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Sample records for indirectly driven double-shell

  1. Indirect-drive noncryogenic double-shell ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility: Design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, Peter; Colvin, J.D.; Tipton, R.E.; Hinkel, D.E.; Edwards, M.J.; Landen, O.L.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Suter, L.J.; Varnum, W.S.; Watt, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis and design of indirect-drive National Ignition Facility double-shell targets with hohlraum temperatures of 200 eV and 250 eV are presented. The analysis of these targets includes the assessment of two-dimensional radiation asymmetry and nonlinear mix. Two-dimensional integrated hohlraum simulations indicate that the x-ray illumination can be adjusted to provide adequate symmetry control in hohlraums specially designed to have high laser-coupling efficiency [Suter et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2092 (2000)]. These simulations also reveal the need to diagnose and control localized 10-15 keV x-ray emission from the high-Z hohlraum wall because of strong absorption by the high-Z inner shell. Preliminary estimates of the degree of laser backscatter from an assortment of laser-plasma interactions suggest comparatively benign hohlraum conditions. The application of a variety of nonlinear mix models and phenomenological tools, including buoyancy-drag models, multimode simulations and fall-line optimization, indicates a possibility of achieving ignition, i.e., fusion yields greater than 1 MJ. Planned experiments on the Omega laser will test current understanding of high-energy radiation flux asymmetry and mix-induced yield degradation in double-shell targets

  2. Hohlraum-driven mid-Z (SiO2) double-shell implosions on the omega laser facility and their scaling to NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H F; Amendt, P A; Milovich, J L; Park, H-S; Hamza, A V; Bono, M J

    2009-10-02

    High-convergence, hohlraum-driven implosions of double-shell capsules using mid-Z (SiO2) inner shells have been performed on the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. These experiments provide an essential extension of the results of previous low-Z (CH) double-shell implosions [P. A. Amendt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 065004 (2005)] to materials of higher density and atomic number. Analytic modeling, supported by highly resolved 2D numerical simulations, is used to account for the yield degradation due to interfacial atomic mixing. This extended experimental database from OMEGA enables a validation of the mix model, and provides a means for quantitatively assessing the prospects for high-Z double-shell implosions on the National Ignition Facility [Paisner, Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)].

  3. Double shell planar experiments on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, E. S.; Merritt, E. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Cardenas, T.; Wilson, D. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Batha, S. H.; Ping, Y.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Amendt, P. A.

    2017-10-01

    The double shell project is aimed at fielding neutron-producing capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in which an outer low-Z ablator collides with an inner high-Z shell to compress the fuel. However, understanding these targets experimentally can be challenging when compared with conventional single shell targets. Halfraum-driven planar targets at OMEGA are being used to study physics issues important to double shell implosions outside of a convergent geometry. Both VISAR and radiography through a tube have advantages over imaging through the hohlraum and double-shell capsule at NIF. A number physics issues are being studied with this platform that include 1-d and higher dimensional effects such as defect-driven hydrodynamic instabilities from engineering features. Additionally, the use of novel materials with controlled density gradients require study in easily diagnosed 1-d systems. This work ultimately feeds back into the NIF capsule platform through manufacturing tolerances set using data from OMEGA. Supported under the US DOE by the LANS, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-17-25386.

  4. Double shell tank waste analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkey, C.H.; Jones, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Waste analysis plan for the double shell tanks. SD-WM-EV-053 is Superseding SD-WM-EV-057.This document provides the plan for obtaining information needed for the safe waste handling and storage of waste in the Double Shell Tank Systems. In Particular it addresses analysis necessary to manage waste according to Washington Administrative Code 173-303 and Title 40, parts 264 and 265 of the Code of Federal Regulations

  5. Double shell tanks emergency pumping plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), a formal plan for the emergency transfer of waste from a leaking double shell tank to a designated receiver tank has been developed. This plan is in response to the priority 2 safety issue ''Response to a leaking double-shell tank'' in the DOE Report to Congress, 1991. The plan includes the tanks in four of the east tank farms and one of the west farms. The background information and supporting calculations used for the creation of the emergency plan are discussed in this document. The scope of this document is all of the double shell tanks in the AN, AP, AW, AY, and SY farms. The transfer lines, flush pits, and valve pits involved in the transfer of waste between these farms are also included in the scope. Due to the storage of high heat waste, AZ farm is excluded at this time

  6. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanfords 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  7. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTS. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  8. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUSIENE, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  9. Indirectly driven, high convergence inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.; Caird, J.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann, C.; Lerche, R.A.; Murphy, T.J.; Murray, J.; Nelson, M.B.; Phillion, D.W.; Powell, H.; Ress, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of high convergence indirectly driven implosions has been done with the Nova Laser Fusion facility. These implosions were well characterized by a variety of measurements; computer models are in good agreement. The imploded fuel areal density was measured using a technique based on secondary neutron spectroscopy. At capsule convergences of 24:1, comparable to what is required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules, these capsules achieved fuel densities of 19 g/cm 3 . Independent measurements of density, burn duration, and ion temperature gave nτθ=1.7±0.9x10 14 keV s/cm 3

  10. System Description for the Double Shell Tank (DST) Confinement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROSSI, H.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a description of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Confinement System. This description will provide a basis for developing functional, performance and test requirements (i.e., subsystem specification), as necessary, for the DST Confinement System

  11. Double-shell tank system dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This appendix contains the engineering design drawings for the double-shell tank system. Included are drawings of the electrical systems, structural members, piping systems, instrumentation and the many auxiliary systems. (JL)

  12. Double Shell Tank (DST) Human Factors Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHAFFEE, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the data collection and analyses that were performed in development of material to be used in the Human Factors chapter for the upgrade to the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Double-Shell Tank Farms (DSTF). This study was conducted to collect the data that is necessary to prepare the Human Factors chapter for the upgrade of the SAR for the DSTF. Requirements for the HF chapter of the SAR generally dictate that the facility management describe how the consideration of operator capabilities and limitations and operating experience are used in ensuring the safe and effective operation of the facility. Additionally, analysis to indicate the contribution of human error to the safety basis accidents or events must be reported. Since the DSTF is a mature operating facility and the requirement to prepare a HF chapter is new, it was not expected that the consideration of HF principles would be an explicit part of DSTF operations. It can be expected, however, that the programs that guide the daily operations at the DSTF contain provisions for the consideration of the needs of their operating personnel and lessons learned from prior experience. Consideration of both the SAR requirements and the nature of the DSTF operations led to the following objectives being defined for the study: (1) to identify the programs at the OSTF where human performance may be considered; (2) to describe how HF principles and operating experience are used to ensure safe and reliable human performance at the DSTF; (3) to describe how HF principles and operating experience are considered as modifications or improvements are made at the DSTF; and (4) to perform task analysis sufficient to understand the potential for human error in OSTF operations

  13. Analysis and characterization of double shell tank 241-AP-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document is the first part of a three-part report describing the analysis and characterization of double shell tank 241-AP-108 which is located at the Hanford Reservation.This document is the analytical laboratory data package entitled 'Analysis and Characterization of Double Shell Tank 241-AP-108' which contains a case sampling history, the sampling protocols, the analytical procedures, sampling and analysis quality assurance and quality control measures, and chemical analysis results for samples obtained from the tank

  14. Functional Analysis for Double Shell Tank (DST) Subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    This functional analysis identifies the hierarchy and describes the subsystem functions that support the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System described in HNF-SD-WM-TRD-007, System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System. Because of the uncertainty associated with the need for upgrades of the existing catch tanks supporting the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission, catch tank functions are not addressed in this document. The functions identified herein are applicable to the Phase 1 WFD mission only

  15. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  16. Double-shell tank system dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This Double-Shell Tank System Dangerous Waste Permit Application should be read in conjunction with the 242-A Evaporator Dangerous Waste Permit Application and the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, also submitted on June 28, 1991. Information contained in the Double-Shell Tank System permit application is referenced in the other two permit applications. The Double-Shell Tank System stores and treats mixed waste received from a variety of sources on the Hanford Site. The 242-A Evaporator treats liquid mixed waste received from the double-shell tanks. The 242-A Evaporator returns a mixed-waste slurry to the double-shell tanks and generates the dilute mixed-waste stream stored in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility. This report contains information on the following topics: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report; Waste Minimization Plan; Closure and Postclosure Requirements; Reporting and Recordkeeping; other Relevant Laws; and Certification. 150 refs., 141 figs., 118 tabs

  17. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; RINKER MW; CARPENTER BG; HENDRIX C; ABATT FG

    2009-01-15

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses. The original scope of the project was to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). Although Milestone M-48-14 has been met, Revision I is being issued to address external review comments with emphasis on changes in the modeling of anchor bolts connecting the concrete dome and the steel primary tank. The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that a nonlinear soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis be performed on the DSTs. The analysis is required to include the effects of sliding interfaces and fluid sloshing (fluid-structure interaction). SSI analysis has traditionally been treated by frequency domain computer codes such as SHAKE (Schnabel, et al. 1972) and SASSI (Lysmer et al. 1999a). Such frequency domain programs are limited to the analysis of linear systems. Because of the contact surfaces, the response of the DSTs to a seismic event is inherently nonlinear and consequently outside the range of applicability of the linear frequency domain programs. That is, the nonlinear response of the DSTs to seismic excitation requires the use of a time domain code. The capabilities and limitations of the commercial time domain codes ANSYS{reg_sign} and MSC Dytran{reg_sign} for performing seismic SSI analysis of the DSTs and the methodology required to perform the detailed seismic analysis of the DSTs has been addressed in Rinker et al (2006a). On the basis of the results reported in Rinker et al

  18. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site double-shell tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project--DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST system at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14, The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DSTs assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DSTs and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary

  19. Power plant by deuteron beams using indirect-driven target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Keishiro

    1989-01-01

    An indirect-driven target is proposed to be used for 6-beam nonuniform irradiation of deuteron particles. The target consists of 5 layers; tamper, radiator, smoother (radiation gap), absorber (pusher) and solid DT fuel. The fluctuation comes from nonuniform energy deposition in the radiator layer. Through the smoother layer, radiative energy transport from the radiator layer to the absorber layer is expected to smooth out the temperature fluctuation in the absorber layer. The total beam energy of 12 MJ is launched to the target by 6 beams. In order to delete the charge of the front edge of the propagating deuteron beam, the electron beam is proposed to be launched to the target with the same velocity and with the same number density at the same time of the deuteron extraction form the diode. To stabilize the beam propagation, the electron beam has a rotation velocity which induces the magnetic field in the propagation direction. The construction of the power supply system whose total stored energy is 12 MJ seems to be not difficult and to be economical. (author)

  20. Double Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Definition Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    The system description of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem establishes the system boundaries and describes the interface of the DST Monitor and Control Subsystem with new and existing systems that are required to accomplish the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission

  1. Double Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washenfelder, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    PowerPoint. The objectives of this presentation are to: Describe Effort to Determine Whether Tank AY-102 Leaked; Review Probable Causes of the Tank AY-102 Leak; and, Discuss Influence of Leak on Hanford's Double-Shell Tank Integrity Program

  2. Performance Requirements for the Double Shell Tank (DST) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    This document identifies the upper-level Double-Shell Tank (DST) System functions and bounds the associated performance requirements. The functions and requirements are provided along with supporting bases. These functions and requirements, in turn, will be incorporated into specifications for the DST System

  3. Mixer pump test plan for double shell tank AZ-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mixer pump systems have been chosen as the method for retrieval of tank wastes contained in double shell tanks at Hanford. This document describes the plan for testing and demonstrating the ability of two 300 hp mixer pumps to mobilize waste in tank AZ-101. The mixer pumps, equipment and instrumentation to monitor the test were installed by Project W-151

  4. Industrial mixing techniques for Hanford double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daymo, E.A.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps are currently the baseline technology for sludge mobilization and mixing in one-million gallon double-shell tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. Improvements to the baseline jet mixer pump technology are sought because jet mixer pumps have moving parts that may fail or require maintenance. Moreover, jet mixers are relatively expensive, they heat the waste, and, in some cases, may not mobilize enough of the sludge. This report documents a thorough literature search for commercially available applicable mixing technologies that could be used for double-shell tank sludge mobilization and mixing. Textbooks, research articles, conference proceedings, mixing experts, and the Thomas Register were consulted to identify applicable technologies. While there are many commercial methods that could be used to mobilize sludge or mix the contents of a one-million gallon tank, few will work given the geometrical constraints (e.g., the mixer must fit through a 1.07-m-diameter riser) or the tank waste properties (e.g., the sludge has such a high yield stress that it generally does not flow under its own weight). Pulsed fluid jets and submersible Flygt mixers have already been identified at Hanford and Savannah River Sites for double-shell tank mixing applications. While these mixing technologies may not be applicable for double-shell tanks that have a thick sludge layer at the bottom (since too many of these mixers would need to be installed to mobilize most of the sludge), they may have applications in tanks that do not have a settled solids layer. Retrieval projects at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy sites are currently evaluating the effectiveness of these mixing techniques for tank waste applications. The literature search did not reveal any previously unknown technologies that should be considered for sludge mobilization and mixing in one-million gallon double-shell tanks

  5. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery. This subsystem transfers waste between transfer-associated structures (pits) and to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor Facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  6. Hanford double shell tank corrosion monitoring instrument tree prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.; Edgemon, G.L.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-11-01

    High-level nuclear wastes at the Hanford site are stored underground in carbon steel double-shell and single-shell tanks (DSTs and SSTs). The installation of a prototype corrosion monitoring instrument tree into DST 241-A-101 was completed in December 1995. The instrument tree has the ability to detect and discriminate between uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) through the use of electrochemical noise measurements and a unique stressed element, three-electrode probe. The tree itself is constructed of AISI 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), with probes in the vapor space, vapor/liquid interface and liquid. Successful development of these trees will allow their application to single shell tanks and the transfer of technology to other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Keywords: Hanford, radioactive waste, high-level waste tanks, electrochemical noise, probes, double-shell tanks, single-shell tanks, corrosion

  7. Double Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Definition Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report defines the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem (PWSS). This subsystem definition report fully describes and identifies the system boundaries of the PWSS. This definition provides a basis for developing functional, performance, and test requirements (i.e., subsystem specification), as necessary, for the PWSS. The resultant PWSS specification will include the sampling requirements to support the transfer of waste from the DSTs to the Privatization Contractor during Phase 1 of Waste Feed Delivery

  8. 241-AY Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AY double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  9. 241-AN Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AN double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  10. 241-AY Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-09-21

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AY double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations. are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks.

  11. Retrieval technology development for Hanford double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Wise, B.M.; Miller, W.C.

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes the combined analytical, computational, and experimental program developed for identifying operating strategies for mobilization and retrieval of radioactive waste stored in double-shell tanks at Hanford. Sludge mobilization, slurry uniformity, and slurry retrieval investigations will produce guidelines for mixer pump and retrieval pump operation based on the physical properties of the waste and the geometric properties of the system (number of operating pumps and pump design and placement)

  12. 241-SY Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-SY double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  13. 241-AZ Double-Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-A2 double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  14. 241-AW Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AW double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks

  15. Double-shell tank waste transfer facilities integrity assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the integrity assessment plan for the existing double-shell tank waste transfer facilities system in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of Hanford Site. This plan identifies and proposes the integrity assessment elements and techniques to be performed for each facility. The integrity assessments of existing tank systems that stores or treats dangerous waste is required to be performed to be in compliance with the Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code WAC-173-303-640 requirements

  16. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This subsystem specification establishes the interface and performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem. The DST Monitor and Control Subsystem consists of the new and existing equipment that will be used to provide tank farm operators with integrated local monitoring and control of the DST systems to support Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). New equipment will provide automatic control and safety interlocks where required and provide operators with visibility into the status of DST subsystem operations (e.g., DST mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers) and the ability to manually control specified DST functions as necessary. This specification is intended to be the basis for new project/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  17. Hazard assessments of double-shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, G.L.; Stepnewski, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of hazard assessments performed on the double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks. This report focuses on hazards associated with the double-shell watch list tanks (101-AW, 103-AN, 104-AN, and 105-AN). While a similar assessment has already been performed for tank 103-SY, it is also included here to incorporate a more representative slurry gas mixture and provide a consistent basis for comparing results for all the flammable gas tanks. This report is intended to provide an in-depth assessment by considering the details of the gas release event and slurry gas mixing as the gas is released from the waste. The consequences of postulated gas ignition are evaluated using a plume burn model and updated ignition frequency predictions. Tank pressurization which results from a gas burn, along with the structural response, is also considered. The report is intended to support the safety basis for work activities in flammable gas tanks by showing margins to safety limits that are available in the design and procedures

  18. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Transfer Pump Subsystem consists of a pump for supernatant and/or slurry transfer for the DSTs that will be retrieved during the Phase 1 WFD operations. This system is used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. It also will deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  19. Double-shell tank waste system assessment status and schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The integrated program for completing the integrity assessments of the dangerous waste tank systems managed by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Division of Westinghouse Hanford Company is presented in the Tank Waste Remediation System Tank System Integrity Assessments Program Plan, WHC-SD-AP017, Rev. 1. The program plan identified the assessment requirements and the general scope to which these requirements applied. Some of these assessment requirements have been met and others are either in process of completion or scheduled to be worked. To define the boundary of the double-shell tank (DST) system and the boundaries of the DST system components (or system parts) for the purpose of performing integrity assessment activities; To identify the planned activities to meet the assessment requirements for each component; Provide the status of the assessment activities; and Project a five year assessment activity schedule

  20. Project management plan double-shell tank system specification development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) members have been tasked by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support removal of wastes from the Hanford Site 200 Area tanks in two phases. The schedule for these phases allows focusing on requirements for the first phase of providing feed to the privatized vitrification plants. The Tank Waste Retrieval Division near-term goal is to focus on the activities to support Phase 1. These include developing an integrated (technical, schedule, and cost) baseline and, with regard to private contractors, establishing interface agreements, constructing infrastructure systems, retrieving and delivering waste feed, and accepting immobilized waste products for interim onsite storage. This document describes the process for developing an approach to designing a system for retrieving waste from double-shell tanks. It includes a schedule and cost account for the work breakdown structure task

  1. Double-shell target fabrication workshop-2016 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. Morris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Oertel, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Farrell, Michael [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Baumann, Ted [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haibo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nikroo, Abbas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-10

    On June 30, 2016, over 40 representatives from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), General Atomics (GA), Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Schafer Corporation, and NNSA headquarter attended a double-shell (DS) target fabrication workshop at Livermore, California. Pushered-single-shell (PSS) and DS metalgas platforms potentially have a large impact on programmatic applications. The goal of this focused workshop is to bring together target fabrication scientists, physicists, and designers to brainstorm future PSS and DS target fabrication needs and strategies. This one-day workshop intends to give an overall view of historical information, recent approaches, and future research activities at each participating organization. Five topical areas have been discussed that are vital to the success of future DS target fabrications, including inner metal shells, foam spheres, outer ablators, fill tube assembly, and metrology.

  2. Double shell slurry low-temperature corrosion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.; Bowen, W.M.; McPartland, S.A.; Elmore, R.P.; Engel, D.W.

    1983-09-01

    A series of year-long tests have been completed on potential double shell slurry (DSS) compositions at temperatures up to 100 0 C. These tests have sought data on uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress-corrosion cracking. No indication of the latter two types of corrosion were observed within the test matrix. Corrosion rates after four months were generally below the 1 mpy (25 μm/y) design limit. By the end of twelve months all results were below this limit and, except for very concentrated mixtures, all were below 0.5 mpy. Prediction equations were generated from a model fitted to the data. The equations provide a rapid means of estimating the corrosion rate for proposed DSS compositions

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

  4. DOUBLE SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WASHENFELDER DJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control

  5. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  6. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system

  7. Mechanistic analysis of double-shell tank gas release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Friley, J.R.; Haines, C.E.; Liljegren, L.M.; Somasundaram, S.

    1991-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from the double-shell waste storage tanks at Hanford. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report discusses the work done through November 1990. Safe management of the wastes at Hanford depends on an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms that take place in the waste tanks. An example of the need to understand these mechanisms is tank 101-SY. The waste in this tank is generating and periodically releasing potentially flammable gases into the tank vent system according to observations of the tank. How these gases are generated and become trapped, the causes of periodic release, and the mechanism of the release are not known in detail. In order to develop a safe mitigation strategy, possible physical mechanisms for the periodic release of flammable gases need to be understood.

  8. Double-shell tank ultrasonic inspection plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfluger, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The waste tank systems managed by the Tank Waste Remediation System Division of Westinghouse Hanford Company includes 28 large underground double-shell tanks (DST) used for storing hazardous radioactive waste. The ultrasonic (UT) inspection of these tanks is part of their required integrity assessment (WAC 1993) as described in the tank systems integrity assessment program plan (IAPP) (Pfluger 1994a) submitted to the Ecology Department of the State of Washington. Because these tanks hold radioactive waste and are located underground examinations and inspections must be done remotely from the tank annuli with specially designed equipment. This document describes the UT inspection system (DSTI system), the qualification of the equipment and procedures, field inspection readiness, DST inspections, and post-inspection activities. Although some of the equipment required development, the UT inspection technology itself is the commercially proven and available projection image scanning technique (P-scan). The final design verification of the DSTI system will be a performance test in the Hanford DST annulus mockup that includes the demonstration of detecting and sizing corrosion-induced flaws

  9. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Diluent and Flush Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) Diluent and Flush Subsystem is intended to support Waste Feed Delivery. The DST Diluent and Flush Subsystem specification describes the relationship of this system with the DST System, describes the functions that must be performed by the system, and establishes the performance requirements to be applied to the design of the system. It also provides references for the requisite codes and standards. The DST Diluent and Flush Subsystem will treat the waste for a more favorable waste transfer. This will be accomplished by diluting the waste, dissolving the soluble portion of the waste, and flushing waste residuals from the transfer line. The Diluent and Flush Subsystem will consist of the following: The Diluent and Flush Station(s) where chemicals will be off-loaded, temporarily stored, mixed as necessary, heated, and metered to the delivery system; and A piping delivery system to deliver the chemicals to the appropriate valve or pump pit Associated support structures. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  10. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LESHIKAR, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the DST Transfer Pump Subsystem that supports the first phase of (WFD). The DST Transfer Pump Subsystem consists of a pump for supernatant and or slurry transfer for the DSTs that will be retrieved during the Phase 1 WFD operations. This system is used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. It also will deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  11. Hanford double shell tank corrosion monitoring instrument trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    High-level nuclear wastes at the Hanford site are stored underground in carbon steel double-shell and single-shell tanks - (DSTs and SSTS). Westinghouse Hanford Company is considering installation of a prototype corrosion monitoring instrument tree in at least one DST in the summer of 1995. The instrument tree will have the ability to detect and discriminate between uniform corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and pitting. Additional instrument trees will follow in later years. Proof-of-technology testing is currently underway for the use of commercially available electric field pattern (EFP) analysis and electrochemical noise (EN) corrosion monitoring equipment. Creative use and combinations of other existing technologies is also being considered. Successful demonstration of these technologies will be followed by the development of a Hanford specific instrument tree. The first instrument tree will incorporate one of these technologies. Subsequent trees may include both technologies, as well as a more standard assembly of corrosion coupons. Successful development of these trees will allow their application to single shell tanks and the transfer of technology to other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites

  12. On buckling of double-shell-stiffened cylindrical steel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.J.; Chiu, K.D.; Odar, E.

    1981-01-01

    Buckling analysis methods and acceptance criteria for single shells of various configurations are well documented and adequately covered by many codes. There are, however, no guidelines or criteria for large Double-Shell-Stiffened (DSS) structures, which have been used recently in nuclear power plant applications. The existing codes for buckling analysis cannot be directly utilized because of the uniqueness of structural configuration and complexity of loading. This paper discusses a method for determining the critical buckling loads for this type of structure under a multitude load and suggests buckling criteria for the design of DSS structures. The method commonly used to determine the critical buckling loads for a single shell with or without stiffeners applies reduction factors to the theoretical results. The capacity reduction factors, which are often obtained from experimental results, include plasticity corrections and account for the difference between actual and theoretical buckling loads resulting from the effects of imperfections and nonlinearities. The interaction formulas derived from experimental results can be used to compute the interaction effects of three stress components. This paper extends these concepts and discusses their applicability to a DSS cylindrical structure. (orig./HP)

  13. Performance requirements for the double-shell tank system: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes performance requirements for the double-shell tank system. These requirements, in turn, will be incorporated in the System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System (Grenard and Claghorn 1998). This version of the document establishes requirements that are applicable to the first phase (Phase 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission described in the TWRS Mission Analysis Report (Acree 1998). It does not specify requirements for either the Phase 2 mission or the double-shell tank system closure period

  14. Derived Requirements for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste (HLW) Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-02-28

    The potential need for auxiliary double-shell tank waste mixing and solids mobilization requires an evaluation of optional technologies. This document formalizes those operating and design requirements needed for further engineering evaluations.

  15. Derived Requirements for Double-Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste (HLW) Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    The potential need for auxiliary double-shell tank waste mixing and solids mobilization requires an evaluation of optional technologies. This document formalizes those operating and design requirements needed for further engineering evaluations

  16. Two facets of stress and indirect effects on child diet through emotion-driven eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pickering, Trevor A; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2015-08-01

    Stress has been associated with high-calorie, low-nutrient food intake (HCLN) and emotion-driven eating (EDE). However, effects on healthy food intake remain unknown. This study examined two facets of stress (self-efficacy, perceived helplessness) and food consumption, mediated by EDE. Cross-sectional data from fourth-graders (n=978; 52% female, 28% Hispanic) in an obesity intervention used self-report to assess self-efficacy, helplessness, EDE, fruit/vegetable (FV) intake, and high-calorie/low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Higher stress self-efficacy was associated with higher FV intake, β=.354, pstress perceived helplessness had an indirect effect on HCLN intake through emotion-driven eating, indirect effect=.094, pStress self-efficacy may be more important for healthy food intake and perceived helplessness may indicate emotion-driven eating and unhealthy snack food intake. Obesity prevention programs may consider teaching stress management techniques to avoid emotion-driven eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Metallic double shell hollow nanocages: the challenges of their synthetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, M A; El-Sayed, M A

    2012-03-06

    Hollow metallic nanoparticles have been attracting the attention of many researchers in the past five years due to their new properties and potential applications. The unique structure of the hollow nanoparticles; presence of two surfaces (internal and external), and the presence of both cavities and pores in the wall surfaces of these nanoparticles are responsible for their unique properties and applications. Here the galvanic replacement technique is used to prepare nanocages made of gold, platinum, and palladium. In addition, hollow double shell nanoparticles are made of two metal shells like Au-Pt, Pt-Au, Au-Pd, Pd-Au, Pd-Pt, and Pt-Pd. Silver nanocubes are used as templates during the synthesis of hollow nanoparticles with single metal shell or double shell nanocages. Most of the problems that could affect the synthesis of solid Silver nanocubes used as template as well as the double shell nanocages and their possible solutions are discussed in a detail. The sizes and shapes of the single-shell and double-shell nanocages were characterized by a regular and high-resolution TEM. A SEM mapping technique is also used to image the surface atoms for the double shell hollow nanoparticles in order to determine the thickness of the two metal shells. In addition, optical studies are used to monitor the effect of the dielectric properties of the other metals on the plasmonic properties of the gold nanoshell in these mixed nanoparticles.

  18. Preventing Buoyant Displacement Gas Release Events in Hanford Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the predictive methods used to ensure that waste transfer operations in Hanford waste tanks do not create waste configurations that lead to unsafe gas release events. The gas release behavior of the waste in existing double-shell tanks has been well characterized, and the flammable gas safety issues associated with safe storage of waste in the current configuration are being formally resolved. However, waste is also being transferred between double-shell tanks and from single-shell tanks into double-shell tanks by saltwell pumping and sluicing that create new wastes and waste configurations that have not been studied as well. Additionally, planning is underway for various waste transfer scenarios to support waste feed delivery to the proposed vitrification plant. It is critical that such waste transfers do not create waste conditions with the potential for dangerous gas release events.

  19. Analysis Bounding Double Shell Tank (DST) Performance for the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator Case 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare the latest Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan (HNF-SD-WM-SP-012, Rev. 3) ''Case 2'' operating scenarios with a previous bounding analysis for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System in order to provide a technical assessment against the current set of DST System performance requirements. A later update to HNF-SD-WM-SP-012 (i.e., Rev. 3A), released in late December 2001, did not impact the results of this analysis. This analysis provides technical support for revising the Performance Requirements for the Double-Shell Tank System, HNF-2168, Rev. 3, used as the basis for defining performance requirements noted in System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System, HNF-SD-WM-TRD-007. Rev. 1

  20. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABATT FG; JOHNSON KI

    2009-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10{sup 3} Pa and 4.135 x 10{sup 9} Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks

  1. Expert Panel Recommendations for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Life Extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Charles W; Bush, Spencer H; Berman, Herbert Stanton; Czajkowski, Carl J; Divine, James R; Posakony, Gerald J; Johnson, A B; Elmore, Monte R; Reynolds, D A; Anantatmula, Ramamohan P; Sindelar, Robert L; Zapp, Philip E

    2001-06-29

    Expert workshops were held in Richland in May 2001 to review the Hanford Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project and make recommendations to extend the life of Hanford's double-shell waste tanks. The workshop scope was limited to corrosion of the primary tank liner, and the main areas for review were waste chemistry control, tank inspection, and corrosion monitoring. Participants were corrosion experts from Hanford, Savannah River Site, Brookhaven National Lab., Pacific Northwest National Lab., and several consultants. This report describes the current state of the three areas of the program, the final recommendations of the workshop, and the rationale for their selection.

  2. Engineering Task Plan for the Ultrasonic Inspection of Hanford Double-Shell Tanks - FY 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document facilitates the ultrasonic examination of Hanford double-shell tanks. Included are a plan for engineering activities, plan for performance demonstration testing, and a plan for field activities. Also included are a Statement of Work for contractor performance and a protocol to be followed should tank flaws that exceed the acceptance criteria are found

  3. Mixer pump test plan for double-shell tank AZ-101. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has undertaken the task to develop and demonstrate a method of retrieval for double-shell tank waste. Mixer pumps were chosen as the planned method of retrieval for DSTs, based on engineering technology studies, past experience with hydraulic sluicing at the Hanford Site, and experience with mixer pumps at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site

  4. Mixer pump test plan for double-shell tank AZ-101. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, G.A.

    1996-02-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has undertaken the task to develop and demonstrate a method of retrieval for double-shell tank waste. Mixer pumps were chosen as the planned method of retrieval for DSTs, based on engineering technology studies, past experience with hydraulic sluicing at the Hanford Site, and experience with mixer pumps at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site.

  5. Preliminary Heat Transfer Studies for the Double Shell Tanks (DST) Transfer Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HECHT, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Heat transfer studies were made to determine the thermal characteristics of double-shell tank transfer piping under both transient and steady-state conditions. A number of design and operation options were evaluated for this piping system which is in its early design phase

  6. ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CARBON STEEL CORROSION IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, J.B.; WINDISCH, C.F.

    2006-10-13

    This paper reports on the electrochemical scans for the supernatant of Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-SY-102 and the electrochemical scans for the bottom saltcake layer for Hanford DST 241-AZ-102. It further reports on the development of electrochemical test cells adapted to both sample volume and hot cell constraints.

  7. Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery Project Management Quality Affecting Procedures Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUND, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Management Assessment Plan is to define how management assessments within DST h WFD will be conducted. The plan as written currently includes only WFD Project assessment topics. Other DST and WFD group assessment topics will be added in future revisions

  8. Engineering Task Plan for the Ultrasonic Inspection of Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document facilitates the ultrasonic examination of Hanford double-shell tanks. Included are a plan for engineering activities (individual responsibilities), plan for performance demonstration testing, and a plan for field activities (tank inspection). Also included are a Statement of Work for contractor performance of the work and a protocol to be followed should tank flaws that exceed the acceptance criteria be discovered

  9. DOUBLE-SHELL TANK WASTE TRANSFER LINE ENCASEMENT INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGY STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOWER, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    The report provides various alternative methods of performing integrity assessment inspections of buried Hanford Double Shell Tank waste transfer line encasements, and provides method recommendations as an alternative to costly encasement pneumatic leak testing. A schedule for future encasement integrity assessments is also included

  10. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience

  11. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  12. Flammable gas project expert elicitation results for Hanford Site double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of the second phase of parameter quantification by the flammable gas expert panel. This second phase is focused on the analysis of flammable gas accidents in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks. The first phase of parameter quantification, performed in 1997 was focused on the analysis of Hanford single-shell tanks

  13. Performance of indirectly driven capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility using adiabat-shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D. T.; Baker, K. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Gharibyan, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    A series of indirectly driven capsule implosions has been performed on the National Ignition Facility to assess the relative contributions of ablation-front instability growth vs. fuel compression on implosion performance. Laser pulse shapes for both low and high-foot pulses were modified to vary ablation-front growth and fuel adiabat, separately and controllably. Three principal conclusions are drawn from this study: (1) It is shown that reducing ablation-front instability growth in low-foot implosions results in a substantial (3-10X) increase in neutron yield with no loss of fuel compression. (2) It is shown that reducing the fuel adiabat in high-foot implosions results in a significant (36%) increase in fuel compression together with a small (10%) increase in neutron yield. (3) Increased electron preheat at higher laser power in high-foot implosions, however, appears to offset the gain in compression achieved by adiabat-shaping at lower power. These results taken collectively bridge the space between the higher compression low-foot results and the higher yield high-foot results.

  14. Surface energy effect on free vibration of nano-sized piezoelectric double-shell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xue-Qian; Zhu, Chang-Song; Liu, Jin-Xi; Liu, Xiang-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Combining Goldenveizer-Novozhilov shell theory, thin plate theory and electro-elastic surface theory, the size-dependent vibration of nano-sized piezoelectric double-shell structures under simply supported boundary condition is presented, and the surface energy effect on the natural frequencies is discussed. The displacement components of the cylindrical nano-shells and annular nano-plates are expanded as the superposition of standard Fourier series based on Hamilton's principle. The total stresses with consideration of surface energy effect are derived, and the total energy function is obtained by using Rayleigh-Ritz energy method. The free vibration equation is solved, and the natural frequency is analyzed. In numerical examples, it is found that the surface elastic constant, piezoelectric constant and surface residual stress show different effects on the natural frequencies. The effect of surface piezoelectric constant is the maximum. The effect of dimensions of the double-shell under different surface material properties is also examined.

