of the ITO films increased after various cleaning processes. In comparison with different solvents used in this study, we found that methanol is an effective solvent for ITO cleaning, as a higher surface energy was observed. ITO films treated with oxygen plasma showed the highest surface energy. This work demonstrated that contact angle measurement is a useful method to diagnose the cleaning effect on ITO films

  6. 111indium-antimyosin immunoscintigraphy in suspected myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.; Schuemichen, C.; Joseph, A.; Moser, E.; Zeiher, A.

    1991-01-01

    111 Indium-monoclonal antimyosin scans were carried out in 21 patients with suspected myocarditis, confirmed by reduced ejection volume, pericardial effusion and clinical follow up in 12 patients. Coronary heart disease was excluded angiographically in all cases. Quantitative evaluation of myocardial 111 In-antimyosin accumulation 48 hours after injection showed a pathological uptake in 10/12 patients with increased heart/lung ratios (Q 48 >1,58). Ratios were also elevated in 2 patients with cardiomyopathy, 2 suffering from vasculitis and 1 with dermatomyositis. Four patients without proven cardiac disease had normal ratios (Q 48 ≤1,58). Examination after 24 hours was of limited value, depending on the residual blood pool activity. Visual analysis of the scans showed a high interobserver variation despite a positive correlation with quantitative analysis (48 h p.i.: r=0,72; p 111 In-antimyosin scan as a screening method prior to myocardial biopsy. However, scintigraphy cannot definitely elucidate the cause of myocardial damage. Therefore, myocardial biopsy is still recommended after positive antimyosin scans. (orig.) [de

  7. Supramolecular compounds of indium sulfates with nitrogen-containing cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyants, S.P.; Ilyukhin, A.B.; Ketsko, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Compounds with a general formula [Cat][In(H 2 O) n (SO 4 ) 2 ] x · mH 2 O (where Cat = C(NH 2 ) 3 , H(2,2'-Bipy), H 2 (4,4'-Bipy), H 2 [Py(CH 2 ) 3 Py], and H 3 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 3 ) were synthesized and identified from the elemental analysis, IR, and thermogravimetric analysis data. X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline [C(NH 2 ) 3 ][In(H 2 O) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 ] complex has shown that the polymer chains of In aqua sulfate form ensembles with guanidinium ions. The structure of [H 2 (4,4'-Bipy)][In 2 (H 2 O) 6 (SO 4 ) 4 ] · 2H 2 O consists of the dimeric anions of indium sulfate. The coordination sphere of In includes three O atoms of three SO 4 groups and three O atoms of water molecules. The dimers are united into framework by diprotonated Bipy cations [ru

  8. Band gap engineering of indium zinc oxide by nitrogen incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J.J., E-mail: jjosila@hotmail.com [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo la Bufa, Fracc. Progreso, C.P. 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Doctorado Institucional de Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78270 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M.A.; Alarcón, G. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Legaría, Calz. Legaría No. 694, Col. Irrigación, C.P. 11500 México D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional campus Zacatenco, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360 México D.F. (Mexico); and others

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • IZON thin films were deposited by RF reactive sputtering at room temperature. • The effects of nitrogen on physical properties of IZO were analyzed. • Optical properties of IZON were studied by SE and UV–vis spectroscopy. • Adachi and classical parameters were quantitative and qualitatively congruent. • Nitrogen induces a gradual narrowing band gap from 3.5 to 2.5 eV on IZON films. - Abstract: The effects of nitrogen incorporation in indium zinc oxide films, as grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering, on the structural, electrical and optical properties were studied. It was determined that the variation of the N{sub 2}/Ar ratio, in the reactive gas flux, was directly proportional to the nitrogen percentage measured in the sample, and the incorporated nitrogen, which substituted oxygen in the films induces changes in the band gap of the films. This phenomenon was observed by measurement of absorption and transmission spectroscopy in conjunction with spectral ellipsometry. To fit the ellipsometry spectra, the classical and Adachi dispersion models were used. The obtained optical parameters presented notable changes related to the increment of the nitrogen in the film. The band gap narrowed from 3.5 to 2.5 eV as the N{sub 2}/Ar ratio was increased. The lowest resistivity obtained for these films was 3.8 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 5.1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}.

  9. Band gap engineering of indium zinc oxide by nitrogen incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J.J.; Aguilar-Frutis, M.A.; Alarcón, G.; Falcony, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • IZON thin films were deposited by RF reactive sputtering at room temperature. • The effects of nitrogen on physical properties of IZO were analyzed. • Optical properties of IZON were studied by SE and UV–vis spectroscopy. • Adachi and classical parameters were quantitative and qualitatively congruent. • Nitrogen induces a gradual narrowing band gap from 3.5 to 2.5 eV on IZON films. - Abstract: The effects of nitrogen incorporation in indium zinc oxide films, as grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering, on the structural, electrical and optical properties were studied. It was determined that the variation of the N 2 /Ar ratio, in the reactive gas flux, was directly proportional to the nitrogen percentage measured in the sample, and the incorporated nitrogen, which substituted oxygen in the films induces changes in the band gap of the films. This phenomenon was observed by measurement of absorption and transmission spectroscopy in conjunction with spectral ellipsometry. To fit the ellipsometry spectra, the classical and Adachi dispersion models were used. The obtained optical parameters presented notable changes related to the increment of the nitrogen in the film. The band gap narrowed from 3.5 to 2.5 eV as the N 2 /Ar ratio was increased. The lowest resistivity obtained for these films was 3.8 × 10 −4 Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 5.1 × 10 20 cm −3

  10. Indium(III) complexes with some salicylidene aromatic Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.R.; Issa, I.M.; El-Gyar, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    In(III) complexes with salicylidene aromatic Schiff bases have been prepared. The nature of the complexes has been studied by microanalysis of the solid complexes, conductometric titration, uv and ir spectrophotometric measurements. The complexes are of the type 1 : 1 and 2 : 1 [Ligand : In(III)] depending upon the Schiff base. The tendency of the salicylidene Schiff base molecule towards complex formation with In(III) is found to depend largely on the strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bound established between the aldehydic OH group and C = N. Furthermore, it is concluded that these Schiff bases coordinate to In(III) as tri- or bidentate ligands depending upon the molecular structure of the Schiff base (not as monodentate ligand as previously described). The high molar absorbance of the 1 : 2 In(II) complex with salicylidene-o-hydroxyaniline I (17,800 mo1 -1 cm 2 ) can be applied for the micro determination of small amounts of Indium as low as 0.57 anti g/m1 solution. (author)

  11. Electrical and optical properties of amorphous indium zinc oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, N.; Sato, Y.; Song, P.K.; Kaijio, A.; Inoue, K.; Shigesato, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Valence electron control and electron transport mechanisms on the amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) films were investigated. The amorphous IZO films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering using an oxide ceramic IZO target (89.3 wt.% In 2 O 3 and 10.7 wt.% ZnO). N-type impurity dopings, such as Sn, Al or F, could not lead to the increase in carrier density in the IZO. Whereas, H 2 introduction into the IZO deposition process was confirmed to be effective to increase carrier density. By 30% H 2 introduction into the deposition process, carrier density increased from 3.08 x 10 2 to 7.65 x 10 2 cm -3 , which must be originated in generations of oxygen vacancies or interstitial Zn 2+ ions. Decrease in the transmittance in the near infrared region and increase in the optical band gap were observed with the H 2 introduction, which corresponded to the increase in carrier density. The lowest resistivity of 3.39 x 10 -4 Ω cm was obtained by 10% H 2 introduction without substrate heating during the deposition

  12. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott, C. IV; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111 In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results

  13. The angular distributions of sputtered indium atoms at different temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiping; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Pan Jisheng

    1993-01-01

    The effect of temperature and surface topography on the angular distribution of indium atoms was studied under bombardment by 2T KeV Ar + ions at normal incidence. Experiments were carried out on two samples, A and B, at 25 o C and 70 o C respectively. The function Y(θ) = a cosθ + b cos n θ, where θ is the sputtering angle, was found to fit the experimental data. The term (a cos θ) corresponds to the cosine distribution predicted by random collision cascade theory, and the term (b cos n θ) is dependent on factors such as the surface topography. For sample A, a∼b, whereas for sample B a< b. The surface of A consisted of flat and pebble like regions of almost equal area while the surface of B was more cratered. An explanation of the fitting values of a,b and n is given in terms of the shielding effects of the different structures. (UK)

  14. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah Jane O.; Hussain, Fatima A.; Hemond, Harold F.; Sacco, Sarah A.; Shine, James P.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.

    2017-01-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~ 3, indium concentrations are 6–29 μg/L (10,000 × those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45 μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to > 8, and > 99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45 μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium.

  15. The mobility of indium and gallium in groundwater systems: constraining the role of sorption in sand column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, I.; Ringering, K.; Yecheskel, Y.; Berkowitz, B.

    2017-12-01

    The mobility of indium and gallium in groundwater environments was studied via laboratory experiments using quartz sand as a porous medium. Indium and gallium are metals of very low abundance in the Earth's crust and, correspondingly, the biosphere is only adapted to very small concentrations of these elements. However, in modern semiconductor industries, both elements play a central role and are incorporated in devices of mass production such as smartphones and digital cameras. The resulting considerable increase in production, use and discharge of indium and gallium throughout the last two decades, with a continuous and fast increase in the near future, raises questions regarding the fate of both elements in the environment. However, the transport behavior of these two metals in soils and groundwater systems remains poorly understood to date. Because of the low solubility of both elements in aqueous solutions, trisodium citrate was used as a complexation agent to stabilize the solutions, enabling investigation of the transport of these metals at neutral pH. Column experiments showed different binding capacities for indium and gallium, where gallium is much more mobile compared to indium and both metals are substantially retarded in the column. Different affinities were also confirmed by examining sorption isotherms of indium and gallium in equilibrium batch systems. The effect of natural organic matter on the mobility of indium and gallium was also studied, by addition of humic acid. For both metals, the presence of humic acid affects the sorption dynamics: for indium, sorption is strongly inhibited leading to much higher mobility, whereas gallium showed a slightly higher sorption affinity and very similar mobility compared to the same setup without humic acid addition. However, in all cases, the binding capacity of gallium to quartz is much weaker than that of indium. These results are consistent with the assumption that indium and gallium form different types

  16. Effect of Indium Doping on the Sensitivity of SnO2 Gas Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharni; Sayono

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of sensitivity f SnO 2 gas sensors on indium concentration has been studied. Undoped and indium-doped SnO 2 gas sensors have been prepared by DC sputtering technique with following parameters i.e : electrode voltage of 3 kV, current 20 mA, vacuum pressure 1.8 × 10 -1 torr, deposition time 60 minutes and temperature of 200℃. The effect of weight variations of indium in order of 0.0370; 0.0485 and 0.0702 grams into SnO 2 thin film gas sensor for optimum result were investigated. The measurement of resistance, sensitivity and response time for various temperature for detecting of carbon monoxide (CO), Ammonia (NH 3 ) and acetone (CH 3 COCH 3 ) gas for indium doped has been done. From the analysis result shows that for indium doped 0.0702 g on the SnO 2 the resistance can be decreased from 832.0 kΩ to 3.9 kΩ and the operating temperature from 200℃ to 90℃ and improving the sensitivity from 15.92% to 40.09% and a response time from 30 seconds to 10 seconds for CO. (author)

  17. Selectivity enhancement of indium-doped SnO2 gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, A.

    2002-01-01

    Indium doping was used to enhance the selectivity of SnO 2 gas sensor. Both indium-doped and undoped SnO 2 gas sensors fabricated with different deposition techniques were investigated. The changes in the sensitivity of the sensors caused by selective gases (hydrogen and wood smoke) ranging from 500 to 3000 ppm were measured at different temperatures from 50 to 300 deg. C. The sensitivity peaks of the samples exhibit different values for selective gases with a response time of approximately 0.5 s. Thermally evaporated indium-doped SnO 2 gas sensor shows a considerable increase in the sensitivity peak of 27% in response to wood smoke, whereas it shows a sensitivity peak of 7% to hydrogen. This is in contrast to the sputter deposited indium-doped SnO 2 gas sensor, which exhibits a much lower sensitivity peak of approximately 2% to hydrogen and wood smoke compared to undoped SnO 2 gas sensors fabricated by chemical vapor deposition and spray pyrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy shows that different deposition techniques result in different porosity of the films. It is observed that the thermally evaporated indium-doped SnO 2 gas sensor shows high porosity, while the sputtered sample exhibits almost no porosity

  18. Synthesis of Indium Nanowires by Galvanic Displacement and Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Greg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Single crystalline indium nanowires were prepared on Zn substrate which had been treated in concentrated sulphuric acid by galvanic displacement in the 0.002 mol L−1In2(SO43-0.002 mol L−1SeO2-0.02 mol L−1SDS-0.01 mol L−1citric acid aqueous solution. The typical diameter of indium nanowires is 30 nm and most of the nanowires are over 30 μm in length. XRD, HRTEM, SAED and structural simulation clearly demonstrate that indium nanowires are single-crystalline with the tetragonal structure, the growth direction of the nanowires is along [100] facet. The UV-Vis absorption spectra showed that indium nanowires display typical transverse resonance of SPR properties. The surfactant (SDS and the pretreatment of Zn substrate play an important role in the growth process. The mechanism of indium nanowires growth is the synergic effect of treated Zn substrate (hard template and SDS (soft template.

  19. Evidence for atomic scale disorder in indium nitride from perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, R; Shrestha, S K; Byrne, A P; Ridgway, M C; Edge, A V J; Vianden, R; Penner, J; Timmers, H

    2005-01-01

    The crystal lattice of bulk grains and state-of-the-art films of indium nitride was investigated at the atomic scale with perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy using the 111 In/Cd radioisotope probe. The probe was introduced during sample synthesis, by diffusion and by ion implantation. The mean quadrupole interaction frequency ν Q = 28 MHz was observed at the indium probe site in all types of indium nitride samples with broad frequency distributions. The observed small, but non-zero, asymmetry parameter indicates broken symmetry around the probe atoms. Results have been compared with theoretical calculations based on the point charge model. The consistency of the experimental results and their independence of the preparation technique suggest that the origin of the broad frequency distribution is inherent to indium nitride, indicating a high degree of disorder at the atomic scale. Due to the low dissociation temperature of indium nitride, furnace and rapid thermal annealing at atmospheric pressure reduce the lattice disorder only marginally

  20. Electrochemical removal of indium ions from aqueous solution using iron electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Huang, Yen-Hsiang

    2009-01-01

    The removal of indium ions from aqueous solution was carried out by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Various operating parameters that could potentially affect the removal efficiency were investigated, including the current density, pH variation, supporting electrolyte, initial concentration, and temperature. The optimum current density, supporting electrolyte concentration, and temperature were found to be 6.4 mA/cm 2 , 0.003N NaCl, and 298 K, respectively. When the pH values lower than 6.1, the removal efficiencies of indium ions via electrocoagulation were up to 5 times greater than those by adding sodium hydroxide. The indium ion removal efficiency decreased with an increase in the initial concentration. Results for the indium ion removal kinetics at various current densities show that the kinetic rates conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with good correlation. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models for describing the electrocoagulation process. The adsorption of indium ions preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules.

  1. Electrochemical removal of indium ions from aqueous solution using iron electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34 Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yen-Hsiang [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34 Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2009-12-15

    The removal of indium ions from aqueous solution was carried out by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Various operating parameters that could potentially affect the removal efficiency were investigated, including the current density, pH variation, supporting electrolyte, initial concentration, and temperature. The optimum current density, supporting electrolyte concentration, and temperature were found to be 6.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.003N NaCl, and 298 K, respectively. When the pH values lower than 6.1, the removal efficiencies of indium ions via electrocoagulation were up to 5 times greater than those by adding sodium hydroxide. The indium ion removal efficiency decreased with an increase in the initial concentration. Results for the indium ion removal kinetics at various current densities show that the kinetic rates conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with good correlation. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models for describing the electrocoagulation process. The adsorption of indium ions preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules.

  2. On the impact of indium distribution on the electronic properties in InGaN nanodisks

    KAUST Repository

    Benaissa, M.

    2015-03-09

    We analyze an epitaxially grown heterostructure composed of InGaN nanodisks inserted in GaN nanowires in order to relate indium concentration to the electronic properties. This study was achieved with spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy using monochromated electrons to probe optical excitations - plasmons - at nanometer scale. Our findings show that each nanowire has its own indium fluctuation and therefore its own average composition. Due to this indium distribution, a scatter is obtained in plasmon energies, and therefore in the optical dielectric function, of the nanowire ensemble. We suppose that these inhomogeneous electronic properties significantly alter band-to-band transitions and consequently induce emission broadening. In addition, the observation of tailing indium composition into the GaN barrier suggests a graded well-barrier interface leading to further inhomogeneous broadening of the electro-optical properties. An improvement in the indium incorporation during growth is therefore needed to narrow the emission linewidth of the presently studied heterostructures.

