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Sample records for indiscriminately friendly behavior

  1. Atypical EEG Power Correlates with Indiscriminately Friendly Behavior in Internationally Adopted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Garvin, Melissa C.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2011-01-01

    While effects of institutional care on behavioral development have been studied extensively, effects on neural systems underlying these socioemotional and attention deficits are only beginning to be examined. The current study assessed electroencephalogram (EEG) power in 18-month-old internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized children (n = 37)…

  2. Perceptions of self, significant others, and teacher-child relationships in indiscriminately friendly children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Eleonora; Bosmans, Guy; Doumen, Sarah; Minnis, Helen; Verschueren, Karine

    2014-11-01

    Despite increasing research on indiscriminate friendliness in children, almost no research exists on social-cognitive deficits that are supposed to underlie indiscriminately friendly behavior. In this study, we compared indiscriminately friendly children with controls regarding their perceptions of self, reliability trust in significant others, and perceptions of the teacher-child relationship. Children's perceptions were compared in two samples: a sample of 33 likely cases for disinhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD) from special education for children with emotional and behavioral disorders (75.76% boys, Mage=8.52, 96.9% Caucasian, 33.3% and 45.5% of their mothers completed primary or secondary education, respectively) was matched on sex, age, and socio-economic status with a sample of 33 controls from general education. Children participated individually in several interviews assessing global and social self-concept, reliability trust in significant others, teacher-child relationship perceptions, and vocabulary. Parents and teachers completed a screening questionnaire for RAD and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Likely disinhibited RAD-cases showed more indiscriminate friendliness and more problem behavior in general according to their parents and teachers than controls. Furthermore, likely RAD-cases reported a more positive global self-concept, more reliability trust in significant others, and more dependency in the teacher-child relationship than controls. The results are in line with clinical observations of indiscriminately friendly children and findings in clinical samples of maltreated or attachment disrupted children but contrast hypotheses from developmental attachment research. Further research is needed to explain the more positive perceptions of indiscriminately friendly children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does Facebook promote self-interest? Enactment of indiscriminate one-to-many communication on online social networking sites decreases prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chen, Szu-Wei; Liao, Da-Chi

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Communication tools on social networking sites (SNSs) provide users with an efficient way to distribute information to the public and/or their friends simultaneously. In this article, we show that this kind of indiscriminate one-to-many (i.e., monologue) communication, in which the diverse interests of recipients are not considered, may induce a tendency toward egocentrism that interferes with other-oriented concerns, resulting in a reduced inclination to display prosocial behavior. In Experiment 1, participants induced to post a public communication subsequently allocated less money to anonymous strangers in the dictator game than did control participants. In Experiment 2, participants directing a post about participation in an experiment to their Facebook friends volunteered to help code fewer data sheets than did controls. Moreover, an egocentric state was shown to mediate the relationship between indiscriminate one-to-many communication and helping behavior. We provide the first demonstration that indiscriminate one-to-many communication on online social networks may be associated with a tendency toward self-interest. Our results suggest that the prevalence of monologue communication on SNSs may induce an egocentric tendency that undermines the likelihood of prosocial behavior.

  4. Genetic sensitivity to the caregiving context: The influence of 5httlpr and BDNF val66met on indiscriminate social behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Theall, Katherine; Smyke, Anna T; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Evidence that gene x environment interactions can reflect differential sensitivity to the environmental context, rather than risk or resilience, is increasing. To test this model, we examined the genetic contribution to indiscriminate social behavior, in the setting of a randomized controlled trial of foster care compared to institutional rearing. Children enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) were assessed comprehensively before the age of 30 months and subsequently randomized to either care as usual (CAUG) or high quality foster care (FCG). Indiscriminate social behavior was assessed at four time points, baseline, 30 months, 42 months and 54 months of age, using caregiver report with the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). General linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the effect of the interaction between group status and functional polymorphisms in Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and the Serotonin Transporter (5htt) on levels of indiscriminate behavior over time. Differential susceptibility, relative to levels of indiscriminate behavior, was demonstrated in children with either the s/s 5httlpr genotype or met 66 BDNF allele carriers. Specifically children with either the s/s 5httlpr genotype or met66 carriers in BDNF demonstrated the lowest levels of indiscriminate behavior in the FCG and the highest levels in the CAUG. Children with either the long allele of the 5httlpr or val/val genotype of BDNF demonstrated little difference in levels of indiscriminate behaviors over time and no group x genotype interaction. Children with both plasticity genotypes had the most signs of indiscriminate behavior at 54 months if they were randomized to the CAUG in the institution, while those with both plasticity genotypes randomized to the FCG intervention had the fewest signs at 54 months. Strikingly children with no plasticity alleles demonstrated no intervention effect on levels of indiscriminate behavior at 54 months. These

  5. Institutionalization and indiscriminate social behavior: Differential-susceptibility versus diathesis-stress models for the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, A R; Belsky, J; Li, Z; Baptista, J; Carvalho-Correia, E; Maciel, P; Soares, I

    2015-12-01

    Institutionalization adversely impacts children's emotional functioning, proving related to attachment disorders, perhaps most notably that involving indiscriminate behavior, the subject of this report. In seeking to extend work in this area, this research on gene X environment (GXE) interplay investigated whether the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and val66met Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) polymorphisms moderated the effect of institutional care on indiscriminate behavior in preschoolers. Eighty-five institutionalized and 135 home-reared Portuguese children were assessed using Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). GXE results indicated that s/s homozygotes of the 5-HTTLPR gene displayed significantly higher levels of indiscriminate behavior than all other children if institutionalized, something not true of such children when family reared. These findings proved consistent with the diathesis-stress rather than differential-susceptibility model of person×environment interaction. BDNF proved unrelated to indiscriminate behavior. Results are discussed in relation to previous work on this subject of indiscriminate behavior, institutionalization and GXE interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analisa Eco-friendly Attitudes Dan Eco-friendly Behavior Terhadap Eco-friendly Intention Green Hotel Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia, Lanny; Rudijanto, Diana Gabriela; Kristanti, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Kesadaran masyarakat akan lingkungan yang semakin meningkat membuat masyarakat gencar mencari hotel yang ramah lingkungan dibandingkan dengan hotel konvensional. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan eco-friendly attitude, eco- friendly behavior, dan eco-friendly intention konsumen generasi x dan generasi y terhadap green hotel di Indonesia dan apakah eco-friendly attitudes dan eco-friendly behavior berpengaruh signifikan terhadap eco-friendly intention. Total responden dalam pe...

  7. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's and Their Friends' Moral Reasoning: Relations with Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Friends' moral characteristics such as their moral reasoning represent an important social contextual factor for children's behavioral socialization. Guided by this assumption, we compared the effects of children's and friends' moral reasoning on their aggressive behavior in a low-risk sample of elementary school children. Peer nominations and…

  9. Organic Foods: Do Eco-Friendly Attitudes Predict Eco-Friendly Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Molly J.; Samonte, Aurelia V.; Shows, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether student awareness and attitudes about organic foods would predict their behaviors with regard to organic food consumption and other healthy lifestyle practices. A secondary purpose was to determine whether attitudes about similar eco-friendly practices would result in socially conscious…

  10. The association of current smoking behavior with the smoking behavior of parents, siblings, friends and spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To examine the association of current smoking behavior of adolescents and young adults with the smoking behavior of their parents, siblings, friends and spouses. Design: Using survey data from a large twin-family sample, the association between the smoking behavior of participants and that of

  11. Longitudinal Associations Between Sedentary Behavior of Adolescent Girls, Their Mothers, and Best Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Riso, Eva-Maria

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prospective relationship and changes in sedentary behavior between adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends over time. The results are based on 122 girls aged 11-12 years at baseline measurement, their mothers and best friends who completed ecological momentary assessment diary for the assessment of sedentary behavior. All measurements were taken at 3 time points separated by one year. We used structural equation modeling to examine associations among sedentary behavior of adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends. A linear growth model for adolescent girls' and their best friends' sedentary behavior fit the data well, revealing an overall significant increase in sedentary behavior across time. Initial levels of mothers' and best friends' sedentary behavior were positively related with sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. The changes of adolescent girls' and best friends' sedentary behavior across 3 years were positively related. Cross-lagged panel analysis demonstrated significant reciprocal effects between adolescent girls' and best friends' sedentary behavior. Mothers' sedentary behavior at baseline predicted daughters' sedentary behavior at 1-year follow-up and vice versa. From early to midadolescence, changes in adolescent girls' sedentary behavior were associated with changes in best friends' sedentary behavior. These findings suggest reciprocal associations between sedentary behavior of adolescent girls and their best friends.

  12. Does it matter what friends think, say, or do? The role of friends' smoking attitudes and behavior for Dutch adolescents' smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Chip

    2014-05-01

    Using stochastic actor-based models for longitudinal network analysis, this study examines the role of friends' smoking attitudes and behavior for Dutch adolescents' smoking behavior in four secondary schools (N = 875). The data were collected in two waves in two small suburban towns under second graders in 2008 to 2009 by means of a standardized questionnaire. Stochastic actor-based models for longitudinal network analysis can control for friendship selection while examining the effect of friends' attitudes and smoking behavior on the smoking behavior of a student. The findings suggest that friends tend to select each other on similar smoking behavior. Influence of friends' smoking behavior seems to play no role. In one school, an effect of friends' attitudes towards smoking on the smoking behavior is found. The implications for future research are to consider attitudes when examining the influence of friendship network on smoking behavior. The main limitation of this study lies in the limited sample, which makes generalizations to the general population difficult.

  13. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  14. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  15. Crash injury risk behavior in adolescent latino males: the power of friends and relational connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Federico E; Anderson, Craig L

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections associated with crash injury risk behavior (CIRB) in adolescent Latino males. Waves I and II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Scale of CIRB, and three relational connections; school connectedness, parent connectedness, and expectation of academic success were developed and tested. Friend nomination data were available and the index student responses were linked to friend responses. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship of relational connections and friend CIRB on index student CIRB at wave I and II. Longitudinal analysis did not show significant evidence for friend influence among adolescent Latino males on CIRB. The best predictor of CIRB at wave II for adolescent Latino males was their CIRB at wave I. Relational connections were important yet exaggerated cross-sectionally but their effect was substantially attenuated longitudinally. The lack of friend influence on CIRB for adolescent Latino males may be specific to this demographic group or characteristic of the sample studied. Prevention strategies that focus on modulating friend influence in adolescent Latino males may not yield the desired prevention effects on CIRB.

  16. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INDISCRIMINATE FRIENDLINESS IN HIGH-RISK CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Leighanne; Minnis, Helen; O'connor, Suzy

    2015-01-01

    Indiscriminate friendliness (IF) refers to a lack of reticence with strangers and is well-documented in neglected children. This risky behavior is distinct from attachment insecurity, and persists when parenting/caregiving improves. A previous review has suggested that caregiving quality is not associated with IF. This review aimed to explore factors associated with IF and whether quality of caregiving is important. Ten articles were reviewed using the S.H. Downs and N. Black (1998) Checklist for randomized and nonrandomized studies. Overall quality was high. Results showed that IF is present in fostered populations and postinstitutionalized children. Attachment security was not associated with IF. Length of time in institution and inhibitory control were associated with IF. Inhibitory control moderated the association between IF and number of caregivers. Genetic factors predispose children to IF and may impact on persistence. Quality of caregiving was associated with IF. Emotional availability (i.e., the degree to which carer and child are able to respond to each other's emotional signals) predicted IF. Limitations across studies included heterogeneity in IF measurement and unreliable measures of preadoptive care. Parenting may be a useful target for intervention. Future research should focus on developing a standardized measure of IF as well as evaluating a parental intervention. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Crash Injury Risk Behavior in Adolescent Latino Males: The Power of Friends and Relational Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Vaca, Federico E.; Anderson, Craig L.

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent Latino male mortality profile is an anomaly when compared to an otherwise more favorable overall U.S. Latino population mortality profile. Motor vehicle crash fatalities bear a considerable proportion of mortality burden in this vulnerable population. Friend influence and relational connection are two contextual domains that may mediate crash injury risk behavior in these adolescents. Our study goal was to assess the role of friend influence over time and relational connections...

  18. Best Friends' Preference and Popularity: Associations with Aggression and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how children's aggression and prosocial behavior are related to the preference and popularity of their best friends. Participants were 1,953 fourth-graders (52.2% boys). Measures included peer nominations of friendship, peer status, overt and relational aggression, and prosocial behavior. A total of 334 reciprocal same-sex best…

  19. PRUB: A Privacy Protection Friend Recommendation System Based on User Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast developing social network is a double-edged sword. It remains a serious problem to provide users with excellent mobile social network services as well as protecting privacy data. Most popular social applications utilize behavior of users to build connection with people having similar behavior, thus improving user experience. However, many users do not want to share their certain behavioral information to the recommendation system. In this paper, we aim to design a secure friend recommendation system based on the user behavior, called PRUB. The system proposed aims at achieving fine-grained recommendation to friends who share some same characteristics without exposing the actual user behavior. We utilized the anonymous data from a Chinese ISP, which records the user browsing behavior, for 3 months to test our system. The experiment result shows that our system can achieve a remarkable recommendation goal and, at the same time, protect the privacy of the user behavior information.

  20. Longitudinal relations between adolescents' self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xinyuan; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Brown, Michael N

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined age-trends and longitudinal bidirectional relations in self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family over a four-year time period (age 11 to 14). A total of 681 adolescents were recruited in the United States (51% girls, 28% single parent families). A longitudinal panel model was conducted and the results showed that adolescent self-esteem was associated longitudinally with subsequent prosocial behavior toward strangers, and earlier prosocial behavior toward strangers promoted subsequent self-esteem. There were no such bidirectional relations between self-esteem and prosocial behavior toward friends and family. Findings also highlight the complexity of adolescent development of selfesteem and the multidimensional nature of prosocial behavior. Discussion focuses on understanding the dynamic interplay between adolescent selfesteem and prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal relations between adolescents' materialism and prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixu; Fu, Xinyuan; Yu, Xiaoxia; Lv, Yichen

    2018-01-01

    The present study examines the short-term changes and longitudinal relations between adolescents' materialism and prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers over a year. A total of 434 Chinese adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 11.27; 54% girls) participated in the two time points. From 6 th grade to 7 th grade, boys' and girls' materialism increased, whereas their prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers declined, despite the stable trend in boys' prosocial behavior toward strangers. Furthermore, a cross-lagged model was conducted and the results showed that, adolescent materialism was associated longitudinally with decreased prosocial behavior toward friends and strangers, but not toward family. However, earlier prosocial behavior toward family, friends, and strangers were not associated with subsequent adolescent materialism. The findings point toward an understanding of materialism as a precursor rather than an outcome or byproduct to prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anticipating Early Fatality: Friends', Schoolmates' and Individual Perceptions of Fatality on Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51 % female and 71 % white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in nonviolent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use. PMID:23828725

  3. Best friends' preference and popularity: Associations with aggression and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Haselager, G.J.T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how children's aggression and prosocial behavior are related to the preference and popularity of their best friends. Participants were 1,953 fourth-graders (52.2% boys). Measures included peer nominations of friendship, peer status, overt and relational aggression, and prosocial

  4. Longitudinal Relations among Parenting, Best Friends, and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Testing Bidirectional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Ellen; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the bidirectional relations between parenting and friends' deviance, on one hand, and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing problem behavior, on the other hand, are examined. Of the 650 adolescents (13- to 14-year-olds) who filled out the Youth Self-Report and questionnaires about their parents at two times…

  5. Parents' Monitoring Knowledge Attenuates the Link between Antisocial Friends and Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities were tested as moderators of transactional associations between friends' antisociality and adolescent delinquent behavior. 504 adolescents (50% female) provided annual reports (from ages 12 to 16) of their parents' knowledge and (from ages 13 to 16)…

  6. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Ergen; Filiz Bozkurt; Caner Giray

    2016-01-01

    The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of ...

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends' Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-10-01

    To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Participants included a community sample of 230 5 th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6 th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child's and friend's aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents' understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one's own and others' well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior.

  8. Characteristics of adolescents who intervene to stop the risky and dangerous behavior of their friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents value protecting friends from harm and report that they do intervene as bystanders in friends' risky and dangerous behavior. Moreover intervention can be effective in reducing such behaviors. The Protection-Risk Framework was used to explain bystander intervention. There were 962 students from 13 Australian high schools (mean age at time 1=13.44 years) surveyed in their 9th grade and again 1-year later when students were in 10th grade. We found that protective factors of self-efficacy, support, prosocial models, social control, and ease of opportunity related to greater intervening behavior after 12-months. Among those who reported that they had intervened in a 3-month period, a cumulative measure of protective factors was associated with their reports of intervening. Risk factors were non-significant predictors after accounting for earlier, time 1, bystander intervening behavior and demographic factors. The findings highlight potential mechanisms to promote adolescents' looking out for their friends and provide an assessment over time of bystander behavior. The theory-guided inquiry into such behavior provides a foundation on which to better develop our understanding of benefits to adolescent friendship in the injury field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Secrets from friends and parents: longitudinal links with depression and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D; Bridges, Brittanee J; Marsee, Monica A

    2013-08-01

    Keeping secrets from parents is associated with depression and antisocial behavior. The current study tested whether keeping secrets from best friends is similarly linked to maladjustment, and whether associations between secrecy and maladjustment are moderated by the quality of the friendship. Adolescents (N = 181; 51% female, 48% white, non-Hispanic, 45% African American) reported their secrecy from parents and best friends, the quality of their parent-adolescent relationships and best friendships, and their depression and antisocial behavior at ages 12 and 13. Keeping more secrets from best friends was associated with more depression, but not with more antisocial behavior, when controlling for earlier adjustment, secrecy from parents, and the quality of the friendship. For girls associations between maladjustment and secrecy were conditioned by the quality of the relationships and whether secrets were kept from parents and friends. Discussion argues for expanding the study of secrecy in adolescence beyond the parent-child dyad. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of friends' disruptive behavior in the development of children's tobacco experimentation: results from a preventive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Vuijk, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Having friends who engage in disruptive behavior in childhood may be a risk factor for childhood tobacco experimentation. This study tested the role of friends' disruptive behavior as a mediator of the effects of a classroom based intervention on children's tobacco experimentation. 433 Children (52%

  11. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  12. Parents’ Monitoring Knowledge Attenuates the Link Between Antisocial Friends and Adolescent Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Michael M.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of parents’ knowledge of their adolescents’ whereabouts and activities were tested as moderators of transactional associations between friends’ antisociality and adolescent delinquent behavior. 504 adolescents (50% female) provided annual reports (from ages 12 to 16) of their parents’ knowledge and (from ages 13 to 16) their own delinquent behavior and their friends’ antisociality. Parents also reported the adolescents’ delinquent behavior. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify two sub-groups based on their monitoring knowledge growth trajectories. Adolescents in the sub-group characterized by decreasing levels of parents’ knowledge reported more delinquent behavior and more friend antisociality in early adolescence, and reported greater increases in delinquent behavior and friend antisociality from early to middle adolescence compared to adolescents in the sub-group characterized by increasing levels of parents’ knowledge. Transactional associations consistent with social influence and social selection processes also were suppressed in the increasing knowledge sub-group as compared to the decreasing knowledge sub-group. PMID:17874291

  13. Reciprocal relationships between friends' and parental mediation of adolescents' media use and their sexual attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikken, Peter; de Graaf, Hanneke

    2013-11-01

    Research has argued that adolescents are at risk for harmful effects of sexual media, but little is known about the role of parents and friends on adolescents' media use in regard of these effects. The present two-wave study investigated whether prior parental and friends' influences on adolescents' use of sexual media shape their sexual attitudes and behaviors, and vice versa if prior sexual attitudes and behaviors predict parental and friends' media mediation. At two measurement points 18 months apart, 528 adolescents (12-17 years; 51.3% girls) reported on permissive sexual attitudes, sexual experience, perceived parental and friends' mediation of sexual media use, and communication with parents and friends about sex. Structural Equation Modeling shows that parents' mediation activities on adolescents' media use were not followed by less sexual experience and less permissive attitudes. On the contrary, parental restrictive mediation of girls' media use unexpectedly was followed by somewhat more sexual experience. Friends' interventions with media use did not predict adolescents' sexual experience and attitudes neither. Inverse relationships showed that prior sexual experience was followed by less restrictive parental mediation among boys, and both among boys and girls that permissive sexual attitudes were followed by less restrictive and less active parental mediation. At the same time, sexually more experienced and more permissive boys and girls did report more media pressure from and sexual communication with their friends later on. Our study thus indicates that the opposite agent roles of parents and friends for adolescents also applies to their usage of sexual media.

  14. Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood.

  15. False consensus and adolescent peer contagion: examining discrepancies between perceptions and actual reported levels of friends' deviant and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wang, Shirley S

    2005-06-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of their friends' behavior strongly predict adolescents' own behavior, however, these perceptions often are erroneous. This study examined correlates of discrepancies between adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of behavior. A total of 120 11th-grade adolescents provided data regarding their engagement in deviant and health risk behaviors, as well as their perceptions of the behavior of their best friend, as identified through sociometric assessment. Data from friends' own report were used to calculate discrepancy measures of adolescents' overestimations and estimation errors (absolute value of discrepancies) of friends' behavior. Adolescents also completed a measure of friendship quality, and a sociometric assessment yielding measures of peer acceptance/rejection and aggression. Findings revealed that adolescents' peer rejection and aggression were associated with greater overestimations of friends' behavior. This effect was partially mediated by adolescents' own behavior, consistent with a false consensus effect. Low levels of positive friendship quality were significantly associated with estimation errors, but not overestimations specifically.

  16. Probability distribution of long-run indiscriminate felling of trees in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to determine the probability distribution of Long-run indiscriminate felling of trees in northern senatorial district of Adamawa State. Specifically, the study focused on examining the future direction of indiscriminate felling of trees as well as its equilibrium distribution. A multi-stage and simple random ...

  17. Friendly fire: Longitudinal effects of exposure to violent video games on aggressive behavior in adolescent friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Geert P; Burk, William J; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2018-05-01

    Research on gaming effects has focused on adolescence, a developmental period in which peer relationships become increasingly salient. However, the impact of peers on the effects of violent gaming on adolescents has been understudied. This study examined whether adolescents' exposure to violent video games predicted their own and their friend's aggression one year later. Among 705 gaming adolescents, 141 dyads were identified based on reciprocated best friend nominations (73.8% male, M age  = 13.98). Actor-Partner Interdependence Models indicated that adolescent males' (but not females') exposure to violent games positively predicted the aggression of their best friend 1 year later. This effect appeared regardless of whether the friends played video games together or not. The study illustrates the importance of peers in the association between violent gaming and aggression. © 2018 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. False Consensus and Adolescent Peer Contagion: Examining Discrepancies between Perceptions and Actual Reported Levels of Friends' Deviant and Health Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wang, Shirley S.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of their friends' behavior strongly predict adolescents' own behavior, however, these perceptions often are erroneous. This study examined correlates of discrepancies between adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of behavior. A total of 120 11th-grade adolescents provided data regarding their engagement in deviant…

  19. Are You Your Friends' Friend? Poor Perception of Friendship Ties Limits the Ability to Promote Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Radaelli, Laura; Pentland, Alex; Shmueli, Erez

    2016-01-01

    Persuasion is at the core of norm creation, emergence of collective action, and solutions to 'tragedy of the commons' problems. In this paper, we show that the directionality of friendship ties affect the extent to which individuals can influence the behavior of each other. Moreover, we find that people are typically poor at perceiving the directionality of their friendship ties and that this can significantly limit their ability to engage in cooperative arrangements. This could lead to failures in establishing compatible norms, acting together, finding compromise solutions, and persuading others to act. We then suggest strategies to overcome this limitation by using two topological characteristics of the perceived friendship network. The findings of this paper have significant consequences for designing interventions that seek to harness social influence for collective action.

  20. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking. PMID:27898019

  1. The Interactive Influences of Friend Deviance and Reward Dominance on the Development of Externalizing Behavior during Middle Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Jackson A.; Bates, John E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the interactive effects of friend deviance and reward dominance on the development of externalizing behavior of adolescents in the Child Development Project. Reward dominance was assessed at age 16 by performance on a computer-presented card-playing game in which participants had the choice of either continuing or…

  2. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  3. Analyzing the impact on consumer satisfaction, behavior and at-titudes by using eco-friendly practices and products in Surfers Paradise/Gold Coast city hotels, Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Chikita, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study explores customer attitude towards environmentally friendly practices by hotels and the impact on customer satisfaction. The research investigates individual’s behavior, attitude, knowledge, satisfaction and willingness to support eco-friendly prac-tices. The hotel industry contributes to the global environmental challenges. Consumers are becoming more aware of the environmental impacts by the hotels and a new market segment of eco-friendly customers has developed. In addition ...

  4. The added value of coaching compared to a friendly discussion: Insight from behavioral economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Psiloutsikou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper addresses a criticism of coaching that is rather overlooked in the respective literature but highly discussed among clients. It is often claimed that coaching is nothing more than a chat among friends or colleagues and has, therefore, no added value for a potential customer. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on the respective interdisciplinary literature to identify limitations and biases that are present in general discussions with friends or colleagues but professional coaches should be trained to overcome. Findings – Questions and discussion are indeed at the core of a coaching session, thus bearing much resemblance to a friendly chat. However, the resemblance is superficial. In this paper ten main differences between a coaching session and a discussion with a non-expert are found and analyzed. They are grouped into three categories: Biases, Heuristics and Personal Limitations. Research limitations/implications – Further research will be needed to test empirically the use of input from behavioural economics as a basis for coaching and also to enrich it with additional factors. Moreover, practitioners can use the proposed factors to increase their effectiveness as well as to create a unique selling proposition for their business. Originality/value – The paper discusses specific skills and capabilities that a professional coach must have and provides significant implications for both researchers and practitioners.

  5. Longitudinal associations between delinquent behavior of friends and delinquent behavior of adolescents: Moderation by adolescent personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith; Dekovic, Maja; Haselager, G.J.T.; van Aken, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether personality tra its (parent-rated Big Five personality traits) re nder some adolescents more su sceptib le than others to delin quent behaviour of friends, predicting rank-orde r changes in adolescents’ self-reported delinquent behaviour. We examine

  6. Co-occurrence of antisocial behavior and substance use: testing for sex differences in the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Salekin, Randall T; Marti, C Nathan; Lester, Whiney S; Barker, Edward D

    2014-04-01

    Delinquency and substance use (SU) are commonly comorbid during adolescence. In the present study we investigate this co-morbidity with 3 main objectives: 1. Evaluate reciprocal relationships between delinquency/SU across early adolescence. 2. Assess the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency on subsequent development and inter-relationships of delinquency and SU. 3. Evaluate sex differences in these relationships. We applied cross-lagged structural equation models to the analysis of a longitudinal sample (n=3699). Findings demonstrated: (1) At ages 13-14 delinquency predicted SU more so than vice versa but effects became equal between ages 14 and 15. (2) Low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency predicted delinquency and SU. Older male friends predicted ASB. (3) Sex differences were present. For example, in the absence of antisocial friends low parent knowledge at age 12 indirectly predicted increased age 15 SU for girls more than boys. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "I Got Your Back": Friends' Understandings regarding College Student Spring Break Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E.; Morgan, Nicole; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviors that pose threats to safety and health, including binge drinking and unprotected sex, increase during a week-long break from university. Understandings with peers regarding these behaviors may be important for predicting behavior and related harms. College students (N = 651; 48% men) reported having understandings with their friends…

  8. Indiscriminate Fisheries: Understanding the Foodweb of the Great Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, L.; Kaufman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Indiscriminate fisheries target multiple species with multiple gear types. In contrast to well-studied, industrialized single-species, single-gear fisheries, little theory and little but growing literature on practice exists for indiscriminate fisheries. Indiscriminate fisheries are disproportionately important in low-income countries, providing most of the animal protein intake in countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh. Indiscriminate fisheries may be either freshwater or marine, but here we focus on what may be the largest freshwater indiscriminate fishery in the world. Cambodia's freshwater fishery stands out because it provides the majority of animal protein to over 3 million people living in poverty. The fishery of the Tonle Sap lake is one of the largest, if not the largest contributor to this freshwater fish take, and is perhaps the largest freshwater fishery in the world. In contrast to its importance, very little is known about the foodweb ecology of this system, or how community management which now governs the entire fishery, interacts with biological and physical factors such as climate change.The foodweb of the Tonle Sap has changed dramatically due to high fishing pressure. A system that once harbored giant catfish, barbs and stingrays is now dominated by fish under 20cm in length. The simplification of the system may not have reduced its productivity. Theory of indiscriminate fisheries suggests that r-selected species may be favored and that biomass available for harvest may be maximized, while being more sensitive to environmental fluctuations such as climate change due to food web simplification. The r-selection and size predictions of theory have been confirmed by observations of the Tonle Sap. Early model results suggest sensitivity to environmental stochasticity. The interaction of these ecological changes with social systems will be tested in the Tonle Sap. Fisheries management across the lake has been transferred to community management

  9. The dynamic interaction of personal norms and environment-friendly buying behavior: A panel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Folke

    2006-01-01

    A deeper understanding of the attitude-norm-behavior relationship in the environmental field can be obtained by analyzing the dynamic interaction over time between relevant attitudinal variables and specific behaviors of interest. This article is based on a panel survey with a random sample...... of about 1,500 Danes interviewed up to 3 times in 1998 to 2000, regarding their purchase of organic food products. The panel analysis reveals that the stronger are consumers' personal norms about buying organic food products and the less they perceive organic products as expensive, the greater...... the likelihood that they change their purchase patterns in favor of organic products. Furthermore, one can observe significant cross-lagged paths from past behavior to belief and norm variables....

  10. Longitudinal impact of the Cyber Friendly Schools program on adolescents' cyberbullying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Shaw, Thérèse; Hadwen, Kate; Cardoso, Patricia; Slee, Phillip; Roberts, Clare; Thomas, Laura; Barnes, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a major public health problem associated with serious mental, social, and academic consequences for young people. To date, few programs addressing cyberbullying have been developed and empirically tested. The Cyber Friendly Schools (CFS) group-randomized controlled trial measured the longitudinal impact of a whole-school online cyberbullying prevention and intervention program, developed in partnership with young people. Non-government secondary schools in Perth, Western Australia, (N = 35; 3,000+ students) were randomized to an intervention (n = 19) or usual practice control group (n = 16 schools). Students completed online questionnaires in 2010, 2011, and at 1-year follow-up in 2012, measuring their cyberbullying experiences during the previous school term. The intervention group received the program in Grades 8 and 9 (aged 13-14 years). Program effects were tested using two-part growth models. The program was associated with significantly greater declines in the odds of involvement in cyber-victimization and perpetration from pre- to the first post-test, but no other differences were evident between the study conditions. However, teachers implemented only one third of the program content. More work is needed to build teacher capacity and self-efficacy to effectively implement cyberbullying programs. Whole-school cyberbullying interventions implemented in conjunction with other bullying prevention programs may reduce cyber-victimization more than traditional school-based bullying prevention programs alone. Aggr. Behav. 42:166-180, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Associations between Violent Video Gaming, Empathic Concern, and Prosocial Behavior toward Strangers, Friends, and Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ashley M.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Stockdale, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove…

  12. Friend Influence on Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Motivational Factors and Friendship Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Wentzel, Kathryn R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined motivation (prosocial goals), individual characteristics (sex, ethnicity, and grade), and friendship characteristics (affective quality, interaction frequency, and friendship stability) in relation to middle adolescents' prosocial behavior over time. Ninth- and 10th-grade students (N=208) attending a suburban, mid-Atlantic…

  13. The Influence of Friends on the Ideas and Behavior of Young People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, W.B.S.; Alsamaloty, N.; el Bouayadi - van de Wetering, W.B.S.; Miedema, S.

    2012-01-01

    The deviance of youth in Egyptian society and the reasons for such deviant behavior. They state that parents and institutes should invest more in adequate religious education for their children and pupils, thus guiding them on the right way in society. This is possible, according to the authors,

  14. Adolescents' and their friends' sexual behavior and intention: Selection effects of personality dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.; Overbeek, G.; van de Bongardt, D.; Reitz, E.; Dubas, J.S.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Using simulation investigation for empirical network analyses (in RSiena) we examined how personality and sexual behavior and intention were related to peer processes in Dutch adolescents. Our main research questions were: (a) do adolescents cluster together in friendship networks based on

  15. Adolescents' and their friends' sexual behavior and intention : Selection effects of personality dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-01-01

    Using simulation investigation for empirical network analyses (in RSiena) we examined how personality and sexual behavior and intention were related to peer processes in Dutch adolescents. Our main research questions were: (a) do adolescents cluster together in friendship networks based on

  16. Friends or foes ? : predictors of treatment outcome of cognitieve behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liber, Juliëtte Margo

    2008-01-01

    The present dissertation had as its central focus the prediction of outcome of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. In the present study a selection of variables that were thought to have prognostic validity for successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) outcome were explored in a

  17. Examination of environmentally friendly "green" logistics behavior of managers in the pharmaceutical sector using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Miray; Şar, Sevgi

    2017-12-11

    Logistics activities play a prominent role in enabling manufacturers, distribution channels, and pharmacies to work in harmony. Nowadays these activities have become increasingly striking in the pharmaceutical industry and seen as a development area for this sector. Additionally, green practices are beginning to be more attracting particularly in decreasing costs and increasing image of pharmaceutical companies. The main objective of this study was modeling green logistics (GL) behavior of the managers in the pharmaceutical sector in the theory of planned behavior (TPB) frame via structural equation modeling (SEM). A measurement tool was developed according to TPB. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine subfactors of GL behavior. In the second step, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for confirming whether there is a relationship between the observed variables and their underlying latent constructs. Finally, structural equation model was conducted to specify the relationships between latent variables. In the proposed green logistics behavior (GLB) model, the positive effect of environmental attitude towards GL, perceived behavioral control related GL, and subjective norm about GL on intention towards GL were found statistically significant. Nevertheless, the effect of attitude towards costs of GL on intention towards GL was not found statistically significant. Intention towards GL has been found to have a positive statistically significant effect on the GL behavior. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to say that TPB is an appropriate theory for modeling green logistics behavior of managers. This model can be seen as a guide to the companies in the pharmaceutical sector to participate in green logistics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rheological behavior of aqueous dispersions containing blends of rhamsan and welan polysaccharides with an eco-friendly surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Cayado, L A; Alfaro, M C; Raymundo, A; Sousa, I; Muñoz, J

    2016-09-01

    Small amplitude oscillatory shear and steady shear flow properties of rhamsan gum and welan gum dispersions containing an eco-friendly surfactant (a polyoxyethylene glycerol ester) formulated to mimic the continuous phase of O/W emulsions were studied using the surface response methodology. A second order polynomial equation fitted the influence of surfactant concentration, rhamsan/welan mass ratio and total concentration of polysaccharides. Systems containing blends of rhamsan and welan did not show synergism but thermodynamic incompatibility and made it possible to adjust the linear viscoelastic and low shear rate flow properties to achieve values in between those of systems containing either rhamsan or welan as the only polysaccharide. All the systems studied exhibited weak gel rheological properties as the mechanical spectra displayed the plateau or rubber-like relaxation zone, the linear viscoelastic range was rather narrow and flow curves presented shear thinning behavior, which fitted the power-law equation. While mechanical spectra of the systems studied demonstrated that they did not control the linear viscoelastic properties of the corresponding emulsions, the blend of rhamsan and welan gums was able to control the steady shear flow properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmentally friendly consumer behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Andersen, Alf K.

    1996-01-01

    To uafhængige stikprøver á ca. 200 er interviewet om deres holdninger til og køb af hhv. økologisk mælk og økologiske gulerødder. Undersøgelsen finder, at over halvdelen af befolkningen har en positiv holdning til og intentioner om køb af økologis fødevarer. V.h.a. hierarkisk regressionsanalyse f...

  20. Friendly fire: Longitudinal effects of exposure to violent video games on aggressive behavior in adolescent friendship dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, William J.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; van den Berg, Yvonne H. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2018-01-01

    Research on gaming effects has focused on adolescence, a developmental period in which peer relationships become increasingly salient. However, the impact of peers on the effects of violent gaming on adolescents has been understudied. This study examined whether adolescents’ exposure to violent video games predicted their own and their friend's aggression one year later. Among 705 gaming adolescents, 141 dyads were identified based on reciprocated best friend nominations (73.8% male, Mage = 13.98). Actor‐Partner Interdependence Models indicated that adolescent males’ (but not females’) exposure to violent games positively predicted the aggression of their best friend 1 year later. This effect appeared regardless of whether the friends played video games together or not. The study illustrates the importance of peers in the association between violent gaming and aggression. PMID:29363767

  1. Parental Influence on Drinking Behaviors at the Transition to College: The Mediating Role of Perceived Friends' Approval of High-Risk Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L; Wahesh, Edward; Wyrick, David L; DeJong, William

    2016-07-01

    This study tested whether perceived parental approval of high-risk drinking is directly linked to alcohol-related outcomes or whether the link between perceived parental approval and these outcomes is mediated by perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. In fall 2009, 1,797 incoming first-year college students (49.7% female) from 142 U.S. colleges and universities completed a web-based survey before participating in an online substance use prevention program. The analytic sample included only 18- to 20-year-old freshmen students who had consumed alcohol in the past year. Students answered questions about perceived parental approval and perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. They also answered questions about their alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking, risky drinking behaviors), use of self-protective strategies (to prevent drinking and driving and to moderate alcohol use), and negative alcohol-related consequences (health, academic and work, social consequences, and drinking and driving). Mediation analyses controlling for the clustering of students within schools indicated that perceived parental approval was directly associated with more easily observable outcomes (e.g., academic- and work-related consequences, drinking and driving). Perceived friends' approval significantly mediated the link between perceived parental approval and outcomes that are less easily observed (e.g., alcohol use, health consequences). During the transition to college, parents may influence students' behaviors both directly (through communication) as well as indirectly (by shaping their values and whom students select as friends). Alcohol use prevention programs for students about to start college should address both parental and friend influences on alcohol use.

  2. Nest destruction elicits indiscriminate con- versus heterospecific brood parasitism in a captive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachael C; Feeney, William E; Hauber, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    Following nest destruction, the laying of physiologically committed eggs (eggs that are ovulated, yolked, and making their way through the oviduct) in the nests of other birds is considered a viable pathway for the evolution of obligate interspecific brood parasitism. While intraspecific brood parasitism in response to nest predation has been experimentally demonstrated, this pathway has yet to be evaluated in an interspecific context. We studied patterns of egg laying following experimental nest destruction in captive zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, a frequent intraspecific brood parasite. We found that zebra finches laid physiologically committed eggs indiscriminately between nests containing conspecific eggs and nests containing heterospecific eggs (of Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata vars. domestica), despite the con- and heterospecific eggs differing in both size and coloration. This is the first experimental evidence that nest destruction may provide a pathway for the evolution of interspecific brood parasitism in birds.