  15. Cost analysis for final disposal of double-shell tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, T.W.; Markillie, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Cost Analysis For Final Disposal of Double-Shell Tank Waste provides the Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors with a better understanding of costs associated with the transfer, storage, and treatment of liquid mixed wasted within the Double-Shell Tank System (DST). In order to evaluate waste minimization/pollution prevention ideas, it is necessary to have reliable cost data that can be used in cost/benefit analyses; preparation of funding requests and/or proposals; and provide a way for prioritizing and allocating limited resources. This cost per gallon rate will be used by DST waste generators to assess the feasibility of Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (P20A) and to determine the cost avoidances or savings associated with the implementation of those P20As

  16. Constraints for system specifications for the double-shell and single-shell tank systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHAW, C.P.

    1999-05-18

    This is a supporting document for the Level 1 Double-Shell and Single-Shell System Specifications. The rationale for selection of specific regulatory constraining documents cited in the two system specifications is provided. many of the regulations have been implemented by the Project Hanford Management Contract procedures (HNF-PROs) and as such noted and traced back to their origins in State and Federal regulations.

  17. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AZ-101. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 primary tank wall and welds. The inspection found one reportable indication of thinning and no reportable pitting, corrosion, or cracking

  18. Acceptance criteria for non-destructive examination of double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1995-09-01

    This supporting document provides requirements for acceptance of relevant indications found during non-destructive examination of double-shell tanks (DSTs) at Hanford 200 areas. Requirements for evaluation of relevant indications are provided to determine acceptability of continued safe operation of the DSTs. Areas of the DSTs considered include the tank wall vapor space, liquid-vapor interface, wetted tank wall, sludge-liquid interface, and the knuckle region

  19. Criticality safety evaluation of disposing of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank AW-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    A criticality safety evaluation is made of the disposal of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank (DST) AW-105 located in the 200 east area of Hanford Site. The technical basis is provided for limits and controls to be used in the development of a criticality prevention specification (CPS). A model of K Basin sludge is developed to account for fuel burnup. The iron/uranium mass ration required to ensure an acceptable magrin of subcriticality is determined

  20. Flammable gas double shell tank expert elicitation presentations (Part A and Part B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-04-17

    This document is a compilation of presentation packages and white papers for the Flammable Gas Double Shell Tank Expert Elicitation Workshop {number_sign}2. For each presentation given by the different authors, a separate section was developed. The purpose for issuing these workshop presentation packages and white papers as a supporting document is to provide traceability and a Quality Assurance record for future reference to these packages.

  1. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Maintenance and Recovery Subsystem Definition Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The description of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Maintenance and Recovery Subsystem presented in this document was developed to establish its boundaries. The DST Maintenance and Recovery Subsystem consists of new and existing equipment and facilities used to provide tank farm operators logistic support and problem resolution for the DST System during operations. This support will include evaluating equipment status, performing preventive and corrective maintenance, developing work packages, managing spares and consumables, supplying tooling, and training maintenance and operations personnel

  2. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AY-102 ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AY-102. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AY-102 primary tank wall and welds. The inspection found some indication of insignificant general and local wall thinning with no cracks detected

  3. Constraints for system specifications for the double-shell and single-shell tank systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAW, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This is a supporting document for the Level 1 Double-Shell and Single-Shell System Specifications. The rationale for selection of specific regulatory constraining documents cited in the two system specifications is provided. many of the regulations have been implemented by the Project Hanford Management Contract procedures (HNF-PROs) and as such noted and traced back to their origins in State and Federal regulations

  4. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AN-105 ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AN-105. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AN-105 primary tank wall primary knuckle, and secondary tank bottom. The inspection found some indication of general and local wall thinning with no cracks detected

  5. Material Balance Assessment for Double-Shell Tank Waste Pipeline Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E; Hartley, Stacey A; Enderlin, Carl W

    2001-01-01

    PNNL developed a material balance assessment methodology based on conservation of mass for detecting leaks and mis-routings in pipeline transfer of double-shell tank waste at Hanford. The main factors causing uncertainty in these transfers are variable property and tank conditions of density, existence of crust, and surface disturbance due to mixer pump operation during the waste transfer. The methodology was applied to three waste transfers from Tanks AN-105 and AZ-102

  6. Flammable gas double shell tank expert elicitation presentations (Part A and Part B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a compilation of presentation packages and white papers for the Flammable Gas Double Shell Tank Expert Elicitation Workshop number-sign 2. For each presentation given by the different authors, a separate section was developed. The purpose for issuing these workshop presentation packages and white papers as a supporting document is to provide traceability and a Quality Assurance record for future reference to these packages

  7. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAMBERT, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1993, Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102 was sampled to determine waste feed characteristics for the Hanford Grout Disposal Program. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics, expected bulk inventory, and concentration data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and information on the history of the tank. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding tank operational safety issues

  8. Heat transfer analyses for grout disposal of radioactive double-shell slurry and customer wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-04-01

    Grout immobilization is being considered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell Hanford) as a permanent disposal method for several radioactive waste streams. These include disposal of customer and double-shell slurry wastes in earthen trenches and in single-shell underground waste storage tanks. Heat transfer studies have previously been made to determine the maximum heat loading for grout disposal of various wastes under similar conditions, but a sensitivity analysis of temperature profiles to input parameters was needed. This document presents the results of heat transfer calculations for trenches containing grouted customer and double-shell slurry wastes and for in situ disposal of double-shell wastes in single-shell, domed concrete storage tanks. It discusses the conditions that lead to maximum grout temperatures of 250 0 F during the curing stage and 350 0 F thereafter and shows the dependence of these temperatures on input parameters such as soil and grout thermal conductivity, grout specific heat, waste loading, and disposal geometries. Transient heat transfer calculations were made using the HEATING6 computer code to predict temperature profiles in solidified low-level radioactive waste disposal scenarios at the Rockwell Hanford site. The calculations provide guidance for the development of safe, environmentally acceptable grout formulas for the Transportable Grout Facility. 11 refs

  9. Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects by supply-driven input-output model: A case study of Taiwan's industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kuei-Yen; Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yun-Hsun; Fu, Szu-Chi; Chen, Chia-Yon

    2016-01-01

    Most existing literature focuses on the direct rebound effect on the demand side for consumers. This study analyses direct and indirect rebound effects in Taiwan's industry from the perspective of producers. However, most studies on the producers' viewpoint may overlook inter-industry linkages. This study applies a supply-driven input-output model to quantify the magnitude of rebound effects by explicitly considering inter-industry linkages. Empirical results showed that total rebound effects for most Taiwan's sectors were less than 10% in 2011. A comparison among the sectors yields that sectors with lower energy efficiency had higher direct rebound effects, while sectors with higher forward linkages generated higher indirect rebound effects. Taking the Mining sector (S3) as an example, which is an upstream supplier and has high forward linkages; it showed high indirect rebound effects that are derived from the accumulation of additional energy consumption by its downstream producers. The findings also showed that in almost all sectors, indirect rebound effects were higher than direct rebound effects. In other words, if indirect rebound effects are neglected, the total rebound effects will be underestimated. Hence, the energy-saving potential may be overestimated. - Highlights: • This study quantifies rebound effects by a supply-driven input-output model. • For most Taiwan's sectors, total rebound magnitudes were less than 10% in 2011. • Direct rebound effects and energy efficiency were inverse correlation. • Indirect rebound effects and industrial forward linkages were positive correlation. • Indirect rebound effects were generally higher than direct rebound effects.

  10. Spatially explicit integrated modeling and economic valuation of climate driven land use change and its indirect effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, Ian; Agarwala, M.; Binner, A.; Coombes, E.; Day, B.; Ferrini, Silvia; Fezzi, C.; Hutchins, M.; Lovett, A.; Posen, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present an integrated model of the direct consequences of climate change on land use, and the indirect effects of induced land use change upon the natural environment. The model predicts climate-driven shifts in the profitability of alternative uses of agricultural land. Both the direct impact of climate change and the induced shift in land use patterns will cause secondary effects on the water environment, for which agriculture is the major source of diffuse pollution. We model the impact...

  11. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences

  12. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J. [ARES Corp. (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences.

  13. Ammonia in simulated Hanford double-shell tank wastes: Solubility and effects on surface tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, J.D.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-09-01

    Radioactive and wastes left from defense materials production activities are temporarily stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State (Tank Waste Science Panel 1991). Some of these wastes are in the form of a thick slurry (''double-shell slurry'') containing sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, organic complexants and buffering agents, complexant fragments and other minor components (Herting et al. 1992a; Herting et al. 1992b; Campbell et al. 1994). As a result of thermal and radiolytic processes, a number of gases are known to be produced by some of these stored wastes, including ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, and methane (Babad et al. 1991; Ashby et al. 1992; Meisel et al. 1993; Ashby et al. 1993; Ashby et al. 1994; Bryan et al. 1993; US Department of Energy 1994). Before the emplacement of a mixer pump, these gases were retained in and periodically released from Tank 241-SY-101, a double-shell tank at the Hanford Site (Babad et al. 1992; US Department of Energy 1994). Gases are believed to be retained primarily in the form of bubbles attached to solid particles (Bryan, Pederson, and Scheele 1992), with very little actually dissolved in the liquid. Ammonia is an exception. The relation between the concentration of aqueous ammonia in such concentrated, caustic mixtures and the ammonia partial pressure is not well known, however

  14. Hanford Double-Shell Tank Extent-of-Condition Construction Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venetz, Theodore J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Gunter, Jason R.; Barnes, Travis J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2013-01-01

    During routine visual inspections of Hanford double-shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102), anomalies were identified on the annulus floor which resulted in further evaluations. Following a formal leak assessment in October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) determined that the primary tank of AY-102 was leaking. The formal leak assessment, documented in RPP-ASMT-53793,Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Report, identified first-of-a-kind construction difficulties and trial-and-error repairs as major contributing factors to tank failure. To determine if improvements in double-shell tank (DST) construction occurred after construction of tank AY-102, a detailed review and evaluation of historical construction records were performed for the first three DST tank farms constructed, which included tanks 241-AY-101, 241-AZ-101, 241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The review for these six tanks involved research and review of dozens of boxes of historical project documentation. These reviews form a basis to better understand the current condition of the three oldest Hanford DST farms. They provide a basis for changes to the current tank inspection program and also provide valuable insight into future tank use decisions. If new tanks are constructed in the future, these reviews provide valuable 'lessons-learned' information about expected difficulties as well as construction practices and techniques that are likely to be successful

  15. Public involvement in the Hanford Double-Shell Tank waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, M.B.; Hunter, V.L.

    1992-06-01

    Hanford's Double-Shell Tank (DST) waste disposal program was redefined following serious challenges to the viability of the previous strategy due to increased regulatory requirements and operating expectations. Redefinition of the DST waste disposal program involved a far-reaching set of decisions and actions. A formal stakeholder involvement process was used to bring the concerns of outside groups into the definition and evaluation of altemative tank waste disposal strategies, broadening the participation and ownership of the revised pregrain. Hanford's Double-Shell Tank (DST) waste disposal strategy, calls for using B-Plant to separate the low-level and high-level portions of the DST waste. This separations step would provide feed to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), viewed by many as the cornerstone to Site cleanup. The State of Washington strongly opposed using the 47-year-old B-Plant because it was not built to comply with current environmental regulations. Because of this and other challenges to Hanford's tank waste disposal strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) initiated efforts to redefine the strategy. To support this effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHCP) sought input from outside stakeholder groups (stakeholders are those interest groups that are affected by the outcome of the decision and have a strong desire to ensure that their concerns are addressed) through a formal stakeholder involvement and multi-attribute utility (MAU) analysis process. This paper describes that process and its results

  16. Discovery of the First Leaking Double-Shell Tank - Hanford Tank 241-AY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, Stephanie J.; Sams, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    A routine video inspection of the annulus space between the primary tank and secondary liner of double-shell tank 241-AY-102 was performed in August 2012. During the inspection, unexpected material was discovered. A subsequent video inspection revealed additional unexpected material on the opposite side of the tank, none of which had been observed during inspections performed in December 2006 and January 2007. A formal leak assessment team was established to review the tank's construction and operating histories, and preparations for sampling and analysis began to determine the material's origin. A new sampling device was required to collect material from locations that were inaccessible to the available sampler. Following its design and fabrication, a mock-up test was performed for the new sampling tool to ensure its functionality and capability of performing the required tasks. Within three months of the discovery of the unexpected material, sampling tools were deployed, material was collected, and analyses were performed. Results indicated that some of the unknown material was indicative of soil, whereas the remainder was consistent with tank waste. This, along with the analyses performed by the leak assessment team on the tank's construction history, lead to the conclusion that the primary tank was leaking into the annulus. Several issues were encountered during the deployment of the samplers into the annulus. As this was the first time samples had been required from the annulus of a double-shell tank, a formal lessons learned was created concerning designing equipment for unique purposes under time constraints

  17. A methodology to define the flow rate and pressure requirements for transfer of double-shell tank waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Liljegren, L.M.

    1993-04-01

    This document presents an analysis of the pressure drop and flow rate double-shell tank slurries. Experiments to requirements for transport of characterize the transport of double-shell tank slurries through piping networks and to resuspend materials that settle during pump outages are proposed. Reported values of physical properties of double-shell tank slurries were analyzed to evaluate the flow regimes that are likely to occur during transport. The results of these evaluations indicate that the slurry will be pseudohomogeneous during transport and that the slurry rheology is sufficiently non-Newtonian to affect both the pressure drop achieved during transport and the critical Reynolds number. The transport data collected in the non-Newtonian experiment will be used to determine whether a non-Newtonian correlation developed by Hanks (1978) adequately describes the experimental results

  18. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2007-02-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global

  19. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT. DYTRAN ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL PRIMARY TANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    M and D Professional Services, Inc. (M and D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS'. The global model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but has more limited capabilities for fluid-structure interaction analysis. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of the finite element code MSC.Dytranz for performing a dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the Dytran solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions to similar problems, and to the results from ANSYS simulations. Both rigid tank and flexible tank configurations were analyzed with Dytran. The response parameters of interest that are evaluated in this study are the total hydrodynamic reaction forces, the impulsive and convective mode frequencies, the waste pressures, and slosh

  20. Gas retention and release behavior in Hanford double-shell waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, P.A.; Brewster, M.E.; Bryan, S.A. [and others

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the current understanding of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford double-shell waste tanks AN-103, AN-104, AN-105, AW-101, SY-101, and SY-103. This knowledge is based on analyses, experimental results, and observations of tank behavior. The applicable data available from the void fraction instrument, retained gas sampler, ball rheometer, tank characterization, and field monitoring are summarized. Retained gas volumes and void fractions are updated with these new data. Using the retained gas compositions from the retained gas sampler, peak dome pressures during a gas burn are calculated as a function of the fraction of retained gas hypothetically released instantaneously into the tank head space. Models and criteria are given for gas generation, initiation of buoyant displacement, and resulting gas release; and predictions are compared with observed tank behavior.

  1. Tank characterization report for double-shell Tank 241-AW-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCenso, A.T.; Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Lambie, R.W.; Stephens, R.H.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    In May 1990, double-shell Tank 241-AW-105 was sampled to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also addresses expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background tank information. This report summarizes the available information regarding the waste in Tank 241-AW-105, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a useful format for making management and technical decisions concerning this waste tank. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are given based on safety issues and further characterization needs

  2. Double-shell tank integrity assessments ultrasonic test equipment performance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfluger, D.C.

    1996-09-26

    A double-shell tank (DST) inspection (DSTI) system was performance tested over three months until August 1995 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, completing a contract initiated in February 1993 to design, fabricate, and test an ultrasonic inspection system intended to provide ultrasonic test (UT) and visual data to determine the integrity of 28 DSTs at Hanford. The DSTs are approximately one-million-gallon underground radioactive-waste storage tanks. The test was performed in accordance with a procedure (Jensen 1995) that included requirements described in the contract specification (Pfluger 1995). This report documents the results of tests conducted to evaluate the performance of the DSTI system against the requirements of the contract specification. The test of the DSTI system also reflects the performance of qualified personnel and operating procedures.

  3. Gas retention and release behavior in Hanford double-shell waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.A.; Brewster, M.E.; Bryan, S.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the current understanding of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford double-shell waste tanks AN-103, AN-104, AN-105, AW-101, SY-101, and SY-103. This knowledge is based on analyses, experimental results, and observations of tank behavior. The applicable data available from the void fraction instrument, retained gas sampler, ball rheometer, tank characterization, and field monitoring are summarized. Retained gas volumes and void fractions are updated with these new data. Using the retained gas compositions from the retained gas sampler, peak dome pressures during a gas burn are calculated as a function of the fraction of retained gas hypothetically released instantaneously into the tank head space. Models and criteria are given for gas generation, initiation of buoyant displacement, and resulting gas release; and predictions are compared with observed tank behavior

  4. Analysis of Induced Gas Releases During Retrieval of Hanford Double-Shell Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Beric E.; Cuta, Judith M.; Hartley, Stacey A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste is scheduled to be retrieved from Hanford double-shell tanks AN-103, AN-104, AN-105, and AW-101 to the vitrification plant beginning about 2009. Retrieval may involve decanting the supernatant liquid and/or mixing the waste with jet pumps. In these four tanks, which contain relatively large volumes of retained gas, both of these operations are expected to induce buoyant displacement gas releases that can potentially raise the tank headspace hydrogen concentration to very near the lower flammability limit. This report describes the theory and detailed physical models for both the supernatant decant and jet mixing processes and presents the results from applying the models to these operations in the four tanks. The technical bases for input parameter distributions are elucidated

  5. Decision analysis for mobilizing and retrieving sludge from double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, A.J.; Williams, N.C.; Dukelow, J.S.; Hansen, R.I.

    1997-09-01

    This decision analysis evaluates alternative technologies for the initial mobilization and retrieval of sludges in double-shell tanks (DSTs). The analysis is from the perspective of the need to move sludges from one DST to another for interim retrieval. It supports the more general decision of which technologies to use to retreive various types of DST waste. The initial analysis is from the perspective of a typical DST with 2 ft of sludge to mobilize. During the course of the analysis, it became clear that it was important to also consider sludge mobilization in support of the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification demonstration plant, and in particular the risks associated with failing to meeting the minimum order requirements for the vendor, as well as the cost of mobilization and retrieval from the HLW vitrification source tanks

  6. Hanford Double Shell Waste Tank Corrosion Studies - Final Report FY2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    During FY15, SRNL performed corrosion testing that supported Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) with their double shell tank (DST) integrity program. The testing investigated six concerns including, 1) the possibility of corrosion of the exterior of the secondary tank wall; 2) the effect of ammonia on vapor space corrosion (VSC) above waste simulants; 3) the determination of the minimum required nitrite and hydroxide concentrations that prevent pitting in concentrated nitrate solutions (i.e., waste buffering); 4) the susceptibility to liquid air interface (LAI) corrosion at proposed stress corrosion cracking (SCC) inhibitor concentrations; 5) the susceptibility of carbon steel to pitting in dilute solutions that contain significant quantities of chloride and sulfate; and 6) the effect of different heats of A537 carbon steel on the corrosion response. For task 1, 2, and 4, the effect of heat treating and/ or welding of the materials was also investigated.

  7. Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-09-28

    This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

  8. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.

    1996-01-01

    This characterization report summarizes the available information on the historical uses, current status, and sampling and analysis results of waste stored in double-shell underground storage tank 241- AN-102. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-09 (Ecology et al. 1996). Tank 241-AN-102 is one of seven double-shell tanks located in the AN Tank Farm in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The tank was hydrotested in 1981, and when the water was removed, a 6-inch heel was left. Tank 241-AN-102 began receiving waste from tank 241-SY-102 beginning in 1982. The tank was nearly emptied in the third quarter of 1983, leaving only 125 kL (33 kgal) of waste. Between the fourth quarter of 1983 and the first quarter of 1984, tank 241-AN-102 received waste from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-SY-102, 241-AW-105, and 241- AN-101. The tank was nearly emptied in the second quarter of 1984, leaving a heel of 129 kL (34 kgal). During the second and third quarters of 1984, the tank was filled with concentrated complexant waste from tank 241-AW-101. Since that time, only minor amounts of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant miscellaneous waste and water have been received; there have been no waste transfer to or from the tank since 1992. Therefore, the waste currently in the tank is considered to be concentrated complexant waste. Tank 241-AN-102 is sound and is not included on any of the Watch Lists

  9. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-105 is a radioactive waste tank most recently sampled in March of 1993. Sampling and characterization of the waste in Tank 241-AP-105 contributes toward the fulfillment of Milestone M-44-05 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology, EPA, and DOE, 1993). Characterization is also needed tot evaluate the waste's fitness for safe processing through an evaporator as part of an overall waste volume reduction program. Tank 241-AP-105, located in the 200 East Area AP Tank Farm, was constructed and went into service in 1986 as a dilute waste receiver tank; Tank 241AP-1 05 was considered as a candidate tank for the Grout Treatment Facility. With the cancellation of the Grout Program, the final disposal of the waste in will be as high- and low-level glass fractions. The tank has an operational capacity of 1,140,000 gallons, and currently contains 821,000 gallons of double-shell slurry feed. The waste is heterogeneous, although distinct layers do not exist. Waste has been removed periodically for processing and concentration through the 242-A Evaporator. The tank is not classified as a Watch List tank and is considered to be sound. There are no Unreviewed Safety Questions associated with Tank 241-AP-105 at this time. The waste in Tank 241-AP-105 exists as an aqueous solution of metallic salts and radionuclides, with limited amounts of organic complexants. The most prevalent soluble analytes include aluminum, potassium, sodium, hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate, and nitrite. The calculated pH is greater than the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act established limit of 12.5 for corrosivity. In addition, cadmium, chromium, and lead concentrations were found at levels greater than their regulatory thresholds. The major radionuclide constituent is 137 Cs, while the few organic complexants present include glycolate and oxalate. Approximately 60% of the waste by weight is water

  10. Structural qualification of the multifunctional instrument tree for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohlow, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the technical basis and methodology for qualifying the multifunctional instrument tree (MIT) structure for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks. Structural qualification for MIT installations in specific tanks are also contained in this document

  11. Functions and Requirements for Automated Liquid Level Gauge Instruments in Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This functions and requirements document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of automated liquid level gauge instruments in the Tank Farms. This document is intended to become the technical baseline for current and future installation, operation and maintenance of automated liquid level gauges in single-shell and double-shell tank farms

  12. Ion-temperature measurement of indirectly driven implosions using a geometry-compensated neutron time-of-flight detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.; Lerche, R.A.; Bennett, C.; Howe, G.

    1995-01-01

    A geometry-compensated neutron time-of-flight detector has been constructed and used on Nova to measure ion temperatures from indirectly driven implosions with yields between 2.5 and 5x10 9 DD neutrons. The detector, which has an estimated respond time of 250 ps, was located 150 cm from the targets. Due to the long decay time of the scintillator, the time-of-flight signal must be unfolded from the measured detector signal. Several methods for determining the width of the neutron energy spectrum from the data have been developed and give similar results. Scattered x rays continue to be a problem for low yield shots, but should be brought under control with adequate shielding

  13. Ion temperature measurement of indirectly-driven implosions using a geometry-compensated neutron time-of-flight detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.; Lerche, R.A.; Bennett, C.; Howe, G.

    1994-05-01

    A geometry-compensated neutron time-of-flight detector has been constructed and used on Nova to measure ion temperatures from indirectly-driven implosions with yields between 2.5 and 5 x 10 9 DD neutrons. The detector, which has an estimated response time of 250 ps, was located 150 cm from the targets. Due to the long decay time of the scintillator, the time-of-flight signal must be unfolded from the measured detector signal. Several methods for determining the width of the neutron energy spectrum from the data have been developed and give similar results. Scattered x rays continue to be a problem for low yield shots, but should be brought under control with adequate shielding

  14. Simulations of indirectly driven gas-filled capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Eder, D. C.; Pino, J. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Divol, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-11-15

    Gas-filled capsules imploded with indirect drive on the National Ignition Facility have been employed as symmetry surrogates for cryogenic-layered ignition capsules and to explore interfacial mix. Plastic capsules containing deuterated layers and filled with tritium gas provide a direct measure of mix of ablator into the gas fuel. Other plastic capsules have employed DT or D{sup 3}He gas fill. We present the results of two-dimensional simulations of gas-filled capsule implosions with known degradation sources represented as in modeling of inertial confinement fusion ignition designs; these are time-dependent drive asymmetry, the capsule support tent, roughness at material interfaces, and prescribed gas-ablator interface mix. Unlike the case of cryogenic-layered implosions, many observables of gas-filled implosions are in reasonable agreement with predictions of these simulations. Yields of TT and DT neutrons as well as other x-ray and nuclear diagnostics are matched for CD-layered implosions. Yields of DT-filled capsules are over-predicted by factors of 1.4–2, while D{sup 3}He capsule yields are matched, as well as other metrics for both capsule types.

  15. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Andrei N., E-mail: simakov@lanl.gov; Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  16. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT-ANSYS BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN A HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL PRIMARY TANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    M and D Professional Services, Inc. (M and D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The overall seismic analysis of the DSTs is being performed with the general-purpose finite element code ANSYS. The overall model used for the seismic analysis of the DSTs includes the DST structure, the contained waste, and the surrounding soil. The seismic analysis of the DSTs must address the fluid-structure interaction behavior and sloshing response of the primary tank and contained liquid. ANSYS has demonstrated capabilities for structural analysis, but the capabilities and limitations of ANSYS to perform fluid-structure interaction are less well understood. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capabilities and investigate the limitations of ANSYS for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste. To this end, the ANSYS solutions are benchmarked against theoretical solutions appearing in BNL 1995, when such theoretical solutions exist. When theoretical solutions were not available, comparisons were made to theoretical solutions of similar problems and to the results from Dytran simulations. The capabilities and limitations of the finite element code Dytran for performing a fluid-structure interaction analysis of the primary tank and contained waste were explored in a parallel investigation (Abatt 2006). In conjunction with the results of the global ANSYS

  17. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT-SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE-SHELL DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO THE WASTE ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Abatt, F.G.; Johnson, K.I.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the dynamic response of the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs) to the assumptions regarding the constitutive properties of the contained waste. In all cases, the waste was modeled as a uniform linearly elastic material. The focus of the study was on the changes in the modal response of the tank and waste system as the extensional modulus (elastic modulus in tension and compression) and shear modulus of the waste were varied through six orders of magnitude. Time-history analyses were also performed for selected cases and peak horizontal reaction forces and axial stresses at the bottom of the primary tank were evaluated. Because the analysis focused on the differences in the responses between solid-filled and liquid-filled tanks, it is a comparative analysis rather than an analysis of record for a specific tank or set of tanks. The shear modulus was varied between 4 x 10 3 Pa and 4.135 x 10 9 Pa. The lowest value of shear modulus was sufficient to simulate the modal response of a liquid-containing tank, while the higher values are several orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of expected properties for tank contents. The range of elastic properties used was sufficient to show liquid-like response at the lower values, followed by a transition range of semi-solid-like response to a clearly identifiable solid-like response. It was assumed that the mechanical properties of the tank contents were spatially uniform. Because sludge-like materials are expected only to exist in the lower part of the tanks, this assumption leads to an exaggeration of the effects of sludge-like materials in the tanks. The results of the study show that up to a waste shear modulus of at least 40,000 Pa, the modal properties of the tank and waste system are very nearly the same as for the equivalent liquid-containing tank. This suggests that the differences in critical tank responses between liquid-containing tanks and tanks

  18. X-ray backlighting requirements for the double-shell target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    We have analyzed one specific NOVA double-shell target design and have determined the x-ray energies required for probing the performance of the implosion. It is virtually impossible to study the compression of the fuel or the motion of the inner pusher. An x-ray energy of about 9 keV appears to be ideal for measuring the behavior of the outer TaCOH shell for the majority of its travel. However, it would be advantageous to have an x-ray source of about 25 keV to measure the contact between the two shells. Development of narrowband x-ray line sources are more desirable than broadband continuum sources since the intensity per keV is many times greater in the line. Intensities of the probes are determined by the self-emission levels of the target capsule. For the 9 keV line source, an intensity of upwards to 10 15 keV/keV/sh/cm 2 /sr is required with a source area of about 0.01 cm 2

  19. Tank characterization report for double-shell Tank 241-AP-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this tank characterization report is to describe and characterize the waste in Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-107 based on information gathered from various sources. This report summarizes the available information regarding the waste in Tank 241-AP-107, and arranges it in a useful format for making management and technical decisions concerning this particular waste tank. In addition, conclusion and recommendations based on safety and further characterization needs are given. Specific objectives reached by the sampling and characterization of the waste in Tank 241-AP-107 are: Contribute toward the fulfillment of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05 concerning the characterization of Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks; Complete safety screening of the contents of Tank 241-AP-107 to meet the characterization requirements of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety board (DNFSB) Recommendation 93-5; and Provide tank waste characterization to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program Elements in accordance with the TWRS Tank Waste Analysis Plan

  20. Evaluation of alternatives for upgrading double shell tank corrosion monitoring at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Recent discovery of low hydroxide conditions in Double Shell Tanks have demonstrated that the current corrosion control system of waste sampling and analysis is inadequate to monitor and maintain specified chemistries for dilute and low volume waste tanks. Moreover, waste sampling alone cannot provide adequate information to resolve the questions raised regarding tank corrosion. This report evaluates available technologies which could be used to improve on the existing corrosion control system. The evaluation concludes that a multi-technique corrosion monitoring system is necessary, utilizing ultrasonic and visual examinations for direct evaluation of tank liner condition, probes for rapid detection (alarm) of corrosive conditions, and waste sampling and analysis for determination of corrective action. The probes would incorporate electrochemical noise and linear polarization resistance techniques. When removed from the waste tank, the probe electrodes would be physically examined as corrosion coupons. The probes would be used in addition to a modified regimen of waste sampling and the existing schedule for ultrasonic examination of the tank liners. Supporting information would be obtained by examination of in-tank equipment as it is removed

  1. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Xixers for Double Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-07-20

    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt{trademark} submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt{trademark} mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described.

  2. ESTIMATING HIGH LEVEL WASTE MIXING PERFORMANCE IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thien, M.G.; Greer, D.A.; Townson, P.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of high level waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tank Operations Contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is currently demonstrating mixing, sampling, and batch transfer performance in two different sizes of small-scale DSTs. The results of these demonstrations will be used to estimate full-scale DST mixing performance and provide the key input to a programmatic decision on the need to build a dedicated feed certification facility. This paper discusses the results from initial mixing demonstration activities and presents data evaluation techniques that allow insight into the performance relationships of the two small tanks. The next steps, sampling and batch transfers, of the small scale demonstration activities are introduced. A discussion of the integration of results from the mixing, sampling, and batch transfer tests to allow estimating full-scale DST performance is presented.

  3. Mechanistic analysis of double-shell tank gas release. Progress report, November 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Friley, J.R.; Haines, C.E.; Liljegren, L.M.; Somasundaram, S.

    1991-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from the double-shell waste storage tanks at Hanford. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report discusses the work done through November 1990. Safe management of the wastes at Hanford depends on an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms that take place in the waste tanks. An example of the need to understand these mechanisms is tank 101-SY. The waste in this tank is generating and periodically releasing potentially flammable gases into the tank vent system according to observations of the tank. How these gases are generated and become trapped, the causes of periodic release, and the mechanism of the release are not known in detail. In order to develop a safe mitigation strategy, possible physical mechanisms for the periodic release of flammable gases need to be understood.

  4. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.

    1997-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for double-shell tank 241-AN-105. The objectives of this report are: (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-AN-105 waste; and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices. This report also supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1996) milestone M-44-10

  5. Interface Control Document Between the Double Shell Tanks (DST) System and the Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies the requirements and responsibilities for all parties to support waste transfer from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facility to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System of the River Protection Project (RPP). This Interface Control Document (ICD) will not attempt to control the physical portion of this interface because the physical equipment making up this interface, and any associated interface requirements, are already in place, operational and governed by existing operating specifications and other documentation. The PFP and DST Systems have a direct physical interface (the waste transfer pipeline) that travels between the 241-2 Building (TK-D5) and DST SY-102 via 244-TX double-contained receiver tank (DCRT). The purpose of the ICD process is to formalize working agreements between the RPP DST System and organization/companies internal and external to RPP. This ICD has been developed as part of the requirements basis for design of the DST System to support the Phase I Privatization effort

  6. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101 Examination Completed August 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2003-01-01

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the secondary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AY-101 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning or pitting that might be present in the wall of the secondary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP--11832 (Jensen 2002) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations

  7. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101. Examination completed October 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    AREVA NC Inc., under contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group, has performed an ultrasonic examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AY-101. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA ultrasonic examinations. This report is Revision 1 - more data has been added to the original report. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AY-101 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan, RPP-Plan-27202 (Jensen 2005) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are to be reported to CH2M Hill Hanford Group and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill Hanford Group, all data is to be recorded on electronic media and paper copies of all measurements are provided to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for third-party evaluation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the AREVA NC Inc. ultrasonic examinations.

  8. Evaluation of scaling correlations for mobilization of double-shell tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekarriz, A.; Hammad, K.J.; Powell, M.R.

    1997-09-01

    In this report, we have examined some of the fundamental mechanisms expected to be at work during mobilization of the waste within the double-shell tanks at Hanford. The motivation stems from the idea that in order to properly apply correlations derived from scaled tests, one would have to ensure that appropriate scaling laws are utilized. Further, in the process of delineating the controlling mechanisms during mobilization, the currently used computational codes are being validated and strengthened based on these findings. Experiments were performed at 1/50-scale, different from what had been performed in the previous fiscal years (i.e., 1/12- and 1/25-scale). It was anticipated that if the current empirical correlations are to work, they should be scale invariant. The current results showed that linear scaling between the 1/25-scale and 1/50-scale correlations do not work well. Several mechanisms were examined in the scaled tests which might have contributed to the discrepancies between the results at these two scales. No deficiencies in the experimental approach and the data were found. Cognizant of these results, it was concluded that the use of the current empirical correlations for ECR should be done cautiously taking into account the appropriate properties of the material for yielding.