  3. The steady-state and time-resolved photophysical properties of a dimeric indium phthalocyanine complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Araki, Yasuyuki; Dini, Danilo; Liu Ying; Ito, Osamu; Fujitsuka, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved photophysical properties and some molecular orbital calculation results of a dimeric indium phthalocyanine complex with an indium-indium bond, i.e., [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed, have been described. The results regarding triplet excited state lifetimes can be ascribed to strong intramolecular interactions existing only in the excited state of this dimer because no significant difference in the absorption spectra of the tBu 4 PcInCl monomer and the [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed dimer is observed, suggesting that no ground-state interaction can be assessed. The deactivation processes of the excited singlet state of [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed are apparently faster than that of μ-oxo-bridged PcIn dimer [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 O. Molecular orbital calculation on the PcIn dimer shows no node between two indium atoms was found in the HOMO - 2 of the PcIn-InPc dimer, suggesting that bonding electrons distribute between two indium atoms

  4. Optoelectronic properties of sprayed transparent and conducting indium doped zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S S; Shinde, P S; Bhosale, C H; Rajpure, K Y

    2008-01-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are grown onto Corning glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of doping concentration on the structural, electrical and optical properties of IZO thin films is studied. X-ray diffraction studies show a change in preferential orientation from the (0 0 2) to the (1 0 1) crystal planes with increase in indium doping concentration. Scanning electron microscopy studies show polycrystalline morphology of the films. Based on the Hall-effect measurements and analysis, impurity scattering is found to be the dominant mechanism determining the diminished mobility in ZnO thin films having higher indium concentration. The addition of indium also induces a drastic decrease in the electrical resistivity of films; the lowest resistivity (4.03 x 10 -5 Ω cm) being observed for the film deposited with 3 at% indium doping. The effect of annealing on the film properties has been reported. Films deposited with 3 at% In concentration have relatively low resistivity with 90% transmittance at 550 nm and the highest value of figure of merit 7.9 x 10 -2 □ Ω -1

  5. On the impact of indium distribution on the electronic properties in InGaN nanodisks

    KAUST Repository

    Benaissa, M.; Sigle, W.; Ng, Tien Khee; El Bouayadi, R.; van Aken, P. A.; Jahangir, S.; Bhattacharya, P.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze an epitaxially grown heterostructure composed of InGaN nanodisks inserted in GaN nanowires in order to relate indium concentration to the electronic properties. This study was achieved with spatially resolved low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy using monochromated electrons to probe optical excitations - plasmons - at nanometer scale. Our findings show that each nanowire has its own indium fluctuation and therefore its own average composition. Due to this indium distribution, a scatter is obtained in plasmon energies, and therefore in the optical dielectric function, of the nanowire ensemble. We suppose that these inhomogeneous electronic properties significantly alter band-to-band transitions and consequently induce emission broadening. In addition, the observation of tailing indium composition into the GaN barrier suggests a graded well-barrier interface leading to further inhomogeneous broadening of the electro-optical properties. An improvement in the indium incorporation during growth is therefore needed to narrow the emission linewidth of the presently studied heterostructures.

  6. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Cao, Yaan, E-mail: caoyaan@yahoo.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics, TEDA Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV–vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO{sub 2} in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O–In–Cl{sub x} (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO{sub 2}, the narrowness of band gap of TiO{sub 2} doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O–In–Cl{sub x} (x = 1 or 2) and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO{sub 2}, boron doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}–B) and indium doped TiO{sub 2} (TiO{sub 2}–In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  8. Development of an Indium Bump Bond Process for Silicon Pixel Detectors at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Brönnimann, C; Gobrecht, J; Heising, S; Horisberger, M; Horisberger, R P; Kästli, H C; Lehmann, J; Rohe, T; Streuli, S; Broennimann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high energy physics experiments currently under construction use a three dimensional connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100um, required in these applications, cannot be fullfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflown indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R&D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflown afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a seco...

  9. Synthesis and decomposition of a novel carboxylate precursor to indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Andras, Maria T.; Duraj, Stan A.; Clark, Eric B.; Hehemann, David G.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Fanwick, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    Reaction of metallic indium with benzoyl peroxide in 4-1 methylpyridine (4-Mepy) at 25 C produces an eight-coordinate mononuclear indium(III) benzoate, In(eta(sup 2)-O2CC6H5)3(4-Mepy)2 4H2O (I), in yields of up to 60 percent. The indium(III) benzoate was fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography; (I) exists in the crystalline state as discrete eight-coordinate molecules; the coordination sphere around the central indium atom is best described as pseudo-square pyramidal. Thermogravimetric analysis of (I) and X-ray diffraction powder studies on the resulting pyrolysate demonstrate that this new benzoate is an inorganic precursor to indium oxide. Decomposition of (I) occurs first by loss of 4-methylpyridine ligands (100 deg-200 deg C), then loss of benzoates with formation of In2O3 at 450 C. We discuss both use of carboxylates as precursors and our approach to their preparation.

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang; Cao, Yaan

    2013-01-01

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV–vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO 2 in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O–In–Cl x (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO 2 , the narrowness of band gap of TiO 2 doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O–In–Cl x (x = 1 or 2) and B 2 O 3 species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO 2 showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO 2 , boron doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 –B) and indium doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 –In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titania with unique surface indium and boron species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanlong; Wang, Enjun; Yuan, Jixiang; Cao, Yaan

    2013-05-01

    Indium and boron co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method. The structure and properties of photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, UV-vis DRS and PL techniques. It is found that boron is mainly doped into the lattice of TiO2 in interstitial mode, while indium is present as unique chemical species of O-In-Clx (x = 1 or 2) on the surface. Compared with pure TiO2, the narrowness of band gap of TiO2 doped with indium and boron is due to the mixed valence band formed by B2p of interstitial doped B ions hybridized with lattice O2p. And the surface state energy levels of O-In-Clx (x = 1 or 2) and B2O3 species were located at about 0.4 and 0.3 eV below the conduction band respectively, which could lead to significant absorption in the visible-light region and facilitated the effectually separation of photogenerated carriers. Therefore, indium and boron co-doped TiO2 showed the much higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO2, boron doped TiO2 (TiO2-B) and indium doped TiO2 (TiO2-In) under visible and UV light irradiation.

  12. Lithium indium diselenide: A new scintillator for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukosi, Eric, E-mail: elukosi@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel; Lee, Kyung-Min [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wiggins, Brenden [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trtik, Pavel [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Penumadu, Dayakar; Young, Stephen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Santodonato, Louis; Bilheux, Hassina [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burger, Arnold; Matei, Liviu [Fisk University, Nashville, TN (United States); Stowe, Ashley C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-11

    Lithium indium diselenide, {sup 6}LiInSe{sub 2} or LISe, is a newly developed neutron detection material that shows both semiconducting and scintillating properties. This paper reports on the performance of scintillating LISe crystals for its potential use as a converter screen for cold neutron imaging. The spatial resolution of LISe, determined using a 10% threshold of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), was found to not scale linearly with thickness. Crystals having a thickness of 450 µm or larger resulted in an average spatial resolution of 67 µm, and the thinner crystals exhibited an increase in spatial resolution down to the Nyquist frequency of the CCD. The highest measured spatial resolution of 198 µm thick LISe (27 µm) outperforms a commercial 50 µm thick ZnS(Cu):{sup 6}LiF scintillation screen by more than a factor of three. For the LISe dimensions considered in this study, it was found that the light yield of LISe did not scale with its thickness. However, absorption measurements indicate that the {sup 6}Li concentration is uniform and the neutron absorption efficiency of LISe as a function of thickness follows general nuclear theory. This suggests that the differences in apparent brightness observed for the LISe samples investigated may be due to a combination of secondary charged particle escape, scintillation light transport in the bulk and across the LISe-air interface, and variations in the activation of the scintillation mechanism. Finally, it was found that the presence of {sup 115}In and its long-lived {sup 116}In activation product did not result in ghosting (memory of past neutron exposure), demonstrating potential of LISe for imaging transient systems.

  13. Charge carrier transport mechanisms in nanocrystalline indium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsh, E.A.; Marikutsa, A.V.; Martyshov, M.N.; Forsh, P.A.; Rumyantseva, M.N.; Gaskov, A.M.; Kashkarov, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The charge transport properties of nanocrystalline indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) are studied. A number of nanostructured In 2 O 3 samples with various nanocrystal sizes are prepared by sol–gel method and characterized using various techniques. The mean nanocrystals size varies from 7–8 nm to 18–20 nm depending on the conditions of their preparation. Structural characterizations of the In 2 O 3 samples are performed by means of transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The analysis of dc and ac conductivity in a wide temperature range (T = 50–300 K) shows that at high temperatures charge carrier transport takes place over conduction band and at low temperatures a variable range hopping transport mechanism can be observed. We find out that the temperature of transition from one mechanism to another depends on nanocrystal size: the transition temperature rises when nanocrystals are bigger in size. The average hopping distance between two sites and the activation energy are calculated basing on the analysis of dc conductivity at low temperature. Using random barrier model we show a uniform hopping mechanism taking place in our samples and conclude that nanocrystalline In 2 O 3 can be regarded as a disordered system. - Highlights: • In 2 O 3 samples with various nanocrystal sizes are prepared by sol–gel method. • The mean nanocrystal size varies from 7–8 nm to 18–20 nm. • At high temperatures charge carrier transport takes place over conduction band. • At low temperatures a variable range hopping transport mechanism can be observed. • We show a uniform hopping mechanism taking place in our samples

  14. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  15. Imaging experimental coronary artery thrombosis with indium-111 platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riba, A.L.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of cardiac scintigraphy with indium-111 ( 111 In)-labeled platelets to detect coronary artery thrombosis (CAT) was assessed in a canine model. Cardiac imaging and tissue distribution studies were performed shortly after administering 111 In-labeled platelets to 12 dogs (group 1) with acute CAT. Four dogs (group 2) with acute CAT were studied 2 and 22 hours after administering 111 In platelets. In addition, four dogs (group 3) with 24-hour-old CAT were similarly evaluated. In all group 1 animals, in vivo imaging 1 to 2 hours after 111 In platelet administration revealed intense uptake in the region of thrombus-containing left anterior descending arteries that was readily discernible from background blood pool activity. Sequential imaging of the four group 2 animals over a 22-hour period revealed no change in the scintigraphic pattern of the thrombosed arteries. In contrast, 111 In platelet imaging in the four group 3 animals with 24-hour-old CAT failed to reveal enhanced activity within the region of the thrombus-containing coronary artery. In the 12 group 1 animals, the CAT accumulated 69 +- 10 (mean +- SEM) times greater activity than present in blood and 651 +- 135 times greater activity than normal left ventricular myocardium. There was 24 +- 7 times greater 111 In activity in the damaged left anterior descending arteries compared with normal circumflex arteries. Similar uptake ratios were seen in group 2 animals. The 24-hour old thrombi from group 3 animals showed no enhanced 111 In uptake. This study demonstrates that experimental acute CAT can be detected readily with 111 In platelet cardiac scintigraphy

  16. Decay studies of the highly neutron-deficient indium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    An extension of the experimentally known nuclidic mass surface to nuclei far from the region of beta-stability is of fundamental interest in providing a better determination of the input parameters for the various nuclear mass formulae, allowing a more accurate prediction of the ultimate limits of nuclear stability. In addition, a study of the shape of the mass surface in the vicinity of the doubly-closed nuclide 100 Sn provides initial information on the behavior of the shell closure to be expected when Z = N = 50. Experiments measuring the decay energies of 103 105 In by β-endpoint measurements are described with special attention focused on the development of a plastic scintillator β-telescope coupled to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer). An attempt to measure the β-endpoint energy of 102 In is also briefly described. The experimentally determined decay energies and derived masses for 103 105 In are compared with the predictions of different mass models to identify which models are more successful in this region. Furthermore, the inclusion in these comparisons of the available data on the neutron-rich indium nuclei permits a systematic study of their ground state mass behavior as a function of the neutron number between the shell closures at N = 50 and N = 82. These analyses indicate that the binding energy of 103 In is 1 MeV larger than predicted by the majority of the mass models. An examination of the Q/sub EC/ surface and the single- and two-neutron separation energies in the vicinity of 103 105 In is also performed to investigate further the deviation and other possible systematic variations in the mass surface in a model-independent way

  17. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung; Lim, Jong-Wook; Kim, Han-Ki; Alford, T. L.; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2012-01-01

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive

  18. An Indium-Free Anode for Large-Area Flexible OLEDs: Defect-Free Transparent Conductive Zinc Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Masis, M.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Dabirian, A.; Lifka, H.; Gierth, R.; Ruske, M.; Moet, D.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible large-area organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) require highly conductive and transparent anodes for efficient and uniform light emission. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is the standard anode in industry. However, due to the scarcity of indium, alternative anodes that eliminate its use are

  19. Solvent extraction studies of indium-mixed chelates with β-diketones in benzene media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudersanan, M.; Sundaram, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    Mixed chelate formation of indium with several β-diketones has been studied in benzene media. The extraction of indium by benzoyltrifluoroacetone (BFA) and furoyltrifluoroacetone (FFA) has been carried out as a function of pH and concentration of the ligand to ascertain the nature of the complexes. The extraction of indium by a mixture of β-diketones, viz., BFA-benzoylacetone(BA), BFA-dibenzoylmethene (DBM), FFA-BA, FFA-DBM, FFA-BFA and DBM-BA has also been studied as a function of the solution parameters. The nature of the mixed complexes formed as well as their equilibrium constants, statistical and stabilisation constants have been evaluated. (author)

  20. Effect of ion indium implantation on InP photoluminescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyshnaya, N.B.; Radautsan, S.I.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Ursaki, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectra of indium phosphide single crystals implanted by indium after annealing under the protective Al 2 O 3 film in a nitrogen flow are investigated. As a result of implantation and annealing in photoluminescence spectra of crystals there appeared a new band with the maximum at 1.305 eV (T=6 K) which is connected with the free electron transition at the level of the antistructure defect of In p - lying by 0.115 eV above the valent zone ceiling. With large doses of the implanted indium in the photoluminescence spectrum a long-wave band with the maximum at 0.98-0.99 eV is also observed caused, apparently, by the strong lattice disorder

  1. Use of activable cations as tracers in groundwater hydrology. The case of DTPA-Indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumu, Badimbayi Matu.

    1978-01-01

    The possibilities of EDTA, CDTA and DTPA metallic complexes use as activable groundwater, tracers are discussed. Indium, which has good nuclear caracteristics for activation analysis and forms complexes of great stability with polyamino carboxylic acid has been for Laboratory and field studies. For corporative studies, Rhodomine B, a fluorescent tracer have been studied together with Indium complexes. In laboratory retention studies have been carried with In-EDTA, Iodine 131 and Rhodomine B, as tracers and bentonite, zeolite 13X and Dowex-1 and Dowex-50 as sorbents. As field studies, drainage evolution flow and resident time distribution of tracers substances in water, have been carried, under artificial rain conditions realized by aspersion. Results from field studies showed good characteristics of Indium Complexes especially in very absorbent medium (argilaceous limon) where their restitution balance were superior to that of Rhodomine B

  2. Short-range order in amorphous thin films of indium selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.P.; Poltavtsev, Yu.G.; Sheremet, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure of the short-range order and a character of interatomic interactions in indium selenides Insub(1-x)Sesub(x) with 0.333 <= x <= 0.75, obtained in the form of amorphous films 0.05-0.80 μm thick are studied using electron diffraction method. It is found out that mostly tetrahedrical coordination of nearest neighbours in the vicinity of indium atoms is characteristic for studied amorphous films, and coordination of selenium atoms is different. Amorphous film with x=0.75 posesses a considereably microheterogeneous structure of the short-range order, which is characterized by the presence of microunclusions of amorphous selenium and atoms of indium, octohedrically coordinated by selenium atoms

  3. Chemical composition of cadmium selenochromite crystals doped with indium, silver and gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'skij, N.K.; Ochertyanova, L.I.; Shabunina, G.G.; Aminov, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The high accuracy chemical analysis Which allows one to observe doping effect on the cadmium selenochromite crystal composition is performed. The problem on the possibility of impurity atom substitution for basic element is considered on the basis of data of atomic-absorption analysis of doped crystals. The crystals of cadmium selenochromite doped with indium by chromium to cadmium ratio are distributed into two groups and probably two types of substitution take place. At 0.08-1.5 at.% indium concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio >2. One can assume that indium preferably takes cadmium tetrahedral positions whereas at 1.5-2.5 at. % concentrations the Cr/Cd ratio =2 and cadmium is substituted for silver which does not contradict crystallochemical and physical properties of this compound. In crystals with gallium the Cr/Cd ratio <2. Gallium preferably substitutes chromium

  4. Optical investigations on indium oxide nano-particles prepared through precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetha, M.; Bharathi, S.; Dhayal Raj, A.; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.