  3. Validity of Evidence-Derived Criteria for Reactive Attachment Disorder: Indiscriminately Social/Disinhibited and Emotionally Withdrawn/Inhibited Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy; Smyke, Anna; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity of criteria for indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: As part of a longitudinal intervention trial of previously institutionalized children, caregiver interviews and direct observational measurements provided continuous and…

  4. Perceived Social Support from Friends and Parents for Eating Behavior and Diet Quality among Low-income, Urban, Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Hopkins, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence of associations between social support and dietary intake among adolescents is mixed. This study examines relationships between social support for healthy and unhealthy eating from friends and parents, and associations with diet quality. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Setting Baltimore, MD. Participants 296 youth ages 9-15 years, 53% female, 91% African American, participating in the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids study. Main Outcome Measure(s) Primary dependent variable: Diet quality measured using Healthy Eating Index 2010 overall score, calculated from the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Independent variables: Social support from parents and friends for healthy eating (4 questions analyzed as a scale) and unhealthy eating (3 questions analyzed individually), age, gender, race, and household income, reported via questionnaire. Analysis Adjusted multiple linear regressions. Alpha, pFriend and parent support for healthy eating did not have statistically significant relationships with overall HEI scores. Youth who reported their parents offering high fat foods or sweets more frequently had lower overall HEI scores (β=−1.65; SE=0.52; 95% CI: −2.66 to −0.63). Conclusions and Implications These results are novel and demonstrate the need for additional studies examining support for unhealthy eating. These preliminary findings may be relevant to researchers as they develop family-based nutrition interventions. PMID:26865358

  5. Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students' friends matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceived Social Support From Friends and Parents for Eating Behavior and Diet Quality Among Low-Income, Urban, Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Hopkins, Laura; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-05-01

    Evidence of associations between social support and dietary intake among adolescents is mixed. This study examines relationships between social support for healthy and unhealthy eating from friends and parents, and associations with diet quality. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Baltimore, MD. 296 youth aged 9-15 years, 53% female, 91% African American, participating in the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids study. Primary dependent variable: diet quality measured using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) overall score, calculated from the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. Social support from parents and friends for healthy eating (4 questions analyzed as a scale) and unhealthy eating (3 questions analyzed individually), age, gender, race, and household income, reported via questionnaire. Adjusted multiple linear regressions (α, P Friend and parent support for healthy eating did not have statistically significant relationships with overall HEI scores. Youth who reported their parents offering high-fat foods or sweets more frequently had lower overall HEI scores (β = -1.65; SE = 0.52; 95% confidence interval, -2.66 to -0.63). These results are novel and demonstrate the need for additional studies examining support for unhealthy eating. These preliminary findings may be relevant to researchers as they develop family-based nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of uremic retention products by hemodialysis is coupled with indiscriminate loss of vital metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hao; Mao, Jia-Rong; Chen, Hua; Su, Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Dan-Qian; Zhao, Ying-Yong; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2017-12-01

    Although dialysis ameliorates uremia and fluid and electrolytes disorders, annual mortality rate remains high in dialysis population reflecting its shortcoming in replacing renal function. Unlike the normal kidney, dialysis causes dramatic shifts in volume and composition of body fluids and indiscriminate removal of vital solutes. Present study was undertaken to determine the impact of hemodialysis on plasma metabolites in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. 80 hemodialysis patients and 80 age/gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography-high-definition mass spectrometry, we measured plasma metabolites before, during, and after hemodialysis procedure and in blood entering and leaving the dialysis filter. Principal component analysis revealed significant difference in concentration of 214 metabolites between healthy control and ESRD patients' pre-dialysis plasma (126 increased and 88 reduced in ESRD group). Comparison of post-dialysis with pre-dialysis data revealed significant changes in the 362 metabolites. Among ESI + metabolites 195 decreased and 55 increased and among ESI - metabolites 82 decreased and 30 increased following hemodialysis. Single blood passage through the dialyzer caused significant changes in 323 metabolites. Comparison of ESRD patients' post-hemodialysis with healthy subjects' data revealed marked differences in metabolic profiles. We identified 55 of the 362 differential metabolites including well known uremic toxins, waste products and vital biological compounds. In addition to uremic toxins and waste products hemodialysis removes large number of identified and as-yet un-identified metabolites. Depletion of vital biological compounds by dialysis may contribute to the high morbidity and annual mortality rate in this population. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Normative Emotional Responses to Behavior Analysis Jargon or How Not to Use Words to Win Friends and Influence People

    OpenAIRE

    Critchfield, Thomas S.; Doepke, Karla J.; Kimberly Epting, L.; Becirevic, Amel; Reed, Derek D.; Fienup, Daniel M.; Kremsreiter, Jamie L.; Ecott, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that non-experts regard the jargon of behavior analysis as abrasive, harsh, and unpleasant. If this is true, excessive reliance on jargon could interfere with the dissemination of effective services. To address this often discussed but rarely studied issue, we consulted a large, public domain list of English words that have been rated by members of the general public for the emotional reactions they evoke. Selected words that behavior analysts use as technical terms were...

  9. Normative Emotional Responses to Behavior Analysis Jargon or How Not to Use Words to Win Friends and Influence People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, Thomas S; Doepke, Karla J; Kimberly Epting, L; Becirevic, Amel; Reed, Derek D; Fienup, Daniel M; Kremsreiter, Jamie L; Ecott, Cheryl L

    2017-06-01

    It has been suggested that non-experts regard the jargon of behavior analysis as abrasive, harsh, and unpleasant. If this is true, excessive reliance on jargon could interfere with the dissemination of effective services. To address this often discussed but rarely studied issue, we consulted a large, public domain list of English words that have been rated by members of the general public for the emotional reactions they evoke. Selected words that behavior analysts use as technical terms were compared to selected words that are commonly used to discuss general science, general clinical work, and behavioral assessment. There was a tendency for behavior analysis terms to register as more unpleasant than other kinds of professional terms and also as more unpleasant than English words generally. We suggest possible reasons for this finding, discuss its relevance to the challenge of deciding how to communicate with consumers who do not yet understand or value behavior analysis, and advocate for systematic research to guide the marketing of behavior analysis.

  10. Road pricing as an impetus for environment-friendly travel behavior : Results from a stated adaptation experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, D.; Cools, M.; Moons, E.; Wets, G.; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P

    2009-01-01

    An important policy instrument for governments to modify travel behavior and manage the increasing travel demand is the introduction of a congestion pricing system. In this study, the influence of a detailed classification of activities is examined to assess likely traveler response to congestion

  11. Environment-friendly cathodes using biopolymer chitosan with enhanced electrochemical behavior for use in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, K; Subburaj, T; Jo, Yong Nam; Lee, Won Jong; Lee, Chang Woo

    2015-04-22

    The biopolymer chitosan has been investigated as a potential binder for the fabrication of LiFePO4 cathode electrodes in lithium ion batteries. Chitosan is compared to the conventional binder, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Dispersion of the active material, LiFePO4, and conductive agent, Super P carbon black, is tested using a viscosity analysis. The enhanced structural and morphological properties of chitosan are compared to the PVDF binder using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Using an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the LiFePO4 electrode with the chitosan binder is observed to have a high ionic conductivity and a smaller increase in charge transfer resistance based on time compared to the LiFePO4 electrode with the PVDF binder. The electrode with the chitosan binder also attains a higher discharge capacity of 159.4 mAh g(-1) with an excellent capacity retention ratio of 98.38% compared to the electrode with the PVDF binder, which had a discharge capacity of 127.9 mAh g(-1) and a capacity retention ratio of 85.13%. Further, the cycling behavior of the chitosan-based electrode is supported by scrutinizing its charge-discharge behavior at specified intervals and by a plot of dQ/dV.

  12. Are You Your Friends’ Friend? Poor Perception of Friendship Ties Limits the Ability to Promote Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaatouq, Abdullah; Radaelli, Laura; Pentland, Alex; Shmueli, Erez

    2016-01-01

    Persuasion is at the core of norm creation, emergence of collective action, and solutions to ‘tragedy of the commons’ problems. In this paper, we show that the directionality of friendship ties affect the extent to which individuals can influence the behavior of each other. Moreover, we find that people are typically poor at perceiving the directionality of their friendship ties and that this can significantly limit their ability to engage in cooperative arrangements. This could lead to failures in establishing compatible norms, acting together, finding compromise solutions, and persuading others to act. We then suggest strategies to overcome this limitation by using two topological characteristics of the perceived friendship network. The findings of this paper have significant consequences for designing interventions that seek to harness social influence for collective action. PMID:27002530

  13. [Indiscriminate use of Latin name for natural Cordyceps sinensis insect-fungi complex and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi-Sang; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Natural Cordyceps sinensis(Dongchongxiacao) is an insect-fungi complex containing multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis(≡Cordyceps sinensis) fungi and dead body of larva of the family of Hepialidae. But natural C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi use the same Latin name, resulting in uncertainty of the specific meaning, even disturbing the formulation and implementation of governmental policies and regulations, and influencing consumer psychology onthe market. This paper reviews the history and current status of the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O. sinensis for both the natural insect-fungi complex C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi and lists the rename suggetions. Some scholars suggested using the term O. sinensis for the fungi and renaming the natural C. sinensis "Chinese cordyceps". Others suggested renaming the natural C. sinensis "Ophiocordyceps & Hepialidae". Both suggestions have not reached general consensus due to various academic concerns. This paper also reviews the exacerbation of the academic uncertainties when forcing implementing the 2011 Amsterdam Declaration "One Fungus=One Name" under the academic debate. Joint efforts of mycological, zoological and botany-TCM taxonomists and properly initiating the dispute systems offered by International Mycology Association may solve the debate on the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O.sinensis for the natural insect-fungi complex,the teleomorph and anamorph(s) of O. sinensis fungi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Romantic Partners, Friends, Friends with Benefits, and Casual Acquaintances As Sexual Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Shaffer, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a detailed examination of sexual behavior with different types of partners. A sample of 163 young adults reported on their light nongenital, heavy nongenital, and genital sexual activity with romantic partners, friends, and casual acquaintances. They described their sexual activity with “friends with benefits” as well as with friends in general. Young adults were most likely to engage in sexual behavior with romantic partners, but sexual behavior also often occurred with some type of nonromantic partner. More young adults engaged in some form of sexual behavior with casual acquaintances than with friends with benefits. The frequencies of sexual behavior, however, were greater with friends with benefits than with friends or casual acquaintances. Interview and questionnaire data revealed that friends with benefits were typically friends, but not necessarily. Nonsexual activities were also less common with friends with benefits than other friends. Taken together, the findings illustrate the value of differentiating among different types of nonromantic partners and different levels of sexual behavior. PMID:21128155

  15. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Caffeine: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepker, Candace; Lieberman, Harris R; Smith, Andrew Paul; Peck, Jennifer D; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Welsh, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    The debate on the safety of and regulatory approaches for caffeine continues among various stakeholders and regulatory authorities. This decision-making process comes with significant challenges, particularly when considering the complexities of the available scientific data, making the formulation of clear science-based regulatory guidance more difficult. To allow for discussions of a number of key issues, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) convened a panel of subject matter experts for a caffeine-focused session entitled "Caffeine: Friend or Foe?," which was held during the 2015 ILSI Annual Meeting. The panelists' expertise covered topics ranging from the natural occurrence of caffeine in plants and interindividual metabolism of caffeine in humans to specific behavioral, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects related to caffeine consumption. Each presentation highlighted the potential risks, benefits, and challenges that inform whether caffeine exposure warrants concern. This paper aims to summarize the key topics discussed during the session.

  17. French adolescents' environmental friendly behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Schleyer-Lindenmann, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Environmental friendly behavior and attitudes have been studied in social sciences since the 1970 with the awakening of an « ecological consciousness ». Psychology has been actively taking part in these studies since then (Maloney & Ward, 1973, Oskamp, 2000, Schmuck & Schultz, 2002). Bronfenbrenner (1979) in his nested system approach, sees the person as seen as a developing entity, in constant interaction with different developing environments. We therefore propose to...

  18. Friend Finder (Game)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a spot on the Friend Finder All-Star List. Earn your spot by showing you're savvy when it comes to making friends online . Downloads Please download and share our ... Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the ...

  19. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    NOTES Patrick La Fratta is now affiliated with Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho. 14. ABSTRACT We present an introduction to the patented ...Operating System Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA). The software framework to support the hardware-level security features is currently patent ...Army is assignee. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture. United States Patent 9122610. 2015 Sep. 2. Jungwirth P, inventor; US Army is assignee

  20. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  1. Do Territorial Control and the Loss of Territory Determine the use of Indiscriminate Violence by Incumbent Actors? An Examination of the Syrian Civil War in Aleppo over 45 weeks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Tyner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This study tests the ‘control-collaboration’ model detailed by Stathis Kalyvas in 'The Logic of Violence in Civil War '(2006. The control-collaboration model makes various theoretical claims on the relationship between territorial control and the use and motivations of violence (whether selective or indiscriminate. This study tests two of the key claims made in the model: 1. There is an inverse relationship between level of territorial control and the use of indiscriminate violence; and, 2. The loss off territory encourages the use of indiscriminate violence. Using data on civilian and child deaths taken from the ‘Syrian Martyr Database’, this study examines the relationship between territorial control and territorial loss, and the use of indiscriminate violence by incumbent (Syrian state forces. Examining the levels of territorial control/loss and the extent of civilian and child casualties in Aleppo, Syria, results of the study largely support the theoretical assumptions outlined by Kalyvas.'

  2. Young friendship in HFASD and typical development: friend versus non-friend comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Agam-Ben-Artzi, Galit

    2014-07-01

    This study conducted comparative assessment of friendship in preschoolers with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD, n = 29) versus preschoolers with typical development (n = 30), focusing on interactions with friends versus acquaintances. Groups were matched on SES, verbal/nonverbal MA, IQ, and CA. Multidimensional assessments included: mothers' and teachers' reports about friends' and friendship characteristics and observed individual and dyadic behaviors throughout interactions with friends versus non-friends during construction, drawing, and free-play situations. Findings revealed group differences in peer interaction favoring the typical development group, thus supporting the neuropsychological profile of HFASD. However, both groups' interactions with friends surpassed interactions with acquaintances on several key socio-communicative and intersubjective capabilities, thus suggesting that friendship may contribute to enhancement and practice of social interaction in HFASD.

  3. If all your friends jumped off a bridge: the effect of others' actions on engagement in and recommendation of risky behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfinstein, Sarah M; Mumford, Jeanette A; Poldrack, Russell A

    2015-02-01

    There is a large gap between the types of risky behavior we recommend to others and those we engage in ourselves. In this study, we hypothesized that a source of this gap is greater reliance on information about others' behavior when deciding whether to take a risk oneself than when deciding whether to recommend it to others. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants either to report their willingness to engage in a series of risky behaviors themselves; their willingness to recommend those behaviors to a loved one; or, how good of an idea it would be for either them or a loved one to engage in the behaviors. We then asked them to evaluate those behaviors on criteria related to the expected utility of the risk (benefits, costs, and likelihood of costs), and on engagement in the activity by people they knew. We found that, after accounting for effects of perceived benefit, cost, and likelihood of cost, perceptions of others' behavior had a dramatically larger impact on participants' willingness to engage in a risk than on their willingness to recommend the risk or their prescriptive evaluation of the risk. These findings indicate that the influence of others' choices on risk-taking behavior is large, direct, cannot be explained by an economic utility model of risky decision-making, and goes against one's own better judgment.

  4. Why acting environmentally-friendly feels good: Exploring the role of self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie A Venhoeven

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that engagement in environmentally-friendly behavior can feel good. Current explanations for such a link do not focus on the nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself, but rather propose well-being is more or less a side-benefit; behaviors that benefit environmental quality (e.g. spending one’s money on people rather than products also tend to make us feel good. We propose that the moral nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself may elicit positive emotions as well, because engaging in this behavior can signal one is an environmentally-friendly and thus a good person. Our results show that engagement in environmentally-friendly behavior can indeed affect how people see themselves: participants saw themselves as being more environmentally-friendly when they engaged in more environmentally-friendly behavior (Study 1. Furthermore, environmentally-friendly behavior resulted in a more positive self-image, more strongly when it was voluntarily engaged in, compared to when it was driven by situational constraints (Study 2. In turn, the more environmentally-friendly (Study 1 and positive (Study 2 people saw themselves, the better they felt about acting environmentally-friendly. Together, these results suggest that the specific self-signal that ensues from engaging in environmentally-friendly behavior can explain why environmentally-friendly actions may elicit a good feeling.

  5. Choosy females and indiscriminate males: mate choice in mixed populations of sexual and hybridogenetic water frogs (Rana lessonae, Rana esculenta)

    OpenAIRE

    Engeler, B; Reyer, H U

    2001-01-01

    For several decades, behavioral ecologists have studied the effects of the environment on the behavior of individuals; but only fairly recently they have started to ask the reverse question: how do the behavioral strategies of individuals affect the composition and dynamics of populations and communities? Although intuitively obvious, this feedback from individual to higher levels is difficult to demonstrate, except in systems with exceptionally fast and marked responses of the populations to...

  6. Enhancing Personal Hygiene Behavior and Competency of Elementary School Adolescents through Peer-Led Approach and School-Friendly: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Argaw, Alemayehu; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Ayana, Girmay; Nigussie, Aderajew; Jisha, Hunduma; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies showed that poor personal hygiene practices play a major role in the increment of communicable disease burden in developing countries. In Ethiopia, 60% of the disease burden is related to poor sanitation practices. This school based study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of school-friendly and peer-led approach in improving personal hygiene practices of school adolescents in Jimma Zone, Southwest of Ethiopia. A total of 1000 students from 10 to 19 years were included into the study. The intervention was done using peer-led approach, health clubs and linking the school events with parents. Data were collected at baseline, midline and end-line using structured questionnaires. Repeated measurement analysis was done and statistical significance was considered at alpha 0.05. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant difference in personal hygiene practices and knowledge between the intervention and control groups (Ppersonal hygiene knowledge and practice of students in the intervention schools. Therefore, there is a need for proper health education intervention through the framework of schools for the students to improve their personal hygiene knowledge and practices.

  7. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  8. Friends and social contexts as unshared environments: A discordant sibling analysis of obesity- and health-related behaviors in young adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. This study uses a weight-discordant sibling design to examine the relationships between best friend’s body mass index z-score (zBMI) and siblings’ zBMI and obesity-related health behaviors (energy intake, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages [SSB], physical activity and sedentary time...

  9. Support Between Siblings and Between Friends : Two Worlds Apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether siblings and friends resemble each other in supportive behavior. Using a Dutch national sample of 6,289 individuals containing 12,578 relationships with siblings and friends, we investigated the relative importance of gender composition, geographical proximity,

  10. Parental Strategies for Knowledge of Adolescents’ Friends: Distinct from Monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2012-01-01

    Parental monitoring is defined as a set of behaviors used to gain knowledge about an adolescent’s whereabouts, friends and associates, and activities. However, can knowledge of adolescents’ whereabouts/activities, and friends all be attained through the same strategies? Or do they require their own strategies? This study used qualitative interviews with 173 parents of older adolescents from 100 families. Emergent themes described strategies by which parents gain information about their adolescents’ friends and the substance use of those friends. The strategies included direct interaction with the friend, gaining information from the teen, using second-hand sources, and making assumptions. Some of these strategies were consistent with previous research, while others raise new questions and provide interesting new directions to pursue. Primarily, additional consideration needs to be given to assessments of parental monitoring that include strategies for gaining knowledge of adolescents’ friends and their substance use. PMID:23209361

  11. Lipedema: friend and foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Yanira Sanchez-De la; Wadeea, Rita; Rosas, Victoria; Herbst, Karen L

    2018-03-09

    Background Lipedema is a chronic disorder presenting in women during puberty or other times of hormonal change such as childbirth or menopause, characterized by symmetric enlargement of nodular, painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (fat) in the limbs, sparing the hands, feet and trunk. Healthcare providers underdiagnose or misdiagnose lipedema as obesity or lymphedema. Materials and methods The benefits (friend) and negative aspects (foe) of lipedema were collected from published literature, discussions with women with lipedema, and institutional review board approved evaluation of medical charts of 46 women with lipedema. Results Lipedema is a foe because lifestyle change does not reduce lipedema fat, the fat is painful, can become obese, causes gait and joint abnormalities, fatigue, lymphedema and psychosocial distress. Hypermobility associated with lipedema can exacerbate joint disease and aortic disease. In contrast, lipedema fat can be a friend as it is associated with relative reductions in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. In new data collected, lipedema was associated with a low risk of diabetes (2%), dyslipidemia (11.7%) and hypertension (13%) despite an obese average body mass index (BMI) of 35.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2. Conclusion Lipedema is a painful psychologically distressing fat disorder, more foe than friend especially due to associated obesity and lymphedema. More controlled studies are needed to study the mechanisms and treatments for lipedema.

  12. Climate friendly dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Ellen; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the present Danish diet could be changed in a climate friendly direction that follows the recommendations of a healthy diet. The carbon footprint (CF) of an average Danish diet was calculated and compared to CF of a recommended healthy diet by 1......%, if the healthy diet was eaten instead of the average current diet. However, if the diet was climate optimized by choosing foods with a low CF within the food groups; meat, vegetables and fruit, CF of this diet may be reduced by 23 % compared to CF of the average diet....

  13. Three friendly walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    More than 15 years ago Guttmann and Vöge (2002 J. Stat. Plan. Inference 101 107), introduced a model of friendly walkers. Since then it has remained unsolved. In this paper we provide the exact solution to a closely allied model which essentially only differs in the boundary conditions. The exact solution is expressed in terms of the reciprocal of the generating function for vicious walkers which is a D-finite function. However, ratios of D-finite functions are inherently not D-finite and in this case we prove that the friendly walkers generating function is the solution to a non-linear differential equation with polynomial coefficients, it is in other words D-algebraic. We find using numerically exact calculations a conjectured expression for the generating function of the original model as a ratio of a D-finite function and the generating function for vicious walkers. We obtain an expression for this D-finite function in terms of a {{}2}{{F}1} hypergeometric function with a rational pullback and its first and second derivatives. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  14. Network-Friendly Gossiping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbu, Sabina; Rivière, Étienne; Felber, Pascal

    The emergence of large-scale distributed applications based on many-to-many communication models, e.g., broadcast and decentralized group communication, has an important impact on the underlying layers, notably the Internet routing infrastructure. To make an effective use of network resources, protocols should both limit the stress (amount of messages) on each infrastructure entity like routers and links, and balance as much as possible the load in the network. Most protocols use application-level metrics such as delays to improve efficiency of content dissemination or routing, but the extend to which such application-centric optimizations help reduce and balance the load imposed to the infrastructure is unclear. In this paper, we elaborate on the design of such network-friendly protocols and associated metrics. More specifically, we investigate random-based gossip dissemination. We propose and evaluate different ways of making this representative protocol network-friendly while keeping its desirable properties (robustness and low delays). Simulations of the proposed methods using synthetic and real network topologies convey and compare their abilities to reduce and balance the load while keeping good performance.

  15. Why Acting Environmentally-Friendly Feels Good : Exploring the Role of Self-Image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhoeven, Leonie A.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that engagement in environmentally-friendly behavior can feel good. Current explanations for such a link do not focus on the nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself, but rather propose well-being is more or less a side-benefit; behaviors that benefit environmental

  16. My Nepalese Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    NEPAL and China are good neighbors. In the 1980s many Chinese technicians went to Nepal to help build roads and other projects. As an interpreter with a Chinese construction cooperative, I worked there from 1993 to 1994. During my stay in Nepal, I met many different Nepalese women who impressed me deeply. My landlady Sumiyala, was the first Nepalese woman to come into my life. She was over 40 years old, a healthy and good-humored housewife. Whenever Ⅰ had time, I liked to chat with her and gradually we became friends. I remember my landlady was busy in and out of her house all day long— cleaning, cooking and taking care of her grandchildren and her parents-in-laws.

  17. Thinking with friends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2017-01-01

    cognitive phenomenon, and bringing together observations and concepts from interdisciplinary studies of interpersonal relationships allows for a notion of relational attention to be developed. At least for some forms of friendships, the agents not merely attend to common interests; their perception...... is shared, mediated by the very relationship as an embodied activity of distributed cognition. An important example of this is collaboration in science and art, as when friends or colleagues work close together to solve problems or develop new forms of creative expression.......Can research in situated and embodied cognition inform the study of interpersonal relations like friendship? And conversely, can friendship studies from disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives inspire research in cognitive science? These are the guiding questions for this chapter. Compared...

  18. Supporting Members and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  19. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  20. The most common friend first immunization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian Fu-Zhong; Hu Cha-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts–Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi–Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. (paper)

  1. Cyber Friendly Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public

  2. Marketing animal-friendly products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.; Veen, van der Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce

  3. Advanced Environment Friendly Nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figovsky, O.; Beilin, D.; Blank, N.

    The economic, security, military and environmental implications of molecular manufacturing are extreme. Unfortunately, conflicting definitions of nanotechnology and blurry distinctions between significantly different fields have complicated the effort to understand those differences and to develop sensible, effective policy for each. The risks of today's nanoscale technologies cannot be treated the same as the risks of longer-term molecular manufacturing. It is a mistake to put them together in one basket for policy consideration — each is important to address, but they offer different problems and will require far different solutions. As used today, the term nanotechnology usually refers to a broad collection of mostly disconnected fields. Essentially, anything sufficiently small and interesting can be called nanotechnology. Much of it is harmless. For the rest, much of the harm is of familiar and limited quality. Molecular manufacturing, by contrast, will bring unfamiliar risks and new classes of problems. The advanced environment friendly nanotechnologies elaborated by Israel Company Polymate Ltd. — International Research Center are illustrated.

  4. Targeting Civilians with Indiscriminate Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    turning against small merchants, entrepreneurs and petty bourgeoisie who had formed the backbone of the Islamic opposition. The GIA activists began...evidence recorded in France in 1996. In The Algerian Civil War 1990- 1998, ed. Martinez, 152. 157 Amnesty International 1997b: 18. In “The Logic of

  5. The impact of indiscriminate media coverage of a celebrity suicide on a society with a high suicide rate: epidemiological findings on copycat suicides from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju Ji, Nam; Young Lee, Weon; Seok Noh, Maeng; Yip, Paul S F

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the extent to which the indiscriminate media coverage of the famous young actress Lee Eun-ju's suicide in 2005 affected suicides overall and in specific subgroups (by age, gender, and suicide method) in a suicide-prone society, South Korea. South Korea's 2003-2005 suicide data (n=34,237) were obtained from death certificate records of the National Statistical Office (NSO). Data was analyzed with Poisson time series auto-regression models. After adjusting for confounding factors (such as seasonal variation, calendar year, temperature, humidity, and unemployment rate), there was a significant increase in suicide (RR=1.40, 95%, CI=1.30-1.51, no. of excess mortalities=331; 95% CI=267-391) during the 4 weeks after Lee's suicide. This increase was more prominent in subgroups with similar characteristics to the celebrity. In particular, the relative risk of suicide during this period was the largest (5.24; 95% CI=3.31-8.29) in young women who used the same suicide method as the celebrity. Moreover, the incidence of these copycat suicides during the same time significantly increased in both genders and in all age subgroups among those who committed suicide using the same method as the celebrity (hanging). It is difficult to prove conclusively that the real motivation of the suicides was Lee's death. The findings from this study imply that, if the media indiscreetly reports the suicide of a celebrity in a suicide-prone society, the copycat effect can be far-reaching and very strong, particularly for vulnerable people. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. To friend or not to friend? Social networking and faculty perceptions of online professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Farnan, Jeanne M; Greysen, S Ryan; Kind, Terry

    2011-12-01

    To assess faculty perceptions of professional boundaries and trainee-posted content on social networking sites (SNS). In June 2010, the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine conducted its annual survey of U.S. and Canadian member institutions. The survey included sections on demographics and social networking. The authors used descriptive statistics and tests of association to analyze the Likert scale responses and qualitatively analyzed the free-text responses. Of 110 institutional members, 82 (75%) responded to the survey. Of the 40 respondents who reported current or past SNS use, 21 (53%) reported receiving a "friend request" from a current student and 25 (63%) from a current resident. Of these, 4 (19%) accepted the student request and 12 (48%) accepted the resident request. Sixty-three of 80 (79%) felt it was inappropriate to send a friend request to a current student, 61 (76%) to accept a current student's request, 42 (53%) to become friends with a current resident, and 61 (81%) to become friends with a current patient. Becoming friends with a former student, former resident, or colleague was perceived as more appropriate. Younger respondents were less likely to deem specific student behaviors inappropriate (odds ratio [OR] 0.18-0.79; adjusted OR 0.12-0.86, controlling for respondents' sex, rank, and SNS use), although none reached statistical significance. Some internal medicine educators are using SNSs and interacting with trainees online. Their perceptions on the appropriateness of social networking behaviors provide some consensus for professional boundaries between faculty and trainees in the digital world.

  7. Friends First? The Peer Network Origins of Adolescent Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Molloy, Lauren E.; Moody, James; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The proximity of dating partners in peer friendship networks has important implications for the diffusion of health-risk behaviors and adolescent social development. We derive two competing hypotheses for the friendship-romance association. The first predicts that daters are proximally positioned in friendship networks prior to dating and that opposite-gender friends are likely to transition to dating. The second predicts that dating typically crosses group boundaries and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to later date. We test these hypotheses with longitudinal friendship data for 626 9th grade PROSPER heterosexual dating couples. Results primarily support the second hypothesis: romantic partners are unlikely to be friends in the previous year or share the same cohesive subgroup, and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to transition into dating. PMID:27134511

  8. Examining associations between adolescent binge eating and binge eating in parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wall, Melanie M; Choo, Tse-Hwei J; Bruening, Meg; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-04-01

    Binge eating is prevalent among adolescents, but little is known about how parents and friends may influence such behaviors. This study examined associations between adolescent binge eating behaviors, and similar behaviors in their parents and friends. Participants were 2,770 target adolescent boys and girls who had at least one friend and/or parent who also participated. Logistic regression, stratified by gender, examined associations between parents' and friends' self-reported binge eating, and similar behaviors in target adolescents. Girls' binge eating was associated with their male friends' (odds ratio = 2.33; p = 0.03) and fathers' binge eating (odds ratio = 3.38; p = 0.02), but not with their female friends' or mothers' binge eating (p > 0.05). For boys, binge eating was not associated with parents' or friends' behavior. Adolescent girls' binge eating is associated with similar behaviors in their other-sex parents and friends. Results should be replicated, and mechanisms explaining this relation should be further explored. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Links between Friends' Physical Aggression and Adolescents' Physical Aggression: What Happens If Gene-Environment Correlations are Controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to deviant friends has been found to be a powerful source of influence on children's and adolescents' aggressive behavior. However, the contribution of deviant friends may have been overestimated because of a possible non-accounted gene-environment correlation (rGE). In this study, we used a cross-lagged design to test whether friends'…

  10. Critical friends and collaborative partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jandér

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical friends: a method for peer feedback The Critical Friend-method has been used in various educational settings to facilitate the process of continuous improvement in teaching. The aim of this study was to implement Critical Friends, and to find out if this method could be used for feedback on teaching as part of a librarians' professional development. The project was carried out within the Library Unit of the Faculty of Medicine at Lund University, Sweden, in collaboration with the faculty's Centre for Teaching and Learning. Seven librarians and an educational consultant from the Centre for Teaching and Learning participated; the educational consultant played an essential role in supervising and structuring the project and the evaluation process, preparing readings as well as being an active participant. The participants worked in pairs; the performance of one teacher and the associated classroom activities were observed by the critical friend, and then evaluated and discussed. Evaluation and results After two preparatory group meetings, a final meeting was held where all pairs reported what they had done and how they perceived the critical friend process. The experiences of the participating librarians were explored using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was analyzed using content analysis by one librarian and the educational consultant independently. The results suggested that use of the critical friend method could have a positive impact by achieving the following: strengthening shared values concerning teaching issues; promoting self-reflection on teaching; facilitating communication with colleagues; and reducing the sense of 'loneliness‘ in teaching. The difficulties in the implementation were lack of time and competing duties. It was perceived as an advantage to work in close partnership with the faculty's educational consultants, who were familiar with the organization.

  11. Práticas indiscriminadas de dietas de emagrecimento e o desenvolvimento de transtornos alimentares The indiscriminate use of weight control diets and the development of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Souto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir a utilização indiscriminada de dietas para emagrecimento, considerando os diversos níveis de incentivo de práticas para a obtenção do peso corporal apregoado como ideal nos meios de comunicação. MÉTODOS: Foi adotada a abordagem metodológica qualitativa. A partir de narrativas de mulheres portadoras de transtornos alimentares, no Município de Fortaleza, CE, buscou-se identificar as motivações e os incentivos das práticas inadequadas de controle de peso, e compreender o significado dessas vivências para o aparecimento de transtornos alimentares. Foram realizadas sete entrevistas individuais, para analisar como o padrão psico-social - relacionado a peso e forma corporal vigente - interfere no imaginário das mulheres, influenciando-as na adoção de comportamentos alimentares anormais e de tais práticas inadequadas de controle de peso. RESULTADOS: Os discursos mostram história e/ou sensação de sobrepeso/obesidade, insatisfação corporal, prática de dietas que nem sempre foram supervisionadas por profissionais e medo mórbido de engordar. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo reforçam a necessidade de reflexão acerca da valorização desse ideal de beleza veiculado pela mídia e sua influência nas práticas alimentares, que pode levar à instalação de transtornos do comportamento alimentar.OBJECTIVE: This study discusses the indiscriminate use of weight control diets, taking into account the various levels of incentives for practices to reach the body weight proclaimed as ideal by the mass media. MÉTHODS: A qualitative methodological approach was adopted to identify the motives and incentives for inadequate weight control practices through the narratives of women with eating disorders in the Municipality of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, to understand the meaning of these experiences in the emergence of eating disorders. Seven individual interviews were carried out, analysing how the current psycho

  12. Climate-friendly Default Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...

  13. Factors Influencing Attitude, Safety Behavior, and Knowledge regarding Household Waste Management in Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Mamady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste indiscriminate disposal is recognized as an important cause of environmental pollution and is associated with health problems. Safe management and disposal of household waste are an important problem to the capital city of Guinea (Conakry. The objective of this study was to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with practice, knowledge, and safety behavior of family members regarding household waste management and to produce a remedial action plan. I found that no education background, income, and female individuals were independently associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. Unplanned residential area was an additional factor associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. I also found that the community residents had poor knowledge and unsafe behavior in relation to waste management. The promotion of environmental information and public education and implementation of community action programs on disease prevention and health promotion will enhance environmental friendliness and safety of the community.

  14. When Do Friends Prevent Friends from Hooking Up Intoxicated? An Examination of Sex Differences and Hypothetical Intoxication in Peer Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Matthew W; Menegatos, Lisa; Roberto, Anthony J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the risks involved when mixing alcohol with casual sexual activity, the majority of college students engage in hookups, and the majority of those hookups involve alcohol. This study focused on the protective role college students' peers can play and the situational factors that might influence their willingness to intervene when a close friend is about to hook up intoxicated. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study investigated differences in students' (N = 1270) attitudes, norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to persuade a close friend not to engage in a hypothetical drunken hookup using a 2 (friend sex) × 2 (participant sex) × 2 (sober/intoxicated) factorial design. Results indicated significant differences in the TPB variables. Participants intended to intervene with female friends, but not male friends, and women were more likely to intervene than men. Participants in the sober condition had stronger intentions to intervene than those in the intoxicated condition, but this effect was driven by increases in men's intentions when sober. Implications for theory and prevention programming are discussed.

  15. Own and Friends' Smoking Attitudes and Social Preference as Early Predictors of Adolescent Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Roy; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of friends' attitudes in adolescent smoking (N = 203). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify three trajectories of smoking behavior from ages 12 to 14 years: a "low-rate" group, an "increasing-rate" group, and a "high-rate" group. Adolescents' own and their friends' attitudes at age…

  16. Best Friends: Alliances, Friend Ranking, and the MySpace Social Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeScioli, Peter; Kurzban, Robert; Koch, Elizabeth N; Liben-Nowell, David

    2011-01-01

    Like many topics of psychological research, the explanation for friendship is at once intuitive and difficult to address empirically. These difficulties worsen when one seeks, as we do, to go beyond "obvious" explanations ("humans are social creatures") to ask deeper questions, such as "What is the evolved function of human friendship?" In recent years, however, a new window into human behavior has opened as a growing fraction of people's social activity has moved online, leaving a wealth of digital traces behind. One example is a feature of the MySpace social network that allows millions of users to rank their "Top Friends." In this study, we collected over 10 million people's friendship decisions from MySpace to test predictions made by hypotheses about human friendship. We found particular support for the alliance hypothesis, which holds that human friendship is caused by cognitive systems that function to create alliances for potential disputes. Because an ally's support can be undermined by a stronger outside relationship, the alliance model predicts that people will prefer partners who rank them above other friends. Consistent with the alliance model, we found that an individual's choice of best friend in MySpace is strongly predicted by how partners rank that individual. © The Author(s) 2011.

  17. Decomposing the components of friendship and friends' influence on adolescent drinking and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2012-08-01

    Friendship networks are an important source of peer influence. However, existing network studies vary in terms of how they operationalize friendship and friend's influence on adolescent substance use. This study uses social network analysis to characterize three types of friendship relations: (1) mutual or reciprocated, (2) directional, and (3) intimate friends. We then examine the relative effects of each friendship type on adolescent drinking and smoking behavior. Using a saturated sample from the Add Health data, a nationally representative sample of high school adolescents (N = 2,533 nested in 12 schools), we computed the level of exposure to drinking and smoking of friends using a network exposure model, and their association with individual drinking and smoking using fixed effect models. Results indicated that the influence from mutual or reciprocated type of friendship relations is stronger on adolescent substance use than directional, especially for smoking. Regarding the directionality of directional type of friendship relations, adolescents are equally influenced by both nominating and nominated friends on their drinking and smoking behavior. Results for intimate friends friendship relations indicated that the influence from "best friends" was weaker than the one from non-"best friends," which indicates that the order of friend nomination may not matter as much as nomination reciprocation. This study demonstrates that considering different features of friendship relationships is important in evaluating friends' influence on adolescent substance use. Related policy implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Moral intensity and climate-friendly food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia; Vainio, Annukka

    2013-07-01

    By changing individual food consumption patterns, it might be possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with climate change. The aim of the current study was to examine how perceptions of the moral intensity of climate change are related to climate friendly-food choices. The participants were 350 Finnish university students in the social and behavioral sciences who completed a questionnaire during class. The results indicated that moral perceptions mainly affected the moral evaluation and intentions to make climate-friendly food choices. We suggest that the results can be used to promote climate-friendly food choices, for example, by increasing the recognition of climate change as a moral imperative and by combining environmental motives with other relevant food choice motives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Children's perceptions of relationships with siblings, friends, and mothers: compensatory processes and links with adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, C M

    1994-11-01

    Links between children's psychological adjustment and individual differences in their perceptions of relationships with siblings, mothers, and friends were studied in a sample of 85 second-graders. Results indicated that characteristics of these relationships were significantly correlated with children's loneliness, depressive mood, self-esteem, and behavioral conduct. There were some links among children's perceptions of their relationships with siblings, friends, and mothers. A compensatory model of associations among adjustment and warmth in children's relationships with friends and mothers was supported. Children who reported that their relationships with either mothers, friends, or mothers and friends were characterized by high levels of warmth had significantly better adjustment outcomes than children who reported low levels of warmth in relationships with both friends and mothers. The importance of the network of children's relationships for their mental health is discussed.

  20. Illiquidity and All Its Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The recent crisis was characterized by massive illiquidity. This paper reviews what we know and don't know about illiquidity and all its friends: market freezes, fire sales, contagion, and ultimately insolvencies and bailouts. It first explains why liquidity cannot easily be apprehended through a single statistic, and asks whether liquidity should be regulated given that a capital adequacy requirement is already in place. The paper then analyzes market breakdowns due to either adverse selecti...

  1. Antisocial boys and their friends in early adolescence: relationship characteristics, quality, and interactional process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, T J; Andrews, D W; Crosby, L

    1995-02-01

    This study examines the close friendships of early adolescent boys in relation to antisocial behavior. 186 13-14-year-old boys and their close friends were interviewed, assessed at school, and videotaped in a problem-solving task. Similarity was observed between the demographic characteristics and antisocial behavior of the boys and their close friends. There was a tendency for the close friends of antisocial boys to live within the same neighborhood block and to have met in unstructured, unsupervised activities. Direct observations of interactions with close friends revealed a reliable correlation between antisocial behavior, directives, and negative reciprocity. Positive interactions within the friendship were uncorrelated with antisocial behavior and relationship quality. Implications of these findings for clinical and developmental theory are discussed.

  2. Transport-related lifestyle and environmentally-friendly travel mode choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2018-01-01

    . Finally, a multivariate GLM analysis reveals that three behavioral tendencies of importance for transport-related environmental impacts vary significantly and substantially between lifestyle segments: vehicle ownership, everyday travel-mode choice and environmentally-friendly transport innovativeness...

  3. Physical activity in adolescents: analysis of social influence of parents and friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanna Alexandra Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents’ level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self‐efficacy.

  4. 75 FR 63851 - Draft Friends Organizations Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...] Draft Friends Organizations Policy AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION... Service's mission through partnerships with Friends organizations (volunteer/advocate). Today, Friends organizations play a vital role in helping to fulfill the Service's mission of ``working with others, to...

  5. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Welcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Fermilab Friends for Science Education photo Fermilab Friends for Science Education supports innovative science education programs at Fermilab. Its mission is to: Enhance the quality of precollege science education in

  6. The Impact of Individual Attitudinal and Organisational Variables on Workplace Environmentally Friendly Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Manika, D; Wells, VK; Gregory-Smith, D; Gentry, M

    2015-01-01

    Although research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) has grown steadily, little research has focused on CSR at the individual level. In addition, research on the role of environmental friendly organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) within CSR initiatives is scarce. In response to this gap and recent calls for further research on both individual and organizational variables of employees' environmentally friendly, or green, behaviors, this article sheds light on the influence of thes...