  9. Stakeholder involvement in redefining Hanford's Double-Shell Tank Waste Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, M.B.; Hunter, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    Hanford's Double-Shell Tank (DST) waste disposal strategy, outlined in the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington calls for using B-Plant to separate the low-level and high-level portions of the DST waste. This separations step would provide feed to the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), viewed by many as the cornerstone to Site cleanup. The State of Washington strongly opposed using the 47-year old B-Plant because it was not built to comply with current environmental regulations. Because of this and other challenges to Hanford's tank waste disposal strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) initiated efforts to redefine the strategy. To support this effort, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company, (WHC) and sought input from outside stakeholder (stakeholders are those interest groups that are affected by the outcome of the decision and have a strong desire to ensure that their concerns are addressed) groups through a formal stakeholder involvement and multiattribute utility (MAU) analysis process

  10. Facile synthesis of hierarchical double-shell WO{sub 3} microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenfeng [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin 300387 (China); Chu, Deqing, E-mail: dqingchu@163.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Limin, E-mail: wanglimin@tjpu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Lipeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Hu, Wenhui; Chen, Xiangyu; Yang, Huifang [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Sun, Jingjing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • HDS-WO{sub 3} were fabricated via mild process. • A possible growth mechanism for HDS-WO{sub 3} is proposed. • The excellent photocatalytic activity is attributed to the larger surface area of the HDS-WO{sub 3} nanostructures. - Abstract: Hierarchical double-shell WO{sub 3} microspheres (HDS-WO{sub 3}) have been successfully obtained through the thermal decomposition of WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O formed by metal salts as the templates. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the HDS-WO{sub 3} microspheres were analyzed by the Thermogravimetric (TG) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The synthetic mechanism of the products with hierarchical structures was proposed. The obtained HDS-WO{sub 3} exhibits excellent photocatalytic efficiency (84.9%), which is much higher than other WO{sub 3} sample under visible light illumination.

  11. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-104. Examination Completed August 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AP-104 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations

  12. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-103. Examination completed February 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-103. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-SY-103 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations

  13. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 214-AW-102 Knuckle Region. Examination completed February 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2003-01-01

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic examination of the knuckle region of Double-Shell Tank 241-AW-102 utilizing the Remotely Operated Nondestructive Examination (RONDE) system. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the knuckle region of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AW-102 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any circumferentially oriented cracks that might be present in the knuckle area of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-7869, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided t o PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report(s) that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations

  14. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-AZ-102 Examination Completed August 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2003-01-01

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-AZ-102. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-AZ-102 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plat (ETP), RPP-11832 (Jensen 2002) and summarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA ultrasonic examinations

  15. Ultrasonic Examination of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102. Examination Completed June 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.

    2004-01-01

    COGEMA Engineering Corporation (COGEMA), under a contract from CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M Hill), has performed an ultrasonic nondestructive examination of selected portions of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102. The purpose of this examination was to provide information that could be used to evaluate the integrity of the wall of the primary tank. The requirements for the ultrasonic examination of Tank 241-SY-102 were to detect, characterize (identify, size, and locate), and record measurements made of any wall thinning, pitting, or cracks that might be present in the wall of the primary tank. Any measurements that exceed the requirements set forth in the Engineering Task Plan (ETP), RPP-17750 (Jensen 2003) and/SUMmarized on page 1 of this document, are reported to CH2M Hill and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for further evaluation. Under the contract with CH2M Hill, all data is to be recorded on disk and paper copies of all measurements are provided to PNNL for third-party evaluation. PNNL is responsible for preparing a report that describes the results of the COGEMA

  16. Evaluation of scaling correlations for mobilization of double-shell tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekarriz, A.; Hammad, K.J.; Powell, M.R.

    1997-09-01

    In this report, we have examined some of the fundamental mechanisms expected to be at work during mobilization of the waste within the double-shell tanks at Hanford. The motivation stems from the idea that in order to properly apply correlations derived from scaled tests, one would have to ensure that appropriate scaling laws are utilized. Further, in the process of delineating the controlling mechanisms during mobilization, the currently used computational codes are being validated and strengthened based on these findings. Experiments were performed at 1/50-scale, different from what had been performed in the previous fiscal years (i.e., 1/12- and 1/25-scale). It was anticipated that if the current empirical correlations are to work, they should be scale invariant. The current results showed that linear scaling between the 1/25-scale and 1/50-scale correlations do not work well. Several mechanisms were examined in the scaled tests which might have contributed to the discrepancies between the results at these two scales. No deficiencies in the experimental approach and the data were found. Cognizant of these results, it was concluded that the use of the current empirical correlations for ECR should be done cautiously taking into account the appropriate properties of the material for yielding

  17. Durability of double-shell slurry feed grouts: FY-90 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1992-12-01

    Plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank wastes at Hanford include grouting. Grout disposal is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders and pumping the slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults; hydration results in the formation of a solid product that binds/encapsulates the radioactive/hazardous constituents. In this durability program, previous studies have indicated a strong impact from curing temperature/time on strength and leach resistance of DSSF grouts. The current studies were expanded to determine whether these impacts could be attributed to other factors, such as dry blend composition and waste concentration. Major conclusions: grouts from dry blends with 40 wt% limestone had lower strengths; compressive strengths and leach resistance decreased with increased curing temperature/time; leach resistance increased for grouts prepared with dilute DSSF; nitrate leach resistance increased with high slag/cement ratios, dilute DSSF, and low curing temperatures; amount of drainable liquids for grouts using diluted DSSF was lowest when slag content was high; the 2 most significant factors affecting grout properties were the slag/cement ratio and waste dilution (slag-waste reactions appear to dominate the properties of DSSF grouts)

  18. Distributions of 15 elements on 58 absorbers from simulated Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 58 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, pillared layered materials, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) (pH 14.0). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 870 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2610 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing DSSF solutions

  19. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

  20. The Remotely Operated Nondestructive Examination System for Examining the Knuckle Region of Hanford's Double Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Pardini, Allan F.; Donald Thompson and Dale Chimenti

    2005-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed a technology to address the examination requirements associated with the knuckle region of Hanford's double shell waste tanks. This examination poses a significant technical challenge because the area that requires examination is in a confined space, high radiation region and is not accessible using conventional measurement techniques. This paper describes the development, deployment, and modification of the remotely operated nondestructive examination (RONDE) system that utilizes a technique known as Synthetic Aperture Focusing (SAFT). The system detects stress corrosion cracking in the high stress region of the knuckle and characterizes the crack with tandem SAFT. PNNL has qualified the system to perform inspections on the entire knuckle region of Hanford's double shell waste tanks

  1. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.E.; Haass, C.C.; Kovach, J.L.; Turner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through out the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  2. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.C.; Kovach, J.L.; Kelly, S.E.; Turner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  3. Enzyme-free hydrogen peroxide sensor based on Au@Ag@C core-double shell nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yancai, E-mail: liyancai@mnnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Zhang, Yayun; Zhong, Yanmei [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Li, Shunxing [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A facile method was designed to synthesize Au@Ag@C core-double shell nanocomposites. • Carbon nanomaterials at the outermost layer could protect Au and Ag nanoparticles from oxidation and aggregation. • The Au@Ag@C core-double shell nanocomposites showed high sensitivity and selectivity to electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide. • The hydrogen peroxide sensor has a wide linear range of 5.0 μM to 4.75 mM and a limit of detection as low as 0.14 μM. - Abstract: The well-designed Au@Ag@C core-double shell nanocomposites were synthesized via a facile method, and were used to fabricate an enzyme-free amperometric hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor. The size, shape, elementary composition and structure of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy-dispersed spectrum (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The outermost layer of the nanocomposites was amorphous carbon, the second layer was Ag and the core was Au. The Au@Ag@C core-double shell nanocomposites exhibit attractive activity for electrocatalytic reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} according to the electrochemical experiments. It also demonstrates the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor possess well performance with a wide linear range of 5.0 μM to 4.75 mM and a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 0.14 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the interference from the common interfering species, such as glucose, ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid can be effectively avoided. In a word, the Au@Ag@C nanocomposites are promising candidates for enzyme-free H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor.

  4. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  5. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  6. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.; Weiner, E.O.

    1991-09-01

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-shell tank walls and and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduce from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report

  7. Spatially explicit integrated modeling and economic valuation of climate driven land use change and its indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Ian; Agarwala, Matthew; Binner, Amy; Coombes, Emma; Day, Brett; Ferrini, Silvia; Fezzi, Carlo; Hutchins, Michael; Lovett, Andrew; Posen, Paulette

    2016-10-01

    We present an integrated model of the direct consequences of climate change on land use, and the indirect effects of induced land use change upon the natural environment. The model predicts climate-driven shifts in the profitability of alternative uses of agricultural land. Both the direct impact of climate change and the induced shift in land use patterns will cause secondary effects on the water environment, for which agriculture is the major source of diffuse pollution. We model the impact of changes in such pollution on riverine ecosystems showing that these will be spatially heterogeneous. Moreover, we consider further knock-on effects upon the recreational benefits derived from water environments, which we assess using revealed preference methods. This analysis permits a multi-layered examination of the economic consequences of climate change, assessing the sequence of impacts from climate change through farm gross margins, land use, water quality and recreation, both at the individual and catchment scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vapor Space Corrosion Testing Simulating The Environment Of Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gray, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murphy, T. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hicks, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-30

    As part of an integrated program to better understand corrosion in the high level waste tanks, Hanford has been investigating corrosion at the liquid/air interface (LAI) and at higher areas in the tank vapor space. This current research evaluated localized corrosion in the vapor space over Hanford double shell tank simulants to assess the impact of ammonia and new minimum nitrite concentration limits, which are part of the broader corrosion chemistry limits. The findings from this study showed that the presence of ammonia gas (550 ppm) in the vapor space is sufficient to reduce corrosion over the short-term (i.e. four months) for a Hanford waste chemistry (SY102 High Nitrate). These findings are in agreement with previous studies at both Hanford and SRS which showed ammonia gas in the vapor space to be inhibitive. The presence of ammonia in electrochemical test solution, however, was insufficient to inhibit against pitting corrosion. The effect of the ammonia appears to be a function of the waste chemistry and may have more significant effects in waste with low nitrite concentrations. Since high levels of ammonia were found beneficial in previous studies, additional testing is recommended to assess the necessary minimum concentration for protection of carbon steel. The new minimum R value of 0.15 was found to be insufficient to prevent pitting corrosion in the vapor space. The pitting that occurred, however, did not progress over the four-month test. Pits appeared to stop growing, which would indicate that pitting might not progress through wall.

  9. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AW-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the major functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for double-shell tank 241-AW-105. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-AW-105 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone Characterization. information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. While only the results of a recent sampling event will be used to fulfill the requirements of the data quality objectives (DQOs), other information can be used to support or question conclusions derived from these results. Historical information for tank 241-AW-105 is provided in Appendix A, including surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. The recent sampling event listed, as well as pertinent sample data obtained before 1996, are summarized in Appendix B along with the sampling results. The results of the 1996 grab sampling event satisfied the data requirements specified in the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for this tank. In addition, the tank headspace flammability was measured, which addresses

  10. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-101. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    One major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes m support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis and other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for double-shell tank 241-AP-101. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-AP-101 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 provides the best-basis inventory estimate, and Section 4.0 makes recommendations about safety status and additional sampling needs. The appendixes contain supporting data and information. This report supported the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-05. The characterization information in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. Appendix A provides historical information for tank 241-AP-101 including surveillance, information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a model based upon process knowledge. Appendix B summarizes recent sampling events and historical sampling information. Tank 241-AP-101 was grab sampled in November 1995, when the tank contained 2,790 kL (737 kgal) of waste. An addition1034al 1,438 kL (380 kgal) of waste was received from tank 241-AW-106 in transfers on March 1996 and January 1997. This waste was the product of the 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1. Characterization information for the additional 1,438 kL (380 kgal) was obtained using grab sampling data from tank 241-AW-106 and a slurry sample from the evaporator. Appendix C reports on the statistical analysis and numerical manipulation of data used in

  11. Maximum credibly yield for deuteriuim-filled double shell imaging targets meeting requirements for yield bin Category A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Douglas Carl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Loomis, Eric Nicholas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-17

    We are anticipating our first NIF double shell shot using an aluminum ablator and a glass inner shell filled with deuterium shown in figure 1. The expected yield is between a few 1010 to a few 1011 dd neutrons. The maximum credible yield is 5e+13. This memo describes why, and what would be expected with variations on the target. This memo evaluates the maximum credible yield for deuterium filled double shell capsule targets with an aluminum ablator shell and a glass inner shell in yield Category A (< 1014 neutrons). It also pertains to fills of gas diluted with hydrogen, helium (3He or 4He), or any other fuel except tritium. This memo does not apply to lower z ablator dopants, such as beryllium, as this would increase the ablation efficiency. This evaluation is for 5.75 scale hohlraum targets of either gold or uranium with helium gas fills with density between 0 and 1.6 mg/cc. It could be extended to other hohlraum sizes and shapes with slight modifications. At present only laser pulse energies up to 1.5 MJ were considered with a single step laser pulse of arbitrary shape. Since yield decreases with laser energy for this target, the memo could be extended to higher laser energies if desired. These maximum laser parameters of pulses addressed here are near the edge of NIF’s capability, and constitute the operating envelope for experiments covered by this memo. We have not considered multiple step pulses, would probably create no advantages in performance, and are not planned for double shell capsules. The main target variables are summarized in Table 1 and explained in detail in the memo. Predicted neutron yields are based on 1D and 2D clean simulations.

  12. Hard x-ray (>100 keV) imager to measure hot electron preheat for indirectly driven capsule implosions on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döppner, T; Dewald, E L; Divol, L; Thomas, C A; Burns, S; Celliers, P M; Izumi, N; Kline, J L; LaCaille, G; McNaney, J M; Prasad, R R; Robey, H F; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L

    2012-10-01

    We have fielded a hard x-ray (>100 keV) imager with high aspect ratio pinholes to measure the spatially resolved bremsstrahlung emission from energetic electrons slowing in a plastic ablator shell during indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility. These electrons are generated in laser plasma interactions and are a source of preheat to the deuterium-tritium fuel. First measurements show that hot electron preheat does not limit obtaining the fuel areal densities required for ignition and burn.

  13. EFFECTS OF CHEMISTRY AND OTHER VARIABLES ON CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN MH

    2008-11-13

    Laboratory testing was performed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the corrosivity of the tank wastes stored in Double-Shell Tanks using simulants primarily from Tanks 241-AP-105, 241-SY-103 and 241-AW-105. Additional tests were conducted using simulants of the waste stored in 241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-AN-107, and 241-AY-101. This test program placed particular emphasis on defining the range of tank waste chemistries that do not induce the onset of localized forms of corrosion, particularly pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This document summarizes the key findings of the research program.

  14. EFFECTS OF CHEMISTRY AND OTHER VARIABLES ON CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory testing was performed to develop a comprehensive understanding of the corrosivity of the tank wastes stored in Double-Shell Tanks using simulants primarily from Tanks 241-AP-105, 241-SY-103 and 241-AW-105. Additional tests were conducted using simulants of the waste stored in 241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-AN-107, and 241-AY-101. This test program placed particular emphasis on defining the range of tank waste chemistries that do not induce the onset of localized forms of corrosion, particularly pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This document summarizes the key findings of the research program

  15. A 1-D Study of the Ignition Space for Magnetic Indirect (X-ray) Drive Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobble, James Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinars, Daniel Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-02

    The ICF program today is investigating three approaches to achieving multi-MJ fusion yields and ignition: (1) laser indirect (x-ray) drive on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), (2) laser direct drive (primarily on the Omega laser facility at the University of Rochester), and (3) magnetic direct drive on the Z pulsed power facility. In this white paper we briefly consider a fourth approach, magnetic indirect drive, in which pulsedpower- driven x-ray sources are used in place of laser driven sources. We first look at some of the x-ray sources studied on Z prior to 2007 before the pulsed power ICF program shifted to magnetic direct drive. We then show results from a series of 1D Helios calculations of double-shell capsules that suggest that these sources, scaled to higher temperatures, could be a promising path to achieving multi-MJ fusion yields and ignition. We advocate here that more detailed design calculations with widely accepted 2D/3D ICF codes should be conducted for a better assessment of the prospects.

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of porous double-shelled Mn2O3 hollow microspheres as a superior anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Yu; Yu, Yan; Jin, Yi; Guan, Yi-Biao; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Double-shelled Mn 2 O 3 hollow microspheres are prepared by a multi-step. • synthesis procedure. • Solid, hollow and yolk-structured Mn 2 O 3 spheres are prepared for comparison. • The double-shelled hollow Mn 2 O 3 is superior in electrochemical properties. - Abstract: By means of a specially designed multi-step synthesis procedure involving steps of precipitation, controlled oxidation, selective etching and calcination, porous double-shelled Mn 2 O 3 hollow microspheres are synthesized. Solid, hollow and yolk-structured Mn 2 O 3 are also similarly synthesized for comparison. X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements are employed to investigate their structures and compositions. Galvanostatic cell cycling and impedance spectroscopy are used to characterize the electrochemical properties of Mn 2 O 3 /Li cells. The results show that the hierarchical hollow structured (double-shelled, hollow and yolk-structured) Mn 2 O 3 anode materials deliver higher reversible capacities and excellent cycling stabilities than the solid Mn 2 O 3 . Moreover, among the three hierarchical hollow structured samples, the double shelled sample possesses the best cycling performance, especially at a high current density

  17. Reactive turbulent flow CFD study in supercritical water oxidation process: application to a stirred double shell reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussiere, S.

    2006-12-01

    Supercritical water oxidation is an innovative process to treat organic liquid waste which uses supercritical water properties to mix efficiency the oxidant and the organic compounds. The reactor is a stirred double shell reactor. In the step of adaptation to nuclear constraints, the computational fluid dynamic modeling is a good tool to know required temperature field in the reactor for safety analysis. Firstly, the CFD modeling of tubular reactor confirms the hypothesis of an incompressible fluid and the use of k-w turbulence model to represent the hydrodynamic. Moreover, the EDC model is as efficiency as the kinetic to compute the reaction rate in this reactor. Secondly, the study of turbulent flow in the double shell reactor confirms the use of 2D axisymmetric geometry instead of 3D geometry to compute heat transfer. Moreover, this study reports that water-air mixing is not in single phase. The reactive turbulent flow is well represented by EDC model after adaptation of initial conditions. The reaction rate in supercritical water oxidation reactor is mainly controlled by the mixing. (author)

  18. Double-shelled silicon anode nanocomposite materials: A facile approach for stabilizing electrochemical performance via interface construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lulu; Wen, Zhongsheng; Wang, Guanqin; Yang, Yan-E.

    2018-04-01

    The rapid capacity fading induced by volumetric changes is the main issue that hinders the widespread application of silicon anode materials. Thus, double-shelled silicon composite materials where lithium silicate was located between an Nb2O5 coating layer and a silicon active core were configured to overcome the chemical compatibility issues related to silicon and oxides. The proposed composites were prepared via a facile co-precipitation method combined with calcination. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that a transition layer of lithium silicate was constructed successfully, which effectively hindered the thermal inter-diffusion between the silicon and oxide coating layers during heat treatment. The electrochemical performance of the double-shelled silicon composites was enhanced dramatically with a retained specific capacity of 1030 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1 compared with 598 mAh g-1 for a core-shell Si@Nb2O5 composite that lacked the interface. The lithium silicate transition layer was shown to play an important role in maintaining the high electrochemical stability.

  19. References for HNF-SD-WM-TRD-007, ''System specification for the double-shell tank system: HNF-PROs, CFRs, DOE Orders, WACs''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    HNF-SD-WM-TRD-O07, System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System, (hereafter referred to as DST Specification), defines the requirements of the double-shell tank system at the Hanford Site for Phase 1 privatization. Many of the sections in this document reference other documents for design guidance and requirements. Referenced documents include Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) procedures (HNF-PROS), Codes of Federal Regulation (CFRs), DOE Orders, and Washington Administrative Codes (WACs). This document provides rationale for the selection and inclusion of HNF-PROS, CFRs, DOE Orders and WACs

  20. Discovery of the First Leaking Double-Shell Tank - Hanford Tank 241-AY-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, Stephanie J.; Sams, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Full text - Long Abstract. A routine video inspection of the annulus region of double-shell tank 241-A Y-102 in August of 2012 indicated the presence material in the annulus space between the primary and secondary liners. A comparison was made to previous inspections performed in 2006 and 2007. which indicated that a change had occurred. The material was observed at two locations on the floor of the annulus and one location at the top of the annulus region where the primary and secondary top knuckles meet (RPP-ASMT-53793). Subsequent inspections were performed. leading to additional material observed on the floor of the annulus space in a region that had not previously been inspected (WRPS-PER-2012-1363). The annulus Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) was still operational and was not indicating elevated radiation levels in the annulus region. When the camera from the inspections was recovered. it also did not indicate increased radiation above minimum contamination levels (WRPS-PER-2012-1363). A formal leak assessment team was established August 10, 2012 to review tank 241-AY-102 construction and operating histories and to determine whether the material observed in the annulus had resulted from a leak in the primary tank. The team consisted of individuals from Engineering. Base Operations and Environmental Protection. As this was a first-of-its-kind task. a method for obtaining a sample of the material in the annulus was needed. The consistency of the material was unknown.and the location of a majority of the material was not conducive to using the sampling devices that were currently available at Hanford. A subcontractor was tasked with the development fabrication.and testing of a sampling device that would be able to obtain multiple samples from the material on the annulus floor. as well as the material originating from a refractory air-slot near the floor of the annulus space. This sampler would need to be able to collect and dispense the material it collected into a

  1. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT-BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS and RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Johnson, K.I.; Deibler, J.E.; Pilli, S.P.; Rinker, M.W.; Karri, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to

  2. Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, Peter; Cerjan, C.; Hamza, A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of demonstrating ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2003)] has motivated a revisit of double-shell (DS) targets as a complementary path to the cryogenic baseline approach. Expected benefits of DS ignition targets include noncryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel preparation, minimal hohlraum-plasma-mediated laser backscatter, low threshold-ignition temperatures (≅4 keV) for relaxed hohlraum x-ray flux asymmetry tolerances, and minimal (two-) shock timing requirements. On the other hand, DS ignition presents several formidable challenges, encompassing room-temperature containment of high-pressure DT (≅790 atm) in the inner shell, strict concentricity requirements on the two shells ( 2 nanoporous aerogels with suspended Cu particles. A prototype demonstration of an ignition DS is planned for 2008, incorporating the needed novel nanomaterials science developments and the required fabrication tolerances for a realistic ignition attempt after 2010

  3. A methodology to predict the uniformity of double-shell waste slurries based on mixer pump operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljegren, L.M.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1992-08-01

    Dimensional analysis is used to determine the similarity parameters that describe the uniformity of radioactive slurry wastes to be suspended by mixer pumps. The results of this analysis are applied to the design of scaled experiments that will determine the operating parameters that will ensure an adequately uniform feed stream during waste retrieval from Hanford double-shell tanks. Ten dimensionless parameters describing the slurry mixing process were identified. Of these, three describe purely geometric features, three describe slurry properties only, one is a dimensionless time scale, and three describe important dynamic factors. The three parameters describing the dynamic features are the Reynolds number, which describes the degree of turbulence in the tank; the Froude number, which describes the effects of stratification on the circulation patterns; and the gravitational settling number, which describes the balance between the work done by gravity to cause settling and the work done by the pump to resuspend particles

  4. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2009-01-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor bolt

  5. Interface Control Document Between the Double-Shell Tank (DST) system and the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOFFERBER, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) describes interfaces between the Double-Shell Tanks (DST) System and Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) (figure 1). WESF is currently operational as a storage facility for cesium and strontium capsules. This ICD covers current operational interfaces and those envisioned during Terminal Clean Out (TCO) activities in the future. WESF and the DST System do not have a direct physical interface. The waste will be moved by tank trailer to the 204-AR waste unloading facility. The purpose of the ICD process is to formalize working agreements between the River Protection Project (RPP) DST System and systems/facilities operated by organizations or companies internal and external to RPP. This ICD has been developed as part of the requirements basis for design of the DST System to support the Phase I Privatization effort

  6. Accelerated safety analyses - structural analyses Phase I - structural sensitivity evaluation of single- and double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Accelerated Safety Analyses - Phase I (ASA-Phase I) have been conducted to assess the appropriateness of existing tank farm operational controls and/or limits as now stipulated in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Operating Specification Documents, and to establish a technical basis for the waste tank operating safety envelope. Structural sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the response of the different waste tank configurations to variations in loading conditions, uncertainties in loading parameters, and uncertainties in material characteristics. Extensive documentation of the sensitivity analyses conducted and results obtained are provided in the detailed ASA-Phase I report, Structural Sensitivity Evaluation of Single- and Double-Shell Waste Tanks for Accelerated Safety Analysis - Phase I. This document provides a summary of the accelerated safety analyses sensitivity evaluations and the resulting findings

  7. Test plan for evaluation of primary exhaust ventilation flow meters for double shell hydrogen watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingham, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    This document is a plan for testing four different flow meters for use in the primary exhaust ventilation ducts of Double Shell Tanks on the hydrogen watch list that do not already have this capability. This currently includes tanks 241-AW-101, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, and 241-SY-103. The anticipated airflow velocity in these tanks range from 0.25 m/s(50 ft/min) to 1.78 m/s (350 ft/min). Past experiences at Hanford are forcing the evaluation and selection of instruments to be used at the low flow and relatively high humidity conditions found in these tanks. Based on the results of this test, a flow meter shall be chosen for installation in the primary exhaust ventilation ducts of the above mentioned waste tanks

  8. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT-BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Johnson, K.I.; Deibler, J.E.; Pilli, S.P.; Rinker, M.W.; Karri, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic performance and degradation pathway of Rhodamine B over hierarchical double-shelled zinc nickel oxide hollow sphere heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Jiabin; Cai, Weiquan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, hierarchical double-shelled NiO/ZnO hollow spheres heterojunction were prepared by calcination of the metallic organic frameworks (MOFs) as a sacrificial template in air via a one-step solvothermal method. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV-vis light irradiation were also investigated. NiO/ZnO microsphere comprised a core and a shell with unique hierarchically porous structure. The photocatalytic results showed that NiO/ZnO hollow spheres exhibited excellent catalytic activity for RhB degradation, causing complete decomposition of RhB (200 mL of 10 g/L) under UV-vis light irradiation within 3 h. Furthermore, the degradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the intermediates during the photodegradation process using liquid chromatography analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). The improvement in photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the p-n heterojunction in the NiO/ZnO hollow spheres with hierarchically porous structure and the strong double-shell binding interaction, which enhances adsorption of the dye molecules on the catalyst surface and facilitates the electron/hole transfer within the framework. The degradation mechanism of pollutant is ascribed to the hydroxyl radicals (rad OH), which is the main oxidative species for the photocatalytic degradation of RhB. This work provides a facile and effective approach for the fabrication of porous metal oxides heterojunction with high photocatalytic activity and thus can be potentially used in the environmental purification.

  10. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS IN SUPPORT OF INCREASED LIQUID LEVEL IN 241-AP TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; ABBOTT FG; CARPENTER BG; RINKER MW

    2007-02-16

    The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The "Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Project" is in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14.

  11. Piezo-phototronic effect enhanced UV photodetector based on CuI/ZnO double-shell grown on flexible copper microwire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyu; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Caihong; Peng, Mingzeng; Yu, Aifang; Kou, Jinzong; Liu, Wei; Zhai, Junyi; Liu, Juan

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we present a facile, low-cost, and effective approach to fabricate the UV photodetector with a CuI/ZnO double-shell nanostructure which was grown on common copper microwire. The enhanced performances of Cu/CuI/ZnO core/double-shell microwire photodetector resulted from the formation of heterojunction. Benefiting from the piezo-phototronic effect, the presentation of piezocharges can lower the barrier height and facilitate the charge transport across heterojunction. The photosensing abilities of the Cu/CuI/ZnO core/double-shell microwire detector are investigated under different UV light densities and strain conditions. We demonstrate the I-V characteristic of the as-prepared core/double-shell device; it is quite sensitive to applied strain, which indicates that the piezo-phototronic effect plays an essential role in facilitating charge carrier transport across the CuI/ZnO heterojunction, then the performance of the device is further boosted under external strain.

  12. Evidence for a bubble-competition regime in indirectly driven ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D A; Smalyuk, V A; Kane, J O; Casner, A; Liberatore, S; Masse, L P

    2015-05-29

    We investigate on the National Ignition Facility the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes. A planar plastic package with preimposed two-dimensional broadband modulations is accelerated for up to 12 ns by the x-ray drive of a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperature plateau at 175 eV. This extended tailored drive allows a distance traveled in excess of 1 mm for a 130  μm thick foil. Measurements of the modulation optical density performed by x-ray radiography show that a bubble-merger regime for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at an ablation front is achieved for the first time in indirect drive. The mutimode modulation amplitudes are in the nonlinear regime, grow beyond the Haan multimode saturation level, evolve toward the longer wavelengths, and show insensitivity to the initial conditions.

  13. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS WITH SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; RINKER MW; JOHNSON KI; ABATT FG; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; STOOPS KL

    2009-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TaLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs). The bases of the analytical work presented herein are two ANSYS{reg_sign} finite element models that were developed to represent a bounding-case tank. The TaLA model includes the effects of temperature on material properties, creep, concrete cracking, and various waste and annulus pressure-loading conditions. The seismic model considers the interaction of the tanks with the surrounding soil including a range of soil properties, and the effects of the waste contents during a seismic event. The structural evaluations completed with the representative tank models do not reveal any structural deficiencies with the integrity of the DSTs. The analyses represent 60 years of use, which extends well beyond the current date. In addition, the temperature loads imposed on the model are significantly more severe than any service to date or proposed for the future. Bounding material properties were also selected to provide the most severe combinations. While the focus of the analyses was a bounding-case tank, it was necessary during various evaluations to conduct tank-specific analyses. The primary tank buckling evaluation was carried out on a tank-specific basis because of the sensitivity to waste height, specific gravity, tank wall thickness, and primary tank vapor space vacuum limit. For this analysis, the occurrence of maximum tank vacuum was classified as a service level C, emergency load condition. The only area of potential concern in the analysis was with the buckling evaluation of the AP tank, which showed the current limit on demand of l2-inch water gauge vacuum to exceed the allowable of 10.4 inches. This determination was based on analysis at the

  14. From harmful Microcystis blooms to multi-functional core-double-shell microsphere bio-hydrochar materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Pan, Gang

    2017-11-13

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) induced by eutrophication is becoming a serious global environmental problem affecting public health and aquatic ecological sustainability. A novel strategy for the utilization of biomass from HABs was developed by converting the algae cells into hollow mesoporous bio-hydrochar microspheres via hydrothermal carbonization method. The hollow microspheres were used as microreactors and carriers for constructing CaO 2 core-mesoporous shell-CaO 2 shell microspheres (OCRMs). The CaO 2 shells could quickly increase dissolved oxygen to extremely anaerobic water in the initial 40 min until the CaO 2 shells were consumed. The mesoporous shells continued to act as regulators restricting the release of oxygen from CaO 2 cores. The oxygen-release time using OCRMs was 7 times longer than when directly using CaO 2 . More interestingly, OCRMs presented a high phosphate removal efficiency (95.6%) and prevented the pH of the solution from rising to high levels in comparison with directly adding CaO 2 due to the OH - controlled-release effect of OCRMs. The distinct core-double-shell micro/nanostructure endowed the OCRMs with triple functions for oxygen controlled-release, phosphorus removal and less impact on water pH. The study is to explore the possibility to prepare smarter bio-hydrochar materials by utilizing algal blooms.

  15. The compatibility of various polymeric liner and pipe materials with simulated double-shell slurry feed at 90 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Hymas, C.R.