    2009-01-01

    Visible light emitting indium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method. Sodium hydroxide dissolved in ethanol was used as a precipitating agent to obtain indium hydroxide precipitates. Precipitates, thus formed were calcined at 600 deg. C for 1 h to obtain indium oxide nanoparticles. The structure of the particles as determined from the X-Ray diffraction pattern was found to be body centered cubic. The phase transformation of the prepared nanoparticles was analyzed using thermogravimetry. Surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was analyzed using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the analysis show cube-like aggregates of size around 50 nm. It was found that the nanoparticles have a strong emission at 427 nm and a weak emission at 530 nm. These emissions were due to the presence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies and the nature of the defect was confirmed through Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis.

  5. Anodic behavior of Al-Zn-In sacrificial anodes at different concentration of zinc and indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyvani, Ahmad [Shahrekord Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials; Saremi, Mohsen [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials; Saeri, Mohammad Reza [Shahrekord Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2012-12-15

    Al-Zn-In anodes show better performance due to the beneficial effects of Zn and In on prevention of aluminum passivity and producing a homogeneous structure for uniform corrosion of the anodes. However, there are different views about the optimum concentration of each element in the anode. In this study, the anodic behavior of Al-Zn-In alloy with different concentrations of zinc from 1 to 6wt.% and indium from 0.01 to 0.05wt.% are studied. The NACE efficiency test and polarization are used in 3wt.% NaCl solution for corrosion characterization. The results showed that zinc and indium change the anode potential to more active potentials and improve the microstructure uniformity of anodes. The latter leads to more uniform corrosion. Optimum concentrations of zinc (5wt.%) and indium (0.02wt.%) were found in this respect. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, T.J.; Thompson, L.; Grogan, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The detection of musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following joint replacement, continues to be a challenging problem. Often, even with invasive diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of infection remains uncertain. This is a report on the first 55 Indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) images performed in 39 patients for the evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis. There were 40 negative and 15 positive Indium-111 WBC images. These were correlated with operative culture and tissue pathology, aspiration culture, and clinical findings. Thirty-eight images were performed for the evaluation of possible total joint sepsis (8 positive and 30 negative images); 17 for the evaluation of nonarthroplasty-related musculoskeletal sepsis (7 positive and 10 negative images). Overall, there were 13 true-positive, 39 true-negative, two false-positive, and one false-negative images. Indium-111 WBC imaging is a sensitive and specific means of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following total joint replacement

  7. TEM and XANES study of MOVPE grown InAIN layers with different indium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kret, S; Wolska, A; Klepka, M T; Letrouit, A; Ivaldi, F; Szczepańska, A; Carlin, J-F; Kaufmann, N A K; Grandjean, N

    2011-01-01

    We present structure and spatially resolved composition studies by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) of InAIN MOVPE (Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy) epilayers containing 16-27 at% of indium. Investigations of the In L 3 edge by synchrotron radiation absorption show a significant change of the post-edge structure depending on the indium content. We attribute this to the solubility limit and phase separation in this system. Our measurements suggest that the critical composition is 18% for our growth conditions. HRTEM cross-sectional and EDX investigations confirm such phase separation as well as the changing of the structure from 2D growth to columnar like growth for the sample with the highest indium content.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of two layered indium oxalates with 12-membered apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenxia; Zhou Yaming; Weng Linhong; Zhang Haoyu; Zhao Dongyuan

    2003-01-01

    Two layered indium oxalates, In(C 2 O 4 ) 2.5 (C 3 N 2 H 12 )(H 2 O) 3 , I, and In(C 2 O 4 ) 1.5 (H 2 O) 3 , II, have been hydrothermally synthesized. In I, the linkage between indium and oxalate units gives rise to a sheet with a rectangular 12-membered aperture (six indium atoms and six oxalate units). Indium atom of II has an unusual pentagonal bipyramidal coordination arrangement. The connectivity between indium and oxalate units forms a neutral puckered layer with 12- (along a-axis) and eight-membered (along b-axis) apertures. Crystal data for these two indium oxalates are as follows: I, triclinic, space group: P-1 (No. 2), a=8.725(3) A, b=9.170(3) A, c=9.901(3) A, α=98.101(4) deg. , β=97.068(4) deg. , γ=102.403(4) deg. , V=756.3(4) A 3 , Z=2, M=463.0(5), ρ calc =2.042 g/cm 3 , R 1 =0.0377, wR 2 =0.0834. II, monoclinic, space group: P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=10.203(5) A, b=6.638(1) A, c=11.152(7) A, β=95.649(4) deg. , V=751.7(4)A 3 , Z=4, M=300.9(0), ρ calc =2.659 g/cm 3 , R 1 =0.0229, wR 2 =0.0488. TG analyses indicate the water molecules of I can be removed at 150 deg. C. The dehydrated product retains structural integrity

  9. Determination of gold and indium in sea water by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio; Ohta, Naoichi

    1979-01-01

    A combination of electrodeposition on graphite with neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of gold and indium in sea water. At a potential of -0.70 V vs. the silver-silver chloride electrode, gold and indium were electrolyzed on to a graphite electrode (1.1 cm phi x 0.2 cm) from 100 ml of 0.5 M sodium chloride. Recovery yield of gold was constant at pH from 1 to 3 and was independent of the initial concentration of gold, (0.01 -- 1) ppb. For a 72-h electrolysis at pH 2 the recovery yield of gold was 92%, while that of indium was 32%. The graphite electrode was exposed to a thermal neutron flux of 5.1 x 10 11 or 1.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 : 5 min exposure for indium and 6 to 12 h for gold. After appropriate decay periods the activities of 198 Au and sup(116m)In were measured for 2000 s and 300 s, respectively, with a 4000-channel pulse-height analyser and a Ge(Li) detector. The total amount of gold in 1 l of a sea water sample (Tokyo Bay) was (0.023 +- 0.001)μg, in which nonelectrolyzable gold was estimated to be 0.005 μg. Indium concentration in the sample was too low to be determined by the present method. Detection limit for indium was 1 ppb. (author)

  10. Scintigraphy with In-111 labeled lymphokine-activated killer cells of malignant brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Sawamura, Yutaka; Hosokawa, Masuo; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo distribution and migration of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells to the target malignant foci in four patients with advanced malignant brain tumor. All four patients had failed to respond to prior adoptive immunotherapy. After the intravenous administration of radiolabeled LAK cells, most of the radiolabeled cells were distributed in the liver and spleen, with lesser radioactivity in the lung and bone marrow. Scintigraphy revealed the target malignant foci in all four patients to be areas of increased radioactivity. The number of radiolabeled LAK cells that accumulated in the intracranial malignant lesions, however, seemed to be insufficient to mediate regression of the solid tumor mass by direct cell-to-cell interaction. We conclude that the failure of adoptive immunotherapy could be accounted for by the poor migration of infused LAK cells to the target malignant foci. We also conclude that radionuclide study with radiolabeled lymphokine-activated culture cells against tumors is likely to be helpful as a means to investigate effective possibilities for subsequent adoptive immunotherapy. (author)

  11. Nanostructured antistatic and antireflective thin films made of indium tin oxide and silica over-coat layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Hong, Jeong-Jin; Yang, Seung-Man; Choi, Chul-Jin

    2010-08-01

    Stable dispersion of colloidal indium tin oxide nanoparticles was prepared by using indium tin oxide nanopowder, organic solvent, and suitable dispersants through attrition process. Various comminution parameters during the attrition step were studied to optimize the process for the stable dispersion of indium tin oxide sol. The transparent and conductive films were fabricated on glass substrate using the indium tin oxide sol by spin coating process. To obtain antireflective function, partially hydrolyzed alkyl silicate was deposited as over-coat layer on the pre-fabricated indium tin oxide film by spin coating technique. This double-layered structure of the nanostructured film was characterized by measuring the surface resistance and reflectance spectrum in the visible wavelength region. The final film structure was enough to satisfy the TCO regulations for EMI shielding purposes.

  12. Pyrolytically grown indium sulfide sensitized zinc oxide nanowires for solar water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komurcu, Pelin; Can, Emre Kaan; Aydin, Erkan; Semiz, Levent [Micro and Nanotechnology Graduate Program, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Gurol, Alp Eren; Alkan, Fatma Merve [Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Sankir, Mehmet; Sankir, Nurdan Demirci [Micro and Nanotechnology Graduate Program, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, sensitized with spray pyrolyzed indium sulfide, were obtained by chemical bath deposition. The XRD analysis indicated dominant evolution of hexagonal ZnO phase. Significant gain in photoelectrochemical current using ZnO nanowires is largely accountable to enhancement of the visible light absorption and the formation of heterostructure. The maximum photoconversion efficiency of 2.77% was calculated for the indium sulfide sensitized ZnO nanowire photoelectrodes. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Growth and Characterization of Indium Doped ZnO Nano wires Using Thermal Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrar Ismardi; Dee, C.F.; Majlis, B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO nano wires were grown on silicon substrate using vapor thermal deposition method without using any catalyst. Morphological structures were extensively investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and show that the nano wires have uniformly hexagonal nano structures with diameters less than 100 nm and lengths from one to a few microns. The sample was measured for elemental composition with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Zn, In and O elements were found on the sample. XRD spectrum of indium doped ZnO nano wires revealed that the nano wires have a high crystalline structure. (author)

  14. Atomic layer epitaxy of hematite on indium tin oxide for application in solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Riha, Shannon; Guo, Peijun; Emery, Jonathan D.

    2016-07-12

    A method to provide an article of manufacture of iron oxide on indium tin oxide for solar energy conversion. An atomic layer epitaxy method is used to deposit an uncommon bixbytite-phase iron (III) oxide (.beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3) which is deposited at low temperatures to provide 99% phase pure .beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 thin films on indium tin oxide. Subsequent annealing produces pure .alpha.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 with well-defined epitaxy via a topotactic transition. These highly crystalline films in the ultra thin film limit enable high efficiency photoelectrochemical chemical water splitting.

  15. The density of molten indium at temperatures up to 600 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alchagirov, B.B.; Khatsukov, A.M.; Mozgovoj, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The liquid indium density measurement is carried out through the pycnometric method within the temperature range of 434-600 K both by heating and cooling. The totality of the obtained results was processed through the approximating equation. The root-mean-square deviation of the experimental data from the approximating equation does not exceed ±0.01%. The high accuracy of the obtained results is noted. The deviation of the existing data on the liquid indium density from the approximating equation is shown graphically [ru

  16. Indium Tin Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells: Toward Commercial Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Krebs, Frederik C

    2014-01-01

    Polymer solar cell (PSC) is the latest of all photovoltaic technologies which currently lies at the brink of commercialization. The impetus for its rapid progress in the last decade has come from low-cost high throughput production possibility which in turn relies on the use of low-cost materials...... and vacuum-free manufacture. Indium tin oxide (ITO), the commonly used transparent conductor, imposes the majority of the cost of production of PSCs, limits flexibility, and is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning industry due to indium scarcity and the resulting large price fluctuations. As such...

  17. Post-deposition annealing effects in RF reactive magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M A; Herrero, J; Gutierrez, M T [Inst. de Energias Renovables (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    1992-05-01

    Indium tin oxide films have been grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of the deposition parameters on the properties of the films has been investigated and optimized, obtaining a value for the figure of merit of 6700 ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. As-grown indium tin oxide films were annealed in vacuum and O{sub 2} atmosphere. After these heat treatments the electro-optical properties were improved, with values for the resistivity of 1.9x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and the figure of merit of 26700 ({Omega} cm){sup -1}. (orig.).

  18. Phosphasalen indium complexes showing high rates and isoselectivities in rac-lactide polymerizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Dominic; White, Andrew J.P. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Forsyth, Craig M. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Bown, Mark [CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Williams, Charlotte K. [Department of Chemistry, Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-02

    Polylactide (PLA) is the leading bioderived polymer produced commercially by the metal-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactide. Control over tacticity to produce stereoblock PLA, from rac-lactide improves thermal properties but is an outstanding challenge. Here, phosphasalen indium catalysts feature high rates (30±3 m{sup -1} min{sup -1}, THF, 298 K), high control, low loadings (0.2 mol %), and isoselectivity (P{sub i}=0.92, THF, 258 K). Furthermore, the phosphasalen indium catalysts do not require any chiral additives. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. An optimized antibody-chelator conjugate for imaging of carcinoembryonic antigen with indium-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerdon, G.A.; Rogers, P.E.; Lombardo, C.M.; Schnobrich, K.E.; Melvin, S.L.; Tribby, I.I.E.; Stroupe, S.D.; Johnson, D.K.; Hobart, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen showing minimal cross-reactivity with blood cells and normal tissues was derivatized with benzylisothiocyanate derivatives of EDTA and DTPA. Seven chelators per immunoglobulin could be incorporated without loss of immunoreactivity. The resulting conjugates, labeled with indium-111, showed low liver uptake in animals. A cold kit, comprising the DTPA conjugate at a molarity of antibody bound chelator exceeding 1 x 10 -4 M, gave radiochemical yields of indium labeled antibody of ≥ 95% and was stable for 1 yr. (author)

  20. Effect of fabrication conditions on the properties of indium tin oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wei

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that indium tin oxide (ITO) crystalline powders are prepared by coprecipitation method. Fabrication conditions mainly as sintering temperature and Sn doping content are correlated with the phase, microstructure, infrared emissivity in and powder resistivity of indium tin oxides by means of x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and transmission electron microscope. The optimum sintering temperature of 1350°C and Sn doping content 6∼8wt% are determined. The application of ITO in the military camouflage field is proposed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Continuum modelling of silicon diffusion in indium gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Henry Lee, Jr.

    A possible method to overcome the physical limitations experienced by continued transistor scaling and continue improvements in performance and power consumption is integration of III-V semiconductors as alternative channel materials for logic devices. Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) is such a material from the III-V semiconductor family, which exhibit superior electron mobilities and injection velocities than that of silicon. In order for InGaAs integration to be realized, contact resistances must be minimized through maximizing activation of dopants in this material. Additionally, redistribution of dopants during processing must be clearly understood and ultimately controlled at the nanometer-scale. In this work, the activation and diffusion behavior of silicon, a prominent n-type dopant in InGaAs, has been characterized and subsequently modelled using the Florida Object Oriented Process and Device Simulator (FLOOPS). In contrast to previous reports, silicon exhibits non-negligible diffusion in InGaAs, even for smaller thermal budget rapid thermal anneals (RTAs). Its diffusion is heavily concentration-dependent, with broadening "shoulder-like" profiles when doping levels exceed 1-3x1019cm -3, for both ion-implanted and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-grown cases. Likewise a max net-activation value of ˜1.7x1019cm -3 is consistently reached with enough thermal processing, regardless of doping method. In line with experimental results and several ab-initio calculation results, rapid concentration-dependent diffusion of Si in InGaAs and the upper limits of its activation is believed to be governed by cation vacancies that serve as compensating defects in heavily n-type regions of InGaAs. These results are ultimately in line with an amphoteric defect model, where the activation limits of dopants are an intrinsic limitation of the material, rather than governed by individual dopant species or their methods of incorporation. As a result a Fermi level dependent point

  2. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors based on indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhard, T.