  7. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Communication With Same-Sex and Other-Sex Friends in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian; Mehta, Clare; Alfonso, Jacqueline

    2017-09-01

    Objective We examined health-related communication between same-sex and other-sex friends and how communication was related to health-related behavior. Participants Data from 243 emerging adults attending college ( Mage = 18.96, SD = 1.43; 55.6% male) were analyzed. Methods Participants completed measures assessing the frequency in which they talked about and made plans to engage in exercise and nutrition-related behaviors with friends, as well as how often they engaged in exercise and nutrition-related behaviors. Results In general, participants reported more health-related communication with same-sex friends. Health-related communication with same-sex friends was positively related to health behaviors for men and women. However, the pattern of results differed for men and women depending on the topic of communication and the behavior being examined. Conclusion Our study extends the literature by examining the role of sex of friends in health communication and planning and how interactions with friends relate to health-promoting behavior.

  9. A fast algorithm for identifying friends-of-friends halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y.; Modi, C.

    2017-07-01

    We describe a simple and fast algorithm for identifying friends-of-friends features and prove its correctness. The algorithm avoids unnecessary expensive neighbor queries, uses minimal memory overhead, and rejects slowdown in high over-density regions. We define our algorithm formally based on pair enumeration, a problem that has been heavily studied in fast 2-point correlation codes and our reference implementation employs a dual KD-tree correlation function code. We construct features in a hierarchical tree structure, and use a splay operation to reduce the average cost of identifying the root of a feature from O [ log L ] to O [ 1 ] (L is the size of a feature) without additional memory costs. This reduces the overall time complexity of merging trees from O [ L log L ] to O [ L ] , reducing the number of operations per splay by orders of magnitude. We next introduce a pruning operation that skips merge operations between two fully self-connected KD-tree nodes. This improves the robustness of the algorithm, reducing the number of merge operations in high density peaks from O [δ2 ] to O [ δ ] . We show that for cosmological data set the algorithm eliminates more than half of merge operations for typically used linking lengths b ∼ 0 . 2 (relative to mean separation). Furthermore, our algorithm is extremely simple and easy to implement on top of an existing pair enumeration code, reusing the optimization effort that has been invested in fast correlation function codes.

  10. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children's Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucaides, Constantinos A; Tsangaridou, Niki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children ( N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child's questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between "general friend support," "friends' activity norms," and physical activity ( r = 0.343 and 0.333 resp., p friend support" and time spent outside ( r = 0.460, p parental and friends' influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children's physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends' influences may have a stronger impact on children's behaviors.

  11. How to Make Financial Aid "Freshman-Friendly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Susan L.; Johnson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Ultimately, making financial aid "freshman friendly" also makes financial aid "sophomore friendly," "junior friendly," and "senior friendly." Indiana University has in place an Office of Enrollment Management (OEM) model that includes focused financial aid packaging strategies complemented by unique contact…

  12. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  13. Remembering Irving I. Gottesman: Twin Research Colleague and Friend Extraordinaire/Research Studies: Face-Lift Technique Comparison in Identical Twins; Raising Preterm Twins; Fetal Behavior in Dichorionic Twin Pregnancies; Co-Bedding and Stress Reduction in Twins/Public Interest: Identical Co-Twins' Same Day Delivery; Teaching Twins in Bosnia; Twin Auctioneers; Sister, the Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-12-01

    Dr Irving I. Gottesman, a colleague, friend, and long-time member of the International Society of Twin Studies passed away on June 29, 2016. His contributions to twin research and some personal reflections are presented to honor both the man and the memory. This tribute is followed by short reviews of twin research concerning differences between cosmetic surgical techniques, the rearing of preterm twins, behavioral observations of dichorionic fetal twins, and the outcomes of co-bedding twins with reference to stress reduction. Interesting and informative articles in the media describe identical co-twins who delivered infants on the same day, educational policies regarding twins in Bosnia and the United Kingdom, unusual practices of twin auctioneers, and a theatrical production, Sister, featuring identical twins in the leading roles.

  14. Development of environmentally friendly briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleisa, K.; Lehmann, J.; Verfuss, F.; Simon, G.

    1994-01-01

    The DMT has developed an industrial briquette consisting of about 87% hardcoal, 7% molasses pulp and 6% hydration limestone which meets the requirements of the clean air authority as an environmentally friendly fuel for travelling grate boilers. In extensive tests in a 4.4 MW travelling grate boiler these briquettes with molasses and limestone additives proved to be particularly effective in terms of reducing sulphur dioxide emission in the flue gas. They exhibited good ignition and combustion behaviour as well as a considerable reduction in nitrogen oxide emission. In a large-scale test with 1000 t of briquettes in a 46.5 MW travelling grate furnace it proved possible to confirm the good combustion behaviour and the reduced emission of sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide in the flue gas. (orig.) [de

  15. Environmental friendly energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nik, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally, acceptable working fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA rising vegetable oils as base stocks and as innovative additive packages. While much of the research has been made in the field of alternative environmentally, friendly energy, transport media, the thermal stability of vegetable based stock is still a challenging area. This work concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. Oven and oil bath test methods were employed in this study. This paper tabled mineral and vegetable oil physical test results and presents thermal stability of oil blends. (Author)

  16. The role of gender and friends' gender on peer socialization of adolescent drinking: a prospective multilevel social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S

    2014-09-01

    Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend

  17. Eco-friendly Development Of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Gi Cheol; Park, Hun; Lee, Dong Jin; Ryu, Sang Hui

    1998-02-01

    This book reports eco-friendly development of industry, which has summary on bring up the issue and research way and system of research. It deals with current state of affairs on eco-friendly development of industry and the case of developed countries such as necessity and meaning of eco-friendly development industry, prospect and change of the tendency, environmental issue by field in Korea like the steel industry, nonferrous metal industry, auto industry, and cement industry and general policy for eco-friendly development of industry.

  18. The amazing bats: Friends, enemies or allies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats are a group of extraordinarily specialized vertebrates and are the only mammals capable of flying; their nocturnal habits have stigmatized them to such an extent that in the Hollywood film productions Count Dracula of the Carpathian Mountains was considered the first vampire man; even before Batman himself. In ecosystems, bats are actors with leading roles, 70% of them are insectivores, pollinators, or frugivorous and contribute to the regeneration of forests by disseminating seeds. Some are even fish hunters. Although their large population is mostly distributed in the tropics, they are cosmopolitan and are also found in the Northern Hemisphere. The population of these bats has been displaced in the South American tropics, due to, among many factors, illegal mining, pesticide spraying, indiscriminate deforestation to provide pasture for cattle, and the invasion of their habitats by humans (1.

  19. Effectiveness of the Friends for Life Program in Portuguese Schools: Study with a Sample of Highly Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa; Barros, Luísa; Barrett, P.

    2014-01-01

    The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive-behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a…

  20. Setting a good example: supervisors as work-life-friendly role models within the context of boundary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Anna R; Binnewies, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This multisource, multilevel study examined the importance of supervisors as work-life-friendly role models for employees' boundary management. Particularly, we tested whether supervisors' work-home segmentation behavior represents work-life-friendly role modeling for their employees. Furthermore, we tested whether work-life-friendly role modeling is positively related to employees' work-home segmentation behavior. Also, we examined whether work-life-friendly role modeling is positively related to employees' well-being in terms of feeling less exhausted and disengaged. In total, 237 employees and their 75 supervisors participated in our study. Results from hierarchical linear models revealed that supervisors who showed more segmentation behavior to separate work and home were more likely perceived as work-life-friendly role models. Employees with work-life-friendly role models were more likely to segment between work and home, and they felt less exhausted and disengaged. One may conclude that supervisors as work-life-friendly role models are highly important for employees' work-home segmentation behavior and gatekeepers to implement a work-life-friendly organizational culture. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Phil Friend julgustab riske võtma / Phil Friend ; interv. Harda Roosna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friend, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Suurbritannia koolitus- ja konsultatsioonifirma Churchill & Friend juhataja Phil Friend vastab küsimustele oma firma missiooni kohta Hiiumaal, puuetega inimeste elu erinevuste kohta Hiiumaal ja Suurbritannias. Vt. samas: Phil Friend julgustas tööandjaid puuetega inimesi tööle võtma

  2. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Programs Donors Board of Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education Office Search photo Fermilab Friends for Science Education, in partnership with Fermilab and area educators, designs

  3. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Contact Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Contact Us Science Education P.O Box 500, MS 777 Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (630) 840-3094 * fax: (630) 840-2500 E-mail : Membership Send all other communications to: Susan Dahl, President Fermilab Friends for Science Education Box

  4. Lactobacillus iners: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya I; Reid, Gregor; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Lebeer, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    The vaginal microbial community is typically characterized by abundant lactobacilli. Lactobacillus iners, a fairly recently detected species, is frequently present in the vaginal niche. However, the role of this species in vaginal health is unclear, since it can be detected in normal conditions as well as during vaginal dysbiosis, such as bacterial vaginosis, a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in bacterial diversity and lack of typical lactobacilli. Compared to other Lactobacillus species, L. iners has more complex nutritional requirements and a Gram-variable morphology. L. iners has an unusually small genome (ca. 1 Mbp), indicative of a symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle, in contrast to other lactobacilli that show niche flexibility and genomes of up to 3-4 Mbp. The presence of specific L. iners genes, such as those encoding iron-sulfur proteins and unique σ-factors, reflects a high degree of niche specification. The genome of L. iners strains also encodes inerolysin, a pore-forming toxin related to vaginolysin of Gardnerella vaginalis. Possibly, this organism may have clonal variants that in some cases promote a healthy vagina, and in other cases are associated with dysbiosis and disease. Future research should examine this friend or foe relationship with the host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Crossing Social Contexts: Relational Aggression between Siblings and Friends during Early and Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffacher, Kirstin; DeHart, Ganie B.

    2006-01-01

    Children often learn and apply behaviors in sibling interactions before they routinely use such behaviors in peer interactions. As part of a longitudinal study of relational aggression, 46 children were videotaped at home in semi-structured free play situations with siblings and with friends at age 4 and again at age 8. Observations revealed that…

  6. Rural adolescents' access to adolescent friendly health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly A; Randall, Brandy A; Brennan, Alison L; Anderson, Melinda K; Gross, Dean A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess rural North Dakota adolescents' experiences in accessing adolescent-friendly health services and to examine the relationship between rural adolescents' communication with health care providers and risk behaviors. Data are from the Rural Adolescent Health Survey (RAHS), an anonymous survey of 14- to 19-year-olds (n = 322) attending secondary schools in four frontier counties of North Dakota. Descriptive statistics were used to assess participants' access to adolescent-friendly health services characterized as accessible, acceptable, and appropriate. Logistic regressions were used to examine whether participant-reported risk behaviors predicted communication with health care providers about individual health risk behaviors. Rural adolescents reported high access to acceptable primary health care services but low levels of effective health care services. Participant report of engaging in high-risk behaviors was associated with having received information from health care providers about the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. These findings reveal missed opportunities for primary care providers in rural settings to provide fundamental health promotion to adolescents. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pals, problems, and personality: the moderating role of personality in the longitudinal association between adolescents' and best friends' delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-10-01

    We examined the potential moderating role of Block's personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) on the longitudinal associations between adolescents' and their best friends' delinquency. Across three annual waves, 497 Dutch adolescents (283 boys, M(Age) = 13 years at Wave 1) and their best friends reported on their delinquent behaviors. Adolescents' three personality types were obtained by latent class growth analysis on their annual reports on Big Five personality. A three-group cross-lagged panel analysis was performed on three waves of data. Delinquency of overcontrollers was predicted by their best friends' delinquency, whereas delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients was not. Delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients predicted their best friends' delinquency, but overcontrollers' delinquency did not. These findings suggest that personality may play an important role in adolescents' susceptibility to the influence of friends' delinquency, as well as in youths' ability to influence friends through their own delinquency. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Comparing sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's friends and parents as sources of support for sexual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly K; Morgan, Elizabeth M

    2009-08-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an inquiry about a time they went to friends and parents for support for a issue related to their sexuality. Responses indicated that the majority of participants had sought support from either a parent or a friend and that mothers and female friends were more likely involved than fathers or male friends, respectively. Sexual issues that participants reported discussing with parents and friends were inductively grouped into five categories: dating and romantic relationships, sexual behavior, sexual health, identity negotiation, and discrimination and violence. Issues that were discussed differed based on sexual orientation identity and the source of support (parent or friend); they did not differ by age. Participants generally perceived parents and friends' responses as helpful, though sexual-minority participants perceived both parents and friends' responses as less helpful than did heterosexual participants. Overall, results suggest both similarities and differences between sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends.

  9. Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Inger; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wahlstrøm, Åsa

    This report summarizes the findings of the work conducted within the project “Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings”, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The main goal of the project was to establish a knowledge and decision base for a Nordic innovation program that will promote...... the development and demonstration of low energy and climate friendly buildings. The innovation program should support a development that brings the Nordic countries to an international forefront with respect to business strongholds and market penetration of low energy and climate friendly buildings....

  10. Academic Achievement and Its Impact on Friend Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flashman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Academic achievement in adolescence is a key determinant of future educational and occupational success. Friends play an important role in the educational process. They provide support and resources and can both encourage and discourage academic achievement. As a result, the friends adolescents make may help to maintain and exacerbate inequality if friends are sorted on the basis of academic achievement. These observations prompt the question: How does academic achievement affect the friendship ties made? Using data from the high schools in the Add Health saturated sample, the author models network change using a stochastic actor-based Markov model for the co-evolution of networks and behavior. This model is carried out at the school level for each of the high schools included in the saturated sample. Results show that in the most typical American schools, similarity in academic achievement is an important and consistent predictor of friendship ties in a dynamic context. High-achieving students are more likely to extend ties to other high-achieving students, net of other sociodemographic, network, and proximity characteristics, while low-achieving students are more likely to extend ties to other low-achieving students. Adolescents respond to changes in academic achievement by changing their friendship ties.

  11. ECO-FRIENDLY SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Keywords: Silver nanoparticles; UV-Visible Spectrophotometry; Dynamic Light Scattering;. Transmission ... The eco- friendly protocol developed led to the synthesis ... lamp for. 5 minutes. (Omidiet al.,. 2014).Authentication of the formation of.

  12. Depression: Supporting a Family Member or Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed July 9, 2015. Helping someone with a mood disorder. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance. http://www.dbsalliance.org/site/PageServer?pagename=help_friends_family. Accessed July 9, 2015. Suicide warning signs. American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. https:// ...

  13. Environmentally friendly preparation of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book chapter summarizes the “state of the art” in the exploitation of various environmentally-friendly synthesis approaches, reaction precursors and conditions to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for a vast variety of purposes.

  14. Strengthening Youth Friendly Health Services through Expanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    safety, LARC uptake among youth is low. We evaluated the effect on contraceptive uptake of training youth-friendly service providers to counsel and provide all .... approach - service delivery limited to LARCs training for the YFS providers and ...

  15. Eco friendly expectations and limitations in daycare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Mia

    This presentation elaborates on expectations and limitations of eco-friendly pedagogical responses to the sustainability crisis. The pedagogical perspectives on eco-friendly responses originates from an action research project involving pedagogues in day care centers and teachers at a University ...... College in Denmark. As part of the project they were asked to explore, elaborate and develop new pedagogical actions and perspectives related to future relationships between human beings and our common nature......This presentation elaborates on expectations and limitations of eco-friendly pedagogical responses to the sustainability crisis. The pedagogical perspectives on eco-friendly responses originates from an action research project involving pedagogues in day care centers and teachers at a University...

  16. Pet Therapy: Man's Best Friend as Healer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... psychological and physiological health of critically ill patients. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 2010;29:211. Cangelosi PR, et al. Walking for therapy with man's best friend. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental ...

  17. Offering Spiritual Support for Family or Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you understand your spirituality when facing life-changing situations. Even within families, among friends and in faith communities, people’s spiritual beliefs and experiences may be very different. Be clear ...

  18. Influence of parents and friends on children's and adolescents' food intake and food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Elmo, Alison; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Roemmich, James N

    2011-01-01

    The influence of parents versus friends on youths' eating behavior has not been directly compared, and little is known about the developmental effects of social influences on their eating behavior. The objective was to compare the effects of mothers and friends on children's and adolescents' energy intake from sandwiches and from healthy and unhealthy snacks and dessert foods. Twenty-three children (ages 5-7 y) and 27 adolescents (ages 13-15 y) ate a meal with their mother on one occasion and with a same-sex friend on another occasion. Male and female children consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks when in the presence of their mothers than when in the company of their friends. Conversely, female adolescents consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks and more energy from healthy snacks when they were with their friends than when with their mothers. Food selection is differentially influenced by the source of social influence and the age and sex of the child. Parents may act as an inhibitory influence on unhealthy eating for younger children. Adolescent girls may try to convey a good impression of healthy eating when eating with same-sex friends, but the eating habits of teenage boys are not as influenced by the social context. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00875576.

  19. Awareness of treatment history in family and friends, and mental health care seeking propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, François L; Colman, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Many adults suffering from mental disorders never receive the care they need. The role of family and friends in overcoming mental health treatment barriers is poorly understood. We investigated the association between awareness of lifetime mental health treatment history in one's family or friends, and likelihood of having recently received mental health care for oneself. Using Canadian Community Health Survey 2012-Mental Health data, we defined care seekers as individuals who talked about mental health issues to at least one health professional in the past 12 months. Seekers were matched to non-seekers based on estimated care seeking propensity, and 1933 matched pairs were created. Reported awareness of lifetime treatment history in family and friends was compared between seekers and non-seekers. There were no differences in the distribution of any confounder of interest between seekers and non-seekers. 73% of seekers were aware of treatment history in family or friends, compared to only 56% of non-seekers (RR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2, 1.3). Awareness of treatment history in family members had nearly identical associations with care seeking as awareness of treatment history in friends. We have found a social clustering of mental health care seeking behavior; individuals who were aware of lifetime treatment history in family or friends were more likely to have recently sought care for themselves. These novel results are consistent with a social learning model of care seeking behavior, and could inform efforts to bridge the current mental health treatment gap.

  20. Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative: supporting vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in

  1. Nurses perceptions of a user friendly interface

    OpenAIRE

    Alshafai, Fatimah

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The successful implementation of clinical information systems depends to a large extent on its usability. Usability can be achieved by a strong focus on interface quality. With a focus on improving the quality of patient care, growing numbers of clinical information systems have been advertised as being "user-friendly". However, the term "user-friendly" may not be quite accurate and in some circumstances could be misleading. Within a clinical setting, an interface designed as ea...

  2. Smoking status of parents, siblings and friends: Predictors of regular smoking? Findings from a longitudinal twin-family study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between regular smoking behavior and the smoking behavior of parents, siblings and friends was investigated using data from the Netherlands Twin Register. Cross-sectional analyses of data of 3906 twins showed significant associations between smoking behavior of the participant and

  3. Environmentally-friendly practices in hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Mbasera

    2016-06-01

    Research purpose: To determine the environmentally-friendly practices in hotels in Zimbabwe and South Africa and establish the contribution that hotels are making towards mitigation of the negative environmental effects. Motivation for the study: Currently, the world is facing environmental issues, which include global climate change, ozone depletion, pollution, high consumption of resources and increasing amounts of solid waste. Hotels, as part of the tourism industry, exert a significant impact on the environment. While the extent and range of the impact that hotels exert on the environment suggest an urgent need to address this problem, the question that arises is whether hoteliers appreciate the need for environmentally-friendly initiatives in their establishments. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research was carried out in eight hotels that employ the strategy of the case study in the aforementioned countries. Main findings: Currently, no policies for green management exist, although some hotels do engage in some environmentally-friendly practices. Some hotel managers do not implement green management initiatives to mitigate the environmental problems emanating from their hotel operations. Practical and/or managerial implications: This indicates that a gap exists between managers’ awareness of appropriate environmentally-friendly practices for hotels, implying a need for training and increased awareness of green management. Contribution and/or value-add: The results could guide managers in the implementation of environmentally-friendly practices in an effort to mitigate environmental problems facing the present generation.

  4. Friends Like Me: Associations in Overweight/Obese Status among Adolescent Friends by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Friendship Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E; Kim, Sunkyung; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how interpersonal friend relationships are associated with obesity in young people, particularly with regard to how race/ethnicity, type of friendship, and sex affect the association between friends' and adolescents' weight status. This study examined associations in weight status among adolescents and their friends, exploring magnitudes of associations across friendship type, sex, and race/ethnicity. As part of EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), friend nominations and anthropometrics were obtained from adolescents (n = 2099: 54% female; 80% nonwhite; mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 years). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to test associations between adolescents' overweight/obese status and friends' (i.e., friend group, female friends, male friends, female best friends, and male best friends) overweight/obese status. Interactions by adolescent race/ethnicity were examined. The majority of significant associations were observed among white female adolescents' who had a 22-40% higher prevalence of overweight/obesity if their friends were overweight compared to white females whose friends were not overweight. In contrast, there were few significant differences for other adolescent female and male racial/ethnic groups for girls and boys. Results for friend groups and best friends were generally similar to one another. The association between friend and adolescent overweight/obese status depended on adolescents' sex, race/ethnicity, and friendship type. Given the similarities among friends, obesity interventions targeting youth, especially white females, should consider involving friends.

  5. "Friends" of Anglican Cathedrals: Norms and Values. Befriending, Friending or Misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Loyal supporters of Anglican cathedrals first subscribed to "Friends" associations in the late 1920s. Yet, in 1937, a journalist in "The Times" portrayed cathedrals as a "queer thing to be a friend of." Drawing on theories of friendship from a range of disciplines, and surveys of what has been proclaimed in the public…

  6. Gender Norms and Institutional Culture: The Family-Friendly versus the Father-Friendly University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the role that gender norms and expectations about parenting play in establishing the family-friendly versus the father-friendly university. Using interviews with 51 male faculty at three research universities, the article considers how faculty and administrators' actions perpetuate cultures that promote or hinder…

  7. Spillover of environment-friendly consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes empirical input to current reasoning about consumers' propensity to behave in an environmentally friendly way in different domains. Spe-cifically, we investigate whether environmentally friendly behaviours spread to more and more areas of the consumption pattern in a virtuous...... circle and whether it is a necessary prerequisite for a virtuous circle to emerge and to continue to work that the individual possesses certain general values or ethical norms. The data material is a three-wave panel study with a large random sample of Danish consumers. The data were analysed by means...... of structural equation modelling and other techniques. Cases of transfer of environment-friendly conduct between behavioural categories are found, but only in a few of the possible instances and only of a modest size. The panel analysis also identifies a few negative cross-lagged effects. Such effects may...

  8. The Importance of Friends in Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    often rehearsed, family memories that were old and rarely rehearsed, and school memories that were in between on both variables. This supports theories of friendship as the primary social context for adolescent development. Moreover, content analysis found friend memories to mention others more often......Relatedness is a complex issue and it has been argued that developmental perspectives should complement cross-cultural comparisons. We noticed that cross-cultural studies of autobiographical memories tend to focus on early childhood and thus family, leaving the role of friends and school less...... explored. Thus, we asked adolescent school-goers who still lived with their parents for a meaningful memory from each of the settings family, school, and friendship. In both samples analyzed so far (Norwegians, N=22, and Slovaks, N=40) participants chose friend memories that were recent and reportedly...

  9. [Fostering LGBT-friendly healthcare services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Han-Ting; Chen, Mu-Hong; Ku, Wen-Wei

    2015-02-01

    LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) patients suffer from stigma and discrimination when seeking healthcare. A large LGBT healthcare survey revealed that 56% of gay patients and 70% of transgender patients suffered some type of discrimination while seeking healthcare in 2014. The fostering of LGBT-friendly healthcare services is not just an advanced step of gender mainstreaming but also a fulfillment of health equality and equity. Additionally, LGBT-friendly healthcare services are expected to provide new opportunities for healthcare workers. Therefore, proactive government policies, education, research, and clinical practice should all encourage the development of these healthcare services. We look forward to a well-developed LGBT-friendly healthcare system in Taiwan.

  10. Physical activity in adolescents: analysis of the social influence of parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mendonça, Gerfeson; Farias Júnior, José Cazuza de

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the association between physical activity and social support from parents and friends on the physical activity level among adolescents. Data from 2,361 adolescents (56.6% females; mean age 16.4; SD = 1.2), from public and private high schools were analyzed. The physical activity level of the adolescents, parents, and friends were measured through a questionnaire. Parents' and friends' support and self-efficacy were measured using two previously tested scales. Data analysis was performed using the structural equation modeling in IBM® SPSS® Amos™ 20.0. Physical activity of friends was directly associated with physical activity level of adolescents. Physical activity of the father was associated with that of their sons, and the physical activity of mother was associated with that of their daughters. An indirect association was identified between the physical activity of parents and friends with physical activity level of the adolescents, mediated by social support. Social support was directly associated with physical activity in adolescents of both genders and indirectly mediated by self-efficacy. Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents' level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self-efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity in adolescents: analysis of the social influence of parents and friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanna Alexandra Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity and social support from parents and friends on the physical activity level among adolescents. METHODS: Data from 2,361 adolescents (56.6% females; mean age 16.4; SD = 1.2, from public and private high schools were analyzed. The physical activity level of the adolescents, parents, and friends were measured through a questionnaire. Parents' and friends' support and self-efficacy were measured using two previously tested scales. Data analysis was performed usingthe structural equation modeling in IBM(r SPSS(r AmosTM 20.0. RESULTS: Physical activity of friends was directly associated with physical activity level of adolescents. Physical activity of the father was associated with their sons, and the physical activity of mother was associated with their daughters. An indirect association was identified between the physical activity of parents and friends with physical activity level of the adolescents, mediated by social support. Social support was directly associated with physical activity in adolescents of both genders and indirectly mediated by self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Parents and friends have a social influence on adolescents' level of physical activity through the mechanism of behavior modeling or through social support, mediated by self-efficacy.

  12. Unequal Academic Achievement in High School: The Mediating Roles of Concerted Cultivation and Close Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Brian V.

    2016-01-01

    Building from the classic Wisconsin model of status attainment, this study examines whether a specific style of parenting, concerted cultivation, and a close friend's school-related attitudes and behaviors mediate the relationship between a family's socioeconomic status and their child's academic achievement in the United States. Using a recursive…

  13. Resisting Smoking when a Best Friend Smokes: Do Intrapersonal and Contextual Factors Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Go, Myung-Hyun; Pollard, Michael S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Kennedy, David P.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines individual differences in the tendency to initiate (N = 4,612) and escalate (N = 2,837) smoking when adolescents gain a best friend who smokes. Potential moderating factors include self-esteem, depression, problem behavior, school and family bonds, and household access to cigarettes. In addition to acquiring a…

  14. In Their Own Words: Adolescents Strategies to Prevent Friend's Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L.; Sheehan, Mary C.; Reveruzzi, Bianca N.

    2014-01-01

    Injury is a significant public health problem among youth. A primary cause of adolescent injury is risk-taking behavior, including alcohol use, interpersonal violence and road-related risks. A novel approach to prevention is building on friendships by encouraging adolescents to intervene into their friends' risk taking. Fifty-one early adolescents…

  15. Effects of an Educational and Support Program for Family and Friends of a Substance Abuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Platter, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Many family members are adversely affected by their loved ones drinking or drug problem. The aim of the present study was to explore changes in coping and enabling behaviors among family members who attended a community educational and psychosocial group for friends and family of a substance abuser, and to examine the concerns of these family…

  16. Older people's perspectives on an elderly-friendly hospital environment: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karki S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sushmita Karki,1 Dharma Nand Bhatta,1,2 Umesh Raj Aryal3 1Department of Public Health, Nobel College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Faculty of Medicine, Epidemiology Unit, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand; 3Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Many older people are vulnerable with multiple health problems and need of extensive care and support for quality of life. The main objective of this study was to explore the older people's perspectives on an "elderly-friendly" hospital. Methods: Hospital was stratified by four domains including government, semi-government, community, and private. We interviewed 33 hospitalized older patients and four hospital managers between June and December 2014 in Kathmandu, Nepal, using purposive sampling technique. We executed a qualitative content analysis step with extensive review of the interviews. Final name of the theme was given after the agreement between the research team and experts to improve trustworthiness. Elderly-friendly services, expectation from government and hospital, and health policy related to senior citizen were developed as main themes. Results: Most of the participants were satisfied with the behavior of health personnel. However, none of the health personnel were trained with geriatric health care. Elderly-friendly hospital guidelines and policy were not developed by any hospitals. Older people health card, advocacy for older people's health and benefit, and hospital environment were the common expectations of older patients. Government policy and budget constraint were the main obstacles to promote elderly-friendly health care services. Conclusion: Elderly-related health policies, physical environments of hospital, elderly-friendly health manpower, advocacy, and other facilities and benefits should be improved and developed. There are urgent needs to develop elderly-friendly hospital policies and guidelines that

  17. MyGeneFriends: A Social Network Linking Genes, Genetic Diseases, and Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allot, Alexis; Chennen, Kirsley; Nevers, Yannis; Poidevin, Laetitia; Kress, Arnaud; Ripp, Raymond; Thompson, Julie Dawn; Poch, Olivier; Lecompte, Odile

    2017-06-16

    The constant and massive increase of biological data offers unprecedented opportunities to decipher the function and evolution of genes and their roles in human diseases. However, the multiplicity of sources and flow of data mean that efficient access to useful information and knowledge production has become a major challenge. This challenge can be addressed by taking inspiration from Web 2.0 and particularly social networks, which are at the forefront of big data exploration and human-data interaction. MyGeneFriends is a Web platform inspired by social networks, devoted to genetic disease analysis, and organized around three types of proactive agents: genes, humans, and genetic diseases. The aim of this study was to improve exploration and exploitation of biological, postgenomic era big data. MyGeneFriends leverages conventions popularized by top social networks (Facebook, LinkedIn, etc), such as networks of friends, profile pages, friendship recommendations, affinity scores, news feeds, content recommendation, and data visualization. MyGeneFriends provides simple and intuitive interactions with data through evaluation and visualization of connections (friendships) between genes, humans, and diseases. The platform suggests new friends and publications and allows agents to follow the activity of their friends. It dynamically personalizes information depending on the user's specific interests and provides an efficient way to share information with collaborators. Furthermore, the user's behavior itself generates new information that constitutes an added value integrated in the network, which can be used to discover new connections between biological agents. We have developed MyGeneFriends, a Web platform leveraging conventions from popular social networks to redefine the relationship between humans and biological big data and improve human processing of biomedical data. MyGeneFriends is available at lbgi.fr/mygenefriends. ©Alexis Allot, Kirsley Chennen, Yannis

  18. Friend versus foe: Neural correlates of prosocial decisions for liked and disliked peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuders, Elisabeth; Klapwijk, Eduard T; Will, Geert-Jan; Güroğlu, Berna

    2018-02-01

    Although the majority of our social interactions are with people we know, few studies have investigated the neural correlates of sharing valuable resources with familiar others. Using an ecologically valid research paradigm, this functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of prosocial and selfish behavior in interactions with real-life friends and disliked peers in young adults. Participants (N = 27) distributed coins between themselves and another person, where they could make selfish choices that maximized their own gains or prosocial choices that maximized outcomes of the other. Participants were more prosocial toward friends and more selfish toward disliked peers. Individual prosociality levels toward friends were associated negatively with supplementary motor area and anterior insula activity. Further preliminary analyses showed that prosocial decisions involving friends were associated with heightened activity in the bilateral posterior temporoparietal junction, and selfish decisions involving disliked peers were associated with heightened superior temporal sulcus activity, which are brain regions consistently shown to be involved in mentalizing and perspective taking in prior studies. Further, activation of the putamen was observed during prosocial choices involving friends and selfish choices involving disliked peers. These findings provide insights into the modulation of neural processes that underlie prosocial behavior as a function of a positive or negative relationship with the interaction partner.

  19. Interactions with parents and friends among chronically ill children: examining social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzer, Michele; Umfress, Kris; Aljadeff, Gabriel; Ghai, Kanika; Zakowski, Sandra G

    2009-12-01

    Children with medical conditions often experience a combination of positive and negative social interactions with parents and friends. Adult research examining cross-domain buffering effects has documented that supportive social ties can make up for shortcomings in other social relationships. This study examined whether negative effects of strained relationships with loved ones can be buffered when children feel supported by individuals in different support networks (i.e., cross-domain buffering effects). Children with Type I diabetes (n = 56), chronic asthma (n = 54), and cystic fibrosis (n = 17) completed questionnaires during an outpatient hospital visit that assessed perceptions of support and strain from parents and friends, quality of life, self-concept, and emotional/behavioral difficulties. Parental strain was conceptualized as parental overprotection and parental rejection. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that friend support buffered the adverse effects of parental strain on child quality of life, self-concept, and emotional/behavioral difficulties. Interestingly, parental support did not buffer the negative effects of experiencing strained relationships with friends; only main effects on outcome were found. These findings partially support our hypotheses of cross-domain buffering. In this study, friendships were a protective factor for children who experienced strained relationships with parents. In contrast, although parent support had a direct impact on child outcome, it did not make up for feeling rejected by friends. Because close relationships are often strained during medical stressors, findings underscore the importance of promoting social connectedness in chronically ill children to maximize opportunities for experiencing positive social relationships.

  20. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Board Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Board Tools Testimonials Our Donors Board of Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education FFSE Scholarship Tools Google Drive Join Us/Renew Membership Forms: Online - Print Support Us Donation

  1. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | About Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us About Us national leader in precollege science education. From the first Summer Institute for Science Teachers held year over 37,000 students, and 2,500 teachers participated in programs through the Education Office

  2. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Support Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Support Us improving science (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education. Your donation allows us to Testimonials Our Donors Board of Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education

  3. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Calendar Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education Office Search Programs Calendar Join Us/Renew Membership Forms: Online - Print Support Us Donation Forms: Online - Print Tree of

  4. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Join Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Join Us improving science (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education. Your donation allows us to membership dues allow us to create new, innovative science education programs, making the best use of unique

  5. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Mission Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education Office Search Programs Calendar Join Us/Renew Membership Forms: Online - Print Support Us Donation Forms: Online - Print Tree of

  6. Political discussions with family and friends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Young people's engagement in political discussions with parents and friends represents a significant component of the political socialization process and can be seen as an activity where they learn some very basic democratic skills. Based on data from qualitative interviews and a questionnaire su...

  7. Higgs friends and counterfeits at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Patrick J.; Tucker-Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2011-01-01

    We consider the possibility of 'Higgs counterfeits' - scalars that can be produced with cross sections comparable to the SM Higgs, and which decay with identical relative observable branching ratios, but which are nonetheless not responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. We also consider a related scenario involving 'Higgs friends,' fields similarly produced through gg fusion processes, which would be discovered through diboson channels WW,ZZ,γγ, or even γZ, potentially with larger cross sections times branching ratios than for the Higgs. The discovery of either a Higgs friend or a Higgs counterfeit, rather than directly pointing towards the origin of the weak scale, would indicate the presence of new colored fields necessary for the sizable production cross section (and possibly new colorless but electroweakly charged states as well, in the case of the diboson decays of a Higgs friend). These particles could easily be confused for an ordinary Higgs, perhaps with an additional generation to explain the different cross section, and we emphasize the importance of vector boson fusion as a channel to distinguish a Higgs counterfeit from a true Higgs. Such fields would naturally be expected in scenarios with 'effective Z's,' where heavy states charged under the SM produce effective charges for SM fields under a new gauge force. We discuss the prospects for discovery of Higgs counterfeits, Higgs friends, and associated charged fields at the LHC.

  8. Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lective deprotection of functional groups is still a chal- lenge in synthetic organic chemistry especially in aque- ous medium. We report here an environment friendly efficient method for chemoselective deprotection of. ∗. For correspondence acetonides by simply heating in pure water at 90. ◦. C without using any catalyst and ...

  9. Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of Aloe Secundiflora Extract in Corrosion Control of Carbon Steel in Soft Water Media. ... The investigation was performed at different inhibitor concentrations under static and dynamic conditions using a Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE). The impedance and ...

  10. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 10. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems - Magnetic and ... Author Affiliations. S S Verma1. Deptartment of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology Longowal, District Sangrur, Punjab 148 106, India.

  11. Dyslexia Friendly Schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This article starts by examining the background to dyslexia support within the context of the National Literacy Strategy in the United Kingdom. It then critically discusses some of the perceived shortcomings of current support for children with dyslexia, and how this has led to the development of a "dyslexia friendly" schools movement in…

  12. Best friends' discussions of social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristina L; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2014-02-01

    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad members completed a self-report measure of friendship quality. Dyadic data analyses guided by the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that adolescent and friend reports of friendship qualities were related to the forms of reasoning used during discussion. Friends who both reported that they could resolve conflicts in a constructive way were more likely to use moral reasoning than friends who reported that their conflict resolution was poor or disagreed on the quality of their conflict resolution. The findings provide evidence for the important role that friendship interaction may play in adolescents' social and moral development.

  13. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  14. My Friend Is Talking about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español My Friend Is Talking About Suicide. What Should I Do? KidsHealth / For Teens / My ... sobre suicidio. ¿Qué debo hacer? Warning Signs of Suicide Everyone feels sad, depressed, or angry sometimes — especially ...

  15. A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis of Peer Influence, Peer Selection, and Smoking Behavior Among Adolescents in British Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Steglich, Christian; Sinclair, Philip; Holliday, Jo; Moore, Laurence; Sinclair, W

    Objective: Similarity in smoking behavior among adolescent friends could be caused by selection of friends on the basis of behavioral similarity, or by influence processes, where behavior is changed to be similar to that of friends. The main aim of the present study is to disentangle selection and

  16. School, Friends, and Substance Use: Gender Differences on the Influence of Attitudes Toward School and Close Friend Networks on Cannabis Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharakis, Nikola; Mason, Michael J; Mennis, Jeremy; Light, John; Rusby, Julie C; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian R; Way, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The school environment is extremely salient in young adolescents' lives. Adolescents who have unfavorable attitudes toward school and teachers are at elevated risk for dropping out of school and engaging in behavioral health risks. Peer network health-a summation of the positive and negative behaviors in which one's close friend group engages-may be one way by which attitudes toward school exert influence on youth substance use. Utilizing a sample of 248 primarily African-American young urban adolescents, we tested a moderated mediation model to determine if the indirect effect of attitude to school on cannabis involvement through peer network health was conditioned on gender. Attitude toward school measured at baseline was the predictor (X), peer network health measured at 6 months was the mediator (M), cannabis involvement (including use, offers to use, and refusals to use) measured at 24 months was the outcome (Y), and gender was the moderator (W). Results indicated that negative attitudes toward school were indirectly associated with increased cannabis involvement through peer network health. This relationship was not moderated by gender. Adolescents in our sample with negative attitudes toward school were more likely to receive more offers to use cannabis and to use cannabis more frequently through the perceived health behaviors of their close friends. Implications from these results point to opportunities to leverage the dynamic associations among school experiences, friends, and cannabis involvement, such as offers and use.

  17. Going green with eco-friendly dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, Bhagyalakshmi; Avinash, B S; Shivalinga, B M; Jyothikiran, S; Padmini, M N

    2013-07-01

    Eco-friendly dentistry is currently transforming the medical and dental field to decrease its affect on our natural environment and reduce the amount of waste being produced. Eco-friendly dentistry uses a sustainable approach to encourage dentists to implement new strategies to try and reduce the energy being consumed and the large amount of waste being produced by the industry. Many reasonable, practical and easy alternatives do exist which would reduce the environmental footprint of a dental office were it to follow the 'green' recommendations. Dentist should take a leading role in the society by implementing 'green' initiatives to lessen their impact on the environment. This article provides a series of 'green' recommendations that dentists around the world can implement to become a leading Stewards of the environment.

  18. Environment-friendly drilling operation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huaidong; Jing, Ning; Zhang, Yanna; Huang, Hongjun; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Under the circumstance that international safety and environmental standards being more and more stringent, drilling engineering is facing unprecedented challenges, the extensive traditional process flow is no longer accepted, the new safe and environment-friendly process is more suitable to the healthy development of the industry. In 2015, CNPCIC adopted environment-friendly drilling technology for the first time in the Chad region, ensured the safety of well control, at the same time increased the environmental protection measure, reduced the risk of environmental pollution what obtain the ratification from local government. This technology carries out recovery and disposal of crude oil, cuttings and mud without falling on the ground. The final products are used in road and well site construction, which realizes the reutilization of drilling waste, reduces the operating cost, and provides a strong technical support for cost-cutting and performance-increase of drilling engineering under low oil price.