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of various polymeric liner and pipe materials with a low-level radioactive waste slurry called double-shell slurry feed (DSSF). The evaluation was necessary as part of the permitting process authorized by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), PL-94-580. Materials that were examined included five flexible membrane liners (Hytrel reg sign polyester, polyurethane, 8130 XR5 reg sign, polypropylene, and high-density polyethylene) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The liner and pipe samples were immersed for 120 days in the synthetic DSSE at 90 degree C, the maximum expected temperature in the waste disposal scenario. Physical properties of the liner and pipe samples were measured before immersion and every 30 days after immersion, in accordance with EPA Method 9090. In addition, some of the materials were exposed to four different radiation doses after 30 days of immersion. Physical properties of these materials were measured immediately after exposure and after an additional 90 days of immersion to determine each material's response to radiation, and whether radiation exposure affected the chemical compatibility of the material. 20 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Impacts and Compliance Implementation Plans and Required Deviations for Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Regulation of Double Shell Tanks (DST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held meetings regarding the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) contain waste which will become subject to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor (TFC) to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. Two components of the PCB management plans are this assessment of the operational impacts of TSCA regulation and the identifications of deviations from TSCA that are required to accommodate tank farm unique limitations. This plan provides ORP and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) with an outline of TSCA PCB requirements and their applicability to tank farm activities, and recommends a compliance/implementation approach. Where strict compliance is not possible, the need for deviations from TSCA PCB requirements is identified. The purpose of assembling this information is to enhance the understanding of PCB management requirements, identify operational impacts and select impact mitigation strategies. This information should be useful in developing formal agreements with EPA where required

  17. Characterization of the first core sample of neutralized current acid waste from double-shell tank 101-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1989-09-01

    In FY 1989, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) successfully obtained four core samples (totaling seven segments) of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from double-shell tanks (DSTs) 101-AZ and 102-AZ. A segment was a 19-in.-long and 1-in.-diameter cylindrical sample of waste. A core sample consisted of enough 19-in.-long segments to obtain the waste of interest. Three core samples were obtained from DST 101-AZ and one core sample from DST 102-AZ. Two DST 101-AZ core samples consisted of two segments per core, and the third core sample consisted of only one segment. The third core consisted of the solids from the bottom of the tank and was used to determine the relative abrasiveness of this NCAW. The DST 102-AZ core sample consisted of two segments. The core samples were transported to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), where the waste was extruded from its sampler and extensively characterized. A characterization plan was followed that simulated the processing of the NCAW samples through retrieval, pretreatment and vitrification process steps. Physical, rheological, chemical and radiochemical properties were measured throughout the process steps. The characterization of the first core sample from DST 101-AZ was completed, and the results are provided in this report. The results for the other core characterizations will be reported in future reports. 3 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Evaluation of Flygt Propeller Mixers for Double-Shell Tank (DST) High Level Waste Auxiliary Solids Mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP) is planning to retrieve radioactive waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) underground at the Hanford Site. This waste will then be transferred to a waste treatment plant to be immobilized (vitrified) in a stable glass form. Over the years, the waste solids in many of the tanks have settled to form a layer of sludge at the bottom. The thickness of the sludge layer varies from tank to tank, from no sludge or a few inches of sludge to about 15 ft of sludge. The purpose of this technology and engineering case study is to evaluate the Flygt(trademark) submersible propeller mixer as a potential technology for auxiliary mobilization of DST HLW solids. Considering the usage and development to date by other sites in the development of this technology, this study also has the objective of expanding the knowledge base of the Flygt(trademark) mixer concept with the broader perspective of Hanford Site tank waste retrieval. More specifically, the objectives of this study delineated from the work plan are described

  19. Protein-assisted synthesis of double-shelled CaCO3 microcapsules and their mineralization with heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan Qi; Feng, Zhiwei; Xia, Yinyan; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2012-02-13

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) is one of the most abundant and important biominerals in nature. Due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and nontoxicity, CaCO(3) has been investigated extensively in recent years for various fundamental properties and technological applications. Inspired by basic wall structures of cells, we report a protein-assisted approach to synthesize CaCO(3) into a double-shelled structural configuration. Due to varying reactivities of outer and inner shells, the CaCO(3) microcapsules exhibit different sorption capacities and various resultant structures toward different kinds of heavy metal ions, analogical to biologically controlled mineralization (BCM) processes. Surprisingly, three mineralization modes resembling those found in BCM were found with these bacterium-like "CaCO(3) cells". Our investigation of the cytotoxicity (MTT assay protocol) also indicates that the CaCO(3) microcapsules have almost no cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, and they might be useful for future application of detoxifying heavy metal ions after further study. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Descriptions and diagrams of the primary and annulus ventilation systems of the double-shell tank farms as of January 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, A.E.; Waters, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a compilation of information describing the ventilation systems of the Double-Shell Tank farms (214-AN, -AP, -AW, -AW, -AY, -AZ, and -SY). A general description of the primary tank and annulus ventilation systems is given along with specific information on the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, condensers, preheaters, exhaust fans, and piping. This information is considered to be current as of January 1988. 38 refs, 20 figs, 30 tabs

  1. Self-template synthesis of double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengzhen; Ru, Qinglong; Kang, Xiaoting; Hou, Haiyan; Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Daojun

    2018-03-01

    In this work, double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres have been achieved via a simple self-template route, which involves the synthesis of Zn-Ni solid spheres precursors as the self-template and then transformation into double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres by sulfidation treatment. The as-prepared double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97 hollow spheres possess a high surface area (105.26 m2 g-1) and porous structures. Benefiting from the combined characteristics of novel structures, multi-component, high surface area and porous. When applied as electrode materials for supercapacitors, the double shelled ZnS-NiS1.97hollow spheres deliver a large specific capacitance of 696.8C g-1 at 5.0 A g-1 and a remarkable long lifespan cycling stability (less 5.5% loss after 6000 cycles). Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was assembled by utilizing ZnS-NiS1.97 (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) as electrode materials. The as-assembled device possesses an energy density of 36 W h kg-1, which can be yet retained 25.6 W h kg-1 even at a power density of 2173.8 W Kg-1, indicating its promising applications in electrochemical energy storage. More importantly, the self-template route is a simple and versatile strategy for the preparation of metal sulfides electrode materials with desired structures, chemical compositions and electrochemical performances.

  2. Double-shell Fe2O3 hollow box-like structure for enhanced photo-Fenton degradation of malachite green dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De Bin; Liu, Xiaoying; Xu, Xuan; Zhang, Yu Xin

    2018-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate the synthesis of novel Fe2O3 nanosheets with double-shell hollow morphology by replica molding from diatomite framework. The nanostructures of Fe2O3 nanosheets were examined by focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results reveal that (1) Pure Fe2O3 nanosheets were successfully obtained; (2) The double-shell Fe2O3 hollow structure achieved via the NaOH etching silica method was observed; (3) Fe2O3 nanosheets possessed uniformly distributed porous nanosheets. Such structural features enlarged the specific surface area of Fe2O3 nanosheets and led to more catalytic active sites. In the heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction, the double-shell Fe2O3 hollow morphology exhibited excellent catalytic capability for the degradation of malachite green (MG) at circumneutral pH condition. Under optimum condition, MG solution was almost completely decolorized in 60 min (99.9%). The Fe2O3 nanosheets also showed good stability and recyclability, demonstrating great potential as a promising photo-Fenton catalyst for the effective degradation of MG dye in wastewater.

  3. Formation of NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} yolk-double shell spheres with enhanced lithium storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Nai, Jianwei; Lou, Xiong Wen David [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2018-03-05

    Complex nanostructures with multi-components and intricate architectures hold great potential in developing high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we demonstrate a facile self-templating strategy for the synthesis of metal vanadate nanomaterials with complex chemical composition of NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} and a unique yolk-double shell structure. Starting with the Ni-Co glycerate spheres, NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} yolk-double shell spheres are synthesized through an anion-exchange reaction of Ni-Co glycerate templates with VO{sub 3}{sup -} ions, followed by an annealing treatment. By virtue of compositional and structural advantages, these NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} yolk-double shell spheres manifest outstanding lithium storage properties when evaluated as anodes for LIBs. Impressively, an extra-high reversible capacity of 1228 mAh g{sup -1} can be retained after 500 cycles at a high current density of 1.0 Ag{sup -1}. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Structural acceptance criteria for the evaulation of existing double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julyk, L.J.; Day, A.D.; Dyrness, A.D.; Moore, C.J.; Peterson, W.S.; Scott, M.A.; Shrivastava, H.P.; Sholman, J.S.; Watts, T.N.

    1995-09-01

    The structural acceptance criteria contained herein for the evaluation of existing underground double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site is part of the Life Management/Aging Management Program of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The purpose of the overall life management program is to ensure that confinement of the waste is maintained over the required service life of the tanks. Characterization of the present condition of the tanks, understanding and characterization of potential degradation mechanisms, and development of tank structural acceptance criteria based on previous service and projected use are prerequisites to assessing tank integrity, to projecting the length of tank service, and to developing and applying prudent fixes or repairs. The criteria provided herein summarize the requirements for the analysis and structural qualification of the existing double-shell tanks for continued operation. Code reconciliation issues and material degradation under aging conditions are addressed. Although the criteria were developed for double-shell tanks, many of the provisions are equally applicable to single-shell tanks. However, the criteria do not apply to the evaluation of tank appurtenances and buried piping

  5. Assessing the prospects for achieving double-shell ignition on the National Ignition Facility using vacuum hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter

    2006-10-01

    The goal of demonstrating ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has motivated a revisit of double-shell (DS) [1] targets as a complementary path to the baseline cryogenic single-shell approach [2]. Benefits of DS targets include room-temperature deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel preparation, minimal hohlraum-plasma-mediated laser backscatter, low threshold-ignition temperatures (4 keV) for relaxed hohlraum x-ray flux asymmetry tolerances [3], and loose shock timing requirements. On the other hand, DS ignition presents several challenges, including room-temperature containment of high-pressure DT (790 atm) in the inner shell; strict concentricity requirements on the two shells; development of nanoporous, low-density, metallic foams for structural support of the inner shell and hydrodynamic instability mitigation; and effective control of perturbation growth on the high-Atwood number interface between the DT fuel and the high-Z inner shell. Recent progress in DS ignition target designs using vacuum hohlraums is described, offering the potential for low levels of laser backscatter from stimulated Raman and Brillouin processes. In addition, vacuum hohlraums have the operational advantages of room temperature fielding and fabrication simplicity, as well as benefiting from extensive benchmarking on the Nova and Omega laser facilities. As an alternative to standard cylindrical hohlraums, a rugby-shaped geometry is also introduced that may provide energetics and symmetry tuning benefits for more robust DS designs with yields exceeding 10 MJ for 2 MJ of 3w laser energy. The recent progress in hohlraum designs and required advanced materials development are scheduled to culminate in a prototype demonstration of a NIF-scale ignition-ready DS in 2007. [1] P. Amendt et al., PoP 9, 2221 (2002). [2] J.D. Lindl et al., PoP 11, 339 (2004). [3] M.N. Chizhkov et al., Laser Part. Beams 23, 261 (2005). In collaboration with C. Cerjan, A. Hamza, J. Milovich and H. Robey.

  6. Double-Shell Tank Visual Inspection Changes Resulting from the Tank 241-AY-102 Primary Tank Leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Engeman, Jason K.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Program, remote visual inspections are utilized to perform qualitative in-service inspections of the DSTs in order to provide a general overview of the condition of the tanks. During routine visual inspections of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) in August 2012, anomalies were identified on the annulus floor which resulted in further evaluations. In October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC determined that the primary tank of AY-102 was leaking. Following identification of the tank AY-102 probable leak cause, evaluations considered the adequacy of the existing annulus inspection frequency with respect to the circumstances of the tank AY-102 1eak and the advancing age of the DST structures. The evaluations concluded that the interval between annulus inspections should be shortened for all DSTs, and each annulus inspection should cover > 95 percent of annulus floor area, and the portion of the primary tank (i.e., dome, sidewall, lower knuckle, and insulating refractory) that is visible from the annulus inspection risers. In March 2013, enhanced visual inspections were performed for the six oldest tanks: 241-AY-101, 241-AZ-101,241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103, and no evidence of leakage from the primary tank were observed. Prior to October 2012, the approach for conducting visual examinations of DSTs was to perform a video examination of each tank's interior and annulus regions approximately every five years (not to exceed seven years between inspections). Also, the annulus inspection only covered about 42 percent of the annulus floor

  7. Structural analysis and evaluation of a mixer pump in a double-shell tank at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Strehlow, J.P.; Baliga, R.

    1993-01-01

    The double-shell waste tank 241-SY-101 is a 1,000,000 gallon tank used to store radioactive waste at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With time the waste has formed two layers of sludge, a convective and a nonconvective layer. In addition, a crust has formed over the surface of the waste, isolating the convective layer from the vapor space. Ongoing reactions in the waste cause a buildup of hydrogen molecules that become trapped within the nonconvective layer and under the crust. Over time, this hydrogen buildup increases pressure on the crust from beneath. Every 100 to 140 days, the pressure is released when the crust lifts upward in what is called a waste rollover. To prevent the release of a large volume of hydrogen to the vapor space, a mixer pump has been designed to be installed in the tank to circulate the waste and reduce or prevent the hydrogen buildup. The structural analysis and evaluation designed as part of the hydrogen mitigation test process and presented herein addresses the response of the mixer pump and the tank dome resulting from expected operational and design loads. The loads include deadweight, waste rollover, asymmetric thrust, and pump vibration, as well as seismic loads. The seismically induced loads take into consideration both the convective and the impulsive effects of the waste-filled tank. The structural evaluations were performed in accordance with applicable national codes and standards. The qualification of the mixer pump required the design of a unique mounting assembly to transfer the loads from the pump to the surrounding soil without overstressing the structural components such as the dome penetration riser. Also, special consideration was given to minimize the additional stresses in the already stressed concrete tank dome

  8. Evaluation of mitigation strategies in Facility Group 1 double-shell flammable-gas tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Sadasivan, P.; Kubic, W.L.; White, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    Radioactive nuclear waste at the Hanford Site is stored in underground waste storage tanks at the site. The tanks fall into two main categories: single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). There are a total of 149 SSTs and 28 DSTs. The wastes stored in the tanks are chemically complex. They basically involve various sodium salts (mainly nitrite, nitrate, carbonates, aluminates, and hydroxides), organic compounds, heavy metals, and various radionuclides, including cesium, strontium, plutonium, and uranium. The waste is known to generate flammable gas (FG) [hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons] by complex chemical reactions. The process of gas generation, retention, and release is transient. Some tanks reach a quasi-steady stage where gas generation is balanced by the release rate. Other tanks show continuous cycles of retention followed by episodic release. There currently are 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL). The objective of this report is to evaluate possible mitigation strategies to eliminate the FG hazard. The evaluation is an engineering study of mitigation concepts for FG generation, retention, and release behavior in Tanks SY-101, AN-103, AN 104, An-105, and Aw-101. Where possible, limited quantification of the effects of mitigation strategies on the FG hazard also is considered. The results obtained from quantification efforts discussed in this report should be considered as best-estimate values. Results and conclusions of this work are intended to help in establishing methodologies in the contractor's controls selection analysis to develop necessary safety controls for closing the FG unreviewed safety question. The general performance requirements of any mitigation scheme are discussed first

  9. The synthesis of Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite and its application in enzyme-free hydrogen peroxide sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yayun; Li, Yuhui; Jiang, Yingying [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Li, Yancai, E-mail: liyancai@mnnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Li, Shunxing [College of Chemistry & Environment, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Modern Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite was synthesized and characterized by SEM(*), TEM and EDS, etc. • The synthesized Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite showed high sensitivity and selectivity to electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and can be used to fabricate enzyme-free H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrochemical sensor. • The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor has two linear range of 9.0 μM–1.86 mM and 1.86 mM–7.11 mM, respectively, with a low limit of detection of 0.13 μM. • The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor also displays high anti-interference ability, good stability and reproducibility. - Abstract: A novel Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite was synthesized and used to fabricate enzyme-free electrochemical sensor for rapid and sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The well-designed Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy-dispersed spectrum (EDS). The Au@C@Pt core-double shell nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (Au@C@Pt/GCE) exhibits good electrocatalytic activity towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction at 0.0 V and can be used as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor. The sensor displays two wide linear ranges towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection. The one is 9.0 μM–1.86 mM with high sensitivity of 144.7 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and the other is 1.86 mM–7.11 mM with sensitivity of 80.1 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. When signal to noise (S/N) is 3, the calculated detection limit (LOD) is 0.13 μM. Furthermore, the interference from the common interfering species such as glucose, ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid can be effectively avoided to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection. Additionally, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor also displays good stability and reproducibility.

  10. Design of indirectly driven, high-compression Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions with improved hydrodynamic stability using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovich, J. L., E-mail: milovich1@llnl.gov; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Baker, K. L.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C.; Field, J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, J. L.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Experimental results from indirectly driven ignition implosions during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] achieved a record compression of the central deuterium-tritium fuel layer with measured areal densities up to 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}, but with significantly lower total neutron yields (between 1.5 × 10{sup 14} and 5.5 × 10{sup 14}) than predicted, approximately 10% of the 2D simulated yield. An order of magnitude improvement in the neutron yield was subsequently obtained in the “high-foot” experiments [O. A. Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)]. However, this yield was obtained at the expense of fuel compression due to deliberately higher fuel adiabat. In this paper, the design of an adiabat-shaped implosion is presented, in which the laser pulse is tailored to achieve similar resistance to ablation-front instability growth, but with a low fuel adiabat to achieve high compression. Comparison with measured performance shows a factor of 3–10× improvement in the neutron yield (>40% of predicted simulated yield) over similar NIC implosions, while maintaining a reasonable fuel compression of >1 g/cm{sup 2}. Extension of these designs to higher laser power and energy is discussed to further explore the trade-off between increased implosion velocity and the deleterious effects of hydrodynamic instabilities.

  11. The I-Raum: A new shaped hohlraum for improved inner beam propagation in indirectly-driven ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H. F.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Milovich, J. L.; Meezan, N. B.

    2018-01-01

    Recent work in indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility has indicated that late-time propagation of the inner cones of laser beams (23° and 30°) is impeded by the growth of a "bubble" of hohlraum wall material (Au or depleted uranium), which is initiated by and is located at the location where the higher-intensity outer beams (44° and 50°) hit the hohlraum wall. The absorption of the inner cone beams by this "bubble" reduces the laser energy reaching the hohlraum equator at late time driving an oblate or pancaked implosion, which limits implosion performance. In this article, we present the design of a new shaped hohlraum designed specifically to reduce the impact of this bubble by adding a recessed pocket at the location where the outer cones hit the hohlraum wall. This recessed pocket displaces the bubble radially outward, reducing the inward penetration of the bubble at all times throughout the implosion and increasing the time for inner beam propagation by approximately 1 ns. This increased laser propagation time allows one to drive a larger capsule, which absorbs more energy and is predicted to improve implosion performance. The new design is based on a recent National Ignition Facility shot, N170601, which produced a record neutron yield. The expansion rate and absorption of laser energy by the bubble is quantified for both cylindrical and shaped hohlraums, and the predicted performance is compared.

  12. Facile synthesis of mercaptosuccinic acid-capped CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/double shell quantum dots with improved cell viability on different cancer cells and normal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parani, Sundararajan [University of Madras, Department of Inorganic Chemistry (India); Bupesh, Giridharan [Bharath University, Central Research Laboratory, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital (India); Manikandan, Elayaperumal [Thiruvalluvar University, Department of Physics, TUCAS, Thennangur-604408 (India); Pandian, Kannaiyan [University of Madras, Department of Inorganic Chemistry (India); Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi Samuel, E-mail: oluwafemi.oluwatobi@gmail.com [University of Johannesburg, Department of Applied Chemistry (South Africa)

    2016-11-15

    Water-soluble, mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA)-capped CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/double shell quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by successive growth of CdS and ZnS shells on the as-synthesized CdTe/CdS{sub thin} core/shell quantum dots. The formation of core/double shell structured QDs was investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV–Vis) absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, PL decay studies, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The core/double shell QDs exhibited good photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) which is 70% higher than that of the parent core/shell QDs, and they are stable for months. The average particle size of the core/double shell QDs was ∼3 nm as calculated from the transmission electron microscope (TEM) images. The cytotoxicity of the QDs was evaluated on a variety of cancer cells such as HeLa, MCF-7, A549, and normal Vero cells by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay. The results showed that core/double shell QDs were less toxic to the cells when compared to the parent core/shell QDs. MCF-7 cells showed proliferation on incubation with QDs, and this is attributed to the metalloestrogenic activity of cadmium ions released from QDs. The core/double shell CdTe/CdS/ZnS (CSS) QDs were conjugated with transferrin and successfully employed for the biolabeling and fluorescent imaging of HeLa cells. These core/double shell QDs are highly promising fluorescent probe for cancer cell labeling and imaging applications.

  13. Technology Review of Nondestructive Methods for Examination of Water Intrusion Areas on Hanford’s Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2008-05-09

    Under a contract with CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., PNNL has performed a review of the NDE technology and methods for examination of the concrete dome structure of Hanford’s double-shell tanks. The objective was to provide a matrix of methodologies that could be evaluated based on applicability, ease of deployment, and results that could provide information that could be used in the ongoing structural analysis of the tank dome. PNNL performed a technology evaluation with the objective of providing a critical literature review for all applicable technologies based on constraints provided by CH2M HILL. These constraints were not mandatory, but were desired. These constraints included performing the evaluation without removing any soil from the top of the tank, or if necessary, requesting that the hole diameter needed to gain access to evaluate the top of the tank structure to be no greater than approximately 12-in. in diameter. PNNL did not address the details of statistical sampling requirements as they depend on an unspecified risk tolerance. PNNL considered these during the technology evaluation and have reported the results in the remainder of this document. Many of the basic approaches to concrete inspection that were reviewed in previous efforts are still in use. These include electromagnetic, acoustic, radiographic, etc. The primary improvements in these tools have focused on providing quantitative image reconstruction, thus providing inspectors and analysts with three-dimensional data sets that allow for operator visualization of relevant abnormalities and analytical integration into structural performance models. Available instruments, such as radar used for bridge deck inspections, rely on post-processing algorithms and do not provide real-time visualization. Commercially available equipment only provides qualitative indications of relative concrete damage. It cannot be used as direct input for structural analysis to assess fitness for use and if

  14. Synthesis of double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres and their catalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Tan, Li; Wang, Ge; Yang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 /Au microspheres were successfully synthesized through loading Au nanoparticles on the Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 support by a in situ reduction of HAuCl 4 with NaBH 4 aqueous solution. These microspheres possess tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layers, high structural stability and large specific surface area. The Au nanoparticles of approximately 5 nm in diameter were loaded both on the TiO 2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 microspheres. The sea urchin-like structure composed of TiO 2 nanofibers ensure the good distribution of the Au nanoparticles, while the novel double-shelled yolk-shell structure guarantees the high stability of the Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe 3 O 4 magnetic core facilitates the convenient recovery of the catalyst by applying an external magnetic field. The Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 /Au microspheres display excellent activities and recycling properties in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP): the rate constant is 1.84 min −1 and turnover frequency is 5457 h −1 . (paper)

  15. A Chemical-Adsorption Strategy to Enhance the Reaction Kinetics of Lithium-Rich Layered Cathodes via Double-Shell Surface Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lichao; Li, Jiajun; Cao, Tingting; Wang, Huayu; Zhao, Naiqin; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Liu, Enzuo

    2016-09-21

    Sluggish surface reaction kinetics hinders the power density of Li-ion battery. Thus, various surface modification techniques have been applied to enhance the electronic/ionic transfer kinetics. However, it is challenging to obtain a continuous and uniform surface modification layer on the prime particles with structure integration at the interface. Instead of classic physical-adsorption/deposition techniques, we propose a novel chemical-adsorption strategy to synthesize double-shell modified lithium-rich layered cathodes with enhanced mass transfer kinetics. On the basis of experimental measurement and first-principles calculation, MoO2S2 ions are proved to joint the layered phase via chemical bonding. Specifically, the Mo-O or Mo-S bonds can flexibly rotate to bond with the cations in the layered phase, leading to the good compatibility between the thiomolybdate adsorption layer and layered cathode. Followed by annealing treatment, the lithium-excess-spinel inner shell forms under the thiomolybdate adsorption layer and functions as favorable pathways for lithium and electron. Meanwhile, the nanothick MoO3-x(SO4)x outer shell protects the transition metal from dissolution and restrains electrolyte decomposition. The double-shell modified sample delivers an enhanced discharge capacity almost twice as much as that of the unmodified one at 1 A g(-1) after 100 cycles, demonstrating the superiority of the surface modification based on chemical adsorption.

  16. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of NiCo2O4 Double-Shelled Hollow Spheres for High-Performance Sodium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiong; Zhou, Yanping; Luo, Bin; Zhu, Huacheng; Chu, Wei; Huang, Kama

    2018-03-01

    The ternary transitional metal oxide NiCo2O4 is a promising anode material for sodium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity and superior electrical conductivity. However, its sodium storage capability is severely limited by the sluggish sodiation/desodiation reaction kinetics. Herein, NiCo2O4 double-shelled hollow spheres were synthesized via a microwave-assisted, fast solvothermal synthetic procedure in a mixture of isopropanol and glycerol, followed by annealing. Isopropanol played a vital role in the precipitation of nickel and cobalt, and the shrinkage of the glycerol quasi-emulsion under heat treatment was responsible for the formation of the double-shelled nanostructure. The as-synthesized product was tested as an anode material in a sodium ion battery, was found to exhibit a high reversible specific capacity of 511 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, and deliver high capacity retention after 100 cycles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Shape evolution of new-phased lepidocrocite VOOH from single-shelled to double-shelled hollow nanospheres on the basis of programmed reaction-temperature strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changzheng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ning, Bo; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2009-07-06

    Solid templates have been long regarded as one of the most promising ways to achieve single-shelled hollow nanostructures; however, few effective methods for the construction of multishelled hollow objects from their solid template counterparts have been developed. We report here, for the first time, a novel and convenient route to synthesizing double-shelled hollow spheres from the solid templates via programming the reaction-temperature procedures. The programmed temperature strategy developed in this work then provides an essential and general access to multishelled hollow nanostructures based on the designed extension of single-shelled hollow objects, independent of their outside contours, such as tubes, hollow spheres, and cubes. Starting from the V(OH)(2)NH(2) solid templates, we show that the relationship between the hollowing rate and the reaction temperature obey the Van't Hoff rule and Arrhenius activation-energy equation, revealing that it is the chemical reaction rather than the diffusion process that guided the whole hollowing process, despite the fact that the coupled reaction/diffusion process is involved in the hollowing process. Using the double-shelled hollow spheres as the PCM (CaCl(2).6H(2)O) matrix grants much better thermal-storage stability than that for the nanoparticles counterpart, revealing that the designed nanostructures can give rise to significant improvements for the energy-saving performance in future "smart house" systems.

  18. Prediction equations for corrosion rates of a A-537 and A-516 steels in Double Shell Slurry, Future PUREX, and Hanford Facilities Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.; Bowen, W.M.; Mackey, D.B.; Bates, D.J.; Pool, K.H.

    1985-06-01

    Even though the interest in the corrosion of radwaste tanks goes back to the mid-1940's when waste storage was begun, and a fair amount of corrosion work has been done since then, the changes in processes and waste types have outpaced the development of new data pertinent to the new double shell tanks. As a consequence, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began a development of corrosion data on a broad base of waste compositions in 1980. The objective of the program was to provide operations personnel with corrosion rate data as a function of waste temperature and composition. The work performed in this program examined A-537 tank steel in Double Shell Slurry and Future PUREX Wastes, at temperatures between 40 and 180 0 C as well as in Hanford Facilities Waste at 25 and 50 0 C. In general, the corrosion rates were less than 1 mpy (0.001 in./y) and usually less than 0.5 mpy. Excessive corrosion rates (>1 mpy) were only found in dilute waste compositions or in concentrated caustic compositions at temperatures above 140 0 C. Stress corrosion cracking was only observed under similar conditions. The results are presented as polynomial prediction equations with examples of the output of existing computer codes. The codes are not provided in the text but are available from the authors. 12 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs

  19. Reducing the effects of X-ray pre-heat in double shell NIF capsules by over-coating the high Z shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Douglas; Milovich, J. L.; Daughton, W. S.; Loomis, E. N.; Sauppe, J. P.; Dodd, E. S.; Merritt, E. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Renner, D. B.; Haines, B. M.; Cardenas, T.; Desjardins, T.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.

    2017-10-01

    Hohlraum generated X-rays will penetrate the ablator of a double shell capsule and be absorbed in the outer surface of the inner capsule. The ablative pressure this generates drives a shock into the central fuel, and a reflected shock that reaches the inner high-Z shell surface before the main shock even enters the fuel. With a beryllium over-coat preheat X-rays deposit just inside the beryllium/high z interface. The beryllium tamps the preheat expansion, eliminating ablation, and dramatically reducing pressure. The slow shock or pressure wave it generates is then overtaken by the main shock, avoiding an early shock in the fuel and increasing capsule yield.

  20. Chitosan mediated synthesis of core/double shell ternary polyaniline/Chitosan/cobalt oxide nano composite-as high energy storage electrode material in supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellakkat, Mini; Hundekkal, Devendrappa

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured ternary composite of polyaniline (PANI), Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles, and Chitosan (CS) has been prepared by an in situ chemical oxidation method, and the nanocomposites (CPAESCO) were used as supercapacitor electrodes. The Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles are uniformly coated with CS and PANI layers in it. Different techniques (Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, x-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, UV−visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electro chemical analysis-cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) were used to analyse the optical, structural, thermal, chemical and supercapacitive aspects of the nanocomposites. Core/double shell ternary composite electrode exhibits significantly increased specific capacitance than PANI/Co 3 O 4 or PANI/CS binary composites in supercapacitors. The ternary nanocomposite with 40% nanoparticle exhibits a highest specific capacitance reaching 687 F g −1 , Energy density of (95.42 Wh kg −1 at 1 A g −1 ) and power density of (1549 W kg −1 at 3 A g −1 ) and outstanding cycling performance, with, 91% capacitance retained over 5000 cycles. It is found that this unique bio compatible nano composite with synergy is a new multifunctional material which will be useful in the design of supercapacitor electrodes and other energy conversion devices too. (paper)

  1. In-situ construction of Au nanoparticles confined in double-shelled TiO2/mSiO2 hollow architecture for excellent catalytic activity and enhanced thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Hongxing; Sheng, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    A facile strategy has been developed for the synthesis of H-TS-Au microspheres (MCs) with double-shelled hollow architecture and sub-5 nm Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). The synthetic procedure involves the successive sol-gel template-assisted method for the preparation of uniform hierarchical hollow-in-hollow H-TS MCs with TiO2/mSiO2 as yolks/shells, and the unique deposition-precipitation method mediated with Au(en)2Cl3 precursors for the in-situ construction of extremely stable Au NPs under a low-temperature hydrogen reduction. The synthesized H-TS-Au MCs were characterized by TEM, SEM, FTIR, XRD, BET and UV-vis absorption spectra. Catalytic activity of H-TS-Au was evaluated using the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) into 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by NaBH4. Results established that H-TS-Au MCs possessed a large-size double-shelled architecture with high structural integrity and robustness,which can effectively confine numerous tiny Au NPs and restrict them from sintering aggregation even up to further calcination at 800 °C. Owing to the advantageous structural configuration and the synergistic effect of TiO2/mSiO2 double shells, the H-TS-Au MCs were demonstrated to exhibit a remarkable catalytic activity and stability, and preserve the intact morphology after 6 repeating reduction of 4-NP.

  2. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Velikovich, A. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Dasgupta, A.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Mach2-Tabular Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium code in (r, z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1. In each pair, one of the shots had a central jet. The experimental trends in the Ar K-shell yield and power are reproduced in the calculations. However, the K-shell yield and power are significantly lower than the other three shots for the case of a double-shell puff of 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet configuration. Further simulations of a hypothetical experiment with the same relative density profile of this configuration, but higher total mass, show that the coupled energy from the generator and the K-shell yield can be increased to levels achieved in the other three configurations, but not the K-shell power. Based on various measures of effective plasma radius, the compression in the 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet case is found to be less because the plasma inside the magnetic piston is hotter and of lower density. Because of the reduced density, and the reduced radiation cooling (which is proportional to the square of the density), the core plasma is hotter. Consequently, for the 1:1 outer-to-inner shell mass ratio, the load mass controls the yield and the center jet controls the power.

  3. Multi-functional integration of pore P25@C@MoS{sub 2} core-double shell nanostructures as robust ternary anodes with enhanced lithium storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Biao [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhao, Naiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Centre of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wei, Chaopeng; Zhou, Jingwen; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Liu, Enzuo, E-mail: ezliu@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Centre of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • P25@carbon supported MoS{sub 2} composite was prepared by a one-step process. • The distribution and interaction of C, MoS{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} are systematically examined. • The enjoyable features of the three components are complementarily integrated. • The smart ternary electrode exhibits excellent cycling stability and rate capability. - Abstract: Ternary anodes have attracted more and more attention due to the characteristic advantages resulting from the effect integration of three different materials on the lithium storage mechanism with functional interfaces interaction. However, clarifying the distribution and interaction of carbon, MoS{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} in the MoS{sub 2}/C/TiO{sub 2} composite, which is helpful for the understanding of the formation and lithium storage mechanism of the ternary anodes, is a well-known challenge. Herein, a novel pore core-double shell nanostructure of P25@carbon network supported few-layer MoS{sub 2} nanosheet (P25@C@FL-MoS{sub 2}) is successfully synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal approach. The distribution and interaction of the carbon, MoS{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} in the obtained P25@C@FL-MoS{sub 2} hybrid are systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis et al. It is found that the carbon serves as binder, which supports few-layer MoS{sub 2} shell and coats the P25 core via Ti−O−C bonds at the same time. Such multi-functional integration with smart structure and strong interfacial contact generates favorable structure stability and interfacial pseudocapacity-like storage mechanism. As a consequence, superior cycling and rate capacity of the muti-functional integration ternary P25@C@FL-MoS{sub 2} anode are achieved.

  4. Graphene wrapped porous Co_3O_4/NiCo_2O_4 double-shelled nanocages with enhanced electrocatalytic performance for glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Bei; Li, Kezhi; Feng, Lei; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Leilei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene wrapped Co_3O_4/NiCo_2O_4 DSNCs has been prepared for detection of glucose. • Sensing performance was improved by synergy between electrocatalytic activity and efficient electron transport. • The sensor has excellent sensing performance with high sensitivity and low detection limit. • The developed method was successfully applied to detect glucose in human serum. - Abstract: Graphene (G) wrapped porous Co_3O_4/NiCo_2O_4 double-shelled nanocages (Co_3O_4/NiCo_2O_4 DSNCs@G) were prepared by the formation of Co_3O_4/NiCo_2O_4 DSNCs using zeolite imidazole frameworks-67 as template with the subsequent calcination and package of G by hydrothermal method. The abundant accessible active sites provided by the porous structure of Co_3O_4/NiCo_2O_4 DSNCs and efficient electron transport pathways for electrocatalytic reaction offered by the high conductive G worked very well together in a ferocious synergy, which endowed Co_3O_4/NiCo_2O_4 DSNCs@G with excellent electrocatalytic behaviors for determining glucose. A comparison between Co_3O_4/NiCo_2O_4 DSNCs without G packing and Co_3O_4/NiCo_2O_4 DSNCs@G showed that former had linear response window concentrations of 0.01-3.52 mM (correlation coefficient = 0.999), detection limit of 0.744 μM (S/N = 3) and sensitivity of 0.196 mA mM"−"1 cm"−"2, whereas the latter exhibited linear response window concentrations of 0.01-3.52 mM (correlation coefficient = 0.999), detection limit of 0.384 μM (S/N = 3) and sensitivity of 0.304 mA mM"−"1 cm"−"2. The combination of Co_3O_4/NiCo_2O_4 DSNCs and G was a meaningful strategy to fabricate high-performance non-enzyme glucose sensors with low detection limit, good selectivity and high sensitivity.