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this work is a systematic study of quantum dot infrared photodetectors based on indium-phosphide substrate by means of various spectroscopic and electronic measurement methods in order to understand the physical and technological processes. This enables a concise definition of strategies in order to realize next generation devices in this material system and to gain overall progress in the research field of quantum dot infrared photodetectors. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by analytical and numerical simulations. The samples, grown by collaboration partners, were characterized using differential transmission and fast Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, with a special emphasis on the latter one. Therefore, samples both in wedged waveguide geometry and samples with gold coated mesa structures have been processed. A large part of the discussion is dedicated to the current voltage characteristic of the devices, due to its large importance for device optimization, i.e. the reduction of the dark current plays a crucial role in the research field of high temperature infrared photon-detection. Further, results of photoluminescence measurements, performed by collaboration partners, have been used in order to attain a more complete picture of the samples' electronic band structure and in order to obtain complementary information with respect to other measurement methods applied within the experimental work and the simulation of the structures. In agreement to the simulations, a photocurrent response was observed at 6 and at 12 μm up to a temperature of 80 K, depending on the samples' design. The principle of parameter scaling was applied to the samples, in order to assign physical effects either to details in the samples' design or to technological quality aspects, i.e. the doping level and the thickness of the capping layer was varied. In addition to that a quantum well was introduced within a series of samples in order to

  3. Influence of indium concentration and substrate temperature on the physical characteristics of chemically sprayed ZnO:In thin films deposited from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, L; Morales-Saavedra, O G; Cheang-Wong, J C; Acosta, D R; Banuelos, J G; Maldonado, A; Olvera, M de la L

    2006-01-01

    Chemically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:In) were deposited on glass substrates starting from zinc pentanedionate and indium sulfate. The influence of both the dopant concentration in the starting solution and the substrate temperature on the transport, morphology, composition, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the ZnO:In thin films were studied. The structure of all the ZnO:In thin films was polycrystalline, and variation in the preferential growth with the indium content in the solution was observed: from an initial (002) growth in films with low In content, switching to a predominance of (101) planes for intermediate dopant regime, and finally turning to a (100) growth for heavily doped films. The crystallite size was found to decrease with doping concentration and range from 36 to 23 nm. The film composition and the dopant concentration were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry; these results showed that the films are almost stoichiometric ZnO. The optimum deposition conditions leading to conductive and transparent ZnO:In thin films were also found. In this way a resistivity of 4 x 10 -3 Ω cm and an average transmittance in the visible spectra of 85%, with a (101) preferential growth, were obtained in optimized ZnO:In thin films

  4. New metal-organic polygons involving MM quadruple bonds: M8(O2CtBu)4(mu-SC4H2-3,4-{CO2}2)6 (M=Mo, W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Matthew J; Chisholm, Malcolm H; Patmore, Nathan J

    2005-12-12

    The reactions between M2(O2CtBu)4, where M=Mo or W, and thienyl-3,4-dicarboxylic acid (0.5-1.5 equiv) in toluene proceed via a series of detectable intermediates to the compounds M8(O2CtBu)4(mu-SC4H2-3,4-{CO2}2)6, which are isolated as air-sensitive yellow (M=Mo) or red (M=W) powders and show parent molecular ions in their mass spectra (MALDI). The structure of the molybdenum complex was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography and shown to contain an unusual M8 polygon involving four Mo2 quadruply bonded units linked via the agency of the six 3,4-thienylcarboxylate groups. The structure has crystallographically imposed S4 symmetry and may be described in terms of a highly distorted tetrahedron of Mo2 units or a bisphenoid in which two Mo2 units are linked by a thienyldicarboxylate such that intramolecular Mo2...O bonding is present, while the other thienylcarboxylate bridges merely serve to link these two [Mo2]...[Mo2] units together. The color of the compounds arises from intense M2 delta-to-thienyl pi transitions and, in THF, the complexes are redox-active and show four successive quasi-reversible oxidation waves. The [M8]+ radical cations, generated by one-electron oxidation with AgPF6, are shown to be valence-trapped (class II) by UV-vis-near-IR and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These results are supported by the electronic structure calculations on model compounds M8(O2CH)4(mu-SC4H2-3,4-{CO}2)6 employing density functional theory that reveal only a small splitting of the M2 delta manifold via mixing with the 3,4-thienylcarboxylate pi system.

  5. Generic Top-Functionalization of Patterned Antifouling Zwitterionic Polymers on Indium Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Giesbers, M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel surface engineering approach that combines photochemical grafting and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to attach zwitterionic polymer brushes onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The photochemically grafted hydroxyl-terminated organic

  6. Indium oxide thin film based ammonia gas and ethanol vapour sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    acetone and dried under an electric lamp (100 W). Thin films of indium oxide ... A λ-19, UV–VIS Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer, USA) was used for measuring .... tion of ammonia is observed through glowing of LED. LM3914, LED driver is ...

  7. Electrical properties of vacuum-annealed titanium-doped indium oxide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.T.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium-doped indium oxide (ITiO) films were deposited on Corning glass 2000 substrates at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering followed by vacuum post-annealing. With increasing deposition power, the as-deposited films showed an increasingly crystalline nature. As-deposited

  8. Vibrational spectra of the cyanodimethylmetal complexes of magnesium, aluminium, gallium, and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Schmock, F.; Klopsch, A.; Dehnicke, K.

    1975-01-01

    Tetramethylammonium cyanide reacts with an ethereal solution of dimethylmagnesium to form [NMe 4 ] 4 [Me 2 MgCN] 4 , the complex anion of which is isoelectronic with the known tetrameric dimethylaluminium cyanide [Me 2 AlCN] 4 . The vibrational spectra are reported together with those of the corresponding gallium and indium compounds. (orig.) [de

  9. The measurement of the amplitude of de Haas-van Alphen oscillations in indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, J. de; Meredith, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A flux-gate magnetometer incorporating a superconducting flux transformer is described and its application to the measurement of de Haas-van Alphen oscillation amplitude is compared with conventional techniques. Measurements on the third zone Fermi surface of indium in magnetic fields of up to 4 T are given to show the advantages of the method. (author)

  10. Indium extraction by an acidic extractant associated or not with synergetic agents: importance of inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz-Grandmont, G.; Taheri, M.; Brunette, J.P.; Leroy, M.J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Thermodynamic data are presented for indium extraction from low acidity media (pH value between 1 and 4) and at low concentration by a chelating extractant alone or associated to a solvatant or a lipophylic ammonium salt. Modifications in the nature and/or concentration of inorganic anions can transform the extraction process and allow to change metal distribution between phases [fr

  11. Effect of indium doping on zinc oxide films prepared by chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique which leads to the introduction of defects in ZnO. Indium doping ... elements like Al, Ga and In can be used as n-type dopant. (Kato et al 2002) .... (α is the absorption coefficient and hν the photon energy).

  12. Seasonal variability in the input of lead, barium and indium to Law Dome, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn-Nunes...[], L.J.; Vallelonga, Paul Travis; Loss, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been determined at monthly resolution in five Law Dome (coastal Eastern Antarctica) ice core sections dated from similar to 1757 AD to similar to 1898 AD. 'Natural' background Pb concentrations...

  13. Progress Report: Feasibility Study of an Indium Scintillator Solar Neutrino Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellefon, A. de; Barloutaud, R.; Borg, A.; Ernwein, J.; Mosca, L.

    1989-09-01

    In this document, we report on the progress made to demonstrate the feasibility of an experiment which would measure for the first time the two line sources of solar neutrinos resulting from electron capture by 7 Be and from the p-e-p reaction inside the sun. The detector under study consists of scintillator containing 10 tons of Indium

  14. Efficient Indium-Mediated Dehalogenation of Aromatics in Ionic Liquid Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia C. Zacconi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An efficient indium-mediated dehalogenation reaction of haloaromatics and haloheteroaromatics in ionic liquids has been studied. This method is simple and effective in the presence of [bmim]Br. Furthermore, this methodology is environmentally friendly compared with conventional ones.

  15. Modified method for labeling human platelets with indium-111 oxine using albumin density-gradient separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunting, R.W.; Callahan, R.J.; Finkelstein, S.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    When labeling platelets with indium-111 oxine, albumin density-gradient separation minimizes the time spent to resuspend those platelets that have been centrifuged against a hard surface. Labeling efficiency or platelet viability, as measured by platelet survival or aggregation with adenosine diphosphate, are not adversely affected

  16. Physical properties of pyrolytically sprayed tin-doped indium oxide coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haitjema, H.; Elich, J.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of tin-doped indium oxide coatings obviously depend on a number of production parameters. This dependence has been studied to obtain a more general insight into the relationships between the various coating properties. The coatings have been produced by spray

  17. Preparation of imaging kits locally using indium-113 as a suitable short-lived generator product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Hamid Seidna

    1999-05-01

    In this study forty patients are selected to do brain , lung , bone , liver and spleen imaging. Patients were selected carefully in the bases of the imaging history disorders. Kits prepared and kept frozen in (- 20 degree C) eluent the generator and indium 113 products were added to each kit and imaging sorted out using gamma camera and analysed statistically

  18. Recovery of galium and indium from liquid crystal displays and CIGS photovailtaic modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisselink, R.; Steeghs, W.; Brouwer, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The increasing amount of electronics, such as consumer products and green technologies (e.g. solar PV cells) increases the demand of metals such as indium and gallium. This increasing demand together with the dependency on import of these metals drive research on recycling of waste

  19. First-principles analysis of structural and opto-electronic properties of indium tin oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Madhvendra Nath; Shida, Kazuhito; Sahara, Ryoji; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2012-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and DFT + U (DFT with on-site Coulomb repulsion corrections) calculations have been carried out to study the structural and opto-electronic properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) for both the oxidized and reduced environment conditions. Some of the results obtained by DFT calculations differ from the experimental observations, such as uncertain indication for the site preference of tin atom to replace indium atom at b-site or d-site, underestimation of local inward relaxation in the first oxygen polyhedra around tin atom, and also the improper estimation of electronic density of states and hence resulting in an inappropriate optical spectra of ITO. These discrepancies of theoretical outcomes with experimental observations in ITO arise mainly due to the underestimation of the cationic 4d levels within standard DFT calculations. Henceforth, the inclusion of on-site corrections within DFT + U framework significantly modifies the theoretical results in better agreement to the experimental observations. Within this framework, our calculations show that the indium b-site is preferential site over d-site for tin atom substitution in indium oxide under both the oxidized and reduced conditions. Moreover, the calculated average inward relaxation value of 0.16 Å around tin atom is in good agreement with the experimental value of 0.18 Å. Furthermore, DFT + U significantly modify the electronic structure and consequently induce modifications in the calculated optical spectra of ITO.

  20. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show

  1. First heats of cerium solution in liquid aluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamshchikov, L.F.; Lebedev, V.A.; Nichkov, I.F.; Raspopin, S.P.; Shein, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Cerium solution heats in liquid alluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth are determined in high temperature mixing calorimeter with an isothermal shell. The statistical analysis carried out proves that values of cerium solution heat in fusible metals obtained by the methods of electric motive forces and calorimety give a satisfactory agreement

  2. Ion implantation of Indium in Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destefanis, G.L.

    1984-05-01

    In this paper, the author shows that it is possible to produce n-p junctions in Hgsub(1-x)Cdsub(x)Te by ion implantation and in which the N zone is not induced by the irradiation defects but by the electrically activated (annealing) indium trace amounts [fr

  3. Growth of CdS thin films on indium coated glass substrates via chemical bath deposition and subsequent air annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Kumar, Kamlesh; Singh, Balwant Kr; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata, E-mail: neillohit@yahoo.co.in

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS film grown on indium coated glass substrates via CBD and subsequent annealing. • Disappearance of the indium (1 1 2) peak confirms interdiffusion at 300 °C. • SIMS indicates the subsequent interdiffusion at progressively higher temperature. • Composite In–CdS layer showed lower photosensitivity compared to pure CdS. - Abstract: In the present work attempts were made to synthesize indium doped CdS films by fabricating In/CdS bilayers using CBD-CdS on vacuum evaporated In thin films and subsequent air annealing. 135 nm CdS films were grown onto 20 nm and 35 nm indium coated glass substrate employing chemical bath deposition technique. The In/CdS bilayers thus formed were subjected to heat treatment at the temperatures between 200 and 400 °C for 4 min in the muffle furnace to facilitate indium to diffuse into the CdS films. XRD pattern ascertained no noticeable shift in lattice constant implying grain boundary metal segregation, while secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the diffusion profile of indium into CdS matrices. Mass spectrometry results showed that substantial diffusion of indium had been taken place within CdS at 400 °C. Dark and photocurrent with different illumination time were measured to ascertain the photosensitivity of pure and composite CdS films.

  4. Gas chromatography of indium in macroscopic and carrier-free amounts using quartz and gold as stationary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serov, A.; Eichler, R.; Tuerler, A.; Wittwer, D.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Radiochemie und Umweltchemie; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. fuer Chemie und Biochemie; Dressler, R.; Piguet, D.; Voegele, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Radiochemie und Umweltchemie

    2011-07-01

    The chemical investigation of E113 is likely to become soon feasible. The determination of chemical properties of carrier-free amounts of the lighter homologues of element 113, especially indium and thallium, allows designing experimental set-ups and selecting experimental conditions suitable for performing these studies. Here, we present investigations of the interaction of indium species with quartz and gold surfaces. Deposition temperatures as well as enthalpies of adsorption were determined for indium T{sub dep} = 739 {+-} 20 C (-{delta}H{sub ads}(In) = 227 {+-} 10 kJ mol{sup -1}) and for indium hydroxide T{sub dep} = 250 {+-} 20 C (-{delta}H{sub ads}(InOH)= 124 {+-}10 kJ mol{sup -1}) respectively, on quartz. In case of adsorption of indium on a gold surface only a lower limit of the deposition temperature was established T{sub dep} > 980 C (-{delta}H{sub ads}(In) {>=} 315 {+-} 10 kJ mol{sup -1}). Investigations of macroscopic amounts of indium in thermosublimation experiments at similar experimental conditions were instrumental to establish a tentative speciation of the observed indium species. (orig.)

  5. Effect of heat treatment on anodic activation of aluminium by trace element indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graver, Brit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Nisancioglu, Kemal, E-mail: kemal.nisancioglu@material.ntnu.n [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Indium segregation activates AlIn alloy surface anodically in chloride solution. {yields} Enrichment of In on Al surface can occur thermally by heat treatment at 300 {sup o}C. {yields} Increasing temperature homogenises indium in aluminium reducing anodic activation. {yields} Indium can activate AlIn surface by segregating through dealloying of aluminium. {yields} Anodic activation is caused by AlIn amalgam formation at aluminium surface. - Abstract: The presence of trace elements in Group IIIA-VA is known to activate aluminium anodically in chloride environment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface segregation of trace element In by heat treatment and resulting surface activation. Model binary AlIn alloys, containing 20 and 1000 ppm by weight of In, were characterized after heat treatment at various temperatures by use of glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, electron microscopy and electrochemical polarization. Heat treatment for 1 h at 300 {sup o}C gave significant segregation of discrete In particles (thermal segregation), which activated the surface. Indium in solid solution with aluminium, obtained by 1 h heat treatment at 600 {sup o}C, also activated by surface segregation of In on alloy containing 1000 ppm In, resulting from the selective dissolution of the aluminium component during anodic oxidation (anodic segregation). The effect of anodic segregation was reduced by decreasing indium concentration in solid solution; it had negligible effect at the 20 ppm level. The segregated particles were thought to form a liquid phase alloy with aluminium during anodic polarization, which in turn, together with the chloride in the solution destabilized the oxide.

  6. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2012-05-22

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive layer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, a power conversion efficiency of 3.67% was obtained, a value comparable to devices having sputtered ITO electrode. Surface roughness and optical efficiency are improved when using the mixed TiO2−x–ITO electrode. The consumption of less indium allows for lower fabrication cost of such mixed thin filmelectrode.

  7. [Mechanism of renal elimination of 2 elements of group IIIA of the periodic table : aluminum and indium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, P

    1981-01-05

    Aluminium and indium, two elements of group IIIA of the periodic table, are concentrated by the kidney inside lysosomes of proximal tubule cell. In these lysosomes, aluminium and indium are precipitated as non-soluble phosphate salts and these precipitates are then expelled in the tubular lumen and eliminated with the urinary flow. These data have been visualized by analytical microscopy (ion microscopy and X ray microanalysis). Local acid phosphatases are assumed to permit the concentration of aluminium and indium salts inside the lysosomes.

  8. Indium telluride nanotubes: Solvothermal synthesis, growth mechanism, and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liyan [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan, Shancheng, E-mail: yansc@njupt.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Lu, Tao; Shi, Yi; Wang, Jianyu [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Fan [School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2014-03-15

    hydrogen storage, compared with the nanowires. The nanotube device also has a broad light detection range from 300 nm to 1100 nm, covering the UV–visible–NIR region. This good performance of In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes may enable significant advancements of new photodetection and photosensing applications. Highlights: • The In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotube device also has a broad light detection range from 300 nm to 1100 nm. • The nanotube is 137.85 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which makes it suitable for gas sensing and hydrogen storage. • A possible growth mechanism of the indium telluride nanotubes was proposed. • In addition, no In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes have been reported until now.

  9. A novel electrode surface fabricated by directly attaching gold nanoparticles onto NH2+ ions implanted-indium tin oxide substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenyao; Jiao Jiao; Chen Qunxia; Xia Ji; Li Shuoqi; Hu Jingbo; Li Qilong

    2010-01-01

    A new type of gold nanoparticle attached to a NH 2 + ion implanted-indium tin oxide surface was fabricated without using peculiar binder molecules, such as 3-(aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane. A NH 2 /indium tin oxide film was obtained by implantation at an energy of 80 keV with a fluence of 5 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The gold nanoparticle-modified film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques and compared with a modified bare indium tin oxide surface and 3-(aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane linked surface, which exhibited a relatively low electron transfer resistance and high electrocatalytic activity. The results demonstrate that NH 2 + ion implanted-indium tin oxide films can provide an important route to immobilize nanoparticles, which is attractive in developing new biomaterials.