  19. Creating an Asthma-Friendly School

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-08

    This podcast features real-life success stories of students with asthma who, thanks to their schools' implementation of asthma-friendly policies and programs, now have their asthma under control.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH).   Date Released: 5/20/2008.

  20. CAD Instructor Designs Eco-Friendly Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendau, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the options offered by big box stores--and wanting to save some money and go as green as possible--the author puts his design and construction skills to good use. In this article, he shares how he designed and built an eco-friendly shed. He says he is very pleased with the results of working with his own design, reducing waste,…

  1. The association between family and friend integration and physical activity: results from the NHIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Britta A; Strong, David; Linke, Sarah E

    2014-06-01

    Social integration predicts morbidity and mortality, but its relationships with specific health behaviors that could explain this relationship, such as physical activity, have not been established. Additionally, studies associating social integration with health have not distinguished between sources of social contact (family vs. friends), which could be differentially related to health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between social integration and physical activity and to explore differences in family and friend social integration. Data came from the 2001 wave of the National Health Interview Survey. Adult participants (N = 33,326) indicated levels of social integration by reporting whether they had seen and/or called friends and/or family in the past 2 weeks and also reported their weekly minutes of physical activity. Logistic regression was used to determine odds of meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines (≥ 150 min/week) and odds of inactivity (0 min/week) based on levels of social integration. Greater integration predicted higher odds of meeting PA guidelines and lower odds of inactivity after controlling for sociodemographic variables. This association was stronger and dose-dependent for integration with friends, whereas moderate family contact predicted greater activity than high levels of family contact. Those who are more socially integrated, particularly with friends rather than family, are also more physically active, which could partially explain the link between social integration and morbidity and mortality. Future studies examining this association should distinguish between sources of integration and explore why and how contact with friends vs. family is differentially associated with health behaviors.

  2. Dimensions of Peer Influences and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Aggression, Other Problem Behaviors and Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R

    2017-06-01

    Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.

  3. From Family to Friends: Does Witnessing Interparental Violence Affect Young Adults’ Relationships with Friends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Childhood exposure to violence in one’s family of origin has been closely linked to subsequent perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. There is, however, little research on the relationship between witnessing violence and subsequent peer violence. This study investigates the effects of witnessing interparental violence among Filipino young adults on their use and experience of psychological aggression with friends. Methods The data source for this study was the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Recent perpetration and victimization of friend psychological aggression among young adults ages 21–22 years was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and witnessing interparental violence during childhood was assessed through self-reports from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of witnessing interparental violence on subsequent use and experience of friend psychological aggression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results About 13% of females and 4% of males perpetrated psychological aggression towards close friends, and about 4% of females and males were victims. Fourteen percent of females and 3% of males experienced bidirectional psychological aggression. About 44% of females and 47% of males had, during childhood, witnessed their parents physically hurt one another. Witnessing maternal and reciprocal interparental violence during childhood significantly predicted bidirectional friend psychological aggression among males. Among females, witnessing interparental violence did not significantly predict involvement with friend psychological aggression. Conclusions Violence prevention programs should consider using family-centered interventions, and apply a gendered lens to their application. Further research on gender differences in friend aggression is recommended. PMID:23697789

  4. Constraints in the Adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Murali Krishnan

    2016-05-01

    Insect pest and diseases management, Lack of awareness of agro environmental problems and farmer’s attitude towards the Eco Friendly Conservation Practices are the major constraints in the adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices.The study suggests educational, extension & training strategies for fostering the adopted of ECO friendly Conservation Practices.

  5. How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What's in ... them? If so, what should you do? It can be hard to understand why a friend might ...

  6. More Colleges Are Adding Family-Friendly Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Results of a new survey of family-friendly benefits by the Center for the Education of Women at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor show that stopping the tenure clock has become the most common family-friendly benefit in higher education, following paid maternity leave. Other family-friendly policies that top the list in academe allow…

  7. Ethnic Differences among Friend Networks Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunsook; Hebert, Corie

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to broaden the understanding of friend relationships in older adults and the differences in those friend relationships among various ethnic groups. Secondary data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) was analyzed to test the hypothesis that Caucasian older adults have stronger friend networks than older…

  8. Maternal Affection Moderates Friend Influence on Schoolwork Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Donna; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated friend influence over adolescent schoolwork engagement in 160 same-sex friend dyads (94 female dyads and 66 male dyads). Participants were approximately 16 years of age at the outset. Each friend described his or her own schoolwork engagement, school burnout, and perceptions of maternal affection. The results revealed that…

  9. Best friends' interactions and substance use: The role of friend pressure and unsupervised co-deviancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakpinoglou, Florence; Poulin, François

    2017-10-01

    Best friends exert a substantial influence on rising alcohol and marijuana use during adolescence. Two mechanisms occurring within friendship - friend pressure and unsupervised co-deviancy - may partially capture the way friends influence one another. The current study aims to: (1) examine the psychometric properties of a new instrument designed to assess pressure from a youth's best friend and unsupervised co-deviancy; (2) investigate the relative contribution of these processes to alcohol and marijuana use; and (3) determine whether gender moderates these associations. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires completed by 294 Canadian youths (62% female) across two time points (ages 15-16). Principal component analysis yielded a two-factor solution corresponding to friend pressure and unsupervised co-deviancy. Logistic regressions subsequently showed that unsupervised co-deviancy was predictive of an increase in marijuana use one year later. Neither process predicted an increase in alcohol use. Results did not differ as a function of gender. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of friends on children's physical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Claire C; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2013-07-01

    We examined evidence for friendship influences on children's physical activity (PA) through systematic searches of online databases in May 2012. We identified 106 studies (25 qualitative) published in English since 2000 that analyzed indicators of friendship influences (e.g., communication about PA, friends' PA, and PA with friends) among persons younger than 19 years. Children's PA was positively associated with encouragement from friends (43 of 55 studies indicating a positive relationship), friends' own PA (30/35), and engagement with friends in PA (9/10). These findings are consistent with friends influencing PA, but most studies did not isolate influence from other factors that could explain similarity. Understanding friendship influences in childhood can facilitate the promotion of lifelong healthy habits. PA with friends should be considered in health promotion programs.

  11. Friend Effects and Racial Disparities in Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Flashman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in achievement are a persistent fact of the US educational system. An often cited but rarely directly studied explanation for these disparities is that adolescents from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are exposed to different peers and have different friends. In this article I identify the impact of friends on racial and ethnic achievement disparities. Using data from Add Health and an instrumental variable approach, I show that the achievement characteristics of youths’ friends drive friend effects; adolescents with friends with higher grades are more likely to increase their grades compared to those with lower-achieving friends. Although these effects do not differ across race/ethnicity, given differences in friendship patterns, if black and Latino adolescents had friends with the achievement characteristics of white students, the GPA gap would be 17 to 19 percent smaller. Although modest, this effect represents an important and often overlooked source of difference among black and Latino youth.

  12. Dermatology Depictions in Friends/ Descripciones dermatológicas en Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyler M White

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Health?related topics are frequently referenced on screen in movies and television. Friends was on?air for 10 seasonsand is one of the most watched television shows of all time. Dermatology was referenced more than any otherhealth?related topic throughout the series. Beliefs about attractiveness and the stigma of skin conditions are furtherpropagated in this program. Reviewing the depictions of dermatology in Friends will aid in understanding the public’sideas and stereotypes regarding skin and dermatologic diseases.

  13. How to win friends and influence people

    CERN Document Server

    Carnegie, Dale

    2010-01-01

    For more than sixty years the rock-solid, time-tested advice in this book has carried thousands of now famous people up the ladder of success in their business and personal lives. With more than fifteen million copies sold, How to Win Friends and Influence People is one of the best known motivational books in history, with proven advice for achieving success in life. You’ll learn: three fundamental techniques in handling people; six ways to make people like you; twelve ways to win people to you way of thinking; nine ways to change people without arousing resentment; and much, much more!

  14. A customer-friendly Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  15. Perceived approval of friends and parents as mediators of the relationship between self-determination and drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Neharika; Neighbors, Clayton; Logan, Diane; Lewis, Melissa A; Fossos, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Within the context of self-determination theory, individuals vary in the extent to which they are oriented toward autonomy and control. Previous research on the relationship between motivational orientations and drinking behavior among college students has suggested that students who are more autonomously oriented consume less alcohol whereas those who are more control oriented consume more alcohol. This research evaluated the extent to which these relationships are mediated by the perceived approval of friends and parents, both of which are important sources of potential influence on the behavior of college students. First-year students (N = 818, 58% female) who reported one or more heavy drinking episodes in the previous month completed online assessments of their drinking behavior, autonomous and controlled orientations, and perceptions of the approval of drinking (injunctive norms) by important others (friends and parents). The results suggested that controlled orientation was associated with greater alcohol use and that this association was mediated by perceptions of friends being more approving of problematic drinking. In contrast, autonomous orientation was associated with less alcohol use and this association was mediated by perceptions of friends being less supportive of problematic drinking. No support was found for perceptions of parents' approval as a mediator of the associations between either orientation and drinking. The findings highlight the importance of perceptions of friends' approval or disapproval of problematic drinking in understanding the relationship between self-determination and heavy drinking among college students.

  16. The Role of Self-Efficacy and Friend Support on Adolescent Vigorous Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2017-02-01

    Physical activity, including some form of vigorous activity, is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in young people. Self-efficacy and social support have been identified as key determinants of physical activity; however, the mechanism that reflects the interplay of these two factors is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to test social cognitive theory's notion that self-efficacy relates to intention that translates into behavior and to investigate whether friend support and self-efficacy synergize, interfere, or compensate for one another to predict vigorous physical activity in adolescents-a population at risk of rapid decreases in physical activity. A survey at two points in time was conducted in 226 students aged 12 to 16 years. In a conditional process analysis, friend support and physical activity self-efficacy were specified as interacting predictors of intention. The latter was specified as a mediator between self-efficacy and later vigorous physical activity, controlling for sex and age. Self-efficacy emerged as the dominant predictor of intention, followed by friend support, and an interaction between support and self-efficacy. In adolescents with high self-efficacy, intention was independent of support. In those with low self-efficacy, receiving friend support partly compensated for lack of self-efficacy. The effect of self-efficacy on vigorous physical activity was mediated by intention. Adolescent vigorous physical activity was indirectly predicted by self-efficacy via intention, and this mediation was further moderated by levels of friend support, indicating that friend support can partly buffer lack of self-efficacy.

  17. Older people’s perspectives on an elderly-friendly hospital environment: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Sushmita; Bhatta, Dharma Nand; Aryal, Umesh Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background Many older people are vulnerable with multiple health problems and need of extensive care and support for quality of life. The main objective of this study was to explore the older people’s perspectives on an “elderly-friendly” hospital. Methods Hospital was stratified by four domains including government, semi-government, community, and private. We interviewed 33 hospitalized older patients and four hospital managers between June and December 2014 in Kathmandu, Nepal, using purposive sampling technique. We executed a qualitative content analysis step with extensive review of the interviews. Final name of the theme was given after the agreement between the research team and experts to improve trustworthiness. Elderly-friendly services, expectation from government and hospital, and health policy related to senior citizen were developed as main themes. Results Most of the participants were satisfied with the behavior of health personnel. However, none of the health personnel were trained with geriatric health care. Elderly-friendly hospital guidelines and policy were not developed by any hospitals. Older people health card, advocacy for older people’s health and benefit, and hospital environment were the common expectations of older patients. Government policy and budget constraint were the main obstacles to promote elderly-friendly health care services. Conclusion Elderly-related health policies, physical environments of hospital, elderly-friendly health manpower, advocacy, and other facilities and benefits should be improved and developed. There are urgent needs to develop elderly-friendly hospital policies and guidelines that focus on older people’s health benefits and friendly services. PMID:26028980

  18. Changes in friends' and parental influences on cigarette smoking from early through late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Huang, Zhaoqing; Huh, Jimi; Pentz, Mary Ann; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the changes in friends' and parental influences on cigarette smoking across two developmentally distinct social environments for adolescents: junior high school and high school. Longitudinal data consisting of seven repeated measures following 1,001 adolescents from 7th to 12th grade was obtained from the Midwestern Prevention Project. A two-piece Growth Curve Model (GCM) was used to assess the growth trajectory of current cigarette use: one piece for the junior high school period, and the other for the high school period. Perceived friends' and parental cigarette use were each used as a time-varying covariate in separate GCMs. Effects of friends' and parental cigarette use remained significant on adolescent cigarette smoking across the two developmental periods. The magnitude of friends' effect was in general higher during junior high school than high school. The magnitude of the parental effect remained relatively stable between the two periods. However, decreasing trends in both effects were observed from 10th to 12th grade. Gender differences also emerged. Friends' and parental effects were greater for girls in their early high school years, whereas friends' effect decreased in magnitude among girls and increased among boys during high school. The transition from junior high school to high school represents an opportunity for interventions to counteract peer influence given that such influence appeared to be much weaker during this period. However, interventions should continue to target parents as their behavior remains influential through the end of high school. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Roll forming of eco-friendly stud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Y. T.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, T. H.; Sim, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    In order to manufacture an eco-friendly stud, the sheared pattern is designed by the Taguchi method and expanded by the side rolls. The seven geometrical shape of sheared pattern are considered in the structural and thermal analyses to select the best functional one in terms of the durability and fire resistance of dry wall. For optimizing the size of the sheared pattern chosen, the L9 orthogonal array and smaller-the-better characteristics of the Taguchi method are used. As the roll gap causes forming defects when the upper-and-lower roll type is adopted for expanding the sheared pattern, the side roll type is introduced. The stress and strain distributions obtained by the FEM simulation of roll-forming processes are utilized for the design of expanding process. The expanding process by side rolls shortens the length of expanding process and minimizes the cost of dies. Furthermore, the stud manufactured by expanding the sheared pattern of the web is an eco-friend because of the scrapless roll-forming process. In addition, compared to the conventionally roll-formed stud, the material cost is lessened about 13.6% and the weight is lightened about 15.5%.

  20. Creation of an Innovation-Friendly Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustinas Maceika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on identifying the methods useful for improving the process of creating an innovation ­friendly environment. For this purpose, conditions for innovation activity in industry were investigated, and the expert evaluation of the selected knowledge and the assessment of the importance of skills for the successful development of innovations were car­ ried out. The work referred to the analysis of the sources of scientific information, a sociological inquiry of the personnel of industrial enterprises, correlation analysis and expert evaluation. The study has found that for building the innovation ­friendly environment, knowledge of the psychology of creativity, personnel management, formation and implementation of the innova­ tion strategy, risk management, business development and sales organization are of a particular importance. Expert assessment has showed that abilities to work in a team, be an entrepreneur, use marketing tools, generate ideas and create new products play a crucial role in innovation development. A situation in industry companies has shown the currently existing various groups of employees with a different point of view on the surveyed parameter. Managers, workers, engineers and other staff have different opinions and knowledge, and therefore a well thought­out policy is required for wider innovative activities. The directives of such a policy must be available for everyone.

  1. Societal embedding of climate-friendly innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeyrynen, E.; Kivisaari, Sirkku; Lovio, R.

    2002-01-01

    This project assesses the possibilities of constructing a market for climate-friendly energy technologies by applying the process of 'societal embedding of innovations'. The term refers to an interactive learning process amongst three groups of key actors: producers, users and societal actors. Their co-operation shapes the innovation to fit the needs of the market and contributes to creation of conditions in which the innovation can be adopted. The project consists of two case studies: (1) Shaping of the ESCO energy service concept in Finnish municipalities and (2) Increasing the use of wood pellets in single-family houses. The case studies have illustrated the possibilities and limitations concerning the application of societal embedding in the energy sector. The project indicates that societal embedding may promote the implementation of climate-friendly energy technologies in at least three ways. Firstly, the process mobilises key actors to cooperation. This generates interactive learning on the problem and its solving. Market construction is forged ahead by mutual adaptation of the innovation and its environment. Secondly, this approach offers a tool to examine the societal quality of the innovation, a question related vitally to climate change. Thirdly, by producing new knowledge of the needs on the market this approach supports the societal actors in choosing different instruments to induce the intended transition to sustainability. (orig.)

  2. Show me your friends and I will tell you what type of person you are: how own profile, number of friends, and type of friends influence impression formation on social network sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment examines how far extraversion of the target (self-generated information), extraversion of the target's friends (friends-generated information), and number of friends (system-generated information) influence the perceived popularity, communal orientation, and social attractiveness of

  3. Friend suggestion in social network based on user log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviya, R.; Vanitha, M.; Sumaiya Thaseen, I.; Mangaiyarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    Simple friend recommendation algorithms such as similarity, popularity and social aspects is the basic requirement to be explored to methodically form high-performance social friend recommendation. Suggestion of friends is followed. No tags of character were followed. In the proposed system, we use an algorithm for network correlation-based social friend recommendation (NC-based SFR).It includes user activities like where one lives and works. A new friend recommendation method, based on network correlation, by considering the effect of different social roles. To model the correlation between different networks, we develop a method that aligns these networks through important feature selection. We consider by preserving the network structure for a more better recommendations so that it significantly improves the accuracy for better friend-recommendation.

  4. Sulfur dioxide: foe or friend for life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Bao; Cui, Hong; Liu, Xiaohong; Du, Jun-Bao

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a toxic gas and air pollutant. The toxic effects of SO₂ have been extensively studied. Oxidative damage due to SO₂ can occur in multiple organs. Inhaled SO₂ can also cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and gene mutations in mammals. However, SO₂ can also be generated from the sulfur-containing amino acid, L-cysteine. Recent studies have shown that SO₂ has a vasorelaxant effect, and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. SO₂ can also reduce lung injury and myocardial injury in rats. In addition, SO₂ reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, SO₂ exerts both detrimental and protective effects in mammals. Is SO₂ a foe or friend for life?.

  5. Future batteries will be environment-friendly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, efficient batteries have been built thanks to lithium. The use of nano-materials for the electrodes have recently opened the way to a cheaper and more environmental friendly technologies like lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) batteries instead of classical lithium-ion batteries. Nano-materials enable the batteries to use more efficiently the electrode and to store more energy. Sustainable development requires the elaboration of clean processes to produce nano-materials, it appears that micro-organisms might be able to produce nano-metric minerals through bio-mineralisation, it is particularly true for FePO 4 because iron and phosphates are abundant biological components. (A.C.)

  6. Forest harvesting systems friendly to the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waesterlund, I [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg (Sweden); Hassan, A E [North Carolina State Univ. Col. of Forest Resources, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The trend in forestry practices today in Europe and U.S.A. in general and Scandinavian countries in particular, is towards adapting systems based on landscape planning. Thus common harvesting equipment available on the market will have to be replaced to meet these tough demands. Environmentalists recommend that wood fiber should be harvested either by selection cutting or commercial thinning thus leaving the site undisturbed with no sign of machine traffic. This mandate will preserve ground water quality and assist in soil conservation. However, to meet the pulp and paper as well as saw mill industries demand for wood from this method of cutting (selection or commercial thinning), requires a thorough examination of our harvesting systems and techniques. This paper will discuss present and future machines that are friendly to the environment. Hypothetical designs and improvements of existing machine systems will be addressed and recommendations will be made for future research activities. 75 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  7. Forest harvesting systems friendly to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waesterlund, I.; Hassan, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The trend in forestry practices today in Europe and U.S.A. in general and Scandinavian countries in particular, is towards adapting systems based on landscape planning. Thus common harvesting equipment available on the market will have to be replaced to meet these tough demands. Environmentalists recommend that wood fiber should be harvested either by selection cutting or commercial thinning thus leaving the site undisturbed with no sign of machine traffic. This mandate will preserve ground water quality and assist in soil conservation. However, to meet the pulp and paper as well as saw mill industries demand for wood from this method of cutting (selection or commercial thinning), requires a thorough examination of our harvesting systems and techniques. This paper will discuss present and future machines that are friendly to the environment. Hypothetical designs and improvements of existing machine systems will be addressed and recommendations will be made for future research activities. 75 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  8. Autophagy in endometriosis: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lei; Li, Jun; Wei, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, estrogen-dependent disease and characterized by the implantation of endometrial glands and stroma deep and haphazardly into the outside the uterine cavity. It affects an estimated 10% of the female population of reproductive age and results in obvious reduction in health-related quality of life. Unfortunately, there is no a consistent theory for the etiology of endometriosis. Furthermore, the endometriosis is hard to diagnose in early stage and the treatment methods are limited. Importantly, emerging evidence has investigated that there is a close relationship between endometriosis and autophagy. However, autophagy is a friend or foe in endometriosis is puzzling, the precise mechanism underlying autophagy in endometriosis has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we provide an integrated view on the acquired findings of the connections between endometriosis and autophagy. We also discuss which may contribute to the abnormal level of autophagy in endometriosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Peers and parents: a comparison between neural activation when winning for friends and mothers in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Barbara R; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-03-01

    Rewards reliably elicit ventral striatum activity. More recently studies have shown that vicarious rewards elicit similar activation. Ventral striatum responses to rewards for self peak during adolescence. However, it is currently not well understood how ventral striatum responses to vicarious rewards develop. In this study, we test this question using behavioral and fMRI data. A total of 233 participants aged 9-26 years old played a gambling game in the scanner in which they could win or lose money for themselves, their best friend and mother. Participants rated how close they felt to their friend and mother and how much they liked winning for them. These ratings were positively correlated. On the neural level males showed higher responses to winning for a friend, but there were no age differences. In contrast, there was a quadratic effect of age when winning for mother, showing heightened ventral striatum activity in mid-adolescence. Furthermore, there was an interaction between age and sex; for females responses to winning for friends become stronger with age relative to winning for mothers. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for elevated ventral striatum responses for mothers in mid-adolescence, and a shift in ventral striatum responses towards peers in girls. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Barriers to climate-friendly food choices among young adults in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia; Vainio, Annukka

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how young adults in Finland perceive barriers to climate-friendly food choices and how these barriers are associated with their choices. The participants were 350 university students of the social and behavioral sciences who completed a questionnaire during class. The study found that the barriers the participants perceived as being the most relevant were different from those that were associated with the omission of climate-friendly food choices. High prices were perceived as the most relevant barrier, but were only weakly associated with the participants' food choices. Instead, habit and disbelief in the effects of food consumption on the climate were found to be the barriers that had the greatest association with climate-friendly choices. Moreover, women considered high prices and poor supply more important compared to men, whereas men considered disbelief and habit more important. In addition, vegetarians perceived fewer barriers than those who followed other diets. The findings increase our understanding of young adults' perceptions of barriers to climate-friendly food choices, as well as their effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do peers matter? A review of peer and/or friends' influence on physical activity among American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Fitzgerald, Noelle; Aherne, Cian

    2012-08-01

    This systematic review investigated the relationship between peer and/or friend variables and physical activity among adolescents by synthesising cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research conducted in the US. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify related articles published within the last 10 years and the articles reviewed included adolescents between 10 and 18 years. Studies reporting a measure of physical activity for adolescents and at least one potential peer and/or friend variable were included. Research demonstrated that peers and friends have an important role to play in the physical activity behavior of adolescents. Six processes were identified through which peers and/or friends may have an influence on physical activity including: peer and/or friend support, presence of peers and friends, peer norms, friendship quality and acceptance, peer crowds, and peer victimization. The theoretical significance of these results is assessed and the development of peer-related physical activity programs for adolescents is discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Baby-Friendly Practices Minimize Newborn Infants Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Diane; Curley, Ann L Cupp; Goldman, Martha

    2018-04-01

    It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations. This was a retrospective case-control study. Term newborn birth weight, neonatal weights days 0-2, feeding type, type of birth, and demographic information were collected for 1,000 births for the year before Baby-Friendly designation (2010) and 1,000 in 2013 (after designation). Ultimately 683 in the first group and 518 in the second met the inclusion criteria. Mean weight loss decreased day 0-2 for infants in all feeding types after the initiation of Baby-Friendly practices. There was a statistically significant effect of Baby-Friendly designation on weight loss for day 0-2 in exclusively breastfed infants (p Baby-Friendly practices were put in place. There was a decrease in mean weight loss day 0-2 regardless of feeding type after Baby-Friendly designation. Exclusive breast feeding increased in the presence of Baby-Friendly practices.

  13. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  14. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Bucksch, Jens; Nalecz, Hanna; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children

  15. Tipping points in adolescent adjustment: predicting social functioning from adolescents' conflict with parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-10-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents' experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents' experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semistructured discussions about areas of parent-adolescent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents' social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A classification of growth friendly spine implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, David L; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Flynn, John M; Myung, Karen S; Sponseller, Paul D; Vitale, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Various types of spinal implants have been used with the objective of minimizing spinal deformities while maximizing the spine and thoracic growth in a growing child with a spinal deformity. The aim of this study was to describe a classification system of growth friendly spinal implants to allow researchers and clinicians to have a common language and facilitate comparative studies. Growth friendly spinal implant systems fall into 3 categories based upon the forces of correction the implants exert on the spine, which are as follows: Distraction-based systems correct spinal deformities by mechanically applying a distractive force across a deformed segment with anchors at the top and bottom of the implants, which commonly attach to the spine, rib, and/or the pelvis. The present examples of distraction-based implants are spine-based or rib-based growing rods, vertical expandable titanium rib prosthesis, and remotely expandable devices. Compression-based systems correct spinal deformities with a compressive force applied to the convexity of the curve causing convex growth inhibition. This compressive force may be generated both mechanically at the time of implantation, as well as over time resulting from longitudinal growth of vertebral endplates hindered by the spinal implants. Examples of compression-based systems are vertebral staples and tethers. Guided growth systems correct spinal deformity by anchoring multiple vertebrae (usually including the apical vertebrae) to rods with mechanical forces including translation at the time of the initial implant. The majority of the anchors are not rigidly attached to the rods, thus permitting longitudinal growth over time as the anchors slide over the rods. Examples of guided growth systems include the Luque trolley and Shilla. Each system has its benefits and shortcomings. Knowledge of the fundamental principles upon which these systems are based may aid the clinician to choose an appropriate treatment for patients. Having a

  17. Child friendly colors in a pediatric dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheshwari, N; Asokan, Sharath; Kumaran, Thanga S

    2013-01-01

    The child's perception of the dental environment is a significant factor causing dental anxiety. If the color of the dental environment can have a positive impact on the child's behavior, it is possible that those colors may add to the comfort of a child, thus reducing dental anxiety. To evaluate the association between color and emotions of children in a pediatric dental set-up. A total of 300 children aged 6-12 years were divided into 2 groups: Younger children (6-9 years, n = 156) and older children (9-12 years, n = 144). All the children were asked to shade two cartoon faces representing happiness and fear with their most preferred color. For the positive emotion, 44% (n = 132) of the children preferred yellow, followed by blue 32.67% (n = 98). For negative emotion, 56.67% (n = 170) of the children preferred black and 42.67% (n = 128) preferred red. Association between color and emotion was highly significant (P color research to dental anxiety in children visiting a dental clinic. The use of child friendly colors like yellow and blue in the dental work place could enhance a positive dental attitude in the child's mind.

  18. Women-friendly Support Services and Work Performance: The Role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study titled 'Women-friendly Support Services (WFFS) and Work Performance: The role of Marital Status', investigated the role of marital status in the work performance of female employees who are beneficiaries of Women friendly Support Services in work organizations. The study's participants consisted of a total of ...

  19. A Forever Friend%永远的朋友

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A friend walk in when the rest of the world walks out. Sometimes in life, You find a special friend; Someone who changes your life just by being part of it. Someone who makes you laugh until you can't stop; Someone who makes you believe that there really is good in the world.

  20. The Impact of Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence on Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Riger, Stephanie; Ullman, Sarah E

    2016-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects people connected to survivors as well as survivors themselves. Despite this, we do not have measures assessing IPV's impact on others. The Impact on Friends measure was developed to understand the impact of disclosure of sexual assault (SA) on friends of survivors. In the present study, the Impact on Friends measure was modified to apply to IPV and administered to two separate online samples. Exploratory factor analysis in one sample (U.S.-based participants) revealed a very similar factor structure to the original Impact on Friends measure, consisting of Emotional Distress, Validation, and Confusion. This factor solution was then applied to the next sample (mostly Indian participants), resulting in an adequate model fit. The Impact on Friends-IPV measure has adequate reliability. One of its factors, Emotional Distress, is related to increased depression and post-traumatic distress disorder symptoms of friends, but only in the U.S. These findings suggest that even though the same dimensions have been found in both a U.S. and an Indian sample, how disclosure of IPV on friends relates to psychological symptoms may differ. This study suggest that there is at least some overlap in the experiences of friends of IPV and SA survivors, but that certain dimensions of the measure may have different relationships to other phenomena in different cultures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Friends' Organizations: The Supportive Element Essential to Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progar, Dorothy

    Reviewed are the history and public relations, financial and service roles of lay "Friends of the Library" groups. Programs and techniques useful in the pursuit of these roles are suggested. Guidelines for a constitution, fee schedule, and administrative structure plus a bibliography give potential friends organizations help in…

  2. Friends and Family Interview : Measurement invariance across Belgium and Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stievenart, M.; Casonato, M.; Muntean, A.; Van de Schoot, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Friends and Family Interview (FFI; Steele & Steele, 2005 Steele, H. and Steele, M. 2005. The construct of coherence as an indicator of attachment security in middle childhood: The Friends and Family Interview, New York, NY: Guilford Press. ), a semi-structured interview assessing attachment

  3. "Friending" Professors, Parents and Bosses: A Facebook Connection Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Katherine A.; Peluchette, Joy V.

    2011-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Facebook has led some educators to ponder what role social networking might have in education. The authors examined student reactions to friend requests from people outside their regular network of friends including professors, parents, and employers. We found students have the most positive reactions to friend…

  4. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial effects of eco-friendly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize and characterize eco-friendly gold nanorods (Au-NRs) and to assess their effects against two bacterial strains. Methods: Synthesis of eco-friendly gold nanorods was done from an aqueous solution of chloroauric acid and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide by mixing Olea europaea fruit and Acacia ...

  5. Patients as friends -awkward or advantageous? | Moosa | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural General Practitioners often find themselves in a small community having patients as friends. This can lead to difficulty in the relationship. This is a reflection on family friends where I missed the youngest child's diagnosis of myoclonic epilepsy in the social context and which led to a crisis in the relationship. This led me ...

  6. College Men's Involvement in Friends with Benefits Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Spencer B.; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D.

    2016-01-01

    Friends with benefits relationships (FWBRs) occur when two friends who are not in a committed romantic relationship engage in ongoing sexual activity (i.e., oral sex and/or intercourse) over a period of time. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic and psychosocial characteristics of college men involved in FWBRs (N = 407) using s…

  7. Maria Sklodowska-Curie - scientist, friend, manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavchev, A.

    2009-01-01

    Great names in science represent an inexhaustible source and richness of inspiration, satisfaction and consolation, a moving and victorious force. Throughout her exemplifying life, Maria Sklodowska remained modest but with a keen sense of humor, of an outstanding style, a mine of knowledge and experience, of innovative ideas and a rich inner life. Full of love, of passion to give and to share, of natural optimism, mixed with a light melancholy, so typical for sages. She vehemently defended the love of scientific research, of the spirit of adventure and entrepreneurship and fought for international culture, for the protection of personality and talent. Maria Sklodowska left her passion to science, her dedication to work including education and training of young people, her passionate adherence to her family, her belief in her friends, her pure and profound humanity and warmth! The paper should be a homage to her, an appreciation of her work over the years, but not less a correspondence, a conversation with her! On the other hand, the present solemn occasion resuscitates the personalities of Maria and Pierre Curie and their work, in particular of Maria Sklodowska in her own native land! In this manner, it truly contributes to her immortality!

  8. The Schistosoma Granuloma: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hams, Emily; Aviello, Gabriella; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of man with Schistosoma species of trematode parasite causes marked chronic morbidity. Individuals that become infected with Schistosomes may develop a spectrum of pathology ranging from mild cercarial dermatitis to severe tissue inflammation, in particular within the liver and intestines, which can lead to life threatening hepatosplenomegaly. It is well established that the etiopathology during schistosomiasis is primarily due to an excessive or unregulated inflammatory response to the parasite, in particular to eggs that become trapped in various tissue. The eggs forms the foci of a classical type 2 granulomatous inflammation, characterized by an eosinophil-rich, CD4+ T helper (Th) 2 cell dominated infiltrate with additional infiltration of alternatively activated macrophages (M2). Indeed the sequela of the type 2 perioval granuloma is marked fibroblast infiltration and development of fibrosis. Paradoxically, while the granuloma is the cause of pathology it also can afford some protection, whereby the granuloma minimizes collateral tissue damage in the liver and intestines. Furthermore, the parasite is exquisitely reliant on the host to mount a granulomatous reaction to the eggs as this inflammatory response facilitates the successful excretion of the eggs from the host. In this focused review we will address the conundrum of the S. mansoni granuloma acting as both friend and foe in inflammation during infection. PMID:23596444

  9. STAT1 in cancer: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhaoyong

    2017-08-01

    The first STAT family member, STAT1, is an essential component of interferon (IFN)-signaling, which mediates several cellular functions in response to stimulation by cytokines, growth factors, and hormones, such as the IFNs and IL-6. The role and significance of STAT1 in cancer biology have been studied for a decade. The majority of evidence shows that activating STAT1 plays a tumor suppressor role in cancer cells. Nevertheless, results from some experiments and clinical studies suggest that STAT1 also exerts tumor promoter effects under specific conditions. In some malignant phenotypes, STAT1 can function either as an oncoprotein or tumor suppressor in the same cell type, depending on the specific genetic background. Thus, the function of STAT1 in cancer biology remains a mystery. In this review, we discuss both the "friend" and "foe" features of STAT1 by summarizing its tumor suppressor or oncogenic functions and mechanisms. To explain how STAT1 may mediate its tumor suppressor effects, we discuss several possible mechanisms, one of which is linked to the role of STAT1β, an isoform of STAT1.

  10. COMPOSITE FRIEND SISAL / POLYESTER TREATED IN SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayna K. Dionisio Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of composites in manufacturing equipment and products is taking a very important space in the industry in general. Moreover these materials have unique characteristics when analyzed separately from constituents who are part of them. However it is know that cares must be taken in their manufacture, as the use of appropriate process and the composition of each element, in addition to adherence fiber / matrix, which is a major factor in obtaining of the final mechanical strength of the product. One should also take into account whether the composites are environmentally friendly. For this reason, in this work, a composite partially ecological was made, using as reinforcement, a sisal woven and, as matrix, the polyester resin. Seeking to improve the adherence fiber / matrix, a treatment in sisal woven was performed with aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH at a concentration of 3%. The composite subjected to this treatment presented, in bending test, a better mechanical performance, with an increase of 27% in the flexion strength and of 54% in maximum strain, but there was a reduction of about 15% in its flexural modulus.

  11. The chemical industry - friend to the environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    ''The Chemical Industry - Friend to the Environment?'' was a symposium organised by the North East Region committee of the Industrial Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry. This volume contains typescripts from all the lectures given at the symposium. The general public appreciate the material comforts the Chemical Industry provides, for example textiles, ceramics, steel, speciality chemicals, drugs, prosthetics etc. However, for many their comfort is spoiled by the chemical poisoning of the environment through slag heaps, beaches and countryside littered with non-biodegradable unsightly plastic containers, poor air quality through NO x , CO 2 and chlorofluorocarbon emissions, and of course, nuclear waste. The occasional spillage of hazardous chemicals through road, rail and sea accidents do nothing to improve the Industry's image. The majority of these topics were discussed, though no one presumed to know how to remove the problems entirely but many suggestions were put forward as to how this might be achieved. Of the 13 papers presented three were specifically concerned with recycling of plastics, 9 with the environmental impacts of chemicals and one, which is indexed separately, was concerned with radioactive discharges into the environment from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. (Author)

  12. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  13. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  14. Ecological-friendly pigments from fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Teixeira, Maria F S; De Conti, Roseli; Esposito, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    The dyestuff industry is suffering from the increases in costs of feedstock and energy for dye synthesis, and they are under increasing pressure to minimize the damage to the environment. The industries are continuously looking for cheaper, more environmentally friendly routes to existing dyes. The aim of this minireview is to discuss the most important advances in the fungal pigment area and its interest in biotechnological applications. Characteristic pigments are produced by a wide variety of fungi and the chemical composition of natural dyes are described. These pigments exhibit several biological activities besides cytotoxicity. The synthetic pigments authorized by the EC and in USA and the natural pigments available in the world market are discussed. The obstacle to the exploitation of new natural pigments sources is the food legislation, requesting costly toxicological research, manufacturing costs, and acceptance by consumers. The dislike for novel ingredients is likely to be the biggest impediment for expansion of the pigment list in the near future. If the necessary toxicological testing and the comparison with accepted pigments are made, the fungal pigments, could be acceptable by the current consumer. The potentiality of pigment production in Brazil is possible due to tremendous Amazonian region biodiversity.

  15. The immunodepressive effect of Friend virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracott, B.N.; Wedderburn, N.; Doenhoff, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Splenic immune responses having varying dependence on accessory cell co-operation have been studied after infection of mice with Friend virus. Infection had no effect on cell proliferation or antibody production in cultures stimulated with E.coli lipopolysaccharide. The response in vivo to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide was depressed only moderately. The response to sheep red blood cells was depressed severely both in vivo and in vitro. Depression in vitro was greatly reduced by co-stimulation with E.coli lipopolysaccharide. Depletion of potential suppressor lymphocyte populations by irradiation or adult thymectomy did not ameliorate depression of responses to sheep red blood cells or pneumococcal polysaccharide. Responses after adult thymectomy plus irradiation were not affected by the virus. Although it is known that macrophage and helper T-lymphocyte co-operation are not themselves impaired by infection, these results suggest that there is a direct relationship between severity of immune depression and dependence on co-operation. Implications for the action of the virus are discussed. (author)

  16. The Past Is Present: Representations of Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners Predict Subsequent Romantic Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; M age  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. The more friends, the less political talk? Predictors of Facebook discussions among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, S Mo; Lee, Hoon; Park, Yong Jin

    2014-05-01

    Although previous research has indicated that Facebook users, especially young adults, can cultivate their civic values by talking about public matters with their Facebook friends, little research has examined the predictors of political discussion on Facebook. Using survey data from 442 college students in the United States, this study finds that individual characteristics and network size influence college students' expressive behavior on Facebook related to two controversial topics: gay rights issues and politics. In line with previous studies about offline political discussion, the results show that conflict avoidance and ambivalence about target issues are negatively associated with Facebook discussions. Perhaps the most interesting finding is that users who have a large number of Facebook friends are less likely to talk about politics and gay rights issues on Facebook despite having access to increasing human and information resources. Theoretical implications of these findings and future directions are addressed.

  18. Racing with friends: Resistance to peer influence, gist and specific risk beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirman, Jessica H; Curry, Allison E

    2016-11-01

    Studies assessing young drivers' risk appraisals with their driving behavior have shown both positive and inverse associations, possibly due to differences in survey items that cue gist appraisals about risk (i.e., beliefs that are focused on meaning) or specific appraisals (i.e., beliefs that are focused on discrete instances). Prior research has indicated that gist-based reasoning is protective against engaging in risk behavior and that use of gist appraisals increases with development. Additionally, although much of adolescents' risk-taking occurs in groups, almost no research examines how adolescents' resistance to peer influence may relate to their specific and gist beliefs about socially-bound risk behavior, as well as their future engagement in such behavior. One hundred and thirty-two adolescent drivers participated in a prospective self-report study on racing behavior. Surveys measured specific and gist risk appraisals, resistance to peer influence, and racing behavior at two time points three months apart. We hypothesized that stronger specific appraisals would be associated with greater likelihood of racing, and stronger gist appraisals would be protective. Further, we hypothesized that resistance to peer influence would be positively associated with gist appraisals and negatively associated with specific risk appraisals; and would also be inversely associate with racing. Specific risk appraisals and gist appraisals were predictive of racing behavior as hypothesized. Resistance to peer influence did not predict racing, but was associated with each type of risk appraisal as predicted at Time 1, although the association between specific risk and resistance to peer influence was non-significant at the second time point. Gist beliefs and the ability to resist influence from friends might be indicative of an underlying strength of one's own beliefs about the self as a non-risk taking person who stands up for his or her beliefs, which is protective against

  19. Friends- ohjelman arviointia : Mitä nuoret pohtivat Friends- ohjelmasta ja tunnetaidoista?

    OpenAIRE

    Santala, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on arvioida Friends- ohjelmaa kohderyhmänsä näkökulmasta. Kohderyhmä tarkoittaa tässä tapauksessa nuoria, jotka ovat osallistuneet ohjelmaan. Arviointi tapahtui kerätyn palautteen avulla, ja palautteenantoon osallistui yhteensä kuusi luokkaa: kolme 8.luokkaa Helsingissä sijaitsevassa koulussa ja Espoossa sijaitsevassa koulussa palautteen antoi kaksi 7.luokkaa ja yksi 9.luokka. Yhteensä 91 oppilasta osallistui palautteen antoon. Palaute kerättiin kyselynä ja ryhmäh...