  5. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT ESTABLISHMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TIME DOMAIN SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-14

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank DSV Integrity Project-DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DST assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil, and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DST and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained waste. Soil-structure interaction analyses are traditionally solved in

  6. Reactive turbulent flow CFD study in supercritical water oxidation process: application to a stirred double shell reactor; Etude par simulation numerique des ecoulements turbulents reactifs dans les reacteurs d'oxydation hydrothermale: application a un reacteur agite double enveloppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussiere, S

    2006-12-15

    Supercritical water oxidation is an innovative process to treat organic liquid waste which uses supercritical water properties to mix efficiency the oxidant and the organic compounds. The reactor is a stirred double shell reactor. In the step of adaptation to nuclear constraints, the computational fluid dynamic modeling is a good tool to know required temperature field in the reactor for safety analysis. Firstly, the CFD modeling of tubular reactor confirms the hypothesis of an incompressible fluid and the use of k-w turbulence model to represent the hydrodynamic. Moreover, the EDC model is as efficiency as the kinetic to compute the reaction rate in this reactor. Secondly, the study of turbulent flow in the double shell reactor confirms the use of 2D axisymmetric geometry instead of 3D geometry to compute heat transfer. Moreover, this study reports that water-air mixing is not in single phase. The reactive turbulent flow is well represented by EDC model after adaptation of initial conditions. The reaction rate in supercritical water oxidation reactor is mainly controlled by the mixing. (author)

  7. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT-DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT-TOP TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed in support of the

  8. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT DYTRAN BENCHMARK ANALYSIS OF SEISMICALLY INDUCED FLUID STRUCTURE INTERACTION IN FLAT TOP TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2007-02-16

    The work reported in this document was performed in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Project - DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST System at Hanford. The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work herein was motivated by review comments from a Project Review Meeting held on March 20-21, 2006. One of the recommendations from that meeting was that the effects of the interaction between the tank liquid and the roof be further studied (Rinker, Deibler, Johnson, Karri, Pilli, Abatt, Carpenter, and Hendrix - Appendix E of RPP-RPT-28968, Rev. 1). The reviewers recommended that solutions be obtained for seismic excitation of flat roof tanks containing liquid with varying headspace between the top of the liquid and the tank roof. It was recommended that the solutions be compared with simple, approximate procedures described in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005). This report documents the results of the requested studies and compares the predictions of Dytran simulations to the approximate procedures in BNL (1995) and Malhotra (2005) for flat roof tanks. The four cases analyzed all employed a rigid circular cylindrical flat top tank with a radius of 450 in. and a height of 500 in. The initial liquid levels in the tank were 460,480,490, and 500 in. For the given tank geometry and the selected seismic input, the maximum unconstrained slosh height of the liquid is slightly greater than 25 in. Thus, the initial liquid level of 460 in. represents an effectively roofless tank, the two intermediate liquid levels lead to intermittent interaction between the liquid and tank roof, and the 500 in. liquid level represents a completely full tank with no sloshing. Although this work was performed

  9. 界面聚合聚脲/聚氨酯双层微胶囊相变材料的研制与性能%Characterization of Polyurea/Polyurethane Double-Shell MicroPCMs Prepared by Interfacial Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆少锋; 邢建伟; 吴钦; 贺江平; 任燕

    2011-01-01

    以硬脂酸丁酯为芯材,苯乙烯马来酸酐共聚物(SMA)为乳化分散剂,采用界面聚合制备双层微胶囊相变材料,其外壳体为甲苯-2,4-二异氰酸酯(TDI)和二乙烯三胺(DETA)反应形成的聚脲壳层,内壳体为TDI与聚丙二醇2000(PPG2000)反应形成的聚氨酯壳层.采用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)、热重分析仪(TGA)、扫描电镜(SEM)、光学显微镜等分别对微胶囊的热性能、表面形态做了研究和分析.结果表明,所制备的双层微胶囊表面光滑致密,相变温度24.1℃,相变热85 J/g.所制备双层微胶囊的致密性和耐热稳定性均比单层微胶囊有很大程度的提高.%Double-shell microcapsules containing butyl stearate were prepared by interracial polymerization. The outer shell is polyurea formed by polymerization of toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and diethylene triamine (DETA),the inner shell is polyurethane formed by polymerization of TDI and polypropylene glycol 2000 (PPG2000). Styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA) was used as emulsifier. The thermal properties, surface morphologies of microcapsules were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope, respectively. The results indicate that the surface of the prepared double-shell microPCMs is smooth and compact, and the microPCMs have an phase change temperature of 24.1 ℃ and phase change heat of 85 J/g. The compactness and stabilities of the double-shell microcapsule are obviously improved compared with that of single-shell microcapsule.

  10. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  11. Y2O3:Yb,Er@mSiO2-CuxS double-shelled hollow spheres for enhanced chemo-/photothermal anti-cancer therapy and dual-modal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Yang, Guixin; Wang, Xingmei; Lv, Ruichan; Gai, Shili; He, Fei; Gulzar, Arif; Yang, Piaoping

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional composites have gained significant interest due to their unique properties which show potential in biological imaging and therapeutics. However, the design of an efficient combination of multiple diagnostic and therapeutic modes is still a challenge. In this contribution, Y2O3:Yb,Er@mSiO2 double-shelled hollow spheres (DSHSs) with up-conversion fluorescence have been successfully prepared through a facile integrated sacrifice template method, followed by a calcination process. It is found that the double-shelled structure with large specific surface area and uniform shape is composed of an inner shell of luminescent Y2O3:Yb,Er and an outer mesoporous silica shell. Ultra small CuxS nanoparticles (about 2.5 nm) served as photothermal agents, and a chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin, DOX) was then attached onto the surface of mesoporous silica, forming a DOX-DSHS-CuxS composite. The composite exhibits high anti-cancer efficacy due to the synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT) induced by the attached CuxS nanoparticles and the enhanced chemotherapy promoted by the heat from the CuxS-based PTT when irradiated by 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) light. Moreover, the composite shows excellent in vitro and in vivo X-ray computed tomography (CT) and up-conversion fluorescence (UCL) imaging properties owing to the doped rare earth ions, thus making it possible to achieve the target of imaging-guided synergistic therapy.Multifunctional composites have gained significant interest due to their unique properties which show potential in biological imaging and therapeutics. However, the design of an efficient combination of multiple diagnostic and therapeutic modes is still a challenge. In this contribution, Y2O3:Yb,Er@mSiO2 double-shelled hollow spheres (DSHSs) with up-conversion fluorescence have been successfully prepared through a facile integrated sacrifice template method, followed by a calcination process. It is found that the double-shelled structure with large

  12. Tank waste processing analysis: Database development, tank-by-tank processing requirements, and examples of pretreatment sequences and schedules as applied to Hanford Double-Shell Tank Supernatant Waste - FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.; Orth, R.J.; Aitken, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report gives the results of work conducted in FY 1993 by the Tank Waste Processing Analysis Task for the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration. The main purpose of this task, led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is to demonstrate a methodology to identify processing sequences, i.e., the order in which a tank should be processed. In turn, these sequences may be used to assist in the development of time-phased deployment schedules. Time-phased deployment is implementation of pretreatment technologies over a period of time as technologies are required and/or developed. The work discussed here illustrates how tank-by-tank databases and processing requirements have been used to generate processing sequences and time-phased deployment schedules. The processing sequences take into account requirements such as the amount and types of data available for the tanks, tank waste form and composition, required decontamination factors, and types of compact processing units (CPUS) required and technology availability. These sequences were developed from processing requirements for the tanks, which were determined from spreadsheet analyses. The spreadsheet analysis program was generated by this task in FY 1993. Efforts conducted for this task have focused on the processing requirements for Hanford double-shell tank (DST) supernatant wastes (pumpable liquid) because this waste type is easier to retrieve than the other types (saltcake and sludge), and more tank space would become available for future processing needs. The processing requirements were based on Class A criteria set by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Clean Option goals provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  13. Analyses and characterization of double shell tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-04

    Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-108 (108-AP) was sampled under prescribed protocol. Physical, inorganic, and radiochemical analyses were performed on tank 108-AP. Characterization of evaporator feed tank waste is needed primarily for an evaluation of its suitability to be safely processed through the evaporator. Such analyses should provide sufficient information regarding the waste composition to confidently determine whether constituent concentrations are within not only safe operating limits, but should also be relevant to functional limits for operation of the evaporator. Characterization of tank constituent concentrations should provide data which enable a prediction of where the types and amounts of environmentally hazardous waste are likely to occur in the evaporator product streams.

  14. Double shell tanks plutonium inventory assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an evaluation that establishes plutonium inventory estimates for all DSTs based on known tank history information, the DST plutonium inventory tracking system, tank characterization measurements, tank transfer records, and estimated average concentration values for the various types of waste. These estimates use data through December 31, 1994, and give plutonium estimates as of January 1, 1995. The plutonium inventory values for the DSTs are given in Section 31. The plutonium inventory estimate is 224 kg for the DSTs and 854 kg for the SSTs for a total of 1078 kg. This value compares favorably with the total plutonium inventory value of 981 kg obtained from the total plutonium production minus plutonium recovery analysis estimates

  15. Analyses and characterization of double shell tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-108 (108-AP) was sampled under prescribed protocol. Physical, inorganic, and radiochemical analyses were performed on tank 108-AP. Characterization of evaporator feed tank waste is needed primarily for an evaluation of its suitability to be safely processed through the evaporator. Such analyses should provide sufficient information regarding the waste composition to confidently determine whether constituent concentrations are within not only safe operating limits, but should also be relevant to functional limits for operation of the evaporator. Characterization of tank constituent concentrations should provide data which enable a prediction of where the types and amounts of environmentally hazardous waste are likely to occur in the evaporator product streams

  16. DOUBLE SHELL TANK EMERGENCY PUMPING GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    This document provides preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified

  17. Pedal indirect lymphangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, In Jae

    1994-01-01

    Recently, indirect lymphangiography has been developed as a relatively good and noninvasive imaging modality of the lymphatic system at extremities. But the disadvantage of the indirect lymphangiography is a low contrast ratio between the surrounding tissues and the contrast media in lymphatic vessels, because dimeric nonionic contrast media is water soluble and diluted in the proximal leg lymphatic vessels. We could have relatively better image than previously published images for the leg lymphatic system, when we injected contrast media with adequate high pressure in intradermal space of the interdigital areas at the foot dorsum. So, we would like to report the results. We could study all 9 lymphedemas(primary: 6, secondary: 3) from April 1990 to May 1993 on outpatient base. They were diagnosed as lymphedema clinically and radiologically. Ten ml of dimeric nonionic aget, iotrolan(Isovist 300) was injected into intradermal space with five 30-gauge needles. The injection speed was more than 0.2 ml/min. We have done one side pedal lymphangiogram in 30 minutes. The evaluation of the anterior superficial lymphatics was according to the criteria of the Weissleder. The results were as follows: 1. All lymphatic vessels from foot to inguinal area could be visualized. 2. Two or three inferior inguinal lymph nodes could be visualized about 42%. 3. The most common abnormal finding of the lymphedma was the neovascularization of the lymphatics on indirect pedal lymphangiogram. If we use adequate technique relatively high pressure injection, correct intradermal needle insertion, adequate soft tissue exposure technique indirect lymphangiography is considered to be a safe and noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphedema of lower extremity lymphatics including inferior inguinal lymph nodes

  18. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  19. Supersymmetric dark matter: Indirect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter detection experiments are improving to the point where they can detect or restrict the primary particle physics candidates for non baryonic dark matter. The methods for detection are usually categorized as direct, i.e., searching for signals caused by passage of dark matter particles in terrestrial detectors, or indirect. Indirect detection methods include searching for antimatter and gamma rays, in particular gamma ray lines, in cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos from the centre of the Earth or Sun caused by accretion and annihilation of dark matter particles. A review is given of recent progress in indirect detection, both on the theoretical and experimental side

  20. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  1. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  2. The logic of indirect speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  3. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.

  4. Indirect Reciprocity under Incomplete Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient. PMID:21829335

  5. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Tribble, R.E.; Blokhintsev, L.D.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Kroha, V.; Nunes, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)

  6. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene [nl

  7. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have ...

  8. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions. (paper)

  9. Indirect Reciprocity : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, J.; Schram, A.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has

  10. Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Indirect taxation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ene, Sebastian; Micuda, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Indirect taxes are levied on the production and consumption of goods and services. They influence the retail price, and hence affect patterns of trade and consumption. Indirect taxes are ultimately paid by the final consumer. Sales and turnover taxes, excise duties and tariffs are the basic indirect taxes. In contrast with direct taxes, indirect taxes are seldom progressive. The principles for the levying of these taxes will be considered before the analysis of indirect taxes.

  12. Electronic Commerce and Indirect Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Satoshi

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the reason why indirect tax issues arise in the context of electronic commerce and discusses relevant issues. To do so, the paper presents a simple framework to understand and examine these issues in the international context. It also identifies common and different issues of the VAT system and the RST system. It demonstrates that an emerging solution proposed in the context of the VAT system can be affected with difficult problems that were regarded to be problems of the...

  13. Indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the Cold Dark Matter scenario, the Dark Matter particle candidate may be a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (Wimp). Annihilation of two Wimps in local or cosmological structures would result in the production of a number of standard model particles such as photons, leptons and baryons which could be observed with the presently available or future experiments such as the Pamela or Glast satellites or the Cherenkov Telescopes. In this work we review the status-of-the-art of the theoretical and phenomenological studies about the possibility of indirect detection of signals coming from Wimp annihilation.

  14. Indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J; Lamanna, G; Lavalle, J

    2006-01-01

    This article is an experimental review of the status and prospects of indirect searches for dark matter. Experiments observe secondary particles such as positrons, antiprotons, antideuterons, gamma-rays and neutrinos which could originate from annihilations of dark matter particles in various locations in the galaxy. Data exist from some experiments which have been interpreted as hints of evidence for dark matter. These data and their interpretations are reviewed together with the new experiments which are planned to resolve the puzzles and make new measurements which could give unambiguous results

  15. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  16. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raciborski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5–1%. According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000–157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment.

  17. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Indirect Cost Reimbursement: An Industrial View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The meaning of indirect costs in an industrial environment is discussed. Other factors considered are corporate policies; nature of work being supported; the uniqueness of the work; who is doing the negotiating for industry; and indirect rates. Suggestions are offered for approaches to indirect cost reimbursement. (Author/MLW)

  20. Language shifts in free indirect discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, Emar

    Free indirect discourse is a way of reporting what a protagonist thinks or says that is distinct from both direct and indirect discourse. In particular, while pronouns and tenses are presented from the narrator's perspective, as in indirect discourse, other indexical and expressive elements reflect

  1. Directe en indirecte werknemersparticipatie in Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Gijs; Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo; Vermeylen, Greet

    2016-01-01

    This study looks at different forms of direct and indirect employee participation in the EU. The research questions are: (1) which forms of direct and indirect employee participation can we distinguish?; (2) to what extent do forms of direct and indirect employee participation coincide within

  2. Double-Shell Tanks System Maintenance and Recovery Needs Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    This report represents an initial effort to identify maintenance equipment needed to support critical components used for delivery of waste feed to the Waste Isolation and Treatment Plant (WTP). Rough estimates of cost benefits for selected maintenance capabilities are provided. A follow-on to this report should include a detailed cost analysis showing cost benefits and tradeoffs in selection and development of specific maintenance capabilities. Critical component failures during delivery of waste feed from the DSTs to the WTP have the potential to idle WTP facilities if the duration of the recovery operations are long enough to allow the WTP to exhaust a planned 60-day lag storage capacity for waste feed. If a critical component within the transfer route fails, current planning does not provide for an alternative HLW feed source. Critical components with relatively high failure frequencies and recovery times are identified, along with a summary of documentation regarding historical maintenance and recovery operations and planning. Components, such as mixer pumps and transfer pumps, are estimated to have relatively long recovery times due, in part, to the current practice of sending spare pumps, when needed, off-site to a remote location, for vendor refurbishment and testing prior to installation in a tank. No capability is provided on-site for pump ''run-in''. As neither the spare pumps in storage, installed pumps, or other critical components are subjected to periodic preventive maintenance, and these critical components are planned to be operated intermittently over a long period of time, component failures are to be expected. Recommendations are made for further analysis to identify specific equipment cost benefits, development costs, and tradeoffs in selection of alternatives. This new equipment will provide capabilities for component storage and maintenance in line with vendor recommendations, reduce the duration of recovery operations, and support personnel training and procedure development

  3. Double-shell tank annulus pumping alternative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIESENWEBER, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This engineering evaluation compares five alternative schemes for maintaining emergency annulus pumping equipment in a reliable condition. The five schemes are: (1) continue status quo; (2) periodic pump removal and run-in; (3) periodic in-place limited maintenance; (4) uninstalled ready spares; and (5) expanded mission of Single-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Trailer. Each alternative is described, the pros and cons identified, and rough order of magnitude life-cycle costs computed. The alternatives are compared using weighted evaluation criteria. The evaluation concludes that staging adjustable length submersible pumps in the Single-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Trailer has the best cost-benefit characteristics

  4. Evaluating Feed Delivery Performance in Scaled Double-Shell Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kearn P.; Thien, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOCs' ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP WAC Data Quality Objectives must be demonstrated. The tank mixing and feed delivery must support both TOC and WTP operations. The tank mixing method must be able to remove settled solids from the tank and provide consistent feed to the WTP to facilitate waste treatment operations. Two geometrically scaled tanks were used with a broad spectrum of tank waste simulants to demonstrate that mixing using two rotating mixer jet pumps yields consistent slurry compositions as the tank is emptied in a series of sequential batch transfers. Testing showed that the concentration of slow settling solids in each transfer batch was consistent over a wide range of tank operating conditions. Although testing demonstrated that the concentration of fast settling solids decreased by up to 25% as the tank was emptied, batch-to-batch consistency improved as mixer jet nozzle velocity in the scaled tanks increased

  5. Description of double-shell tank selection criteria for inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, E.B.; Scott, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    Technical criteria for selecting double-shelf tanks's (DST's) for inspection are presented. Inspection of DST's is planned to non-destructively determine the general condition of their inner wall and bottom knuckle. Inspection of representative tanks will provide a basis for evaluating the integrity of all the DST's and provide a basis for estimating remaining life. The selection criteria recommended are tank age based on date-of-first fluid entry, waste temperature, corrosion inhibitor levels, deviations from normal behavior - involving sludge levels, hydrogen release and waste transfers - least waste depth fluctuation, tank steel type, other chemical species that could activate stress-corrosion cracking, and waste types

  6. Double-shell inertial confinement fusion target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.W.; Lorensen, L.E.; Weinstein, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    First generation hemishells, from which spherical shells are constructed, were fabricated by micromachining coated mandrels and by molding. The remachining of coated mandrels are described in detail. Techniques were developed for coating the microsized mandrels with polymeric and metallic materials by methods including conformal coating, vapor deposition, plasma polymerization and thermoforming. Micropositioning equipment and bonding techniques have also been developed to assemble the hemishells about a fuel pellet maintaining a spherical concentricity of better than 2 μm and voids in the hemishell bonding line of a few hundred angstroms or less

  7. X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect x-ray-drive implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Takayasu; Sakabe, Shuji; Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    1983-01-01

    X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect X-ray drive pellet implosion for inertial confinement fusion has been numerically analyzed. Attainable X-ray driven ablation pressure has been found to be coupled with X-ray irradiation uniformity. (author)

  8. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  9. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An experimental study. Amit Sharma Manish Dev Shrimali. Synchronization, Coupled Systems and Networks Volume 77 Issue 5 November 2011 pp 881-889 ... The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev ...

  10. Indirect search for dark matter with AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goy, Corinne

    2006-01-01

    This document summarises the potential of AMS in the indirect search for Dark Matter. Observations and cosmology indicate that the Universe may include a large amount of Dark Matter of unknown nature. A good candidate is the Ligthest Supersymmetric Particle in R-Parity conserving models. AMS offers a unique opportunity to study Dark Matter indirect signature in three spectra: gamma, antiprotons and positrons

  11. Indirectness in Discourse: Ethnicity as Conversational Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1981-01-01

    Examines social differences in expectations of indirectness in conversations between married couples, both Greek and Greek-American. Concludes that Greeks are more likely to expect indirectness in the context presented and that Greek-Americans have retained the Greek communicative patterns. (FL)

  12. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  13. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0031] Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The authority...

  14. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  15. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  16. Indirect Calorimetry in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Perner, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The 2 currently available indirect calorimeters, CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter (MedGraphics, St Paul, MN) and Quark RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter (COSMED, Rome, Italy), have not been validated against a gold standard in mechanically ventilated patients. Our aim was to do so...... using a gold-standard, modified Tissot bell-spirometer method in mechanically ventilated patients who were hemodynamically, respiratory, and metabolically stable. Methods: We studied 30 patients undergoing general anesthesia and major gynecological surgery. We measured oxygen consumption ((Formula...... of 77 (167) with limits of agreement −249 to 404 kcal/d. Conclusions: The QUARK RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter compared better with the gold standard for values of (Formula presented.) O2 and REE than did the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter in mechanically ventilated patients who were circulatory...

  17. The tax tectonics: Well-being and wealth inequality in relation to a shift in the tax mix from direct to indirect taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtvliet, Laurens

    2018-01-01

    Indirect taxes are on the rise – both in terms of geographical spread and fiscal importance – at the expense of the proportion of direct taxes. This shift from direct to indirect taxes (tax shift) is primarily driven by a desire to boost economic growth (GDP) and job creation. At the same time,

  18. Expression of future prospective in indirect speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnaruk Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics and use of grammatical semantics and lexical and grammatical means used to create future prospects in double indirect discourse. The material for the study were epic works by contemporary German writers. In the analysis of the empirical material it has been pointed out that indirect discourse has preterial basis and is the kind of most frequent inner speech of characters. The most widely used form with future semantics in preterial indirect speech is conditional I, formally having a conjunctive basis, but is mostly used with the indicative semantics. Competitive to conditional I in indirect speech is preterial indicative. A characteristic feature of the indirect speech is the use of modal verbs, which, thanks to its semantics is usually referred as an action at a later term, creating the prospect of future statements. The most frequent were modal verbs wollen and sollen in the form of the preterite, more rare verbs were m ssen and k nnen. German indirect speech distinguishes the ability to use forms on the basis of conjunctive: preterite and plusquamperfect of conjunctive. Both forms express values similar to those of the indicative. However, conjunctive forms the basis of the data shown in a slightly more pronounced seme of uncertainty that accompanies future uses of these forms in indirect speech. In addition, plusquamperfect conjunctive differs from others by the presence of the seme of completeness.

  19. Wavelet-Fuzzy Speed Indirect Field Oriented Controller for Three-Phase AC Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Daya, Febin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Three-phase voltage source inverter driven induction motor are used in many medium- and high-power applications. Precision in speed of the motor play vital role, i.e. popular methods of direct/indirect field-oriented control (FOC) are applied. FOC is employed with proportional-integral (P...... wavelet transform and the fuzzy logic controller, to generate the scaled gains for the indirect FOC induction motor. Complete model of the proposed ac motor drive is developed with numerical simulation Matlab/Simulink software and tested under different working conditions. For experimental verification...

  20. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  1. High convergence, indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.; Caird, J.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann, C.; Murphy, T.J.; Murray, J.; Nelson, M.B.; Phillion, D.W.; Powell, H.; Ress, D.

    1996-01-01

    High convergence, indirect drive implosion experiments have been done at the Nova Laser Facility. The targets were deuterium and deuterium/tritium filled, glass microballoons driven symmetrically by x rays produced in a surrounding uranium hohlraum. Implosions achieved convergence ratios of 24:1 with fuel densities of 19 g/cm 3 ; this is equivalent to the range required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules. The implosions used a shaped drive and were well characterized by a variety of laser and target measurements. The primary measurement was the fuel density using the secondary neutron technique (neutrons from the reaction 2 H( 3 H,n) 4 He in initially pure deuterium fuel). Laser measurements include power, energy and pointing. Simultaneous measurement of neutron yield, fusion reaction rate, and x-ray images provide additional information about the implosion process. Computer models are in good agreement with measurement results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.; Yan, Hengjing

    2014-01-01

    by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate

  3. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribble, R E; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Spitaleri, C

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. (review article)

  4. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  5. Analysis of indirect taxation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodyakova Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of the structure and dynamics of indirect taxes for the previous five years and also the influence of indirect taxation upon formation of income of the State Budget of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of indirect taxation in Ukraine. Specific weight of the value added tax, excise tax and customs duty are considered in the structure of tax receipts of the consolidated budget of Ukraine as indirect taxes. The article shows that receipts of the State Budget of Ukraine are mostly provided by indirect taxes. The Ukrainian taxation system is mostly a factor of reduction of the level of economic growth and investment activity in the country and the existing system of administering is not completely capable of excluding the possibility of tax evasion. The prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of organisation of tax control in Ukraine and differentiation of the value added tax rates depending on the level of consumption of goods and level of income of consumers.

  6. A review of Indirect Matrix Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Rahmani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Matrix Converter (MC is a modern direct AC/AC electrical power converter without dc-link capacitor. MC is operated in four quadrant, assuring a control of the output voltage, amplitude and frequency. The matrix converter has recently attracted significant attention among researchers and it has become increasing attractive for applications of wind energy conversion, military power supplies, induction motor drives, etc. Recently, different MC topologies have been proposed and developed which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Matrix converter can be classified as direct and indirect structures. The direct one has been elaborated in previous work. In this paper the indirect MCs are reviewed. Different characteristics of the indirect MC topologies are mentioned to show the strengths and weaknesses of such converter topologies.

  7. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  8. Ballistic fractures: indirect fracture to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Paul J; Sherman, Don; Dau, Nathan; Bir, Cynthia

    2011-11-01

    Two mechanisms of injury, the temporary cavity and the sonic wave, have been proposed to produce indirect fractures as a projectile passes nearby in tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal relationship of pressure waves using strain gauge technology and high-speed video to elucidate whether the sonic wave, the temporary cavity, or both are responsible for the formation of indirect fractures. Twenty-eight fresh frozen cadaveric diaphyseal tibia (2) and femurs (26) were implanted into ordnance gelatin blocks. Shots were fired using 9- and 5.56-mm bullets traversing through the gelatin only, passing close to the edge of the bone, but not touching, to produce an indirect fracture. High-speed video of the impact event was collected at 20,000 frames/s. Acquisition of the strain data were synchronized with the video at 20,000 Hz. The exact time of fracture was determined by analyzing and comparing the strain gauge output and video. Twenty-eight shots were fired, 2 with 9-mm bullets and 26 with 5.56-mm bullets. Eight indirect fractures that occurred were of a simple (oblique or wedge) pattern. Comparison of the average distance of the projectile from the bone was 9.68 mm (range, 3-20 mm) for fractured specimens and 15.15 mm (range, 7-28 mm) for nonfractured specimens (Student's t test, p = 0.036). In this study, indirect fractures were produced after passage of the projectile. Thus, the temporary cavity, not the sonic wave, was responsible for the indirect fractures.

  9. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  10. Indirect effects in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Rossi, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The basic aim in this paper is to establish the link between indirect effects of radiation action and the spatial distribution of radicals at the time of energy deposition as well as throughout subsequent diffusion and interaction. The fact that radicals diffuse for a finite distance before damaging a biomolecule has dramatic effects on their subsequent probability to result in lesions. Thus at very low DMSO concentrations, where p = 0.5, one expects - all other things being equal - some 75% of the lesions to result from indirect or semidirect lesions. The number calculated here is lower (15%), a direct result of the fact that such lesions involve proximity functions modulated by diffusion. At higher DMSO concentrations this percentage becomes progressively smaller, as expected. It appears thus that for low-LET radiation, the relative amount of indirect damage in single tracks (also termed intratrack or single events) action is very small. By contrast, intertrack (or two-event) contributions will have the ratio between direct and (indirect + semidirect) contributions given by p 2 /(1-p 2 ). The reason for this is that sublesions from different tracks are uniformly distributed throughout the cell nucleus; their probability of interaction should not depend on any previous diffusional processes. For the example given above (p = 0.5) they do expect 65% of intertrack (two-hit) lesions to have resulted from indirect or semidirect mechanisms. This contrast between the almost exclusively direct character of intratrack lesions and the dominant role of indirect action in intertrack lesions produced by low-LET radiation is an important conclusion of this study

  11. Global indirect aerosol effects: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lohmann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.

  12. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  13. The power of indirect social ties

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Xiang; Blackburn, Jeremy; Kourtellis, Nicolas; Skvoretz, John; Iamnitchi, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    While direct social ties have been intensely studied in the context of computer-mediated social networks, indirect ties (e.g., friends of friends) have seen little attention. Yet in real life, we often rely on friends of our friends for recommendations (of good doctors, good schools, or good babysitters), for introduction to a new job opportunity, and for many other occasional needs. In this work we attempt to 1) quantify the strength of indirect social ties, 2) validate it, and 3) empiricall...

  14. Indirect methods for wake potential integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.

    2006-05-01

    The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)

  15. Development of an indirect spectrophotometric method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and rapid indirect spectrophotometric method for determination of ... of the colored product was measured at 405 nm and pH 3 against a reagent blank. ... The limit of detection and quantification were found to be 0.20±0.03 and ...

  16. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination

  17. Indirect effects of recreation on wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Peter B. Landres

    1995-01-01

    Most of this book focuses on direct impacts to wildlife that result from contact with people. The purpose of our chapter is to provide a broad overview of the indirect influences that recreation has on wildlife. Recreational activities can change the habitat of an animal. This, in turn, affects the behavior, survival, reproduction, and distribution of individuals....

  18. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene...

  19. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  20. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail property includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in retail property...

  1. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail licenses includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in a retail license...

  2. Indirect Costs: Daily Bread, Cake, or Cracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    The tradition of negotiating indirect costs in grants should be abandoned, and research administrators should instead offer different levels of service depending on what the sponsor wants to spend. Three levels of overhead rate are suggested (super, regular, and economy) and their corresponding levels of service are defined. (MSE)

  3. Epidemic spreading through direct and indirect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Niloy; Krueger, Tyll; Mukherjee, Animesh; Saha, Sudipta

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic dynamics, considering a specialized setting where popular places (termed passive entities) are visited by agents (termed active entities). We consider two types of spreading dynamics: direct spreading, where the active entities infect each other while visiting the passive entities, and indirect spreading, where the passive entities act as carriers and the infection is spread via them. We investigate in particular the effect of selection strategy, i.e., the way passive entities are chosen, in the spread of epidemics. We introduce a mathematical framework to study the effect of an arbitrary selection strategy and derive formulas for prevalence, extinction probabilities, and epidemic thresholds for both indirect and direct spreading. We also obtain a very simple relationship between the extinction probability and the prevalence. We pay special attention to preferential selection and derive exact formulas. The analysis reveals that an increase in the diversity in the selection process lowers the epidemic thresholds. Comparing the direct and indirect spreading, we identify regions in the parameter space where the prevalence of the indirect spreading is higher than the direct one.

  4. Indirect Determination of the sigma - omega

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Brincker, Rune

    . The beams where submitted to three-point bending in a servo-controlled materials testing system. The constitutive parameters in the fictitious crack model were determined by using three different indirect techniques, which are described and evaluated. The results show that the fracture energy is increasing...

  5. Comprehension Process of Second Language Indirect Requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satomi; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the comprehension of English conventional indirect requests by native English speakers and Japanese learners of English. Subjects read stories inducing either a conventional or a literal interpretation of a priming sentence. Results suggest that both native and nonnative speakers process both meanings of an ambiguous conventional request.…

  6. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fiscal year used for financial reporting purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting... contract or other work, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... basis of the benefits accruing to intermediate and final cost objectives. When substantially the same...

  7. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  8. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  9. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  10. The Indirect cost of illness in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joses Muthuri Kirigia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study estimated (a the indirect costs associated with non-fatal disability and premature death across a wide range of diseases and health conditions in Africa in 2015 and (b the potential savings that could be accrued if countries were to meet the 3 health targets of the substainable development goal (SDG compared to the costs under the status quo. Methods: This study used the lost output or human capital approach to quantify the gross domestic product (GDP losses associated with the disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs lost due to all causes by age group as well as by country economic classification (Group 1: 10 high/upper-middle income countries; Group 2: 17 lower-middle income countries; and Group 3: 27 low income countries. Results: The expected indirect cost of the 704,765,879 DALYs lost in Africa in 2015 was Int$ 2,983,187,560,197. Of this amount, 25.17%, 57.84% and 16.99% were incurred by the economies of the countries comprising Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. Of the total continental indirect cost, 36.9%, 10.5%, 13.7%, 17.0%, 7.6%, 6.8% and 7.5% were associated with people aged 0-4, 5-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70 years or older, respectively. Most of the total indirect cost (56.61% was attributable to maternal conditions, AIDS, tuberculosis (TB, malaria, neglected tropicald diseases (NTDs, non-communicable diseases and traffic injuries. Approximately half (47% of this cost could be avoided (or saved every year if the 3 (health targets of the SDG were fully met. Conclusion: The study estimated the total indirect cost of illness due to all causes by age group and country economic classification. The annual indirect cost is substantial. The findings contained in this paper suggest that health system strengthening should focus on both rich and poor countries, people of all ages and specific disease categories.

  11. Light-Driven Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Antonyuk, Boris P

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with influencing the properties of solids by light-driven electron transport. The theoretical basis of these effects, light-driven ordering and self-organisation, as well as optical motors are presented. With light as a tool, new ways to produce materials are opened.

  12. A near one-dimensional indirectly driven implosion at convergence ratio 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, S. A.; Masse, L. P.; Czajka, C. E.; Khan, S. F.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Salmonson, J. D.; Bachmann, B.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bhandarkar, S. D.; Bradley, P. A.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Mariscal, D. A.; Millot, M.; Patel, P. K.; Pino, J. E.; Ratledge, M.; Rice, N. G.; Tipton, R. E.; Tommasini, R.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2018-05-01

    Inertial confinement fusion cryogenic-layered implosions at the National Ignition Facility, while successfully demonstrating self-heating due to alpha-particle deposition, have fallen short of the performance predicted by one-dimensional (1D) multi-physics implosion simulations. The current understanding, from experimental evidence as well as simulations, suggests that engineering features such as the capsule tent and fill tube, as well as time-dependent low-mode asymmetry, are to blame for the lack of agreement. A short series of experiments designed specifically to avoid these degradations to the implosion are described here in order to understand if, once they are removed, a high-convergence cryogenic-layered deuterium-tritium implosion can achieve the 1D simulated performance. The result is a cryogenic layered implosion, round at stagnation, that matches closely the performance predicted by 1D simulations. This agreement can then be exploited to examine the sensitivity of approximations in the model to the constraints imposed by the data.