  10. Determination of indium in geological materials by electrothermal-atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with a tungsten-impregnated graphite furance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Meier, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The sample is fused with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 15% (v/v) hydrobromic acid. Iron(III) is reduced with ascorbic acid to avoid its coextraction with indium as the bromide into methyl isobutyl ketone. Impregnation of the graphite furnace with sodium tungstate, and the presence of lithium metaborate and ascorbic acid in the reaction medium improve the sensitivity and precision. The limits of determination are 0.025-16 mg kg-1 indium in the sample. For 22 geological reference samples containing more than 0.1 mg kg-1 indium, relative standard deviations ranged from 3.0 to 8.5% (average 5.7%). Recoveries of indium added to various samples ranged from 96.7 to 105.6% (average 100.2%). ?? 1984.

  11. Prediction of crack density and electrical resistance changes in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    We present unified predictions for the crack onset strain, evolution of crack density, and changes in electrical resistance in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading. We propose a damage mechanics model to quantify and predict

  12. Advanced characterization techniques of nonuniform indium distribution within InGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, D.; Florescu, D.I.; Lee, D.S.; Ramer, J.C.; Parekh, A.; Merai, V.; Li, S.; Begarney, M.J.; Armour, E.A.; Gardner, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nonuniform indium distribution within InGaN/GaN single quantum well (SQW) structures with nanoscale islands grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been characterized by advanced characterization techniques. Robinson backscattered electron (BSE) measurements show cluster-like BSE contrast of high brightness regions, which are not centered at small dark pits in a SQW structure of spiral growth mode. By comparing with the secondary electron (SE) images, the bright cluster areas from the BSE images were found to have higher indium content compared to the surrounding dark areas. Temperature dependant photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows typical ''S-shape'' curve, which shows good correlation with nonuniform indium distribution from BSE measurement. Optical evaluation of the samples show increased PL slope efficiency of the spiral mode SQW, which can be attributed to the presence of Indium inhomogeneities. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Epitaxy-enabled vapor-liquid-solid growth of tin-doped indium oxide nanowires with controlled orientations

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde; Turner, Stuart G.; Yang, Ping; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Lebedev, Oleg I.; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    challenges in reliably achieving these goals of orientation-controlled nanowire synthesis and assembly. Here we report that growth of planar, vertical and randomly oriented tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires can be realized on yttria-stabilized zirconia

  14. Heat-up synthesis of Ag–In–S and Ag–In–S/ZnS nanocrystals: Effect of indium precursors on their optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Siqi; Ahmadiantehrani, Mojtaba; Zhao, Jialong; Zhu, Shaihong; Mamalis, Athanasios G.; Zhu, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-free I–III–VI nanocrystals (NCs) have recently attracted much research interests due to their excellent optical properties and low toxicity. In this work, with a simple heat-up synthetic system to prepare high quality Ag–In–S (AIS) NCs and their core/shell structures (AIS/ZnS NCs), we investigated the effect of different indium precursors (indium acetate and indium chloride) on NC optical properties. The measurements on photoluminescence spectra of AIS NCs show that the photoluminescence peak-wavelength of AIS NCs using indium acetate is in the range from 596 to 604 nm, and that of AIS NCs using indium chloride is from 641 to 660 nm. AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium acetate present around 15% and 40% QYs, and both AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium chloride present around 31% QYs. The photoluminescence decay study indicates that the lifetime parameters of AIS and AIS/ZnS using indium chloride are 2–4 times larger than those of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs using indium acetate. Moreover, AIS NCs using indium chloride have a slower photobleaching dynamics than AIS NCs using indium acetate, and ZnS shell coating on both types of AIS NCs significantly enhances their photostability against UV exposure. We believe that the unique optical properties of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs will open an avenue for these materials to be employed in broad electronic or biomedical applications. - Highlights: • High quality of AIS and AIS/ZnS NCs were prepared by heat-up. • Different indium precursors in AIS synthesis can impact AIS optical properties. • The impacted optical properties include emission colors, brightness and life time. • The reason why different indium precursors impact optical properties was explored. • The prepared NCs may have broad electronic and biomedical applications.

  15. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, Cheonan 331-717 (Korea, Republic of); Fatih Kilicaslan, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu (Turkey); Lee, Jong-Hyeon [Graduate School of Green Energy Technology and Department of Nanomaterials Engineering, Chungnam National University, 79 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Dajeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hyun-Seon [Advanced Materials and Processing Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Yongin 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, Cheonan 331-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► In this study, we recovered indium from a waste LCD panel. ► The ITO glass was milled to obtain micron size particles in a HEBM machine. ► Effect of particle size of ITO glass on the amount of dissolved In was investigated. ► In a very short time, a considerable amount of In was recovered. ► Amount of HCl in acid solution was decreased to 40 vol.%. - Abstract: In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  16. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigation on indium tin oxide films under cathodic polarization in NaOH solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wenjiao; Cao, Si; Yang, Yanze; Wang, Hao; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yiming

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of indium tin oxide (ITO) films under the cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The as-received and the cathodically polarized ITO films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction for morphological, compositional and structural studies. The results showed that ITO films underwent a corrosion process during the cathodic polarization and the main component of the corrosion products was body-centered cubic indium. The electrochemical impedance parameters were related to the effect of the cathodic polarization on the ITO specimens. The capacitance of ITO specimens increased, while the charge transfer resistance and the inductance decreased with the increase of the polarization time. The proposed mechanism indicated that the corrosion products (metallic indium) were firstly formed during the cathodic polarization and then absorbed on the surface of the ITO film. As the surface was gradually covered by indium particles, the corrosion process was suppressed. - Highlights: ► Cathodic polarization of indium tin oxide (ITO) in 0.1 M NaOH. ► Cathodic polarization studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ► ITO underwent a corrosion attack during cathodic polarization, indium was observed. ► Electrochemical parameters of ITO were obtained using equivalent electrical circuit. ► A corrosion mechanism is proposed.

  17. Synthesis of indium oxide cubic crystals by modified hydrothermal route for application in room temperature flexible ethanol sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetha, M., E-mail: seetha.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram Dt 603 203 (India); Meena, P. [Department of Physics, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [DRDO-BU Centre for Life Sciences, Bharathiar University Campus, Coimbatore (India); Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 014 (India); Masuda, Yoshitake [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Senthil, K. [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Suwon Campus), Cheoncheon-dong 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the first time HMT is used in the preparation of indium oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HMT itself acts as base for the precursor and results in cubic indium hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified hydrothermal route used for the preparation of cubic indium oxide crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As a new approach a composite film synthesized with prepared indium oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Film showed good response to ethanol vapours with quick response and recovery times. - Abstract: Indium oxide cubic crystals were prepared by using hexamethylenetetramine and indium chloride without the addition of any structure directing agents. The chemical route followed in the present work was a modified hydrothermal synthesis. The average crystallite size of the prepared cubes was found to be 40 nm. A blue emission at 418 nm was observed at room temperature when the sample was excited with a 380 nm Xenon lamp. This emission due to oxygen vacancies made the material suitable for gas sensing applications. The synthesized material was made as a composite film with polyvinyl alcohol which was more flexible than the films prepared on glass substrates. This flexible film was used as a sensing element and tested with ethanol vapours at room temperature. The film showed fast response as well as recovery to ethanol vapours with a sensor response of about 1.4 for 100 ppm of the gas.

  18. Unusual tensile behaviour of fibre-reinforced indium matrix composite and its in-situ TEM straining observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xin; Peng, Jianchao; Zandén, Carl; Yang, Yanping; Mu, Wei; Edwards, Michael; Ye, Lilei; Liu, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Indium-based thermal interface materials are superior in thermal management applications of electronic packaging compared to their polymer-based counterparts. However, pure indium has rather low tensile strength resulting in poor reliability. To enhance the mechanical properties of such a material, a new composite consisting of electrospun randomly oriented continuous polyimide fibres and indium was fabricated. The composite has been characterised by tensile tests and in-situ transmission electron microscopy straining observations. It is shown that the composite's ultimate tensile strength at 20 °C is five times higher than that of pure indium, and the strength of the composite exceeds the summation of strengths of the individual components. Furthermore, contrary to most metallic matrix materials, the ultimate tensile strength of the composite decreases with the increased strain rate in a certain range. The chemical composition and tensile fracture of the novel composite have been analysed comprehensively by means of scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A strengthening mechanism based on mutually reinforcing structures formed by the indium and surrounding fibres is also presented, underlining the effect of compressing at the fibre/indium interfaces by dislocation pileups and slip pinning.

  19. Synthesis of indium oxide cubic crystals by modified hydrothermal route for application in room temperature flexible ethanol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetha, M.; Meena, P.; Mangalaraj, D.; Masuda, Yoshitake; Senthil, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► For the first time HMT is used in the preparation of indium oxide. ► HMT itself acts as base for the precursor and results in cubic indium hydroxide. ► Modified hydrothermal route used for the preparation of cubic indium oxide crystals. ► As a new approach a composite film synthesized with prepared indium oxide. ► Film showed good response to ethanol vapours with quick response and recovery times. - Abstract: Indium oxide cubic crystals were prepared by using hexamethylenetetramine and indium chloride without the addition of any structure directing agents. The chemical route followed in the present work was a modified hydrothermal synthesis. The average crystallite size of the prepared cubes was found to be 40 nm. A blue emission at 418 nm was observed at room temperature when the sample was excited with a 380 nm Xenon lamp. This emission due to oxygen vacancies made the material suitable for gas sensing applications. The synthesized material was made as a composite film with polyvinyl alcohol which was more flexible than the films prepared on glass substrates. This flexible film was used as a sensing element and tested with ethanol vapours at room temperature. The film showed fast response as well as recovery to ethanol vapours with a sensor response of about 1.4 for 100 ppm of the gas.

  20. Related electrical, superconducting and structural characteristics of low temperature indium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belevtsev, B.I.; Pilipenko, V.V.; Yatsuk, L.Ya.

    1981-01-01

    Reported are results of a complex study of electrical, superconducting and structural properties of indium films vacuum evaporated onto a liquid helium-cooled substrate. Structural electron diffraction investigations gave a better insight into the general features of the annealing during the warming-up of cold-deposited films. It is found that the annealing of indium films to about 80 to 100 K entails an irreversible growth of interplanar separations due to decreasing inhomogeneous microstresses. As the films are warmed from 100 to 300 K, the principal annealing processes are determined by crystallite growth and development of dominating orientation. The changes in the residual resistance and in Tsub(c) with warming the cold-deported films are explained on the base of structural data obtained. In particular, a direct relationship is revealed between the crystallite size and Tsub(c) [ru

  1. Optical emission spectroscopy during fabrication of indium-tin-oxynitride films by RF-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koufaki, M.; Sifakis, M.; Iliopoulos, E.; Pelekanos, N.; Modreanu, M.; Cimalla, V.; Ecke, G.; Aperathitis, E.

    2006-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and indium-tin-oxynitride (ITON) films have been deposited on glass by rf-sputtering from an ITO target, using Ar plasma and N 2 plasma, respectively, and different rf-power. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed to identify the species present in the plasma and to correlate them with the properties of the ITO and ITON thin films. Emission lines of ionic In could only be detected in N 2 plasma, whereas in the Ar plasma additional lines corresponding to atomic In and InO, were detected. The deposition rate of thin films was correlated with the In species, rather than the nitrogen species, emission intensity in the plasma. The higher resistivity and lower carrier concentration of the ITON films, as compared to the respective properties of the ITO films, were attributed to the incorporation of nitrogen, instead of oxygen, in the ITON structure

  2. Extraction of aluminium, gallium and indium by tri-n-octylamine from citric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shova, T.A.; Kaplunova, A.M.; Ershova, N.I.; Varshal, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on aluminium, gallium and indium distribution in triocylam ine(toa)-citric acid system depending on pH of aqueous solution, concentration of components and foreign electrolytes. The methods of equilibrium shift, compe ting ions and isomolar series were used to find the component ratio in toa: Me: citric acid complexes equal to 3:1:2. The equation describing the extraction of citrate gallium, indium and aluminium complexes by trioctylamine was suggested. Using the difference in extraction behavior of the elements of aluminium, yttri um and lanthanum subgroup the extraction-chromatographic method of their separat ion, applied for the analysis of optical glasses was developed. The method is c haracterized by satisfactory reproduction, simplicity and expre

  3. Indium-oxide nanoparticles for RRAM devices compatible with CMOS back-end-off-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Pérez, Edgar A. A.; Guenery, Pierre-Vincent; Abouzaid, Oumaïma; Ayadi, Khaled; Brottet, Solène; Moeyaert, Jérémy; Labau, Sébastien; Baron, Thierry; Blanchard, Nicholas; Baboux, Nicolas; Militaru, Liviu; Souifi, Abdelkader

    2018-05-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) devices based on nanoparticles in MIM structures. Our approach is based on the use of indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix using CMOS-full-compatible fabrication processes in view of back-end-off-line integration for non-volatile memory (NVM) applications. A bipolar switching behavior has been observed using current-voltage measurements (I-V) for all devices. Very high ION/IOFF ratios have been obtained up to 108. Our results provide insights for further integration of In2O3 nanoparticles-based devices for NVM applications. He is currently a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Institute of Nanotechnologies of Lyon (INL), INSA de Lyon, France, in the Electronics Department. His current research include indium oxide nanoparticles for non-volatile memory applications, and the integrations of these devices in CMOS BEOL.

  4. Effect of Temperature on Nucleation of Nanocrystalline Indium Tin Oxide Synthesized by Electron-Beam Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Zhao, Yujun; Shen, Jianxing; Xu, Xiangang

    2017-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely applied as a transparent conductive layer and optical window in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and touch screens. In this paper, crystalline nano-sized ITO dendrites are obtained using an electron-beam evaporation technique. The surface morphology of the obtained ITO was studied for substrate temperatures of 25°C, 130°C, 180°C, and 300°C. Nano-sized crystalline dendrites were synthesized only at a substrate temperature of 300°C. The dendrites had a cubic structure, confirmed by the results of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of the nano-crystalline dendrites could be explained by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth model. The catalysts of the VLS process were indium and tin droplets, confirmed by varying the substrate temperature, which further influenced the nucleation of the ITO dendrites.

  5. Compton scattering studies of the electron momentum distribution in indium phosphide

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, A; Guin, R; Chatterjee, A K

    1999-01-01

    The electron momentum anisotropy of indium phosphide has been studied by measuring the directional Compton profiles of indium phosphide single crystals with the use of radiation from an sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am gamma source. Three different samples, cut along the [100], [110] and [111] planes, were used. The experimental anisotropy has been compared with the results based on the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO) method. The agreement is very good with our theoretical results. It is found that the extrema appearing in the dependences on q of the anisotropies have an intimate connection with the bonding properties of the semiconductor. A self-consistent, all-electron, local density calculation for the partial density of states, total density of states and the charge analysis is also presented here.

  6. Indium-defect interactions in FCC and BCC metals studied using the modified embedded atom method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics, Geology, and Engineering Technology (United States)

    2016-12-15

    With the aim of developing a transferable potential set capable of predicting defect formation, defect association, and diffusion properties in a wide range of intermetallic compounds, the present study was undertaken to test parameterization strategies for determining empirical pair-wise interaction parameters in the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) developed by Baskes and coworkers. This report focuses on indium-solute and indium-vacancy interactions in FCC and BCC metals, for which a large set of experimental data obtained from perturbed angular correlation measurements is available for comparison. Simulation results were found to be in good agreement with experimental values after model parameters had been adjusted to reproduce as best as possible the following two sets of quantities: (1) lattice parameters, formation enthalpies, and bulk moduli of hypothetical equiatomic compounds with the NaCl crystal structure determined using density functional theory and (2) dilute solution enthalpies in metals as predicted by Miedema’s semi-empirical model.

  7. Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. [Deptartmento de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Ave Inb Battouta, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-11-27

    Spray pyrolysis process has been used to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin-doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, structural and optical properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrate. The morphology of the surface as a function of the substrate temperature has been studied using atomic force microscopy. XRD has shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have a preferred orientation (4 0 0). Indium tin oxide layers with low resistivity values around 4x10{sup -5} {Omega} cm and transmission coefficients in the visible and near-infrared range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained

  8. Transparent indium zinc oxide thin films used in photovoltaic cells based on polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besleaga, Cristina; Ion, L.; Ghenescu, Veta; Socol, G.; Radu, A.; Arghir, Iulia; Florica, Camelia; Antohe, S.