  20. Site-Specific, Climate-Friendly Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. J.; Brooks, E. S.; Eitel, J.; Huggins, D. R.; Painter, K.; Rupp, R.; Smith, J. L.; Stockle, C.; Vierling, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    Of the four most important atmospheric greenhouse gasses (GHG) enriched through human activities, only nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions are due primarily to agriculture. However, reductions in the application of synthetic N fertilizers could have significant negative consequences for a growing world population given the crucial role that these fertilizers have played in cereal yield increases since WWII. Increasing N use efficiency (NUE) through precision management of agricultural N in space and time will therefore play a central role in the reduction of agricultural N2O emissions. Precision N management requires a greater understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of factors supporting N management decisions such as crop yield, water and N availability, utilization and losses. We present an overview of a large, collaborative, multi-disciplinary project designed to improve our basic understanding of nitrogen (N), carbon (C) and water (H2O) spatio-temporal dynamics for wheat-based cropping systems on complex landscapes, and develop management tools to optimize water- and nitrogen-use efficiency for these systems and landscapes. Major components of this project include: (a) cropping systems experiments addressing nitrogen application rate and seeding density for different landscape positions; (b) GHG flux experiments and monitoring; (c) soil microbial genetics and stable isotope analyses to elucidate biochemical pathways for N2O production; (d) proximal soil sensing for construction of detailed soil maps; (e) LiDAR and optical remote sensing for crop growth monitoring; (f) hydrologic experiments, monitoring, and modeling; (g) refining the CropSyst simulation model to estimate biophysical processes and GHG emissions under a variety of management and climatic scenarios; and (h) linking farm-scale enterprise budgets to simulation modeling in order to provide growers with economically viable site-specific climate-friendly farming guidance.

  1. Hypothetical conflict situations with friends and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with age and sex differences in preferred strategies of conflict resolution in friendship and peer relationships. The study was conducted on the sample of 286 adolescents. Conflict resolution strategies have been investigated by the method of hypothetical conflict situations. For the purposes of this research, we have created an instrument consisting of 20 hypothetical situations, with the following subjects of conflict: breaking the agreement, non-compliance with opinion differences, provocations, dishonesty and stubbornness. Conflict resolution strategies we examined were giving in, withdrawal, competition and problem solving. The results have shown that problem solving is the dominant strategy of adolescents in conflict with friends, while in peer conflicts they more often opt for competition. Age differences are reflected in the fact that older adolescents are more likely to choose problem solving than younger, whereas younger adolescents are more likely to choose a retreat (withdrawal strategy than older. Girls are more prone to choosing problem solving than boys, who, on the other hand, tend to withdraw more than girls. Also, gender of the other person in the conflict is proved to be important - in conflict with male peers, adolescents choose competition to a greater extent and withdraw to a minor extent, compared to when they are in conflict with female peers. The results have practical implications as well. In programs for teaching constructive conflict resolution that are designed for younger adolescents there should be more emphasis on empowerment and training for assertive behaviour. In addition, when teaching about constructive conflict resolution strategies, it is important to consider the gender of adolescents as well as the gender of the person with whom they are in conflict.

  2. Gratitude for Help among Adult Friends and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rotkirch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80 who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  3. Gratitude for help among adult friends and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkirch, Anna; Lyons, Minna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Jokela, Markus

    2014-07-06

    Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80) who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i) differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii) how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  4. Friends, family and social belonging as we age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Aims: This study investigated if perceptions of social belonging in late adulthood are differentiated by the quality of family and friend relationships. Method:  The study consisted of two phases.  In Phase 1, 260 university staff and students, aged 18 to 75, completed an online survey investigating the quality of family and friend relationships and their association with social belonging.  In Phase 2, 88 older adults completed a refined print version of the survey.   Results:  Multiple regression was used to analyse the predictive ability of family and friend relationships on social belonging. In Phase 1, significant associations were found between both family and friend relationships and social belonging, with friendship yielding the strongest relationship.  Interestingly, in Phase 2 the association between quality of family and friend relationships and social belonging was mediated by age. Those aged 65 to 74 reported a significant relationship between friends and social belonging, which contrasted with those aged over 75.  A significant association between social belonging and family relationships was also found for the entire cohort aged over 65, while high quality friend relationships enhanced social belonging when family relationships were not strong. Conclusions: These results are tentative, but suggest that future research should consider the role that both friendships and family play in promoting social belonging in older adults.

  5. Parental influences on memories of parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Franca; Bonechi, Alice; Peterson, Carole; Smorti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the role parent-child relationship quality has on two types of memories, those of parents and those of friends. Participants were 198 Italian university students who recalled memories during 4 separate timed memory-fluency tasks about their preschool, elementary school, middle school, high school and university years. Half were instructed to recall memories involving parents and the remainder memories involving friends. Moreover, parent-child relationships were assessed by the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; W. Furman & D. Buhrmester, 1985) and Adolescents' Report of Parental Monitoring (D. M. Capaldi & G. R. Patterson, 1989). Results showed that men with positive parent-son relationships had more memories of parents and more affectively positive memories of friends, supporting a consistency model positing similarity between parent-child relationships and memories of friends. Women with positive parental relationship quality had more affectively positive memories of parents but for friends, positive relationship quality only predicted positive memories when young. At older ages, especially middle school-aged children, negative parent-daughter relationships predicted more positive memories of friends, supporting a compensatory model. The gender of parent also mattered, with fathers having a more influential role on affect for memories of friends.

  6. Bug City: Crickets, Grasshoppers & Friends [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic…

  7. The best friendships of aggressive boys: relationship quality, conflict management, and rule-breaking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Catherine L; Coie, John D

    2004-05-01

    The current study examined the best friendships of aggressive and nonaggressive boys (N = 96 boys, 48 dyads, mean age = 10.6 years). Friends completed self-report measures of friendship quality, and their interactions were observed in situations that required conflict management and provided opportunities for rule-breaking behavior. Although there were no differences in boys' self-reports of friendship quality, observers rated nonaggressive boys and their friends as showing greater positive engagement, on-task behavior, and reciprocity in their interactions compared with aggressive boys and their friends. Aggressive boys and their friends provided more enticement for rule violations and engaged in more rule-breaking behavior than did nonaggressive boys and their friends. Also, the intensity of negative affect in observed conflicts between aggressive boys and their friends was greater than that between nonaggressive boys and their friends. The findings suggest that friendships may provide different developmental contexts for aggressive and nonaggressive boys. Copyright 2003 Elsevier, Inc.

  8. The Impact of Family Friendly Workplaces on Satisfaction and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Lauber, Verena; Storck, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides novel evidence on the effect of family-friendly firm policies on satisfaction and working time of parents. The focus of this study is on two specific firm policies: Childcare support and flexible working schedules. We exploit the fact that since the mid 2000s an increasing share of employers react to their employees' needs by offering a family-friendly work environment. These changes over time allow us to identify causal effects of the two family-friendly policies. Identif...

  9. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lauren J N

    2015-05-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution.

  10. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution. PMID:25937639

  11. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  12. Altools: a user friendly NGS data analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiolo, Salvatore; Sablok, Gaurav; Porceddu, Andrea

    2016-02-17

    Genotyping by re-sequencing has become a standard approach to estimate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity, haplotype structure and the biodiversity and has been defined as an efficient approach to address geographical population genomics of several model species. To access core SNPs and insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indels), and to infer the phyletic patterns of speciation, most such approaches map short reads to the reference genome. Variant calling is important to establish patterns of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and to determine the population and haplotype structure based on SNPs, thus allowing content-dependent trait and evolutionary analysis. Several tools have been developed to investigate such polymorphisms as well as more complex genomic rearrangements such as copy number variations, presence/absence variations and large deletions. The programs available for this purpose have different strengths (e.g. accuracy, sensitivity and specificity) and weaknesses (e.g. low computation speed, complex installation procedure and absence of a user-friendly interface). Here we introduce Altools, a software package that is easy to install and use, which allows the precise detection of polymorphisms and structural variations. Altools uses the BWA/SAMtools/VarScan pipeline to call SNPs and indels, and the dnaCopy algorithm to achieve genome segmentation according to local coverage differences in order to identify copy number variations. It also uses insert size information from the alignment of paired-end reads and detects potential large deletions. A double mapping approach (BWA/BLASTn) identifies precise breakpoints while ensuring rapid elaboration. Finally, Altools implements several processes that yield deeper insight into the genes affected by the detected polymorphisms. Altools was used to analyse both simulated and real next-generation sequencing (NGS) data and performed satisfactorily in terms of

  13. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapena-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Orti, Fortunato [Boeing Research and Technology Europe Ltd., Environmental Technologies, C/ Canada Real de las Merinas 1-3, Building 4, 4th floor, Madrid 28042 (Spain); Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro [Intelligent Energy Ltd., The Innovation Centre, Epinal Way, Loughborough LE11 3EH (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR and TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NOx, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power

  14. Influence from friends to drink more or drink less: a cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo, Mariana; Connor, Jennie; Roiblatt, Rachel E; Ibanga, Akanidomo K J; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    Drinking habits are socially patterned and social networks influence individuals' drinking behaviors. Previous studies have focused primarily upon the influence from family members to drink less. Those studies that have focused upon peer influence have been largely confined to social norms among adolescent and college-age drinkers. By contrast, based in adult populations, this article examines exhortations from friends not only to reduce alcohol consumption but also to increase it. Survey data in 15 countries that participate in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study project (GENACIS) were used to test whether there were country and gender differences concerning the influence to drink less or to drink more by friends and examine if this was affected by the drinking behavior. The findings revealed that those influenced to drink less had more heavy episodic drinking (HED) occasions than those who did not report such influence. By contrast, influence to drink more, originating mainly from same-sex friends, may be more the result of social situations that encourage all drinkers, regardless of their frequency of HED occasions. At the country level, influence to drink less for both sexes decreased with the proportion of drinkers in a country. Similarly, influence to drink less for both sexes also decreased in countries where gender roles were more egalitarian. Thus, in countries where alcohol use is more widespread and fewer differences are observed between male and female gender role expectations, fewer people were influenced to drink less. These findings have implications for social and behavioral strategies designed to reduce alcohol-related harm across a wide range of cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The moderating role of close friends in the relationship between conduct problems and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Beate; Shelton, Katherine H; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2010-07-01

    Conduct problems and peer effects are among the strongest risk factors for adolescent substance use and problem use. However, it is unclear to what extent the effects of conduct problems and peer behavior interact, and whether adolescents' capacity to refuse the offer of substances may moderate such links. This study was conducted to examine relationships between conduct problems, close friends' substance use, and refusal assertiveness with adolescents' alcohol use problems, tobacco, and marijuana use. We studied a population-based sample of 1,237 individuals from the Cardiff Study of All Wales and North West of England Twins aged 11-18 years. Adolescent and mother-reported information was obtained. Statistical analyses included cross-sectional and prospective logistic regression models and family-based permutations. Conduct problems and close friends' substance use were associated with increased adolescents' substance use, whereas refusal assertiveness was associated with lower use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Peer substance use moderated the relationship between conduct problems and alcohol use problems, such that conduct problems were only related to increased risk for alcohol use problems in the presence of substance-using friends. This effect was found in both cross-sectional and prospective analyses and confirmed using the permutation approach. Reduced opportunities for interaction with alcohol-using peers may lower the risk of alcohol use problems in adolescents with conduct problems. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Moderating Role of Close Friends in the Relationship Between Conduct Problems and Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Beate; Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Conduct problems and peer effects are among the strongest risk factors for adolescent substance use and problem use. However, it is unclear to what extent the effects of conduct problems and peer behavior interact, and whether adolescents' capacity to refuse the offer of substances may moderate such links. This study was conducted to examine relationships between conduct problems, close friends' substance use, and refusal assertiveness with adolescents' alcohol use problems, tobacco, and marijuana use. Methods We studied a population-based sample of 1,237 individuals from the Cardiff Study of All Wales and North West of England Twins aged 11–18 years. Adolescent and mother-reported information was obtained. Statistical analyses included cross-sectional and prospective logistic regression models and family-based permutations. Results Conduct problems and close friends' substance use were associated with increased adolescents' substance use, whereas refusal assertiveness was associated with lower use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Peer substance use moderated the relationship between conduct problems and alcohol use problems, such that conduct problems were only related to increased risk for alcohol use problems in the presence of substance-using friends. This effect was found in both cross-sectional and prospective analyses and confirmed using the permutation approach. Conclusions Reduced opportunities for interaction with alcohol-using peers may lower the risk of alcohol use problems in adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:20547290

  17. Environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites: types, processing and properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of eco-friendly polymeric materials with balanced properties has become a subject of research attention due to concerns with increasing global-warming, carbon-emission, and limited natural resources. Nano...

  18. WE FRIENDS, Lääne-Eesti arengupartnerlus / Ingrit Kera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kera, Ingrit

    2006-01-01

    Naised saavad osa hiidlaste kirjutatud europrojektist "We Friends", mille eesmärk on Lääne-Eesti madala konkurentsivõimega naiste ja lapsi üksi kasvatavate noorte emade tööhõivele kaasaaitamine

  19. Culturally Sensitive and Environment-Friendly Outcome Measures in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    A systematic review of evidence on culturally sensitive and environment-friendly outcome measures in ..... which included manual grass cutting/hoeing, assuming the Islamic ... who opined that the starting point for any outcome measure is to ...

  20. A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents From the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) Knowing what to serve and ...

  1. Personality Types and Development of Adolescents' Conflict with Friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan J. T.; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    This study examined the development of adolescents' conflict frequency and conflict resolution with their best friends, and tested whether adolescents with different personality types differed in these developmental changes from early to middle adolescence. Dutch adolescents (N = 922, 468 boys;

  2. Perceptions of friendship among youth with distressed friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin N; Swenson, Lance P

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between a friend's level of internalizing distress and the focal child's perceptions of friendship amongst 5th, 8th, and 11th grade youth. Participants completed the Youth Self-Report to assess internalizing distress and measures assessing perceptions of friendship quality, social support, and self-disclosure within reciprocal, same-sex friendship dyads. Results indicated that youth with friends experiencing low levels of internalizing distress reported poorer friendship quality and decreased levels of social support and self-disclosure within the friendship compared to youth with friends experiencing average or high internalizing distress. In a second set of analyses controlling for the focal child's own internalizing symptoms, gender, and age, friend's level of internalizing distress remained a significant, unique predictor of target participants' self-disclosure about their own problems within the friendship. The findings suggest that a mild degree of internalizing distress may enhance, rather than harm, friendships amongst youth.

  3. FRIENDLY regulates mitochondrial distribution, fusion, and quality control in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zawily, Amr M; Schwarzländer, Markus; Finkemeier, Iris; Johnston, Iain G; Benamar, Abdelilah; Cao, Yongguo; Gissot, Clémence; Meyer, Andreas J; Wilson, Ken; Datla, Raju; Macherel, David; Jones, Nick S; Logan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria are defining components of most eukaryotes. However, higher plant mitochondria differ biochemically, morphologically, and dynamically from those in other eukaryotes. FRIENDLY, a member of the CLUSTERED MITOCHONDRIA superfamily, is conserved among eukaryotes and is required for correct distribution of mitochondria within the cell. We sought to understand how disruption of FRIENDLY function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leads to mitochondrial clustering and the effects of this aberrant chondriome on cell and whole-plant physiology. We present evidence for a role of FRIENDLY in mediating intermitochondrial association, which is a necessary prelude to mitochondrial fusion. We demonstrate that disruption of mitochondrial association, motility, and chondriome structure in friendly affects mitochondrial quality control and leads to mitochondrial stress, cell death, and strong growth phenotypes. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing environment-friendly polymer nanocomposites with basic fundamentals, practicality and alternatives to traditional nanocomposites through detailed reviews of different environmental friendly materials procured from different resources, their synthesis and applications using alternative green approaches. The book aims at explaining basics of eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites from different natural resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and automotive industry. The book attempts to present emerging economic and environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites that are free from side effects studied in the traditional nanocomposites. This book is the outcome of contributions by many experts in the field from different disciplines, with various backgrounds and expertises. This book will appeal to researchers as well as students from different disciplines. The co...

  5. Forms of Friendship: A Person-Centered Assessment of the Quality, Stability, and Outcomes of Different Types of Adolescent Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Cody; Laursen, Brett; Mooney, Karen S; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2015-04-01

    Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies ( N = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents ( M = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6 th to the 7 th grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships.

  6. Forms of Friendship: A Person-Centered Assessment of the Quality, Stability, and Outcomes of Different Types of Adolescent Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Cody; Laursen, Brett; Mooney, Karen S.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies (N = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents (M = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6th to the 7th grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships. PMID:25620829

  7. Friends as a Bridge to Parental Influence: Implications for Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigates the possibility that friendship networks connect adolescents to influence from a broader group of adults beyond their own families. In doing so, we combine two rich traditions of research on adult influence on children and adolescents. Family research has suggested a number of ways in which effective parenting can reduce deviant behavior among adolescents. In addition, research on neighborhoods has advanced the idea that adults outside of the immediate family can exert social control that may reduce deviance. We employ longitudinal social network analysis to examine data drawn from the PROSPER Peers Project, a longitudinal study of adolescents following over 12,000 students in 27 non-metropolitan communities as they moved from 6th through 9th grade. We find evidence that the behavior of friends’ parents is linked, both directly and indirectly, to adolescent alcohol use. Findings suggest that much of the influence from friends’ parents is mediated through peer behavior, but that parental knowledge reported by friends continues to be associated with alcohol use even when controlling for competing mechanisms. Furthermore, adolescents tend to choose friends who report similar levels of parenting as themselves. Our results provide support for the position that friendships in adolescence connect youth to a broader network of adults and illustrate how adults outside of the family contribute to the social control of adolescents. PMID:24812438

  8. The role of local wisdom in developing friendly city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibarani, Robert

    2018-03-01

    This present paper discusses the local wisdom which can be applied to build the character of people living in a friendly city. It aims at (1) finding the main local wisdom which can be used to construct the integrity of human beings dwelling in it and (2) describing the concept of developing the friendly city based on local wisdom. Anthropolinguistics is applied to study this topic by focusing on the performance, indexicality, and participation. The analytic parameters are interconnection, evaluability, and sustainability.

  9. Family-Friendly Management, Organizational Performance and Social Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, S. A.; de Menezes, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on family-friendly practices has concentrated on the predictors of their use, particularly from the perspective of either institutional theory or the high involvement or commitment management vogue. This paper first shows how such perspectives can be used to generate hypotheses about the link between family-friendly management and organizational performance. Second, the paper reports research designed to test these, using data from a national representative sample of workplaces acros...

  10. Novel application of bacteriophage for controlling foaming in wastewater treatment plant- an eco-friendly approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Krishna; Chandekar, Rajshree; Nair, Aparna; Pal, Preeti; Paunikar, Waman N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This addendum to “Novel application of bacteriophage for controlling foaming in wastewater treatment plant- an eco-friendly approach “ includes characteristics of the phages NOC1, NOC2 and NOC3 not discussed in the previous paper. The phage adsorption and host interaction properties, their sensitivity to pH and temperature are inferred. NOC2 is seen to be more temperature resistant while others are not. All the phages show pH sensitivity. There is a variance observed in the behavior of these phages. Also, applicability of the phage based system to large scale reactors is studied and discussed here. PMID:26890996

  11. Eco-friendly dentistry: Need of future. An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savy Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, it is very necessary to understand the importance of being eco-friendly in every facet of our lives. The color “green” has healing power and denotes renewal, growth, and hope. “Eco-friendly dentistry” attempts to reduce the detrimental impact of dental practices on the environment and promote environmental awareness and sustainability to patients. This paper attempts to cover all possible aspects of making a dental practice eco-friendly, both in a dental perspective as well as a general perspective. While establishing an eco-friendly dental workplace, the dentist needs to assess his choices in planning the infrastructure and purchasing of equipment and dental materials. Eco-friendly dentistry is a newly evolving practice of dentistry, which encompasses a simultaneous devotion to sustainability, prevention, precaution, and a minimally invasive patient-centric, as well as global-centric treatment. There are two main avenues for implementing eco-friendly dentistry: (1 appropriate policy development and implementation and (2 dentists taking responsibility/ownership in the absence of policies and regulations. Although in some cases, it may take a little extra effort or money; dentists throughout the world are doing their best to reduce the environmental impact of the dental practice. Although the commitment of one small dental office cannot save the planet, certainly, the collective efforts of many small offices as well as large dental hospitals/colleges can ensure that dentists, at least, will not be responsible for destroying it. This article discusses various factors that can be incorporated into dental practice that can help make dentistry eco-friendly.

  12. Impulsivity, Substance Abuse, and Family/Friends History of Suicide Attempts in University Students With and Without Suicidal Ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari, Majid; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Fatehizade, Maryam; Baghban, Iran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Impulsivity appears to play an important role in suicidal behavior. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the impulsivity, substance abuse, and family/friends history of suicide attempt between suicide-ideated and non suicide-ideated university students. Methods: The research population consisted of all the students of the University of Isfahan in the academic year of 2009-2010. Three hundred and forty students (136 boys and 204 girls) were selected randomly through ...

  13. Biosocial Models of Deviant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Describes biological influences on criminality. Illustrative data suggest a biological sex difference in criminality and heritable differences in this trait among individuals. Methods of isolating environmental influences are described. Author notes that using environment-friendly behavior genetic research designs is not only proper but would…

  14. Exploring the Notion of the Family Friendly City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provi Drianda, Riela

    2018-05-01

    There is a common perception that downtown areas will never attract families and big cities are not the best place to raise children. Particularly the downtown areas of cities been depicted as the place where criminals, prostitutes, drug-sellers, and other dangerous strangers live. People with children are more likely to look for the suburbs to find bigger housing with more affordable prices, cleaner air, richer nature, a slower lifestyle, and safer environment. However, living in the modern suburb is not always easy and cheap, especially for those who need to commute to the central city. Dealing with the long commutes can be stressful and it affects the health, happiness, and well-being of family members. As the number of modern families with both parents in the workforce is rising, the demand to live closer to the workplace is getting stronger and growing. In some parts of the world, more families increasingly want to live in the cities. This trend can be seen in the United States, Japan, Korea, and Canada. Being family-friendly has become increasingly important for modern cities as more millennial generation show the tendency to raise their families in the urban area. Moreover, it is predicted that two-thirds of world’s population will live in cities by 2030. To accommodate the growing population, in particular, those with children, modern cities should be developed to suit urban families. But what criteria and qualities make one city more family-friendly than another? What would a family-friendly city look like? To date, the number studies exploring the notion of the family-friendly city has been very limited. Most studies have been focusing on the notion of family-friendly dwellings, family-friendly workplaces, or child-friendly cities. This paper brings together and examines the dominant and recurring ideas about the family-friendly city represented in the relevant literature and current urban practices. This paper also questions whether the concept of the

  15. Surveillance on University Students' Living Behaviors in the Private Residence, Prathumthani, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckanavanich, Suwannee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among lifestyles, personal relationship (friendship and romantic relationship), and living behaviors shared with closed friends and romantic friends. The study undertook a quantitative research of university students' living behaviors in the private residence. A survey questionnaire was…

  16. [Microbial "friend-foe" identification in human intestine microsymbiocenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, O V; Petrunova, N B

    2011-01-01

    Development of methodical approach of evaluation of microbial "friend-foe" identification in human intestine microsymbiocenosis. 9 bifidobacteria cultures (dominants) and 18 opportunistic microorganism strains (associants) isolated from patients during examination for intestine dysbiosis and identified by conventional methods were used. Evaluation of microbial "friend-foe" identification in microsymbiocenosis was performed by author developed technique that is based on determination of growth factors (GF), anti-lysozyme activity (ALA) and formation of biofilms (BFF) of associants co-incubated with exometabolites of dominants. GF, ALA, BFF were studied photometrically (Bukharin O.V., 1999, 2009; O'Toole G.A., 2000). The data were statistically analyzed by Fisher-Student criteria. The detected opposite (increase/reduction) phenomenon of the "dominant-associant" pair allowed realization of the "friend-foe" identification in microsymbiocenosis. Associants (E. coli and Enterococcus faecium) were "friend" species, in which bifidobacteria exometabolites did not change growth properties and stimulated ALA (by 17,5--32%) and BFF (by 25 - 39%). Associants (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans) were "foe" microsymbiont species, in which bifidoflora exometabolites decreased GF (by 20,7--68%), ALA (by 22,7--54%) and BFF (by 22,5 --39%). Indigenous microflora during microsymbiocenosis formation can participate in "friend-foe" identification, the basis of which is determined by microsymbiont exometabolites. The data obtained open a perspective of understanding mechanisms of intramicrobial interactions and can be used for both diagnostics and optimal selection of "candidates" during creation of new probiotics and synbiotics.

  17. The effect of friend selection on social influences in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogdon, Justin G; Allaire, Benjamin T

    2014-12-01

    We present an agent-based model of weight choice and peer selection that simulates the effect of peer selection on social multipliers for weight loss interventions. The model generates social clustering around weight through two mechanisms: a causal link from others' weight to an individual's weight and the propensity to select peers based on weight. We simulated weight loss interventions and tried to identify intervention targets that maximized the spillover of weight loss from intervention participants to nonparticipants. Social multipliers increase with the number of intervention participants' friends. For example, when friend selection was based on a variable exogenous to weight, the weight lost among non-participants increased by 23% (14.3lb vs. 11.6lb) when targeting the most popular obese. Holding constant the number of participants' friends, multipliers increase with increased weight clustering due to selection, up to a point. For example, among the most popular obese, social multipliers when matching on a characteristic correlated with weight (1.189) were higher than when matching on the exogenous characteristic (1.168) and when matching on weight (1.180). Increased weight clustering also implies more obese "friends of friends" of participants, who reduce social multipliers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Depressive Symptoms, Friend and Partner Relationship Quality, and Posttreatment Abstinence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Laura G.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study employed a prospective design to examine the role of friend and partner relationship quality 1 year following substance use disorder treatment in the association between depressive symptoms at discharge from treatment and abstinence from substance use 2 years after treatment. Method: The sample consisted of 1,453 male veterans who used alcohol and at least one other substance in the 3 months before treatment admission, who completed treatment, and who were abstinent from substances during the 2 weeks before discharge. Results: Fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge predicted better relationship quality with friends and a partner at 1 -year follow-up, as well as abstinence from substance use at 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, friend and partner relationship quality at 1 year predicted abstinence from substance use at 2 years. Friend relationship quality at 1 year mediated part of the association between fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge and abstinence at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: A stronger focus in treatment on reducing depressive symptoms and enhancing the quality of patients' relationships with their friends and partner may increase the likelihood of long-term abstinence. PMID:21138721

  19. Global climate-friendly trade : Canada's chance to clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, D.

    2010-03-01

    This paper discussed the global trade and investment in climate-friendly technologies, Canada's current position in this market, and the policy changes that are necessary for Canadian businesses to gain a stronger foothold in this sector. The global market for climate-friendly technologies is growing rapidly, but Canadian businesses have generally failed to exploit opportunities to export climate-friendly technologies and have generally lagged other countries in adopting such technologies developed elsewhere. Although Canadian businesses generally underperform in this sector, Canada does have notable strengths in 13 identified areas, including waste management technologies, energy technologies, and in parts of the value chains associated with wind and solar power. Targeting these areas of relative strength for further development could position Canada as a global leader in some climate-friendly technologies. For this to happen, Canadian governments need to establish clear policies, invest in research and development, and remove domestic and international barriers to the development and trade in climate-friendly technologies. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. The Danish technology foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    A premise that is necessary for agriculture to develop into an environmentally friendly direction is that research is undertaken into environmentally friendly technologies and methods and how they can be brought into use. There is a need for a prioritised research effort that focuses on those...... without any plan or with some thought. Therefore the National Forest and Nature Agency in Denmark initiated the Green Technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture with the aim of examining the agricultural environmental challenges and suggesting technological and structural solutions....... problems which are related to minimising environmental problems affected by the agricultural production’s negative influence on the surroundings, improving animal welfare and finding new ways and products for agriculture. Future directions of agriculture can derive with or without dialogue; it can occur...

  1. Getting to Family-Friendly in Your Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    These days, most academic and research institutions recognize the importance of a family-friendly workplace, and have implemented at least some policies to support a sustainable work-life balance: family and medical leave, parental leave, stopping or extending tenure clocks, modified duty policies, breast feeding policies and lactation rooms, partner hiring programs, childcare programs, eldercare programs, emergency and sick child care programs, dependent care travel funds, etc. But while institutions may offer a menu of policies and free or low-cost services to support families, what's happening in your department? Achieving a supportive workplace culture requires that we dispel some of the myths associated with family-friendly policies, and establish that family-friendly policies not only benefit all employees, but also help the institution be more successful.

  2. Critical friends: A way to develop preceptor competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Preceptorship entails for nurses to create a supportive learning and working climate where students or newcomers are given opportunities to develop professional competence. However, being a skilled and experienced nurse does not automatically turn the professional into a skilled educator as teaching of a subject is a whole different story. Preceptors need to continuously and critically reflect on their practices in order to facilitate the development of professional pedagogical competence. Critical friends are colleagues with comparable educational background evaluating the work of each other. The relationship should rely on friendship and mutual trust, adding new dimensions to the reflective process. Being engaged in a critical friendship allows the "friends" to become aware of their own shortcomings which can then be reflected on in relation to clinical as well as pedagogical practices. Being and having a critical friend might be one promising way forward for preceptors to develop pedagogical and professional competence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distinguishing Family from Friends : Implicit Cognitive Differences Regarding General Dispositions, Attitude Similarity, and Group Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Rick; Roberts, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    Kinship and friendship are key human relationships. Increasingly, data suggest that people are not less altruistic toward friends than close kin. Some accounts suggest that psychologically we do not distinguish between them; countering this is evidence that kinship provides a unique explanatory factor. Using the Implicit Association Test, we examined how people implicitly think about close friends versus close kin in three contexts. In Experiment 1, we examined generic attitudinal dispositions toward friends and family. In Experiment 2, attitude similarity as a marker of family and friends was examined, and in Experiments 3 and 4, strength of in-group membership for family and friends was examined. Findings show that differences exist in implicit cognitive associations toward family and friends. There is some evidence that people hold more positive general dispositions toward friends, associate attitude similarity more with friends, consider family as more representative of the in-group than friends, but see friends as more in-group than distant kin.

  4. Ukrainian realities of labeling of environmentally friendly products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Tsaruk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basis of life of any society is a safe environment that is not only the guarantee of welfare and quality of life, but also the guarantee of the further development of human civilization. That is why in the modern world the issue of the preservation of the natural environment is of special actuality. The gradual awareness by humanity of new threats (high degree of concentration of harmful industries; high level of resource and energy consumption; lack of modern environmental technologies; slow but inevitable degradation of the gene pool of a population due to the consumption of poor quality and in most cases harmful products, etc. forced the society to seek new approaches to socio-economic development and environmental management. One of such approaches is the introduction of ecological and organic labeling. Marking is a source of information about the purity, safety and quality of the products offered in the market; effective information mechanism, which is a kind of quality mark for the offered products. The current practice of ecological and organic labeling aimed at the increase of level consumer's awareness and the changing models of purchasing behavior in the direction of environmental protection. The feature of most marking systems of environmentally friendly and safe products is the obligation of compliance with the established requirements used by producers of raw materials and technologies taking into account their potential environmental impact. Labeling of ecologically clean and safe products is reducing the negative impact on the environment and on the human's health. It is the consequence of changes in the economic environment, namely: the improvement of socio-ethical requirements to production; the increasing level of integration of producers and service providers; the customer's satisfaction in varieties of products; globalization of economic space; reduction of time for development, standardization and production. Labeling is

  5. The founder of the Friends Foundation--Tessie Soi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topurua, Ore

    2013-01-01

    Tessie Soi is well known in Papua New Guinea and beyond for her work with HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome) patients, including through the Friends Foundation, an organization that focuses on helping families affected by HIV and AIDS. This article explores Tessie's early life and childhood, providing insight into some of the values she learned from her parents. Providing details about the Friends Foundation and the Orphan Buddy Systems program, a program Tessie established to support AIDS orphans, the article offers insight into Tessie's beliefs and compassion, simultaneously highlighting the value she places on her family.

  6. Parent and Friend Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: Associations with Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Slough, Rachel Miller

    2017-01-01

    Both parents and close friends are central figures in adolescents' emotional and psychological adjustment. However, little is known about how close friends socialize adolescents' emotions or how friends' socialization messages compare to those from parents in adolescence. The present study will explore how parents and friends discuss negative emotions with adolescents in relation to adolescents' emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms. Participants were 30 parent-adolescent-friend tri...

  7. Health Seeking Behavior of Patients Diagnosed with Cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... explore the care seeking behavior of women with cervical cancer. ... approach. The ... suggested that most cancer patients in sub- .... therapy is perceived to be beneficial by most of ... friend advised me initially to go to Family.

  8. Decrease in Adolescent Cannabis Use From 2002 to 2006 and Links to Evenings Out With Friends in 31 European and North American Countries and Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Simons-Morton, B.; Fotiou, A.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Kokkevi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare adolescent cannabis use between 2002 and 2006 and to investigate links to the frequency of evenings spent out with friends. Design: The Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study, an international study carried out in collaboration with the World Health

  9. Decrease in adolescent cannabis use from 2002 to 2006 and links to evenings out with friends in 31 European and North American countries and regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Fotiou, Anastasios

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare adolescent cannabis use between 2002 and 2006 and to investigate links to the frequency of evenings spent out with friends. DESIGN: The Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study, an international study carried out in collaboration with the World Health Organization/Europ...

  10. Smoking of parents and best friend--independent and combined effects on adolescent smoking and intention to initiate and quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Day, Jeffrey R

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the independent and combined effects of smoking of parents and best friend on smoking and the intention to initiate or quit smoking in adolescents. In this school-based survey, 6,553 Hong Kong students aged 13-18 reported their demographic characteristics, smoking status of themselves, parents, and best friend; and intention to smoke (initiation among never-smokers and reinitiation among ex-smokers) or quit smoking among current smokers. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of student smoking (current/ever) and intention to smoke or quit smoking for parental (paternal/maternal/both parents vs. none) and best friend (yes vs. no) smoking. Parental smoking and having a smoking best friend were associated with adolescent current smoking, ever smoking, and intention to initiate smoking. Having a smoking best friend was also associated with reinitiating and quitting smoking. The AORs (95% CI) of current smoking for having a smoking best friend, in addition to smoking father, mother, or both were 19.14 (14.36-25.51), 20.38 (12.42-33.43), and 24.18 (15.89-36.77). The respective AORs of ever smoking were 8.30 (6.74-10.22), 8.92 (5.63-14.12), and 11.99 (8.05-17.87). Parental smoking and best friend smoking have independent effects on adolescent smoking behaviors. Their combined effects on current and ever smoking were particularly large. Smoking prevention programs should pay special attention to adolescents with both best friend and parents who smoke.

  11. Associations between aspects of friendship networks and dietary behavior in youth: Findings from a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Swanson, Kenda

    2015-08-01

    To gather and synthesize current evidence on the associations between aspects of friendship networks (e.g., friends' dietary behavior, popularity) and an individual's dietary behavior among children and adolescents. A systematic search of six scientific online databases was conducted in August 2013. Eligible studies included child or adolescent participants (aged 6 to 18years), a measure of each participant's friendship network, and a measure of habitual dietary behavior for both the participant and the participant's nominated friend(s). Data on study design, participant characteristics, friendship networks, dietary behavior, and study outcomes were abstracted. From a total of 9041 articles retrieved, seven studies were included in this review. Overall, friends' unhealthy food consumption was associated with an individual's unhealthy food consumption, and this association appeared to be stronger for boys compared with girls. More popular adolescents also tended to consume more unhealthy foods. Best friends' total energy intake was correlated with an individual's total energy intake. Similarities among friends' healthy food consumption, as well as daily breakfast consumption, were inconclusive. Longitudinal evidence showed that an individual's unhealthy food consumption tended to become similar to friends' unhealthy food consumption over time. Social network analysis in the adolescent dietary behavior literature is beginning to emerge. Results highlight friends' particular influence on unhealthy food consumption among adolescents. Focus on modeling healthy dietary behaviors among adolescent friendship group may help reduce unhealthy dietary behaviors and promote healthy weight status among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. How are curious people viewed and how do they behave in social situations? From the perspectives of self, friends, parents, and unacquainted observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Sherman, Ryne A; Yarbro, Jessica; Funder, David C

    2013-04-01

    People who are open and curious orient their lives around an appreciation of novelty and a strong urge to explore, discover, and grow. Researchers have recently shown that being an open, curious person is linked to healthy social outcomes. To better understand the benefits (and liabilities) of being a curious person, we used a multimethod design of social behavior to assess the perspectives of multiple informants (including self, friends, and parents) and behavior coded from direct observations in unstructured social interactions. We found an impressive degree of convergence among self, friend, and parent reports of curiosity, and observer-rated behavioral correlates of curiosity. A curious personality was linked to a wide range of adaptive behaviors, including tolerance of anxiety and uncertainty, positive emotional expressiveness, initiation of humor and playfulness, unconventional thinking, and a nondefensive, noncritical attitude. This characterization of curious people provides insights into mechanisms underlying associated healthy social outcomes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Achieving Child Friendly Justice through Child Friendly Methods: Let’s Start with the Right to Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Stalford

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Making the justice process ‘child friendly’ is a key priority for the children’s rights community. An abundance of commentary has been produced by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child to highlight how justice proceedings can be made more accessible for children and, in 2010, the Council of Europe issued its comprehensive ‘Guidelines on Child Friendly Justice’. Despite these efforts, children remain ill-informed, not just about the nature of justice proceedings in which they may be implicated, but about the very existence and scope of their rights and how to enforce them. Despite unequivocal acknowledgement that the availability and accessibility of information is the crucial starting point in a children’s rights-based approach to dispensing justice, there has been surprisingly little attempt to scrutinise the availability, quality and accessibility of information about laws and policies affecting children. This article takes a closer look at what, exactly, ‘child friendly’ information means in practice. In doing so, we argue that attempts to develop child friendly information have yet to progress beyond adult-driven, largely tokenistic and superficial re-branding exercises. As such, efforts to develop child friendly resources are often of limited value in empowering young people to develop their legal literacy and realise their rights in practice. We reflect on our attempt to develop an explicitly children’s rights-based approach to the development of child friendly resources with a view to enhancing their purchase. This took place in the context of a pilot project, commissioned by the Council of Europe in June 2014, to create a child friendly version of their Child Friendly Justice Guidelines.

  14. Towards A User Friendly Library for Students with Disabilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to explore the usability of library facilities to students with disabilities at Zimbabwe's teacher education colleges. The study intended to find ways of establishing user friendly libraries at these institutions. The study focused on one of the thirteen national teacher education colleges in Zimbabwe, that is, ...

  15. Environmentally-friendly product development: methods and tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abele, Eberhard; Anderl, R; Birkhofer, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    ... to assess a product's environmental effects. Fig. 1. Vision of Environment as a key target for product development vvi Preface Product related environmental issues are getting more and more political and public awareness. Development of environmentally friendly products has become an action item for both, politics and industry (UNFCCC 1997). Energy...

  16. Calibrated user-friendly reverse transcriptase-PCR assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Rammer, P

    1998-01-01

    We report a competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay and a calibrated user-friendly RT-PCR assay (CURT-PCR) for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. A calibrator was prepared from isolated rat liver RNA, and the amount of EGFR mRNA was determined by competitive RT-PCR. In CUR...