  13. Observation of a reflected shock in an indirectly driven spherical implosion at the national ignition facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, S; Divol, L; Berzak Hopkins, L; Mackinnon, A; Meezan, N B; Casey, D; Frenje, J; Herrmann, H; McNaney, J; Ma, T; Widmann, K; Pak, A; Grimm, G; Knauer, J; Petrasso, R; Zylstra, A; Rinderknecht, H; Rosenberg, M; Gatu-Johnson, M; Kilkenny, J D

    2014-06-06

    A 200  μm radius hot spot at more than 2 keV temperature, 1  g/cm^{3} density has been achieved on the National Ignition Facility using a near vacuum hohlraum. The implosion exhibits ideal one-dimensional behavior and 99% laser-to-hohlraum coupling. The low opacity of the remaining shell at bang time allows for a measurement of the x-ray emission of the reflected central shock in a deuterium plasma. Comparison with 1D hydrodynamic simulations puts constraints on electron-ion collisions and heat conduction. Results are consistent with classical (Spitzer-Harm) heat flux.

  14. A near one-dimensional 2-shock indirectly driven implosion at convergence ratio 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility, while successfully demonstrating self-heating due to alpha-particle deposition, have fallen short of the performance predicted by one-dimensional multi-physics implosion simulations. The current understanding, based on simulations as well as experimental evidence, suggests that the principle reason for the disagreement is a breeching of the cold fuel assembly at stagnation which would otherwise completely confine the hot spot. 3-D simulations indicate a combination of low-mode symmetry swings and ablation-front hydrodynamic instability seeded by engineering features such as the capsule tent and fill tube lead to localized thinning and perforation of the stagnated fuel, resulting in a loss of hot spot pressure and energy. We describe a short series of experiments on the NIF designed specifically to avoid these issues in order to understand if, once they are removed, a suspended-fuel-layer deuterium-tritium implosion can achieve 1-D simulated performance. The particular implosion system combines a thick capsule shell with an elevated initial ablation temperature to minimize the ablation front perturbations from the engineering features, and incorporates a large ratio of hohlraum-to-capsule radius as a means to permit a higher degree of control over implosion symmetry. The resulting implosion at a convergence ratio of 30 was not perfectly spherically symmetric as observed by both neutron and time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics. However, the stagnation observables match closely the performance predicted by 1D simulations, including, when some hot spot motion is accounted for, the apparent ion temperature. We present this result along with the design for an upcoming 2-shock experiment to test whether this level of agreement with the 1D model can be achieved in the self-heating regime. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Dynamic symmetry of indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion capsules on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Kritcher, A.; Jones, O. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Tommasini, R.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Döppner, T.; Dewald, E. L.; Eder, D. C.; Field, J. E.; Glenn, S. M.; Izumi, N.; Haan, S. W.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve ignition using inertial confinement fusion it is important to control the growth of low-mode asymmetries as the capsule is compressed. Understanding the time-dependent evolution of the shape of the hot spot and surrounding fuel layer is crucial to optimizing implosion performance. A design and experimental campaign to examine sources of asymmetry and to quantify symmetry throughout the implosion has been developed and executed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We have constructed a large simulation database of asymmetries applied during different time intervals. Analysis of the database has shown the need to measure and control the hot-spot shape, areal density distribution, and symmetry swings during the implosion. The shape of the hot spot during final stagnation is measured using time-resolved imaging of the self-emission, and information on the shape of the fuel at stagnation can be obtained from Compton radiography [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011)]. For the first time on NIF, two-dimensional inflight radiographs of gas-filled and cryogenic fuel layered capsules have been measured to infer the symmetry of the radiation drive on the capsule. These results have been used to modify the hohlraum geometry and the wavelength tuning to improve the inflight implosion symmetry. We have also expanded our shock timing capabilities by the addition of extra mirrors inside the re-entrant cone to allow the simultaneous measurement of shock symmetry in three locations on a single shot, providing asymmetry information up to Legendre mode 4. By diagnosing the shape at nearly every step of the implosion, we estimate that shape has typically reduced fusion yield by about 50% in ignition experiments

  16. Indirect dissociative recombination of LiHe^{+} ions driven by vibrational Feshbach resonances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čurík, Roman; Gianturco, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2013), 012705 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10046; GA ČR GAP208/11/0452 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : QUANTUM -DEFECT THE ORY * ELECTRON -MOLECULE SCATTERING * POTENTIAL-ENERGY CURVES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  17. Assembly of high-areal-density deuterium-tritium fuel from indirectly driven cryogenic implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, A J; Kline, J L; Dixit, S N; Glenzer, S H; Edwards, M J; Callahan, D A; Meezan, N B; Haan, S W; Kilkenny, J D; Döppner, T; Farley, D R; Moody, J D; Ralph, J E; MacGowan, B J; Landen, O L; Robey, H F; Boehly, T R; Celliers, P M; Eggert, J H; Krauter, K; Frieders, G; Ross, G F; Hicks, D G; Olson, R E; Weber, S V; Spears, B K; Salmonsen, J D; Michel, P; Divol, L; Hammel, B; Thomas, C A; Clark, D S; Jones, O S; Springer, P T; Cerjan, C J; Collins, G W; Glebov, V Y; Knauer, J P; Sangster, C; Stoeckl, C; McKenty, P; McNaney, J M; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A G; Chandler, G G A; Hahn, K D; Moran, M J; Schneider, M B; Palmer, N E; Bionta, R M; Hartouni, E P; LePape, S; Patel, P K; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Bond, E J; Caggiano, J A; Hatarik, R; Grim, G P; Merrill, F E; Fittinghoff, D N; Guler, N; Drury, O; Wilson, D C; Herrmann, H W; Stoeffl, W; Casey, D T; Johnson, M G; Frenje, J A; Petrasso, R D; Zylestra, A; Rinderknecht, H; Kalantar, D H; Dzenitis, J M; Di Nicola, P; Eder, D C; Courdin, W H; Gururangan, G; Burkhart, S C; Friedrich, S; Blueuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; Eckart, M J; Munro, D H; Hatchett, S P; Macphee, A G; Edgell, D H; Bradley, D K; Bell, P M; Glenn, S M; Simanovskaia, N; Barrios, M A; Benedetti, R; Kyrala, G A; Town, R P J; Dewald, E L; Milovich, J L; Widmann, K; Moore, A S; LaCaille, G; Regan, S P; Suter, L J; Felker, B; Ashabranner, R C; Jackson, M C; Prasad, R; Richardson, M J; Kohut, T R; Datte, P S; Krauter, G W; Klingman, J J; Burr, R F; Land, T A; Hermann, M R; Latray, D A; Saunders, R L; Weaver, S; Cohen, S J; Berzins, L; Brass, S G; Palma, E S; Lowe-Webb, R R; McHalle, G N; Arnold, P A; Lagin, L J; Marshall, C D; Brunton, G K; Mathisen, D G; Wood, R D; Cox, J R; Ehrlich, R B; Knittel, K M; Bowers, M W; Zacharias, R A; Young, B K; Holder, J P; Kimbrough, J R; Ma, T; La Fortune, K N; Widmayer, C C; Shaw, M J; Erbert, G V; Jancaitis, K S; DiNicola, J M; Orth, C; Heestand, G; Kirkwood, R; Haynam, C; Wegner, P J; Whitman, P K; Hamza, A; Dzenitis, E G; Wallace, R J; Bhandarkar, S D; Parham, T G; Dylla-Spears, R; Mapoles, E R; Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Walters, C F; Haid, B J; Fair, J; Nikroo, A; Giraldez, E; Moreno, K; Vanwonterghem, B; Kauffman, R L; Batha, S; Larson, D W; Fortner, R J; Schneider, D H; Lindl, J D; Patterson, R W; Atherton, L J; Moses, E I

    2012-05-25

    The National Ignition Facility has been used to compress deuterium-tritium to an average areal density of ~1.0±0.1 g cm(-2), which is 67% of the ignition requirement. These conditions were obtained using 192 laser beams with total energy of 1-1.6 MJ and peak power up to 420 TW to create a hohlraum drive with a shaped power profile, peaking at a soft x-ray radiation temperature of 275-300 eV. This pulse delivered a series of shocks that compressed a capsule containing cryogenic deuterium-tritium to a radius of 25-35 μm. Neutron images of the implosion were used to estimate a fuel density of 500-800 g cm(-3).

  18. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  19. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. The tradi......Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models...... present a reduced model that yields estimates of the total heritable effects on kin, on non-kin and on all social partners of an individual, as well as the total heritable variance for response to selection. Finally we discuss the consequences of analysing data in which IGEs depend on relatedness using...

  20. Lack of indirect sensitization in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, F.W.; Avery, K.; Mensinger, M.; Frinak, S.; Tidwell, C.

    1985-01-01

    The possible utility of respiratory inhibiting drugs as indirect radiation sensitizers has been investigated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In vitro studies were conducted in V79 monolayer and spheroid cultures examining both respiratory inhibition and radiation survival as end points. These drugs (BCNU, Mustargen and Chlorambucil) were found to be potent respiratory inhibitors and, in the spheroid system, to be effective indirect radiation sensitizers with enhancement ratios of approximately 2.0. In vivo studies with these drugs have also been conducted in a C/sub 3/H mouse MCa tumor system to determine if the same reoxygenation effect observed in spheroids could be demonstrated in the solid tumor system. Detailed microelectrode studies, employing each drug at its LD/sub 10/ level, have been unable to demonstrate any drug induced reoxygenation for any of the drugs tested. Complete details are presented

  1. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Time has passed since the prevention of caries was performed by extending cavity preparations wide in the tooth and below the gingiva. In the same period adhesive techniques have improved and nowadays made it possible to extend the indications for direct composite resin restorations, also when...... rather destroyed teeth need to be restored. Although much can be solved by direct fillings and thereby make treatments less invasive for the tooth and less expensive for the patient, there still will be teeth, where the prognosis is improved, if an indirect restoration in terms of an inlay, onlay...... or crown is made. Factors as remaining tooth structure, endodontic treatment, number of teeth, caries risk, para-functional habits, material properties, economy etc. will all have an influence, when the dentist guides the patient to choose the best solution. What is best for the tooth – direct or indirect...

  2. Social intervention and risk reduction - indirect countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, N.A.; Morrey, M.

    1996-01-01

    An indirect countermeasure (IC) is an action which is intended to mitigate detrimental effects experienced by individuals or the community after an accident. Indirect countermeasures (ICs) achieve this, both by averting radiation risks arising from the accident, but by removing or reducing other risks and sources of stress or harm to which the community may be subject. ICs naturally fall into two categories: social action ICs, which range from introducing compensation payments to providing information centres; and risk reducing ICs which mitigate risks to which the population might be exposed, such as radon. By including a consideration of ICs in an assessment of the optimal response, it is likely that a decision maker will become aware of a greater range of harms and benefits that might result from the application of a countermeasure. The decision maker will then be in a better position to judge the appropriateness of any action. (author)

  3. Studies on direct and indirect electrochemical immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Eileen

    1989-01-01

    Two approaches to electrochemical immunoassay are reported. The first approach was an indirect method, involving an electroactive, enzyme-catalysed, substrate to product reaction. Conditions were optimised for the amperometric detection of para-aminophenol, the electroactive product of the alkaline phosphatase catalysed hydrolysis of a new substrate, p-aminophenylphosphate, after separation by HPLC. The second approach involved the direct electrochemical detection of an immunoglo...

  4. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  5. Software Prefetching for Indirect Memory Accesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ainsworth, Sam; Jones, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Many modern data processing and HPC workloads are heavily memory-latency bound. A tempting proposition to solve this is software prefetching, where special non-blocking loads are used to bring data into the cache hierarchy just before being required. However, these are difficult to insert to effectively improve performance, and techniques for automatic insertion are currently limited. This paper develops a novel compiler pass to automatically generate software prefetches for indirect mem...

  6. Draft of textbook focused on indirect taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis is about draft of textbook which is focused on indirect taxes for business school. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is focused on teaching tax issues at business school. Readers are introduced with basic studying documents, for example framework educational program and school educational program. In the following part I have conducted didactic analysis of curriculum and textbook of economics for business schools. The draft of t...

  7. Comment traduire en japonais les styles indirect et indirect libre de Madame Bovary ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki Sawasaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les difficultés rencontrées lors de la traduction des textes littéraires occidentaux, en japonais, nous examinons le problème des styles indirect et indirect libre. Pour cela, en effectuant une petite mise au point grammaticale, nous comparons sept traductions de Madame Bovary de Gustave Flaubert, dont les dates de parution s’étendent sur une cinquantaine d’années. Cette période s’apparente, de notre point de vue, à un long itinéraire pour assimiler la notion occidentale des styles direct et indirect, tout en la conciliant avec les particularités du japonais. D’un autre côté, ce travail acharné des traducteurs a influencé quelque peu la langue japonaise. On trouve dans l’annexe tous les textes en japonais examinés.We will examine the difficulties met when translating Western literary texts in Japanese, in particular the problem of indirect and free indirect styles. We will define the grammatical issue and compare seven translations of Madame Bovary, published over a fifty year period. This time can be likened to a long path taken to digest the Western notion of direct and indirect styles, while reconciling it with Japanese language characteristics. On the other hand the translators’ relentless work has somewhat influenced the Japanese language. The annex will present all the Japanese texts examined.

  8. Indirect carotid cavernous fistula mimicking ocular myasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishangthem, Lakshmi; Satti, Sudhakar Reddy

    2017-10-19

    71-year-old woman with progressive left-sided, monocular diplopia and ptosis. Her symptoms mimicked ocular myasthenia, but she had an indirect carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). She was diagnosed with monocular myasthenia gravis (negative acetylcholinesterase antibody) after a positive ice test and started on Mestinon and underwent a thymectomy complicated by a brachial plexus injury. Months later, she developed left-sided proptosis and ocular bruit. She was urgently referred to neuro-interventional surgery and was diagnosed with an indirect high-flow left CCF, which was treated with Onyx liquid and platinum coil embolisation. Mestinon was discontinued. Her ophthalmic symptoms resolved. However, she was left with a residual left arm and hand hemiparesis and dysmetria secondary to a brachial plexus injury. Indirect CCF usually can present with subtle and progressive symptoms leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. It is important for ophthalmologists to consider this differential in a patient with progressive ocular symptoms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials

  10. Interactive indirect illumination using adaptive multiresolution splatting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Greg; Wyman, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Global illumination provides a visual richness not achievable with the direct illumination models used by most interactive applications. To generate global effects, numerous approximations attempt to reduce global illumination costs to levels feasible in interactive contexts. One such approximation, reflective shadow maps, samples a shadow map to identify secondary light sources whose contributions are splatted into eye space. This splatting introduces significant overdraw that is usually reduced by artificially shrinking each splat's radius of influence. This paper introduces a new multiresolution approach for interactively splatting indirect illumination. Instead of reducing GPU fill rate by reducing splat size, we reduce fill rate by rendering splats into a multiresolution buffer. This takes advantage of the low-frequency nature of diffuse and glossy indirect lighting, allowing rendering of indirect contributions at low resolution where lighting changes slowly and at high-resolution near discontinuities. Because this multiresolution rendering occurs on a per-splat basis, we can significantly reduce fill rate without arbitrarily clipping splat contributions below a given threshold-those regions simply are rendered at a coarse resolution.

  11. Plasmon-driven sequential chemical reactions in an aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Peijie; Zhang, Zhenglong; Fang, Yurui; Sun, Mengtao

    2014-06-24

    Plasmon-driven sequential chemical reactions were successfully realized in an aqueous environment. In an electrochemical environment, sequential chemical reactions were driven by an applied potential and laser irradiation. Furthermore, the rate of the chemical reaction was controlled via pH, which provides indirect evidence that the hot electrons generated from plasmon decay play an important role in plasmon-driven chemical reactions. In acidic conditions, the hot electrons were captured by the abundant H(+) in the aqueous environment, which prevented the chemical reaction. The developed plasmon-driven chemical reactions in an aqueous environment will significantly expand the applications of plasmon chemistry and may provide a promising avenue for green chemistry using plasmon catalysis in aqueous environments under irradiation by sunlight.

  12. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  13. Model Driven Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaševic, Dragan; Djuric, Dragan; Devedžic, Vladan

    A relevant initiative from the software engineering community called Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is being developed in parallel with the Semantic Web (Mellor et al. 2003a). The MDE approach to software development suggests that one should first develop a model of the system under study, which is then transformed into the real thing (i.e., an executable software entity). The most important research initiative in this area is the Model Driven Architecture (MDA), which is Model Driven Architecture being developed under the umbrella of the Object Management Group (OMG). This chapter describes the basic concepts of this software engineering effort.

  14. Predicting and detecting reciprocity between indirect ecological interactions and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A; Brashares, Justin S; Power, Mary E

    2013-05-01

    Living nature can be thought of as a tapestry, defined not only by its constituent parts but also by how these parts are woven together. The weaving of this tapestry is a metaphor for species interactions, which can be divided into three broad classes: competitive, mutualistic, and consumptive. Direct interactions link together as more complex networks, for example, the joining of consumptive interactions into food webs. Food web dynamics are driven, in turn, by changes in the abundances of web members, whose numbers or biomass respond to bottom-up (resource limitation) and top-down (consumer limitation) forcing. The relative strengths of top-down and bottom-up forcing on the abundance of a given web member depend on its ecological context, including its topological position within the food web. Top-down effects by diverse consumers are nearly ubiquitous, in many cases influencing the structure and operation of ecosystems. While the ecological effects of such interactions are well known, far less is known of their evolutionary consequences. In this essay, we describe sundry consequences of these interaction chains on species and ecosystem processes, explain several known or suspected evolutionary effects of consumer-induced interaction chains, and identify areas where reciprocity between ecology and evolution involving the indirect effects of consumer-prey interaction chains might be further explored.

  15. Discovery Driven Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august......Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august...

  16. Direct-indirect mixed implosion mode in heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S.; Miyazawa, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Someya, T.

    2007-01-01

    In order to realize an effective implosion, beam illumination non-uniformity on a fuel target must be suppressed less than a few percent. In this study, a direct-indirect mixture implosion mode is proposed and discussed in heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (HIF) in order to release sufficient fusion energy in a robust manner. On the other hand, the HIB illumination non-uniformity depends strongly on a target displacement dz from the center of a fusion reactor chamber. In a direct-driven implosion mode, dz of ∼20 μm was tolerable, and in an indirect-implosion mode, dz of ∼100 μm was allowable. In the direct-indirect mixture mode target, a low-density foam layer is inserted, and the radiation energy is confined in the foam layer. In the foam layer, the radiation transport is expected to smooth the HIB illumination non-uniformity in the lateral direction. Two-dimensional implosion simulations are performed, and show that the HIB illumination non-uniformity is well smoothed in the direct-indirect mixture target. Our simulation results present that a large pellet displacement of approximately a few hundred microns is allowed in order to obtain a sufficient fusion energy output in HIF

  17. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  18. Indirect quantum tomography of quadratic Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgarth, Daniel [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Maruyama, Koji; Nori, Franco, E-mail: daniel@burgarth.de, E-mail: kmaruyama@riken.jp [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A number of many-body problems can be formulated using Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. Here, we show how such quadratic Hamiltonians can be efficiently estimated indirectly, employing very few resources. We found that almost all the properties of the Hamiltonian are determined by its surface and that these properties can be measured even if the system can only be initialized to a mixed state. Therefore, our method can be applied to various physical models, with important examples including coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, hopping fermions in optical lattices and transverse Ising chains.

  19. Indirect evidence of calcitonin secretion in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniggia, A; Gennari, C; Vattimo, A; Nardi, P; Nuti, R

    1976-09-01

    1. The effect of calcitonin, a large amount of calcium given orally, pentagastrin and glucagon on plasma 47Ca radioactivity curves in subjects pretreated with 47Ca was examined. 2. A sudden increase of plasma radioactivity after intravenous administration of calcitonin and pentagastrin and after the oral calcium load was observed in normal subjects; the intravenous infusion of glucagon was less effective. 3. Two thyroparathyroidectomized patients who responded to the calcitonin infusion did not respond to the oral calcium load. 4. These data may be considered to offer indirect evidence of endogenous calcitonin secretion in man.

  20. Integrated direct/indirect adaptive robust motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deyuan; Tao, Guoliang; Zhu, Xiaocong

    2013-09-01

    This paper studies the precision motion trajectory tracking control of a pneumatic cylinder driven by a proportional-directional control valve. An integrated direct/indirect adaptive robust controller is proposed. The controller employs a physical model based indirect-type parameter estimation to obtain reliable estimates of unknown model parameters, and utilises a robust control method with dynamic compensation type fast adaptation to attenuate the effects of parameter estimation errors, unmodelled dynamics and disturbances. Due to the use of projection mapping, the robust control law and the parameter adaption algorithm can be designed separately. Since the system model uncertainties are unmatched, the recursive backstepping technology is adopted to design the robust control law. Extensive comparative experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller and its performance robustness to parameter variations and sudden disturbances.

  1. Third European Company Survey – Direct and indirect employee participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo

    2015-01-01

    This report studies practices in EU establishments for direct and indirect employee participation in decision-making. Indirect employee participation is the involvement of employee representatives in decision-making processes, while direct employee participation describes direct interaction between

  2. Indirect Estimation of Selected Measures of Fertility and Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DLHS6

    2018-01-09

    Jan 9, 2018 ... marital status distribution data of India especially of the 2011 census in deriving indirectly the fertility measures .... 2011 Census, Economic and Political weekly, EPW Vol. ... Indirect Estimates of Total Fertility Rate Using Child.

  3. THE INDIRECT OBJECT (IO) – ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is too corporate the function of the indirect object between Albanian and English language. The function and the Albanian typical case for indirect object are dative and ablative. This grammatical phenomena is the full contrast between two languages because in English language doesn’t exist dative and ablative us in Albanian. In Albanian and English language, the indirect object is more heterogenic than the direct object. The indirect (direct) object in both of languages...

  4. On the Relative Size of Direct and Indirect Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatos, Gerasimos T.

    2014-01-01

    Modifying the standard analytical apparatuses for direct and indirect tax evasion to incorporate forward indirect tax shift in a monopolistically competitive environment, this paper maintains that indirect tax evasion would exceed for sure direct tax evasion only under consumer risk neutrality and a tax policy zeroing the tax shift. Also, in the presence of tax evasion, there cannot be optimal direct-indirect tax mix, because tax evasion is accompanied by uncertainty and hence, nonlinearities...

  5. Microdosimetric concepts for indirect radiation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlit, W.

    1976-01-01

    It is the aim of microdosimetric models to get information about the influence of microscopic energy deposition by radiation on radiation reactions. Two parameters are always of interest: the energy necessary to produce a certain reaction and the volume in which this energy has to be desposited. In the simple case of an aqueous solution with point targets a complete description of radiation reactions in targets with various concentrations can be given. This model takes into consideration the distinct energy deposition on the particle track, diffusion of radicals and a mean energy necessary for a certain reaction at the target. Typical dose effect curves are obtained which allow the determination of all these quantities from experiments. The model has been tested with the oxydation of iron atoms in aqueous solutions and has been applied for more complex targets such as different alcohols and amino acids. The oxygen consumption in these reactions is used as an easy method for continuous measurement of these indirect reactions. It is the aim of such experiments to get enough quantitative microscopic data on indirect radiation reactions that these reactions can also be followed in living cells

  6. The indirect strategies of internationalization of companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work are, as mentioned in the title, the indirect strategies of internationalization of companies. The first part talks about the new business environment, the factors that lead to changes and their implications. It is at the same time the business context, which must be taken into consideration that determines the success of companies in the new business environment. In this paper, the emphasis is on company business in international markets, and the selection of appropriate strategies of internationalization, which will be responsible for this new business environment. There are many reasons that are discussed in this paper, and would rather indicate that partners from different countries to accept different strategies, rather than opting for a strategy of export, or a strategy of direct investments abroad. The dynamic technical and technological development, and its universal impact, among other relevant factors, put in the first place the importance of different strategies which is achieved through technology transfer, knowledge and experience whereby the exports, as a classic strategy of involvement in international trade, becomes significantly more difficult. Also, the internationalization of enterprises through direct investment abroad, involves many difficulties related to fitting in a foreign enterprise environment, and a high risk strategy. In addition, there is still a large number of countries do not allow wholly owned foreign enterprises. The paper discusses the value of various indirect internationalization strategy, which may be useful for those domestic companies that are in front of problem the choice of acceptable strategies of internationalization.

  7. Indirect costs of teaching in Canadian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, T A; Willan, A R; Cox, M A; Green, A

    1991-01-01

    We sought to determine whether there are indirect costs of teaching in Canadian hospitals. To examine cost differences between teaching and nonteaching hospitals we estimated two cost functions: cost per case and cost per patient-day (dependent variables). The independent variables were number of beds, occupancy rate, teaching ratio (number of residents and interns per 100 beds), province, urbanicity (the population density of the county in which the hospital was situated) and wage index. Within each hospital we categorized a random sample of patient discharges according to case mix and severity of illness using age and standard diagnosis and procedure codes. Teaching ratio and case severity were each highly correlated positively with the dependent variables. The other variables that led to higher costs in teaching hospitals were wage rates and number of beds. Our regression model could serve as the basis of a reimbursement system, adjusted for severity and teaching status, particularly in provinces moving toward introducing case-weighting mechanisms into their payment model. Even if teaching hospitals were paid more than nonteaching hospitals because of the difference in the severity of illness there should be an additional allowance to cover the indirect costs of teaching. PMID:1898870

  8. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  9. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  10. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer is an electrically powered device that is used to determine pacemaker function or...

  11. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  12. Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon

  13. Indirect effects in community ecology: Their definition, study and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y

    1991-07-01

    The diversity of indirect interactions that can occur within communities is large. Recent research on indirect interactions is scattered in the literature under numerous labels. The definition of indirect effects is an important aspect of their study, and clarifies some of the subtle differences among indirect effects found in natural communities. Choosing which species to study, how to manipulate species and for what duration, which attributes to measure and, finally, which analytical techniques to use are all problems facing the community ecologist. Ultimately, we are striving for the best means of determining the relative importance of direct and indirect effects in structuring communities. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  15. Haloperidol Selectively Remodels Striatal Indirect Pathway Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebel, Luke E; Graves, Steven M; Chan, C Savio; Surmeier, D James

    2017-01-01

    Typical antipsychotic drugs are widely thought to alleviate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia by antagonizing dopamine D2 receptors expressed by striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs). What is less clear is why antipsychotics have a therapeutic latency of weeks. Using a combination of physiological and anatomical approaches in ex vivo brain slices from transgenic mice, it was found that 2 weeks of haloperidol treatment induced both intrinsic and synaptic adaptations specifically within indirect pathway SPNs (iSPNs). Perphenazine treatment had similar effects. Some of these adaptations were homeostatic, including a drop in intrinsic excitability and pruning of excitatory corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses. However, haloperidol treatment also led to strengthening of a subset of excitatory corticostriatal synapses. This slow remodeling of corticostriatal iSPN circuitry is likely to play a role in mediating the delayed therapeutic action of neuroleptics. PMID:27577602

  16. Indirect Encoding in Neuroevolutionary Ship Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author compares the efficiency of two encoding schemes for artificial intelligence methods used in the neuroevolutionary ship maneuvering system. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of a group of artificial helmsmen - autonomous control units, created with an artificial neural network. The helmsman observes input signals derived form an enfironment and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of this project is to evolve a population of helmsmen with indirect encoding and compare results of simulation with direct encoding method.

  17. Indirect adaptive control of discrete chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salarieh, Hassan; Shahrokhi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an indirect adaptive control algorithm is proposed to stabilize the fixed points of discrete chaotic systems. It is assumed that the functionality of the chaotic dynamics is known but the system parameters are unknown. This assumption is usually applicable to many chaotic systems, such as the Henon map, logistic and many other nonlinear maps. Using the recursive-least squares technique, the system parameters are identified and based on the feedback linearization method an adaptive controller is designed for stabilizing the fixed points, or unstable periodic orbits of the chaotic maps. The stability of the proposed scheme has been shown and the effectiveness of the control algorithm has been demonstrated through computer simulations

  18. Data-driven storytelling

    CERN Document Server

    Hurter, Christophe; Diakopoulos, Nicholas ed.; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2018-01-01

    This book is an accessible introduction to data-driven storytelling, resulting from discussions between data visualization researchers and data journalists. This book will be the first to define the topic, present compelling examples and existing resources, as well as identify challenges and new opportunities for research.

  19. Pressure Driven Poiseuille Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stotz, Ingo Leonardo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Davies, D. Rhodri

    2018-01-01

    The Pacific plate is thought to be driven mainly by slab pull, associated with subduction along the Aleutians–Japan, Marianas–Izu–Bonin and Tonga–Kermadec trenches. This implies that viscous flow within the sub–Pacific asthenosphere is mainly generated by overlying plate motion (i.e. Couette flow...

  20. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  1. Direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter; Detection directe et indirecte de matiere sombre supersymetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, F

    2001-09-01

    A substantial body of astrophysical evidence supports the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the universe. One of the leading dark matter candidates is the neutralino predicted by the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. Different detectors have been designed for the detection, either indirect or direct, of the neutralino. Related to indirect detection, the present work has been performed in the context of the AMS experiment. A precursor version of the spectrometer was flown on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998. The detector included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to identify antiprotons, whose spectrum may be used to infer a neutralino signal. The analysis of the ATC data is presented including an evaluation of the flight performance and a description of the optimization of the antiproton selection. An antiproton analysis is also reported. A phenomenological study allows us to investigate the discovery potential of this indirect method. This thesis also includes the development of a new detector (MACHe3) designed for direct neutralino search using a superfluid {sup 3}He bolometer operated at ultra low temperatures. The data analysis of the prototype cell is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed, in order to optimize the detector design for direct neutralino search. These results are compared with theoretical predictions of supersymmetric models, thus highlighting the discovery potential of this detector and its complementarity with existing devices. (author)

  2. Performance comparison of direct and indirect lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, F.; Morse, O.; Clark, T.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a retrofitted indirect lighting system was compared to the performance of a typical de-lamped direct lighting system in a partitioned office space. Power, illuminance and luminance measurements were made for the de-lamped direct lighting system and after installation of the indirect lighting system with various lamp and ballast combinations. Using the same lamps and ballasts, average workplace illuminance was slightly higher with indirect lighting than with direct lighting. With indirect lighting, workplace lumen efficacy was 4.5% lower due to the higher power draw of the lamps in the more open and cooler indirect fixtures. Indirect lighting with 36 watt T-8 lamps and electronic ballasts achieved an initial average workplace illuminance of 45 foot-candles in the partitioned office space at only 1.1 w/ft 2

  3. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  4. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-01-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO 2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO 2 price of $80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO 2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  5. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Nicolás [Centro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá (Colombia); Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R., E-mail: nicolas.bernal@uan.edu.co, E-mail: lnecib@mit.edu, E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  6. Indirectly cooled large thin superconducting CDF solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kunitaka; Mori, Shigeki; Yoshizaki, Ryozo; Saito, Ryusei; Asano, Katsuhiko.

    1985-01-01

    The manufacturing technique of the indirectly cooled large thin superconducting solenoid for the collider detector facility (CDF solenoid) has been studied through cooperation of University of Tsukuba and the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics of the Ministry of Education of Japan, and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the U.S. Fabrication and testing of the solenoid has recently been completed by Hitachi. The CDF solenoid has a large-sized thin structure for meeting the requirement by experiments to be applied. Hitachi has thus developed a variety of new technologies including the design standard, coil cooling method, material selection, and manufacturing technique in accordance with experimental data, which were confirmed in a series of analyses and tests made on various prototypes. The CDF solenoid, built using Hitachi's new technologies, is of the world's top class among equipment of this type. This paper outlines the design criteria for the major components employed in the CDF solenoid and the test results of the solenoid. (author)

  7. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  8. INDIRECT WRITTEN CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK, REVISION, AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrective feedback, the necessity of providing it, and how it should be provided has been one of the hot topics in the area of ELT. Amid continuing controversies over whether providing feedback helps L2 learners improve their writing accuracy, many research studies have been undertaken to compare the relative effectiveness of different types of feedback. However, the difference between two types of indirect corrective feedback, namely indication and indication plus location, have not been properly examined yet. Motivated to narrow this gap, this study is designed to compare two groups of Iranian learners, each revising their papers based on one of the aforementioned options. For data analysis, a series of independent samples t tests were employed. The results revealed that the difference between the two groups in their reduction of errors from the original draft to the revision of each task followed a growing trend and became significant. Nonetheless, the difference in accuracy of new pieces of writing fell short of significance. Finally, it was found that error reduction in revision stage cannot be considered as learning. The results of the study, discussed in relation to that of others, implicate that the purpose for which feedback is provided is essential in determining the type of feedback; more explicit feedback is better for revising purposes while more implicit feedback is good for learning purposes.

  9. Indirect Sensitivities to the Scale of Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Olive, Keith A; Weiglein, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Precision measurements, now and at a future linear electron-positron collider (ILC), can provide indirect information about the possible scale of supersymmetry. We illustrate the present-day and possible future ILC sensitivities within the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM), in which there are three independent soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters m_{1/2}, m_0 and A_0. We analyze the present and future sensitivities separately for M_W, sin^2(theta_eff), (g-2)_mu, BR(b -> s gamma), BR(B_s -> mu+ mu-), M_h and Higgs branching ratios. We display the observables as functions of m_{1/2}, fixing m_0 so as to obtain the cold dark matter density allowed by WMAP and other cosmological data for specific values of A_0, tan beta and mu > 0. In a second step, we investigate the combined sensitivity of the currently available precision observables, M_W, sin^2(theta_eff), (g-2)_mu and BR(b -> s gamma), by performing a chi^2 analysis. The current data are in very good agreement with ...

  10. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  11. Decentralized indirect methods for learning automata games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Omkar; Martin, Ryan; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-10-01

    We discuss the application of indirect learning methods in zero-sum and identical payoff learning automata games. We propose a novel decentralized version of the well-known pursuit learning algorithm. Such a decentralized algorithm has significant computational advantages over its centralized counterpart. The theoretical study of such a decentralized algorithm requires the analysis to be carried out in a nonstationary environment. We use a novel bootstrapping argument to prove the convergence of the algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such analysis has been carried out for zero-sum and identical payoff games. Extensive simulation studies are reported, which demonstrate the proposed algorithm's fast and accurate convergence in a variety of game scenarios. We also introduce the framework of partial communication in the context of identical payoff games of learning automata. In such games, the automata may not communicate with each other or may communicate selectively. This comprehensive framework has the capability to model both centralized and decentralized games discussed in this paper.