    2012-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were obtained using pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared by ablation of targets with In concentrations, In/(In + Zn), of 80 at.%, at low substrate temperatures under reactive atmosphere. IZO films were used as transparent electrodes in polymer-based – poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 1:1 blend – photovoltaic cells. The action spectra measurements revealed that IZO-based photovoltaic structures have performances comparable with those using indium–tin–oxide as transparent electrode. - Highlights: ► Indium zinc oxide films were grown by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. ► The films had large free carrier density and reasonably high mobility. ► These films fit for transparent electrodes in polymer-based photovoltaic cells.

  9. Silver-indium-cadmium control rod behaviour during a severe reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.; Jenkins, R.A.; Nichols, A.L.; Rowe, N.A.; Simpson, J.A.H.

    1986-04-01

    An alloy of silver, indium and cadmium is commonly used as control rod material in pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The behaviour of this alloy has been studied in a series of experiments using an induction furnace to achieve temperatures up to 1900K. The aerosols released from overheated clad and unclad control rod samples have been characterised in both steam and inert atmospheres. Mass balance experiments have been undertaken to determine the distribution of the control rod alloy constituents following rupture of the cladding, and this work has been supported by thermogravimetric studies of silver-indium mixtures. Metallographic studies were also undertaken to assess the failure mode of the stainless steel cladding and the interaction of the molten alloy with Zircaloy. The results of this work are discussed in terms of aerosol/vapour behaviour during severe reactor accidents. (author)

  10. On the deposition parameters of indium oxide (IO) and tin oxide (TO) by reactive evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.; Abdullah, A.H.; Salam, R.

    1990-01-01

    Thin films of tin oxide (TO) and indium oxide (IO) are prepared by the reactive evaporation technique, where indium or tin sources are evaporated and made to react with oxygen gas injected close to the substrate. In both depositions a substrate temperature of 380 0 C and a chamber pressure of 2x10 -5 mbar are utilized, but however different oxygen flow rates has been maintained. For TO, the deposition rate is found to be constant up to about 55 minutes of deposition time with a deposition rate of about 0.10 A/s, but for longer deposition time the deposition rate increases rapidly up to about 0.30 A/s. The IO displays a higher deposition rate of about 0.80 A/s over a deposition time 30 minutes, beyond which the deposition rate increases gradually

  11. Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis using autologous indium-III-labelled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, A.; Hussey, J.K.; Smith, F.W.; Dendy, P.P.; Bennett, B.; Douglas, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-eight patients who had undergone surgical reduction of a fractured neck of femur or in whom deep vein thrombosis was suspected clinically were studied by ascending phlebography and imaging after injection of autologous indium-III-labelled platelets to assess the accuracy and value of the radioisotopic technique in diagnosing deep vein thrombosis. Imaging was performed with a wide-field gammacamera linked with data display facilities. Phlebography showed thrombi in 26 out of 54 limbs examined and a thrombus in the inferior vena cava of one patient; imaging the labelled platelets showed the thrombi in 24 of the 26 limbs and the thrombus in the inferior vena cava. The accumulation of indium-III at sites corresponding to those at which venous thrombi have been shown phlebographically indicates that this radioisotopic technique is a useful addition to methods already available for the detection of deep vein thrombosis. (author)

  12. Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis using autologous indium-III-labelled platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenech, A.; Hussey, J.K.; Smith, F.W.; Dendy, P.P.; Bennett, B.; Douglas, A.S. (Aberdeen Univ. (UK))

    1981-03-28

    Forty-eight patients who had undergone surgical reduction of a fractured neck of femur or in whom deep vein thrombosis was suspected clinically were studied by ascending phlebography and imaging after injection of autologous indium-III-labelled platelets to assess the accuracy and value of the radioisotopic technique in diagnosing deep vein thrombosis. Imaging was performed with a wide-field gamma camera linked with data display facilities. Phlebography showed thrombi in 26 out of 54 limbs examined and a thrombus in the inferior vena cava of one patient; imaging the labelled platelets showed the thrombi in 24 of the 26 limbs and the thrombus in the inferior vena cava. The accumulation of indium-III at sites corresponding to those at which venous thrombi have been shown phlebographically indicates that this radioisotopic technique is a useful addition to methods already available for the detection of deep vein thrombosis.

  13. A sol-gel method to synthesize indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhua Li; Xiujuan xu; Xin Yin; Chunzhong Li; Jianrong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel sol-gel method.Granulated indium and tin were dissolved in HNO3 and partially complexed with citric acid.A sol-gel process was induced when tertiary butyl alcohol was added dropwise to the above solution.ITO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 18.5 nm and surface area of 32.6 m2/g were obtained after the gel was heat-treated at 700 C.The ITO nanoparticles showed good sinterability,the starting sintering temperature decreased sharply to 900 C,and the 1400 C sintered pellet had a density of 98.1 % of theoretical density (TD).

  14. Mass measurements of neutron-rich indium isotopes toward the N =82 shell closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, C.; Klawitter, R.; Leistenschneider, E.; Lascar, D.; Barquest, B. R.; Finlay, A.; Foster, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Hunt, P.; Kootte, B.; Lan, Y.; Paul, S. F.; Phan, M. L.; Reiter, M. P.; Schultz, B.; Short, D.; Andreoiu, C.; Brodeur, M.; Dillmann, I.; Gwinner, G.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K. G.; Dilling, J.

    2018-02-01

    Precise mass measurements of the neutron-rich In-130125 isotopes have been performed with the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer. TITAN's electron beam ion trap was used to charge breed the ions to charge state q =13 + thus providing the necessary resolving power to measure not only the ground states but also isomeric states at each mass number. In this paper, the properties of the ground states are investigated through a series of mass differentials, highlighting trends in the indium isotopic chain as compared to its proton-magic neighbor, tin (Z =50 ). In addition, the energies of the indium isomers are presented. The (8-) level in 128In is found to be 78 keV lower than previously thought and the (21 /2- ) isomer in 127In is shown to be lower than the literature value by more than 150 keV.

  15. Ab-initio modelling of thermodynamics and kinetics of point defects in indium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoston, Peter; Klein, Andreas; Albe, Karsten; Erhart, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The electrical and optical properties of indium oxide films strongly vary with the processing parameters. Especially the oxygen partial pressure and temperature determine properties like electrical conductivity, composition and transparency. Since this material owes its remarkable properties like the intrinsic n-type conductivity to its defect chemistry, it is important to understand both, the equilibrium defect thermodynamics and kinetics of the intrinsic point defects. In this contribution we present a defect model based on DFT total energy calculations using the GGA+U method. Further, the nudged elastic band method is employed in order to obtain a set of migration barriers for each defect species. Due to the complicated crystal structure of indium oxide a Kinetic Monte-Carlo algorithm was implemented, which allows to determine diffusion coefficients. The bulk tracer diffusion constant is predicted as a function of oxygen partial pressure, Fermi level and temperature for the pure material

  16. Optoelectronic and magnetic properties of Mn-doped indium tin oxide: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath Tripathi, Madhvendra; Saeed Bahramy, Mohammad; Shida, Kazuhito; Sahara, Ryoji; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2012-10-01

    The manganese doped indium tin oxide (ITO) has integrated magnetics, electronics, and optical properties for next generation multifunctional devices. Our first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the manganese atom replaces b-site indium atom, located at the second coordination shell of the interstitial oxygen in ITO. It is also found that both anti-ferromagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviors are realizable. The calculated magnetic moment of 3.95μB/Mn as well as the high transmittance of ˜80% for a 150 nm thin film of Mn doped ITO is in good agreement with the experimental data. The inclusion of on-site Coulomb repulsion corrections via DFT + U methods turns out to improve the optical behavior of the system. The optical behaviors of this system reveal its suitability for the magneto-opto-electronic applications.

  17. Electrical, optical and photoelectric properties of cadmium sulfide monocrystals doped by indium and irradiated by electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Davidyuk, G E; Manzhara, V S

    2002-01-01

    One studied effect of irradiation by E = 1.2 MeV energy and PHI = 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 dose fast electrons on electrical, optical and photoelectrical CdS single-crystals doped by In. On the basis of analysis of the experimental results one makes conclusions about decomposition and, in this case, indium atoms occurring in cation sublattice nodes are knocked out by cadmium atoms. In CdS:In irradiated specimens one detected new centres of slow recombination with occurrence of maximums of photoconductivity optical suppression within lambda sub M sub sub 1 = 0.75 mu m and lambda sub M sub sub 2 = 1.03 mu m range. It is assumed that complexes containing cadmium vacancies and indium atoms are responsible for recombination new centres

  18. Surface enhanced Raman scattering in organic thin films covered with silver, indium and magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvan, Georgeta; Zahn, Dietrich R.T.; Paez, Beynor

    2004-01-01

    In situ resonant Raman spectroscopy was applied for the investigation of the interface formation between silver, indium and magnesium with polycrystalline organic semiconductor layers of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetra-carboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA). The spectral region of internal as well as external vibrational modes was recorded in order to achieve information related to the chemistry and the structure of the interface as well as to morphology of the metal layer. The experiments benefit from a strong enhancement of the internal mode scattering intensities which is induced by the rough morphology of deposited metals leading to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The external modes, on the other hand, are attenuated at different rates indicating that the diffusion of the metal atoms into the crystalline layers is highest for indium and lowest for magnesium

  19. Scaling behaviors of magnetoconductivity in amorphous indium oxide near the metal-insulator transition

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y J; Kim, Y S

    2000-01-01

    Magnetoconductivity is measured in an amorphous indium-oxide sample which is in the microscopic region. Two different scaling behaviors are observed for the magnetoconductivity The scaling behavior is determined by either the localization or the electron correlation effects, whichever becomes stronger more rapidly at a given temperature and magnetic field. Qualitative explanations are given for the observed scaling behaviors. A curve of a function of H/T sup 2 sup / sup 3 exists on which all our magnetoconductivity data lie.

  20. Acid indium strontium phosphate SrIn2[PO3(OH)]4: synthesis and crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusakov, D.A.; Bobylev, A.P.; Komissarova, L.N.; Filaretov, A.A.; Danilov, V.P.

    2007-01-01

    Acid indium-strontium phosphate SrIn 2 [PO 3 (OH)] 4 is synthesized and characterized. Crystal structure and lattice parameters ate determined. In atoms in SrIn 2 [PO 3 (OH)] 4 structure are in distorted InO 6 octahedrons and form with PO 3 (OH) tetrahedrons mixed paraskeleton {In 2 [PO 3 (OH)] 4 } 3∞ 2- with emptinesses occupied by big Sr 2+ cations. The compound is thermally stable up to 400 Deg C [ru

  1. Synthesis and characterization ligand tris-(2-thiosalicylamidoethyl)amine and its iron complexes and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra-Garcia, Pedro Pablo; Valle Bourrouet, Grettel

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of coordination chemistry ligand tris-(2-tiosalicilamidoetil)amine is presented within the framework of study of tripod ligands, the corresponding complexes of iron and indium. Also, its spectroscopic characterization by proton magnetic resonance is showed; so the influence of ligand on a redox active metal and an inactive is compared. Electrochemical methods have been used. The presence of sulfur atoms modifies the redox and magnetic behavior of iron ion (III), as has been found in other similar ligands [es

  2. Characteristics of indium zinc oxide films deposited using the facing targets sputtering method for OLEDs applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited on polyethersulfone (PES) and glass substrates using the facing targets sputtering (FTS) system. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the IZO thin films deposited as functions of sputtering parameters on the glass and PES substrates. An optimal IZO deposition condition is fabricated for organic light-emitting device (OLED) based on glass and PES. The amorphous IZO anode-based OLEDs show superior current density and luminance characteristics.

  3. Laser-spectroscopic nuclear-structure studies on radioactive silver and indium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinger, U.

    1988-05-01

    Neutron-deficient silver and neutron-rich indium isotopes were studied by collinear laser spectroscopy. The neutron-deficient nuclei 101 , 103 , 104 , 105 , 105m , 106m Ag were produced as evaporation-residual nuclei in heavy-ion fusion reactions at the mass separator of the GSI in Darmstadt. The fourteen studied indium isotopes and isomers with even mass number in the range 112-126 In were produced by 600-MeV-proton induced fission of a uranium carbide target at the ISOLDE separator in Geneva. The mass-separated ion beam was subsequently deviated electrostatically, neutralized in a sodium vapor and superposed with a c w dye laser. A photon counting system detected the resonance fluorescence of the induced transitions. The hyperfine structure and the isotope shift of the 4d 9 5s 2 2 D 5/2 → 4d 10 6p 2 P 3/2 transition (λ=547.7 nm) in silver and the 5p 2 P 1/2,3/2 → 6s 2 s 1/2 transition (λ=410 respectively 451 nm) in indium were measured. While in indium for the analysis of the data earlier work could be referred to, in silver a detailed analysis of the isotope shift and hyperfine structure was performed by means of ab initio calculations and semi-empirical procedures. Thereby the configuration interactions were especially considered. The nuclear moments were discussed in the framework of existing nuclear models regarding nuclear-spectroscopic informations. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Nuclear structure studies on indium and tin isotope chains by means of laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberz, J.

    1986-11-01

    In a collaboration with GSI in Darmstadt and ISOLDE in Geneva the hyperfine structure (HFS) and the isotope shift (IS) of the indium isotopes from 104 In - 127 In in their ground and isomeric states could be studied. Additionally the tin isotopes 109 Sn and 111 Sn could be measured. In tin the transition 5p 2 1 S 0 → 5p6s 3 P 1 with λ = 563 nm was studied. In indium the transition 5p 2 P 1/2 → 6s 2 S 1/2 with λ = 410 nm and 5p 2 P 3/2 → 6s 2 S 1/2 with λ = 451 nm could be measured. The magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments determined from the measurements of the HFS can be sufficiently explained in the framework of the single-particle model. From the moments the configurations and spins of the studied nuclear states can be stated. In 109 Sn the nuclear spin was determined to I = 5/2. The measurement of the IS in two lines in 108 In allowed regarding the coupling rules for nuclear moments the determination of the nuclear spin. The spin of the 40 m isomers of the 108m In can be stated to I = 2. The mean square nuclear charge radius exhibits a parabolic slope the quadratic part of which with a maximum in the shell center at N = 66 between the neutron numbers N = 50 and N = 82 can be understood as sum of contributions of a surface correlation, i.e. a quadrupole deformation as well as eventually present higher order terms or a change of the surface skin density. The deformation determinable by this description is both for tin and for indium essentially larger than the deformation from the B(E2) values of tin or from the intrinsic quadrupole moments in indium derived from the HFS. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. Determination of indium(III) with 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorogallein and cetylpyridinium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Itsuo; Fujita, Yoshikazu; Ida, Masako; Enoki, Takehisa

    1976-01-01

    Rapid and highly sensitive methods have been developed for the spectrophotometric and titrimetric determination of indium(III) with 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorogallein(3,4,5,6-T. Cl, Gal.) and cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC) in aqueous solutions of pH 4.2--5.2. The absorbance of the indium(III)-3,4,5,6-T. Cl. Gal. complex at 620 nm and the color change (pure blue - weak violetish red) were used to indicate the end point in the EDTA titration. The calibration curve for the spectrophotometry was linear in the range 0--45.0 μg In(III)/10 ml. According to Sandell's expression, the sensitivity was 0.0032 μg In(III)/cm 2 for an absorbance of 0.001. To the solution containing less than 45.0 μg of indium(III), 2.0 ml of 1.0x10 -2 M CPC solution, 3.0 ml of Walpole buffer solution(pH 4.4; acetic acid-sodium acetate), and 2.0 ml of 1.0x10 -3 M 3,4,5,6-T.Cl.Gal. methanol solution were added and the volume was made up to 10.0 ml with water. The solution was kept at (20--25) 0 C for 30 minutes and then the absorbance was measured at 620 nm against the reagent blank. The mole ratio of indium(III), 3,4,5,6-T.Cl.Gal. and CPC in the complex was estimated to be 1 : 2 : 2 by the continuous variation and the mole ratio methods. (auth.)

  6. Properties of epitaxial films of indium phosphides alloyed with erbium in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, V.I.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Korobkin, V.A.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Lopatin, V.V.; Lyubchenko, V.E.; Telegin, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature dependences of specific resistance and free charge-carrier mobility at low temperatures for indium phosphide films grown by liquid-phase epitaxial method with erbium additions (0.01-0.1 mass%). The main mechanisms of scattering for different temperature regions: scattering on ionized impurities in the rage from 20 to 40 K and lattice scattering at the temperature above 90 K are determined. The current density dependences on applied electric field strength are presented

  7. Optical second harmonic generation phase measurement at interfaces of some organic layers with indium tin oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngah Demon, Siti Zulaikha; Miyauchi, Yoshihiro; Mizutani, Goro; Matsushima, Toshinori; Murata, Hideyuki

    2014-08-01

    We observed phase shift in optical second harmonic generation (SHG) from interfaces of indium tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ITO/pentacene. Phase correction due to Fresnel factors of the sample was taken into account. The phase of SHG electric field at the ITO/pentacene interface, ϕinterface with respect to the phase of SHG of bare substrate ITO was 160°, while the interface of ITO/CuPc had a phase of 140°.