  17. A Summary of Environmentally Friendly Turbine Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odeh, Mufeed [United States Geological Survey - BRD, Turners Falls, MA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program (AHTS) was created in 1994 by the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Hydropower Research Foundation. The Program’s main goal is to develop “environmentally friendly” hydropower turbines. The Program’s first accomplishment was the development of conceptual designs of new environmentally friendly turbines. In order to do so, two contractors were competitively selected. The ARL/NREC team of engineers and biologists provided a conceptual design for a new turbine runner*. The new runner has the potential to generate hydroelectricity at close to 90% efficiency. The Voith team produced new fish-friendly design criteria for Kaplan and Francis turbines that can be incorporated in units during rehabilitation projects or in new hydroelectric facilities**. These include the use of advanced plant operation, minimum gap runners, placement of wicket gates behind stay vanes, among others. The Voith team will also provide design criteria on aerating Francis turbines to increase dissolved oxygen content. Detailed reviews of the available literature on fish mortality studies, causation of injuries to fish, and available biological design criteria that would assist in the design of fish-friendly turbines were performed. This review identified a need for more biological studies in order to develop performance criteria to assist turbine manufacturers in designing a more fish-friendly turbine.

  18. Alli-Lu Ilannani-Lu (Alli and His Friends).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Mary L.; And Others

    This third grade elementary language text, designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in Ambler, Kabuk, Kiana, Noorvik, and Shungnak, is a story about the adventures of an animal named Alli and his friends. Each page of text is illustrated with a black-and-white drawing. The English equivalent is given at the back and is not…

  19. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Tree of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Tree of Testimonials Our Donors Board of Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education precollege science education programs. Prominently displayed at the Lederman Science Center is the lovely

  20. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Programs | Past Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Our Donors Testimonials Our Donors Board of Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education DuPage Area Occupational Education Systems Technology Center DuPage/Kane Educational Service Center Fermi

  1. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Board of Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education Office Search Programs Calendar , Chicago, IL Join Us/Renew Membership Forms: Online - Print Support Us Donation Forms: Online - Print Tree

  2. Candidate eco-friendly gas mixtures for MPGDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Saviano, G.; Muhammad, S.; Piccolo, D.; Ferrini, M.; Parvis, M.; Grassini, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Kjølbro, J.; Sharma, A.; Yang, D.; Chen, G.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.

    2018-02-01

    Modern gas detectors for detection of particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This review studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas candidate replacements.

  3. Policies and Strategies for Eco-Friendly Dairy Product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziggers, G.W.; Conte, F.; Del Nobile, M.A.; Faccia, M.; Zambrini, A.V.; Conte, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in, and market for, eco-friendly dairy production, a large-scale transition is not taking place. This is partly explained by the institutional context, since dairy production is organized in supply chains that generate interdependencies and, in turn, are subject to

  4. Can friends protect genetically vulnerable children from depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Bukowski, William M; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2013-05-01

    The study examined whether reciprocal friendship quantity or quality can mitigate genetic vulnerability for depression symptoms in children. The sample comprised 168 monozygotic twin pairs and 126 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs assessed in Grade 4 (mean age = 10.04 years). Friendship participation was measured via reciprocal nominations of close friendships within the classroom. Friendship quality was measured through self-reports. Depression symptoms were measured through teacher and peer reports. Genetic vulnerability for depression symptoms was unrelated to friendship participation or the number of reciprocal friends, but it was negatively related to positive friendship quality. In line with gene-environment interaction, genetic risk effects on depression symptoms were mitigated in girls who had at least one close reciprocal friend. In boys, only moderate main effects of genetic vulnerability and friendship participation were found but no interaction between them. However, among boys with at least one reciprocal friend, a greater number of friends was related to fewer depression symptoms whereas no cumulative effect of friendship was found for girls. Finally, positive friendship quality was related to fewer depression symptoms in girls and boys even when controlling for genetic risk. The findings emphasize the importance of teaching social interactional skills that promote high-quality friendship relations to help prevent the development of depression symptoms in children.

  5. What is youth-friendly? Adolescents' preferences for reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescents rated confidentiality, short waiting time, low cost and friendly staff as the most important characteristics. The least important characteristics included youth-only service, youth involvement and young staff, suggesting that adolescents do not prioritise stand-alone youth services such as youth centres, ...

  6. Personality types and development of adolescents' conflict with friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.; Branje, S.T.J.; Keijsers, L.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the development of adolescents' conflict frequency and conflict resolution with their best friends, and tested whether adolescents with different personality types differed in these developmental changes from early to middle adolescence. Dutch adolescents (N = 922, 468 boys;

  7. Critical Friends Group for EFL Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Long Thanh; Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2010-01-01

    For the best student outcomes, teachers need to engage in continuous professional development. As a result, models of teacher professional development have been developed, among which is the Critical Friends Group (CFG) technique. However, whether it works well with EFL teachers in an Asian context like Vietnam, where EFL teachers in particular do…

  8. Environmentally Friendly Pretreatment for Department of Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    Develop an environmentally friendly pretreatment system for multi-material Department of Defense applications ― Free of hexavalent chromium (Cr6...Zn phosphate and chrome wash primer •Two Zirconium pretreatment variations passed the 336 hr and 1000 hr B-117 outlined per MIL-DTL-53022 or MIL

  9. User-friendly matching protocol for online social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we outline a privacy-preserving matching protocol for OSN (online social network) users to find their potential friends. With the proposed protocol, a logged-in user can match her profile with that of an off-line stranger, while both profiles are maximally protected. Our solution

  10. Testing of environmentally friendly lubricants for sheet metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    the authors have especially been involved in the development of a system of test methods for sheet metal forming and in testing of friction and limits of lubrication of new, environmentally friendly lubricants. An overview of the developed tests is presented together with selected results....

  11. NUTRITION-FRIENDLY SCHOOLS INITIATIVE (NFSI): Another brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... and partners. These include the UN agencies joint. Focusing Resources on Effective School Health. (FRESH) Initiative, Essential Package (UNICEF/. WFP), Child-Friendly Schools (UNICEF), Health. Promoting Schools (WHO), School Food and. Nutrition Education programmes (FAO) to mention just a few.

  12. Fish: A New Computer Program for Friendly Introductory Statistics Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gordon P.; Raffle, Holly

    2005-01-01

    All introductory statistics students must master certain basic descriptive statistics, including means, standard deviations and correlations. Students must also gain insight into such complex concepts as the central limit theorem and standard error. This article introduces and describes the Friendly Introductory Statistics Help (FISH) computer…

  13. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia eSimão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1 we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking towards the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2 we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants. In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude towards a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.

  14. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.

  15. The Friends of Northside ISD Libraries Sets Sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    The Director of Library and Textbook services for the Northside Independent School District (NISD) Jana Knezek, had long wanted to create a Friends group and she realized how beneficial it would be to have an organization in place that could serve as an advocate for school library issues. Jana temporarily put aside that desire and participated in…

  16. Family Friendly Policies in STEM Departments: Awareness and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuhong; Bozeman, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Focused on academic departments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in the United States, we attempt to map department chairs' awareness of family friendly policies and investigate possible determinants of their knowledge levels. Based on a sample of STEM department chairs in American research universities, we find…

  17. Drug Abuse Prevention for You and Your Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Novelli and Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet, written for adolescents, focuses on the individual's role and responsibility, both to themselves and their friends, in preventing drug abuse problems. Short statements define the influence of peer pressure on prevention, friendship, and intervention. The results of a ninth grade student survey list 22 reasons for using drugs,…

  18. Linkages over Time between Adolescents' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This 5-wave longitudinal study examines linkages over time between adolescents' perceptions of relationships with parents and friends with respect to support, negative interaction, and power. A total of 575 early adolescents (54.1% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Path analyses mainly showed bidirectional associations…

  19. Bio-based fillers for environmentally friendly composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokhothu, Thabang H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bio-based fillers as alternative replacement for synthetic fillers has been dictated by increasing ecological concerns as well as depleting petroleum resources. The other aspect is a growing need for eco-friendly, renewable...

  20. Evaluating the FRIENDS Programme in a Scottish Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Ian; Macmillan, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study used an "indicated prevention" approach to attempt to replicate very positive international evaluations of the FRIENDS for Life programme. Using standardised self-report measures of anxiety, low mood and self esteem with groups of children from four schools, the study found significant improvements in all of these measures…

  1. Green technological foresight on environmental friendly agriculture: Executive summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Christensen, S.; Jørgensen, U.

    2005-01-01

    Risø and the co-operators have on behalf of the Forest and Nature Agency completed a technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture based on green technologies. A technological foresight is a systematic dialogue on how one prepares forfuture challenges, which have not yet manifes...

  2. Building Child Friendly Cities in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Osman El Hassan N.

    2013-01-01

    The notion of Child Friendly Cities (CFCs) was first developed during the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II), held in Istanbul in 1996. The concept is based on four general principles of the United Nations "Convention on the rights of the child": (1) fair treatment of every child, regardless of ethnicity,…

  3. Beyond good and evil: what motivations underlie children's prosocial behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alia; Olson, Kristina R

    2015-03-01

    Researchers have proposed different accounts of the development of prosocial behavior in children. Some have argued that behaviors like helping and sharing must be learned and reinforced; others propose that children have an initially indiscriminate prosocial drive that declines and becomes more selective with age; and yet others contend that even children's earliest prosocial behaviors share some strategic motivations with the prosociality of adults (e.g., reputation enhancement, social affiliation). We review empirical and observational research on children's helping and sharing behaviors in the first 5 years of life, focusing on factors that have been found to influence these behaviors and on what these findings suggest about children's prosocial motivations. We use the adult prosociality literature to highlight parallels and gaps in the literature on the development of prosocial behavior. We address how the evidence reviewed bears on central questions in the developmental psychology literature and propose that children's prosocial behaviors may be driven by multiple motivations not easily captured by the idea of intrinsic or extrinsic motivation and may be selective quite early in life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children’s Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos A. Loucaides

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N=154, mean age = 11.7 and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child’s questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between “general friend support,” “friends’ activity norms,” and physical activity (r=0.343 and 0.333 resp., p<0.001 and between “general friend support” and time spent outside (r=0.460, p<0.001. Obtaining information relating to parental and friends’ influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children’s physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends’ influences may have a stronger impact on children’s behaviors.

  5. Shark hunting - An indiscriminate trade endangering elasmobranchs to extinction

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Snigdha; Desai, S.R.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    - head/round headed shark (Sphyrna zygaena), grey dog shark (R. acutus), sharp-nosed/yellow dog shark (S. lati- caudus) and black-finned/blacktip shark (C. melanop- terus). Most of the shark fin exports have been directed to Hong Kong and Singapore...

  6. Specialist Osmia bees forage indiscriminately among hybridizing Balsamorhiza floral hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane

    2011-01-01

    Pollinators, even floral generalists (=polyleges), typically specialize during individual foraging bouts, infrequently switching between floral hosts. Such transient floral constancy restricts pollen flow, and thereby gene flow, to conspecific flowers in mixed plant communities. Where incipient flowering species meet, however, weak cross-fertility and often similar...

  7. Socialising adolescent volunteering: how important are parents and friends? Age dependent effects of parents and friends on adolescents' volunteering behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goethem, A.A.J.; van Hoof, A.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of best friend's and parents' volunteering and civic family orientation (combined with open family communication) in adolescent volunteering, and the moderating effect of age. Results, involving 698 adolescents (M age = 15.19; SD = 1.43), revealed that

  8. Socialising adolescent volunteering : How important are parents and friends? Age dependent effects of parents and friends on adolescents' volunteering behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Anne A J; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A G; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of best friend's and parents' volunteering and civic family orientation (combined with open family communication) in adolescent volunteering, and the moderating effect of age. Results, involving 698 adolescents (M age. = 15.19; SD= 1.43), revealed that

  9. Eco-friendly wood-based solid-state flexible supercapacitors from wood transverse section slice and reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaoyi; Fu, Feng; Wang, Siqun; Huang, Jingda; Hu, La

    2015-07-01

    An interesting wood-based all-solid-state supercapacitor is produced using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) coated on wood transverse section slice (WTSS) as electrode material by means of a low-cost, eco-friendly, and simple method for the first time. The RGO-coated WTSS electrode has a porous 3D honeycomb framework due to the hierarchical cellular structure of the WTSS substrate and can function as an electrolyte reservoir. This special construction endows this novel electrode with good areal capacitance (102 mF cm-2) and excellent cyclic stability (capacitance retention of 98.9% after 5000 cycles). In addition, the supercapacitors exhibit good mechanical flexibility and preserve almost constant capacitive behavior under different bending conditions. Our study introduces a new and eco-friendly material design for electrodes in future flexible energy storage devices that closely resemble natural materials. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Is the self always better than a friend? Self-face recognition in Christians and atheists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    Early behavioral studies found that human adults responded faster to their own faces than faces of familiar others or strangers, a finding referred to as self-face advantage. Recent research suggests that the self-face advantage is mediated by implicit positive association with the self and is influenced by sociocultural experience. The current study investigated whether and how Christian belief and practice affect the processing of self-face in a Chinese population. Christian and Atheist participants were recruited for an implicit association test (IAT) in Experiment 1 and a face-owner identification task in Experiment 2. Experiment 1 found that atheists responded faster to self-face when it shared the same response key with positive compared to negative trait adjectives. This IAT effect, however, was significantly reduced in Christians. Experiment 2 found that atheists responded faster to self-face compared to a friend's face, but this self-face advantage was significantly reduced in Christians. Hierarchical regression analyses further showed that the IAT effect positively predicted self-face advantage in atheists but not in Christians. Our findings suggest that Christian belief and practice may weaken implicit positive association with the self and thus decrease the advantage of the self over a friend during face recognition in the believers.

  11. DMA Friends: the mobilization of statistics in a media innovation experiment in the museum sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMAN Ronan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On January 23, 2013, the Dallas Museum of Art (DMA returned to free general admission. This announcement coincided with the official launching of two programs: DMA Friends, a loyalty program, and DMA Partners, a membership program which is free of charge. The aim of this article is to propose an analysis, at the crossroads of media semiology, of political science and the historical sociology of statistical rationality, with a view to studying the ways in which the DMA Friends program designers have mobilized the statistical argument to justify the soundness of their approach. In order to do so, they leaned on a range of media forms generated by a sophisticated techno-semiotic apparatus which represents, in a statistical form, the behavior of visitors inside the museum. The program (and the whole instrumentation that sustains it illustrates a media innovation experiment in the museum sector that questions the ways by which the statistical work is mediated according to the communicational situations in which it is mobilized and enhanced.

  12. Printing of cotton with eco-friendly, red algal pigment from Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, S.; Ferrandiz, M.; Franco, E.; Mira, E.; Capablanca, L.; Bonet, Mª

    2017-10-01

    Natural dyes represent an emerging trend in the textile industry and eco-fashion due to the increasing awareness of the sustainability concept, which must be applied to the surrounding environment. In the light of the stated problem, the search for alternative sources of dyes, revealed the new, eco-friendly, biodegradable, non-carcinogenic and sustainable colorant matter, the algal biomass. In the present work, the suitability and viability of printing cotton fabrics with pigments obtained from the red macroalgae Gracilaria sp., has been investigated. For this aim, phycoerythrin, the red pigment, was extracted from fresh algal biomass, and used in a laboratory pigment-printing process, employing a natural and synthetic printing paste, for process efficiency comparison. The color values and the rubbing and laundering fastness of the printed substrates were evaluated. Results show that a light pink color can be obtained when applying both tested printing processes, and in terms of color fastness, both printing pastes show good behavior. In conclusion, the algal pigments show a high printing capacity on cotton substrates, either when employing the synthetic conventional paste and; moreover, when applying the more sustainable and eco-friendly natural paste.

  13. Tailored sPP/Silica Nano composite for Eco friendly Insulation of Extruded HVDC Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, B.; He, J.; Hu, J.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) is a thermosetting material that cannot be recycled at the end of its lifetime. This study investigated the potential of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP)/silica as an eco friendly extruded insulation system for HVDC cables. We investigated the morphology, Fourier transform infrared, and thermal, thermomechanical, and electrical behaviors of sPP modified with 0.5-3% nano silica. We found that the silica/sPP nano composite without cross-linking offered a suitable mechanical modulus at room temperature and sufficient intensity at high temperatures, and adding nano silica modified by a silane coupling agent to the sPP resulted in significant DC resistivity and space charge improvement. The optimal nano silica content in the sPP was determined by balancing the mechanical and thermomechanical characteristics and the DC resistivity. The sPP/silica nano composite reported here shows great potential as a candidate insulation material for future eco friendly extruded HVDC cables.

  14. Frequent electronic media communication with friends is associated with higher adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommans, Rob; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Finne, Emily; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the unique associations between electronic media communication (EMC) with friends and adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis), over and beyond the associations of face-to-face (FTF) interactions with friends and the average level of classroom substance use. Drawn from the cross-national 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in The Netherlands, 5,642 Dutch adolescents (Mage = 14.29) reported on their substance use, EMC, and FTF interactions. Two-level multilevel analyses (participants nested within classrooms) were run. Electronic media communication was positively associated with adolescent substance use, though significantly more strongly with alcohol (β = 0.15, SEβ = 0.02) than with tobacco (β = 0.05, SEβ = 0.02, t (5,180) = 3.33, p Electronic media communication was uniquely associated with substance use, predominantly with alcohol use. Thus, adolescents' EMC and other online behaviors should not be left unnoticed in substance use research and prevention programs.

  15. Printed environmentally friendly supercapacitors with ionic liquid electrolytes on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, F.; Keskinen, J.; Remonen, T.; von Hertzen, L.; Jansson, E.; Tappura, K.; Zhang, Y.; Wilén, C.-E.; Österbacka, R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmentally friendly supercapacitors are fabricated using commercial grade aluminum coated paper as a substrate and symmetrical activated carbon electrodes as large area electrodes. Different choline chloride-based eutectic solvents are used as electrolyte. These are inexpensive, environmentally friendly and have a larger operating window compared to that of water electrolytes. As the entire device is printed and the materials used are inexpensive, both small- and large-area power sources can be fabricated to be used in cheap, disposable and recyclable devices. Supercapacitors with different eutectic solvents are measured using cyclic charge-discharge and impedance spectroscopy measurements and compared to one widely used and one "green" imidazolium ionic liquid; EMIM:TFSI and EcoEng 212™, respectively. A mixture of ethylene glycol and choline chloride, Glyceline™, show the highest capacitance and power densities of the electrolytes being tested, including the imidazolium alternatives.

  16. Friends, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Satisfaction Among Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Yoo, Grace J

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area (M age = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.

  17. The Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative and Qatar, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Chehab, MBBCh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding instills countless benefits that extend beyond the infant and child to the entire nation. One of the global targets set by the WHO to improve maternal, infant, and young child nutrition is to increase the rate of exclusive breast-feeding “in the first 6 months” up to at least 50% by 2025.3 Thus, as a global endeavor to promote and sustain breastfeeding, the WHO and UNICEF launched the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI 1 year after the Innocenti Declaration of 1990. Regarding the State of Qatar, there was a 34% rate of early initiation of breastfeeding “within the first hour of birth” and a 29% rate of exclusive breastfeeding between 2010 and 2015. In Qatar during 2016, many obstacles in achieving the aforementioned global target remained. In addition, there are still no hospitals with a BFHI accreditation. Keywords: Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative, Breastfeeding, Maternal health, Qatar

  18. Antivirion Effects of Streptovaricin Complex Against Friend Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoszewicz, Julius S.; Leong, Susan S.; Byrd, Daniel M.; Carter, William A.

    1974-01-01

    The in vitro antivirion activities of five different streptovaricin complex lots against the polycythemic strain of the Friend virus were evaluated. The assay system was based on the inhibition of the Friend virus-induced spleen foci. The virus inactivation process was shown to be susceptible to variation in temperature, pH, and time. The antivirion activity and the acute toxicity for mice, as well as the optical properties of these streptovaricin complexes, do not co-vary; this suggests that their biological activities are not associated with a single molecular structure. In addition, the antivirion activity of the five preparations of streptovaricin complex differs about 30-fold, indicating that this activity does not reside in a major component of the complex. PMID:15825311

  19. Nuclear power: an eco friendly energy source for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidurrahman, K.; Singh, Om Pal

    2009-01-01

    When viewed from a large set of criteria such as abundance of energy resources, environmental impacts, low fuel inventory, quantum of waste generated and green house gas emissions, nuclear power can be considered as a large scale sustainable energy source. Among all energy sources, nuclear energy has perhaps the lowest impact on the environment, especially in relation to kilowatt-hr produced, because nuclear plants do not emit harmful gases and produce small quantity of waste. In other words, nuclear energy is the most environmental friendly electricity source. There are no significant adverse effects to water, land, habitat, species and air resources. The present paper discusses the sustainability and feasibility of nuclear power as an eco friendly energy source in the changing and challenging competitive power market. (author)

  20. Family-friendly policies: general nurses' preferences and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah; Davey, Barbara; Murrells, Trevor

    2003-01-01

    While European Union policy emphasises that one of the aims of family-friendly working arrangements is to increasing gender equality, in the UK the focus has been primarily on workforce retention. Drawing on a study of Registered General Nurses who returned to work after breaks for maternity leave, this paper considers their preferences and experiences in light of current UK family-friendly policies and the implications of the findings for increasing gender equality. Questionnaires were completed by respondents in three regional health authorities and focused on the four to eight year period after qualification. The following topics were investigated: views about length of maternity break and reasons for returning to work sooner than preferred; hours sought after a return and hours obtained; the availability of preferred patterns of work and of flexible hours; retention of grade on return; the availability and use of workplace crèches, and childcare arrangements when children were unwell.

  1. Parent and Friend Social Support and Adolescent Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Adela

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct two meta-analyses. The first examined social support from parents in relation to adolescent hope, and the second examined social support from friends in relation to adolescent hope. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for the literature reviewed, nine published studies or doctoral dissertations completed between 1990 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. Using meta-analytic techniques and the mean weighted r statistic, the results indicated that social support from friends had a stronger mean effect size (ES = .31) than social support from parents (ES = .21); there was a statistically significant difference between the two ESs. Two of the four moderators for the parent social support-adolescent hope relationship were statistically significant. They were quality score and health status. Implications for school nurses and nurses in all settings are addressed, and conclusions are drawn based on the findings.

  2. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its thermal and mechanical properties, and applies it to the design of food packaging. The results demonstrate that the thermal and mechanical properties of the material could satisfy the requirements of food packaging and that the material is applicable to the design of food packaging in the future. This work provides a reference for the application of green, environment-friendly materials in the design of food packaging.

  3. A fast, user-friendly code for calculating magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, S.W.; Freidberg, J.P.; Solomon, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Using variational techniques, we have developed a fast, user-friendly code for computing approximate, but highly accurate fixed boundary magnetohydrodynamic equilibria for tokamak plasmas. The variational procedure simplifies the problem---a two-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation---to a set of nonlinear algebraic equations. The reduced problem can be readily solved on workstations or personal computers. This allows us to exploit sophisticated graphical user interfaces that make supplying calculation data and viewing results easy. This ease-of-use, along with the semianalytic nature of our calculation, allows researchers to routinely incorporate equilibrium information into their work. It also provides a tool for educators teaching fusion theory. We describe the variational formulation, the speed and accuracy of the computer implementation, and the design and operation of a user-friendly graphical interface

  4. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate from rice husk: eco-friendly condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Archana M; Ali, Abdul A; Hazarika, Manash P

    2014-11-04

    Cellulose acetate was synthesized from rice husk by using a simple, efficient, cost-effective and solvent-free method. Cellulose was isolated from rice husk (RH) using standard pretreatment method with dilute alkaline and acid solutions and bleaching with 2% H2O2. Cellulose acetate (CA) was synthesized successfully with the yield of 66% in presence of acetic anhydride and iodine as a catalyst in eco-friendly solvent-free conditions. The reaction parameters were standardized at 80 °C for 300 min and the optimum results were taken for further study. The extent of acetylation was evaluated from % yield and the degree of substitution (DS), which was determined by (1)H NMR and titrimetrically. The synthesized products were characterized with the help modern analytical techniques like FT-IR, (1)H NMR, XRD, etc. and the thermal behavior was evaluated by TGA and DSC thermograms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmentally Friendly Cleaners for Removing Tar from Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    treatment plants that handle phosphate type solu- tions. The terms used by commercial vendors such as environmentally friendly, all natural, green, and...solvents used in relation to diesel fuel, and the procedure can also rank solvents quantitatively. Sacco (2004) has studied the blending of two plant ...other bituminous materials from industrial equipment surfaces. The composition is a mixture of a carrier monocyclic monoterpene and a nonionic

  6. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  7. Implementation of family friendly policy in Lithuania : problems and possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Jančaitytė, Raminta

    2006-01-01

    Family friendly policy is workplace policies that assist employees in combining family and work responsibilities. Significant and dominant feature of the contemporary Lithuanian labour market is women's increasing participation while they still predominantly hold domestic role. The focus of reconciling work and family has traditionally been concentrated on women. The article deals with work-family models and a typology of workplace policies that show different approach to problems of reconcil...

  8. T Cells in Gastric Cancer: Friends or Foes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedei, Amedeo; Della Bella, Chiara; Silvestri, Elena; Prisco, Domenico; D'Elios, Mario M.

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for gastric cancer. As for any type of cancer, T cells are crucial for recognition and elimination of gastric tumor cells. Unfortunately T cells, instead of protecting from the onset of cancer, can contribute to oncogenesis. Herein we review the different types, “friend or foe”, of T-cell response in gastric cancer. PMID:22693525

  9. Best of friends? Investigating the dog-human relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Rehn, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are commonly referred to as man's best friend, but the main focus of this thesis was to investigate how the dog experiences the relationship. The first part of the thesis dealt with methodology currently used to assess the dog-human relationship: the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) and the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS). In one experiment, possible associations between the dog's bond to its owner (using the SSP) and the strength of the owner's relationship to the dog (...

  10. Formal and Informal Volunteering in a State Friendly Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Rosdahl, David; Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    Citizens’ civic engagement and participation in voluntary associations is shaped by several factors, some of which are institutional while others are characteristics about the individual and the environment to which s/he belongs. Based on a comprehensive population survey carried out as part of t...... of the Danish Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this article explores determinants of formal and informal volunteering in a ‘state friendly society’ like the Danish....

  11. Liquid metal fast breeder reactor: a friend to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Large scale electric generation by any means poses potential challenges to the environment. The LMFBR has essentially no mining or ore requirements and modest transportation requirements. Normal releases from an LMFBR are slight. Risks from accidents appear to be quite small. While wastes present some interesting challenges, a variety of technically feasible alternates are available. On balance, relative to available options, the LMFBR is portrayed as a friend to the environment

  12. Urban Design Interventions Towards a Bike Friendly City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    and design qualities of the streetscape. The research focuses on a bike infrastructure with a distinct typology: Hans Broges Gade in Aarhus where a dedicated bike lane function as an extension of a bicycle route linking the suburb to Aarhus Central Station. Based on the data collected and analyzed......, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  13. Pediatric resident perceptions of family-friendly benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D; Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the importance of family-friendly features in residency program selection, benefits offered to and used by residents, and importance of benefits in future job selection. A survey of a random, national sample of 1000 graduating pediatric residents in 2008 was mailed and e-mailed. Survey response rate for graduating resident respondents was 59%. Among the respondents, 76% were women. Thirty-seven percent of men and 32% of women were parents. Residents with children were more likely than residents without children to rate family-friendly characteristics as very important in their residency selection (P maternity leave (88%), paternity leave (59%), individual flexibility with schedule (63%), and lactation rooms (55%), but fewer reported on-site child care (24%), care for ill children (19%), and part-time residency positions (12%). Among residents reporting availability, 77% of women with children used maternity leave and lactation rooms. Few held part-time residency positions (2%), but many expressed interest (23% of women with children). The majority of residents with and without children reported that flexibility with schedule was important in their future job selection. Most women with children (71%) and many women without children (52%) considered part-time work to be very important in their job selection. Family-friendly benefits are important to residents, particularly those with children. The data provides a benchmark for the availability and use of family-friendly features at pediatric training programs. The data also shows that many residents are unaware if benefits are offered, which suggests a need to make available benefits more transparent to residents. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigating compliance with SME-friendly procurement policy

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates compliance with SME-friendly policy in public procurement. Two research questions guide the investigation. The first is the extent to which policy is being complied with. The results, which are based on 349 public buyer survey responses, reveal compliance to be moderate; indicated by a mean score of 14.54 out of 22 on the compliance index. The second question concerns the impact of institutional forces on policy compliance. A predictive model informed by institutional ...

  15. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jixia Li

    2017-01-01

    With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid)/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its therm...

  16. Using environment friendly finely divided materials in brittle matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizwan, S.A.; Ahmad, H.

    2005-01-01

    Material engineers the world over are increasingly recommending the use of environment friendly efficient construction materials, which otherwise would have been classed as waste materials for improving the durability of concrete. Pakistan has been blessed by nature with huge natural resources of lime, and fly-ash is also becoming increasingly available with the induction of thermal power generation plants. To introduce the benefits of such concrete modifying materials to the engineering community in our country, an investigation has been carried out on the use of locally available powdered hydrated lime, fly-ash and their combinations in making concretes with a view to evaluate their strength, workability, durability and cost effectiveness. As such there is no documented data of local materials available on the topic in Pakistan. ACI mentions powdered hydrated lime and fly-ash as finely divided admixtures which can be used to improve concrete properties at microstructure level. It is commonly believed by the engineers that the use of such materials is especially desirable for durability purposes. Moreover, lime when added in concrete absorbs CO/sub 2/ from the environment thus making it friendly flexible material. he results of investigation are encouraging especially when the two were used in combination as some weight fraction of cement to make quality and environment friendly concrete. (author)

  17. Towards a user-friendly brain-computer interface: initial tests in ALS and PLS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Huang, Dandan; Fei, Ding-Yu; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2010-08-01

    Patients usually require long-term training for effective EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) control due to fatigue caused by the demands for focused attention during prolonged BCI operation. We intended to develop a user-friendly BCI requiring minimal training and less mental load. Testing of BCI performance was investigated in three patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and three patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), who had no previous BCI experience. All patients performed binary control of cursor movement. One ALS patient and one PLS patient performed four-directional cursor control in a two-dimensional domain under a BCI paradigm associated with human natural motor behavior using motor execution and motor imagery. Subjects practiced for 5-10min and then participated in a multi-session study of either binary control or four-directional control including online BCI game over 1.5-2h in a single visit. Event-related desynchronization and event-related synchronization in the beta band were observed in all patients during the production of voluntary movement either by motor execution or motor imagery. The online binary control of cursor movement was achieved with an average accuracy about 82.1+/-8.2% with motor execution and about 80% with motor imagery, whereas offline accuracy was achieved with 91.4+/-3.4% with motor execution and 83.3+/-8.9% with motor imagery after optimization. In addition, four-directional cursor control was achieved with an accuracy of 50-60% with motor execution and motor imagery. Patients with ALS or PLS may achieve BCI control without extended training, and fatigue might be reduced during operation of a BCI associated with human natural motor behavior. The development of a user-friendly BCI will promote practical BCI applications in paralyzed patients. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Speech Acts During Friends' and Non-friends' Spontaneous Conversations in Preschool Dyads with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Golan-Itshaky, Adi; Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we videotaped two 10-min. free-play interactions and coded speech acts (SAs) in peer talk of 51 preschoolers (21 ASD, 30 typical), interacting with friend versus non-friend partners. Groups were matched for maternal education, IQ (verbal/nonverbal), and CA. We compared SAs by group (ASD/typical), by partner's friendship status (friend/non-friend), and by partner's disability status. Main results yielded a higher amount and diversity of SAs in the typical than the ASD group (mainly in assertive acts, organizational devices, object-dubbing, and pretend-play); yet, those categories, among others, showed better performance with friends versus non-friends. Overall, a more nuanced perception of the pragmatic deficit in ASD should be adopted, highlighting friendship as an important context for children's development of SAs.

  20. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Akram, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  1. Marital Quality and Spouses' Marriage Work with Close Friends and Each Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Heather M.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how husbands' and wives' marriage work with close friends and one another was linked to their perceptions of marital quality. Results showed that husbands engaged in more marriage work with their wives than with close friends, whereas wives engaged in similar levels of marriage work with their close friends and husbands. (Contains 58…

  2. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  3. Finding Friends Online: Online Activities by Deaf Students and Their Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.C.; Marschark, M.; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Knoors, H.E.T.

    2014-01-01

    Generally, deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) children have fewer friends than hearing peers and their friendships are of a lower quality. The research hypothesis was that using the computer to communicate with new online friends through social network sites or playing games with offline friends is

  4. Computer-Mediated Communication with Distant Friends: Relations with Adjustment during Students' First Semester in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, John D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Because of recent technological innovations, college freshmen can readily communicate with friends who they see infrequently (e.g., friends from home). The current study addressed whether computer-mediated communication with these distant friends can compensate for a lack of high-quality on-campus friendships during students' first semester of…

  5. Does the Gap in Family-Friendly Policies Drive the Family Gap?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne; Verner, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Segregation of the labour market into a family-friendly and a non-family-friendly sector implies that women self-select into sectors depending on institutional constraints, preferences for family-friendly working conditions and expected wage differences. We take this sector dimension into account...

  6. Analisa Perbedaan Eco-friendly Attitude Dan Eco-friendly Intention Antara Turis Lokal Dan Turis Asing Terhadap Green

    OpenAIRE

    Jokom, Regina; Kristanti, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern for environmental degradation caused many people to pay more attention to the green practice in the industry including hotel. Majority of hotel chains have adopted environmental programs and labeled as green hotel. This study examines the significant differences between local tourist and foreign tourist regarding ecofriendly attitude and eco-friendly intention toward green hotel. Questionnaires were distributed to 120 localtourists and 120 foreign tourists In Juanda...

  7. DECO FRECASE (drywall eco-friendly from eggshell and cane bagasse) as an innovation of eco-friendly interior construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imron, M. A.; Ahkam, D. N. I.; Hidayat, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    The number of factories and home industries, both upper and lower middle class certainly adds waste generated, resulting in environmental pollution. The development of buildings is one of the largest contributors to global warming. For that, it takes technological innovations that lead to the criteria of green building. The application of green material is important aspects of environmentally friendly development, the selection of materials on the green material criteria of both roles should be applied continuously in order to realize the environmental sustainability of the material. Utilization Waste eggshell and bagasse which is a community waste, has the potential to become innovative environmentally friendly building materials. The eggshell is composed of 94% calcium carbonate, 1% magnesium carbonate, 1% calcium phosphate, and 4% organic material, especially protein, while the bagasse has a high content of silica (SiO2). In this study, the compounds are used as raw material for making alternative drywall in the form of DECO FRECASE. DECO FRECASE is an innovation of environmentally friendly building materials as an interior wall construction. Through DECO FRECASE, it is expected that building material innovation in Indonesia can be improved and of course environmental problems can be minimized by utilizing it as raw material for building construction.

  8. Dataset on energy efficiency assessment and measurement method for child-friendly space in cold residential area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data related in this paper are related to “Environmental-behavior studies of sustainable construction of the third place – based on outdoor environment-behavior cross-feed symbiotic analysis and verification of selective activities” (Ren, 2017 [1]. The dataset was from a field sub-time extended investigation to children of Hohhot West Inner Mongolia Electric Power Community Residential Area in Inner Mongolia of China that belongs to cold region of ID area according to Chinese design code for buildings. This filed data provided descriptive statistics about outdoor time, behavior scale specificity, age exclusivity and self-centeredness for children in different ages (babies, preschool children, school age children. This data provided five measurement elements of child-friendly space and their weight ratio. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  9. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Keri Jo; McCormack, Gavin R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Hawe, Penelope; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K

    2013-12-01

    Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today's youth. Friend's health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual's level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends' higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend's sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Friends' physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual's physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents.

  10. Friends' Alcohol-Related Social Networking Site Activity Predicts Escalations in Adolescent Drinking: Mediation by Peer Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Rothenberg, W Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M; Jackson, Kristina M

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents' increased use of social networking sites (SNS) coincides with a developmental period of heightened risk for alcohol use initiation. However, little is known regarding associations between adolescents' SNS use and drinking initiation nor the mechanisms of this association. This study examined longitudinal associations among adolescents' exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS postings, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms, and initiation of drinking behaviors. Participants were 658 high-school students who reported on posting of alcohol-related SNS content by self and friends, alcohol-related injunctive norms, and other developmental risk factors for alcohol use at two time points, 1 year apart. Participants also reported on initiation of three drinking behaviors: consuming a full drink, becoming drunk, and heavy episodic drinking (three or more drinks per occasion). Probit regression analyses were used to predict initiation of drinking behaviors from exposure to alcohol-related SNS content. Path analyses examined mediation of this association by peer injunctive norms. Exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS content predicted adolescents' initiation of drinking and heavy episodic drinking 1 year later, controlling for demographic and known developmental risk factors for alcohol use (i.e., parental monitoring and peer orientation). In addition, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms statistically mediated the relationship between alcohol-related SNS exposure and each drinking milestone. Results suggest that social media plays a unique role in contributing to peer influence processes surrounding alcohol use and highlight the need for future investigative and preventive efforts to account for adolescents' changing social environments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kopcakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys. We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., “There are other children nearby home to go out and play with” with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR for one standard deviation (SD change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05–1.18 and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.98. Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence.

  12. Cross-Cultural Investigation of Consumers’ Generations Attitudes Towards Purchase of Environmentally Friendly Products in Apparel Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan-Cristian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes of the environment and in the society have altered consumers’ preferences and brought new concerns among local communities regarding environmental protection and organizations responsibility, the adoption of environmentally friendly strategies, as well as offering more sustainable products. Consumers tend to select retailers based on their focus on environmental friendly products and on various “green” strategies regarding waste disposal, package recycling, etc. This study aims to highlight Romanian and Slovak consumers’ attitudes towards purchasing of goods from retailers that strive a clear focus on environmental responsibility and environmental friendly practices in apparel, footwear and sportswear retail. By means of a quantitative research based on a questionnaire administered to consumers of international retail chains with operations in both countries, the authors highlight differences in their perceptions and attitudes for buying green apparel, footwear and sportswear. Whereas Millennials and Gen Xers consumers in Romania and Slovakia believe that international apparel, footwear and sportswear retailers are less concerned about environmentally responsible behavior and the need of selling green products, Baby Boomers are more sensitive to such aspects and carefully select retailers according to their green strategy. This research provides specific findings about attitudes of different consumers’ generations within two emerging European countries (Romania, Slovakia.

  13. Characterization of the env gene and long terminal repeat of molecularly cloned Friend mink cell focus-inducing virus DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, A; Sakai, K; Kitamura, N; Nakanishi, S; Niwa, O; Matsuyama, M; Ishimoto, A

    1984-01-01

    The highly oncogenic erythroleukemia-inducing Friend mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) virus was molecularly cloned in phage lambda gtWES.lambda B, and the DNA sequences of the env gene and the long terminal repeat were determined. The nucleotide sequences of Friend MCF virus and Friend spleen focus-forming virus were quite homologous, supporting the hypothesis that Friend spleen focus-forming virus might be generated via Friend MCF virus from an ecotropic Friend virus mainly by some deletions. ...

  14. The Importance of Pro-Environmental Behavior in Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palupi, Tyas; Sawitri, Dian R.

    2018-02-01

    Studies regarding pro-environmental behavior in adolescents are lacking. This study aimed to examine the importance of pro-environmental behavior in adolescents (high school and university students) by conducting literature review from previous studies on pro environmental behavior. Pro-environmental behavior is the behavior of individuals that contributes towards environmental preservation. Based on previous studies, measurement of pro-environmental behavior were investigated on several theories, namely theory of planned behavior (TPB) and value, belief, norms (VBN) by using aspects of pro environmental behavior. Young people with critical thinking, and good environmental education, are expected to behave more environmentally friendly for creating a sustainable future.