  12. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W. Michael; Matthews, H. Scott

    2009-09-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO2 price of 80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  13. Noninvasive wearable sensor for indirect glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Zilberstein, Roman; Maor, Uriel; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2018-04-02

    A noninvasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts. Taken together, all these parameters give information about blood glucose concentration, calculated via multivariate analysis based on neural network algorithms built into the sensor. The Clarke Error Grid shows an excellent correlation between data measured by the standard invasive glucose analyser and the present noninvasive sensor, with all points aligned along a 45-degree diagonal and contained almost exclusively in sector A. Graphs measuring glucose levels five times a day (prior, during and after breakfast and prior, during and after lunch), for different individuals (males and females) show a good correlation between the two curves of conventional, invasive meters vs. the noninvasive sensor, with an error of ±15%. This novel, noninvasive sensor for indirect glucometry is fully miniaturized, easy to use and operate and could represent a valid alternative in clinical settings and for individual, personal users, to current, invasive tools. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems involve the use of exoelectrogenic (i.e., anode-reducing) microbes to produce current in conjunction with the oxidation of reduced compounds. This current can be used directly for power in a microbial fuel cell, but there are alternate uses of this current. One such alternative is the production of hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which accomplishes cathodic proton reduction with a slight applied potential by exploiting the low redox potential produced by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate. With continued advancements in reactor design to reduce the system internal resistance, increase the specific surface area for anode biofilm development, and decrease the material costs, MECs may emerge as a viable alternative technology for biohydrogen production. Moreover, these systems can also incorporate other value-added functionalities for applications in waste treatment, desalination, and bioremediation.

  15. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Binken, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect theory tells us. Systems are composed of complementary and interdependent products, such as hardware and software. For instance, a video game system is composed of the video game console, on the one han...

  16. Indirect detection methods: Looking for what is not there

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Indirect detection allows one to monitor species that normally do not give a response. It has grown from an intellectual curiosity to become an extremely useful tool. For volume displacement, polarimetry gives the best results. For charge displacement, ion chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis are ideal situations for applying indirect fluorescence detection. LOD surpasses all but the most specialized detection schemes. Future developments in systems specially designed for indirect detection should make these schemes even more powerful

  17. Indirect Catastrophic Injuries in Olympic Styles of Wrestling in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Rostami, Mohsen; Wallace, W. Angus

    2011-01-01

    Background: Data on indirect catastrophic injuries in wrestling are scarce. Objectives: To develop a profile of indirect catastrophic injuries in international styles of wrestling and to describe possible risk factors. Study Design: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Indirect catastrophic injuries that occurred in wrestling clubs in Iran from July 1998 to June 2005 were identified by contacting several sources. The cases were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The injur...

  18. Tipping and Concentration in Markets with Indirect Network Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre H. Dubé; Günter J. Hitsch; Pradeep K. Chintagunta

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for measuring “tipping”—the increase in a firm's market share dominance caused by indirect network effects. Our measure compares the expected concentration in a market to the hypothetical expected concentration that would arise in the absence of indirect network effects. In practice, this measure requires a model that can predict the counterfactual market concentration under different parameter values capturing the strength of indirect network effects. We build...

  19. Privacy driven internet ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...

  20. Water-driven micromotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Pei, Allen; Wang, Joseph

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate the first example of a water-driven bubble-propelled micromotor that eliminates the requirement for the common hydrogen peroxide fuel. The new water-driven Janus micromotor is composed of a partially coated Al-Ga binary alloy microsphere prepared via microcontact mixing of aluminum microparticles and liquid gallium. The ejection of hydrogen bubbles from the exposed Al-Ga alloy hemisphere side, upon its contact with water, provides a powerful directional propulsion thrust. Such spontaneous generation of hydrogen bubbles reflects the rapid reaction between the aluminum alloy and water. The resulting water-driven spherical motors can move at remarkable speeds of 3 mm s(-1) (i.e., 150 body length s(-1)), while exerting large forces exceeding 500 pN. Factors influencing the efficiency of the aluminum-water reaction and the resulting propulsion behavior and motor lifetime, including the ionic strength and environmental pH, are investigated. The resulting water-propelled Al-Ga/Ti motors move efficiently in different biological media (e.g., human serum) and hold considerable promise for diverse biomedical or industrial applications.

  1. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, K.D.; Scherrer, C.; Smith, L.E.; Chilton, L.K.; Anderson, K.K.; Ressler, J.J.; Trease, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  2. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices. Of course, scientific/technical software differs from other software categories in a number of important respects, but I nonetheless believe that TDD is quite applicable to the development of such software and has the potential to significantly improve programmer productivity and code quality within the scientific community. After a detailed introduction to TDD, I will present the experience within the Software Systems Support Office (SSSO) in applying the technique to various scientific applications. This discussion will emphasize the various direct and indirect benefits as well as some of the difficulties and limitations of the methodology. I will conclude with a brief description of pFUnit, a unit testing framework I co-developed to support test-driven development of parallel Fortran applications.

  3. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data. CMS.... The indirect teaching adjustment factor equals [e (raised to the power of .2822×the ratio of residents...

  4. A Computational Approach to the Interpretation of Indirect Speech Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beun, R.J.; Eijk, R.M. van; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Vergunst, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    An Indirect Speech Act (ISA) is an utterance that conveys a message that is different from its literal meaning, often for reasons of politeness or subtlety. The DenK-system provides us with a non-compositional way to look at Indirect Speech Acts that contain modal verbs. We can extract the

  5. Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…

  6. The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás J. T. Baliño; Charles Enoch; William E. Alexander

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of implementing indirect instruments of monetary policy. The experiences of country studies illustrate the variety of circumstances under which indirect instruments of monetary policy have been introduced. Case Studies are presented for Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Mexico, New Zealand, and Poland.

  7. The Influence of Direct and Indirect Speech on Source Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eerland

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People perceive the same situation described in direct speech (e.g., John said, “I like the food at this restaurant” as more vivid and perceptually engaging than described in indirect speech (e.g., John said that he likes the food at the restaurant. So, if direct speech enhances the perception of vividness relative to indirect speech, what are the effects of using indirect speech? In four experiments, we examined whether the use of direct and indirect speech influences the comprehender’s memory for the identity of the speaker. Participants read a direct or an indirect speech version of a story and then addressed statements to one of the four protagonists of the story in a memory task. We found better source memory at the level of protagonist gender after indirect than direct speech (Exp. 1–3. When the story was rewritten to make the protagonists more distinctive, we also found an effect of speech type on source memory at the level of the individual, with better memory after indirect than direct speech (Exp. 3–4. Memory for the content of the story, however, was not influenced by speech type (Exp. 4. While previous research showed that direct speech may enhance memory for how something was said, we conclude that indirect speech enhances memory for who said what.

  8. 10 CFR 602.15 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 602.15 Section 602.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.15 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  9. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and scientific...

  10. The indirect radioiodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lihua; Li Junling; Yin Duanzhi; Zhang Lei; Zhang Xiuli; Wang Yongxian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To seek for an effective way to acquire radiolabeled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) with excellent in vivo stability. N-succinimidyl-3-iodo-125-benzoate (S 125 IB) came from radioiodination of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) precursor and then conjugated with VIP to form 125 IBA-VIP. The labelling procedure was optimized; the in vitro stability and biological activity were evaluated. Methods: 1) Radiolabeling of ATE precursor was achieved with iodogen oxidant and the influential factors were considered in this procedure. The labeling efficiency was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the purification was carried out by Sep-pak silica gel cartridge. The stability was detected by TLC after 2 h storage in dark at 4 degree C. 2) Conjugation of S 125 IB and VIP. The labelling efficiency was determined with RP TLC and the purification was carried out with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, RP C18 column). Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method was applied to evaluate the in vitro stability while the biological activity was determined by cell binding experiments with SGC7901 cell lines. Results: 1) S 125 IB experiments. The radioiodination of ATE was performed well for 5 min at 25 degree C with 10 micrograms of iodogen at suitable mole ratio (3-8:1) of ATE/Na 125 I, the labelling efficiency was about 96%. The stability was kept well at 4 degree C in dark, no significant decrease of S 125 IB was observed. 2) The conjugation efficiency of S 125 IB and VIP was above 75% with TLC. HPLC showed the different retention time (t R ) as follows, 125 IBA-VIP: 13.3 min, S 125 IB: 19.6 min, VIP: 8.32 min. The stability of 125 IBA-VIP was better than 125 I-VIP from direct radioiodination of VIP with iodogen oxidant, only 2.85% decrease was found after 7 d at 4 degree C. The biological activity of 125 IBA-VIP was kept as well as 125 I-VIP under the condition of 37 degree C 60 min. Conclusions: The indirect

  11. Indirect Control for Demand Side Management – A Conceptual Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; You, Shi; Biegel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The concept of “indirect control” has become a relevant discussion term in relation to activation distributed and small-scale demand and generation units to provide resources for power system balancing. The term and its association with price signals has, however caused some confusion as to its...... correct definition, either as a control or a market concept. This paper aims to provide a conceptual introduction to "indirect control" for management of small and distributed demand side resources. A review of control concepts and an analysis of "indirectness" features are provided to create a framework...... for systematic classification of indirect control strategies. The concepts developed then enable a discussion of control performance and valuation of direct- and indirect control strategies....

  12. Smoking Cessation Is Associated With Lower Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine L; Bruno, Marianna; Emir, Birol; Li, Vicky W; Goren, Amir

    2018-06-01

    This study quantified differences in indirect costs due to decreased work productivity between current and former smokers. Former smokers were further categorized by number of years since quitting to assess corresponding differences. Data on employed individuals were obtained from the 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS; N = 75,000). Indirect costs were calculated for current smokers and former smokers from weekly wages based on age and sex. The annual total indirect costs for current smokers were $1327.53, $1560.18, and $1839.87 higher than for those who quit 0 to 4 years, 5 to 10 years, and more than or equal to 11 years prior, respectively. There were no significant differences in mean total indirect costs between the former smoker groups. Current smokers showed significantly higher total annual indirect costs compared with former smokers, independently of the number of years since quitting smoking.

  13. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  14. An indecent proposal: the dual functions of indirect speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Aleksandr; Thomas, Kyle A; Haque, Omar S; Young, Liane

    2015-01-01

    People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be "a way to take care of things without all the paperwork." Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical behavior, as well as increased moral permissibility and increased likelihood of unethical behavior. Importantly, moral permissibility was a stronger mediator of the effect of indirect speech on likelihood of action, for judgments of one's own versus others' unethical action. In sum, the motorist who bribes the police officer with winks and nudges may not only avoid public punishment but also maintain the sense that his actions are morally permissible. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Functional Domain Driven Design

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Guzmán, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Las tecnologías están en constante expansión y evolución, diseñando nuevas técnicas para cumplir con su fin. En el desarrollo de software, las herramientas y pautas para la elaboración de productos software constituyen una pieza en constante evolución, necesarias para la toma de decisiones sobre los proyectos a realizar. Uno de los arquetipos para el desarrollo de software es el denominado Domain Driven Design, donde es importante conocer ampliamente el negocio que se desea modelar en form...

  16. Constellations-driven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a science and technology studies and actor-network-theory inspired approach to understanding the development and ongoing re-didactication and re-design of a Danish developed presentation tool called the Theme Board (Tematavlen.dk). It is argued that this approach provides a par...... a particularly useful point of departure for engaging in researching innovation and didactic design of digital teaching and learning instruments such as the Theme Board that are programmed and serviced 'in the sky'. I call this approach: constellation-driven innovations....

  17. Information-Driven Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughter, Mark D.; Whitaker, J. Michael; Lockwood, Dunbar

    2010-01-01

    New uranium enrichment capacity is being built worldwide in response to perceived shortfalls in future supply. To meet increasing safeguards responsibilities with limited resources, the nonproliferation community is exploring next-generation concepts to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of safeguards, such as advanced technologies to enable unattended monitoring of nuclear material. These include attribute measurement technologies, data authentication tools, and transmission and security methods. However, there are several conceptual issues with how such data would be used to improve the ability of a safeguards inspectorate such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to reach better safeguards conclusions regarding the activities of a State. The IAEA is pursuing the implementation of information-driven safeguards, whereby all available sources of information are used to make the application of safeguards more effective and efficient. Data from continuous, unattended monitoring systems can be used to optimize on-site inspection scheduling and activities at declared facilities, resulting in fewer, better inspections. Such information-driven inspections are the logical evolution of inspection planning - making use of all available information to enhance scheduled and randomized inspections. Data collection and analysis approaches for unattended monitoring systems can be designed to protect sensitive information while enabling information-driven inspections. A number of such inspections within a predetermined range could reduce inspection frequency while providing an equal or greater level of deterrence against illicit activity, all while meeting operator and technology holder requirements and reducing inspector and operator burden. Three options for using unattended monitoring data to determine an information-driven inspection schedule are to (1) send all unattended monitoring data off-site, which will require advances in data analysis techniques to

  18. Electrostatically Driven Nanoballoon Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Hamid Reza; Yan, Aiming; Coh, Sinisa; Gracia-Espino, Eduardo; Dunn, Gabriel; Wågberg, Thomas; Louie, Steven G; Cohen, Marvin L; Zettl, Alex

    2016-11-09

    We demonstrate an inflatable nanoballoon actuator based on geometrical transitions between the inflated (cylindrical) and collapsed (flattened) forms of a carbon nanotube. In situ transmission electron microscopy experiments employing a nanoelectromechanical manipulator show that a collapsed carbon nanotube can be reinflated by electrically charging the nanotube, thus realizing an electrostatically driven nanoballoon actuator. We find that the tube actuator can be reliably cycled with only modest control voltages (few volts) with no apparent wear or fatigue. A complementary theoretical analysis identifies critical parameters for nanotube nanoballoon actuation.

  19. Ablation front rayleigh taylor dispersion curve in indirect drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budil, K.S.; Lasinski, B.; Edwards, M.J.; Wan, A.S.; Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Glendinning, S.G.; Suter, L.; Stry, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, which occurs when a lower-density fluid accelerates a higher-density layer, is common in nature. At an ablation front a sharp reduction in the growth rate of the instability at short wave-lengths can occur, in marked contrast to the classical case where growth rates are highest at the shortest wavelengths. Theoretical and numerical investigations of the ablative RT instability are numerous and differ considerably on the level of stabilization expected. We present here the results of a series of laser experiments designed to probe the roll-over and cutoff region of the ablation-front RT dispersion curve in indirect drive. Aluminum foils with imposed sinusoidal perturbations ranging in wavelength from 10 to 70 pm were ablatively accelerated with a radiation drive generated in a gold cylindrical hohlraum. A strong shock wave compresses the package followed by an ∼2 ns period of roughly constant acceleration and the experiment is diagnosed via face-on radiography. Perturbations with wavelengths (ge) 20 (micro)m experienced substantial growth during the acceleration phase while shorter wavelengths showed a sharp drop off in overall growth. These experimental results compared favorably to calculations with a 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics code, however, the growth is significantly affected by the rippled shock launched by the drive. We performed numerical simulations to elucidate the influence of the rippled shock wave on the eventual growth of the perturbations, allowing comparisons to the analytic model developed by Betti et al. This combination of experiments, simulations and analytic modeling illustrates the qualitative simplicity yet quantitative complexity of the compressible RT instability. We have measured the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) dispersion curve for a radiatively-driven sample in a series of experiments on the Nova laser facility. Planar aluminum foils were ablatively-accelerated and the subsequent perturbation growth was

  20. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  1. Plasma-driven liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, H.; Linhart, J.G.; Bortolotti, A.; Nardi, V.

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of thermal energy by laser or ion beams in an ablator is capable of producing a very large acceleration of the adjacent pusher - for power densities of 100 Terrawatts/cm 2 , ablator pressure in the range of 10 Mbar is attainable. In the case of a plasma drive such driving pressures and accelerations are not directly possible. When a snowplough (SP) is used to accelerate a thin liner, the driving pressure is that of the magnetic piston pushing the SP, i.e. at most 0.1 Mbar. However, the initial radius r 0 of the liner can be a few centimeters, instead of 1 (mm) as in the case in direct pellet implosions. In order to compete with the performance of the beam-driven liners, the plasma drive must demonstrate that a) thin liner retains a high density during the implosion (lasting a fraction of a μsec); b) radial compression ratio r 0 /r min of the order of 100 can be attained. It is also attractive to consider the staging of two or more liners in order to get sharpening and amplifications of the pressure and/or radiation pulse. If a) and b) are verified then the final pressures produced will be comparable with those of the beam-driven implosions. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Qiu Tian; Shen Xiao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. (paper)

  3. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  4. Indirect Taxes in Romania – an Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Penu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indirect taxes have a significant weight in the GDP. Statistical data reveals that the new states that joined the EU in its funding sources to the greatest extent through indirect taxes. They reveal, on the one hand, reducing the tax burden on the producer, and on the other hand, the difficulty faced by the country in direct tax collection, but also some problems of social nature. This article proposes an econometric analysis of the relationship between indirect taxes and household final consumption expenditure.

  5. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...... of heritable variation for bite mark traits in group-housed min. 3) Indirect genetic effects estimation needs to take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin for bite mark trait in group-housed min. 4) Genomic selection can be used to increase the response to selection for survival time in Brown...

  6. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  7. Employee-driven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the “grand structure” of the phenomenon in order to identify both the underlying processes and core drivers of employee-driven innovation (EDI). Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper. It particularly applies the insights...... of contemporary research on routine and organizational decision making to the specific case of EDI. Findings – The main result of the paper is that, from a theoretical point of view, it makes perfect sense to involve ordinary employees in innovation decisions. However, it is also outlined that naıve or ungoverned...... participation is counterproductive, and that it is quite difficult to realize the hidden potential in a supportive way. Research limitations/implications – The main implication is that basic mechanisms for employee participation also apply to innovation decisions, although often in a different way. However...

  8. Temperature-Driven Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohan, Richard J.; Vandegrift, Guy

    2003-02-01

    Warm air aloft is stable. This explains the lack of strong winds in a warm front and how nighttime radiative cooling can lead to motionless air that can trap smog. The stability of stratospheric air can be attributed to the fact that it is heated from above as ultraviolet radiation strikes the ozone layer. On the other hand, fluid heated from below is unstable and can lead to Bernard convection cells. This explains the generally turbulent nature of the troposphere, which receives a significant fraction of its heat directly from the Earth's warmer surface. The instability of cold fluid aloft explains the violent nature of a cold front, as well as the motion of Earth's magma, which is driven by radioactive heating deep within the Earth's mantle. This paper describes how both effects can be demonstrated using four standard beakers, ice, and a bit of food coloring.

  9. Emotion-driven level generation

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the relationship between emotions and level generation. Grounded in the experience-driven procedural content generation framework we focus on levels and introduce a taxonomy of approaches for emotion-driven level generation. We then review four characteristic level generators of our earlier work that exemplify each one of the approaches introduced. We conclude the chapter with our vision on the future of emotion-driven level generation.

  10. Effects-Driven IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design and organizatio......We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design...

  11. Synchronization enhancement of indirectly coupled oscillators via periodic modulation in an optomechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Fan, Chu-Hui; Zhang, Han-Xiao; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2017-11-20

    We study the synchronization behaviors of two indirectly coupled mechanical oscillators of different frequencies in a doublecavity optomechanical system. It is found that quantum synchronization is roughly vanishing though classical synchronization seems rather good when each cavity mode is driven by an external field in the absence of temporal modulations. By periodically modulating cavity detunings or driving amplitudes, however, it is possible to observe greatly enhanced quantum synchronization accompanied with nearly perfect classical synchronization. The level of quantum synchronization observed here is, in particular, much higher than that for two directly coupled mechanical oscillators. Note also that the modulation on cavity detunings is more appealing than that on driving amplitudes when the robustness of quantum synchronization is examined against the bath's mean temperature or the oscillators' frequency difference.

  12. Indirect Inference for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Moment Expansions

    KAUST Repository

    Ballesio, Marco; Tempone, Raul; Vilanova, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We provide an indirect inference method to estimate the parameters of timehomogeneous scalar diffusion and jump diffusion processes. We obtain a system of ODEs that approximate the time evolution of the first two moments of the process

  13. An Indirect Assessment of the War Against Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson Jr, C. M

    1992-01-01

    ...? General Schwartzkopf's statement of intent reveals that his strategy for the conduct of operations reflected an appreciation for the "indirect approach," of Sun Tzu and his erstwhile protege, B. H. Liddell-Hart...

  14. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  15. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRRE). The efforts in repositioning these banks through the current banking reforms (recapitalization and consolidation) the paper notes are a right step in the right direction. Keywords: Indirect monetary policy, Granger – causality, output growth

  16. Indirect inference with time series observed with error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    estimation. We propose to solve this inconsistency by jointly estimating the nuisance and the structural parameters. Under standard assumptions, this estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. A condition for the identification of ARMA plus noise is obtained. The proposed methodology is used......We analyze the properties of the indirect inference estimator when the observed series are contaminated by measurement error. We show that the indirect inference estimates are asymptotically biased when the nuisance parameters of the measurement error distribution are neglected in the indirect...... to estimate the parameters of continuous-time stochastic volatility models with auxiliary specifications based on realized volatility measures. Monte Carlo simulations shows the bias reduction of the indirect estimates obtained when the microstructure noise is explicitly modeled. Finally, an empirical...

  17. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  18. Inducible indirect defence of plants : from mechanisms to ecological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Poecke, van R.M.P.; Boer, de J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Inducible defences allow plants to be phenotypically plastic. Inducible indirect defence of plants by attracting carnivorous enemies of herbivorous arthropods can vary with plant species and genotype, with herbivore species or instar and potentially with other environmental conditions. So far,

  19. Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of direct and indirect property investment returns in Abuja. ... in property shares is more risky than commercial property due to the risk ... of the stock market, it was discovered that there is a strong positive relationship ...

  20. Indirect reciprocity and the evolution of "moral signals"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. Using the tools of evolutionary game theory, we present a model that incorporates primitive "moral signaling" into a simple setting of indirect reciprocity. This model reveals some potential difficulties for the evolution of "moral signals." We find that it is possible for "moral signals" to evolve alongside indirect reciprocity, but without some external pressure aiding the evolution of a signaling system, such a coevolution is unlikely.

  1. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun [Department of Building Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2010-12-15

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller

  2. Ancestry of indirect techniques for X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, L.

    1989-01-01

    Historical citations concerning the origins of coded-aperture imaging are corrected. Another scheme is presented for synthetic indirect imaging to overcome certain shortcomings of simple coded apertures. Pairs of Fresnel zone patterns are used to create moire patterns that can be Fourier transformed for image reconstruction. It is also conjectured that image reconstructions that are constrained to be nonnegative should overcome certain complaints concerning indirect imaging. 20 refs

  3. The indirect costs and benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect costs of GHG projects are very important in the evaluation of such projects. In many cases they are more important than the direct costs. This paper has shown what such costs consist of and how they may be estimated. As countries prepare their mitigation strategies, it is very important that they develop tools for the assessment of these indirect costs and use these tools in the appropriate manner. Hopefully, this paper will point them in the right direction. (au) 11 refs

  4. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wijantini, Wijantini

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative estimates of the indirect cost of financial distress and its determinants. In order to measure the cost, this study estimates the annualized changes in industry-adjusted operation profit and sales from a year before the onset of distress to the resolution year. Using those approaches, the median of indirect financial distress cost is estimated between three and 11 percent annually. To the extent that the direct cost of financial distress reduces reported opera...

  5. Light indirectly mediates bivalve habitat modification and impacts on seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castorani, Max C. N.; Glud, Ronnie; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Environmental context may influence the sign, strength, andmechanisms of species interactions but few studies have experimentally tested the potential for abiotic conditions to mediate interactions through multiple cooccurring stress pathways. Abiotic conditionsmay mediate species interactions...... by directly or indirectly influencing the effects of habitat-modifying organisms that are capable of simultaneously ameliorating and exacerbating multiple stressors. Itwas hypothesized that light availability changes seagrassmetabolismand thereby indirectly regulates bivalve habitat modification...

  6. Direct and indirect drivers of instream wood in the interior Pacific Northwest, USA: decoupling climate, vegetation, disturbance, and geomorphic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hough-Snee Nate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Instream wood is a driver of geomorphic change in low-order streams, frequently altering morphodynamic processes. Instream wood is a frequently measured component of streams, yet it is a complex metric, responding to ecological and geomorphic forcings at a variety of scales. Here we seek to disentangle the relative importance of physical and biological processes that drive wood growth and delivery to streams across broad spatial extents. In so doing, we ask two primary questions: (1 is riparian vegetation a composite variable that captures the indirect effects of climate and disturbance on instream wood dynamics? (2 What are the direct and indirect relationships between geomorphic setting, vegetation, climate, disturbance, and instream wood dynamics? We measured riparian vegetation composition and wood frequency and volume at 720 headwater reaches within the American interior Pacific Northwest. We used ordination to identify relationships between vegetation and environmental attributes, and subsequently built a structural equation model to identify how climate and disturbance directly affect vegetation composition and how vegetation and geomorphic setting directly affect instream wood volume and frequency. We found that large wood volume and frequency are directly driven by vegetation composition and positively correlated to wildfire, elevation, stream gradient, and channel bankfull width. Indicator species at reaches with high volumes of wood were generally long-lived, conifer trees that persist for extended durations once delivered to stream habitats. Wood dynamics were also indirectly mediated by factors that shape vegetation: wildfire, precipitation, elevation, and temperature. We conclude that wood volume and frequency are driven by multiple interrelated climatic, geomorphic, and ecological variables. Vegetation composition and geomorphic setting directly mediate indirect relationships between landscape environmental processes and instream

  7. Manifestation of Aerosol Indirect Effects in Arctic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The first aerosol indirect effect has traditionally been conceived as an enhancement of shortwave cloud reflectance in response to decreased effective droplet size at fixed liquid water path, as cloud nucleating aerosol becomes entrained in the cloud. The high Arctic, with its pervasive low-level stratiform cloud cover and frequent episodes of anthropogenic aerosol (Artic "haze"), has in recent years served as a natural laboratory for research on actual manifestations of aerosol indirect effects. This paper will review the surprising set of developments: (1) the detection of the indirect effect as a source of surface warming, rather than cooling, throughout early spring, (2) a transition to a cooling effect in late spring, corresponding to the beginning of the sea ice melt season, and (3) detection of an indirect effect during summer, outside of the "Arctic haze" season. This paper will also discuss measurements of spectral shortwave irradiance (350-2200 nm) made at Barrow, Alaska, during the U.S. Department of Energy's Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), which reveal complications in our conception of the indirect effect related to the ice phase in Arctic stratiform clouds.

  8. Heard it through the grapevine: indirect networks and employee creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Giles; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Zhou, Jing; Quintane, Eric; Zhu, Cherrie

    2015-03-01

    Social networks can be important sources of information and insights that may spark employee creativity. The cross-fertilization of ideas depends not just on access to information and insights through one's direct network-the people one actually interacts with--but at least as much on access to the indirect network one's direct ties connect one to (i.e., people one does not interact with directly, but with whom one's direct ties interact). We propose that the reach efficiency of this indirect network--its nonredundancy in terms of interconnections--is positively related to individual creativity. To help specify the boundaries of this positive influence of the indirect network, we also explore how many steps removed the indirect network still adds to creativity. In addition, we propose that the efficiency (nonredundancy) of one's direct network is important here, because more efficient direct networks give one access to indirect networks with greater reach efficiency. Our hypotheses were supported in a multilevel analysis of multisource survey data from 223 sales representatives nested within 11 divisions of a Chinese pharmaceutical company. This analysis also showed that the creative benefits of reach efficiency were evident for 3 and 4 degrees of separation but were greatest for indirect ties that depend only on one's direct ties. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Indirect methods for reference interval determination - review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D; Haeckel, Rainer; Loh, Tze Ping; Sikaris, Ken; Streichert, Thomas; Katayev, Alex; Barth, Julian H; Ozarda, Yesim

    2018-04-19

    Reference intervals are a vital part of the information supplied by clinical laboratories to support interpretation of numerical pathology results such as are produced in clinical chemistry and hematology laboratories. The traditional method for establishing reference intervals, known as the direct approach, is based on collecting samples from members of a preselected reference population, making the measurements and then determining the intervals. An alternative approach is to perform analysis of results generated as part of routine pathology testing and using appropriate statistical techniques to determine reference intervals. This is known as the indirect approach. This paper from a working group of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) aims to summarize current thinking on indirect approaches to reference intervals. The indirect approach has some major potential advantages compared with direct methods. The processes are faster, cheaper and do not involve patient inconvenience, discomfort or the risks associated with generating new patient health information. Indirect methods also use the same preanalytical and analytical techniques used for patient management and can provide very large numbers for assessment. Limitations to the indirect methods include possible effects of diseased subpopulations on the derived interval. The IFCC C-RIDL aims to encourage the use of indirect methods to establish and verify reference intervals, to promote publication of such intervals with clear explanation of the process used and also to support the development of improved statistical techniques for these studies.

  10. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Kato-Shimizu

    Full Text Available Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  11. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  12. Living up to expectations: Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for UK households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, Mona; Sorrell, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the combined direct and indirect rebound effects from various types of energy efficiency improvement by UK households. In contrast to most studies of this topic, we base our estimates on cross-price elasticities and therefore capture both the income and substitution effects of energy efficiency improvements. Our approach involves estimating a household demand model to obtain price and expenditure elasticities of different goods and services, utilising a multiregional input–output model to estimate the GHG emission intensities of those goods and services, combining the two to estimate direct and indirect rebound effects, and decomposing those effects to reveal the relative contribution of different mechanisms and commodities. We estimate that the total rebound effects are 41% for measures that improve the efficiency of domestic gas use, 48% for electricity use and 78% for vehicle fuel use. The primary source of this rebound is increased consumption of the cheaper energy service (i.e. direct rebound) and this is primarily driven by substitution effects. Our results suggest that the neglect of substitution effects may have led prior research to underestimate the total rebound effect. However, we provide a number of caveats to this conclusion, as well as indicating priorities for future research.

  13. Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Marit L; Roche, Leslie M; Young, Truman P

    2013-10-01

    Indirect interactions driven by livestock and wild herbivores are increasingly recognized as important aspects of community dynamics in savannas and rangelands. Large ungulate herbivores can both directly and indirectly impact the reproductive structures of plants, which in turn can affect the pollinators of those plants. We examined how wild herbivores and cattle each indirectly affect the abundance of a common pollinator butterfly taxon, Colotis spp., at a set of long-term, large herbivore exclosure plots in a semiarid savanna in central Kenya. We also examined effects of herbivore exclusion on the main food plant of Colotis spp., which was also the most common flowering species in our plots: the shrub Cadaba farinosa. The study was conducted in four types of experimental plots: cattle-only, wildlife-only, cattle and wildlife (all large herbivores), and no large herbivores. Across all plots, Colotis spp. abundances were positively correlated with both Cadaba flower numbers (adult food resources) and total Cadaba canopy area (larval food resources). Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that floral resources drove the abundance of Colotis butterflies. Excluding browsing wildlife increased the abundances of both Cadaba flowers and Colotis butterflies. However, flower numbers and Colotis spp. abundances were greater in plots with cattle herbivory than in plots that excluded all large herbivores. Our results suggest that wild browsing herbivores can suppress pollinator species whereas well-managed cattle use may benefit important pollinators and the plants that depend on them. This study documents a novel set of ecological interactions that demonstrate how both conservation and livelihood goals can be met in a working landscape with abundant wildlife and livestock.

  14. Polyimide capsules may hold high pressure DT fuel without cryogenic support for the National Ignition Facility indirect-drive targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.J.; Letts, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    New target designs for the Omega upgrade laser and ignition targets in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require thick (80 - 100 microm) cryogenic fuel layers. The Omega upgrade target will require cryogenic handling after initial fill because of the high fill pressures and the thin capsule walls. For the NIF indirectly driven targets, a larger capsule size and new materials offer hope that they can be built, filled and stored in a manner similar to the targets used in the Nova facility without requiring cryogenic handling

  15. Current driven wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournes, C.; Aucouturier, J.; Arnaud, B.; Brasile, J. P.; Convert, G.; Simon, M.

    1992-07-01

    A current-driven wiggler is the cornerstone of an innovative, compact, high-efficiency, transportable tunable free-electron laser (FEL), the feasibility of which is currently being evaluated by Thomson-CSF. The salient advantages are: compactness of the FEL, along with the possibility to accelerate the beam through several successive passes through the accelerating section (the number of passes being defined by the final wavelength of the radiation; i.e. visible, MWIR, LWIR); the wiggler can be turned off and be transparent to the beam until the last pass. Wiggler periodicities as small as 5 mm can be achieved, hence contributing to FEL compactness. To achieve overall efficiencies in the range of 10% at visible wavelengths, not only the wiggler periodicity must be variable, but the strength of the magnetic field of each period can be adjusted separately and fine-tuned versus time during the macropulse, so as to take into account the growing contribution of the wave energy in the cavity to the total ponderomotive force. The salient theoretical point of this design is the optimization of the parameters defining each period of the wiggler for each micropacket of the macropulse. The salient technology point is the mechanical and thermal design of the wiggler which allows the required high currents to achieve magnetic fields up to 2T.

  16. Customer-driven competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Ontario Hydro`s customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro`s Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro`s franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro`s system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation.

  17. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisation focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means.In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as pragmatic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  18. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisa­tion focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means. In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as prag­matic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  19. Customer-driven competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.

    1996-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro's Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro's franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro's system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation

  20. Direct and indirect effects of body weight on adult wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M

    2011-12-01

    Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Selection for components of complex characteristics - indirect selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, H.

    1984-01-01

    A hierarchy of complexity exists in plant characteristics. The efficiency of indirect selection for a complex characteristic by a sub-trait depends on the heritability of the complex characteristic (hsub(c)), the heritability of the sub-trait (hsub(s)), and the genotypic correlation between sub-trait and complex characteristic (rsub(s.c)). In 1961 hsub(s)Xrsub(s.c)>hsub(c) was postulated, when indirect selection becomes more efficient than direct selection. Numerical examples for this relationship are given and a table for indirect selection for yield in wheat is elaborated. Efficiency ranking of sub-traits in indirect selection may change with climate, conditions of cultivation, the level of other sub-traits, the level of the complex characteristic already reached by breeding, and the breeding material. An example shows that regression analysis for different sub-traits on the same complex characteristic, and an estimation of the differences of the within - and the between - variety slopes, may help to select the more efficient sub-trait. In another example, where simultaneous selection was made for two polygenic characteristics, one directly and the other indirectly by two sub-traits, less than half the F 5 -lines had to be continued, when using the more efficient sub-trait. (author)

  2. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    Full Text Available The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within.