  8. Optical second harmonic generation phase measurement at interfaces of some organic layers with indium tin oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Ngah Demon, Siti Zulaikha; Miyauchi, Yoshihiro; Mizutani, Goro; Matsushima, Toshinori; Murata, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    We observed phase shift in optical second harmonic generation (SHG) from interfaces of indium tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ITO/pentacene. Phase correction due to Fresnel factors of the sample was taken into account. The phase of SHG electric field at the ITO/pentacene interface, ϕ_ with respect to the phase of SHG of bare substrate ITO was 160°, while the interface of ITO/CuPc had a phase of 140°.

  9. Sol–gel synthesis of nanostructured indium tin oxide with controlled morphology and porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kőrösi, László, E-mail: ltkorosi@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632 Pécs (Hungary); Scarpellini, Alice [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Petrik, Péter [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Konkoly-Thege út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Papp, Szilvia [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632 Pécs (Hungary); Dékány, Imre [MTA-SZTE Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group, University of Szeged, Dóm tér 8, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ITO thin films and powders were prepared by a sol–gel method. • The nature of the compounds used for hydrolysis plays a key role in the morphology. • Hydrolysis of In{sup 3+}/Sn{sup 4+} with EA led to a rod-like morphology. • Monodisperse spherical ITO nanoparticles were obtained on the use of AC. • ITO{sub E}A was highly porous, while ITO{sub A}C contained densely packed nanocrystals. - Abstract: Nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) powders and thin films differing in morphology and porosity were prepared by a sol–gel method. In{sup 3+} and Sn{sup 4+} were hydrolyzed in aqueous medium through the use of ethanolamine (EA) or sodium acetate (AC). X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated that both EA and AC furnished indium tin hydroxide, which became nanocrystalline after aging for one day. The indium tin hydroxide samples calcined at 550 °C afforded ITO with a cubic crystal structure, but the morphology differed significantly, depending on the agent used for hydrolysis. Electron microscopy revealed the formation of round monodisperse nanoparticles when AC was used, whereas the application of EA led to rod-like ITO nanoparticles. Both types of nanoparticles were suitable for the preparation of transparent and conductive ITO thin films. The influence of the morphology and porosity on the optical properties is discussed.

  10. Charge mobility increase in indium-molybdenum oxide thin films by hydrogen doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalán, S.; Álvarez-Fraga, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salas, E. [Spline CRG, ESRF, 38043 Grenoble (France); Ramírez-Jiménez, R. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida Universidad 30, Leganés, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Palomo, A.; Andrés, A. de [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, C., E-mail: cprieto@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The charge mobility in IMO films is correlated with its hydrogen content. • The mobility behavior is explained by the presence of OH{sup −} groups in IMO films. • Mo{sup 4+} is identified in transparent conductive IMO by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. - Abstract: The increase of charge mobility in transparent conductive indium molybdenum oxide (IMO) films is correlated with the presence of hydroxyl groups. The introduction of H{sub 2} in the chamber during sputtering deposition compensates the excess charge introduced by cationic Mo doping of indium oxide either by oxygen or hydroxyl interstitials. Films present a linear increase of carrier mobility correlated with H{sub 2} content only after vacuum annealing. This behavior is explained because vacuum annealing favors the removal of oxygen interstitials over that of hydroxyl groups. Since hydroxyl groups offer lower effective charge and smaller lattice distortions than those associated with interstitial oxygen, this compensation mechanism offers the conditions for the observed increase in mobility. Additionally, the short-range order around molybdenum is evaluated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, showing that Mo{sup 4+} is placed at the In site of the indium oxide.

  11. Voltammetry and coulometry of indium in two-side thin-layer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, L.V.; Kabanova, O.L.

    1980-01-01

    An electrochemical behaviour of In and possibilities for its determination have been investigated, using halide background solutions, by voltametry in the thin solution layer thin mercury film system. It has been shown that the maximum current of indium (3) is directly proportional to its concentration over a range of 1x10 -4 - 5x10 -3 M and the maximum current of indium oxidation from the amalgam over a range of 5x10 -7 - 1x10 -4 M. Examined were the effects of halide ion concentration, pH, electrode potential change rate on current maximum value, product efficiency of reducing indium (3) and oxidizing its amalgam, on maximum current potential and half-peak width. The analytical signal has been found to be directly proportional to chloride ion concentration over a range of 0.1 - 3.0 M, bromide and iodide ion concentration over a range of 0.1 - 1.0 M. This makes it possible to use the method for determination of halide ions

  12. Composition dependence of the thermodynamic activity and lattice parameter of zeta nickel-indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, B.; Masson, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    The vapor pressure of indium over six alloys in the zeta phase of the nickel-indium system was measured by the method of atomic absorption. Values of thermodynamic activity were calculated from the vapor pressure, and partial heat and entropy of indium were calculated from the temperature coefficients. The lattice parameters of the hexagonal B8 2 unit cell of all alloys were calculated from X-ray diffraction powder patterns. It was found that the a lattice parameter passed through a minimum at the same composition that the excess chemical potential showed a sharp change of slope, when graphed as a function of composition. These effects were similar to those observed previously which have been attributed to overlap by the Fermi surface of a Brillouin zone face. In the present case they were attributed to overlap of the Fermi surface across faces tentatively identified as the [110] faces of the Brillouin zone of the B8 2 structure. The influence of substitutional disorder was also considered as a cause of the thermodynamic effects, but this was rejected because it does not explain the minimum in lattice parameter. (Auth.)

  13. In-Situ Growth and Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide Nanocrystal Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO nanocrystal rods were synthesized in-situ by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS method and electron beam evaporation technique. When the electron-beam gun bombarded indium oxide (In2O3 and tin oxide (SnO2 mixed sources, indium and tin droplets appeared and acted as catalysts. The nanocrystal rods were in-situ grown on the basis of the metal catalyst point. The nanorods have a single crystal structure. Its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. During the evaporation, a chemical process was happened and an In2O3 and SnO2 solid solution was formed. The percentage of doped tin oxide was calculated by Vegard’s law to be 3.18%, which was in agreement with the mixture ratio of the experimental data. The single crystal rod had good semiconductor switch property and its threshold voltage of single rod was approximately 2.5 V which can be used as a micro switch device. The transmission rate of crystalline nanorods ITO film was over 90% in visible band and it was up to 95% in the blue green band as a result of the oxygen vacancy recombination luminescence.

  14. Studies on the optoelectronic properties of the thermally evaporated tin-doped indium oxide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ko-Ying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Liang-Da [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Li-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Han C., E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-05-15

    Indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanorods, nanotowers and tin-doped (Sn:In = 1:100) indium oxide (ITO) nanorods have been fabricated by thermal evaporation. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of these three nanoproducts are characterized by FE-SEM, HRTEM and XPS. To further investigate the optoelectronic properties, the I–V curves and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are measured. The electrical resistivity of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods, nanotowers and ITO nanorods are 1.32 kΩ, 0.65 kΩ and 0.063 kΩ, respectively. CL spectra of these three nanoproducts clearly indicate that tin-doped (Sn:In = 1:100) indium oxide (ITO) nanorods cause a blue shift. No doubt ITO nanorods obtain the highest performance among these three nanoproducts, and this also means that Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures would be the best way to enhance the optoelectronic properties. Additionally, the growing mechanism and the optoelectronic properties of these three nanostructures are discussed. This study is beneficial to the applications of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods, nanotowers and ITO nanorods in optoelectronic nanodevices.

  15. Improved field emission from indium decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreekanth, M.; Ghosh, S., E-mail: santanu1@physics.iitd.ernet.in; Biswas, P.; Kumar, S.; Srivastava, P.

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Improved field emission properties have been achieved for Indium (In) decorated MWCNTs and are shown using the schematic of field emission set up with In/CNT cathode, and a plot of J-E characteristics for pristine and In decorated CNTs. - Highlights: • Field emission (FE) properties have been studied for the first time from Indium (In) decorated MWCNT films. • Observed increased density of states near the Fermi level for In decorated films. • Superior field emission properties have been achieved for In decorated CNT films. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films were grown using thermal chemical vapor deposition (T-CVD) process and were decorated with indium metal particles by thermal evaporation technique. The In metal particles are found to get oxidized. The In decorated films show 250% enhancement in the FE current density, lower turn-on and threshold fields, and better temporal stability as compared to their undecorated counterpart. This improvement in field emission properties is primarily attributed to increased density of states near the Fermi level. The presence of O 2p states along with a small contribution from In 5s states results in the enhancement of density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi level.

  16. Influence of disorder on the superconducting critical temperature in indium-opal nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchuk, I.; Januzaj, A.; Mikhailin, N. Yu.; Traito, K. B.; Chernyaev, A. V.; Romanov, S. G.; Safonchik, M.; Shamshur, D. V.; Lähderanta, E.

    2018-06-01

    Transport properties of bulk indium-opal and indium-porous glass superconducting nanocomposites possessing moderate and strong disorder are investigated. A strongly nonmonotonous dependence of the global critical temperature Tc versus normal state conductivity of samples is found. The maximum, which is observed at moderate disorder, has Tc higher than that of clean bulk indium. The increasing part can be explained by the Eliashberg equations with disorder and an additional mechanism of interaction between superconducting and dielectric granules. The descending part of the maximum at higher disorder can be explained by the increasing of long-range Coulomb repulsion due to diffusion of charges. Negative slope in magnetic field dependence of resistivity and a peak in the temperature dependence of resistivity, observed in the sample near the proximity to the disorder-induced superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). A large difference between the onset temperature of superconducting fluctuations, Tcon , and global critical temperature Tc is found and considered in the framework of the weak multifractal theory. Slow time-logarithmic relaxation of the resistivity between Tc and Tcon is observed, which assumes existence of the precursor state near the SIT. This unusual state is discussed in the scope of the many-body localization theory.

  17. Perturbed angular correlation study of the ion exchange of indium into silicalite zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramallo-Lopez, J.M., E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Requejo, F.G., E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Renteria, M., E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Bibiloni, A.G. [UNLP, Programa TENAES (CONICET) and Departamento de Fisica, Faculdad Cs Ex (Argentina)], E-mail: requejo@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Miro, E.E. [UNL, INCAPE (CONICET) and Faculdad Ing. Quimica (Argentina)

    1999-09-15

    Two indium-containing silicalite zeolites (In/H-ZSM5) catalysts prepared by wet impregnation and ionic exchange were characterized by the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique using {sup 111}In as probe to determine the nature of the indium species. Some of these species take part in the catalytic reaction of the selective reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} with methane. PAC experiments were performed at 500 deg. C in air before and after reduction-reoxidation treatments on the catalysts in order to determine the origin of the different hyperfine interactions and then the degree of ionic exchange. Complementary catalytic activity characterizations were also performed.PAC experiments performed on the catalyst obtained by wet impregnation showed that all In-atoms form In{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites while almost 70% of In-atoms form In{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the catalyst obtained by ionic exchange. The PAC experiments of both catalysts performed after the reduction-reoxidation treatment revealed the presence of two hyperfine interactions, different from those corresponding to indium in In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These hyperfine interactions should be associated to disperse In species responsible of the catalytic activity located in the ionic exchange-sites of the zeolites.

  18. Perturbed angular correlation study of the ion exchange of indium into silicalite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramallo-Lopez, J.M.; Requejo, F.G.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Miro, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two indium-containing silicalite zeolites (In/H-ZSM5) catalysts prepared by wet impregnation and ionic exchange were characterized by the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique using 111 In as probe to determine the nature of the indium species. Some of these species take part in the catalytic reaction of the selective reduction (SCR) of NO x with methane. PAC experiments were performed at 500 deg. C in air before and after reduction-reoxidation treatments on the catalysts in order to determine the origin of the different hyperfine interactions and then the degree of ionic exchange. Complementary catalytic activity characterizations were also performed.PAC experiments performed on the catalyst obtained by wet impregnation showed that all In-atoms form In 2 O 3 crystallites while almost 70% of In-atoms form In 2 O 3 in the catalyst obtained by ionic exchange. The PAC experiments of both catalysts performed after the reduction-reoxidation treatment revealed the presence of two hyperfine interactions, different from those corresponding to indium in In 2 O 3 . These hyperfine interactions should be associated to disperse In species responsible of the catalytic activity located in the ionic exchange-sites of the zeolites

  19. Thermodynamic Considerations for a Pyrometallurgical Extraction of Indium and Silver from a Jarosite Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Steinlechner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indium and silver are technologically important, critical metals, and in the majority of cases, they are extracted as a by-product of another carrier metal. The importance of indium has seen recent growth, and for technological reasons, these metals can be found in industrial residues from primary zinc production, such as the iron precipitate—jarosite. To secure the supply of such metals in Europe, and with the idea of a circular economy and the sustainable use of raw materials, the recycling of such industrial residues is coming into focus. Due to the low value of jarosite, the focus must lie simultaneously on the recovery of valuable metals and the production of high-quality products in order to pursue an economical process. The objective of this article is to give the fundamentals for the development of a successful process to extract the minor elements from roasted jarosite. As such, we use thermodynamic calculations to show the behavior of indium and silver, leading to a recommendation for the required conditions for a successful extraction process. In summary, the formation of chlorine compounds shows high potential to meet the challenge of simultaneously recovering these metals together with zinc at the lowest possible energy input.

  20. Measurement of the indium segregation in InGaN based LEDs with single atom sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinschek, Joerg; Kisielowski, Christian; Van Dyck, Dirk; Geuens, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    In light emitting diodes (LED) consisting of GaN/InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs), the exact indium distribution inside the wells of the active region affects the performance of devices. Indium segregation can take place forming small InGaN clusters of locally varying composition. In the past, we used a local strain analysis from single HRTEM lattice images to determine the In composition inside the InGaN QWs with a resolution of 0.5 nm x 0.3 nm. Truly atomic resolution can be pursued by exploitation of intensity dependencies on the atomic number (Z) of the electron exit-wave (EW). In microscopes with sufficient sensitivity, local variations of amplitude and phase are found to be discrete with sample thickness, which allows for counting the number of atoms in each individual column of ∼0.08 nm diameter. In QW s of ∼17 percent of average indium concentration it is possible to discriminate between pure Ga columns and columns containing 1, 2, 3, or more In atoms because phase changes are discrete and element specific. The preparation of samples with atomically flat surfaces is a limiting factor for the application of the procedure

  1. Synthesis of indium nanoparticles at ambient temperature; simultaneous phase transfer and ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghazadeh Meshgi, Mohammad; Kriechbaum, Manfred [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Austria); Biswas, Subhajit; Holmes, Justin D., E-mail: j.holmes@ucc.ie [University College Cork, Materials Chemistry and Analysis Group, Department of Chemistry and the Tyndall National Institute (Ireland); Marschner, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.marschner@tugraz.at [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Austria)

    2016-12-15

    The synthesis of size-monodispersed indium nanoparticles via an innovative simultaneous phase transfer and ripening method is reported. The formation of nanoparticles occurs in a one-step process instead of well-known two-step phase transfer approaches. The synthesis involves the reduction of InCl{sub 3} with LiBH{sub 4} at ambient temperature and although the reduction occurs at room temperature, fine indium nanoparticles, with a mean diameter of 6.4 ± 0.4 nm, were obtained directly in non-polar n-dodecane. The direct synthesis of indium nanoparticles in n-dodecane facilitates their fast formation and enhances their size-monodispersity. In addition, the nanoparticles were highly stable for more than 2 months. The nanoparticles were characterised by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to determine their morphology, structure and phase purity.