  15. Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours - the ENERGY cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velde, Saskia J; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bere, Elling; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes

    2014-07-08

    The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10-12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place. Parental and friends norm and

  16. Attachment and Emotional Development in Institutional Care: Characteristics and Catch-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Steele, Howard; Zeanah, Charles H.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Vorria, Panayiota; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; Steele, Miriam; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Attachment has been assessed in the extreme environment of orphanages, but an important issue to be addressed in this chapter is whether in addition to standard assessment procedures, such as the Strange Situation, the lack of a specific attachment in some institutionalized children should be taken into account given the limits to the development of stable relationships in institutionalized care. In addition, this chapter discusses disinhibited or indiscriminately friendly behavior that is often seen in institutionalized children. Enhanced caregiving quality alone appears to be insufficient to diminish indiscriminate behavior, at least in some children, as evidenced by the persistence of indiscriminate behavior in children adopted out of institutions into adoptive families. We suggest that the etiology and function of indiscriminate friendly behavior may be different for institutionalized versus not-institutionalized children. In the first case it may reflect a distortion or disruption of early attachment relationships, in the latter case it is likely to result from the lack of expected input in the form of contingent interactions with a stable caregiver in early life. We try to delineate infant and caregiver characteristics that are associated with secure attachment in institutional settings, given the inevitable fact that large numbers of infants worldwide are being raised, and will be raised, in contexts of institutional care. We conclude that much further study is needed of the development of children’s attachments following adoption out of an institutional setting. PMID:25242826

  17. Correlates of Objective Social Isolation from Family and Friends among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Harry Owen; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the correlates of objective social isolation from extended family members and friends among older adults. The analysis is based on the older adult sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n = 1321). Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined race/ethnicity, demographics, functional health and family and friend network factors as correlates of objective isolation from family and friends. Only 4.47% of respondents were objectively isolated from both their extended family and friends, 10.82% were isolated from their friends, and 7.43% were isolated from their family members. Men were more likely to be objectively isolated from both family and friends and older adults who live with others were significantly more likely to be objectively isolated from their friends. When controlling for subjective social isolation, the two measures of functional health were significantly associated with objective social isolation. In particular, higher levels of self-care impairment decreased the risk of being objectively isolated from friends only, whereas higher mobility impairment was associated with an increased likelihood of being objectively isolated from friends only. Subjective evaluations of social isolation from family and friends were consistently associated with being objectively isolated from family and friends. There were no significant differences between African-Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites in objective isolation. These and other findings are discussed in detail. PMID:29510504

  18. Correlates of Objective Social Isolation from Family and Friends among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Nicklett, Emily J; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2018-03-03

    This study examined the correlates of objective social isolation from extended family members and friends among older adults. The analysis is based on the older adult sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life ( n = 1321). Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined race/ethnicity, demographics, functional health and family and friend network factors as correlates of objective isolation from family and friends. Only 4.47% of respondents were objectively isolated from both their extended family and friends, 10.82% were isolated from their friends, and 7.43% were isolated from their family members. Men were more likely to be objectively isolated from both family and friends and older adults who live with others were significantly more likely to be objectively isolated from their friends. When controlling for subjective social isolation, the two measures of functional health were significantly associated with objective social isolation. In particular, higher levels of self-care impairment decreased the risk of being objectively isolated from friends only, whereas higher mobility impairment was associated with an increased likelihood of being objectively isolated from friends only. Subjective evaluations of social isolation from family and friends were consistently associated with being objectively isolated from family and friends. There were no significant differences between African-Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites in objective isolation. These and other findings are discussed in detail.

  19. [The family-friendly hospital: (how) does it work?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A R; Heller, S C

    2009-06-01

    The demographic development in Germany is heading towards a significant shortage in specialists within the next 10-15 years with an increased demand for health services at the same time. The three-stage model of family life planning (work, family phase, return) will also be gradually replaced by a model of simultaneous compatibility of family and work. This change in values, although initiated by the parents themselves, may turn out to be a crucial countermeasure in national economy against the demography-related loss of qualified personnel. For these three trends the economic need arises to minimize family-related absence of our well-trained, motivated and reliable doctors from the clinical departments through implementation of family-friendly human resources policies and supporting measures by the employers. In a representative survey 26% of respondents with children had in the past already changed their workplace to ensure a better match of work and family duties. In this regard the compatibility of family and professional responsibilities had a higher impact on the selection of the employer than a high income. Accordingly, a work-life competence oriented business plan will represent the crucial factor within the competition between universities, hospitals and professional disciplines to attract high potential bearers although a sustained change of the traditional hospital culture is mandatory. Anaesthesia-related fields of development regarding family-friendly corporate governance are working hours and organization of work, part-time jobs even for managers and fathers, and staff development. In the hospital daily routine, in particular, creative solutions meeting the local demands are deemed necessary that do not involve the use of high financial resources. Family-friendly personnel policy not only arises from altruistic enthusiasm but also pays off economically. This article discusses the necessity, opportunities and threads of family-oriented hospital

  20. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized.

  1. Friends of the Earth case against the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, S.

    1987-01-01

    Friends of the Earth's case against Sizewell B has been summarised in a report entitled 'Critical Decision: Should Britain buy the Pressurised Water Reactor?'. This showed that on economic and safety grounds, Sizewell B would not be a good choice for the electricity consumer or the country at large. Events since the end of the Inquiry, particularly those affecting the economic case, have confirmed this conclusion. This paper will summarise the case, both during the Inquiry and subsequent to this, as well as make reference to the long-term environmental implications of the Central Electricity Generating Board's PWR programme. (author)

  2. Adolescent health care maintenance in a teen-friendly clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Nicole; Shore, William B

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is marked by complex physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, which can be stressful for families and adolescents. Before the onset of puberty, providers should clearly lay the groundwork for clinical care and office visits during the adolescent years. This article addresses the guidelines and current legal standards for confidentiality in adolescent care, the most frequently used psychosocial screening tools, and current recommendations for preventive health services and immunizations. Through the creation of teen-friendly clinics, primary care providers are well positioned to offer guidance and support to teens and their parents during this time of transition and growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neutron scattering studies of eco-friendly functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.K.; Gupta, M.K.; Mittal, R.; Krishna, P.S.R.; Chaplot, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Niobate based materials are environment friendly and appropriate for wide piezoelectric applications due to their piezo-response that is comparable to Pb(Zr Ti)O_3 beyond the technological application, NaNbO_3 has been a rich model system for understanding of mechanisms of structural phase transitions when subject to changes in thermodynamical conditions like: temperature, pressure, and/or composition, particle size and external stimuli like electric/magnetic field etc. In the present work, we report systematic investigation of structural phase transitions with variations in temperature, external pressure and chemical pressure (via compositional modification) using the neutron scattering technique. (author)

  4. Extrusion: An environmentally friendly process for PEMFC membrane elaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.-Y.; Iojoiu, C.; Marechal, M. [LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSEEG, BP 75, F-38402, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Chabert, F.; El Kissi, N. [Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSHMG, BP 53, F-38041, Grenoble (France); Salomon, J.; Mercier, R. [LMOPS UMR CNRS 5041, BP 24, F-69390 Vernaison (France); Piffard, Y. [CNRS Universite de Nantes, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, UMR 6502, BP 32229, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Galiano, H. [CEA, Le Ripault Research Center, BP 16, F-37260, Monts (France)

    2007-12-31

    The paper deals with the use of extrusion to process PEMFC filled and unfilled membranes. Several routes including the sulfonation of filled and unfilled extruded membranes and the extrusion of filled and unfilled ionomers are reported. Thanks to the use of selected water-soluble aid process plasticizers, acid and alkaline forms of sulfonated polyethersulfone were, for the first time, successfully extruded. The extrusion process did not lead to any degradation of the ionomer performances. Decreasing the membrane cost while using environmentally friendly elaboration conditions, it should be helpful to an industrial production. In addition, avoiding filler sedimentation it should allow homogeneous composite membranes to be obtained. (author)

  5. Environmentally friendly joining of tubes by their ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Carlos M.A.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Alves, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an environmentally friendly joining process for connecting tubes by their ends that has the potential to replace current solutions based on fastened, crimped, welded, brazed or adhesive bonded joints. The process is based on a new type of tubular lap joint produced by local...... of deformation and the process feasibility window, and destructive testing to establish the working limits of tubular lap joints under different type of loading conditions. Results demonstrate that the proposed joining process is a flexible and cost-effective technology for connecting tubes by their ends...

  6. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF ENVIRONMENTALY FRIENDLY CLEANING METHOD BY LASER TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lýdia Sobotová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Still deteriorating environment, requirements for reducing of production waste, requirements for the protection of the working environment, the formation of new technologies and materials, as well as the economic conditions are forcing manufacturers to use the environmentally friendly technology. The contribution deals with new progressive possibilities of cleaning products, raw materials and with the establishment of a minimum production waste. The research focuses on the possibilities of laser cleaning of materials, under defined technological conditions. In the contribution is presented the results of realized experiments in Technical University of Kosice, together created in cooperation with Trumpf Slovakia, s.r.o

  7. The relationship of eco-friendly attitudes with walking and biking to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Wittman, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to work is an effective strategy for integrating regular physical activity (PA) into daily life routines, but limited research exists on influences of AC among adults. Current trends and interests toward environmental consciousness and sustainable forms of travel could impact transportation-related PA. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eco-friendly attitudes (EFA) and several variables related to AC. A cross-sectional study of respondents to an online survey. Employed adults, physically able to walk or bicycle. The survey included questions about EFA, AC patterns, motivators and barriers for AC, and demographics. Eco-friendly attitudes were measured using a 9-item scale (eg, "I subscribe to ecological publications"). Participants were divided into quartiles on the basis of their EFA summary score (higher score = more ecologically friendly), and t tests and analyses of variance were used to make comparisons across groups on several variables related to AC. The sample (n = 375) was primarily young to middle-aged adults (mean age 39.4 ± 12.9 years), female (60.7%), and Caucasian (90.3%), with at least a high school education (94.6% with high school diploma or greater). Participants reported actively commuting an average of 2.4 ± 4.5 times per week and driving on average 8.4 ± 3.8 times per week. The mean EFA score was 33.4 ± 12.1 out of 63. Age was negatively related and education was positively related to EFA. Compared with those in the lower 3 quartiles, individuals in the top quartile of EFA scores were more likely to actively commute and less likely to drive and reported more self-efficacy, fewer barriers, and more motivators for AC. This study provides insight into potential influences on AC and possible strategies for intervention. Future studies should continue to investigate ecological attitudes as a possible moderator of AC behavior. Public health-based interventions to promote AC may use ecology

  8. Sacrificial amphiphiles: Eco-friendly chemical herders as oil spill mitigation chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deeksha; Sarker, Bivas; Thadikaran, Keith; John, Vijay; Maldarelli, Charles; John, George

    2015-06-01

    Crude oil spills are a major threat to marine biota and the environment. When light crude oil spills on water, it forms a thin layer that is difficult to clean by any methods of oil spill response. Under these circumstances, a special type of amphiphile termed as "chemical herder" is sprayed onto the water surrounding the spilled oil. The amphiphile forms a monomolecular layer on the water surface, reducing the air-sea surface tension and causing the oil slick to retract into a thick mass that can be burnt in situ. The current best-known chemical herders are chemically stable and nonbiodegradable, and hence remain in the marine ecosystem for years. We architect an eco-friendly, sacrificial, and effective green herder derived from the plant-based small-molecule phytol, which is abundant in the marine environment, as an alternative to the current chemical herders. Phytol consists of a regularly branched chain of isoprene units that form the hydrophobe of the amphiphile; the chain is esterified to cationic groups to form the polar group. The ester linkage is proximal to an allyl bond in phytol, which facilitates the hydrolysis of the amphiphile after adsorption to the sea surface into the phytol hydrophobic tail, which along with the unhydrolyzed herder, remains on the surface to maintain herding action, and the cationic group, which dissolves into the water column. Eventual degradation of the phytol tail and dilution of the cation make these sacrificial amphiphiles eco-friendly. The herding behavior of phytol-based amphiphiles is evaluated as a function of time, temperature, and water salinity to examine their versatility under different conditions, ranging from ice-cold water to hot water. The green chemical herder retracted oil slicks by up to ~500, 700, and 2500% at 5°, 20°, and 35°C, respectively, during the first 10 min of the experiment, which is on a par with the current best chemical herders in practice.

  9. Intelligent Interaction for Human-Friendly Service Robot in Smart House Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zenn Bien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The smart house under consideration is a service-integrated complex system to assist older persons and/or people with disabilities. The primary goal of the system is to achieve independent living by various robotic devices and systems. Such a system is treated as a human-in-the loop system in which human- robot interaction takes place intensely and frequently. Based on our experiences of having designed and implemented a smart house environment, called Intelligent Sweet Home (ISH, we present a framework of realizing human-friendly HRI (human-robot interaction module with various effective techniques of computational intelligence. More specifically, we partition the robotic tasks of HRI module into three groups in consideration of the level of specificity, fuzziness or uncertainty of the context of the system, and present effective interaction method for each case. We first show a task planning algorithm and its architecture to deal with well-structured tasks autonomously by a simplified set of commands of the user instead of inconvenient manual operations. To provide with capability of interacting in a human-friendly way in a fuzzy context, it is proposed that the robot should make use of human bio-signals as input of the HRI module as shown in a hand gesture recognition system, called a soft remote control system. Finally we discuss a probabilistic fuzzy rule-based life-long learning system, equipped with intention reading capability by learning human behavioral patterns, which is introduced as a solution in uncertain and time-varying situations.

  10. What foods are identified as animal friendly by Italian consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian market, voluntary certifications implying higher levels of animal welfare generally fall into wider production schemes. Despite of the results of EU surveys indicating that about 50% of Italian consumers can easily identify and find animal-friendly products, they still are distributed scarcely or discontinuously in the main retail chains. To assess the apparent contradiction between the intricate information consumers receive from labels and their declared awareness about animal welfare, a survey was conducted in Emilia Romagna region on 355 Italian consumers (face-to-face interviews based on a structured, semi-close-ended questionnaire. Overall, consumers showed a low degree of knowledge about animal welfare attributes, animal farming conditions and animal protection policies (about 30% of correct answers, and a low level of awareness of the effects of their purchasing choices on the welfare of farmed animals (22%. The respondents also showed difficulties in identifying animal-friendly products and often confused them with other certified foods, having sometimes a weak connection (or none at all to animal welfare (e.g., Protected Designation of Origin products. However, most consumers declared to be ready to pay a premium price in name of animal welfare. In conclusion, a labelling system for the welfare content of animal-derived foods is confirmed to be an effective strategy to compensate the efforts of farmers in improving animal welfare, provided that the information given is clear and able to fill the substantial lack of consumer knowledge.

  11. Risk benefits of climate-friendly energy supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Burgherr, P.

    2003-01-01

    One of the central goals of sustainable development is the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. This is needed in order to prevent the anticipated climate change, and the potentially serious consequences for human beings and the environment. Energy supply systems constitute the dominant contributors to GHG emissions. This paper examines three illustrative emission scenarios for world-wide energy supply in the 21 st Century. These scenarios, including the associated GHG and major pollutant emissions, were chosen from a set established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Using the emissions as a starting point, and based on recent findings concerning the impact on the environment and the financial costs resulting from global climate change on the one hand, and regional air pollution on the other hand, the present work provides estimates of the scenario-dependent, world-wide cumulative damage. The fossil-intensive reference scenario leads to overall damages which correspond to very substantial losses in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and which widely exceed the damages caused by the scenarios reflecting climate-friendly policies. Generally, the somewhat speculative estimates of the GHG-specific damages are much less significant than damages to human health and the environment caused by the major air pollutants. This means that the secondary benefits of climate-friendly, energy-supply options, i.e. those which avoid the impacts due to air pollution, alone justify strategies protecting the climate. (author)

  12. Using budget-friendly methods to analyze sport specific movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lindsay; Williams, Sarah; Ferrara, Davon

    2015-03-01

    When breaking down the physics behind sport specific movements, athletes, usually professional, are often assessed in multimillion-dollar laboratories and facilities. Budget-friendly methods, such as video analysis using low-cost cameras, iPhone sensors, or inexpensive force sensors can make this process more accessible to amateur athletes, which in-turn can give insight into injury mechanisms. Here we present a comparison of two methods of determining the forces experienced by a cheerleader during co-education stunting and soccer goalies while side-diving. For the cheerleader, accelerometer measurements were taken by an iPhone 5 and compared to video analysis. The measurements done on the soccer players were taken using FlexiForce force sensors and again compared to video analysis. While these budget-friendly methods could use some refining, they show promise for producing usable measurements for possibly increasing our understanding of injury in amateur players. Furthermore, low-cost physics experiments with sports can foster an active learning environment for students with minimum physics and mathematical background.

  13. An experimental investigation on mechanical behaviour of eco - friendly concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narender Reddy, A.; Meena, T.

    2017-11-01

    Fly ash (FA) and Alccofine are the eco-friendly materials that can be used in the production of concrete composites. Initially, concrete mixes of M30 grade with replacement of cement by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight of Fly ash were prepared. They were subjected to compression test so as to select the optimum replacement percentage of FA. Keeping this optimum percentage of FA as constant, additional replacement of cement with Alccofine was done varying its replacement in the range of 8%, 10%, 12% and 14%. The mechanical properties such as compressive, split tensile and flexural strengths of these mixes were computed for 7, 14 and 28 days. The results of Eco-Friendly Concrete (EFC) are compared with those of control concrete. It was observed that EFC mixes exhibited superior qualities like quick setting and enhanced workability, their mechanical properties were found to be higher than that of the conventional concrete. This goes to prove that the combination of FA and Alccofine together as replacement for cement would enhance the properties of EFC.

  14. Preparation of nanoparticles with an environment-friendly approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kefu; Peng, Zhen; Fan, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Developing various approaches for preparing high performance materials has long been topics and tasks both for scientists and for engineers. Despite that many methods have been developed for preparing nanomaterials, developing simple and environment-friendly ways for preparing nanomaterials is very attractive. Here a simple approach of synthesizing Fe3O4 nanoparticles by arc-discharge submerging in water was reported. The results showed that by this method Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be synthesized at large scale. The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited uniform spherical shape and their diameters varied with arc-discharging parameters. The experimental results showed that the size of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be controlled through adjusting the processing parameters. Since no vacuum system has been used, the synthesizing process is greatly simplified. In addition, only cheap deionized water and industrial iron bar are used and no pollution or harmful byproducts are found in the synthesis process. It indicated that the present approach is a simple, low-cost and environment-friendly one for preparing nanoparticles.

  15. Towards a Research Agenda for Cyber Friendly Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.

    2009-11-18

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, degradation of skills due to continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situation awareness, and lack of training and discipline in offensive/defense response selection. While these problems are typically addressed in R&D focusing on traditional ground-based combat, there is also an emerging need for improving situation awareness and decision making on defensive/offensive response options in the cyber defense arena, where a mistaken response to an actual or perceived cyber attack could lead to destruction or compromise of friendly cyber assets. The purpose of this report is to examine cognitive factors that may affect cyber situation awareness and describe possible research needs to reduce the likelihood and effects of "friendly cyber fire" on cyber defenses, information infrastructures, and data. The approach is to examine concepts and methods that have been described in research applied to the more traditional problem of mitigating the occurrence of combat identification and fratricide. Application domains of interest include cyber security defense against external or internal (insider) threats.

  16. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, B. P.; Calle, L. M.; Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Johnsey, M. N.; Montgomery, E. L.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Surma, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center's Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods. Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed. The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  17. Wildlife-friendly farming benefits rare birds, bees and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pywell, Richard F; Heard, Matthew S; Bradbury, Richard B; Hinsley, Shelley; Nowakowski, Marek; Walker, Kevin J; Bullock, James M

    2012-10-23

    Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, especially for threatened and near-threatened species. One widely implemented response is 'wildlife-friendly farming', involving the close integration of conservation and extensive farming practices within agricultural landscapes. However, the putative benefits from this controversial policy are currently either unknown or thought unlikely to extend to rare and declining species. Here, we show that new, evidence-based approaches to habitat creation on intensively managed farmland in England can achieve large increases in plant, bee and bird species. In particular, we found that habitat enhancement methods designed to provide the requirements of sensitive target biota consistently increased the richness and abundance of both rare and common species, with 10-fold to greater than 100-fold more rare species per sample area than generalized conventional conservation measures. Furthermore, targeting landscapes of high species richness amplified beneficial effects on the least mobile taxa: plants and bees. Our results provide the first unequivocal support for a national wildlife-friendly farming policy and suggest that this approach should be implemented much more extensively to address global biodiversity loss. However, to be effective, these conservation measures must be evidence-based, and developed using sound knowledge of the ecological requirements of key species.

  18. Building Child Friendly Cities in the MENA region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Osman El Hassan M.

    2013-09-01

    The notion of Child Friendly Cities (CFCs) was first developed during the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II), held in Istanbul in 1996. The concept is based on four general principles of the United Nations Convention on the rights of the child: (1) fair treatment of every child, regardless of ethnicity, gender, religion, socioeconomic background etc.; (2) top priority of the best interests of the child; (3) the child's right to a better life and development; and (4) respect of children's views. In a CFC, children are encouraged to take part in the decision making processes that affect their lives. Instead of starting yet another programme for children, the development of a CFC mobilises and connects existing agencies and actors. Giving examples of some cities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, this paper demonstrates that building CFCs has induced the development of mechanisms and structures which have enabled cities to address children's issues in a systematic manner. These mechanisms and structures include: a municipal child-friendly legal framework, local development councils and NGO networks and local municipal development offices. The author argues that in building CFCs, the role of municipal authorities is indispensable in responding to the needs of children and young people within the municipalities' mandates.

  19. Adolescents' working models and styles for relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Simon, Valerie A; Shaffer, Laura; Bouchey, Heather A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the links among adolescents' representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed three times to assess their working models for each of these types of relationships. Working models of friendships were related to working models of relationships with parents and romantic partners. Working models of relationships with parents and romantic partners were inconsistently related. A similar pattern of results was obtained for self-report measures of relational styles for the three types of relationships. Perceived experiences were also related. Specifically, support in relationships with parents tended to be related to support in romantic relationships and friendships, but the latter two were unrelated. On the other hand, self and other controlling behaviors in friendships were related to corresponding behaviors in romantic relationships. Negative interactions in the three types of relationships also tended to be related. Taken together, the findings indicate that the representations of the three types of relationships are distinct, yet related. Discussion focuses on the nature of the links among the three.

  20. Friendship Dynamics of Adolescent Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social Status: The Moderating Role of Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Huiyoung

    2017-11-01

    Interactions with friends are a salient part of adolescents' experience at school. Adolescents tend to form friendships with similar peers and, in turn, their friends influence adolescents' behaviors and beliefs. The current study investigated early adolescents' selection of friends and friends' influence with regard to physical aggression, prosocial behavior, and popularity and social preference (i.e., likeability) among fifth and sixth graders (N = 736, 52% girls at wave1, N = 677, 52% girls at wave 2) in elementary schools in South Korea. The moderating role of gender on early adolescents' friend selection and influence was also examined. With longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), we found that youth tended to select friends with similar levels of physical aggression and popularity, and their friends influenced their own physical aggression and popularity over time. The higher youth were in social preference, the less likely they chose physically aggressive peers as friends. Boys were more likely to select highly popular peers as friends compared to girls, and influence effects for physical aggression and popularity were stronger for boys compared to girls. The results underscore the importance of gender in friendship dynamics among Asian early adolescents.

  1. Gene-Environment Interplay between Number of Friends and Prosocial Leadership Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivizzigno, Alessandra S.; Brendgen, Mara; Feng, Bei; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Enriched environments may moderate the effect of genetic factors on prosocial leadership (gene-environment interaction, G × E). However, positive environmental experiences may also themselves be influenced by a genetic disposition for prosocial leadership (gene-environment correlation, rGE). Relating these processes to friendships, the present…

  2. Nanocrystalline cellulose as an eco-friendly reinforcing additive to polyurethane coating for augmented anticorrosive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Fattah, M; Hasan, Abdulraheim M A; Keshawy, Mohamed; El Saeed, Ashraf M; Aboelenien, Ossama M

    2018-03-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) and micro-powdered cellulose (MPC) were extracted from rice straw by mechanical and alkali treatment methods, then characterized via infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. A series of polyurethane nanocrystalline cellulose composite (PNCCC) and polyurethane micro-powdered cellulose composite (PMPCC) coatings were prepared with various loading levels of NCC and MPC from 0.5 to 2.0 wt.%, and the coatings were applied onto the pretreated mild steel substrate at room temperature. The results showed that the NCC and MPC influenced positively the studied properties of the polyurethane coating; furthermore the most pronounced anticorrosive properties were obtained at 1 wt.% NCC and MPC, as confirmed by open circuit potential (OCP) study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study and salt spray test. However, the optimum enhancement of mechanical properties was found at 1.5 wt.% loading level, after which further loading of NCC and MPC led to the reduction in the mechanical properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. "That Could Be Me Squishing Chips on Someone's Car." How Friends Can Positively Influence Bullying Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sharyn; Cross, Donna; Maycock, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Semi-structured one-on-one interviews with a purposive sample of 51 grade 7 students (12 years old) who reported bullying others explored what might encourage students to stop bullying others. The theoretical perspectives of symbolic interactionism, in particular the development of self and definition of the situation, were used to inform this…

  4. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the "Friends for Life" Program on Children’s Anxiety and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moharrari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anxiety disorders and depression during childhood and adolescence are among highly prevalent serious mental health problems, which lead to reduced performance in children and can also negatively affect on children’s emotional and social long-term development.Methods: This study is a controlled clinical trial that evaluates the effectiveness of the "Friends for Life" cognitive-behavioral program in reducing the symptoms of anxiety and depression in children. In this study, 248 male students aged 10 were screened using the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety (RCMA and the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI in terms of mild to moderate symptoms of anxiety and depression. Of the subjects, 40 students met the inclusion criteria.The demographic questionnaire, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale (DASS were filled out by parents. The children in the experimental group received the "Friends for Life" cognitive-behavioral training program for eight 1-hour weekly sessions. RCMA, CDI, SDQ, and DASS were filled out again in both groups at the end of the sessions and 3 months later.Results: Children’s depression and manifest anxiety scores before intervention were not significantly different in the two groups; however, their changes immediately after intervention and during 3 months of follow-up were significant (p<0.001. Moreover, hyperactivity (p=0.039, peer problems (p=0.011 and parental depression (p=0.015 scores significantly changed in both groups over time.Conclusions: Implementation of "Friends for Life" program is effective in prevention and treatment of the symptoms of anxiety and depression in children.

  5. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2014-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  6. Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Barry H; Lea, R Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive and user-friendly introduction to statistics for behavioral science students-revised and updated Refined over seven editions by master teachers, this book gives instructors and students alike clear examples and carefully crafted exercises to support the teaching and learning of statistics for both manipulating and consuming data. One of the most popular and respected statistics texts in the behavioral sciences, the Seventh Edition of Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences has been fully revised. The new edition presents all the topics students in the behavioral s

  7. Measuring fish and their physical habitats: Versatile 2D and 3D video techniques with user-friendly software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuswanger, Jason R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Hughes, Nicholas F.

    2017-01-01

    Applications of video in fisheries research range from simple biodiversity surveys to three-dimensional (3D) measurement of complex swimming, schooling, feeding, and territorial behaviors. However, researchers lack a transparently developed, easy-to-use, general purpose tool for 3D video measurement and event logging. Thus, we developed a new measurement system, with freely available, user-friendly software, easily obtained hardware, and flexible underlying mathematical methods capable of high precision and accuracy. The software, VidSync, allows users to efficiently record, organize, and navigate complex 2D or 3D measurements of fish and their physical habitats. Laboratory tests showed submillimetre accuracy in length measurements of 50.8 mm targets at close range, with increasing errors (mostly competitors, out to a distance of 1.0 to 2.9 body lengths. This system makes 3D video measurement a practical tool for laboratory and field studies of aquatic or terrestrial animal behavior and ecology.

  8. What they bring: baseline psychological distress differentially predicts neural response in social exclusion by children's friends and strangers in best friend dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddam, Suman; Laws, Holly; Crawford, Jessica L; Wu, Jia; Bolling, Danielle Z; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Friendships play a major role in cognitive, emotional and social development in middle childhood. We employed the online Cyberball social exclusion paradigm to understand the neural correlates of dyadic social exclusion among best friends assessed simultaneously. Each child played with their friend and an unfamiliar player. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed via electroencephalogram during exclusion by friend and unfamiliar peer. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling to account for nesting of children within friendship dyads. Results showed that stranger rejection was associated with larger P2 and positive slow wave ERP responses compared to exclusion by a friend. Psychological distress differentially moderated the effects of friend and stranger exclusion such that children with greater psychological distress were observed to have larger neural responses (larger P2 and slow wave) to exclusion by a stranger compared to exclusion by a friend. Conversely, children with lower levels of psychological distress had larger neural responses for exclusion by a friend than by a stranger. Psychological distress within the dyad differentially predicted the P2 and slow wave response. Findings highlight the prominent, but differential role of individual and dyadic psychological distress levels in moderating responses to social exclusion in middle childhood. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Influence of Friends on Children’s Physical Activity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Claire C.

    2013-01-01

    We examined evidence for friendship influences on children's physical activity (PA) through systematic searches of online databases in May 2012. We identified 106 studies (25 qualitative) published in English since 2000 that analyzed indicators of friendship influences (e.g., communication about PA, friends’ PA, and PA with friends) among persons younger than 19 years. Children's PA was positively associated with encouragement from friends (43 of 55 studies indicating a positive relationship), friends' own PA (30/35), and engagement with friends in PA (9/10). These findings are consistent with friends influencing PA, but most studies did not isolate influence from other factors that could explain similarity. Understanding friendship influences in childhood can facilitate the promotion of lifelong healthy habits. PA with friends should be considered in health promotion programs. PMID:23678914

  10. MICP and Advances towards Eco-Friendly and Economical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Adharsh; Moy, Charles K. S.; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Biomineralization is a natural process aided by living organisms. Due to its applicability in ground improvement and bioremediation, Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) is an interdisciplinary field of study combining engineering, chemistry and microbiology. Bioremediation has been applied widely for contamination containment or removal, in this case it will be containment. MICP can also be applied to improve the efficiency of insitu bioremediation. Urease is an enzyme which can facilitate increased calcite precipitation. However the production of urease by bacteria and thus the resulting carbonate precipitation are inhibited by environmental factors including calcium concentration, bacterial concentration, pH and temperature. Under good conditions MICP can be used for heavy metal and radionuclide immobilization. However technologies such as bioconsolidation and biocementation require improvement such as time and cost. This paper highlights the application of MICP in addition to suggested improvements to make it more eco-friendly and sustainable.

  11. Eco-friendly (green) synthesis of magnetically active gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadasala, Naveen Reddy; Lin, Lu; Gilpin, Christopher; Wei, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Au-FexOy composite nanoparticles (NPs) are of great technological interest due to their combined optical and magnetic properties. However, typical syntheses are neither simple nor ecologically friendly, creating a challenging situation for process scale-up. Here we describe conditions for preparing Au-FexOy NPs in aqueous solutions and at ambient temperatures, without resorting to solvents or amphiphilic surfactants with poor sustainability profiles. These magnetic gold nanoclusters (MGNCs) are prepared in practical yields with average sizes slightly below 100 nm, and surface plasmon resonances that extend to near-infrared wavelengths, and sufficient magnetic moment (up to 6 emu g-1) to permit collection within minutes by handheld magnets. The MGNCs also produce significant photoluminescence when excited at 488 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicates a relatively even distribution of Fe within the MGNCs, as opposed to a central magnetic core.

  12. User-friendly chemistry takes center stage at ACS meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.

    1992-01-01

    These days it seems that what chemistry needs more than anything else is a good p.r. agent. If you ask John or Joan Q. Public about the accomplishments of the chemical industry, chances are they'll mention Love Canal, CFCs destroying the ozone layer, or carcinogens in food. However, if the national meeting of the American Chemical Society in Washington, D.C., 2 weeks ago is any indication, chemists are working hard to fix the image problem. Nearly all of the two dozen press conferences held during the meeting focused on food, health topics, environment-friendly technology, or some other subject close to consumers' hearts. And the scientific talks themselves reflected the same interests, with sessions such as 'Environmental Successes in the Chemical Industry', 'Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention', 'Chemistry of Electrophilic Metal Complexes', 'New Advances in Polyolefin Polymers', 'Zapping acid rain with microwaves.'

  13. Ionic Liquids: An Environmentally Friendly Media for Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorapur, Yogesh R.; Chi, Dae Yoon

    2006-01-01

    Ionic liquids are alternative reaction media of increasing interest and are regarded as an eco-friendly alternatives, of potential use in place of the volatile organic solvents typically used in current chemical processing methods. They are emerging as the smart and excellent solvents, which are made of positive and negative ions that they are liquids near room temperature. The nucleophilic substitution reaction is one of the important method for inserting functional groups into a carbon skeleton. Many nucleophilic substitution reactions have been found with enhanced reactivity and selectivity in ionic liquid. In this review, some recent interesting results of nucleophilic substitution reactions such as hydroxylations, ether cleavages, carbon-X (X = carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine) bond forming reactions, and ring opening of epoxides in ionic liquids are discussed

  14. A user friendly Lidar system based on LabVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats; Weibring, P.

    1996-09-01

    Mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems have been used for the last two decades. The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system which was first described in 1987. This report describes how that system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW in order to get a user friendly system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measurement data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. New electronics to support the new lidar program have also been installed. The report describes how all supporting electronics and the program work. A user manual for the new program is also given. 19 refs, 79 figs, 23 charts

  15. FASTDART - A fast, accurate and friendly version of DART code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, Jeffrey; Taboada, Horacio

    2000-01-01

    A new enhanced, visual version of DART code is presented. DART is a mechanistic model based code, developed for the performance calculation and assessment of aluminum dispersion fuel. Major issues of this new version are the development of a new, time saving calculation routine, able to be run on PC, a friendly visual input interface and a plotting facility. This version, available for silicide and U-Mo fuels, adds to the classical accuracy of DART models for fuel performance prediction, a faster execution and visual interfaces. It is part of a collaboration agreement between ANL and CNEA in the area of Low Enriched Uranium Advanced Fuels, held by the Implementation Arrangement for Technical Exchange and Cooperation in the Area of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  16. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  17. Cancer-associated lysosomal changes: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallunki, T; Olsen, O D; Jäättelä, M

    2013-04-18

    Rapidly dividing and invasive cancer cells are strongly dependent on effective lysosomal function. Accordingly, transformation and cancer progression are characterized by dramatic changes in lysosomal volume, composition and cellular distribution. Depending on one's point of view, the cancer-associated changes in the lysosomal compartment can be regarded as friends or foes. Most of them are clearly transforming as they promote invasive growth, angiogenesis and drug resistance. The same changes can, however, strongly sensitize cells to lysosomal membrane permeabilization and thereby to lysosome-targeting anti-cancer drugs. In this review we compile our current knowledge on cancer-associated changes in lysosomal composition and discuss the consequences of these alterations to cancer progression and the possibilities they can bring to cancer therapy.

  18. Eco-friendly Crosslinking Agent for Acid Functional Acrylic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from J. multifida was extracted and it was first converted into N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl Jatropha fatty amide (HEJFA. HEJFA has been synthesized by reaction between Jatropha oil and diethanol amine in presence of zinc oxide as a catalyst. The reaction is relatively rapid and proceeded to high yield at 200±5 OC. The resulting HEJFA was used to formulate thermosetting coating compositions. Films were cured at ambient (air drying and elevated (stove drying temperatures using N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl Jatropha fatty amide (HEJFA as eco-friendly crosslinking agent for acrylic resin. The coating performance of the various compositions was tested by measurement of scratch hardness, impact strength and chemical resistance. The results show better performance of the HEJFA based compositions compared to butylated melamine formaldehyde (MF based compositions.

  19. Following family or friends: Social norms in adolescent healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical...... framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer......, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self...

  20. CE: Beyond Maternity Nursing: The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Regina

    2017-08-01

    : The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a program developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to promote breastfeeding in hospitals and birthing facilities worldwide. Since the program was launched in 1991, breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity have increased globally, a trend largely attributed to changes in hospital policies and practices brought about by the BFHI. This article provides an overview of these practices and policies, the institutional benefits of achieving BFHI certification, and the process through which health care facilities can do so. All nurses-whether they work in maternity care or another nursing specialty in a hospital, ambulatory, or community setting-can play a role in promoting societal health through their support of long-term breastfeeding as recommended by the WHO and UNICEF.

  1. Environmentally friendly cellulose-based polyelectrolytes in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenda, Kinga; Arnold, Julien; Gamelas, José A F; Rasteiro, Maria G

    2017-09-01

    Natural-based polyelectrolytes (PELs), with all the advantages coming from being produced from renewable and biodegradable sources, are a potential solution for the removal of dyes from wastewater. In this work, surplus Eucalyptus bleached cellulose fibres from a paper mill were modified to increase the charge and solubility of cellulose. First, reactive aldehyde groups were introduced in the cellulose backbone by periodate oxidation of cellulose. Further modification with alkylammonium produced positively charged cellulose-based PELs. The final products were characterized by several analytical techniques. The PEL with the highest substitution degree of cationic groups was evaluated for its performance in decolouration processes, bentonite being used as aid. This was found to be effective for colour removal of either anionic or cationic dyes. Bio-PELs can thus be considered as very favourable eco-friendly flocculation agents for decolouration of harsh effluents from several industries, considering their biodegradable nature and thus the ability to produce less sludge.

  2. Biosynthesis of planet friendly bioplastics using renewable carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Roopesh; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Plastics are uniquely flexible materials that offer considerable benefits as a simple packing to complex engineering material. Traditional synthetic polymers (often called plastics), such as polypropylene and polyethylene have been derived from non-renewable petrochemicals and known to cause environmental concerns due to their non-biodegradable nature. The enormous use of petroleum-based plastic compounds emphasized a need for sustainable alternatives derived from renewable resources. Bioplastics have attracted widespread attention, as eco-friendly and eco-tolerable alternative. But they have got certain limitations as well, such as high cost of production and unsatisfactory mechanical properties. In this study we have found agriculture waste (AW) as low-cost and renewable substrate for the production of bioplastics in bacterial fermentation. Improvement in tensile properties of produced bioplastic film has also been documented upon blending with Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB).

  3. Media - Our friends (improving our relationship with media)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Bilegan, Iosif Constantin

    2000-01-01

    The paper will present the principles, goals and the steps followed in establishing media relationships. It will highlight the company' s activity developed over this year within the Romanian Public Information Programme in the nuclear field, in order to establish friendly relationship with media, as well as the conclusions we have reached in performing such an activity. In this moment, the way public receives the real information has a great impact on the future development of this alternative and the role of media is an essential one. So, we consider that the utility mission is to act promptly to transmit to the public complete and honest information with the help of this important segment which is media

  4. Radioecological implementation of 'environmental friendly' materials alumosilicate origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovic, M.; Milojkovic, J.; Grubisic, M.; Iles, D.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of modern civilization is radionuclide contamination of soil, especially in Serbia.There was NATO aggression when were used munitions with depleted uranium, and after that waste material was deposed on the inhabited and mostly fertile soil. Having in mind that not all activities have been taken that would permanently eliminate the consequences of this radionuclide, means that entering depleted uranium in the food chain is a real danger now. Solving this problem requires a holistic approach including the application of safe and effective 'environmental friendly' materials that are economical, locally available and easily applicable. Our investigations have included testing the efficiency of natural and modified with domestic origin aluminosilicate materials, zeolite, phosphate, bentonite and diatomite for in situ remediation of soil. (author) [sr

  5. John Freind: physician, chemist, Jacobite, and friend of Voltaire's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlinson, J S

    2007-05-22

    John Freind (1675/76-1728) achieved distinction in several walks of life, first as a classical scholar, then as a physician and as a chemist who advocated Newtonian philosophy. His clinical practice was generally conservative and he was against the newly introduced practice of inoculating the smallpox. His principles were Tory and High Church; his loyalty to the house of Stuart involved him in the Jacobite plot of 1722, and a spell in the Tower of London. His money was part of the foundation of Dr Lee's benefaction to Christ Church, which still survives in name in scientific posts in Oxford. He was among the circle of friends that Voltaire formed during his two-year stay in England and, 50 years later, Voltaire took him and his son as the principal characters in a conte philosophique defending a deistic attitude against both atheism and revealed religion.

  6. On user-friendly interface construction for CACSD packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole

    1989-01-01

    Some ideas that are used in the development of user-friendly interface for a computer-aided control system design (CACSD) package are presented. The concepts presented are integration and extensibility through the use of object-oriented programming, man-machine interface and user support using...... direct manipulation, and multiple views and multiple actions on objects in different domains. The use of multiple views and actions in combination with graphics enhances the user's ability to get an overview of the system to be designed. Good support for iteration is provided, and the short time between...... action and presentation allows the user to evaluate actions quickly. Object-oriented programming has been used to provide modularity and encapsulation...