  3. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  4. Indirect reciprocity in three types of social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-08-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Previous studies explored indirect reciprocity in the so-called donation game, a special class of Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with unilateral decision making. A more general class of social dilemmas includes Snowdrift (SG), Stag Hunt (SH), and PD games, where two players perform actions simultaneously. In these simultaneous-move games, moral assessments need to be more complex; for example, how should we evaluate defection against an ill-reputed, but now cooperative, player? We examined indirect reciprocity in the three social dilemmas and identified twelve successful social norms for moral assessments. These successful norms have different principles in different dilemmas for suppressing cheaters. To suppress defectors, any defection against good players is prohibited in SG and PD, whereas defection against good players may be allowed in SH. To suppress unconditional cooperators, who help anyone and thereby indirectly contribute to jeopardizing indirect reciprocity, we found two mechanisms: indiscrimination between actions toward bad players (feasible in SG and PD) or punishment for cooperation with bad players (effective in any social dilemma). Moreover, we discovered that social norms that unfairly favor reciprocators enhance robustness of cooperation in SH, whereby reciprocators never lose their good reputation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence).

  6. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AW-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, K.E.

    1997-05-29

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AW-102. This report supports the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-05.

  7. Beta-delayed gamma and neutron emission near the double shell closure at 78Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Mazzocchi, C.; Grzywacz, R.; Batchelder, J. C.; Bingham, C.R.; Fong, D.; Hamilton, J.H.; Hwang, J.K.; Karny, M.; Krolas, W.; Liddick, S. N.; Morton, A. C.; Mantica, P. F.; Mueller, W. F.; Steiner, M.; Stolz, A.; Winger, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University to investigate β decay of very neutron-rich cobalt isotopes. Beta-delayed neutron emission from 71-74 Co has been observed for the first time. Preliminary results are reported

  8. Work Plan for Updating Double Shell Tank (DST) Sub-System Specifications (TBR 120.020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRENARD, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    The DST System stores waste from the processing of nuclear material at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The program to dispose of this waste has been divided into several phases with Phase 1 being the demonstration of the waste disposal technology by a private contractor. Subsystem specifications are being prepared providing requirements for the subsystems that are necessary for the continued safe storage of waste in the DST System and the removal of selected waste for processing by the privatized facility during Phase 1. This document provides the detailed plans for updating subsystem specifications developed during EY99

  9. Technical Information to Support Double Shell Tank (DST) Emergency Annulus Pumping [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REBERGER, D.W.

    2000-09-14

    This document provides the design calculations for the DST Annulus Emergency Pumping Project. This document also contains essential information relative to DST annulus emergency pumping that may not be found in other documents. This information consists of the following: Index drawing for annulus pumping; References to the Acceptance Test Report, DST Emergency Pumping Guide, Time Deployment study, etc.; Statements of work; and Reference CEIS and RMIS numbers. A Vendor Information document, VI-50121, is not included in this document, but a copy can be obtained by contacting Document Control Services. This document contains various information regarding the Hydrostar pumps, such as the air motor, cylinder size, pump installation and operation manual. It also contains information regarding the Flygt BS2060 submersible pump, such as parts list, pump handling, preventative maintenance, overhaul and repair. In addition, this document also has information on 3-way PM ball valves, electrical skid components and the alternate Gurman-Rupp stainless steel submersible pump.

  10. River Protection Double-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Authorization Basis Amendment Task Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARRIS, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and Retrieval Engineering. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Delivery Program, Project W-211, Project W-521, and Project W-522

  11. Hanford Double-Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washenfelder, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation outline is: Briefly review leak integrity status of tank AY-102 and current leak behavior; Summarize recent initiatives to understand leak mechanism and to verify integrity of remaining waste confinement structures; describe planned waste recovery activities; and, introduce other papers on tank AY-102 topics.

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Of Scaled Hanford Double Shell Tank Mixing - CFD Modeling Sensitivity Study Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

  13. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-SY-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-SY-103. This report supports the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09

  14. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Ventilation System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the primary ventilation systems of the AN, AP, AW, and AY/AZ tank farms. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications. Vapor samples will be obtained from tank farm ventilation systems, downstream from the tanks and upstream of any filtration. Samples taken in support of the DQO will consist of SUMMA(trademark) canisters, triple sorbent traps (TSTs), sorbent tube trains (STTs), polyurethane foam (PUF) samples. Particulate filter samples and tritium traps will be taken for radiation screening to allow the release of the samples for analysis. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from the vapor samples

  15. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AP-105. This report supports the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M 44-05

  16. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  17. Results of gas monitoring of double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    Tanks 103-SY; 101-AW; 103-, 104-, and 105-AN are on the Flammable Gas Watch List. Recently, standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) cabinets have been installed in the vent header of each of these tanks. Grab samples have been taken once per week, and a gas chromatograph was installed on tank 104-AN as a field test. The data that have been collected since gas monitoring began on these tanks are summarized in this document

  18. Performance assessment of grouted double-shell tank waste disposal at Hanford. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W., Kincaid, C.T.; Whyatt, G.A.; Rhoads, K.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Freshley, M.D.; Blanchard, K.A.; Shade, J.W.; Piepho, M.G.; Voogd, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    This document assesses the performance of the Grout Disposal Facility after closure. The facility and disposal environment are modeled to predict the long-term impacts of the disposal action. The document concludes that the disposal system provides reasonable assurance that doses to the public will remain within the performance objectives. This document is required for DOC Order 5820.2A

  19. Electroplating Gold-Silver Alloys for Spherical Capsules for NIF Double-Shell Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandarkar, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Horwood, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bunn, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stadermann, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-17

    For Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions, a design based on gradients of high and mid Z materials could potentially be more robust than single element capsule systems. To that end, gold and silver alloys were electroplated on 2.0 mm diameter surrogate brass spheres using a new flow–based pulsed plating method specifically designed to minimize surface roughness without reducing plating rates. The coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and white light interferometry for surface topography, and by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to determine near-surface gold and silver compositions. The alloy range attainable was 15 to 85 weight percent gold using 1:1 and 1:3 silver to gold ratio plating baths at applied potentials of -0.7 volts to -1.8 volts. This range was bounded by the open circuit potential of the system and hydrogen evolution, and in theory could be extended by using ionic liquids or aprotic solutions. Preliminary gradient trials proved constant composition alloy data could be translated to smooth gradient plating, albeit at higher gold compositions.

  20. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AW-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AW-102. This report supports the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-05

  1. Multi-functional carbon microspheres with double shell layers for flame retardant poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baoxia; Niu, Mei; Yang, Yongzhen; Bai, Jie; Song, Yinghao; Peng, Yun; Liu, Xuguang

    2018-03-01

    Carbon microspheres (CMSs) as a core material had been coated by two capsule walls: an inorganic material of magnesium hydroxide (MH) as inner shell layer and an organic material of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as outer shell layer. MH coating CMSs (MCMSs) were fabricated by liquid phase deposition method, then grafted 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to obtain the Si-MCMSs. Microencapsulated Si-MCMSs (PMCMSs) was prepared by in situ polymerization method. Morphology structure, dispersion, flame retardant and other properties of PMCMSs have been investigated. A series of PET blends were prepared by melt compounding. The results showed that MH and PET as two layers were coated on CMSs surface with the optimal thickness of about 70 nm. The PMCMSs owned better dispersion in PET matrix. Compared with MCMSs/PET composites, the mechanical property of PMCMSs/PET composites had significantly increased because of the strong interface binding force between PMCMSs and PET matrix. Moreover, PMCMSs was proved to be an effective flame retardant. For PMCMSs/PET with 2 wt% PMCMSs, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value increased from 21.0% (pristine PET) to 27.2%, and the peak heat release rate (pk-HRR) decreased from 513.22 kW/m2 to 352.14 kW/m2. The decreased smoke production rate (SPR) and total smoke production (TSP) values demonstrated PMCMSs suppressed the smoke production. The increased Fire performance index (FPI) value illustrated PMCMSs significantly reduced the fire risk of PET. Overall, the two capsular walls endowed the PMCMSs/PET composites with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties.

  2. In situ rheology and gas volume in Hanford double-shell waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Brewster, M.E.; Chen, G.; Reid, H.C.; Shepard, C.L.; Terrones, G.; Mendoza, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a detailed characterization of gas retention and release in 6 Hanford DS waste tanks. The results came from the ball rheometer and void fraction instrument in (flammable gas watch list) tanks SY-101, SY-103, AW-101, AN-103, AN-104, and AN-105 are presented. Instrument operation and derivation of data reduction methods are presented. Gas retention and release information is summarized for each tank and includes tank fill history and instrumentation, waste configuration, gas release, void fraction distribution, gas volumes, rheology, and photographs of the waste column from extruded core samples. Potential peak burn pressure is computed as a function of gas release fraction to portray the 'hazard signature' of each tank. It is shown that two tanks remain well below the maximum allowable pressure, even if the entire gas content were released and ignited, and that none of the others present a hazard with their present gas release behavior

  3. Double-shell target designs for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory eight-beam laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindel, J.M.; Stroscio, M.A.

    1978-03-01

    We investigate two double-pusher laser fusion targets, one that incorporates an outer exploding pusher shell and another that uses velocity multiplication. Specific designs are presented for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Eight-Beam Laser System

  4. FG Sagittae, a test of the theory of evolution of double shell source stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadeyev, Yu.A.

    1984-01-01

    FG Sge is a unique stellar object possessing a number of unusual properties which are as follows: (1) FG Sge is a core of a planetary nebula, (2) at least since 1894 this star has crossed the HR diagram from the left to the right, (3) the atmosphere of FG Sge was enriched in s-elements, (4) FG Sge is a pulsating variable the period of which progressively increases from 15 days in 1962 to 110 days in 1980. The author estimates the distance and age of FG Sge from the hypothesis that it moves in the HR diagram along the horizontal loop due to a helium shell flash in its interior. (Auth.)

  5. Tank Characterization Report for Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  6. DOUBLE-SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-01-01

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed

  7. Hollow Pd/MOF Nanosphere with Double Shells as Multifunctional Catalyst for Hydrogenation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mingming; Zhang, Xinlu; Li, Meiyan; Chen, Bo; Yin, Jie; Jin, Haichao; Lin, Lin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Ning

    2017-10-01

    A new type of hollow nanostructure featured double metal-organic frameworks shells with metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is designed and fabricated by the methods of ship in a bottle and bottle around the ship. The nanostructure material, hereinafter denoted as Void@HKUST-1/Pd@ZIF-8, is confirmed by the analyses of photograph, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma, and N 2 sorption. It possesses various multifunctionally structural characteristics such as hollow cavity which can improve mass transfer, the adjacent of the inner HKUST-1 shell to the void which enables the matrix of the shell to host and well disperse MNPs, and an outer ZIF-8 shell which acts as protective layer against the leaching of MNPs and a sieve to guarantee molecular-size selectivity. This makes the material eligible candidates for the heterogeneous catalyst. As a proof of concept, the liquid-phase hydrogenation of olefins with different molecular sizes as a model reaction is employed. It demonstrates the efficient catalytic activity and size-selectivity of Void@HKUST-1/Pd@ZIF-8. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hanford Double-Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, Dennis J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    The presentation outline is: Briefly review leak integrity status of tank AY-102 and current leak behavior; Summarize recent initiatives to understand leak mechanism and to verify integrity of remaining waste confinement structures; describe planned waste recovery activities; and, introduce other papers on tank AY-102 topics.

  9. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed

  10. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-SY-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in tank 241-SY-103. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44 09

  11. STRONTIUM & TRANSURANIC (TRU) SEPARATION PROCESS IN THE DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON; SWANSON; BOECHLER

    2005-06-10

    The supernatants stored in tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102) and 241-AN-107 (AN-107) contain soluble strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and transuranic (TRU) elements that require removal prior to vitrification to comply with the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) specification and with the 1997 agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on incidental waste. A precipitation process has been developed and tested with tank waste samples and simulants using strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}) to separate {sup 90}Sr and TRU from these wastes. This report evaluates removing Sr/TRU from AN-102 and AN-107 supernates in the DST system before delivery to the WTP. The in-tank precipitation is a direct alternative to the baseline WTP process, using the same chemical separations. Implementing the Sr/TRU separation in the DST system beginning in 2012 provides {approx}6 month schedule advantage to the overall mission, without impacting the mission end date or planned SST retrievals.

  12. Direct and Indirect Effects of PM on the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Timothy D.; Joseph, Allan M.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2011-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. PMID:22119171

  13. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  14. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijantini Wijantini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents quantitative estimates of the indirect cost of financial distress and its determinants. In order to measure the cost, this study estimates the annualized changes in industry-adjusted operation profit and sales from a year before the onset of distress to the resolution year. Using those approaches, the median of indirect financial distress cost is estimated between three and 11 percent annually. To the extent that the direct cost of financial distress reduces reported operating income, the estimated costs are overstated. The simple regressions analysis suggest that the indirect cost of financial distress significantly increases with size, leverage, number of creditors, and poor industry performance, but is not related to degree of bank loan reliance. The findings provide a weak support for the financial distress theory which suggests that conflicts of interest render the costs of financial distress.

  15. Indirect control of flexible demand for power system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    This thesis addresses the topic of control of flexible demand to provide support to the operation of the electric power system. We focus on the indirect control approach, a framework that enables demand response by means of a consumption incentive signal. Initially, the concept of flexibility...... a shift in the consumption according to an indirect control signal. We present from simple control algorithms with a few requirements up to model predictive control strategies. The performance of the indirect control algorithms are compared by means of hardware-in-the-loop simulations using Power...... and storage in the operation of the future power system, we develop a model predictive control strategy for a smart building with the objective of supplying iii space heating and providing regulating power to the grid according to a dynamic electricity price. We named this application energy replacement...

  16. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Fatih; Secilmis, Asli; Simsek, Irfan; Ozsevik, Semih

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (Pcomposite material and monolithic zirconia.

  17. Stability Concerns for Indirect Consumer Control in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Andersen, Palle; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    by an external third party, and indirect consumer control through incentives and price signals. In this work we present a simple formulation of indirect control, where the behavior of each consumer, is governed by local optimization of energy consumption. The local optimization accounts for both cost of energy...... and distribution losses, as well as any discomfort incurred by consumers from any shift in energy consumption. Our work will illustrate that in the simplest formulation of indirect control, the stability is greatly affected of both the behavior of consumers, and the number of consumers to include. We will show how......Demand side management will be an important tool for maintaining a balanced electrical grid in the future, when the penetration of volatile resources, such as wind and solar energy increases. Recent research focuses on two different management approaches, namely direct consumer control...

  18. Estimating direct and indirect costs of premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Jeff; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Dean, Bonnie; Wong, John; Wade, Sally

    2005-01-01

    To quantify the economic impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) on the employer. Data were collected from 374 women aged 18-45 with regular menses. Direct costs were quantified using administrative claims of these patients and the Medicare Fee Schedule. Indirect costs were quantified by both self-reported days of work missed and lost productivity at work. Regression analyses were used to develop a model to project PMS-related direct and indirect costs. A total of 29.6% (n = 111) of the participants were diagnosed with PMS. A PMS diagnosis was associated with an average annual increase of $59 in direct costs (P increase in direct medical costs and a large increase in indirect costs.

  19. Direct and indirect pathways for choosing objects and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Kim, Hyoung F; Amita, Hidetoshi; Yasuda, Masaharu; Isoda, Masaki; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2018-02-23

    A prominent target of the basal ganglia is the superior colliculus (SC) which controls gaze orientation (saccadic eye movement in primates) to an important object. This 'object choice' is crucial for choosing an action on the object. SC is innervated by the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) which is controlled mainly by the caudate nucleus (CD). This CD-SNr-SC circuit is sensitive to the values of individual objects and facilitates saccades to good objects. The object values are processed differently in two parallel circuits: flexibly by the caudate head (CDh) and stably by the caudate tail (CDt). To choose good objects, we need to reject bad objects. In fact, these contrasting functions are accomplished by the circuit originating from CDt: The direct pathway focuses on good objects and facilitates saccades to them; the indirect pathway focuses on bad objects and suppresses saccades to them. Inactivation of CDt deteriorated the object choice, because saccades to bad objects were no longer suppressed. This suggests that the indirect pathway is important for object choice. However, the direct and indirect pathways for 'object choice', which aim at the same action (i.e., saccade), may not work for 'action choice'. One possibility is that circuits controlling different actions are connected through the indirect pathway. Additional connections of the indirect pathway with brain areas outside the basal ganglia may also provide a wider range of behavioral choice. In conclusion, basal ganglia circuits are composed of the basic direct/indirect pathways and additional connections and thus have acquired multiple functions. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. INDIRECT TAXATION TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS CRISTIAN MILOŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to outline the recent dynamics of the indirect taxation in the European Union member states, with a special focus on the Romanian case. We could notice that indirect taxation continues to play an important role for all the member states, in their attempt to recover from the global economic crisis. Morover, we have presented some of the recent changes in the legislative frameworks, which happened with a rather rapid pace, and contributed to a rather challenging business climate.

  1. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  2. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    welfare chauvinism occurs as a result of legislative changes that explicitly exclude recipients from social protection or reduce the level thereof on the basis of ethnicity. Indirect welfare chauvinism is the result of policy measures that apply to both natives and immigrants, but which deliberately...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  3. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  4. Direct and indirect two-photon processes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1986-07-01

    The expressions describing direct and indirect two-photon absorption in crystals are given. They are valid both near and far from the energy gap. A perturbative approach through two different band models is adopted. The effects of the non-parabolicity and the degeneracy of the energy bands are considered. The numerical results are compared with the other theories and with a recent experimental data in Zn and AgCl. It is shown that the dominant transition mechanisms are of the allowed-allowed type near and far from the gap for both direct and indirect processes. (author)

  5. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  6. Indirect search for neutralino dark matter with high energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, V.; Halzen, Francis; Hooper, Dan; Kao, Chung

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the prospects of indirect searches for supersymmetric neutralino dark matter. Relic neutralinos gravitationally accumulate in the Sun and their annihilations produce high energy neutrinos. Muon neutrinos of this origin can be seen in large detectors such as AMANDA, IceCube, and ANTARES. We evaluate the relic density and the detection rate in several models--the minimal supersymmetric model, minimal supergravity, and supergravity with nonuniversal Higgs boson masses at the grand unification scale. We make realistic estimates for the indirect detection rates including effects of the muon detection threshold, quark hadronization, and solar absorption. We find good prospects for detection of neutralinos with mass above 200 GeV

  7. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  8. Testing indirect effect of consumer attitudes toward a product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrubá, Renata; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    a questionnaire in 2010-2011. The model is estimated using probit analysis to predict relationship between producer and consumer in decision-making when buying a new type of cheese and to examine consumer attitudes toward food origins and nutrient food security. It can be concluded that the indirect effect (e...... and on the indirect and direct effects of the perception of information through information behavior and the use of the model ordered. It is proposed that consumer levels of product familiarity of attributes affects behavior. Consumer attitudes towards agri-food products and behaviour were analyzed through...

  9. Economics-driven software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Mistrik, Ivan; Kazman, Rick; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Economics-driven Software Architecture presents a guide for engineers and architects who need to understand the economic impact of architecture design decisions: the long term and strategic viability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of applications and systems. Economics-driven software development can increase quality, productivity, and profitability, but comprehensive knowledge is needed to understand the architectural challenges involved in dealing with the development of large, architecturally challenging systems in an economic way. This book covers how to apply economic consider

  10. BRAHMMA - accelerator driven subcritical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Tushar; Shukla, Shefali; Shukla, M.; Ray, N.K.; Kashyap, Y.S.; Patel, T.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Subcritical systems are being studied worldwide for their potential in burning minor actinides and reducing long term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuels. In order to pursue the physics studies of Accelerator Driven Subcritical systems, a thermal subcritical assembly BRAHMMA (BeOReflectedAndHDPeModeratedMultiplying Assembly) has been developed at Purnima Labs, BARC. The facility consists of two major components: Subcritical core and Accelerator (DT/ DD Purnima Neutron Generator)

  11. Measurements of an ablator-gas atomic mix in indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyuk, V A; Tipton, R E; Pino, J E; Casey, D T; Grim, G P; Remington, B A; Rowley, D P; Weber, S V; Barrios, M; Benedetti, L R; Bleuel, D L; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J A; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Edgell, D H; Edwards, M J; Frenje, J A; Gatu-Johnson, M; Glebov, V Y; Glenn, S; Haan, S W; Hamza, A; Hatarik, R; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Khan, S; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J; Knauer, J; Landen, O L; Ma, T; McNaney, J M; Mintz, M; Moore, A; Nikroo, A; Pak, A; Parham, T; Petrasso, R; Sayre, D B; Schneider, M B; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Widmann, K; Wilson, D C; Yeamans, C B

    2014-01-17

    We present the first results from an experimental campaign to measure the atomic ablator-gas mix in the deceleration phase of gas-filled capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Plastic capsules containing CD layers were filled with tritium gas; as the reactants are initially separated, DT fusion yield provides a direct measure of the atomic mix of ablator into the hot spot gas. Capsules were imploded with x rays generated in hohlraums with peak radiation temperatures of ∼294  eV. While the TT fusion reaction probes conditions in the central part (core) of the implosion hot spot, the DT reaction probes a mixed region on the outer part of the hot spot near the ablator-hot-spot interface. Experimental data were used to develop and validate the atomic-mix model used in two-dimensional simulations.

  12. Posterior indirect adhesive 
restorations: updated indications 
and the Morphology Driven 
Preparation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Marco

    The aim of this article is to identify the indications for adhesively cemented restorations and to provide a correct step-by-step protocol for clinicians. New cavity preparation principles are based on morphological considerations in terms of geometry (maximum profile line and inclination of cusp lines), and structure (dentin concavity and enamel convexity). In this article, we discuss previous preparation concepts that were not designed purely for adhesive restorations and were therefore not conservative enough or suitable for adhesive procedures. The novel cavity shape consists of continuous inclined plane cavity margins (hollow chamfer or concave bevel) on axial walls, whenever they are coronal to the equatorial tooth line. A 1.2 mm-thick butt-joint preparation is performed in the interproximal box and on the axial walls when the margins are apical to the equatorial line. The occlusal surface is anatomically prepared, free of slots and angles. The author's suggestion is to avoid shoulder finish line preparation around cusps, occlusal slots, and pins, as they are less conservative, incompatible with adhesive procedures, and involve unnecessary dentin exposure. The clinical advantages of this new "anatomic" preparation design are 1) improving adhesion quality (optimizing the cutting of enamel prisms, and increasing the available enamel surface); 2) minimizing dentin exposure; 3) maximizing hard tissue preservation (the cavity being designed for cementation with reinforced composite resins, improvement of flow, and removal of excess material); 4) optimization of esthetic integration due to the inclined plane design, which permits a better blending at the transition area between tooth and restoration. These preparation principles may be effectively used for all adhesively cemented restorations, both according to traditional concepts (inlay, onlay, overlay) and new ones (additional overlay, occlusal-veneer, overlay-veneer, long-wrap overlay, adhesive crown). Thus, a balance between restoration and prosthodontics is created, which is characterized by a more conservative approach.

  13. Development of new platforms for hydrodynamic instability and asymmetry measurements in deceleration phase of indirectly-driven implosions on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickworth, Louisa

    2017-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities and asymmetries are a major obstacle in the quest to achieve ignition as they cause pre-existing capsule perturbations to grow and ultimately quench the fusion burn in experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This talk will review recent developments of the experimental platforms and techniques to measure high-mode instabilities and low-mode asymmetries in the deceleration phase of implosions. These new platforms provide a natural link between the acceleration-phase experiments and neutron performance of layered deuterium-tritium implosions. In one innovative technique, self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to ``self-backlight'' the shell in-flight around peak compression. Experiments with pre-imposed 2-D perturbations measured instability growth factors, while experiments with 3-D, ``native-roughness'' perturbations measured shell integrity in the deceleration phase of implosions. In a complimentary technique, the inner surface of the shell, along with its low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations were visualized in implosions using x-ray emission of a high-Z dopant added to the inner surface of the capsule. These new measurements were instrumental in revealing unexpected surprises and providing improved understanding of the role of instabilities and asymmetries on implosion performance. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Laser driven inertial fusion: the physical basis of current and recently proposed ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atzeni, S

    2009-01-01

    A brief overview of the inertial fusion principles and schemes is presented. The bases for the laser driven ignition experiments programmed for the near future at the National Ignition Facility are outlined. These experiments adopt indirect-drive and aim at central ignition. The principles of alternate approaches, based on direct-drive and different routes to ignition (fast ignition and shock ignition) are also discussed. Gain curves are compared and discussed.

  15. The Role of Emotion-Driven Impulse Control Difficulties in the Relation Between Social Anxiety and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura J; Tull, Matthew T; Lee, Aaron A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Gratz, Kim L

    2017-06-01

    To enhance our understanding of the factors that may account for increased aggression in socially anxious individuals, this study examined associations among emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, social anxiety, and dimensions of aggression (i.e., hostility, anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression). Individuals (N = 107; 73.8% male; M age = 40.8 years) receiving residential substance abuse treatment participated in this cross-sectional study. Social anxiety symptoms were significantly positively correlated with emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, anger, and hostility, but not verbal or physical aggression. Separate models for each aggression facet were examined to test the direct and indirect paths. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated a significant indirect path from social anxiety symptoms to each facet of aggression through emotion-driven impulse control difficulties (ps aggression among socially anxious individuals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fistule carotido-caverneuse indirecte post traumatique: diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indirect carotido-cavernous fistula is an abnormal communication between multiple arterioles coming from dural or meningeal branches of the external carotid artery and/or of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Its definitive diagnosis relies on carotid angiography showing the fistula. This imaging ...

  17. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instructional Strategies on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... Counseling, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Phone: +234(0) ... Mathematics using Direct Instructional strategy, while Group B students were taught using ... strategy; significant difference existed between direct and indirect instruction ..... is to ensure individual student's mastery of the subject matter.

  18. Determination of cyanide by a highly sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M; Maspoch, S

    1984-01-01

    Complexation of Pd(2+) with cyanide inhibits the extraction of the palladium complex of 5-phenylazo-8-aminoquinoline. This effect is used for the indirect spectrophotometric determination of cyanide at the mug level. Cyanide in industrial waste water and in sea-water is determined after distillation as HCN from the sample and collection in sodium hydroxide solution.

  19. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Carolina Baptista; Pagani, Clóvis; Bottino, Marco Cícero

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10) as foll...... esthetics and adequate mechanical properties may be considered as substitutes of natural teeth....

  20. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions.

  1. Pulsewidth Modulation of Neutral-Point-Clamped Indirect Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Poh Chiang, Loh; Gao, Feng

    2008-01-01

    An indirect matrix converter is an alternative "all-semiconductor" energy processor proposed recently for converting an ac source with fixed magnitude and frequency to a variable voltage and frequency supply that can meet the requirements of a particular industry application. In principle...

  2. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Prieto, S; Harrison, S B; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Silent, indirect strategic processes in small and medium sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    Based on empirical data we in this paper explore day-to-day strategising with an emphasis on phronesis. This way we shed some light on the nearly silent, quiet, indirect strategic change processes as they are practiced and reflected upon by leaders in small companies in their daily practice...

  4. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions

  5. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Strong impacts on aerosol indirect effects from historical oxidant changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsahl Karset, Inger Helene; Koren Berntsen, Terje; Storelvmo, Trude; Alterskjær, Kari; Grini, Alf; Olivié, Dirk; Kirkevåg, Alf; Seland, Øyvind; Iversen, Trond; Schulz, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Uncertainties in effective radiative forcings through aerosol-cloud interactions (ERFaci, also called aerosol indirect effects) contribute strongly to the uncertainty in the total preindustrial-to-present-day anthropogenic forcing. Some forcing estimates of the total aerosol indirect effect are so negative that they even offset the greenhouse gas forcing. This study highlights the role of oxidants in modeling of preindustrial-to-present-day aerosol indirect effects. We argue that the aerosol precursor gases should be exposed to oxidants of its era to get a more correct representation of secondary aerosol formation. Our model simulations show that the total aerosol indirect effect changes from -1.32 to -1.07 W m-2 when the precursor gases in the preindustrial simulation are exposed to preindustrial instead of present-day oxidants. This happens because of a brightening of the clouds in the preindustrial simulation, mainly due to large changes in the nitrate radical (NO3). The weaker oxidative power of the preindustrial atmosphere extends the lifetime of the precursor gases, enabling them to be transported higher up in the atmosphere and towards more remote areas where the susceptibility of the cloud albedo to aerosol changes is high. The oxidation changes also shift the importance of different chemical reactions and produce more condensate, thus increasing the size of the aerosols and making it easier for them to activate as cloud condensation nuclei.

  7. Strong impacts on aerosol indirect effects from historical oxidant changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. H. Karset

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties in effective radiative forcings through aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFaci, also called aerosol indirect effects contribute strongly to the uncertainty in the total preindustrial-to-present-day anthropogenic forcing. Some forcing estimates of the total aerosol indirect effect are so negative that they even offset the greenhouse gas forcing. This study highlights the role of oxidants in modeling of preindustrial-to-present-day aerosol indirect effects. We argue that the aerosol precursor gases should be exposed to oxidants of its era to get a more correct representation of secondary aerosol formation. Our model simulations show that the total aerosol indirect effect changes from −1.32 to −1.07 W m−2 when the precursor gases in the preindustrial simulation are exposed to preindustrial instead of present-day oxidants. This happens because of a brightening of the clouds in the preindustrial simulation, mainly due to large changes in the nitrate radical (NO3. The weaker oxidative power of the preindustrial atmosphere extends the lifetime of the precursor gases, enabling them to be transported higher up in the atmosphere and towards more remote areas where the susceptibility of the cloud albedo to aerosol changes is high. The oxidation changes also shift the importance of different chemical reactions and produce more condensate, thus increasing the size of the aerosols and making it easier for them to activate as cloud condensation nuclei.

  8. Estimating forest canopy bulk density using six indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Joe Scott; Kathy Gray; James Reardon

    2005-01-01

    Canopy bulk density (CBD) is an important crown characteristic needed to predict crown fire spread, yet it is difficult to measure in the field. Presented here is a comprehensive research effort to evaluate six indirect sampling techniques for estimating CBD. As reference data, detailed crown fuel biomass measurements were taken on each tree within fixed-area plots...

  9. Social Dilemmas and Indirect Reciprocity: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Acosta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is an evolutionary theory of altruism and cooperation in social dilemmas. Its explanation of cooperation incorporates information on the reputation people hold of other people regarding whether they are cooperative or not. This study systematically reviewed the current empirical literature on indirect reciprocity in social dilemma situations. The following databases were consulted: ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and OVID, using has key words "indirect reciprocity" AND "dilemma" OR "cooperation" OR "charity". Twenty-three articles were selected which met the inclusion criteria (papers written in English and studies whose methodology was based on experimental games and the theories, objectives, the main types of samples used, and main results were analyzed. The results show that the games used were the indirect reciprocity and public goods games, which may vary according to the objectives. It was found that reputation is a key variable that helps to promote cooperation. In turn, information on previous cooperation helps to build reputation, which is subsequently involved in the decision to cooperate with others. Finally, we highlight the need for more experimental studies that incorporate other explanatory variables and evaluate them in new contexts.

  10. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  11. 48 CFR 52.216-15 - Predetermined Indirect Cost Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Allowability of costs and acceptability of cost allocation methods shall be determined in...) the period for which the rates apply, and (4) the specific items treated as direct costs or any changes in the items previously agreed to be direct costs. The indirect cost rate agreement shall not...

  12. Indirect environmental effects of nuclear war affecting health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf, A.

    1984-01-01

    The indirect effects of a nuclear war that will affect the health of survivors are considered to include consequences to: (a) the economies of nations, (b) food and nutrition, (c) water supplies, (d) the climate and the ecosphere, and (e) sanitation and public health; and they include long-term radiation effects

  13. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instructional Strategies on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a quasi experimental research designed to determine the effects of Direct and Indirect instructional strategies on Mathematics achievement among junior secondary school students. The population consisted of students in a Public Secondary School in Owerri, Imo State. A sample of 102 students from two (2) intact ...

  14. Estimating two indirect logging costs caused by accelerated erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen O. Klock

    1976-01-01

    In forest areas where high soil erosion potential exists, a comparative yarding cost estimate, including the indirect costs determined by methods proposed here, shows that the total cost of using "advanced" logging methods may be less than that of "traditional" systems.

  15. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... costs. 49.303-4 Section 49.303-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement Contracts... compute indirect costs for other contracts performed during the applicable accounting period. [48 FR 42447...

  16. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting principles; (2) The costs included in the distribution are limited to costs actually incurred by...), part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, relating to contracts with commercial organizations... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907...

  17. Indirect self-destructiveness in individuals with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the indirect self-destructiveness syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Two hundred individuals with paranoid schizophrenia (117 men and 83 women, mean age 37.15 years, all in remission, were examined using the Polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale. Two hundred well-matched healthy individuals served as a control group. Results: The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness was greater in the schizophrenia group than in controls. The intensity of each manifestation was as follows (in decreasing order: helplessness and passiveness in the face of difficulties (A5, personal and social neglects (A3, lack of planfulness (A4, poor health maintenance (A2, transgression and risk (A1. Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia displayed more behaviors that were indirectly self-destructive than healthy controls; they scored better than healthy controls only on caring for their own health. The patients showed the lowest intensity of behaviors connected with the active form of indirect self-destructiveness, and the highest intensity of behaviors connected with the passive form. These findings may enable delivery of more effective forms of pharmacological and psychosocial help to patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Indirect calorimetry: assessing animal response to heat and cold stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaughan, J.B.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Hendriks, P.

    2015-01-01

    Calorimetric thermal stress studies where indirect calorimetry is used as a tool to estimate energy expenditure have been undertaken since this technique was developed. Some examples of these studies are presented in this chapter. The measurement of gas exchange by means of an open-circuit

  19. STEM Faculty and Indirect Costs: What Administrators Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossman, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this single site, qualitative case study was on public research university STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) faculty and their perspectives on, and behavior towards, indirect cost recovery. The explanatory scheme was derived from anthropological theory and incorporated organizational culture, resource dependency…

  20. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.