  2. Anomalous electrical properties of Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te layers with indium impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gejman, K.I.; Drabkin, I.A.; Matveenko, A.V.; Mozhaev, E.A.; Parfen'ev, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    Galvanomagnetic properties of indium doped (5x10 -3 -2x10 -1 at.% In) Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te monocrystal layers of n-type (x=0.1 - 0.22) sprayed on the (3) spalls of BaF 2 have been investigated. The layers with In display high homogeneity and lower electron density at 77 K, than the layers without In. With decreasing temperature below 20 K in the indium doped Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te layers an anomalous sharp increase of the electron density calculated from the Hall coefficient and reduction in electron mobility have been observed. The phenomenon under observation is related to the behaviour of indium under conditions of a possible structural phase transition initiated by introducing tin into PbTe. Investigation of the Shubnikov-de Gaas (SG) oscillations confirms the anomalous temperature dependence of the electron density. Distinctive features have been revealed in the SG oscillations of magnetoresistance in the Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te layers with In and without it, caused by deformations occurring in the films due to different coefficients of linear expansion of the material and a substrate. The splitting energy in the conduction band of the Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te layers has been determined, and the shift constant of the deformation potential has been estimated

  3. Compositional influence on the electrical performance of zinc indium tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsal, A.; Carreras, P.; Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Galindo, S.; Alcubilla, R.; Bertomeu, J.; Antony, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, zinc indium tin oxide layers with different compositions are used as the active layer of thin film transistors. This multicomponent transparent conductive oxide is gaining great interest due to its reduced content of the scarce indium element. Experimental data indicate that the incorporation of zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies, which results in a higher free carrier density. In thin-film transistors this effect leads to a higher off current and threshold voltage values. The field-effect mobility is also strongly degraded, probably due to coulomb scattering by ionized defects. A post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen vacancies and improves the field-effect mobility by orders of magnitude. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the fabricated thin-film transistors have been analyzed to estimate the density of states in the gap of the active layers. These measurements reveal a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band edge that could be attributed to oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies in zinc indium tin oxide transistors. • Post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen. • Density of states reveals a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band

  4. Concentration dependence of surface properties and molar volume of multicomponent system indium-tin-lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadashev, R; Kutuev, R [Complex Science Research Institute of the Science Academy of the Chechen Republic, 21 Staropromisl. shosse, Grozny 364096 (Russian Federation); Elimkhanov, D [Science Academy of the Chechen Republic (Russian Federation)], E-mail: edzhabrail@mail.ru

    2008-02-15

    The results of an experimental research of surface properties of the four-component system indium-tin-lead-bismuth are presented. The researches under discussion were carried out in a combined device in which the surface tension ({sigma}) is measured by the method of maximum pressure in a drop, and density ({rho}) is measured by advanced aerometry. Measurement errors are 0.7 % for surface tension measurement, and 0.2 % for density measurement. The study of the concentration dependence of {sigma} in this system has revealed the influence of the third and fourth components upon the characteristics of surface tension isotherms of the binary system indium-tin. It was found out that with an increase in the content of the third and fourth components the depth of the minimum on the surface tension isotherms of the indium-tin system {sigma} decreases. On the basis of the concentration dependence of the phenomenon of concentration bufferity is revealed. It is shown that despite the complex character, isotherms of {sigma} on beam sections of a multicomponent system do not contain qualitatively new features in comparison with the isotherms of these properties in lateral binary systems.

  5. Indium 111 scintigraphy in the exploration of the erythropoietic marrow (relative to 42 observations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, G.C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The bone marrow is difficult to explore as a whole because of its wide non-uniform distribution, variable with the hematopoietic and supporting tissue sites. 111 indium-transferrine bone marrow scintigraphy is a new technique which partly overcomes these difficulties and gives an idea of the overall distribution and richness of the erythropoietic marrow, thus showing up the erythropoiesis sites at a given moment. The properties of indium as medullary tracer are bound up with the characteristics of its metabolism which, to some extent at least resembles that of iron. The two main features are: - its fixation on transferrine (or siderophiline); - its binding to reticulocytes. Moreover indium 111 fulfils the physico-chemical criteria necessary for scintigraphic practice (long half-life, emission detectable by conventional scintigraphs, moderate irradiation of the patient). The properties of this radioelement and the technical conditions of use are examined in turn, then scintigraphic data are compared with the results of traditional bone marrow investigations: medullary biopsy and blood cell counts with reticulocyte fraction. This comparison concerns 42 scintigraphs carried out on patients suffering from various hematological diseases, with prospects of serious development in common [fr

  6. Preparation and nonlinear optical properties of indium nanocrystals in sodium borosilicate glass by the sol–gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Zhao, Haijun; Chen, Zhaoping; Liang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenguang; Chen, Guoxin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel methods. And the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal system have formed uniformly in the glass, and the average diameter of indium nanocrystals is about 30 nm. The third-order optical nonlinear refractive index γ, absorption coefficient β, and susceptibility χ (3) of the glass are determined to be −4.77 × 10 −16 m 2 /W, 2.67 × 10 −9 m/W, and 2.81 × 10 −10 esu, respectively. Highlights: ► Indium nanocrystals embedded in glass matrix have been prepared by sol–gel route. ► The crystal structure and composition are investigated by XRD and XPS. ► Size and distribution of indium nanocrystals is determined by TEM. ► The third-order optical nonlinearity is investigated by using Z-scan technique. -- Abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel route. The thermal stability behavior of the stiff gel is investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analysis. The crystal structure of the glass is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Particle composition is determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Size and distribution of the nanocrystals are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Results show that the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal structure have formed in glass, and the average diameter is about 30 nm. Further, the glass is measured by Z-scan technique to investigate the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The third-order NLO coefficient χ (3) of the glass is determined to be 2.81 × 10 −10 esu. The glass with large third-order NLO coefficient is promising materials for applications in optical devices.

  7. Effect of Indium nano-sandwiching on the structural and optical performance of ZnSe films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Al Garni

    Full Text Available In the current study, we attempted to explore the effects of the Indium nanosandwiching on the mechanical and optical properties of the physically evaporated ZnSe thin films by means of X-ray diffractions and ultraviolet spectrophotometry techniques. While the thickness of each layer of ZnSe was fixed at 1.0 μm, the thickness of the nanosandwiched Indium thin films was varied in the range of 25–100 nm. It was observed that the as grown ZnSe films exhibits cubic and hexagonal nature of crystallization as those of the ZnSe powders before the film deposition. The cubic phases weighs ∼70% of the structure. The analysis of this phases revealed that there is a systematic variation process presented by the decreasing of; the lattice constant, compressing strain, stress, stacking faults and dislocation intensity and increasing grain size resulted from increasing the Indium layer thickness in the range of 50–100 nm. In addition, the nanosandwiching of Indium between two layers of ZnSe is observed to enhance the absorbability of the ZnSe. Particularly, at incident photon energy of 2.38 eV the absorbability of the ZnSe films which are sandwiched with 100 nm Indium is increased by 13.8 times. Moreover, increasing the thickness of the Indium layer shrinks the optical energy band gap. These systematic variations in mechanical and optical properties are assigned to the better recrystallization process that is associated with Indium insertion which in turn allows total internal energy redistribution in the ZnSe films through the enlargement of grains. Keywords: ZnSe, Nanosandwiching, Mechanical, Optical gap

  8. Chemical trends of the band gaps of idealized crystal of semiconducting silicon clathrates, M8Si38A8 (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs; A = Ga, Al, In), predicted by first-principle pseudopotential calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yoji; Imai, Motoharu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper reports the results of electronic structural calculations of Si clathrate, M 8 Si 38 Ga 8 (M: the encapsulated guest alkali atom; Na, K, Rb, and Cs). → All of them are found to be indirect semiconductors with the calculated gaps (E g ) from 0.45 to 0.89 eV, which should be compared to the calculated gap of 0.65 eV of crystalline Si with the diamond structure. The gaps become wider with the promotion to the heavier guest alkali atoms and the reasons of gap widening are discussed using the calculated dependence of E g on the cell-volume of guest-free silicon clathrate (Si 46 ). Effect of the substitutional elements in the clathrate framework (Al and In in place of Ga) was also discussed. - Abstract: We have calculated the band structures of Si clathrate, M 8 Si 38 Ga 8 (M = Na, K, Rb, and Cs), using the density-functional theory under the generalized gradient corrected local density approximation, where M is the encapsulated guest alkali atom. They are found to be indirect semiconductors with the calculated gaps (E g ) from 0.45 to 0.89 eV, which should be compared to the calculated gap of 0.65 eV of crystalline Si with the diamond structure. The gaps become wider with the promotion to the heavier guest alkali atoms and the reasons of gap widening are discussed using the calculated dependence of E g on the cell-volume of guest-free silicon clathrate (Si 46 ). Effect of the substitutional elements in the clathrate framework (Al and In in place of Ga) was also discussed.

  9. Effect of aluminum doping on the high-temperature stability and piezoresistive response of indium tin oxide strain sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Otto J.; You, Tao; Crisman, Everett E.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic strain sensors based on reactively sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films doped with aluminum are being considered to improve the high-temperature stability and response. Ceramic strain sensors were developed to monitor the structural integrity of components employed in aerospace propulsion systems operating at temperatures in excess of 1500 deg C. Earlier studies using electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) studies indicated that interfacial reactions between ITO and aluminum oxide increase the stability of ITO at elevated temperature. The resulting ESCA depth files showed the presence of two new indium-indium peaks at 448.85 and 456.40 eV, corresponding to the indium 3d5 and 3d3 binding energies. These binding energies are significantly higher than those associated with stoichiometric indium oxide. Based on these studies, a combinatorial chemistry approach was used to screen large numbers of possible concentrations to optimize the stability and performance of Al-doped ceramic strain sensors. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the combinatorial libraries in which varying amounts of aluminum were incorporated into ITO films formed by cosputtering from multiple targets. Electrical stability and piezoresistive response of these films were compared to undoped ITO films over the same temperature range

  10. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Barik, U.K.

    2006-01-01

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10 0 -10 -3 Ωcm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  11. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, A; Barik, U K [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Chennai (India)

    2006-07-15

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup -3} {omega}cm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  12. Ion beam synthesis of indium-oxide nanocrystals for improvement of oxide resistive random-access memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafos, C.; Benassayag, G.; Cours, R.; Pécassou, B.; Guenery, P. V.; Baboux, N.; Militaru, L.; Souifi, A.; Cossec, E.; Hamga, K.; Ecoffey, S.; Drouin, D.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the direct ion beam synthesis of a delta-layer of indium oxide nanocrystals (In2O3-NCs) in silica matrices by using ultra-low energy ion implantation. The formation of the indium oxide phase can be explained by (i) the affinity of indium with oxygen, (ii) the generation of a high excess of oxygen recoils generated by the implantation process in the region where the nanocrystals are formed and (iii) the proximity of the indium-based nanoparticles with the free surface and oxidation from the air. Taking advantage of the selective diffusivity of implanted indium in SiO2 with respect to Si3N4, In2O3-NCs have been inserted in the SiO2 switching oxide of micrometric planar oxide-based resistive random access memory (OxRAM) devices fabricated using the nanodamascene process. Preliminary electrical measurements show switch voltage from high to low resistance state. The devices with In2O3-NCs have been cycled 5 times with identical operating voltages and RESET current meanwhile no switch has been observed for non implanted devices. This first measurement of switching is very promising for the concept of In2O3-NCs based OxRAM memories.

  13. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Huang, Kai-Yu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20 V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30 V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  14. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships for Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloys with minor additions of cadmium, indium or tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Minor amounts of cadmium, indium or tin were added to a baseline alloy with the nominal composition of Al-2.4Cu-2.4Li-0.15Zr. These elements were added in an attempt to increase the age-hardening response of the material such that high strengths could be achieved through heat-treatment alone, without the need for intermediate mechanical working. The alloy variant containing indium achieved a higher peak hardness in comparison to the other alloy variations, including the baseline material, when aged at temperatures ranging from 160 C to 190 C. Tensile tests on specimens peak-aged at 160 indicated the yield strength of the indium-bearing alloy increased by approximately 15 percent compared to that of the peak-aged baseline alloy. In addition, the yield strength obtained in the indium-bearing alloy was comparable to that reported for similar baseline material subjected to a 6 percent stretch prior to peak-aging at 190 C. The higher strength levels obtaied for the indium-bearing alloy are attributed to increased number densities and homogeneity of both the T1 and theta-prime phases, as determined by TEM studies.

  15. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou0388@hotmail.com [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kai-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20 V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30 V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  16. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The vacuum pyrolysis–vacuum chlorinated separation system was proposed to recover the waste LCD panel. • The system can recycle the whole waste LCD panels efficiently without negative effects to environment. • The 82.03% of the organic materials was reclaimed. All pyrolysis products can be utilized by a reasonable way. • The separation of indium was optimized by the central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). • The recovery ratio of indium was further increased to 99.97%. -- Abstract: In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300 °C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH{sub 4}Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450 °C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly.

  17. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors with indium-zinc-tin oxide/Ag/indium-zinc-tin oxide multilayer electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-08-01

    Transparent indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were fabricated on glass substrates using a tilted dual-target radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes exhibited a high optical transmittance in a visible region. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the on/off-current ratio of the TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were enhanced in comparison with those of the TFTs with ITO electrodes. The source/drain contact resistance of the IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes was smaller than that of the IZTO TFTs with ITO electrodes, resulting in enhancement of their electrical characteristics.

  18. Structural, electronic, and thermal properties of indium-filled InxIr4Sb12 skutterudites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M. K.; Li, Jun; Subramanian, M. A.

    2018-06-01

    The "phonon-glass/electron-crystal" approach has been implemented through incorporation of "rattlers" into skutterudite void sites to increase phonon scattering and thus increase the thermoelectric efficiency. Indium filled IrSb3 skutterudites are reported for the first time. Polycrystalline samples of InxIr4Sb12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) were prepared by solid-state reaction under a gas mixture of 5% H2 and 95% Ar. The solubility limit of InxIr4Sb12 was found to be close to 0.18. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction refinements reveal all InxIr4Sb12 phases crystallized in body-centered cubic structure (space group : Im 3 bar) with ∼8% antimony site vacancy and with indium partially occupying the 16f site. Unlike known rattler filled skutterudites, under synthetic conditions employed, indium filling in IrSb3 significantly increases the electrical resistivity and decreases the Seebeck coefficient (n-type) while reducing the thermal conductivity by ∼30%. The resultant power factor offsets the decrease in total thermal conductivity giving rise to a substantial decrease in ZT. Principal thermoelectric properties of InxM4Sb12 (M = Co, Rh, Ir) phases are compared. As iridium is a 5d transition metal, zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization were performed to unravel the effect of spin-orbit interaction on the electronic properties. These results serve to advance the understanding of filled skutterudites, and provide additional insight on the less explored smaller "rattlers" and their influence on key thermoelectric properties.

  19. A novel 3D framework indium phosphite-oxalate based on a pcu-type topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Mengmeng; Zhou, Mingdong; Hu, Dianwen; Gao, Fan; Dong, Sijie; Huang, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    A new inorganic–organic hybrid indium phosphite-oxalate, formulated as H[In 5 (HPO 3 ) 6 (H 2 PO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 2 ]·(C 4 N 2 H 11 ) 2 ·H 2 O 1 has been hydrothermally synthesized in the presence of piperazine acting as a structure directing agent (SDA). The single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that compound 1 shows three-dimensional open-framework with intersecting 12-ring channels along the [010] and [001] directions, which is constructed from strictly alternating double 6-ring units (D6Rs), [C 2 O 4 ] 2− groups and [H 2 PO 3 ] − pseudo-pyramids. It is noted that the classical D6R SBU is firstly reported in main metal phosphite/phosphite-oxalate. By regarding D6R as the 6-connected nodes, the inorganic–organic hybrid framework is based on a pcu-type topology. The as-synthesized product was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ICP-AES and elemental analyses. - Graphical abstract: A 3D open-framework indium phosphite-oxalate has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. A classical SBU, D6R, is present in the structure. By regarding D6R as the 6-connected nodes, the inorganic–organic hybrid framework is based on a pcu-type topology. - Highlights: • A new indium phosphite-oxalate based on a pcu-type topology has been synthesized. • A classical SBU, D6R, is present in the structure. • The classical SBU is firstly reported in main metal phosphite/phosphite-oxalate.

  20. The solvent extraction of zinc, iron, and indium from chloride solutions by neutral organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.S.; Du Preez, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The preparation of several neutral organophosphorus compounds and their evaluation as selective extractants for zinc in chloride media are described. The compounds belong to the series trialkyl phosphates (RO) 3 PO, dialkyl alkylphosphonates R'PO(OR) 2 , alkyl dialkylphosphinates R 2 'PO(OR), and trialkyl-phosphine oxides R 3 'PO. They were characterized by measurement of their physical properties (melting and boiling points, refractive indices, and densities), and their purities were confirmed by osmometric determination of their molecular masses; by carbon and hydrogen microanalysis; by the titrimetric determination of acidic impurities; and, for liquid products, by comparison of their experimental molar refractivities with empirical values. Metal-distribution equilibria were determined for solutions of the extractants in xylene and aqueous phase containing 0,5 to 5,0 M sodium chloride. Moderately good selectivities were shown for zinc(II) over iron(III), and excellent selectivities were shown for zinc(II) over iron(II), copper(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II). The extraction of indium(III) was similar to that of zinc(II). The extraction of zinc(III), iron(III), and indium(III) increased markedly through the series. (RO) 3 PO 2 2 'PO(OR) 3 'PO. The incorporation of phenyl groups into the compounds led to weaker extraction. The extracted complexes of zinc(II), iron(III), and indium(III) have the stoichiometries ZnCl 2 L 2 ,FeCl 3 L 2 (H 2 O), and InCl 3 L 2 (H 2 O) respectively, where L represents the neutral organophosphorus compound