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances. An environmentally friendly UC is a remote controller which utilizes an infrared two-way communication function and becomes capable of dealing with any appliance upon downloading remote control information from the appliance involved. Studies were conducted for the development of controller hardware and software therefor and for the development of electrical home appliances to correspond to their specifications. In relation with energy conservation, studies centered about reduction in power consumption while on standby and unnecessary power consumption. As the result, an environmentally friendly UC protocol was newly developed and, based on the protocol, plural numbers of controllers, appliances, and network gateways were tentatively fabricated, and were examined for their function, behavior, and operational interchangeability. Systems aiming at reducing power consumption while on standby and unnecessary power consumption were built by way of experiment, and were checked for performance. It was then concluded that a reduction of several billion kWh might be achieved. (NEDO)

  8. Melon oil methyl ester: an environmentally friendly fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Fasogbon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demand for energy is growing across the globe due to the direct relationship between the well-being and prosperity of people and energy usage. However, meeting this growing energy demand in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is a key challenge. To this end, methyl esters (biodiesels have been and are being widely investigated as alternatives to fossil fuels in compression ignition engines. In this study, melon (Colocynthis Citrullus Lanatus oil was used to synthesize biodiesel (methyl ester using the transesterification method in the presence of a sodium hydroxide promoter. The emissions profile of the biodiesel was investigated by setting up a single-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled CI engine connected to a TD115-hydraulic dynamometer and an Eclipse Flue Gas Analyzer (FGA with model number EGA4 flue gas analyzer. The engine was run at engine speeds of 675, 1200 and 1900rpm for biodiesel/diesel blends at 21°C on a volume basis of 0/100(B0, 10/90(B10, 20/80(B20, 30/70(B30, 40/60(B40 and 50/50(B50. The test showed a downward trend in the emissions profile of the biodiesel, with remarkable reductions of about 55% in the dangerous-carbon monoxide exhaust gas pollutant and 33.3% in the unfriendly SOX from 100% diesel to B30-biodiesel concentration. Increasing the speed from 675 to 1200 and then to 1900 rpm also afforded further reductions in CO and SOX exhaust emissions. NOX however increased marginally by 2.1% from the same 100% diesel to the B30-biodiesel composition. Based on the remarkable reduction in CO and SOX and the marginal increase in NOX as the concentration of the biodiesel increased in the blends, the study concludes that melon oil methyl ester is an environmentally friendly fuel.

  9. Family Physicians Managing Medical Requests From Family and Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroldi, Esther; Freeth, Robin; Hanssen, Maurice; Muris, Jean W M; Kay, Margareth; Cals, Jochen W L

    2018-01-01

    Although guidelines generally state that physicians should not treat their family members or friends (nonpatients), physicians regularly receive medical requests from nonpatients. We aimed to explore junior and senior family physicians' experiences with and attitudes toward managing medical requests from nonpatients. We conducted a qualitative study with 7 focus groups with junior and senior physicians. We performed a thematic analysis during an iterative cycle of data collection and analysis. When confronted with a medical request from a nonpatient, physicians first oriented themselves to the situation: who is this person, what is he or she asking of me, and where are we? Physicians next considered the following interrelated factors: (1) nature/strength of the relationship with the nonpatient, (2) amount of trust in his/her own knowledge and skills, (3) expected consequences of making mistakes, (4) importance of work-life balance, and (5) risk of disturbing the physician-patient process. Senior physicians applied more nuanced considerations when deciding whether to respond, whereas junior physicians experienced more difficulties dealing with these requests, were less inclined to respond, and were more concerned about disturbing the existing relationship that a person had with his/her own physician. This study provides insight into the complexity that physicians face when managing medical questions and requests from nonpatients. Facilitated group discussions during which experiences are shared can help junior physicians become more confident in dealing with these complex issues as they formulate their own personal strategy regarding provision of medical advice or treatment to family and friends. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  10. Development of eco-friendly polymeric materials by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae-hak; Shim, Kihyung; Kim, Jaeyoung

    2012-12-01

    In this project, the core technologies such as fabrication of eco-friendly and high-performance bioplastics, anionic exchange membranes for the energy generation, and anisotropic conductive films (ACF) for the electronic devices were developed by using an eco-friendly and low-energy consumption radiation. In the 1 st project group, the fabrication technologies of biodegradable polymer-based blends, biocompoistes, and foam were developed using a radiation crosslinking technology, and the possibility of their commercialization was evaluated through the fabrication of prototype products (fruits packaging material and adhesive) in the practical production lines. In the 2 nd project group, the fabrication technology of the anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell were prepared by utilizing the inherent property of radiation such as high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, mechanical property, and chemical stability of the prepared membranes were measured. The results of the MEA performance test, the maximum power density of 115 mW and operation for 200 hours, indicates the possibility of the use of anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell. In the 3rd project group, the electron beam-induced room temperature and fast curable epoxy was developed and the mechanism of electron beam-induced curing was investigated using various analytical methods. On the basis of the physical and electrical characterization, the prepared ACF exhibited lower resistance and higher tensile strength compared to that of the commercialized one

  11. Development of eco-friendly polymeric materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-hak; Shim, Kihyung; Kim, Jaeyoung; and others

    2012-12-15

    In this project, the core technologies such as fabrication of eco-friendly and high-performance bioplastics, anionic exchange membranes for the energy generation, and anisotropic conductive films (ACF) for the electronic devices were developed by using an eco-friendly and low-energy consumption radiation. In the 1{sup st} project group, the fabrication technologies of biodegradable polymer-based blends, biocompoistes, and foam were developed using a radiation crosslinking technology, and the possibility of their commercialization was evaluated through the fabrication of prototype products (fruits packaging material and adhesive) in the practical production lines. In the 2{sup nd} project group, the fabrication technology of the anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell were prepared by utilizing the inherent property of radiation such as high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, high ionizing energy and penetrating depth. The ion exchange capacity, ion conductivity, mechanical property, and chemical stability of the prepared membranes were measured. The results of the MEA performance test, the maximum power density of 115 mW and operation for 200 hours, indicates the possibility of the use of anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell. In the 3rd project group, the electron beam-induced room temperature and fast curable epoxy was developed and the mechanism of electron beam-induced curing was investigated using various analytical methods. On the basis of the physical and electrical characterization, the prepared ACF exhibited lower resistance and higher tensile strength compared to that of the commercialized one.

  12. Gamma irradiation in developing consumer friendly lip balm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Foziah Ali

    2008-01-01

    Main base ingredients of lip balm such as petroleum jelly and coloring materials are harmful to customers. Side effects from impurities in petroleum jelly in the manufacturing process have been implicated at causing cancer and long term damage to health. Artificial colours have been found to cause cancer in animals and many people experienced allergic reactions i.e. skin irritation and contact dermatitis. Therefore 'friendly' lip balm was formulated by substituting the base ingredient, i.e. petroleum jelly, with vegetable fats and incorporated with anthocyanin pigments from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) and Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra (red cabbage) as natural colorants. Anthocyanins are considered secondary metabolites, allowed as food additives and act as powerful antioxidants. The herbal lip balm samples were gamma irradiated (2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy) at Mintec SINAGAMA, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi. The samples were tested for microbiology quality i.e. total microbial count and presence of yeast and mold. The results showed that there were no microbial and yeast/mold colonies were detected in non-irradiated samples (control) and after irradiation. The essential oils from herbs and spices included in the herbal lip balms not only improve the taste and aroma but also had potential as natural preservatives due to their antibacterial properties. Gamma irradiation at dose 2.5 kGy was suitable as minimum dose to decontaminate the herbal lip balm without affecting the colour and texture. From market survey, friendly lip balm is considered as a safe and attractive product, with multifunctional uses i.e. to prevent chapped lips, freshen the breath, reduces mouth odour and contributes to improving general health quality. (Author)

  13. A STUDY ON FACTORS AFFECTING BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMERS FOR ECO - FRIENDLY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Anil Kumar; Dr. Mridanish Jha

    2017-01-01

    Products are not the only thing which can be eco-friendly and actions are also friendly to the environment. Several people think that eco-friendly products are only the first step, and that people who are actually dedicated to the environment also need to change their lifestyles, diminishing the quantum of resources they use by living more competently. The exploratory factor analysis shows that price, quality, value, trust and easy to use are the factors that affecting buying behaviour of con...

  14. How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend s...

  15. Parenting with Positive Behavior Support: A Practical Guide to Resolving Your Child's Difficult Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieneman, Meme; Childs, Karen; Sergay, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Now the theory and research behind the positive behavior support (PBS) process--an approach already proven effective in schools and community programs--has been transformed into a practical, easy-to-use guide that's perfect for sharing with parents. Developed by educators and families, this user-friendly handbook offers parents easy-to-follow…

  16. University of Illinois FRIENDS Children’s Environmental Health Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FRIENDS Children's Environmental Health Center at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, was established in 2001 to investigate the interactive effects of...

  17. Disinhibited social engagement in postinstitutionalized children: differentiating normal from atypical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Jamie M; Hostinar, Camelia E; Mliner, Shanna B; Gunnar, Megan R

    2014-05-01

    The most commonly reported socially aberrant behavior in postinstitutionalized (PI) children is disinhibited social engagement (DSE; also known as indiscriminate friendliness). There is no gold standard for measurement of this phenomenon nor agreement on how to differentiate it from normative behavior. We adopted a developmental psychopathology approach (Cicchetti, 1984) to study this phenomenon by comparing it to normative social development and by studying its patterns over time in 50 newly adopted PI children (16-36 months at adoption) compared with 41 children adopted early from foster care overseas and 47 nonadopted (NA) controls. Using coded behavioral observations of the child's interaction with an unfamiliar adult, atypical behaviors were differentiated from normative behaviors. Principal components analysis identified two dimensions of social disinhibition. The nonphysical social dimension (e.g., initiations, proximity) showed wide variation in NA children and is therefore considered a typical form of sociability. Displays of physical contact and intimacy were rare in NA children, suggesting that they represent an atypical pattern of behavior. Both adopted groups demonstrated more physical DSE behavior than NA children. There were no group differences on the nonphysical factor, and it increased over time in all groups. Implications for understanding the etiology of DSE and future directions are discussed.

  18. [The relationship between four components of assertiveness and interpersonal behaviors, interpersonal adjustment in high school students' friendship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Asami

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between four components of assertiveness ("open expression", "control of emotion", "consideration for others" and "self-direction") and interpersonal behaviors on friends, interpersonal stress events, social anxiety. A questionnaire which included scales to measure the four components of assertiveness, activities with friend, considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events and social anxiety was completed by 177 high school students. The results showed that "self-direction" had curvilinear relations with considerate behavior for friends, interpersonal stress events. An excessively high score for "self-direction" was associated with fewer considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events. An optimum score for "self-direction" was associated with more considerate behavior and interpersonal stress events.

  19. THE OVERDENSITY AND MASSES OF THE FRIENDS-OF-FRIENDS HALOS AND UNIVERSALITY OF HALO MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Surhud; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Dalal, Neal; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The friends-of-friends algorithm (hereafter FOF) is a percolation algorithm which is routinely used to identify dark matter halos from N-body simulations. We use results from percolation theory to show that the boundary of FOF halos does not correspond to a single density threshold but to a range of densities close to a critical value that depends upon the linking length parameter, b. We show that for the commonly used choice of b = 0.2, this critical density is equal to 81.62 times the mean matter density. Consequently, halos identified by the FOF algorithm enclose an average overdensity which depends on their density profile (concentration) and therefore changes with halo mass, contrary to the popular belief that the average overdensity is ∼180. We derive an analytical expression for the overdensity as a function of the linking length parameter b and the concentration of the halo. Results of tests carried out using simulated and actual FOF halos identified in cosmological simulations show excellent agreement with our analytical prediction. We also find that the mass of the halo that the FOF algorithm selects crucially depends upon mass resolution. We find a percolation-theory-motivated formula that is able to accurately correct for the dependence on number of particles for the mock realizations of spherical and triaxial Navarro-Frenk-White halos. However, we show that this correction breaks down when applied to the real cosmological FOF halos due to the presence of substructures. Given that abundance of substructure depends on redshift and cosmology, we expect that the resolution effects due to substructure on the FOF mass and halo mass function will also depend on redshift and cosmology and will be difficult to correct for in general. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the universality of the mass function.

  20. The Relationship between Neighborhood Characteristics and Effective Parenting Behaviors: The Role of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood's relation to parents' access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly…

  1. Parental overprotection and interpersonal behavior in generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles T; Alden, Lynn E

    2006-03-01

    Forty-one people with generalized social phobia (GSP) and 42 community controls completed a measure of social developmental experiences and then participated in a social interaction with an experimental assistant whose behavior was either friendly or ambiguous. Following the interaction, confederates rated participants' behavior and their desire to interact with their partner again. In people with social phobia, but not controls, perceptions of parental overprotection were associated with less responsiveness to partner behavior. Moreover, failure to reciprocate the friendly partner's behavior led to social rejection. The results support the value of incorporating social developmental concepts into cognitive-behavioral models of social phobia and highlight the contribution of social learning experiences to the development of maladaptive interpersonal behavior in these individuals.

  2. A Study on the establishment of environmental friendly taxation system II - concentrated on calculation of environmental friendly subsidy and taxation reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan; Lim, Hyun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Establishing an environmental friendly taxation system, designing to have a sustainable development and environmental conservation simultaneously, is an important problem to be solved. Following the study on calculation of water and energy subsidy in previous year, the amount of environmental unfriendly subsidy in transportation and agriculture was calculated. Based on the introduction plan of new environmental tax, such as carbon tax and product share, a scheme of environmental friendly taxation reform was proposed. 48 refs., 5 figs., 88 tabs.

  3. Environmentally friendly disinfectant: Production, disinfectant action and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Milan I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a known disinfectant from ancient times, and it has been widely used for various purposes: for food and water disinfection, curing of wounds and as a universal antibiotic for a wide spectrum of diseases - until the Second World War and the discovery of penicillin. Until recently, it was assumed that silver, being a heavy metal, was toxic for humans and living beings. However, the newest research provides facts that the usage of silver, even for drinking water disinfection, is benign if it is added in small concentrations (in parts per billion. It has been shown in the newer scientific and technical literature that silver in colloidal form is a powerful (secondary disinfectant for drinking water, that it can be effectively used for the disinfection of water containers including swimming pools, installations in food industry, medicine, etc. Particularly, it has been shown that colloidal silver combined with hydrogen peroxide shows synergism having strong bactericidal and antiviral effects. The combination can be successfully used as a disinfectant in agriculture, food production and medicine. The original electrochemical process of production, the mechanism of physical-chemical reactions in that process and the mechanism of the antiseptic affect of the environmentally friendly disinfectant, based on the synergism of colloidal silver and hydrogen peroxide and the activity of electrochemically activated water, is shown. The starting solution was anolyte, obtained in electrochemical activation by water electrolysis of a highly diluted solution of K-tartarate in demineralized water (5.5-1CT4 M. The problem of electrolysis of very dilute aqueous solutions in membrane cells was particularly treated. It was shown that the efficiency of the electrolysis depends on the competition between the two processes: the rates of the processes of hydrogen and oxygen generation at the electrodes and the process of diffusion of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

  4. A user-friendly tool for incremental haemodialysis prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano; Basile, Carlo

    2018-01-05

    There is a recently heightened interest in incremental haemodialysis (IHD), the main advantage of which could likely be a better preservation of the residual kidney function of the patients. The implementation of IHD, however, is hindered by many factors, among them, the mathematical complexity of its prescription. The aim of our study was to design a user-friendly tool for IHD prescription, consisting of only a few rows of a common spreadsheet. The keystone of our spreadsheet was the following fundamental concept: the dialysis dose to be prescribed in IHD depends only on the normalized urea clearance provided by the native kidneys (KRUn) of the patient for each frequency of treatment, according to the variable target model recently proposed by Casino and Basile (The variable target model: a paradigm shift in the incremental haemodialysis prescription. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017; 32: 182-190). The first step was to put in sequence a series of equations in order to calculate, firstly, KRUn and, then, the key parameters to be prescribed for an adequate IHD; the second step was to compare KRUn values obtained with our spreadsheet with KRUn values obtainable with the gold standard Solute-solver (Daugirdas JT et al., Solute-solver: a web-based tool for modeling urea kinetics for a broad range of hemodialysis schedules in multiple patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 54: 798-809) in a sample of 40 incident haemodialysis patients. Our spreadsheet provided excellent results. The differences with Solute-solver were clinically negligible. This was confirmed by the Bland-Altman plot built to analyse the agreement between KRUn values obtained with the two methods: the difference was 0.07 ± 0.05 mL/min/35 L. Our spreadsheet is a user-friendly tool able to provide clinically acceptable results in IHD prescription. Two immediate consequences could derive: (i) a larger dissemination of IHD might occur; and (ii) our spreadsheet could represent a useful tool for an ineludibly

  5. An eco friendly solution to the food waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. Reddy; Kumar, G. Madhav

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, waste disposal at workmen camp is one of the major problems being faced by many nations across the world. In the workmen colony at Chittapur, a series of kitchens were built for cooking purpose and a number of small canteens are also functioning. Considerable quantity of food waste is collected daily from these eateries and disposed at a faraway place. Food waste is highly degradable in nature, if not disposed properly it causes problems related to environmental pollution. Hence, it is very important to identify an environment friendly process rather than opt for land filling or any disposal method. We worked together to find a suitable eco-friendly solution for the food waste disposal at Chittapur site and suggested that biogas production through anaerobic digestion is a solution for the disposal and utilization of food waste for better purpose. This resulted in setting up a 500 kg per day food waste treatment biogas plant at Chittapur. This establishment is the first time in the construction industry at workmen camp in India. Anaerobic Digestion has been recognized as one of the best options that is available for treating food waste, as it generates two valuable end products, biogas and compost. Biogas is a mixture of CH4 and CO2 about (55:45). Biogas generated can be used for thermal applications such as cooking or for generating electricity. The digested slurry is a well stabilized organic manure and can be used as soil fertilizer. Plant design is to handle 500 kg of food waste /day. 27 kg LPG is obtained from 500kg of kitchen waste. The Value of 27 kg of LPG is Rs.2700/day. Daily 1000 litres of digested effluent was obtained. It is good organic manure with plant micro nutrients and macro nutrients. This can be used for growing plants and in agriculture. The value of manure per day is Rs.250/-. The annual revenue is Rs.10.62 lakhs and the annual expenditure is 1.8 lakhs. The net benefit is 8.82 lakhs. Payback period is 2.1 years. This process

  6. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekers, M.; Danilevics, A.; Guriniece, E.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  7. Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huiran; Cornell, Ann; Alvarado, Fernando; Behm, Mårten; Leijonmarck, Simon; Li, Jiebing; Tomani, Per; Lindbergh, Göran

    2016-01-01

    The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAh·g−1 for the positive electrode and 305 mAh·g−1 for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAh·g−1 and the negative electrode with 160 mAh·g−1 at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries. PMID:28773252

  8. An environmental friendly electrode and extended cathodic potential window for anodic stripping voltammetry of zinc detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueraning, Anisah; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Limbut, Warakorn

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on a novel polyeriochrome black T (poly(EBT) modified electrode for use as an environmentally-friendly electrode material that extends the cathodic potential window and improves the sensitivity and repeatability to detect zinc in industrial wastewater. The poly(EBT) film on the GCE surface was fabricated by electropolymerization. The surface morphology and electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and anodic stripping voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the poly(EBT)/GCE exhibited a high hydrogen overvoltage (extended cathodic potential window). It provided a high sensitivity, a wide linear range (1.0 to 400.0 μg L −1 ), a low detection limit (0.9 μg L −1 ), had excellent repeatability and good recoveries (95% to 105%). This proposed modified electrode was applied to the determination of zinc in wastewater samples, and the results were consistent with those of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis.

  9. FRIEND: a brain-monitoring agent for adaptive and assistive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alexis; Ulieru, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural design for adaptive-systems agents (FRIEND) that use brain state information to make more effective decisions on behalf of a user; measuring brain context versus situational demands. These systems could be useful for alerting users to cognitive workload levels or fatigue, and could attempt to compensate for higher cognitive activity by filtering noise information. In some cases such systems could also share control of devices, such as pulling over in an automated vehicle. These aim to assist people in everyday systems to perform tasks better and be more aware of internal states. Achieving a functioning system of this sort is a challenge, involving a unification of brain- computer-interfaces, human-computer-interaction, soft-computin deliberative multi-agent systems disciplines. Until recently, these were not able to be combined into a usable platform due largely to technological limitations (e.g., size, cost, and processing speed), insufficient research on extracting behavioral states from EEG signals, and lack of low-cost wireless sensing headsets. We aim to surpass these limitations and develop control architectures for making sense of brain state in applications by realizing an agent architecture for adaptive (human-aware) technology. In this paper we present an early, high-level design towards implementing a multi-purpose brain-monitoring agent system to improve user quality of life through the assistive applications of psycho-physiological monitoring, noise-filtering, and shared system control.

  10. Is the Self Always Better than a Friend? Self-Face Recognition in Christians and Atheists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    Early behavioral studies found that human adults responded faster to their own faces than faces of familiar others or strangers, a finding referred to as self-face advantage. Recent research suggests that the self-face advantage is mediated by implicit positive association with the self and is influenced by sociocultural experience. The current study investigated whether and how Christian belief and practice affect the processing of self-face in a Chinese population. Christian and Atheist participants were recruited for an implicit association test (IAT) in Experiment 1 and a face-owner identification task in Experiment 2. Experiment 1 found that atheists responded faster to self-face when it shared the same response key with positive compared to negative trait adjectives. This IAT effect, however, was significantly reduced in Christians. Experiment 2 found that atheists responded faster to self-face compared to a friend’s face, but this self-face advantage was significantly reduced in Christians. Hierarchical regression analyses further showed that the IAT effect positively predicted self-face advantage in atheists but not in Christians. Our findings suggest that Christian belief and practice may weaken implicit positive association with the self and thus decrease the advantage of the self over a friend during face recognition in the believers. PMID:22662231

  11. A Contrastive Study of Chinese and American University Students' "Friend" Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to get representations and cultural causes of cross-cultural differences in Chinese and American University Students' "friend" concepts by empirical studies including questionnaire and interviews. Based on the statistics of the research, the research analyzes the different interactions of "friends" in…

  12. Design of environmentally friendly calcium sulfate-based building materials : towards an improved indoor air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the performance based design and development of an environmentally friendly calcium sulfate-based indoor building product towards an improved indoor air quality. Here "environmental friendly" is referred to the environment related subjects including: (1) the selection of raw

  13. The role of best friends in educational identity formation in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doeselaar, Lotte; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    2016-01-01

    This 4-year longitudinal study examined over-time associations between adolescents' educational identity, perceived best friends' balanced relatedness, and best friends' educational identity. Adolescents (N = 464, Mage = 14.0 years at baseline, 56.0% males, living in the Netherlands) and their

  14. How Do We Create ASD-Friendly Schools? A Dilemma of Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Scope exists within the Northern Ireland (NI) education system to transform mainstream schools into autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)-friendly environments. The efficacy of mainstream inclusion is discussed prior to discussing the creation of ASD-friendly schools. The transformation of mainstream school environments is underpinned by concepts such…

  15. The Nature of Interactions between Students with Severe Disabilities and Their Friends and Acquaintances without Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita

    1994-01-01

    This study of 20 elementary-school children with severe disabilities examined differences in their interactions with friends without disabilities compared with interactions with acquaintances without disabilities. Friends and acquaintances did not differ in developmental level, language age, functional movement, or social competence. Group…

  16. Exercising with an iPod, Friend, or Neither: Which Is Better for Psychological Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Thomas G.; Gustafson, Carissa; Brecht, Carrie; Imberi, Jenny; Sanchez, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of music and social contact on exercise benefits. Methods: Two hundred twenty-nine (n229) students were randomly assigned to one of 6 conditions: biking alone with iPod or friend in a laboratory, walking alone with iPod or friend outdoors, or biking or walking alone in control conditions. All participants completed…

  17. Friendship Satisfaction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Nominated Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrina, Neysa; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer; Sweller, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the level of friendship satisfaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their nominated friends (with and without diagnosis of ASD). A total of 77 target children with ASD and friends from 49 nominated friendships participated in the study. Relatively high levels of friendship satisfaction were reported…

  18. Support and Conflict in Ethnically Diverse Young Adults' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on…

  19. The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten

    2015-06-01

    Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage  = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  1. Family Comes First! : Relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults, paying attention to the potential moderating role of gender and occupational status. In Study I, we aimed at capturing emerging adults' perspective on interactions with both family and friends by

  2. "Family Comes First!" Relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults, paying attention to the potential moderating role of gender and occupational status. In Study I, we aimed at capturing emerging adults' perspective on interactions with both family and friends by

  3. Working with Family, Friend, and Neighbor Caregivers: Lessons from Four Diverse Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    This article is excerpted from "Who's Watching the Babies? Improving the Quality of Family, Friend, and Neighbor Care" by Douglas R. Powell ("ZERO TO THREE," 2008). The article explores questions about program development and implementation strategies for supporting Family, Friend, and Neighbor (FFN) caregivers: How do programs and their host…

  4. Child-Friendly Cities: A Place for Active Citizenship in Geographical and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate innovative practices associated with child-friendly cities initiatives in the United Kingdom and Italy and how civics and citizenship initiatives are being applied into practical programmes of exploration and learning in geography and environmental education. The Child-Friendly Cities Initiative (CFCI) of…

  5. 78 FR 62350 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    .... 14540-000] Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice...+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC for Project No. 14539-000 and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency for... CFR 385.2001(a)(2) (2013). On October 21, 2013, at 10:00 a.m. (Eastern Time), the Secretary of the...

  6. 78 FR 70549 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    .... 14540-000] Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice...+ Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC for Project No. 14539-000 and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency for... CFR.385.2001(a)(2) (2013). On November 25, 2013, at 10:00 a.m. (Eastern Time), the Secretary of the...

  7. A User Friendly Software for Rigid Pavement Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Kıcı

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete pavements as concrete road slab, appear as a strong alternative for flexible superstructures especially because of their low cost for maintenance and repair and the high performance they show under heavy axle loads. The design of these concrete road slabs is quite different from the traditional concrete and reinforced concrete structures’ design. In the design for this kind of pavements, traffic conditions should be defined properly and considered an addition to the concrete and platform properties. There have been designing methods developed based on both experimental and mechanic foundations for concrete pavements. The most important ones of these methods are AASHTO (1993 and PCA (1984. In both design methods, it’s significant to know the maximum deflections and maximum strains the vehicles’ loads cause on the pavement. The calculation of this maximum deflections and maximum strains can be done via the finite element method or the closed formulas which have been developed by Westergaard. In this study, a user-friendly software has been developed based on AASHTO 1993, PCA 1984 design methods and Westergaard formulas. Thanks to this software, the user who wants to design the concrete pavement as concrete road slab can obtain the essential parameters automatically by entering the required data for the design.

  8. Designing advanced materials by environmental friendly plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, I.; Valeca, M.; Rusu, O.; Coaca, E.; Marin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the CANDU-PHWR nuclear reactors, Zr-2.5Nb coated with a black adherent oxide film of 1 to 2 μm in thickness is currently used for the manufacture of pressure tubes. The black oxide thin film has corrosion protective properties. However, it can be damaged during the regular refueling process, thus causing hydrogen/oxygen ingression. Therefore, an enhanced wear and corrosion resistance coating is needed. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an anodic electrochemical treatment, both cost-effective and environmentally friendly, widely used in the formation of a protective oxide film on the metal surface to enhance wear and corrosion resistance as well as prolonging component lifetime. The state of the art reveals that PEO method is suitable for improving the wear resistance of Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Few studies are performed in this field and thus, it is necessary to conduct a more detailed insight study on the processing parameters for PEO treatment. By understanding the influence of process parameters, such as electrolyte temperature and electrolyte composition, we can find the way to obtain a coating with improved mechanical and corrosion properties on zirconium alloys. (authors)

  9. The Soft Palate Friendly Speech Bulb for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Sukhdeep Singh; Kahlon, Monaliza; Gupta, Shilpa; Dhingra, Parvinder Singh

    2016-09-01

    Velopharyngeal insufficiency is an anatomic defect of the soft palate making palatopharyngeal sphincter incomplete. It is an important concern to address in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate. Speech aid prosthesis or speech bulbs are best choice in cases where surgically repaired soft palate is too short to contact pharyngeal walls during function but these prosthesis have been associated with inadequate marginal closure, ulcerations and patient discomfort. Here is a case report of untreated bilateral cleft lip and palate associated with palatal insufficiency treated by means of palate friendly innovative speech bulb. This modified speech bulb is a combination of hard acrylic and soft lining material. The hard self-curing acrylic resin covers only the hard palate area and a permanent soft silicone lining material covering the soft palate area. A claw-shaped wire component was extended backwards from acrylic and was embedded in soft silicone to aid in retention and approximation of two materials. The advantage of adding the soft lining material in posterior area helped in covering the adequate superior extension and margins for maximal pharyngeal activity. This also improved the hypernasality, speech, comfort and overall patient acceptance.

  10. Extracellular hemoglobin: the case of a friend turned foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Isaac K.

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a highly conserved molecule present in all life forms and functionally tied to the complexity of aerobic organisms on earth in utilizing oxygen from the atmosphere and delivering to cells and tissues. This primary function sustains the energy requirements of cells and maintains cellular homeostasis. Decades of intensive research has presented a paradigm shift that shows how the molecule also functions to facilitate smooth oxygen delivery through the cardiovascular system for cellular bioenergetic homeostasis and signaling for cell function and defense. These roles are particularly highlighted in the binding of Hb to gaseous molecules carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), while also serving indirectly or directly as sources of these signaling molecules. The functional activities impacted by Hb outside of bioenergetics homeostasis, include fertilization, signaling functions, modulation of inflammatory responses for defense and cell viability. These activities are efficiently executed while Hb is sequestered safely within the confines of the red blood cell (rbc). Outside of rbc confines, Hb disaggregates and becomes a danger molecule to cell survival. In these perpectives, Hb function is broadly dichotomous, either a friend in its natural environment providing and facilitating the means for cell function or foe when dislocated from its habitat under stress or pathological condition disrupting cell function. The review presents insights into how this dichotomy in function manifests. PMID:25941490

  11. PGC1α: Friend or Foe in Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Francesca; Girolimetti, Giulia; Shoshan, Maria

    2018-01-22

    The PGC1 family (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivators) of transcriptional coactivators are considered master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. The PGC1α isoform is expressed especially in metabolically active tissues, such as the liver, kidneys and brain, and responds to energy-demanding situations. Given the altered and highly adaptable metabolism of tumor cells, it is of interest to investigate PGC1α in cancer. Both high and low levels of PGC1α expression have been reported to be associated with cancer and worse prognosis, and PGC1α has been attributed with oncogenic as well as tumor suppressive features. Early in carcinogenesis PGC1α may be downregulated due to a protective anticancer role, and low levels likely reflect a glycolytic phenotype. We suggest mechanisms of PGC1α downregulation and how these might be connected to the increased cancer risk that obesity is now known to entail. Later in tumor progression PGC1α is often upregulated and is reported to contribute to increased lipid and fatty acid metabolism and/or a tumor cell phenotype with an overall metabolic plasticity that likely supports drug resistance as well as metastasis. We conclude that in cancer PGC1α is neither friend nor foe, but rather the obedient servant reacting to metabolic and environmental cues to benefit the tumor cell.

  12. Eco-friendly aqueous core surface-modified nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, C; Musumeci, T; Lauro, M R; Puglisi, G

    2015-01-01

    In this work, positively charged nanocapsules have been developed for potential ocular delivery exploiting the deposition of PLA onto the droplet surface of a W/O nanoemulsion prepared by the reversed procedure of the PIT method. PLA in combination with different amounts of various oils and surfactants have been studied in order to select the best formulation for polymeric nanocapsule preparation. The traditional visual observation together with the Turbiscan(®) technology were exploited in order to identify the best combination of polymer/oil for nanocapsule preparation. Two different primary surfactants (Span(®) 60 and Span(®) 80) have been tested to select their influence on the field of existence of the nanoemulsion by the construction of the pseudoternary phase diagrams. Cationic hybrid NC have been prepared by the addition of a coating layer of DDAB. The physico-chemical and morphological properties of all the prepared nanocapsules have been evaluated and compared by PCS, DSC and AFM. Therefore, positively charged nanocapsules can be easily prepared by a simple eco-friendly technique that exploits biocompatible materials avoiding a large input of mechanical energy as a potential ocular delivery systems for hydrophilic compounds or gene materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Signals of inflation in a friendly string landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March-Russell, John; Riva, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    Following Freivogel et al we consider inflation in a predictive (or 'friendly') region of the landscape of string vacua, as modeled by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Kachru. In such a region the dimensionful coefficients of super-renormalizable operators unprotected by symmetries, such as the vacuum energy and scalar mass-squareds are freely scanned over, and the objects of study are anthropically or 'environmentally' conditioned probability distributions for observables. In this context we study the statistical predictions of (inverted) hybrid inflation models, where the properties of the inflaton are probabilistically distributed. We derive the resulting distributions of observables, including the deviation from flatness 1-Ω, the spectral index of scalar cosmological perturbations n s (and its scale dependence dn s /dlog k), and the ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations r. The environmental bound on the curvature implies a solution to the η-problem of inflation with the predicted distribution of (1-n s ) indicating values close to current observations. We find a relatively low probability (< 3%) of 'just-so' inflation with measurable deviations from flatness. Intermediate scales of inflation are preferred in these models

  14. Development of a versatile user-friendly IBA experimental chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad

    2016-03-15

    Reliable performance of the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques is based on the accurate geometry of the experimental setup, employment of the reliable nuclear data and implementation of dedicated analysis software for each of the IBA techniques. It has already been shown that geometrical imperfections lead to significant uncertainties in quantifications of IBA measurements. To minimize these uncertainties, a user-friendly experimental chamber with a heuristic sample positioning system for IBA analysis was recently developed in the Van de Graaff laboratory in Tehran. This system enhances IBA capabilities and in particular Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) techniques. The newly developed sample manipulator provides the possibility of both controlling the tilt angle of the sample and analyzing samples with different thicknesses. Moreover, a reasonable number of samples can be loaded in the sample wheel. A comparison of the measured cross section data of the {sup 16}O(d,p{sub 1}){sup 17}O reaction with the data reported in the literature confirms the performance and capability of the newly developed experimental chamber.

  15. Development of a versatile user-friendly IBA experimental chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Reliable performance of the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques is based on the accurate geometry of the experimental setup, employment of the reliable nuclear data and implementation of dedicated analysis software for each of the IBA techniques. It has already been shown that geometrical imperfections lead to significant uncertainties in quantifications of IBA measurements. To minimize these uncertainties, a user-friendly experimental chamber with a heuristic sample positioning system for IBA analysis was recently developed in the Van de Graaff laboratory in Tehran. This system enhances IBA capabilities and in particular Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) techniques. The newly developed sample manipulator provides the possibility of both controlling the tilt angle of the sample and analyzing samples with different thicknesses. Moreover, a reasonable number of samples can be loaded in the sample wheel. A comparison of the measured cross section data of the 16O(d,p1)17O reaction with the data reported in the literature confirms the performance and capability of the newly developed experimental chamber.

  16. Tresfjord Bridge - a human friendly and traffic efficient structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Kristian B.; Anta Magerøy Tønnessen, Aja; Toverud, Lars I.

    2017-09-01

    The E136 Tresfjord Bridge opened in October 2015, and crosses the Tresfjorden on the west coast of Norway. It is a concrete bridge with a total length of 1290 m, consisting of 19 viaduct spans, 60 m each, and a FCM (free cantilever method) main span of 160 m. The E136 is one of the most important transportation routes in the county of Møre and Romsdal and starts in Ålesund, and passes along Tresfjorden to Åndalsnes. The existing road is very narrow with speed limit of 60 km/h and characterizes by many accidents involving cars and people. The traffic flow is approximately ca 2500 vehicles a day, of this is 25% heavy vehicles. Those transport fresh salmon from the breeders in the fjords along the coast. To try to decrease the transportation time is very important for the fresh salmon. The bridge reduces the distance between Ålesund and Åndalsnes by 13 km. The speed limit is now 80 km/h, and with much less risk for accidents since there are separate lanes for cars and pedestrians over the whole bridge. This means that the bridge represents a human friendly and traffic efficient structure to the benefit for the people and the region.

  17. Water-soluble resist for environmentally friendly lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinghuang; Simpson, Logan L.; Steinhaeusler, Thomas; Wilder, Michelle; Willson, C. Grant; Havard, Jennifer M.; Frechet, Jean M. J.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes an 'environmentally friendly,' water castable, water developable photoresist system. The chemically amplified negative-tone resist system consists of three water-soluble components: a polymer, poly(methyl acrylamidoglycolate methyl ether), [poly(MAGME)]; a photoacid generator, dimethyl dihydroxyphenylsulfonium triflate and a crosslinker, butanediol. Poly(MAGME) was synthesized by solution free radical polymerization. In the three-component resist system, the acid generated by photolysis of the photoacid generator catalyzes the crosslinking of poly(MAGME) in the exposed regions during post-exposure baking, thus rendering the exposed regions insoluble in water. Negative tone relief images are obtained by developing with pure water. The resist is able to resolve 1 micrometer line/space features (1:1 aspect ratio) with an exposure dose of 100 mJ/cm2 at 248 nm. The resist can be used to generate etched copper relief images on printed circuit boards using aqueous sodium persulfate as the etchant. The crosslinking mechanism has been investigated by model compound studies using 13C NMR. These studies have revealed that the acid catalyzed reaction of the poly(MAGME) with butanediol proceeds via both transesterification and transacetalization (transaminalization) reactions at low temperatures, and also via transamidation at high temperatures.

  18. Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbing, C

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Thermal Engineering Research Institute (Värmeforsk) initiated an applied research program "Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes", in 2002. The program aims at increasing knowledge on the by-products of energy production and their application. The goal of formulating technical and environmental guidelines and assessments is a major point of the program, which is supported by about forty authorities and private organisations. The programme has been divided into four areas: recycling of ashes to forests, geotechnical applications, use in landfilling, and environmental aspects and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progress is shown: *Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth. *A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilisation of ashes in construction. *A handbook for using non-coal fly ashes in unpaved roads. *Technical and environmental assessments of MSWI bottom ashes in road construction. *Development of the use of ashes with municipal wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills and mine tailings. *Use of ashes from bio-fuels in concrete and replacement of cement in stoop mining. *A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as a hazardous or non-hazardous compound. The Ash Programme has also made it possible to increase knowledge on ashes as valuable materials, on quality assurance and on markets for recovered materials.

  19. Summer at CERN: a time to make friends

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Summer brings the opportunity for many of us to spend time enjoying the company of our families and friends. It also brings a new generation of young people to CERN – the summer students.   We often talk about the extended CERN community as a being like a big family, where the common bond is the science we do. The summer students who join us every year are in many ways the newest additions to this family. This year we have welcomed 276 students in total, with an impressive 133 from non-Member states. As usual they are joining in the learning experience that the programme offers and taking the opportunity to socialise. However, this year they are showing a particular enthusiasm for developing activities together that are linked to spreading the message about CERN. They’ve shown great support for the CERN Summer Student Webfest – now in its second year - where they were invited to work in teams and design web apps that will encourage the public to learn more abou...

  20. Development of friendly herbal lip balm using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Foziah Ali

    2010-01-01

    Development of herbal lip balm using natural bio resources namely plat pigments and essential oils was carried out with the main objective to replace chemical based ingredients that have been implicated at causing side effects and damages to health. Edible vegetable fats such as cocoa butter or shea butter in the range of 20-30 % could replace petroleum jelly as base ingredient. Side effects from impurities in petroleum jelly in the manufacturing process have been implicated at causing cancer and long term effects. Anthocyanin pigments, extracted from selected local plants, were used as natural coloring agent for lip balms. Pigment from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) and Hylocereus polyrhizus (pittaya fruit) at 10-20 % could provide acceptable colours, act as secondary metabolite and seemed to be the most stable compared to other pigments from Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Brassica oleracea, Amaranthus gangeticus and Solanum lycopersicum. Honey (10-20 %) with its known benefits to health was added into the formulation to increase the intensity of the colour. Essential oils from spices and local herbs that added to the products for flavours and aroma have the potential as preservative due to its antibacterial properties. Irradiation at 2.5 kGy was sufficient to decontaminate the products without affecting the products physical characteristics. With this technology and incorporation of natural ingredients, friendly herbal lip balm is considered as a safe and attractive product, with multifunctional uses namely to prevent chapped lips, freshen the breath, reduces mouth odour and contributes to improving general quality. (author)